WorldWideScience

Sample records for amyloid peptide aggregation

  1. Designing peptidic inhibitors of serum amyloid A aggregation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Marta; Skibiszewska, Sandra; Kamińska, Emilia; Wieczerzak, Ewa; Jankowska, Elżbieta

    2016-04-01

    Amyloid A amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of a wide range of chronic inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases, and the most common form of systemic amyloidosis worldwide. It is characterized by extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils that are composed of fragments of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a major acute-phase reactant protein, produced predominantly by hepatocytes. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic agents directed against the formation of fibrillar SAA assemblies. We attempted to develop peptidic inhibitors based on their similarity and complementarity to the regions critical for SAA self-association, which they should interact with and block their assembly into amyloid fibrils. Inh1 and inh4 which are comprised of the residues from the amyloidogenic region of SAA1.1 protein and Aβ peptide, respectively, were found by us as capable to significantly suppress aggregation of the SAA1-12 peptide. It was chosen as an aggregation model that mimicks the amyloidogenic nucleus of SAA protein. We suppose that aromatic interactions may be responsible for inhibitory activity of both compounds. We also recognized that aromatic residues are involved in self-association of SAA1-12. PMID:26759015

  2. Inhibition of aggregation of amyloid peptides by beta-sheet breaker peptides and their binding affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Man Hoang; Ngo, Son Tung; Lam, Nguyen Sy; Li, Mai Suan

    2011-06-01

    The effects of beta-sheet breaker peptides KLVFF and LPFFD on the oligomerization of amyloid peptides were studied by all-atom simulations. It was found that LPFFD interferes the aggregation of Aβ(16-22) peptides to a greater extent than does KLVFF. Using the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method, we found that the former binds more strongly to Aβ(16-22). Therefore, by simulations, we have clarified the relationship between aggregation rates and binding affinity: the stronger the ligand binding, the slower the oligomerization process. The binding affinity of pentapeptides to full-length peptide Aβ(1-40) and its mature fibrils has been considered using the Autodock and MM-PBSA methods. The hydrophobic interaction between ligands and receptors plays a more important role for association than does hydrogen bonding. The influence of beta-sheet breaker peptides on the secondary structures of monomer Aβ(1-40) was studied in detail, and it turns out that, in their presence, the total beta-sheet content can be enhanced. However, the aggregation can be slowed because the beta-content is reduced in fibril-prone regions. Both pentapeptides strongly bind to monomer Aβ(1-40), as well as to mature fibrils, but KLVFF displays a lower binding affinity than LPFFD. Our findings are in accord with earlier experiments that both of these peptides can serve as prominent inhibitors. In addition, we predict that LPFFD inhibits/degrades the fibrillogenesis of full-length amyloid peptides better than KLVFF. This is probably related to a difference in their total hydrophobicities in that the higher the hydrophobicity, the lower the inhibitory capacity. The GROMOS96 43a1 force field with explicit water and the force field proposed by Morris et al. (Morris et al. J. Comput. Chem. 1998, 19, 1639 ) were employed for all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and Autodock experiments, respectively. PMID:21563780

  3. Amyloidpeptide aggregation and the influence of carbon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen-Hui, Xi; Guang-Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Soluble peptides or proteins can self-aggregate into insoluble, ordered amyloid fibrils under appropriate conditions. These amyloid aggregates are the hallmarks of several human diseases ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we first introduce the common structural features of amyloid fibrils and the amyloid fibrillation kinetics determined from experimental studies. Then, we discuss the structural models of Alzheimer’s amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils derived from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the computational side, molecular dynamics simulations can provide atomic details of structures and the underlying oligomerization mechanisms. We finally summarize recent progress in atomistic simulation studies on the oligomerization of Aβ (including full-length Aβ and its fragments) and the influence of carbon nanoparticles. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274075 and 91227102).

  4. Action of Caffeine as an Amyloid Inhibitor in the Aggregation of Aβ16-22 Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused due to aggregation of Aβ peptides in the brain tissues. Recently, several studies on AD transgenic mice have shown the effect of caffeine in significantly reducing the Aβ amyloid level in their brains. However, the mechanism and mode of caffeine action on amyloid aggregation are not known. Therefore, in this study, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of five amyloid-forming Aβ16-22 peptides in pure water and in a regime of caffeine solutions, with different caffeine/peptide stoichiometric ratios. The secondary structure analyses of peptides in pure water show the formation of β-sheet conformations, whereas on addition of caffeine, these ordered conformations become negligible. The radial distribution function, contact map, nonbonding interaction energy, hydrogen bonding, potential of mean force, and hydration analyses show that there is less interpeptide interaction in the presence of caffeine, and the effect is greater with an increasing caffeine ratio. The interaction of aromatic phenylalanine residues of peptides with caffeine restricts the interpeptide interaction tendency. Upon increasing the number of caffeine molecules, interaction of caffeine with other hydrophobic residues also increases. Thus, the hydrophobic core-recognition motif of amyloid formation of peptides is physically blocked by caffeine, thereby abolishing the self-assembly formation. PMID:27487451

  5. Evaluation of the amyloid beta-GFP fusion protein as a model of amyloid beta peptides-mediated aggregation: A study of DNAJB6 chaperone

    OpenAIRE

    Rasha Mohamed Hussein; Rashed, Laila A

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for dis...

  6. Cu(II) mediates kinetically distinct, non-amyloidogenic aggregation of amyloidpeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe T.; Østergaard, Jesper; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Gammelgaard, Bente; Heegaard, Niels H. H.

    2011-01-01

    aggregates, which shifted from fibrillar to non-fibrillar at increasing Cu(II):Aβ ratios. We observed dynamic morphological changes of the aggregates, and that the formation of spherical aggregates appeared to be a common morphological end point independent on the Cu(II) concentration. Experiments with Aβ1......Cu(II) ions are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease by influencing the aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Elucidating the underlying Cu(II)-induced Aβ aggregation is paramount for understanding the role of Cu(II) in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. The aim of this study...... was to characterize the qualitative and quantitative influence of Cu(II) on the extracellular aggregation mechanism and aggregate morphology of Aβ1-40 using spectroscopic, microelectrophoretic, mass spectrometric, and ultrastructural techniques. We found that the Cu(II):Aβ ratio in solution has a...

  7. Hydrodynamic effects on β-amyloid (16-22) peptide aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiricotto, Mara; Melchionna, Simone; Derreumaux, Philippe; Sterpone, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    Computer simulations based on simplified representations are routinely used to explore the early steps of amyloid aggregation. However, when protein models with implicit solvent are employed, these simulations miss the effect of solvent induced correlations on the aggregation kinetics and lifetimes of metastable states. In this work, we apply the multi-scale Lattice Boltzmann Molecular Dynamics technique (LBMD) to investigate the initial aggregation phases of the amyloid Aβ16-22 peptide. LBMD includes naturally hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) via a kinetic on-lattice representation of the fluid kinetics. The peptides are represented by the flexible OPEP coarse-grained force field. First, we have tuned the essential parameters that control the coupling between the molecular and fluid evolutions in order to reproduce the experimental diffusivity of elementary species. The method is then deployed to investigate the effect of HIs on the aggregation of 100 and 1000 Aβ16-22 peptides. We show that HIs clearly impact the aggregation process and the fluctuations of the oligomer sizes by favouring the fusion and exchange dynamics of oligomers between aggregates. HIs also guide the growth of the leading largest cluster. For the 100 Aβ16-22 peptide system, the simulation of ˜300 ns allowed us to observe the transition from ellipsoidal assemblies to an elongated and slightly twisted aggregate involving almost the totality of the peptides. For the 1000 Aβ16-22 peptides, a system of unprecedented size at quasi-atomistic resolution, we were able to explore a branched disordered fibril-like structure that has never been described by other computer simulations, but has been observed experimentally.

  8. Effect of osmolytes on the conformation and aggregation of some amyloid peptides: CD spectroscopic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayathullah, Mohammed; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2016-06-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation are responsible for a large number of diseases called protein conformational diseases or disorders that include Alzheimer׳s disease, Huntington׳s diseases, Prion related encephalopathies and type-II diabetes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35041139) (Kopito and Ron, 2000) [1]. A variety of studies have shown that some small organic molecules, known as osmolytes have the ability to stabilize native conformation of proteins and prevent misfolding and aggregation (http://www.la-press.com/article.php?article_id=447) (Zhao et al., 2008) [2]. It has been shown that certain short segment or fragment of respective proteins can also form amyloids, and the segments also promote the aggregation in the full-length protein (http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867023369187) (Gazit, 2002) [3]. This article presents circular dichroism spectroscopic data on conformational analysis and effect of osmolytes on Aβ peptide fragments, different lengths of polyglutamine peptide and the amyloidogenic segment of islet amyloid polypeptide. PMID:27222868

  9. Molecular dynamics studies of the inhibitory mechanism of copper(Ⅱ) on aggregation of amyloid β-peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Jiao; Pin Yang

    2007-01-01

    The inhibitory mechanism of copper(Ⅱ) on the aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The binding mode of copper(Ⅱ) with Aβ is characterized by the imidazole nitrogen atom, Nπ, of the histidine residue H13,acting as the anchoring site, and the backbone's deprotoned amide nitrogen atoms as the main binding sites. Drove by the coordination bonds and their induced hydrogen bond net, the conformations of Aβ converted from β-sheet non-β-sheet conformations, which destabilized the aggregation of Aβ into fibrils.

  10. Silibinin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity and amyloid β peptide aggregation: a dual-target drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Songwei; Guan, Xiaoyin; Lin, Runxuan; Liu, Xincheng; Yan, Ying; Lin, Ruibang; Zhang, Tianqi; Chen, Xueman; Huang, Jiaqi; Sun, Xicui; Li, Qingqing; Fang, Shaoliang; Xu, Jun; Yao, Zhibin; Gu, Huaiyu

    2015-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) peptide aggregation and cholinergic neurodegeneration. Therefore, in this paper, we examined silibinin, a flavonoid extracted from Silybum marianum, to determine its potential as a dual inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Aβ peptide aggregation for AD treatment. To achieve this, we used molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to examine the affinity of silibinin with Aβ and AChE in silico. Next, we used circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy to study the anti-Aβ aggregation capability of silibinin in vitro. Moreover, a Morris Water Maze test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine double labeling, and a gene gun experiment were performed on silibinin-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice. In molecular dynamics simulations, silibinin interacted with Aβ and AChE to form different stable complexes. After the administration of silibinin, AChE activity and Aβ aggregations were down-regulated, and the quantity of AChE also decreased. In addition, silibinin-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice had greater scores in the Morris Water Maze. Moreover, silibinin could increase the number of newly generated microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and neuronal precursor cells. Taken together, these data suggest that silibinin could act as a dual inhibitor of AChE and Aβ peptide aggregation, therefore suggesting a therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. PMID:25771396

  11. Aggregation properties of a short peptide that mediates amyloid fibril formation in model proteins unrelated to disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Chaudhary; Shashi Singh; Ramakrishnan Nagaraj

    2011-09-01

    Short peptides have been identified from amyloidogenic proteins that form amyloid fibrils in isolation. The hexapeptide stretch 21DIDLHL26 has been shown to be important in the self-assembly of the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain of p85 subunit of bovine phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-SH3). The SH3 domain of chicken brain -spectrin, which is otherwise non-amyloidogenic, is rendered amyloidogenic if 22EVTMKK27 is replaced by DIDLHL. In this article, we describe the aggregation behaviour of DIDLHL-COOH and DIDLHL-CONH2. Our results indicate that DIDLHL-COOH and DIDLHL-CONH2 aggregate to form spherical structures at pH 5 and 6. At pH 5, in the presence of mica, DIDLHL-CONH2 forms short fibrous structures. The presence of NaCl along with mica results in fibrillar structures. At pH 6, DIDLHL-CONH2 forms largely spherical aggregates. Both the peptides are unstructured in solution but adopt -conformation on drying. The aggregates formed by DIDLHL-COOH and DIDLHL-CONH2 are formed during drying process and their structures are modulated by the presence of mica and salt. Our study suggests that a peptide need not have intrinsic amyloidogenic propensity to facilitate the selfassembly of the full-length protein. The propensity of peptides to form self-assembled structures that are non-amyloidogenic could be important in potentiating the self-assembly of full-length proteins into amyloid fibrils.

  12. Proposal for an inhibitor of Alzheimer's disease blocking aggregation of amyloidpeptides: ab initio molecular simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is believed to play a key role in the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To inhibit the aggregation and prevent AD, numerous compounds have been synthesized. A previous experimental study elucidated that a triazine derivative AA3E2 has anti-amyloidogenic ability, while a triazine derivative AA3D2 having a different substituent has no inhibitory effect. However, the reason for this remarkable difference in the ability cannot be explained by the chemical structures of these derivatives. In the present study, we present stable structures of the solvated complexes with Aβ and AA3E2/AA3D2 obtained by classical molecular mechanics method. The specific interactions between Aβ and AA3E2/AA3D2 in the complexes are investigated by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results obtained, we attempt to propose new potent inhibitors for the Aβ aggregation.

  13. Molecular modeling on Zn(Ⅱ) binding modes of Alzheimer's amyloid β-peptide in insoluble aggregates and soluble complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Daxiong; YANG; Pin

    2004-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid β-peptide (A β) into insoluble fibrils is a key pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. Zn(Ⅱ) ion induces significant Aβ aggregation at nearly physiological concentrations in vitro. In order to explore the induce mechanism, the possible binding modes of Zn(Ⅱ) in Aβ peptide are studied by molecular modeling method. First, the Aβ species containing 1,2,4 and 12 peptides are established respectively. And next a Zn(Ⅱ) ion is manually hold the different sits of the Aβ species based on the experimental data and subsequently the coordinate atom and number are assigned. Finally, the optimum binding site is found by the system energy minimization. Modeling results show that in soluble Zn(Ⅱ) complex, Nτ of imidazole ring of His14, O of carbonyl of main-chain, and two O of water occupy the four ligand positions of the tetrahedral complex; in the aggregation of Aβ, the His13(Nτ)-Zn(Ⅱ)-His14(Nτ)bridges are formed by Zn(Ⅱ) cross-linking action. Therefore, the possible Zn(Ⅱ) binding mode obtained by the studies will be helpful to reveal the form mechanism of pathogenic aggregates in brain.

  14. Molecular modeling of the inhibitory mechanism of copper(II) on aggregation of amyloid β-peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yong; HAN Daxiong; YANG Pin

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) into insoluble fibrils is a key pathological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Under certain conditions, Cu(Ⅱ) exhibits strong inhibitory effect on the Zn(Ⅱ)-induced aggregation, which occurs significantly even at nearly physiological concentrations of zinc ion in vitro. Cu(Ⅱ) is considered as a potential factor in the normal brain preventing Aβ from aggregating. The possible mechanism of the inhibitory effect of Cu(Ⅱ) is investigated for the first time by molecular modeling method. In the mono-ring mode, the Y10 residue promotes typical quasi-helix conformations of Aβ. Specially, [Cu-H13(Nπ)-Y10(OH)] complex forms a local 3.010 helix conformation. In the multi-ring mode, the side chains of Q15 and E11 residues collaborate harmoniously with other chelating ligands producing markedly low energies and quasi-helix conformations. [Cu-3N-Q15(O)-E11(O1)] and [Cu-H13(Nπ)-Y10(OH)] complex with quasi-helix conformations may prefer soluble forms in solution. In addition, hydrogen-bond interactions may be the main driving force for Aβaggregation. All the results will provide helpful clues for an improved understanding of the role of Cu(Ⅱ) in the pathogenesis of AD and contribute to the development of an "anti-amyloid" therapeutic strategy.

  15. Stoichiometric inhibition of amyloid beta-protein aggregation with peptides containing alternating alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Marcus A; Aucoin, Jed P; Fu, Yanwen; McCarley, Robin L; Hammer, Robert P

    2006-03-22

    We have prepared two peptides based on the hydrophobic core (Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe) of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) that contain alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids at alternating positions, but differ in the positioning of the oligolysine chain (AMY-1, C-terminus; AMY-2, N-terminus). We have studied the effects of AMY-1 and AMY-2 on the aggregation of Abeta and find that, at stoichiometric concentrations, both peptides completely stop Abeta fibril growth. Equimolar mixtures of AMY-1 and Abeta form only globular aggregates as imaged by scanning force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These samples show no signs of protofibrillar or fibrillar material even after prolonged periods of time (4.5 months). Also, 10 mol % of AMY-1 prevents Abeta self-assembly for long periods of time; aged samples (4.5 months) show only a few protofibrillar or fibrillar aggregates. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of equimolar mixtures of AMY-1 and Abeta show that the secondary structure of the mixture changes over time and progresses to a predominantly beta-sheet structure, which is consistent with the design of these inhibitors preferring a sheet-like conformation. Changing the position of the charged tail on the peptide, AMY-2 interacts with Abeta differently in that equimolar mixtures form large ( approximately 1 mum) globular aggregates which do not progress to fibrils, but precipitate out of solution. The differences in the aggregation mediated by the two peptides is discussed in terms of a model where the inhibitors act as cosurfactants that interfere with the native ability of Abeta to self-assemble by disrupting hydrophobic interactions either at the C-terminus or N-terminus of Abeta. PMID:16536517

  16. Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Biosensors for Exploring the Influence of Alkaloids on Aggregation of AmyloidPeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Radecka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the presented study was the development of a simple analytical tool for exploring the influence of naturally occurring compounds on the aggregation of amyloidpeptide (Aβ40 in order to find potential anti-neurodegenerative drugs. The gold discs used for surface plasmon resonance (SPR measurements were modified with thioaliphatic acid. The surface functionalized with carboxylic groups was used for covalent attaching of Aβ40 probe by creation of amide bonds in the presence of EDC/NHS. The modified SPR gold discs were used for exploring the Aβ40 aggregation process in the presence of selected alkaloids: arecoline hydrobromide, pseudopelletierine hydrochloride, trigonelline hydrochloride and α-lobeline hydrochloride. The obtained results were discussed with other parameters which govern the phenomenon studied such as lipophilicity/ hydrophilicy and Aβ40-alkaloid association constants.

  17. The aggregation kinetics of Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide is controlled by stochastic nucleation

    OpenAIRE

    Hortschansky, Peter; Schroeckh, Volker; Christopeit, Tony; Zandomeneghi, Giorgia; Fändrich, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    We report here a recombinant expression system that allows production of large quantities of Alzheimer’s Aβ(1–40) peptide. The material is competent to dissolve in water solutions with “random-coil properties,” although its conformation and factual oligomerization state are determined by the physico-chemical solution conditions. When dissolved in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37°C, the peptide is able to undergo a nucleated polymerization reaction. The aggregation profile is chara...

  18. The inhibitory mechanism of a fullerene derivative against amyloidpeptide aggregation: an atomistic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunxiang; Qian, Zhenyu; Wei, Guanghong

    2016-05-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with the pathological self-assembly of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into β-sheet enriched fibrillar aggregates. Aβ dimers formed in the initial step of Aβ aggregation were reported to be the smallest toxic species. Inhibiting the formation of β-sheet-rich oligomers and fibrils is considered as the primary therapeutic strategy for AD. Previous studies reported that fullerene derivatives strongly inhibit Aβ fibrillation. However, the underlying inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. As a first step to understand fullerene-modulated full-length Aβ aggregation, we investigated the conformational ensemble of the Aβ1-42 dimer with and without 1,2-(dimethoxymethano)fullerene (DMF) - a more water-soluble fullerene derivative - by performing a 340 ns explicit-solvent replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation. Our simulations show that although disordered states are the most abundant conformations of the Aβ1-42 dimer, conformations containing diverse extended β-hairpins are also populated. The first most-populated β-hairpins involving residues L17-D23 and A30-V36 strongly resemble the engineered β-hairpin which is a building block of toxic Aβ oligomers. We find that the interaction of DMFs with Aβ peptides greatly impedes the formation of such β-hairpins and inter-peptide β-sheets. Binding energy analyses demonstrate that DMF preferentially binds not only to the central hydrophobic motif LVFFA of the Aβ peptide as suggested experimentally, but also to the aromatic residues including F4 and Y10 and the C-terminal hydrophobic region I31-V40. This study reveals a complete picture of the inhibitory mechanism of full-length Aβ1-42 aggregation by fullerenes, providing theoretical insights into the development of drug candidates against AD. PMID:27091578

  19. Effect of curcumin and Cu 2+/Zn 2+ ions on the fibrillar aggregates formed by the amyloid peptide and other peptides at the organic-aqueous interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghamitra, Nusrat J. M.; Varghese, Neenu; Rao, C. N. R.

    2010-08-01

    Characteristic features of a perilous neuro-degenerative disease such as the Alzhiemer's disease is fibrillar plaque formation by the amyloid (Aβ) peptide. We have modelled the formation and disintegration of fibrils by studying the aggregate structures formed by Aβ structural motif diphenylalanine as well as insulin and bovine serum albumin at the organic-aqueous interface. Even small concentrations of curcumin in the organic medium or Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ ions in the aqueous medium are found to break down the fibrillar structures.

  20. High-affinity Anticalins with aggregation-blocking activity directed against the Alzheimer β-amyloid peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauth, Sabine; Hinz, Dominik; Börger, Michael; Uhrig, Markus; Mayhaus, Manuel; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Skerra, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ42 and Aβ40, exert neurotoxic effects and their overproduction leads to amyloid deposits in the brain, thus constituting an important biomolecular target for treatments of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe the engineering of cognate Anticalins as a novel type of neutralizing protein reagent based on the human lipocalin scaffold. Phage display selection from a genetic random library comprising variants of the human lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) with mutations targeted at 20 exposed amino acid positions in the four loops that form the natural binding site was performed using both recombinant and synthetic target peptides and resulted in three different Anticalins. Biochemical characterization of the purified proteins produced by periplasmic secretion in Escherichia coli revealed high folding stability in a monomeric state, with Tm values ranging from 53.4°C to 74.5°C, as well as high affinities for Aβ40, between 95 pM and 563 pM, as measured by real-time surface plasmon resonance analysis. The central linear VFFAED epitope within the Aβ sequence was mapped using a synthetic peptide array on membranes and was shared by all three Anticalins, despite up to 13 mutual amino acid differences in their binding sites. All Anticalins had the ability–with varying extent–to inhibit Aβ aggregation in vitro according to the thioflavin-T fluorescence assay and, furthermore, they abolished Aβ42-mediated toxicity in neuronal cell culture. Thus, these Anticalins provide not only useful protein reagents to study the molecular pathology of AD but they also show potential as alternative drug candidates compared with antibodies. PMID:27029347

  1. High-affinity Anticalins with aggregation-blocking activity directed against the Alzheimer β-amyloid peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauth, Sabine; Hinz, Dominik; Börger, Michael; Uhrig, Markus; Mayhaus, Manuel; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Skerra, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ42 and Aβ40, exert neurotoxic effects and their overproduction leads to amyloid deposits in the brain, thus constituting an important biomolecular target for treatments of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe the engineering of cognate Anticalins as a novel type of neutralizing protein reagent based on the human lipocalin scaffold. Phage display selection from a genetic random library comprising variants of the human lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) with mutations targeted at 20 exposed amino acid positions in the four loops that form the natural binding site was performed using both recombinant and synthetic target peptides and resulted in three different Anticalins. Biochemical characterization of the purified proteins produced by periplasmic secretion in Escherichia coli revealed high folding stability in a monomeric state, with Tm values ranging from 53.4°C to 74.5°C, as well as high affinities for Aβ40, between 95 pM and 563 pM, as measured by real-time surface plasmon resonance analysis. The central linear VFFAED epitope within the Aβ sequence was mapped using a synthetic peptide array on membranes and was shared by all three Anticalins, despite up to 13 mutual amino acid differences in their binding sites. All Anticalins had the ability-with varying extent-to inhibit Aβ aggregation in vitro according to the thioflavin-T fluorescence assay and, furthermore, they abolished Aβ42-mediated toxicity in neuronal cell culture. Thus, these Anticalins provide not only useful protein reagents to study the molecular pathology of AD but they also show potential as alternative drug candidates compared with antibodies. PMID:27029347

  2. High-affinity Anticalins with aggregation-blocking activity directed against the Alzheimer β-amyloid peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Rauth, Sabine; Hinz, Dominik; Börger, Michael; Uhrig, Markus; Mayhaus, Manuel; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Skerra, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ42 and Aβ40, exert neurotoxic effects and their overproduction leads to amyloid deposits in the brain, thus constituting an important biomolecular target for treatments of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe the engineering of cognate Anticalins as a novel type of neutralizing protein reagent based on the human lipocalin scaffold. Phage display selection from a genetic random library comprising variants of the human lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) with mutatio...

  3. Mutation-based structural modification and dynamics study of amyloid beta peptide (1–42: An in-silico-based analysis to cognize the mechanism of aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the prevalent cause of premature senility, a progressive mental disorder due to degeneration in brain and deposition of amyloid β peptide (1–42, a misfolded protein in the form of aggregation that prevails for a prolonged time and obstructs every aspect of life. One of the primary hallmarks of the neuropathological disease is the accretion of amyloid β peptide in the brain that leads to Alzheimer's disease, but the mechanism is still a mystery. Several investigations have shown that mutations at specific positions have a significant impact in stability of the peptide as predicted from aggregation profiles. Here in our study, we have analyzed the mutations by substituting residues at position A22G, E22G, E22K, E22Q, D23N, L34V and molecular dynamics have been performed to check the deviation in stability and conformation of the peptide. The results validated that the mutations at specific positions lead to instability and the proline substitution at E22P and L34P stalled the aggregation of the peptide.

  4. Investigation of the inhibitory effects of TiO{sub 2} on the β-amyloid peptide aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Mukhtar H., E-mail: ahmed-m@email.ulster.ac.uk [School of Chemical Science, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Nanotechnology Integrated Bioengineering Centre, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB Belfast (United Kingdom); Byrne, John A. [Nanotechnology Integrated Bioengineering Centre, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, BT37 0QB Belfast (United Kingdom); Keyes, Tia E. [School of Chemical Science, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-06-01

    TiO{sub 2} thin films are of great interest as biocompatible coatings and also as photocatalytic self-cleaning and antimicrobial coatings. In this work we used β-amyloid as a model for infectious protein to investigate the attachment and photocatalytic degradation. TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on stainless steel substrates using magnetron sputtering. The films were characterised before and after exposure to β-amyloid (1–42), using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and AFM. The TiO{sub 2} film was mostly composed of the anatase phase with a relatively high surface roughness. The presence of Raman peaks at 1668 cm{sup −1} and 1263 cm{sup −1}, with the XPS spectral feature for nitrogen at 400 eV, confirmed the adsorption of amyloid on surface. Following exposure of the β-amyloid contaminated TiO{sub 2} to UV-B irradiation a slight shift of amide modes was observed. Furthermore, the amide I spectra show an overall decrease in α-helix content with presence of a minor peak around 1591 cm{sup −1}, which is related to tryptophanyl and tyrosinyl radicals, which can lead to conformational change of β-amyloid. The C1s band at 292.2 eV suggests the formation of free carboxylic acid. The loss in the crucial structure of β-amyloid leads to reduce the fibril formation, thought to be induced through a photocatalytic process. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} thin films synthesised and characterised • Absorption study using β-amyloid (1–42) • Investigation of peptide configuration via Raman, AFM and XPS spectroscopies • β-Amyloid was subsequently degraded by photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2}.

  5. Rational design and identification of a non-peptidic aggregation inhibitor of amyloid-β based on a pharmacophore motif obtained from cyclo[-Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tadamasa; Araya, Takushi; Sasaki, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Atsuhiko; Sato, Takeshi; Sohma, Youhei; Kanai, Motomu

    2014-07-28

    Inhibition of pathogenic protein aggregation may be an important and straightforward therapeutic strategy for curing amyloid diseases. Small-molecule aggregation inhibitors of Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) are extremely scarce, however, and are mainly restricted to dye- and polyphenol-type compounds that lack drug-likeness. Based on the structure-activity relationship of cyclic Aβ16-20 (cyclo-[KLVFF]), we identified unique pharmacophore motifs comprising side-chains of Leu(2), Val(3), Phe(4), and Phe(5) residues without involvement of the backbone amide bonds to inhibit Aβ aggregation. This finding allowed us to design non-peptidic, small-molecule aggregation inhibitors that possess potent activity. These molecules are the first successful non-peptidic, small-molecule aggregation inhibitors of amyloids based on rational molecular design. PMID:24931598

  6. Inhibition of Alzheimer amyloid β aggregation by polyvalent trehalose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glycopolymer carrying trehalose was found to suppress the formation of amyloid fibrils from the amyloid β peptide (1-42) (Aβ), as evaluated by thioflavin T assay and atomic force microscopy. Glycopolymers carrying sugar alcohols also changed the aggregation properties of Aβ, and the inhibitory effect depended on the type of sugar and alkyl side chain. Neutralization activity was confirmed by in vitro assay using HeLa cells. The glycopolymer carrying trehalose strongly inhibited amyloid formation and neutralized cytotoxicity.

  7. Sulindac Sulfide Induces the Formation of Large Oligomeric Aggregates of the Alzheimer's Disease AmyloidPeptide Which Exhibit Reduced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prade, Elke; Barucker, Christian; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Althoff-Ospelt, Gerhard; Lopez del Amo, Juan Miguel; Hossain, Shireen; Zhong, Yifei; Multhaup, Gerd; Reif, Bernd

    2016-03-29

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in brain tissue of affected individuals. In recent years, many potential lead structures have been suggested that can potentially be used for diagnosis and therapy. However, the mode of action of these compounds is so far not understood. Among these small molecules, the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac sulfide received a lot of attention. In this manuscript, we characterize the interaction between the monomeric Aβ peptide and the NSAID sulindac sulfide. We find that sulindac sulfide efficiently depletes the pool of toxic oligomers by enhancing the rate of fibril formation. In vitro, sulindac sulfide forms colloidal particles which catalyze the formation of fibrils. Aggregation is immediate, presumably by perturbing the supersaturated Aβ solution. We find that sulindac sulfide induced Aβ aggregates are structurally homogeneous. The C-terminal part of the peptide adopts a β-sheet structure, whereas the N-terminus is disordered. The salt bridge between D23 and K28 is present, similar as in wild type fibril structures. (13)C-(19)F transferred echo double resonance experiments suggest that sulindac sulfide colocalizes with the Aβ peptide in the aggregate. PMID:26900939

  8. Amyloid β-sheet mimics that antagonize protein aggregation and reduce amyloid toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pin-Nan; Liu, Cong; Zhao, Minglei; Eisenberg, David; Nowick, James S.

    2012-11-01

    The amyloid protein aggregation associated with diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and type II diabetes (among many others) features a bewildering variety of β-sheet-rich structures in transition from native proteins to ordered oligomers and fibres. The variation in the amino-acid sequences of the β-structures presents a challenge to developing a model system of β-sheets for the study of various amyloid aggregates. Here, we introduce a family of robust β-sheet macrocycles that can serve as a platform to display a variety of heptapeptide sequences from different amyloid proteins. We have tailored these amyloid β-sheet mimics (ABSMs) to antagonize the aggregation of various amyloid proteins, thereby reducing the toxicity of amyloid aggregates. We describe the structures and inhibitory properties of ABSMs containing amyloidogenic peptides from the amyloidpeptide associated with Alzheimer's disease, β2-microglobulin associated with dialysis-related amyloidosis, α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease, islet amyloid polypeptide associated with type II diabetes, human and yeast prion proteins, and Tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles.

  9. Oligomer Formation of Toxic and Functional Amyloid Peptides Studied with Atomistic Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Pacheco, Martín; Ismail, Ahmed E; Strodel, Birgit

    2015-07-30

    Amyloids are associated with diseases, including Alzheimer's, as well as functional roles such as storage of peptide hormones. It is still unclear what differences exist between aberrant and functional amyloids. However, it is known that soluble oligomers formed during amyloid aggregation are more toxic than the final fibrils. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of the amyloidpeptide Aβ25-35, associated with Alzheimer's disease, and two functional amyloid-forming tachykinin peptides: kassinin and neuromedin K. Although the three peptides have similar primary sequences, tachykinin peptides, in contrast to Aβ25-35, form nontoxic amyloids. Our simulations reveal that the charge of the C-terminus is essential to controlling the aggregation process. In particular, when the kassinin C-terminus is not amidated, the aggregation kinetics decreases considerably. In addition, we observe that the monomeric peptides in extended conformations aggregate faster than those in collapsed hairpin-like conformations. PMID:26130191

  10. Novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors possessing a turn mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Naoko; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2015-04-01

    Amyloid β peptide, the main component of senile plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients, is a molecular target for AD therapeutic intervention. A number of potential AD therapeutics have been reported, including inhibitors of β-secretase, γ-secretase, and Aβ aggregation, and anti-amyloid agents, such as neprilysin, insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), and Aβ antibodies. Recently, we reported potent small-sized β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors, which could serve as anti-AD drugs. However AD is a progressive disorder, where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over several decades, and therefore may require many years to get cured. One possible way to achieve a greater therapeutic effect is through simultaneous administration of multiple drugs, similar to those used in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) used to treat AIDS. In order to overcome AD, we took a drug discovery approach to evaluate, novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors. Previously, we reported that a tong-type compound possessing a turn mimic as the inhibitor of HIV-1 protease dimerization. Oligomerized amyloid β peptides contain a turn structure within the molecule. Here, we designed and synthesized novel β-amyloid aggregation inhibitors with a turn-mimic template, based on the turn conformer of the oligomerized amyloid β peptides. PMID:25736996

  11. Difference in aggregation between functional and toxic amyloids studied by atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo Pacheco, Martin; Ismail, Ahmed E.; Strodel, Birgit

    Amyloids are highly structured protein aggregates, normally associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In recent years, a number of nontoxic amyloids with physiologically normal functions, called functional amyloids, have been found. It is known that soluble small oligomers are more toxic than large fibrils. Thus, we study with atomistic explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations the oligomer formation of the amyloid- β peptide Aβ25 - 35, associated with Alzheimer's disease, and two functional amyloid-forming tachykinin peptides: kassinin and neuromedin K. Our simulations show that monomeric peptides in extended conformations aggregate faster than those in collapsed hairpin-like conformations. In addition, we observe faster aggregation by functional amyloids than toxic amyloids, which could explain their lack of toxicity.

  12. Modeling the Aggregation Propensity and Toxicity of Amyloid-β Variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2015-01-01

    contributes to our understanding of amyloid aggregation and suggests a method to predict aggregation propensity and toxicity of Aβ variants, and potentially to reduce aggregation propensities of amyloids by molecular intervention directed toward specific conformations of the peptides........ The present paper reports modeling of the aggregation propensities and cell toxicities of genetic variants of Aβ known to increase disease risk. From correlation to experimental data, and using four distinct experimental structures to test structural sensitivity, we find that the Spatial Aggregation...

  13. Influence of hydrophobic Teflon particles on the structure of amyloid beta-peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Norde, W

    2003-01-01

    The amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) constitutes the major peptide component of the amyloid plaque deposits of Alzheimer's disease in humans. The Abeta changes from a nonpathogenic to a pathogenic conformation resulting in self-aggregation and deposition of the peptide. It has been established that dena

  14. New Cyclolignans from Origanumglandulosum Active Against b -amyloid Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkader Basli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Origanum glandulosum Desf is an endemic flavoring herb widely distributed in North Africa that is commonly used in traditional medicine. This oregano species is rich in essential oils but little is known about its phenolic composition. In the present study, a crude extract of O. glandulosum was prepared in order to isolate and investigate its neuroprotective potential to inhibit β-amyloid peptide (Aβ aggregation. The three major compounds of the extract were isolated: rosmarinic acid and two cyclolignans in Origanum genus, globoidnan A and a new derivative named globoidnan B. Rosmarinic acid and globoidnan A showed significant anti-aggregative activity against β amyloid aggregation (IC50 7.0 and 12.0 µM, respectively. In contrast, globoidnan B was found to be less active.

  15. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. PMID:25459121

  16. The novel amyloid-beta peptide aptamer inhibits intracellular amyloid-beta peptide toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wang; Yi Yang; Mingyue Jia; Chi Ma; Mingyu Wang; Lihe Che; Yu Yang; Jiang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β peptide binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD) decoy peptide (DP) can competitively antagonize binding of amyloid β peptide to ABAD and inhibit the cytotoxic effects of amyloid β peptide. Based on peptide aptamers, the present study inserted ABAD-DP into the disulfide bond of human thioredoxin (TRX) using molecular cloning technique to construct a fusion gene that can express the TRX1-ABAD-DP-TRX2 aptamer. Moreover, adeno-associated virus was used to allow its stable expression. Immunofluorescent staining revealed the co-expression of the transduced fusion gene TRX1-ABAD-DP-TRX2 and amyloid β peptide in NIH-3T3 cells, indicating that the TRX1-ABAD-DP-TRX2 aptamer can bind amyloid β peptide within cells. In addition, cell morphology and MTT results suggested that TRX1-ABAD-DP-TRX2 attenuated amyloid β peptide-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury and improved cell viability. These findings confirmed the possibility of constructing TRX-based peptide aptamer using ABAD-DP. Moreover, TRX1-ABAD-DP-TRX2 inhibited the cytotoxic effect of amyloid β peptide.

  17. Interaction of amyloid inhibitor proteins with amyloid beta peptides: insight from molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Das

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the detailed mechanism by which proteins such as human αB- crystallin and human lysozyme inhibit amyloid beta (Aβ peptide aggregation is crucial for designing treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Thus, unconstrained, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent have been performed to characterize the Aβ17-42 assembly in presence of the αB-crystallin core domain and of lysozyme. Simulations reveal that both inhibitor proteins compete with inter-peptide interaction by binding to the peptides during the early stage of aggregation, which is consistent with their inhibitory action reported in experiments. However, the Aβ binding dynamics appear different for each inhibitor. The binding between crystallin and the peptide monomer, dominated by electrostatics, is relatively weak and transient due to the heterogeneous amino acid distribution of the inhibitor surface. The crystallin-bound Aβ oligomers are relatively long-lived, as they form more extensive contact surface with the inhibitor protein. In contrast, a high local density of arginines from lysozyme allows strong binding with Aβ peptide monomers, resulting in stable complexes. Our findings not only illustrate, in atomic detail, how the amyloid inhibitory mechanism of human αB-crystallin, a natural chaperone, is different from that of human lysozyme, but also may aid de novo design of amyloid inhibitors.

  18. NNanomechanical characteristics of proteins and peptides in amyloid

    OpenAIRE

    Boayue, Nya Mehnwolo

    2012-01-01

    ......The understanding of the aggregation of amyloid fibrils is essential as they are linked to a number of diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkston’s disease. Amy- loids from different proteins or peptides have common characteristics such as core β-sheet structure, green birefringence upon binding to Congo red, and fibrillar mor- phology. In this thesis, I report single molecule analysis of TTR105−115 a fragment of transthyretin, a serum and cerebrospinal fluid carrier of ...

  19. Surface Mediated Self-Assembly of Amyloid Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils have been considered as causative agents in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes and amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils form when proteins or peptides misfold into one dimensional crystals of stacked beta-sheets. In solution, amyloid fibrils form through a nucleation and growth mechanism. The rate limiting nucleation step requires a critical concentration much larger than those measured in physiological conditions. As such the exact origins of the seeds or oligomers that result in the formation of fully mature fibrils in the body remain topic intense studies. It has been suggested that surfaces and interfaces can enhance the fibrillization rate. However, studies of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface-mediated fibrillization are technologically challenging due to the small size of the oligomer and protofibril species. Using smart sample preparation technique to dry the samples after various incubation times we are able to study the kinetics of fibril formation both in solution and in the vicinity of various surfaces using high-resolution atomic force microscopy. These studies elucidate the role of surfaces in catalyzing amyloid peptide formation through a nucleation-free process. The nucleation free self-assembly is rapid and requires much smaller concentrations of peptides or proteins. We show that this process resembles diffusion limited aggregation and is governed by the peptide adhesion rate, two -dimensional diffusion of the peptides on the surface, and preferential interactions between the peptides. These studies suggest an alternative pathway for amyloid formation may exist, which could lead to new criteria for disease prevention and alternative therapies. Research was partially supported by a seed grant from the National Institute of Aging of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P30AG010124 (PI: John Trojanowski) and the University of Pennsylvania.

  20. Protein Folding and Aggregation into Amyloid: The Interference by Natural Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Stefani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid aggregation is a hallmark of several degenerative diseases affecting the brain or peripheral tissues, whose intermediates (oligomers, protofibrils and final mature fibrils display different toxicity. Consequently, compounds counteracting amyloid aggregation have been investigated for their ability (i to stabilize toxic amyloid precursors; (ii to prevent the growth of toxic oligomers or speed that of fibrils; (iii to inhibit fibril growth and deposition; (iv to disassemble preformed fibrils; and (v to favor amyloid clearance. Natural phenols, a wide panel of plant molecules, are one of the most actively investigated categories of potential amyloid inhibitors. They are considered responsible for the beneficial effects of several traditional diets being present in green tea, extra virgin olive oil, red wine, spices, berries and aromatic herbs. Accordingly, it has been proposed that some natural phenols could be exploited to prevent and to treat amyloid diseases, and recent studies have provided significant information on their ability to inhibit peptide/protein aggregation in various ways and to stimulate cell defenses, leading to identify shared or specific mechanisms. In the first part of this review, we will overview the significance and mechanisms of amyloid aggregation and aggregate toxicity; then, we will summarize the recent achievements on protection against amyloid diseases by many natural phenols.

  1. Medicinal Chemistry Focusing on Aggregation of Amyloid-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohma, Youhei

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of peptides/proteins is intimately related to a number of human diseases. More than 20 have been identified which aggregate into fibrils containing extensive β-sheet structures, and species generated in the aggregation processes (i.e., oligomers and fibrils) contribute to disease development. Amyloidpeptide (designated Aβ), related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), is the representative example. The intensive aggregation property of Aβ also leads to difficulty in its synthesis. To improve the synthetic problem, we developed an O-acyl isopeptide of Aβ1-42, in which the N-acyl linkage (amide bond) of Ser(26) was replaced with an O-acyl linkage (ester bond) at the side chain. The O-acyl isopeptide demonstrated markedly higher water-solubility than that of Aβ1-42, while it quickly converted to intact monomer Aβ1-42 via an O-to-N acyl rearrangement under physiological conditions. Inhibition of the pathogenic aggregation of Aβ1-42 might be a therapeutic strategy for curing AD. We succeeded in the rational design and identification of a small molecule aggregation inhibitor based on a pharmacophore motif obtained from cyclo[-Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-]. Moreover, the inhibition of Aβ aggregation was achieved via oxygenation (i.e., incorporation of oxygen atoms to Aβ) using an artificial catalyst. We identified a selective, cell-compatible photo-oxygenation catalyst of Aβ, a flavin catalyst attached to an Aβ-binding peptide, which markedly decreased the aggregation potency and neurotoxicity of Aβ. PMID:26726739

  2. Aggregate geometry in amyloid fibril nucleation

    CERN Document Server

    Irbäck, A; Linnemann, N; Linse, B; Wallin, S; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.058101

    2013-01-01

    We present and study a minimal structure-based model for the self-assembly of peptides into ordered beta-sheet-rich fibrils. The peptides are represented by unit-length sticks on a cubic lattice and interact by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobicity forces. By Monte Carlo simulations with >100,000 peptides, we show that fibril formation occurs with sigmoidal kinetics in the model. To determine the mechanism of fibril nucleation, we compute the joint distribution in length and width of the aggregates at equilibrium, using an efficient cluster move and flat-histogram techniques. This analysis, based on simulations with 256 peptides in which aggregates form and dissolve reversibly, shows that the main free-energy barriers that a nascent fibril has to overcome are associated with changes in width.

  3. Exploring new biological functions of amyloids: bacteria cell agglutination mediated by host protein aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Torrent

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs are important effectors of the innate immune system that play a vital role in the prevention of infections. Recent advances have highlighted the similarity between AMPs and amyloid proteins. Using the Eosinophil Cationic Protein as a model, we have rationalized the structure-activity relationships between amyloid aggregation and antimicrobial activity. Our results show how protein aggregation can induce bacteria agglutination and cell death. Using confocal and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy we have tracked the formation in situ of protein amyloid-like aggregates at the bacteria surface and on membrane models. In both cases, fibrillar aggregates able to bind to amyloid diagnostic dyes were detected. Additionally, a single point mutation (Ile13 to Ala can suppress the protein amyloid behavior, abolishing the agglutinating activity and impairing the antimicrobial action. The mutant is also defective in triggering both leakage and lipid vesicle aggregation. We conclude that ECP aggregation at the bacterial surface is essential for its cytotoxicity. Hence, we propose here a new prospective biological function for amyloid-like aggregates with potential biological relevance.

  4. Using bacterial inclusion bodies to screen for amyloid aggregation inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Villar-Piqué Anna; Espargaró Alba; Sabaté Raimon; de Groot Natalia S; Ventura Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The amyloidpeptide (Aβ42) is the main component of the inter-neuronal amyloid plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mechanism by which Aβ42 and other amyloid peptides assemble into insoluble neurotoxic deposits is still not completely understood and multiple factors have been reported to trigger their formation. In particular, the presence of endogenous metal ions has been linked to the pathogenesis of AD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Results ...

  5. Interactions driving the collapse of islet amyloid polypeptide: Implications for amyloid aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Stephanie M.

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-residue intrinsically disordered hormone involved in glucose regulation and gastric emptying. The aggregation of hIAPP into amyloid fibrils is believed to play a causal role in type 2 diabetes. To date, not much is known about the monomeric state of hIAPP or how it undergoes an irreversible transformation from disordered peptide to insoluble aggregate. IAPP contains a highly conserved disulfide bond that restricts hIAPP(1-8) into a short ring-like structure: N_loop. Removal or chemical reduction of N_loop not only prevents cell response upon binding to the CGRP receptor, but also alters the mass per length distribution of hIAPP fibers and the kinetics of fibril formation. The mechanism by which N_loop affects hIAPP aggregation is not yet understood, but is important for rationalizing kinetics and developing potential inhibitors. By measuring end-to-end contact formation rates, Vaiana et al. showed that N_loop induces collapsed states in IAPP monomers, implying attractive interactions between N_loop and other regions of the disordered polypeptide chain . We show that in addition to being involved in intra-protein interactions, the N_loop is involved in inter-protein interactions, which lead to the formation of extremely long and stable beta-turn fibers. These non-amyloid fibers are present in the 10 muM concentration range, under the same solution conditions in which hIAPP forms amyloid fibers. We discuss the effect of peptide cyclization on both intra- and inter-protein interactions, and its possible implications for aggregation. Our findings indicate a potential role of N_loop-N_loop interactions in hIAPP aggregation, which has not previously been explored. Though our findings suggest that N_loop plays an important role in the pathway of amyloid formation, other naturally occurring IAPP variants that contain this structural feature are incapable of forming amyloids. For example, hIAPP readily

  6. Small molecule agents that target amyloidaggregation in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Michael Roy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and currently there is no cure. AD is characterized by the formation of two pathological hallmarks; aggregated forms of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide called Aβ plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). Aβ is enzymatically cleaved from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to afford a 38-43 amino acid residue peptide with Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 being the most common. Plaque deposits have been shown to ...

  7. Effective screen for amyloid β aggregation inhibitor using amyloid β-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Sun-Ho; Chang, Yu Jin; Jung, Eun Sun; Kim, Jong-Won; Na, Duk Lyul; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2010-01-01

    The abnormal aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) and its subsequent intra- and extracellular accumulation constitute the disease-causing cascade of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The detection of Aβ aggregates and senile plaque formation, however, is nearly impossible during early pathogenesis, and the absence of a convenient screen to validate the activity of Aβ aggregation regulators impedes the development of promising drug targets and diagnostic biomarkers for AD. Here, we conjugated amyloid β42 (Aβ...

  8. Methionine oxidation of amyloid peptides by peroxovanadium complexes: inhibition of fibril formation through a distinct mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Dengsen; Zhao, Cong; Du, Weihong

    2015-12-01

    Fibril formation of amyloid peptides is linked to a number of pathological states. The prion protein (PrP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) are two remarkable examples that are correlated with prion disorders and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Metal complexes, such as those formed by platinum and ruthenium compounds, can act as inhibitors against peptide aggregation primarily through metal coordination. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of two peroxovanadium complexes, (NH4)[VO(O2)2(bipy)]·4H2O (1) and (NH4)[VO(O2)2(phen)]·2H2O (2), on amyloid fibril formation of PrP106-126 and Aβ1-42via site-specific oxidation of methionine residues, besides direct binding of the complexes with the peptides. Complexes 1 and 2 showed higher anti-amyloidogenic activity on PrP106-126 aggregation than on Aβ1-42, though their regulation on the cytotoxicity induced by the two peptides could not be differentiated. The action efficacy may be attributed to the different molecular structures of the vanadium complex and the peptide sequence. Results reflected that methionine oxidation may be a crucial action mode in inhibiting amyloid fibril formation. This study offers a possible application value for peroxovanadium complexes against amyloid proteins. PMID:26444976

  9. Molecular Structure of Aggregated Amyloid-β: Insights from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides aggregate to form polymorphic amyloid fibrils and a variety of intermediate assemblies, including oligomers and protofibrils, both in vitro and in human brain tissue. Since the beginning of the 21st century, considerable progress has been made to characterize the molecular structures of Aβ aggregates. Full molecular structural models based primarily on data from measurements using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) have been developed for several in vitro Aβ fibrils and one metastable protofibril. Partial structural characterization of other aggregation intermediates has been achieved. One full structural model for fibrils derived from brain tissue has also been reported. Future work is likely to focus on additional structures from brain tissue and on further clarification of nonfibrillar Aβ aggregates. PMID:27481836

  10. Modeling Amyloid Beta Peptide Insertion into Lipid Bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Maddox, M W; Longo, M J; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Maddox, Michael W.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by recent suggestions that the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (A-beta), can insert into cell membranes and form harmful ion channels, we model insertion of the peptide into cell membranes using a Monte Carlo code which is specific at the amino acid level. We examine insertion of the regular A-beta peptide as well as mutants causing familial Alzheimer's disease. We present our results and develop the hypothesis that partial insertion into the membrane, leaving the peptide in one leaflet, increases the probability of harmful channel formation. This hypothesis can partly explain why these mutations are neurotoxic simply due to peptide insertion behavior, and also explains why, normally, A-beta 42 is more toxic to some cultured cells than A-beta 40, but the E22Q mutation reverses this effect. We further apply this model to various artificial A-beta mutants which have been examined experimentally, and offer testable experimental predictions contrasting the roles of aggregation and insertion with regard ...

  11. Smooth muscle titin forms in vitro amyloid aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Alexandr G; Galzitskaya, Oxana V; Fadeev, Roman S; Bobyleva, Liya G; Yurshenas, Darya A; Molochkov, Nikolay V; Dovidchenko, Nikita V; Selivanova, Olga M; Penkov, Nikita V; Podlubnaya, Zoya A; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan M

    2016-07-01

    Amyloids are insoluble fibrous protein aggregates, and their accumulation is associated with amyloidosis and many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we report that smooth muscle titin (SMT; 500 kDa) from chicken gizzard forms amyloid aggregates in vitro This conclusion is supported by EM data, fluorescence analysis using thioflavin T (ThT), Congo red (CR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Our dynamic light scattering (DLS) data show that titin forms in vitro amyloid aggregates with a hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of approximately 700-4500 nm. The initial titin aggregates with Rh approximately 700 nm were observed beyond first 20 min its aggregation that shows a high rate of amyloid formation by this protein. We also showed using confocal microscopy the cytotoxic effect of SMT amyloid aggregates on smooth muscle cells from bovine aorta. This effect involves the disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and result is cell damage. Cumulatively, our results indicate that titin may be involved in generation of amyloidosis in smooth muscles. PMID:27129292

  12. The Effect of Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs on Amyloid Aggregation and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iannuzzi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidosis is a protein folding disorder in which normally soluble proteins are deposited extracellularly as insoluble fibrils, impairing tissue structure and function. Charged polyelectrolytes such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are frequently found associated with the proteinaceous deposits in tissues of patients affected by amyloid diseases. Experimental evidence indicate that they can play an active role in favoring amyloid fibril formation and stabilization. Binding of GAGs to amyloid fibrils occurs mainly through electrostatic interactions involving the negative polyelectrolyte charges and positively charged side chains residues of aggregating protein. Similarly to catalyst for reactions, GAGs favor aggregation, nucleation and amyloid fibril formation functioning as a structural templates for the self-assembly of highly cytotoxic oligomeric precursors, rich in β-sheets, into harmless amyloid fibrils. Moreover, the GAGs amyloid promoting activity can be facilitated through specific interactions via consensus binding sites between amyloid polypeptide and GAGs molecules. We review the effect of GAGs on amyloid deposition as well as proteins not strictly related to diseases. In addition, we consider the potential of the GAGs therapy in amyloidosis.

  13. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and Aβ-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demonstrated that vitamin k3 significantly inhibits fibril formation as well as the inhibitory effect is dose dependent manner. Our experimental studies inferred that vitamin k3 exert its neuro protective effect against amyloid induced cytotoxicity through concerted pathway, modifying the aggregation formation towards formation of nontoxic aggregates. Molecular docking demonstrated that vitamin k3 mediated inhibition of HEWL and Aβ-42 fibrillogenesis may be initiated by interacting with proteolytic resistant and aggregation prone regions respectively. This work would provide an insight into the mechanism of protein aggregation inhibition by vitamin k3; pave the way for discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effect against amyloid formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27230476

  14. Design of non-aggregating variants of Aβ peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caine, Joanne M., E-mail: jo.caine@csiro.au [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Preventative Health Flagship, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); CRC for Mental Health, Level 2, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Churches, Quentin; Waddington, Lynne [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Preventative Health Flagship, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Nigro, Julie; Breheney, Kerry [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Preventative Health Flagship, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); CRC for Mental Health, Level 2, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Masters, Colin L. [CRC for Mental Health, Level 2, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, 30 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Nuttall, Stewart D. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Preventative Health Flagship, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); CRC for Mental Health, Level 2, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Streltsov, Victor A., E-mail: victor.streltsov@csiro.au [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Preventative Health Flagship, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); CRC for Mental Health, Level 2, 161 Barry Street, Carlton South, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • Non-aggregating, non-toxic variants of Aβ peptide were designed using Aβ structure. • Mutations reduce aggregation by stabilising Aβ into small non-toxic oligomers. • Identification of these residues will assist the design of future therapeutic peptides. - Abstract: Self association of the amyloid-β (Aβ{sub 42}) peptide into oligomers, high molecular weight forms, fibrils and ultimately neuritic plaques, has been correlated with progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, insights into the drivers of the aggregation pathway have the capacity to significantly contribute to our understanding of disease mechanism. Functional assays and a three-dimensional crystal structure of the P3 amyloidogenic region 18–41 of Aβ were used to identify residues important in self-association and to design novel non-aggregating variants of the peptide. Biophysical studies (gel filtration, SDS–PAGE, dynamic light scattering, thioflavin T assay, and electron microscopy) demonstrate that in contrast to wild type Aβ these targeted mutations lose the ability to self-associate. Loss of aggregation also correlates with reduced neuronal toxicity. Our results highlight residues and regions of the Aβ peptide important for future targeting agents aimed at the amelioration of Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Design of non-aggregating variants of Aβ peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Non-aggregating, non-toxic variants of Aβ peptide were designed using Aβ structure. • Mutations reduce aggregation by stabilising Aβ into small non-toxic oligomers. • Identification of these residues will assist the design of future therapeutic peptides. - Abstract: Self association of the amyloid-β (Aβ42) peptide into oligomers, high molecular weight forms, fibrils and ultimately neuritic plaques, has been correlated with progressive cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, insights into the drivers of the aggregation pathway have the capacity to significantly contribute to our understanding of disease mechanism. Functional assays and a three-dimensional crystal structure of the P3 amyloidogenic region 18–41 of Aβ were used to identify residues important in self-association and to design novel non-aggregating variants of the peptide. Biophysical studies (gel filtration, SDS–PAGE, dynamic light scattering, thioflavin T assay, and electron microscopy) demonstrate that in contrast to wild type Aβ these targeted mutations lose the ability to self-associate. Loss of aggregation also correlates with reduced neuronal toxicity. Our results highlight residues and regions of the Aβ peptide important for future targeting agents aimed at the amelioration of Alzheimer’s disease

  16. Lipid rafts participate in aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhou; Chun Yang; Yufeng Liu; Peng Li; Huiying Yang; Jingxing Dai; Rongmei Qu; Lin Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are found in Alzhei-mer’s disease. The generation and deposition of amyloid-beta is one of the crucial factors for the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Lipid rafts are glycolipid-rich liquid domains of the plasma membrane, where certain types of protein tend to aggregate and intercalate. Lipid rafts are involved in the generation of amyloid-beta oligomers and the formation of amyloid-beta peptides. In this paper, we review the mechanism by which lipid rafts disturb the aberrant deg-radative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta, which plays an important role in the pathological process of Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, we describe this mechanism from the view of the Two-system Theory of fasciology and thus, suggest that lipid rafts may be a new target of Alzheimer’s disease treatment.

  17. Catechins and Procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba Show Potent Activities towards the Inhibition of β-Amyloid Peptide Aggregation and Destabilization of Preformed Fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761. In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, (−-gallocatechin, (−-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The activities of these polyphenols in the inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and the destabilization of preformed fibrils were evaluated using biochemical assays, which showed that all six of the polyphenols, as well as a fraction of the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb containing catechins and procyanidins, exerted potent inhibitory activities towards Aβ42 aggregation and could also destabilize the performed fibrils. Catechins and procyanidins can therefore be regarded as the potent active constituents of EGb761 in terms of their inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation and destabilization of the fibrils. Although quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis revealed that the catechins and procyanidins are only present in low concentrations in EGb761, these components should be studied in greater detail because of their potent inhibitory effects towards Aβ42 aggregation and their ability to destabilize preformed fibrils, especially during the quality control of Ginkgo leaves and the manufacture of Ginkgo products.

  18. Tau/Amyloid Beta 42 Peptide Test (Alzheimer Biomarkers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: Alzheimer Biomarkers Formal name: Tau Protein and Amyloid Beta 42 Peptide Related tests: Phosporylated ... should know? How is it used? Tests for Tau protein and Aß42 may be used as supplemental tests ...

  19. ToF-SIMS analysis of amyloid beta aggregation on different lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Aoyagi, Satoka; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Iwamura, Miki; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are considered to be strongly related to Alzheimer's disease. Aβ peptides form a β-sheet structure on hard lipid membranes and it would aggregate to form amyloid fibrils, which are toxic to cells. However, the aggregation mechanism of Aβ is not fully understood. To evaluate the influence of the lipid membrane condition for Aβ aggregation, the adsorption forms of Aβ (1-40) on mixture membranes of lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol β-d-glucoside (β-CG) were investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, Aβ adsorbed along the localized DMPC lipid on the mixture lipid membranes, whereas it was adsorbed homogeneously on the pure DMPC and β-CG membranes. Moreover, amino acid fragments that mainly existed in the n-terminal of Aβ (1-40) peptide were strongly detected on the localized DMPC region. These results suggested that the Aβ was adsorbed along the localized DMPC lipid with a characteristic orientation. These findings suggest that the hardness of the membrane is very sensitive to coexisting materials and that surface hardness is important for aggregation of Aβ. PMID:26822505

  20. Identification of a Novel Parallel beta-Strand Conformation within Molecular Monolayer of Amyloid Peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Shuai;

    2016-01-01

    . In this work, the early A beta(33-42) aggregates forming the molecular monolayer at hydrophobic interface are investigated. The molecular monolayer of amyloid peptide A beta(33-42) consisting of novel parallel beta-strand-like structure is further revealed by means of a quantitative nanomechanical...... spectroscopy technique with force controlled in pico-Newton range, combining with molecular dynamic simulation. The identified parallel beta-strand-like structure of molecular monolayer is distinct from the antiparallel beta-strand structure of A beta(33-42) amyloid fibril. This finding enriches the molecular...

  1. Amyloidβ Peptides in interaction with raft-mime model membranes: a neutron reflectivity insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondelli, Valeria; Brocca, Paola; Motta, Simona; Messa, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Salmona, Mario; Fragneto, Giovanna; Cantù, Laura; Del Favero, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The role of first-stage β-amyloid aggregation in the development of the Alzheimer disease, is widely accepted but still unclear. Intimate interaction with the cell membrane is invoked. We designed Neutron Reflectometry experiments to reveal the existence and extent of the interaction between β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and a lone customized biomimetic membrane, and their dependence on the aggregation state of the peptide. The membrane, asymmetrically containing phospholipids, GM1 and cholesterol in biosimilar proportion, is a model for a raft, a putative site for amyloid-cell membrane interaction. We found that the structured-oligomer of Aβ(1-42), its most acknowledged membrane-active state, is embedded as such into the external leaflet of the membrane. Conversely, the Aβ(1-42) unstructured early-oligomers deeply penetrate the membrane, likely mimicking the interaction at neuronal cell surfaces, when the Aβ(1-42) is cleaved from APP protein and the membrane constitutes a template for its further structural evolution. Moreover, the smaller Aβ(1-6) fragment, the N-terminal portion of Aβ, was also used. Aβ N-terminal is usually considered as involved in oligomer stabilization but not in the peptide-membrane interaction. Instead, it was seen to remove lipids from the bilayer, thus suggesting its role, once in the whole peptide, in membrane leakage, favouring peptide recruitment. PMID:26880066

  2. Amyloid properties of the leader peptide of variant B cystatin C: implications for Alzheimer and macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Ricardo; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Paraoan, Luminita; Foguel, Debora

    2016-03-01

    Variant B (VB) of cystatin C has a mutation in its signal peptide (A25T), which interferes with its processing leading to reduced secretion and partial retention in the vicinity of the mitochondria. There are genetic evidences of the association of VB with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigated aggregation and amyloid propensities of unprocessed VB combining computational and in vitro studies. Aggregation predictors revealed the presence of four aggregation-prone regions, with a strong one at the level of the signal peptide, which indeed formed toxic aggregates and mature amyloid fibrils in solution. In light of these results, we propose for the first time the role of the signal peptide in pathogenesis of AD and AMD. PMID:26865059

  3. Effect of Curcumin on the metal ion induced fibrillization of Amyloidpeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Curcumin on Cu(II) and Zn(II) induced oligomerization and protofibrillization of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide has been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Curcumin could significantly reduce the β-sheet content of the peptide in a time dependent manner. It also plays an antagonistic role in β-sheet formation that is promoted by metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) as observed by Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that spontaneous fibrillization of the peptide occurs in presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) but is inhibited on incubation of the peptide with Curcumin indicating the beneficial role of Curcumin in preventing the aggregation of Aβ peptide.

  4. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide N-Terminus Fragment Self-Assembly: Effect of Conserved Disulfide Bond on Aggregation Propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilitchev, Alexandre I; Giammona, Maxwell J; Do, Thanh D; Wong, Amy G; Buratto, Steven K; Shea, Joan-Emma; Raleigh, Daniel P; Bowers, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid formation by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) has long been implicated in the pathogeny of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and failure of islet transplants, but the mechanism of IAPP self-assembly is still unclear. Numerous fragments of hIAPP are capable of self-association into oligomeric aggregates, both amyloid and non-amyloid in structure. The N-terminal region of IAPP contains a conserved disulfide bond between cysteines at position 2 and 7, which is important to hIAPP's in vivo function and may play a role in in vitro aggregation. The importance of the disulfide bond in this region was probed using a combination of ion mobility-based mass spectrometry experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, and high-resolution atomic force microscopy imaging on the wildtype 1-8 hIAPP fragment, a reduced fragment with no disulfide bond, and a fragment with both cysteines at positions 2 and 7 mutated to serine. The results indicate the wildtype fragment aggregates by a different pathway than either comparison peptide and that the intact disulfide bond may be protective against aggregation due to a reduction of inter-peptide hydrogen bonding. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26894887

  5. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide N-Terminus Fragment Self-Assembly: Effect of Conserved Disulfide Bond on Aggregation Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilitchev, Alexandre I.; Giammona, Maxwell J.; Do, Thanh D.; Wong, Amy G.; Buratto, Steven K.; Shea, Joan-Emma; Raleigh, Daniel P.; Bowers, Michael T.

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid formation by human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) has long been implicated in the pathogeny of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and failure of islet transplants, but the mechanism of IAPP self-assembly is still unclear. Numerous fragments of hIAPP are capable of self-association into oligomeric aggregates, both amyloid and non-amyloid in structure. The N-terminal region of IAPP contains a conserved disulfide bond between cysteines at position 2 and 7, which is important to hIAPP's in vivo function and may play a role in in vitro aggregation. The importance of the disulfide bond in this region was probed using a combination of ion mobility-based mass spectrometry experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, and high-resolution atomic force microscopy imaging on the wildtype 1-8 hIAPP fragment, a reduced fragment with no disulfide bond, and a fragment with both cysteines at positions 2 and 7 mutated to serine. The results indicate the wildtype fragment aggregates by a different pathway than either comparison peptide and that the intact disulfide bond may be protective against aggregation due to a reduction of inter-peptide hydrogen bonding.

  6. Amyloid fibrils composed of hexameric peptides attenuate neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnellas, Michael P; Adams, Chris M; Sobel, Raymond A; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B

    2013-04-01

    The amyloid-forming proteins tau, αB crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein αB crystallin (HspB5) and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, we showed a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P, and insulin B chain, to be anti-inflammatory and capable of reducing serological levels of interleukin-6 and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of tau 623-628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23552370

  7. Plasma amyloid beta peptides and oligomers antibodies in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, L.; Chu, LW; Kwan, JSC; Ho, JWM; Lam, KSL; Ho, PWL; Chan, KH

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Various forms of amyloid beta (Aβ) including Aβ peptides, oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils are thought to be pathogenic in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The exact pathophysiological role of endogenous Aβ autoantibodies (Ab) in healthy subjects and AD patients are uncertain. Potential protective role ...

  8. Graphene quantum dots for the inhibition of β amyloid aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yibiao; Xu, Li-Ping; Dai, Wenhao; Dong, Haifeng; Wen, Yongqiang; Zhang, Xueji

    2015-11-01

    The aggregation of Aβ peptides is a crucial factor leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibiting the Aβ peptide aggregation has become one of the most essential strategies to treat AD. In this work, efficient and low-cytotoxicity inhibitors, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are reported for their application in inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ peptides. Compared to other carbon materials, the low cytotoxicity and great biocompatibility of GQDs give an advantage to the clinical research for AD. In addition, the GQDs may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) because of the small size. It is believed that GQDs may be therapeutic agents against AD. This work provides a novel insight into the development of Alzheimer's drugs.The aggregation of Aβ peptides is a crucial factor leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Inhibiting the Aβ peptide aggregation has become one of the most essential strategies to treat AD. In this work, efficient and low-cytotoxicity inhibitors, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are reported for their application in inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ peptides. Compared to other carbon materials, the low cytotoxicity and great biocompatibility of GQDs give an advantage to the clinical research for AD. In addition, the GQDs may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) because of the small size. It is believed that GQDs may be therapeutic agents against AD. This work provides a novel insight into the development of Alzheimer's drugs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Dose-dependent inhibition of Aβ1-42 fibrillization by GQDs; the photoluminescence spectra of all five GQDs with different charges in water/ethanol; TEM images of other four GQDs with different charges. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06282a

  9. Differential Activation of Innate Immune Pathways by Distinct Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (IAPP) Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwell-Roper, Clara; Denroche, Heather C; Ehses, Jan A; Verchere, C Bruce

    2016-04-22

    Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) contributes to beta cell dysfunction in type 2 diabetes and islet transplantation. Like other amyloidogenic peptides, human IAPP induces macrophage IL-1β secretion by stimulating both the synthesis and processing of proIL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that (when chronically elevated) impairs beta cell insulin secretion. We sought to determine the specific mechanism of IAPP-induced proIL-1β synthesis. Soluble IAPP species produced early during IAPP aggregation provided a Toll-like-receptor-2- (TLR2-) dependent stimulus for NF-κB activation in HEK 293 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Non-amyloidogenic rodent IAPP and thioflavin-T-positive fibrillar amyloid produced by human IAPP aggregation failed to activate TLR2. Blockade of TLR6 but not TLR1 prevented hIAPP-induced TLR2 activation, consistent with stimulation of a TLR2/6 heterodimer. TLR2 and its downstream adaptor protein MyD88 were required for IAPP-induced cytokine production by BMDMs, a process that is partially dependent on autoinduction by IL-1. BMDMs treated with soluble but not fibrillar IAPP provided a TLR2-dependent priming stimulus for ATP-induced IL-1β secretion, whereas late IAPP aggregates induced NLRP3-dependent IL-1β secretion by LPS-primed macrophages. Moreover, inhibition of TLR2 and depletion of islet macrophages prevented up-regulation of Il1b and Tnf expression in human IAPP-expressing transgenic mouse islets. These data suggest participation by both soluble and fibrillar aggregates in IAPP-induced islet inflammation. IAPP-induced activation of TLR2 and secretion of IL-1 may be important therapeutic targets to prevent amyloid-associated beta cell dysfunction. PMID:26786104

  10. Inhibition of Cu-amyloid-β by using bifunctional peptides with β-sheet breaker and chelator moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Madeleine; Canning, Anne; Chiha, Sabri; Bouquerel, Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Trudslev; Østergaard, Jesper; Cuvillier, Olivier; Sasaki, Isabelle; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter

    2012-04-16

    Breaking the mold: Inhibition of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates and disruption of Cu-Aβ with subsequent redox-silencing of Cu have been considered promising strategies against Alzheimer's disease. The design and proof of concept of simple peptides containing a Cu-chelating/redox-silencing unit and an Aβ-aggregation inhibition unit (β-sheet breaker) is described (see scheme). PMID:22422637

  11. Synthetic peptide homologous to β protein from Alzheimer's disease forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive amyloid deposition in senile plaques and cortical blood vessels may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The authors have used x-ray diffraction and electron microscopy to study the molecular organization and morphology of macromolecular assemblies formed by three synthetic peptides homologous to β protein of brain amyloid: β-(1-28), residues 1-28 of the β protein; [Ala1-β-(1-28), β-(1-28) with alanine substituted for lysine at position 16; and β-(18-28), residues 18-28 of the β protein. β-(1-28) readily formed fibrils in vitro that were similar in ultrastructure to the in vivo amyloid and aggregated into large bundles resembling those of senile plaque cores. X-ray patterns from partially dried, oriented pellets showed a cross-β-conformation. [Ala16]β-(1-28) formed β-pleated sheet assemblies that were dissimilar to in vivo fibrils. The width of the 10-A spacing indicated stacks of about six sheets. Thus, substitution of the uncharged alanine for the positively charged lysine in the β-strand region enhances the packing of the sheets and dramatically alters the type of macromolecular aggregate formed. Β-(18-28) formed assemblies that had even a greater number of stacked sheets. The findings on these homologous synthetic assemblies help to define the specific sequence that is required to form Alzheimer's-type amyloid fibrils, thus providing an in vitro model of age-related cerebral amyloidogenesis

  12. A peptide study of the relationship between the collagen triple-helix and amyloid

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Avanish S.; Nunes, Ana Monica; Baum, Jean; Brodsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Type XXV collagen, or Collagen-Like Amyloidogenic Component (CLAC), is a component of amyloid plaques, and recent studies suggest this collagen affects amyloid fibril elongation and has a genetic association with Alzheimer’s disease. The relationship between the collagen triple helix and amyloid fibrils was investigated by studying peptide models, including a very stable triple helical peptide (Pro-Hyp-Gly)10; an amyloidogenic peptide GNNQQNY; and a hybrid peptide where the GNNQQNY sequence w...

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of Ginkgo biloba terpene trilactones and their interaction with amyloid peptide Aβ(25-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangtao; Petrovic, Ana G.; Dzyuba, Sergei V.; Berova, Nina; Nakanishi, Koji; Polavarapu, Prasad L.

    2008-04-01

    The beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in the "treatment" of dementia are attributed to its terpene trilactone (TTL) constituents. The interactions between TTLs and amyloid peptide are believed to be responsible in preventing the aggregation of peptide. These interactions have been investigated using infrared vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Four TTLs, namely ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC) and bilobalide (BB) and amyloid Aβ(25-35) peptide, as a model for the full length peptide, are used in this study. GA-monoether and GA-diether have also been synthesized and investigated to help understand the role of individual carbonyl groups in these interactions. The precipitation and solubility issues encountered with the mixture of ginkgolide + Aβ peptide for VA and VCD studies were overcome using binary ethanol-D 2O solvent mixture. The experimental VA and VCD spectra of GA, GB, GC and BB, GA-monoether and GA-diether have been analyzed using the corresponding spectra predicted with density functional theory. The time-dependent experimental VA and VCD spectra of Aβ(25-35) peptide and the corresponding experimental spectra in the presence of TTLs indicated that the effect of the TTLs in modulating the aggregation of Aβ(25-35) peptide is relatively small. Such small effects might indicate the absence of a specific interaction between the TTLs and Aβ(25-35) peptide as a major force leading to the reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides. It is possible that the therapeutic effect of G. biloba extract does not originate from direct interactions between TTLs and the Aβ(25-35) peptide and is more complex.

  14. The Physics of Amyloid Aggregation and Templating in Prions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The problem of self-assembled amyloid aggregation of proteins in structures with beta-strands perpendicular to a one dimensional grown axis is interesting at a fundamental level (is this the most generic end state of proteins?), from a biological level (if the self-assembly can be regulated it is of use in contexts like spider silk and bacterial colony formation), for human public health (aggregation unregulated induces diseases like mad cow and Alzheimer's), and for possible materials applications (e.g., in tissue scaffolding). In this presentation, I will review the work of my group in examining the possibility that the left-handed beta helix (LHBH) structure can be the building block of the aggregates of mammalian prion and yeast prion proteins. I will also discuss our efforts to assess the possibility of a novel pH driven structural switch between LHBH and alpha-helical forms in the ordered half of the mammalian prion protein, and now the possibly pH stabilized LHBH structure can template aggregate growth of the disordered half of the protein, identified in numerous experimental studies as most relevant to disease.

  15. Cross-beta order and diversity in nanocrystals of an amyloid-forming peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Long, Chris; Fontano, Eric; Balbirnie, Melinda; Grothe, Robert; Eisenberg, David; Caspar, Donald L D

    2003-07-25

    The seven-residue peptide GNNQQNY from the N-terminal region of the yeast prion protein Sup35, which forms amyloid fibers, colloidal aggregates and highly ordered nanocrystals, provides a model system for characterizing the elusively protean cross-beta conformation. Depending on preparative conditions, orthorhombic and monoclinic crystals with similar lath-shaped morphology have been obtained. Ultra high-resolution (frames, have been mapped in reciprocal space. However, reliable integrated intensities cannot be obtained from these series, and dynamical electron diffraction effects present problems in data analysis. The diversity of ordered structures formed under similar conditions has made it difficult to obtain reproducible X-ray diffraction data from powder specimens; and overlapping Bragg reflections in the powder patterns preclude separated structure factor measurements for these data. Model protofilaments, consisting of tightly paired, half-staggered beta strands related by a screw axis, can be fit in the crystal lattices, but model refinement will require accurate structure factor measurements. Nearly anhydrous packing of this hydrophilic peptide can account for the insolubility of the crystals, since the activation energy for rehydration may be extremely high. Water-excluding packing of paired cross-beta peptide segments in thin protofilaments may be characteristic of the wide variety of anomalously stable amyloid aggregates. PMID:12860136

  16. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β-type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer's amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  17. Rapid aggregation and assembly in aqueous solution of A (25-35) peptide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lia Millucci; Roberto Raggiaschi; Davide Franceschini; Georg Terstappen; Annalisa Santucci

    2009-06-01

    The highly toxic A(25-35) is a peculiar peptide that differs from all the other commonly studied -amyloid peptides because of its extremely rapid aggregation properties and enhanced neurotoxicity. We investigated A(25-35) aggregation in H2O at pH 3.0 and at pH 7.4 by means of in-solution analyses. Adopting UV spectroscopy, Congo red spectrophotometry and thioflavin T fluorimetry, we were able to quantify, in water, the very fast assembling time necessary for A(25-35) to form stable insoluble aggregates and their ability to seed or not seed fibril growth. Our quantitative results, which confirm a very rapid assembly leading to stable insoluble aggregates of A(25-35) only when incubated at pH 7.4, might be helpful for designing novel aggregation inhibitors and to shed light on the in vivo environment in which fibril formation takes place.

  18. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J., E-mail: o.j.rolinski@strath.ac.uk [Photophysics group, Centre for Molecular Nanometrology, Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-10

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  19. Mathematical aspects of the kinetics of formation and degradation of linear peptide or protein aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P

    2016-08-01

    In cells, peptides and proteins are sometimes prone to aggregation. In neurons, for example, amyloid β peptides form plaques related to Alzheimer's disease (AD). The corresponding kinetic models either ignore or do not pay attention to degradation of these species. Here, the author proposes a generic kinetic model describing formation and degradation of linear aggregates. The process is assumed to occur via reversible association of monomers and attachment of monomers to or detachment from terminal parts of aggregates. Degradation of monomers is described as a first-order process. Degradation of aggregates is considered to occur at their terminal and internal parts with different rates and these steps are described by first-order equations as well. Irrespective of the choice of the values of the rate constants, the model predicts that eventually the system reaches a stable steady state with the aggregate populations rapidly decreasing with increasing size at large sizes. The corresponding steady-state size distributions of aggregates are illustrated in detail. The transient kinetics are also shown. The observation of AD appears, however, to indicate that the peptide production becomes eventually unstable, i.e., the growth of the peptide population is not properly limited. This is expected to be related to the specifics of the genetic networks controlling the peptide production. Following this line, two likely general networks with, respectively, global negative and positive feedbacks in the peptide production are briefly discussed. PMID:27132946

  20. Immunization with the SDPM1 peptide lowers amyloid plaque burden and improves cognitive function in the APPswePSEN1(A246E) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chiou-Miin; deVries, Sarah; Camboni, Marybeth; Glass, Matthew; Martin, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination has become an important therapeutic approach to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however, immunization with Aβ amyloid can have unwanted, potentially lethal, side effects. Here we demonstrate an alternative peptide-mimotope vaccine strategy using the SDPM1 peptide. SDPM1 is a 20 amino acid peptide bounded by cysteines that binds tetramer forms of Aβ1–40- and Aβ1–42-amyloid and blocks subsequent Aβ amyloid aggregation. Immunization of mice with SDPM1 induced peptide mimot...

  1. New Hydroxyquinoline-Based Derivatives as Potent Modulators of AmyloidAggregations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chin-Lan; Hsu, Li-Shin; Liao, Yung-Feng; Hu, Ming-Kuan

    2016-05-01

    Copper and zinc have been found to contribute to the burden of amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregations in neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD). Dysregulation of these metals leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eventually results in oxidative damage and accumulation of the Aβ peptide, which are the key elements of the disease. Aiming to pursue the discovery of new modulators for the disease, we here rationally focused on conjugating the core hydroxyquinoline of the metal-protein attenuating compound PBT2 and the N-methylanilide analogous moiety of the Aβ imaging agent to build a new type of multi-target modulators of Aβ aggregations. We found that the N,N-dimethylanilinyl imines 7a, 8a, and the corresponding amines 7b, 8b exerted efficient inhibition of Cu(2+) - or Zn(2+) -induced Aβ aggregations and significant disassembly of metal-mediated Aβ aggregated fibrils. Further, 7a and 7b also exhibited significant ROC scavenging effects compared to PBT2. The results suggested that 7a and 7b are promising lead compounds for the development of a new therapy for AD. PMID:27027880

  2. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of fluorescently labelled amyloid β 1-40 and α-synuclein aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Valerie L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluorescent tags, including small organic molecules and fluorescent proteins, enable the localization of protein molecules in biomedical research experiments. However, the use of these labels may interfere with the formation of larger-scale protein structures such as amyloid aggregates. Therefore, we investigate the effects of some commonly used fluorescent tags on the morphologies of fibrils grown from the Alzheimer's disease-associated peptide Amyloid β 1-40 (Aβ40 and the Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein (αS. Results Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, we verify that N-terminal labeling of Aβ40 with AMCA, TAMRA, and Hilyte-Fluor 488 tags does not prevent the formation of protofibrils and amyloid fibrils of various widths. We also measure the two-photon action cross-section of Aβ40 labelled with Hilyte Fluor 488 and demonstrate that this tag is suitable for use with two-photon fluorescence techniques. Similarly, we find that Alexa Fluor 488 labelling of αS variant proteins near either the N or C terminus (position 9 or 130 does not interfere with the formation of amyloid and other types of αS fibrils. We also present TEM images of fibrils grown from αS C-terminally labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. Near neutral pH, two types of αS-EGFP fibrils are observed via TEM, while denaturation of the EGFP tag leads to the formation of additional species. Conclusions We demonstrate that several small extrinsic fluorescent tags are compatible with studies of amyloid protein aggregation. However, although fibrils can be grown from αS labelled with EGFP, the conformation of the fluorescent protein tag affects the observed aggregate morphologies. Thus, our results should assist researchers with label selection and optimization of solution conditions for aggregation studies involving fluorescence techniques.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin-Cu(II) and Curcumin-Zn(II) Complexes on Amyloid-Beta Peptide Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Rona Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Mononuclear complexes of Curcumin with Cu(II) and Zn(II) have been synthesized and, characterized and their effects on the fibrillization and aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide have been studied. FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations demonstrate that the complexes can inhibit the transition from less structured oligomers to β-sheet rich protofibrils which act as seeding factors for further fibrillization. The metal complexes also impart more improved inhibitor...

  4. Amyloidpeptides time-dependent structural modifications: AFM and voltammetric characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Teodor Adrian; Chiorcea-Paquim, Ana-Maria; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    The human amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, structural modifications, from soluble monomers to fully formed fibrils through intermediate structures, were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained for the inverse Aβ40-1 and Aβ42-1, mutant Aβ1-40Phe(10) and Aβ1-40Nle(35), and rat Aβ1-40Rat peptide sequences. The aggregation was followed at a slow rate, in chloride free media and room temperature, and revealed to be a sequence-structure process, dependent on the physicochemical properties of each Aβ peptide isoforms, and occurring at different rates and by different pathways. The fibrilization process was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), via changes in the adsorption morphology from: (i) initially random coiled structures of ∼0.6 nm height, corresponding to the Aβ peptide monomers in random coil or in α-helix conformations, to (ii) aggregates and protofibrils of 1.5-6.0 nm height and (iii) two types of fibrils, corresponding to the Aβ peptide in a β-sheet configuration. The reactivity of the carbon electrode surface was considered. The hydrophobic surface induced rapid changes of the Aβ peptide conformations, and differences between the adsorbed fibrils, formed at the carbon surface (beaded, thin, 2.0 nm height), were detected. Differential pulse voltammetry showed that, according to their primary structure, the Aβ peptides undergo oxidation in one or two steps, the first step corresponding to the tyrosine amino acids oxidation, and the second one to the histidine and methionine amino acids oxidation. The fibrilization process was electrochemically detected via the decrease of the Aβ peptide oxidation peak currents that occurred in a time dependent manner. PMID:27216391

  5. Amyloid Beta Peptides Differentially Affect Hippocampal Theta Rhythms In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando I. Gutiérrez-Lerma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble amyloid beta peptide (Aβ is responsible for the early cognitive dysfunction observed in Alzheimer's disease. Both cholinergically and glutamatergically induced hippocampal theta rhythms are related to learning and memory, spatial navigation, and spatial memory. However, these two types of theta rhythms are not identical; they are associated with different behaviors and can be differentially modulated by diverse experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate whether or not application of soluble Aβ alters the two types of theta frequency oscillatory network activity generated in rat hippocampal slices by application of the cholinergic and glutamatergic agonists carbachol or DHPG, respectively. Due to previous evidence that oscillatory activity can be differentially affected by different Aβ peptides, we also compared Aβ25−35 and Aβ1−42 for their effects on theta rhythms in vitro at similar concentrations (0.5 to 1.0 μM. We found that Aβ25−35 reduces, with less potency than Aβ1−42, carbachol-induced population theta oscillatory activity. In contrast, DHPG-induced oscillatory activity was not affected by a high concentration of Aβ25−35 but was reduced by Aβ1−42. Our results support the idea that different amyloid peptides might alter specific cellular mechanisms related to the generation of specific neuronal network activities, instead of exerting a generalized inhibitory effect on neuronal network function.

  6. In vitro fibrillization of Alzheimer's amyloidpeptide (1-42)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiiman, Ann; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Palumaa, Peep; Tõugu, Vello

    2015-09-01

    The amyloid deposition in the form of extracellular fibrillar aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of Aβ fibrillization in vitro. The effects of Aβ42 peptide concentration, temperature, pH, added solvents and the ratio of Aβ40 and Aβ42 on the peptide fibrillization under agitated conditions was studied. The analysis show that the rate of fibril growth by monomer addition is not limited by diffusion but by rearrangement in the monomer structure, which is enhanced by low concentrations of fluorinated alcohols and characterized by the activation energy of 12 kcal/mol. Fibrillization rate decreases at pH values below 7.0 where simultaneous protonation of His 13 and 14 inhibits fibril formation. The lag period for Aβ42 was only twofold shorter and the fibril growth rate twofold faster than those of Aβ40. Lag period was shortened and the fibrillization rate was increased only at 90% content of Aβ42.

  7. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: new algorithms for sparse patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, Aaron S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sawaya, Michael R. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McFarlane, Heather T. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Cascio, Duilio [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenberg, David S. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1570 (United States); Sauter, Nicholas K., E-mail: nksauter@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Special methods are required to interpret sparse diffraction patterns collected from peptide crystals at X-ray free-electron lasers. Bragg spots can be indexed from composite-image powder rings, with crystal orientations then deduced from a very limited number of spot positions. Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of the Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patterns with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented.

  8. Manipulation of self-assembly amyloid peptide nanotubes by dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jaime; Tanzi, Simone; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie

    2008-12-01

    Self-assembled amyloid peptide nanotubes (SAPNT) were manipulated and immobilized using dielectrophoresis. Micro-patterned electrodes of Au were fabricated by photolithography and lifted off on a silicon dioxide layer. SAPNT were manipulated by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the applied voltage. The immobilized SAPNT were evaluated by SEM and atomic force microscopy. The conductivity of the immobilized SAPNT was studied by I-V characterization, for both single SAPNT and bundles. This work illustrates a way to manipulate and integrate biological nanostructures into novel bio-nanoassemblies with concrete applications, such as field-effect transistors, microprobes, microarrays, and biosensing devices. PMID:19130587

  9. Dimensionality of carbon nanomaterial impacting on the modulation of amyloid peptide assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhu, Z.; Bortolini, C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Amari, A.; Zhang, H. X.; Liu, L.; Dong, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been exploited so far for their great potential for biological applications. Some of these materials could be valid candidates to modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides, which is relevant to amyloid-related diseases. In this work, we reveal that a carbon nanomaterial can indeed modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides and, additionally, we show that this modulating effect is closely related to the dimensionality of the nanomaterials.

  10. Polymorphism of amyloid fibrils formed by a peptide from the yeast prion protein Sup35: AFM and Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Zhang, Yuliang; Deckert, Volker; Lyubchenko, Yuri L

    2016-06-01

    Aggregation of prion proteins is the cause of various prion related diseases. The infectious form of prions, amyloid aggregates, exist as multiple strains. The strains are thought to represent structurally different prion protein molecules packed into amyloid aggregates, but the knowledge on the structure of different types of aggregates is limited. Here we report on the use of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and TERS (Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering) to study morphological heterogeneity and access underlying conformational features of individual amyloid aggregates. Using AFM we identified the morphology of amyloid fibrils formed by the peptide (CGNNQQNY) from the yeast prion protein Sup35 that is critically involved in the aggregation of the full protein. TERS results demonstrate that morphologically different amyloid fibrils are composed of a distinct set of conformations. Fibrils formed at pH 5.6 are composed of a mixture of peptide conformations (β-sheets, random coil and α-helix) while fibrils formed in pH~2 solution primarily have β-sheets. Additionally, peak positions in the amide III region of the TERS spectra suggested that peptides have parallel arrangement of β-sheets for pH~2 fibrils and antiparallel arrangement for fibrils formed at pH 5.6. We also developed a methodology for detailed analysis of the peptide secondary structure by correlating intensity changes of Raman bands in different regions of TERS spectra. Such correlation established that structural composition of peptides is highly localized with large contribution of unordered secondary structures on a fibrillar surface. PMID:27060278

  11. Cytochrome c peroxidase activity of heme bound amyloid β peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Manas; Ghosh, Chandradeep; Basu, Olivia; Dey, Somdatta Ghosh

    2016-09-01

    Heme bound amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), can catalytically oxidize ferrocytochrome c (Cyt c(II)) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The rate of catalytic oxidation of Cyt(II) c has been found to be dependent on several factors, such as concentration of heme(III)-Aβ, Cyt(II) c, H2O2, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and peptide chain length of Aβ. The above features resemble the naturally occurring enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) which is known to catalytically oxidize Cyt(II) c in the presence of H2O2. In the absence of heme(III)-Aβ, the oxidation of Cyt(II) c is not catalytic. Thus, heme-Aβ complex behaves as CCP. PMID:27270708

  12. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors with Photoswitchable Inhibition of β-Amyloid Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Photochromic cholinesterase inhibitors were obtained from cis-1,2-α-dithienylethene-based compounds by incorporating one or two aminopolymethylene tacrine groups. All target compounds are potent acetyl- (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors in the nanomolar concentration range. Compound 11b bearing an octylene linker exhibited interactions with both the catalytic active site (CAS) and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. Yet upon irradiation with light, the mechanism of interaction varied from one photochromic form to another, which was investigated by kinetic studies and proved “photoswitchable”. The AChE-induced β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation assay gave further experimental support to this finding: Aβ1–40 aggregation catalyzed by the PAS of AChE might be inhibited by compound 11b in a concentration-dependent manner and seems to occur only with one photochromic form. Computational docking studies provided potential binding modes of the compound. Docking studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the ring-open and -closed form indicate a difference in binding. Although both forms can interact with the PAS, more stable interactions are observed for the ring-open form based upon stabilization of a water molecule network within the enzyme, whereas the ring-closed form lacks the required conformational flexibility for an analogous binding mode. The photoswitchable inhibitor identified might serve as valuable molecular tool to investigate the different biological properties of AChE as well as its role in pathogenesis of AD in in vitro assays. PMID:24628027

  13. PARP-1 modulates amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martire

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP-1. To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25-35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25-35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25-35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25-35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25-35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25-35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed.

  14. Aggregation of peptides in the tube model with correlated sidechain orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Ba; Hoang, Trinh Xuan

    2015-06-01

    The ability of proteins and peptides to aggregate and form toxic amyloid fibrils is associated with a range of diseases including BSE (or mad cow), Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases. In this study, we investigate the the role of amino acid sequence in the aggregation propensity by using a modified tube model with a new procedure for hydrophobic interaction. In this model, the amino acid sidechains are not considered explicitly, but their orientations are taken into account in the formation of hydrophobic contact. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations for systems of short peptides are carried out with the use of parallel tempering technique. Our results show that the propensity to form and the structures of the aggregates strongly depend on the amino acid sequence and the number of peptides. Some sequences may not aggregate at all at a presumable physiological temperature while other can easily form fibril-like, β-sheet struture. Our study provides an insight into the principles of how the formation of amyloid can be governed by amino acid sequence.

  15. A theranostic agent for in vivo near-infrared imaging of β-amyloid species and inhibition of β-amyloid aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinhui; Xu, Di; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Yang, Ronghua; Wong, Man Shing

    2016-07-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide as one of the main components of senile plaques is closely related to the onset and progression of incurable Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous efforts have been devoted to develop probes for Aβ species/plaque imaging for AD diagnostics and to develop aggregation inhibitors preventing formation of toxic soluble oligomeric Aβ for therapeutics. Herein, for the first time, a series of novel charged molecules, which can simultaneously perform near infra-red in vivo imaging of Aβ species/plaques in animal model and inhibition of self-aggregation of Aβ monomer from forming toxic oligomers, are reported. Among them, DBA-SLOH showed excellent blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and biocompatibility due to the incorporation of lipophilic alkyl chains with moderate length into the charged skeleton. Importantly, DBA-SLOH was found to have a high binding affinity toward Aβ species exhibiting a dramatic fluorescence enhancement upon interacting with Aβ species. Despite a weaker binding with Aβ monomers as compared to Aβ aggregates, DBA-SLOH could effectively prevent the Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 peptides from self-aggregation and forming toxic oligomers. This multifunctional fluorescent molecule shows promising potential as a theranostic agent for the diagnosis and therapy of AD. PMID:27107167

  16. Trifluoroethanol modulates α-synuclein amyloid-like aggregate formation, stability and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carlo, Maria Giovanna; Vetri, Valeria; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Leone, Maurizio; Vestergaard, Bente; Foderà, Vito

    2016-09-01

    The conversion of proteins into amyloid fibrils and other amyloid-like aggregates is closely connected to the onset of a series of age-related pathologies. Upon changes in environmental conditions, amyloid-like aggregates may also undergo disassembly into oligomeric aggregates, the latter being recognized as key effectors in toxicity. This indicates new possible routes for in vivo accumulation of toxic species. In the light of the recognized implication of α-Synuclein (αSN) in Parkinson's disease, we present an experimental study on supramolecular assembly of αSN with a focus on stability and disassembly paths of such supramolecular aggregate species. Using spectroscopic techniques, two-photon microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy, we report evidences on how the stability of αSN amyloid-like aggregates can be altered by changing solution conditions. We show that amyloid-like aggregate formation can be induced at high temperature in the presence of trifluoroethanol (TFE). Moreover, sudden disassembly or further structural reorganisation toward higher hierarchical species can be induced by varying TFE concentration. Our results may contribute in deciphering fundamental mechanisms and interactions underlying supramolecular clustering/dissolution of αSN oligomers in cells. PMID:27372900

  17. Physiopathological modulators of amyloid aggregation and novel pharmacological approaches in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEFELICE FERNANDA G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD are complex, as several factors likely contribute to the development of the disease. Therefore, it is not surprising that a number of different possible therapeutic approaches addressing distinct aspects of this disease are currently being investigated. Among these are ways to prevent amyloid aggregation and/or deposition, to prevent neuronal degeneration, and to increase brain neurotransmitter levels. Here, we discuss possible roles of endogenous modulators of Abeta aggregation in the physiopathology of AD and some of the strategies currently under consideration to interfere with brain levels of beta-amyloid, its aggregation and neurotoxicity.

  18. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  19. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayliss, D L; Walsh, J L; Iza, F; Kong, M G [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Shama, G [Department of Chemical Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.g.kong@lboro.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  20. Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, D. L.; Walsh, J. L.; Shama, G.; Iza, F.; Kong, M. G.

    2009-11-01

    Surface-borne amyloid aggregates with mature fibrils are used as a non-infectious prion model to evaluate cold atmospheric plasmas (CAPs) as a prion inactivation strategy. Using a helium-oxygen CAP jet with pulsed radio-frequency (RF) excitation, amyloid aggregates deposited on freshly cleaved mica discs are reduced substantially leaving only a few spherical fragments of sub-micrometer sizes in areas directly treated by the CAP jet. Outside the light-emitting part of the CAP jet, plasma treatment results in a 'skeleton' of much reduced amyloid stacks with clear evidence of fibril fragmentation. Analysis of possible plasma species and the physical configuration of the jet-sample interaction suggests that the skeleton structures observed are unlikely to have arisen as a result of physical forces of detachment, but instead by progressive diffusion of oxidizing plasma species into porous amyloid aggregates. Composition of chemical bonds of this reduced amyloid sample is very different from that of intact amyloid aggregates. These suggest the possibility of on-site degradation by CAP treatment with little possibility of spreading contamination elsewhere , thus offering a new reaction chemistry route to protein infectivity control with desirable implications for the practical implementation of CAP-based sterilization systems.

  1. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1–3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloidpeptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals

  2. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Ion, Laura [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, 11 Carol I, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Murariu, Manuela; Habasescu, Laura [Petru Poni Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, Iasi 700487 (Romania)

    2014-10-06

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1–3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloidpeptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals.

  3. Antimicrobial peptide (Cn-AMP2) from liquid endosperm of Cocos nucifera forms amyloid-like fibrillar structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Shalini; Kaushik, Vibha; Kumar, Vijay; Bhat, Priyanka; Yadav, Subhash C; Yadav, Jay K

    2016-04-01

    Cn-AMP2 is an antimicrobial peptide derived from liquid endosperm of coconut (Cocos nucifera). It consists of 11 amino acid residues and predicted to have high propensity for β-sheet formation that disposes this peptide to be amyloidogenic. In the present study, we have examined the amyloidogenic propensities of Cn-AMP2 in silico and then tested the predictions under in vitro conditions. The in silico study revealed that the peptide possesses high amyloidogenic propensity comparable with Aβ. Upon solubilisation and agitation in aqueous buffer, Cn-AMP2 forms visible aggregates that display bathochromic shift in the Congo red absorbance spectra, strong increase in thioflavin T fluorescence and fibrillar morphology under transmission electron microscopy. All these properties are typical of an amyloid fibril derived from various proteins/peptides including Aβ. PMID:27028204

  4. Impact of multivalent charge presentation on peptide-nanoparticle aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne, Daniel; Schade, Boris; Böttcher, Christoph; Koksch, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Strategies to achieve controlled nanoparticle aggregation have gained much interest, due to the versatility of such systems and their applications in materials science and medicine. In this article we demonstrate that coiled-coil peptide-induced aggregation based on electrostatic interactions is highly sensitive to the length of the peptide as well as the number of presented charges. The quaternary structure of the peptide was found to play an important role in aggregation kinetics. Furthermore, we show that the presence of peptide fibers leads to well-defined nanoparticle assembly on the surface of these macrostructures. PMID:26124881

  5. Designed amyloid beta peptide fibril - a tool for high-throughput screening of fibril inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Gunnar T; Ouberai, Myriam; Dumy, Pascal; Garcia, Julian

    2007-11-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) fibril formation is widely believed to be the causative event of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Therapeutic approaches are therefore in development that target various sites in the production and aggregation of Abeta. Herein we present a high-throughput screening tool to generate novel hit compounds that block Abeta fibril formation. This tool is an application for our fibril model (Abeta(16-37)Y(20)K(22)K(24))(4), which is a covalent assembly of four Abeta fragments. With this tool, screening studies are complete within one hour, as opposed to days with native Abeta(1-40). A Z' factor of 0.84+/-0.03 was determined for fibril formation and inhibition, followed by the reporter molecule thioflavin T. Herein we also describe the analysis of a broad range of reported inhibitors and non-inhibitors of Abeta fibril formation to test the validity of the system. PMID:17876751

  6. Common molecular mechanism of amyloid pore formation by Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide and α-synuclein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Boutemeur, Sonia; Flores, Alessandra; Rodriguez, Léa; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-permeable pores formed by small oligomers of amyloid proteins are the primary pathologic species in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of these toxic oligomers in the plasma membrane of brain cells remain unclear. Here we have analyzed and compared the pore-forming capability of a large panel of amyloid proteins including wild-type, variant and truncated forms, as well as synthetic peptides derived from specific domains of Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. We show that amyloid pore formation involves two membrane lipids, ganglioside and cholesterol, that physically interact with amyloid proteins through specific structural motifs. Mutation or deletion of these motifs abolished pore formation. Moreover, α-synuclein (Parkinson) and Aβ peptide (Alzheimer) did no longer form Ca2+-permeable pores in presence of drugs that target either cholesterol or ganglioside or both membrane lipids. These results indicate that gangliosides and cholesterol cooperate to favor the formation of amyloid pores through a common molecular mechanism that can be jammed at two different steps, suggesting the possibility of a universal therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Finally we present the first successful evaluation of such a new therapeutic approach (coined “membrane therapy”) targeting amyloid pores formed by Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. PMID:27352802

  7. Common molecular mechanism of amyloid pore formation by Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide and α-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Boutemeur, Sonia; Flores, Alessandra; Rodriguez, Léa; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-permeable pores formed by small oligomers of amyloid proteins are the primary pathologic species in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of these toxic oligomers in the plasma membrane of brain cells remain unclear. Here we have analyzed and compared the pore-forming capability of a large panel of amyloid proteins including wild-type, variant and truncated forms, as well as synthetic peptides derived from specific domains of Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. We show that amyloid pore formation involves two membrane lipids, ganglioside and cholesterol, that physically interact with amyloid proteins through specific structural motifs. Mutation or deletion of these motifs abolished pore formation. Moreover, α-synuclein (Parkinson) and Aβ peptide (Alzheimer) did no longer form Ca(2+)-permeable pores in presence of drugs that target either cholesterol or ganglioside or both membrane lipids. These results indicate that gangliosides and cholesterol cooperate to favor the formation of amyloid pores through a common molecular mechanism that can be jammed at two different steps, suggesting the possibility of a universal therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Finally we present the first successful evaluation of such a new therapeutic approach (coined "membrane therapy") targeting amyloid pores formed by Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. PMID:27352802

  8. Ceria/POMs hybrid nanoparticles as a mimicking metallopeptidase for treatment of neurotoxicity of amyloidpeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yijia; Li, Meng; Dong, Kai; Gao, Nan; Ren, Jinsong; Zheng, Yongchen; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    Protein misfolding to amyloid aggregates is the hallmark for neurodegenerative disease. While much attention has been paid to screen natural proteases that can degrade amyloidpeptides (Aβ), it is difficult to apply them in the clinics with the intractable problem of immunogenicity in living organisms. Herein, we rationally designed an artificial nanozyme, Ceria/Polyoxometalates hybrid (CeONP@POMs) with both proteolytic and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Our results indicated that CeONP@POMs could efficiently degrade Aβ aggregates and reduce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). More importantly, CeONP@POMD could not only promote PC12 cell proliferation and can cross blood-brain barrier (BBB), but also inhibit Aβ-induced BV2 microglial cell activation which was demonstrated by immunoluorescence assay and flow cytometry measurements. In vivo studies further indicated that CeONP@POMD as nanozyme possessed good biocompatibility, evidenced by a detailed study of their biodistribution, body weight change, and in vivo toxicology. Therefore, our results pave the way for design of multifunctional artificial nanozyme for treatment of neurotoxicity of amyloidpeptide. PMID:27179436

  9. Neurotrophic effects of amyloid precursor protein peptide 165 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jie; Ma, Lina; Wang, Rong; Sheng, Shuli; Ji, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Our previous findings indicated that animals with diabetic encephalopathy exhibit learning and memory impairment in addition to hippocampal neurodegeneration, both of which are ameliorated with amyloid precursor protein (APP) 17-mer (APP17) peptide treatment. Although APP17 is neuroprotective, it is susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Derived from the active sequence structure of APP17, we have previously structurally transformed and modified several APP5-mer peptides (APP328-332 [RERMS], APP 5). We have developed seven different derivatives of APP5, including several analogs. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in the present study showed that P165 was the most neuroprotective APP5 derivative. Furthermore, we tested the effects of APP5 and P165 on the number of cells and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Western immunoblot analyses were also performed. The digestion rates of P165 and APP5 were determined by the pepsin digestion test. P165 resisted pepsin digestion significantly more than APP5. Therefore, P165 may be optimal for oral administration. Overall, these findings suggest that P165 may be a potential drug for the treatment of diabetic encephalopathy. PMID:26551064

  10. HP-β-cyclodextrin as an inhibitor of amyloidaggregation and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiping; Jiang, Binbo; Hu, Rundong; Zhang, Mingzhen; Chen, Hong; Ma, Jie; Sun, Yan; Jia, Lingyun; Zheng, Jie

    2016-07-27

    Amyloid deposits of misfolded amyloid-β protein (Aβ) on neuronal cells are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prevention of the abnormal Aβ aggregation has been considered as a promising therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. To prevent reinventing the wheel, we proposed to search the existing drug database for other diseases to identify potential Aβ inhibitors. Herein, we reported the inhibitory activity of HP-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a well-known sugar used in drug delivery, genetic vector, environmental protection and treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), against Aβ1-42 aggregation and Aβ-induced toxicity, with the aim of adding a new function as a sugar-based Aβ inhibitor. Experimental data showed that HP-β-CD molecules were not only nontoxic to cells, but also greatly inhibited Aβ fibrillization and reduced Aβ-induced toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. At an optimal molar ratio of Aβ : HP-β-CD = 1 : 2, HP-β-CD enabled the reduction of 60% of Aβ fibrils and increased the cell viability to 92%. Such concentration-dependent inhibitor capacity of HP-β-CD was likely attributed to several combined effects, including the enhancement of Aβ-HP-β-CD interactions, prevention of structural transition of Aβ peptides towards β-sheet structures, and reduction of self-aggregation of HP-β-CD. In parallel, molecular simulations further revealed the atomic details of HP-β-CD interacting with the Aβ oligomer, showing that HP-β-CD had a high tendency to interact with hydrophobic residues of Aβ in two β-strands and the N-terminal tail. More importantly, we identified that the inner hydrophobic cavity of HP-β-CD was a key active site for Aβ inhibition. Once the inner cavity of HP-β-CD was blocked by a small hydrophobic molecule of ferulic acid, HP-β-CD completely lost its inhibition capacity against Aβ. Given the already established pharmaceutical functions of HP-β-CD in drug delivery, our findings

  11. Morphology-Specific Inhibition of β-Amyloid Aggregates by 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Laura; Quinn, Steven D; Perez-Gonzalez, Cibran; Samuel, Ifor D W; Penedo, J Carlos; Gunn-Moore, Frank J

    2016-06-01

    A major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the formation of toxic aggregates of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Given that Aβ peptides are known to localise within mitochondria and interact with 17β-HSD10, a mitochondrial protein expressed at high levels in AD brains, we investigated the inhibitory potential of 17β-HSD10 against Aβ aggregation under a range of physiological conditions. Fluorescence self-quenching (FSQ) of Aβ(1-42) labelled with HiLyte Fluor 555 was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect under conditions established to grow distinct Aβ morphologies. 17β-HSD10 preferentially inhibits the formation of globular and fibrillar-like structures but has no effect on the growth of amorphous plaque-like aggregates at endosomal pH 6. This work provides insights into the dependence of the Aβ-17β-HSD10 interaction with the morphology of Aβ aggregates and how this impacts enzymatic function. PMID:26991863

  12. New insights into side effect of solvents on the aggregation of human islet amyloid polypeptide 11-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yexuan; Yu, Lanlan; Yang, Ran; Ma, Chuanguo; Qu, Ling-bo; Harrington, Peter de B

    2016-02-01

    The formation of highly ordered fibrils for the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is considered as one of the precipitating factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, an emerging new approach microscale thermophoresis and conventional ThT fluorescence assay were utilized to investigate the aggregation behavior of hIAPP(11-20), giving a new insight of the solvent effect on the aggregation of hIAPP(11-20). hIAPP(11-20) displayed different aggregation behaviors in various buffers, revealing that hIAPP(11-20) not only self-aggregates but also binds to solvent components. hIAPP(11-20) had a higher binding affinity for Tris than other selected buffers because multiple hydrogen bonds form, resulting in weaker self-aggregation of hIAPP(11-20) at the early stage of aggregation and prolonging the fibril formation process. hIAPP(11-20) displayed similar self-aggregation in both HEPES and pure water. Negatively charged phosphate ions in the PBS solution 'neutralize' the charges carried by hIAPP(11-20) itself to some extent, causing rapid aggregation of hIAPP(11-20), and leading to a shorter fibrillation process of hIAPP(11-20). These results revealed that solvents contribute to the aggregation of hIAPP(11-20) and demonstrated the affect of solvents on the activity of biomolecules. Additionally, as a new technique, microscale thermophoresis offers a powerful and promising approach to study the early stages of aggregation of peptides or proteins. PMID:26653463

  13. A look into amyloid formation by transthyretin: aggregation pathway and a novel kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Tiago Q; Almeida, Zaida L; Cruz, Pedro F; Jesus, Catarina S H; Castanheira, Pedro; Brito, Rui M M

    2015-03-21

    The aggregation of proteins into insoluble amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of many, highly debilitating, human pathologies such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. Transthyretin (TTR) is a homotetrameric protein implicated in several amyloidoses like Senile Systemic Amyloidosis (SSA), Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathy (FAP), Familial Amyloid Cardiomyopathy (FAC), and the rare Central Nervous System selective Amyloidosis (CNSA). In this work, we have investigated the kinetics of TTR aggregation into amyloid fibrils produced by the addition of NaCl to acid-unfolded TTR monomers and we propose a mathematically simple kinetic mechanism to analyse the aggregation kinetics of TTR. We have conducted circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and thioflavin-T emission experiments to follow the conformational changes accompanying amyloid formation at different TTR concentrations. Kinetic traces were adjusted to a two-step model with the first step being second-order and the second being unimolecular. The molecular species present in the pathway of TTR oligomerization were characterized by size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering and by transmission electron microscopy. The results show the transient accumulation of oligomers composed of 6 to 10 monomers in agreement with reports suggesting that these oligomers may be the causative agent of cell toxicity. The results obtained may prove to be useful in understanding the mode of action of different compounds in preventing fibril formation and, therefore, in designing new drugs against TTR amyloidosis. PMID:25694367

  14. Stability of Iowa mutant and wild type Aβ-peptide aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alred, Erik J.; Scheele, Emily G.; Berhanu, Workalemahu M.; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E., E-mail: uhansmann@ou.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Recent experiments indicate a connection between the structure of amyloid aggregates and their cytotoxicity as related to neurodegenerative diseases. Of particular interest is the Iowa Mutant, which causes early-onset of Alzheimer's disease. While wild-type Amyloid β-peptides form only parallel beta-sheet aggregates, the mutant also forms meta-stable antiparallel beta sheets. Since these structural variations may cause the difference in the pathological effects of the two Aβ-peptides, we have studied in silico the relative stability of the wild type and Iowa mutant in both parallel and antiparallel forms. We compare regular molecular dynamics simulations with such where the viscosity of the samples is reduced, which, we show, leads to higher sampling efficiency. By analyzing and comparing these four sets of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we probe the role of the various factors that could lead to the structural differences. Our analysis indicates that the parallel forms of both wild type and Iowa mutant aggregates are stable, while the antiparallel aggregates are meta-stable for the Iowa mutant and not stable for the wild type. The differences result from the direct alignment of hydrophobic interactions in the in-register parallel oligomers, making them more stable than the antiparallel aggregates. The slightly higher thermodynamic stability of the Iowa mutant fibril-like oligomers in its parallel organization over that in antiparallel form is supported by previous experimental measurements showing slow inter-conversion of antiparallel aggregates into parallel ones. Knowledge of the mechanism that selects between parallel and antiparallel conformations and determines their relative stability may open new avenues for the development of therapies targeting familial forms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

  15. Stability of Iowa mutant and wild type Aβ-peptide aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments indicate a connection between the structure of amyloid aggregates and their cytotoxicity as related to neurodegenerative diseases. Of particular interest is the Iowa Mutant, which causes early-onset of Alzheimer's disease. While wild-type Amyloid β-peptides form only parallel beta-sheet aggregates, the mutant also forms meta-stable antiparallel beta sheets. Since these structural variations may cause the difference in the pathological effects of the two Aβ-peptides, we have studied in silico the relative stability of the wild type and Iowa mutant in both parallel and antiparallel forms. We compare regular molecular dynamics simulations with such where the viscosity of the samples is reduced, which, we show, leads to higher sampling efficiency. By analyzing and comparing these four sets of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we probe the role of the various factors that could lead to the structural differences. Our analysis indicates that the parallel forms of both wild type and Iowa mutant aggregates are stable, while the antiparallel aggregates are meta-stable for the Iowa mutant and not stable for the wild type. The differences result from the direct alignment of hydrophobic interactions in the in-register parallel oligomers, making them more stable than the antiparallel aggregates. The slightly higher thermodynamic stability of the Iowa mutant fibril-like oligomers in its parallel organization over that in antiparallel form is supported by previous experimental measurements showing slow inter-conversion of antiparallel aggregates into parallel ones. Knowledge of the mechanism that selects between parallel and antiparallel conformations and determines their relative stability may open new avenues for the development of therapies targeting familial forms of early-onset Alzheimer's disease

  16. An efficient kinetic model for assemblies of amyloid fibrils and its application to polyglutamine aggregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Prigent

    Full Text Available Protein polymerization consists in the aggregation of single monomers into polymers that may fragment. Fibrils assembly is a key process in amyloid diseases. Up to now, protein aggregation was commonly mathematically simulated by a polymer size-structured ordinary differential equations (ODE system, which is infinite by definition and therefore leads to high computational costs. Moreover, this Ordinary Differential Equation-based modeling approach implies biological assumptions that may be difficult to justify in the general case. For example, whereas several ordinary differential equation models use the assumption that polymerization would occur at a constant rate independently of polymer size, it cannot be applied to certain protein aggregation mechanisms. Here, we propose a novel and efficient analytical method, capable of modelling and simulating amyloid aggregation processes. This alternative approach consists of an integro-Partial Differential Equation (PDE model of coalescence-fragmentation type that was mathematically derived from the infinite differential system by asymptotic analysis. To illustrate the efficiency of our approach, we applied it to aggregation experiments on polyglutamine polymers that are involved in Huntington's disease. Our model demonstrates the existence of a monomeric structural intermediate [Formula: see text] acting as a nucleus and deriving from a non polymerizing monomer ([Formula: see text]. Furthermore, we compared our model to previously published works carried out in different contexts and proved its accuracy to describe other amyloid aggregation processes.

  17. Specific interactions between amyloidpeptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  18. The architecture of amyloid-like peptide fibrils revealed by X-ray scattering, diffraction and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkilde, Annette E., E-mail: annette.langkilde@sund.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Morris, Kyle L.; Serpell, Louise C. [University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton (United Kingdom); Svergun, Dmitri I. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hamburg Outstation, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Vestergaard, Bente [University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-04-01

    The aggregation process and the fibril state of an amyloidogenic peptide suggest monomer addition to be the prevailing mechanism of elongation and a model of the peptide packing in the fibrils has been obtained. Structural analysis of protein fibrillation is inherently challenging. Given the crucial role of fibrils in amyloid diseases, method advancement is urgently needed. A hybrid modelling approach is presented enabling detailed analysis of a highly ordered and hierarchically organized fibril of the GNNQQNY peptide fragment of a yeast prion protein. Data from small-angle X-ray solution scattering, fibre diffraction and electron microscopy are combined with existing high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures to investigate the fibrillation process and the hierarchical fibril structure of the peptide fragment. The elongation of these fibrils proceeds without the accumulation of any detectable amount of intermediate oligomeric species, as is otherwise reported for, for example, glucagon, insulin and α-synuclein. Ribbons constituted of linearly arranged protofilaments are formed. An additional hierarchical layer is generated via the pairing of ribbons during fibril maturation. Based on the complementary data, a quasi-atomic resolution model of the protofilament peptide arrangement is suggested. The peptide structure appears in a β-sheet arrangement reminiscent of the β-zipper structures evident from high-resolution crystal structures, with specific differences in the relative peptide orientation. The complexity of protein fibrillation and structure emphasizes the need to use multiple complementary methods.

  19. Distinguishing crystal-like amyloid fibrils and glass-like amorphous aggregates from their kinetics of formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimura, Yuichi; Lin, Yuxi; Yagi, Hisashi; Lee, Young-Ho; Kitayama, Hiroki; Sakurai, Kazumasa; So, Masatomo; OGI, Hirotsugu; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils and amorphous aggregates are two types of aberrant aggregates associated with protein misfolding diseases. Although they differ in morphology, the two forms are often treated indiscriminately. β2-microglobulin (β2m), a protein responsible for dialysis-related amyloidosis, forms amyloid fibrils or amorphous aggregates depending on the NaCl concentration at pH 2.5. We compared the kinetics of their formation, which was monitored by measuring thioflavin T fluorescence, light scat...

  20. Incorporation of peptides in phospholipid aggregates using ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Raquel; Little, Collin; Ferreira, Helena; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the highlights of ultrasonic effects on peptides incorporated on phospholipid aggregates (liposomes). These liposomes or vesicles are known as transport agents in skin drug delivery and for hair treatment. They might be a good model to deliver larger peptides into hair to restore fibre strength after hair coloration, modelling, permanent wave and/or straightening. The preparation of liposomes 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) with peptides (LLLLK LLLLK LL...

  1. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer's peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ16-22 and Aβ37-42 of the full length Aβ1-42 Alzheimer's peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ16-22 dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ16-22 and the dimer and trimer of Aβ37-42. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ16-22 decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ37-42 decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Polybasic peptide p5 binds human light chain amyloid extracts. •The binding of p5 with amyloid involves both glycosaminoglycans and fibrils. •Heparinase treatment led to a correlation between p5 binding and fibril content. •p5 binding to AL amyloid requires electrostatic interactions. -- Abstract: In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as

  3. Small stress molecules inhibit aggregation and neurotoxicity of prion peptide 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In prion diseases, the posttranslational modification of host-encoded prion protein PrPc yields a high β-sheet content modified protein PrPsc, which further polymerizes into amyloid fibrils. PrP106-126 initiates the conformational changes leading to the conversion of PrPc to PrPsc. Molecules that can defunctionalize such peptides can serve as a potential tool in combating prion diseases. In microorganisms during stressed conditions, small stress molecules (SSMs) are formed to prevent protein denaturation and maintain protein stability and function. The effect of such SSMs on PrP106-126 amyloid formation is explored in the present study using turbidity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cellular toxicity assay. Turbidity and AFM studies clearly depict that the SSMs-ectoine and mannosylglyceramide (MGA) inhibit the PrP106-126 aggregation. Our study also connotes that ectoine and MGA offer strong resistance to prion peptide-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells, concluding that such molecules can be potential inhibitors of prion aggregation and toxicity

  4. Surface-bound basement membrane components accelerate amyloidpeptide nucleation in air-free wells: an in vitro model of cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Ozawa, Daisaku; Ookoshi, Tadakazu; Naiki, Hironobu

    2013-08-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is caused by deposition of the amyloid β-peptide which consists of mainly 39-40 residues to the cortical and leptomeningeal vessel walls. There are no definite in vitro systems to support the hypothesis that the vascular basement membrane may act as a scaffold of amyloid β-peptide carried by perivascular drainage flow and accelerate its amyloid fibril formation in vivo. We previously reported the critical roles of interfaces and agitation on the nucleation of amyloid fibrils at low concentrations of amyloid β-peptide monomers. Here, we reproduced the perivascular drainage flow in vitro by using N-hydroxysuccinimide-Sepharose 4 Fast flow beads as an inert stirrer in air-free wells rotated at 1rpm. We then reproduced the basement membranes in the media of cerebral arteries in vitro by conjugating Matrigel and other proteins on the surface of Sepharose beads. These beads were incubated with 5μM amyloid β(1-40) at 37°C without air, where amyloid β(1-40) alone does not form amyloid fibrils. Using the initiation time of fibril growth kinetics (i.e., the lag time of fibril growth during which nuclei, on-pathway oligomers and protofibrils are successively formed) as a parameter of the efficiency of biological molecules to induce amyloid fibril formation, we found that basement membrane components including Matrigel, laminin, fibronectin, collagen type IV and fibrinogen accelerate the initiation of amyloid β-peptide fibril growth in vitro. These data support the essential role of vascular basement membranes in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:23608949

  5. Active protein aggregates induced by terminally attached self-assembling peptide ELK16 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Bihong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, it has been gradually realized that bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs could be biologically active. In particular, several proteins including green fluorescent protein, β-galactosidase, β-lactamase, alkaline phosphatase, D-amino acid oxidase, polyphosphate kinase 3, maltodextrin phosphorylase, and sialic acid aldolase have been successfully produced as active IBs when fused to an appropriate partner such as the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid protein VP1, or the human β-amyloid peptide Aβ42(F19D. As active IBs may have many attractive advantages in enzyme production and industrial applications, it is of considerable interest to explore them further. Results In this paper, we report that an ionic self-assembling peptide ELK16 (LELELKLK2 was able to effectively induce the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli (E. coli when attached to the carboxyl termini of four model proteins including lipase A, amadoriase II, β-xylosidase, and green fluorescent protein. These aggregates had a general appearance similar to the usually reported cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IBs under transmission electron microscopy or fluorescence confocal microscopy. Except for lipase A-ELK16 fusion, the three other fusion protein aggregates retained comparable specific activities with the native counterparts. Conformational analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of newly formed antiparallel beta-sheet structures in these ELK16 peptide-induced inclusion bodies, which is consistent with the reported assembly of the ELK16 peptide. Conclusions This has been the first report where a terminally attached self-assembling β peptide ELK16 can promote the formation of active inclusion bodies or active protein aggregates in E. coli. It has the potential to render E. coli and other recombinant hosts more efficient as microbial cell factories for protein production. Our observation might

  6. AFM-based force spectroscopy measurements of mature amyloid fibrils of the peptide glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, M. D.; Hovgaard, M. B.; Mamdouh, W.;

    2008-01-01

    We report on the mechanical characterization of individual mature amyloid fibrils by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). These self-assembling materials, formed from the 29-residue amphiphatic peptide hormone glucagon, were found to display a...... addition, such biological amyloid fibril structures with highly stable mechanical properties can potentially be used to produce nanofibres (nanowires) that may be suitable for nanotechnological applications....

  7. Uncovering the Mechanism of Aggregation of Human Transthyretin*

    OpenAIRE

    Saelices, Lorena; Johnson, Lisa M.; Liang, Wilson Y.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cascio, Duilio; Ruchala, Piotr; Whitelegge, Julian; Jiang, Lin; Riek, Roland; Eisenberg, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transthyretin (TTR) aggregation is associated with systemic amyloidosis. Results: Residue replacements on the F and H strands hinder TTR aggregation. Conclusion: The F and H strands are aggregation-driving segments of TTR. The binding of designed peptides inhibits protein aggregation. Significance: We point the way to new therapeutic approaches against TTR aggregation by using peptides to block amyloid segments.

  8. Comparison of the aggregation of homologous β2-microglobulin variants reveals protein solubility as a key determinant of amyloid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, Clare L; Hewitt, Eric W; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-13

    The mouse and human β2-microglobulin protein orthologs are 70 % identical in sequence and share 88 % sequence similarity. These proteins are predicted by various algorithms to have similar aggregation and amyloid propensities. However, whilst human β2m (hβ2m) forms amyloid-like fibrils in denaturing conditions (e.g. pH2.5) in the absence of NaCl, mouse β2m (mβ2m) requires the addition of 0.3M NaCl to cause fibrillation. Here, the factors which give rise to this difference in amyloid propensity are investigated. We utilise structural and mutational analyses, fibril growth kinetics and solubility measurements under a range of pH and salt conditions, to determine why these two proteins have different amyloid propensities. The results show that, although other factors influence the fibril growth kinetics, a striking difference in the solubility of the proteins is a key determinant of the different amyloidogenicity of hβ2m and mβ2m. The relationship between protein solubility and lag time of amyloid formation is not captured by current aggregation or amyloid prediction algorithms, indicating a need to better understand the role of solubility on the lag time of amyloid formation. The results demonstrate the key contribution of protein solubility in determining amyloid propensity and lag time of amyloid formation, highlighting how small differences in protein sequence can have dramatic effects on amyloid formation. PMID:26780548

  9. Metal-amyloidpeptide interactions: a preliminary investigation of molecular mechanisms for Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yong; YANG Pin

    2007-01-01

    Although humans have spent exactly 100 years combating Alzheimer's disease (AD), the molecular mechanisms of AD remain unclear. Owing to the rapid growth of the oldest age groups of the population and the continuous increase of the incidence of AD, it has become one of the crucial problems to modern sciences. It would be impossible to prevent or reverse AD at the root without elucidating its molecular mechanisms. From the point of view of metal-amyloidpeptide (Aβ) interactions, we review the molecular mechanisms of AD, mainly including Cu2+ and Zn2+ inducing the aggregation of Aβ, catalysing the production of active oxygen species from Aβ, as well as interacting with the ion-channel-like structures of Aβ. Moreover, the development of therapeutic drugs on the basis of metal-Aβ interactions is also briefly introduced. With the increasingly rapid progress of the molecular mechanisms of AD, we are now entering a new dawn that promises the delivery of revolutionary developments for the control of dementias.

  10. Exploring the role of hydration and confinement in the aggregation of amyloidogenic peptides Aβ(16-22) and Sup35(7-13) in AOT reverse micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Anna Victoria; Małolepsza, Edyta; Rivera, Eva; Lu, Qing; Straub, John E

    2014-12-14

    Knowledge of how intermolecular interactions of amyloid-forming proteins cause protein aggregation and how those interactions are affected by sequence and solution conditions is essential to our understanding of the onset of many degenerative diseases. Of particular interest is the aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, linked to Alzheimer's disease, and the aggregation of the Sup35 yeast prion peptide, which resembles the mammalian prion protein linked to spongiform encephalopathies. To facilitate the study of these important peptides, experimentalists have identified small peptide congeners of the full-length proteins that exhibit amyloidogenic behavior, including the KLVFFAE sub-sequence, Aβ16-22, and the GNNQQNY subsequence, Sup357-13. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were used to examine these peptide fragments encapsulated in reverse micelles (RMs) in order to identify the fundamental principles that govern how sequence and solution environment influence peptide aggregation. Aβ16-22 and Sup357-13 are observed to organize into anti-parallel and parallel β-sheet arrangements. Confinement in the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) reverse micelles is shown to stabilize extended peptide conformations and enhance peptide aggregation. Substantial fluctuations in the reverse micelle shape are observed, in agreement with earlier studies. Shape fluctuations are found to facilitate peptide solvation through interactions between the peptide and AOT surfactant, including direct interaction between non-polar peptide residues and the aliphatic surfactant tails. Computed amide I IR spectra are compared with experimental spectra and found to reflect changes in the peptide structures induced by confinement in the RM environment. Furthermore, examination of the rotational anisotropy decay of water in the RM demonstrates that the water dynamics are sensitive to the presence of peptide as well as the peptide sequence. Overall, our results

  11. Reverse engineering an amyloid aggregation pathway with dimensional analysis and scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) is a cytotoxic protein that aggregates into oligomers and fibrils that kill pancreatic β-cells. Here we analyze hIAPP aggregation in vitro, measured via thioflavin-T fluorescence. We use mass-action kinetics and scaling analysis to reconstruct the aggregation pathway, and find that the initiation step requires four hIAPP monomers. After this step, monomers join the nucleus in pairs, until the first stable nucleus (of size approximately 20 monomers) is formed. This nucleus then elongates by successive addition of single monomers. We find that the best-fit of our data is achieved when we include a secondary fibril-dependent nucleation pathway in the reaction scheme. We predict how interventions that change rates of fibril elongation or nucleation rates affect the accumulation of potentially cytotoxic oligomer species. Our results demonstrate the power of scaling analysis in reverse engineering biochemical aggregation pathways

  12. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters

    OpenAIRE

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1–40) and Aβ(1–42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, an...

  13. Manipulation of self-assembly amyloid peptide nanotubes by dielectrophoresis (DEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Jaime; Tanzi, Simone; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2008-01-01

    Self-assembled amyloid peptide nanotubes (SAPNT) were manipulated and immobilized using dielectrophoresis. Micro-patterned electrodes of Au were fabricated by photolithography and lifted off on a silicon dioxide layer. SAPNT were manipulated by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the applied...

  14. PEGylated nanoparticles bind to and alter amyloid-beta peptide conformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brambilla, Davide; Verpillot, Romain; Le Droumaguet, Benjamin;

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the polyethylene glycol (PEG) corona of long-circulating polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) favors interaction with the amyloid-beta (Aß(1-42)) peptide both in solution and in serum. The influence of PEGylation of poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate) and poly(lactic acid) NPs on the...

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoid Glycosides and Terpene Trilactones in the Extract of Ginkgo biloba and Evaluation of Their Inhibitory Activity towards Fibril Formation of β-Amyloid Peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Xie; Jing-Rong Wang; Lee-Fong Yau; Yong Liu; Liang Liu; Quan-Bin Han; Zhongzhen Zhao; Zhi-Hong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    The standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761) is used clinically in Europe for the symptomatic treatment of impaired cerebral function in primary degenerative dementia syndromes, and the results of numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have supported such clinical use. The abnormal production and aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) and the deposition of fibrils in the brain are regarded as key steps in the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), and the inhibition of Aβ aggregation and d...

  16. Copper in Alzheimer's disease: Implications in amyloid aggregation and neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Patrick; Caballero, Ana B.

    2015-09-01

    The relationship of copper dyshomeostasis with neurodegenerative diseases has become evident in the last years. Because of the major role that this metal ion plays in biological processes, most of which being located in the brain, it is not surprising that changes in its distribution are closely related with the advent of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). An increasing number of works have dealt with this subject in the last years, and opened an intense debate in some points while raising new questions that still remain unanswered. This revision work puts together and discusses the latest findings and insights on how copper ions are involved in AD progression, including its interaction with Aβ and its consequently induced aggregation.

  17. Assembly of naphthalenediimide conjugated peptides: aggregation induced changes in fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Shibaji; Nanda, Jayanta; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-08-01

    Naphthalenediimide appended peptide based self-assembly was studied. Interestingly, an aggregation induced drastic change in the fluorescence property and gel formation were observed depending on the solvent composition (chloroform : methylcyclohexane) at a fixed concentration of 1.6 mM at room temperature. PMID:23799544

  18. A binding-site barrier affects imaging efficiency of high affinity amyloid-reactive peptide radiotracers in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Wall

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a complex pathology associated with a growing number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and myeloma. The distribution and extent of amyloid deposition in body organs establishes the prognosis and can define treatment options; therefore, determining the amyloid load by using non-invasive molecular imaging is clinically important. We have identified a heparin-binding peptide designated p5 that, when radioiodinated, was capable of selectively imaging systemic visceral AA amyloidosis in a murine model of the disease. The p5 peptide was posited to bind effectively to amyloid deposits, relative to similarly charged polybasic heparin-reactive peptides, because it adopted a polar α helix secondary structure. We have now synthesized a variant, p5R, in which the 8 lysine amino acids of p5 have been replaced with arginine residues predisposing the peptide toward the α helical conformation in an effort to enhance the reactivity of the peptide with the amyloid substrate. The p5R peptide had higher affinity for amyloid and visualized AA amyloid in mice by using SPECT/CT imaging; however, the microdistribution, as evidenced in micro-autoradiographs, was dramatically altered relative to the p5 peptide due to its increased affinity and a resultant "binding site barrier" effect. These data suggest that radioiodinated peptide p5R may be optimal for the in vivo detection of discreet, perivascular amyloid, as found in the brain and pancreatic vasculature, by using molecular imaging techniques; however, peptide p5, due to its increased penetration, may yield more quantitative imaging of expansive tissue amyloid deposits.

  19. Interactions of laminin with the amyloid ß peptide: Implications for Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive neuronal cell loss is observed in Alzheimer's disease. Laminin immunoreactivity colocalizes with senile plaques, the characteristic extracellular histopathological lesions of Alzheimer brain, which consist of the amyloid ß (Aß peptide polymerized into amyloid fibrils. These lesions have neurotoxic effects and have been proposed to be a main cause of neurodegeneration. In order to understand the pathological significance of the interaction between laminin and amyloid, we investigated the effect of laminin on amyloid structure and toxicity. We found that laminin interacts with the Aß1-40 peptide, blocking fibril formation and even inducing depolymerization of preformed fibrils. Protofilaments known to be intermediate species of Aß fibril formation were also detected as intermediate species of laminin-induced Aß fibril depolymerization. Moreover, laminin-amyloid interactions inhibited the toxic effects on rat primary hippocampal neurons. As a whole, our results indicate a putative anti-amyloidogenic role of laminin which may be of biological and therapeutic interest for controlling amyloidosis, such as those observed in cerebral angiopathy and Alzheimer's disease.

  20. pH-controlled aggregation polymorphism of amyloidogenic Aβ(16-22): insights for obtaining peptide tapes and peptide nanotubes, as function of the N-terminal capping moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Ronald C; Kroon-Batenburg, Loes M J; Posthuma, George; Meeldijk, Johannes D; Rijkers, Dirk T S; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2014-12-17

    Peptide and protein self-assembly resulting in the formation of amyloidogenic aggregates is generally thought of as a pathological event associated with severe diseases. However, amyloid formation may also provide a basis for advanced bionanomaterials, since amyloid fibrils combine unique material-like properties that make them very useful for design of new types of conducting nanowires, bioactive ligands, and biodegradable coatings as drug-encapsulating materials. The morphology of the supramolecular aggregates determines the properties and application range of these bionanomaterials. An important parameter to control the supramolecular morphology, is the overall charge of the peptide, which is related to the pH of the environment. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis and morphological analysis of a series of N-terminally functionalized Aβ(16-22) peptides (∼Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-Ala-Glu-OH), that underwent a pH-induced polymorphism, ranging from lamellar sheets, helical tapes, peptide nanotubes, and amyloid fibrils as was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Infrared spectroscopy and wide angle X-ray scattering studies showed that peptide self-assembly was driven by β-sheet formation, and that the supramolecular morphology was directed by subtle variations in electrostatic interactions. Finally, a structural model and hierarchy of self-assembly of a peptide nanotube, assembled at pH 1, is proposed. PMID:25087966

  1. Associating a negatively charged GdDOTA-derivative to the Pittsburgh compound B for targeting Aβ amyloid aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, André F; Oliveira, Alexandre C; Morfin, Jean-François; Laurents, Douglas V; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2016-03-01

    We have conjugated the tetraazacyclododecane-tetraacetate (DOTA) chelator to Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) forming negatively charged lanthanide complexes, Ln(L4), with targeting capabilities towards aggregated amyloid peptides. The amphiphilic Gd(L4) chelate undergoes micellar aggregation in aqueous solution, with a critical micellar concentration of 0.68 mM, lower than those for the neutral complexes of similar structure. A variable temperature (17)O NMR and NMRD study allowed the assessment of the water exchange rate, k ex (298) = 9.7 × 10(6) s(-1), about the double of GdDOTA, and for the description of the rotational dynamics for both the monomeric and the micellar forms of Gd(L4). With respect to the analogous neutral complexes, the negative charge induces a significant rigidity of the micelles formed, which is reflected by slower and more restricted local motion of the Gd(3+) centers as evidenced by higher relaxivities at 20-60 MHz. Surface Plasmon Resonance results indicate that the charge does not affect significantly the binding strength to Aβ1-40 [K d = 194 ± 11 μM for La(L4)], but it does enhance the affinity constant to human serum albumin [K a = 6530 ± 68 M(-1) for Gd(L4)], as compared to neutral counterparts. Protein-based NMR points to interaction of Gd(L4) with Aβ1-40 in the monomer state as well, in contrast to neutral complexes interacting only with the aggregated form. Circular dichroism spectroscopy monitored time- and temperature-dependent changes of the Aβ1-40 secondary structure, indicating that Gd(L4) stabilizes the random coil relative to the α-helix and β-sheet. TEM images confirm that the Gd(L4) complex reduces the formation of aggregated fibrils. PMID:26613605

  2. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W.; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall p...

  3. Mo polyoxometalate nanoclusters capable of inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ-peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingchang; Yang, Licong; Zheng, Chuping; Zheng, Wenjing; Zhang, Jingnan; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is aggregation of a forty-residue peptide known as amyloid beta forty (Aβ40). While past work has indicated that blocking Aβ40 aggregation could be an effective strategy for the treatment of AD, developing therapies with this goal has been met with limited success. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been previously investigated for their anti-viral and anti-tumoral properties and we report here that three representative POM nanoclusters have been synthesized for use against Aβ40 aggregation. Through the use of thioflavin T fluorescence, turbidity, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found that all three POM complexes can significantly inhibit both natural Aβ40 self-aggregation and metal-ion induced Aβ40 aggregation. We also evaluated the protective effect of POM complexes on Aβ40-induced neurotoxicity in cultured PC12 cells and found that treatment with POM complexes can elevate cell viability, decrease levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings indicate that all three representative POM complexes are capable of inhibiting Aβ40 aggregation and subsequent neurotoxicity. While a complete mechanistic understanding remains to be elucidated, the synthesized POM complexes may work through a synergistic interaction with metal ions and Aβ40. These data indicate that POM complexes have high therapeutic potential for use against one of the primary neuropathological features of AD.A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is aggregation of a forty-residue peptide known as amyloid beta forty (Aβ40). While past work has indicated that blocking Aβ40 aggregation could be an effective strategy for the treatment of AD, developing therapies with this goal has been met with limited success. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been previously investigated for their anti-viral and anti-tumoral properties

  4. Comparison of the amyloid pore forming properties of rat and human Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid peptide 1-42: Calcium imaging data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Di Scala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The data here consists of calcium imaging of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4AM and then incubated with nanomolar concentrations of either human or rat Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. These data are both of a qualitative (fluorescence micrographs and semi-quantitative nature (estimation of intracellular calcium concentrations of cells probed by Aβ1-42 peptides vs. control untreated cells. Since rat Aβ1-42 differs from its human counterpart at only three amino acid positions, this comparative study is a good assessment of the specificity of the amyloid pore forming assay. The interpretation of this dataset is presented in the accompanying study “Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides” [1].

  5. Comparison of the amyloid pore forming properties of rat and human Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid peptide 1-42: Calcium imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The data here consists of calcium imaging of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4AM and then incubated with nanomolar concentrations of either human or rat Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. These data are both of a qualitative (fluorescence micrographs) and semi-quantitative nature (estimation of intracellular calcium concentrations of cells probed by Aβ1-42 peptides vs. control untreated cells). Since rat Aβ1-42 differs from its human counterpart at only three amino acid positions, this comparative study is a good assessment of the specificity of the amyloid pore forming assay. The interpretation of this dataset is presented in the accompanying study “Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides” [1]. PMID:26909380

  6. Comparison of the amyloid pore forming properties of rat and human Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide 1-42: Calcium imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    The data here consists of calcium imaging of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4AM and then incubated with nanomolar concentrations of either human or rat Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. These data are both of a qualitative (fluorescence micrographs) and semi-quantitative nature (estimation of intracellular calcium concentrations of cells probed by Aβ1-42 peptides vs. control untreated cells). Since rat Aβ1-42 differs from its human counterpart at only three amino acid positions, this comparative study is a good assessment of the specificity of the amyloid pore forming assay. The interpretation of this dataset is presented in the accompanying study "Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides" [1]. PMID:26909380

  7. Comparison of the aggregation of homologous β2-microglobulin variants reveals protein solubility as a key determinant of amyloid formation

    OpenAIRE

    Pashley, Clare L.; Hewitt, Eric W.; Sheena E. Radford

    2016-01-01

    The mouse and human β2-microglobulin protein orthologs are 70 % identical in sequence and share 88 % sequence similarity. These proteins are predicted by various algorithms to have similar aggregation and amyloid propensities. However, whilst human β2m (hβ2m) forms amyloid-like fibrils in denaturing conditions (e.g. pH 2.5) in the absence of NaCl, mouse β2m (mβ2m) requires the addition of 0.3 M NaCl to cause fibrillation. Here, the factors which give rise to this difference in amyloid propens...

  8. Incorporation of peptides in phospholipid aggregates using ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel; Little, Collin; Ferreira, Helena; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2008-09-01

    This study presents the highlights of ultrasonic effects on peptides incorporated on phospholipid aggregates (liposomes). These liposomes or vesicles are known as transport agents in skin drug delivery and for hair treatment. They might be a good model to deliver larger peptides into hair to restore fibre strength after hair coloration, modelling, permanent wave and/or straightening. The preparation of liposomes 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) with peptides (LLLLK LLLLK LLLLK LLLLK; LLLLL LCLCL LLKAK AK) was made by the thin film hydration method. The LUVs (uni-lamellar vesicles) were obtained by sonication, applying different experimental conditions, such as depth (mm) and power intensity (%). Photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and electronic microscopy (EM) results confirmed that the incorporation of these peptides, with different sequence of amino acids, presented differences on the diameter, zeta-potential of membrane surface and shape of liposomes. The liposomes that included peptide LLLLK LLLLK LLLLK LLLLK present an increased in zeta-potential values after using ultrasound and an "amorphous" aspect. Conversely, the liposomes that incorporated the peptide LLLLL LCLCL LLKAK AK presented a define shape (rod shape) and the potential surface of liposome did not change significantly by the use of ultrasound. PMID:18467154

  9. Sex-dependent actions of amyloid beta peptides on hippocampal choline carriers of postnatal rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištofíková, Z.; Říčný, Jan; Kozmiková, I.; Řípová, D.; Zach, P.; Klaschka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2006), s. 351-360. ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/03/1547 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : amyloid beta peptide * high affinity choline transport * rat hippocampus Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2006

  10. Beta-amyloid peptide blocks the fast-inactivating K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    OpenAIRE

    Good, T A; Smith, D. O.; Murphy, R M

    1996-01-01

    Deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) in senile plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Chronic exposure of neuronal cultures to synthetic A beta is directly toxic, or enhances neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxins. Exposure to A beta may cause a loss of cellular calcium homeostasis, but the mechanism by which this occurs is uncertain. In this work, the acute response of rat hippocampal neurons to applications of synthetic A beta was measured using whole-cell voltag...

  11. Fibrillation of β amyloid peptides in the presence of phospholipid bilayers and the consequent membrane disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Wei; Yau, Wai-Ming; Schulte, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillation of β amyloid (Aβ) peptides and the accumulation of amyloid plaques are considered as an important clinical hallmark to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD). The physiological connection between Aβ plaques and the disruption of neuronal cells has not been clearly understood. One hypothesis to explain the Aβ neurotoxicity is that the fibrillation process induces disruption to the cellular membrane. We studied the Aβ fibrillation process in two biologically relevant conditions with the peptide either pre-incorporated into or externally added to the synthetic phospholipid bilayers. These two sample preparation conditions mimic the physiological membrane proximities of Aβ peptides before and after the enzymatic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Using thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we were able to monitor the kinetics and morphological evolution of fibril formation, which was highly sensitive to the two sample preparation protocols. While the external addition protocol generates long and mature fibrils through normal fibrillation process, the pre-incubation protocol was found to stabilize the immature protofibrils. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies with doubly-labeled phospholipids indicated that there may be a lipid uptake process associated with the fibril formation. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provided evidence for high resolution structural variations in fibrils formed with different protocols, and in particular the stabilization of long-range contact between N- and C-terminal β strands. In addition, disruption of phospholipid bilayers was supported by measurements with ³¹P chemical shifts and relaxation time constants. PMID:24769158

  12. Role of amyloid peptides in vascular dysfunction and platelet dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Canobbio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is accompanied by the accumulation of amyloid peptides in the brain parenchyma and in the cerebral vessels. The sporadic form of the AD accounts for about 95% of all cases. It is characterized by a late onset, typically after the age of 65, with a complex and still poorly understood aetiology. Several observations point towards a central role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the onset of sporadic AD. According to the vascular hypothesis, AD may be initiated by vascular dysfunctions that precede and promote the neurodegenerative process. In accordance to this, AD patients show increased hemorragic or ischemic stroke risks. It is now clear that multiple bidirectional connections exist between AD and cerebrovascular disease, and in this new scenario, the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular cells and blood platelets appear to be central to AD. In this review we analyse the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular function and platelet activation and its contribution to the cerebrovascular pathology associated with AD and the progression of this disease.

  13. Local atomic structure and oxidation processes of Cu(I) binding site in amyloid beta peptide: XAS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremennaya, M. A.; Soldatov, M. A.; Stretsov, V. A.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    There are two different motifs of X-ray absorption spectra for Cu(I) K-edge in amyloidpeptide which could be due to two different configurations of local Cu(I) environment. Two or three histidine ligands can coordinate copper ion in varying conformations. On the other hand, oxidation of amyloidpeptide could play an additional role in local copper environment. In order to explore the peculiarities of local atomic and electronic structure of Cu(I) binding sites in amyloidpeptide the x-ray absorption spectra were simulated for various Cu(I) environments including oxidized amyloid-β and compared with experimental data.

  14. Binding, conformational transition and dimerization of amyloidpeptide on GM1-containing ternary membrane: insights from molecular dynamics simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutusi Manna

    Full Text Available Interactions of amyloid-β (Aβ with neuronal membrane are associated with the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Ganglioside GM1 has been shown to promote the structural conversion of Aβ and increase the rate of peptide aggregation; but the exact nature of interaction driving theses processes remains to be explored. In this work, we have carried out atomistic-scale computer simulations (totaling 2.65 µs to investigate the behavior of Aβ monomer and dimers in GM1-containing raft-like membrane. The oligosaccharide head-group of GM1 was observed to act as scaffold for Aβ-binding through sugar-specific interactions. Starting from the initial helical peptide conformation, a β-hairpin motif was formed at the C-terminus of the GM1-bound Aβ-monomer; that didn't appear in absence of GM1 (both in fluid POPC and liquid-ordered cholesterol/POPC bilayers and also in aqueous medium within the simulation time span. For Aβ-dimers, the β-structure was further enhanced by peptide-peptide interactions, which might influence the propensity of Aβ to aggregate into higher-ordered structures. The salt-bridges and inter-peptide hydrogen bonds were found to account for dimer stability. We observed spontaneous formation of intra-peptide D(23-K(28 salt-bridge and a turn at V(24GSN(27 region - long been accepted as characteristic structural-motifs for amyloid self-assembly. Altogether, our results provide atomistic details of Aβ-GM1 and Aβ-Aβ interactions and demonstrate their importance in the early-stages of GM1-mediated Aβ-oligomerisation on membrane surface.

  15. A High Affinity Red Fluorescence and Colorimetric Probe for Amyloid β Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekhar, K.; Narayanaswamy, Nagarjun; Murugan, N. Arul; Kuang, Guanglin; Ågren, Hans; Govindaraju, T.

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is its timely diagnosis. Amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates have been proposed as the most viable biomarker for the diagnosis of AD. Here, we demonstrate hemicyanine-based benzothiazole-coumarin (TC) as a potential probe for the detection of highly toxic Aβ42 aggregates through switch-on, enhanced (~30 fold) red fluorescence (Emax = 654 nm) and characteristic colorimetric (light red to purple) optical outputs. Interestingly, TC exhibits selectivity towards Aβ42 fibrils compared to other abnormal protein aggregates. TC probe show nanomolar binding affinity (Ka = 1.72 × 107 M‑1) towards Aβ42 aggregates and also displace ThT bound to Aβ42 fibrils due to its high binding affinity. The Aβ42 fibril-specific red-shift in the absorption spectra of TC responsible for the observed colorimetric optical output has been attributed to micro-environment change around the probe from hydrophilic-like to hydrophobic-like nature. The binding site, binding energy and changes in optical properties observed for TC upon interaction with Aβ42 fibrils have been further validated by molecular docking and time dependent density functional theory studies.

  16. Lysosomal dysfunction in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease leads to accumulation of ganglioside-bound amyloidpeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilani, Serene; Lun, Yi; Stevens, Anthony C; Williams, Hadis N; Sjoberg, Eric R; Khanna, Richie; Valenzano, Kenneth J; Checler, Frederic; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Yanagisawa, Katsuhiko; Lockhart, David J; Wustman, Brandon A; Gandy, Sam

    2012-04-11

    Alterations in the lipid composition of endosomal-lysosomal membranes may constitute an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the possibility that GM2 ganglioside accumulation in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease might be associated with the accumulation of intraneuronal and extracellular proteins commonly observed in AD. Our results show intraneuronal accumulation of amyloidpeptide (Aβ)-like, α-synuclein-like, and phospho-tau-like immunoreactivity in the brains of β-hexosaminidase knock-out (HEXB KO) mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that at least some of the intraneuronal Aβ-like immunoreactivity (iAβ-LIR) represents amyloid precursor protein C-terminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and/or Aβ. In addition, we observed increased levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides in the lipid-associated fraction of HEXB KO mouse brains, and intraneuronal accumulation of ganglioside-bound Aβ (GAβ) immunoreactivity in a brain region-specific manner. Furthermore, α-synuclein and APP-CTFs and/or Aβ were found to accumulate in different regions of the substantia nigra, indicating different mechanisms of accumulation or turnover pathways. Based on the localization of the accumulated iAβ-LIR to endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes, we conclude that a significant accumulation of iAβ-LIR may be associated with the lysosomal-autophagic turnover of Aβ and fragments of APP-containing Aβ epitopes. Importantly, intraneuronal GAβ immunoreactivity, a proposed prefibrillar aggregate found in AD, was found to accumulate throughout the frontal cortices of postmortem human GM1 gangliosidosis, Sandhoff disease, and Tay-Sachs disease brains. Together, these results establish an association between the accumulation of gangliosides, autophagic vacuoles, and the intraneuronal accumulation of proteins associated with AD. PMID:22496568

  17. Confocal fluorescence anisotropy and FRAP imaging of α-synuclein amyloid aggregates in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Julia Roberti

    Full Text Available We assessed the intracellular association states of the Parkinson's disease related protein α-synuclein (AS in living cells by transfection with a functional recombinant mutant protein (AS-C4 bearing a tetracysteine tag binding the fluorogenic biarsenical ligands FlAsH and ReAsH, The aggregation states of AS-C4 were assessed by in situ microscopy of molecular translational mobility with FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and of local molecular density with confocal fluorescence anisotropy (CFA. FRAP recovery was quantitative and rapid in regions of free protein, whereas AS in larger aggregates was>80% immobile. A small 16% recovery characterized by an apparent diffusion constant of 0.03-0.04 µm(2/s was attributed to the dynamics of smaller, associated forms of AS-C4 and the exchange of mobile species with the larger immobile aggregates. By CFA, the larger aggregates exhibited high brightness and very low anisotropy, consistent with homoFRET between closely packed AS, for which a Förster distance (R(o of 5.3 nm was calculated. Other bright regions had high anisotropy values, close to that of monomeric AS, and indicative of membrane-associated protein with both low mobility and low degree of association. The anisotropy-fluorescence intensity correlations also revealed regions of free protein or of small aggregates, undetectable by conventional fluorescence imaging alone. The combined strategy (FRAP+CFA provides a highly sensitive means for elucidating both the dynamics and structural features of protein aggregates and other intracellular complexes in living cells, and can be extended to other amyloid systems and to drug screening protocols.

  18. Interleukin-3 prevents neuronal death induced by amyloid peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otth Carola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-3 (IL-3 is an important glycoprotein involved in regulating biological responses such as cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Its effects are mediated via interaction with cell surface receptors. Several studies have demonstrated the expression of IL-3 in neurons and astrocytes of the hippocampus and cortices in normal mouse brain, suggesting a physiological role of IL-3 in the central nervous system. Although there is evidence indicating that IL-3 is expressed in some neuronal populations, its physiological role in these cells is poorly known. Results In this study, we demonstrated the expression of IL-3 receptor in cortical neurons, and analyzed its influence on amyloid β (Aβ-treated cells. In these cells, IL-3 can activate at least three classical signalling pathways, Jak/STAT, Ras/MAP kinase and the PI 3-kinase. Viability assays indicated that IL-3 might play a neuroprotective role in cells treated with Aβ fibrils. It is of interest to note that our results suggest that cell survival induced by IL-3 required PI 3-kinase and Jak/STAT pathway activation, but not MAP kinase. In addition, IL-3 induced an increase of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Conclusion Altogether these data strongly suggest that IL-3 neuroprotects neuronal cells against neurodegenerative agents like Aβ.

  19. Amyloid fibril formation of peptides derived from the C-terminus of CETP modulated by lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-González, Victor [Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Mas-Oliva, Jaime, E-mail: jmas@ifc.unam.mx [Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); División de Investigación, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 México, DF (Mexico)

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •The secondary structure of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP was studied. •Lipids modulate secondary structure changes of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP. •Lysophosphatidic acid maintains a functional α-helix and prevents fibril formation. •Transfer of lipids by CETP is related to the presence of an α-helix at its C-end. -- Abstract: Cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasmatic protein involved in neutral lipid transfer between lipoproteins. Focusing on the last 12 C-terminus residues we have previously shown that mutation D{sub 470}N promotes a conformational change towards a β-secondary structure. In turn, this modification leads to the formation of oligomers and fibrillar structures, which cause cytotoxic effects similar to the ones provoked by amyloid peptides. In this study, we evaluated the role of specific lipid arrangements on the structure of peptide helix-Z (D{sub 470}N) through the use of thioflavin T fluorescence, peptide bond absorbance, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The results indicate that the use of micelles formed with lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) under neutral pH induce a conformational transition of peptide helix-Z containing a β-sheet conformation to a native α-helix structure, therefore avoiding the formation of amyloid fibrils. In contrast, incubation with phosphatidic acid does not change the profile for the β-sheet conformation. When the electrostatic charge at the surface of micelles or vesicles is regulated through the use of lipids such as phospholipid and LPA, minimal changes and the presence of β-structures were recorded. Mixtures with a positive net charge diminished the percentage of β-structure and the amount of amyloid fibrils. Our results suggest that the degree of solvation determined by the presence of a free hydroxyl group on lipids such as LPA is a key condition that can modulate the secondary structure and the consequent formation of

  20. Bioactive polyphenol interactions with β amyloid: a comparison of binding modelling, effects on fibril and aggregate formation and neuroprotective capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sukanya; Stark, Lina; Musgrave, Ian F; Pukala, Tara; Smid, Scott D

    2016-02-01

    In this study we compared the effects of a diverse set of natural polyphenolics ligands on in silico interactive modelling, in vitro anti-aggregative properties and neuronal toxicity of β amyloid. The β amyloid-binding characteristics of optimised structural conformations of polyphenols with ascribed neuroprotective actions including punicalagin, myricetin, luteolin and honokiol were determined in silico. Thioflavin T and transmission electron microscopy were used to assess in vitro inhibitory effects of these polyphenols on Aβ1-42 fibril and aggregation formation. Phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells were exposed to Aβ1-42, alone and in combination with test concentrations of each polyphenol (100 μM) and viability measured using MTT assay. Aβ1-42 evoked a concentration-dependent loss of cell viability in PC12 cells, in which all four polyphenols demonstrated significant inhibition of neurotoxicity. While all compounds variably altered the morphology of Aβ aggregation, the flavonoids luteolin and myricetin and the lignan honokiol all bound in a similar hydrophobic region of the amyloid pentamer and exerted the most pronounced inhibition of Aβ1-42 aggregation. Each of the polyphenols demonstrated neuroprotective effects in PC12 cells exposed to Aβ1-42, including punicalagin. These findings highlight some structure-activity insights that can be gleaned into the anti-aggregatory properties of bioactive polyphenols based on modelling of their binding to β-amyloid, but also serve to highlight the more general cellular neuroprotective nature of such compounds. PMID:26815043

  1. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal.

  2. Successful adjuvant-free vaccination of BALB/c mice with mutated amyloid β peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahi Monika M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent human clinical trial of an Alzheimer's disease (AD vaccine using amyloid beta (Aβ 1–42 plus QS-21 adjuvant produced some positive results, but was halted due to meningoencephalitis in some participants. The development of a vaccine with mutant Aβ peptides that avoids the use of an adjuvant may result in an effective and safer human vaccine. Results All peptides tested showed high antibody responses, were long-lasting, and demonstrated good memory response. Epitope mapping indicated that peptide mutation did not lead to epitope switching. Mutant peptides induced different inflammation responses as evidenced by cytokine profiles. Ig isotyping indicated that adjuvant-free vaccination with peptides drove an adequate Th2 response. All anti-sera from vaccinated mice cross-reacted with human Aβ in APP/PS1 transgenic mouse brain tissue. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that an adjuvant-free vaccine with different Aβ peptides can be an effective and safe vaccination approach against AD. This study represents the first report of adjuvant-free vaccines utilizing Aβ peptides carrying diverse mutations in the T-cell epitope. These largely positive results provide encouragement for the future of the development of human vaccinations for AD.

  3. Metabolic changes may precede proteostatic dysfunction in a Drosophila model of amyloid beta peptide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Stanislav; Vishnivetskaya, Anastasia; Malmendal, Anders; Crowther, Damian C

    2016-05-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation is linked to the initiation of Alzheimer's disease; accordingly, aggregation-prone isoforms of Aβ, expressed in the brain, shorten the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the lethal effects of Aβ are not apparent until after day 15. We used shibire(TS) flies that exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotype as a reporter of proteostatic robustness. In this model, we found that increasing age but not Aβ expression lowered the flies' permissive temperature, suggesting that Aβ did not exert its lethal effects by proteostatic disruption. Instead, we observed that chemical challenges, in particular oxidative stressors, discriminated clearly between young (robust) and old (sensitive) flies. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis, we compared water-soluble metabolite profiles at various ages in flies expressing Aβ in their brains. We observed 2 genotype-linked metabolomic signals, the first reported the presence of any Aβ isoform and the second the effects of the lethal Arctic Aβ. Lethality was specifically associated with signs of oxidative respiration dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:27103517

  4. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta(2)-microglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Jørgensen, T.J.D.; Rozlosnik, N.;

    2005-01-01

    . Using amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange monitored by mass spectrometry, we show that Delta K58-beta(2)m has increased unfolding rates compared to wt-beta(2)m and that unfolding is highly temperature dependent. The unfolding rate is I order of magnitude faster in Delta K58-beta(2)M than in wt-beta(2)m...... fluorescence. After a few days at 37 degrees C, in contrast to wt-beta(2)M, Delta K-58-beta(2)M forms well-defined high molecular weight aggregates that are detected by size-exclusion chromatography. Atomic force microscopy after seeding with amyloid-beta(2)m fibrils under conditions that induce minimal...

  5. Fibrils from designed non-amyloid-related synthetic peptides induce AA-amyloidosis during inflammation in an animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Westermark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mouse AA-amyloidosis is a transmissible disease by a prion-like mechanism where amyloid fibrils act by seeding. Synthetic peptides with no amyloid relationship can assemble into amyloid-like fibrils and these may have seeding capacity for amyloid proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Several synthetic peptides, designed for nanotechnology, have been examined for their ability to produce fibrils with Congo red affinity and concomitant green birefringence, affinity for thioflavin S and to accelerate AA-amyloidosis in mice. It is shown that some amphiphilic fibril-forming peptides not only produced Congo red birefringence and showed affinity for thioflavin S, but they also shortened the lag phase for systemic AA-amyloidosis in mice when they were given intravenously at the time of inflammatory induction with silver nitride. Peptides, not forming amyloid-like fibrils, did not have such properties. CONCLUSIONS: These observations should caution researchers and those who work with synthetic peptides and their derivatives to be aware of the potential health concerns.

  6. An alternative structural isoform in amyloid-like aggregates formed from thermally denatured human γD-crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Sean D; Zhang, Tianqi O; Zanni, Martin T

    2014-03-01

    The eye lens protein γD-crystallin contributes to cataract formation in the lens. In vitro experiments show that γD-crystallin has a high propensity to form amyloid fibers when denatured, and that denaturation by acid or UV-B photodamage results in its C-terminal domain forming the β-sheet core of amyloid fibers. Here, we show that thermal denaturation results in sheet-like aggregates that contain cross-linked oligomers of the protein, according to transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE. We use two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy to show that these aggregates have an amyloid-like secondary structure with extended β-sheets, and use isotope dilution experiments to show that each protein contributes approximately one β-strand to each β-sheet in the aggregates. Using segmental (13) C labeling, we show that the organization of the protein's two domains in thermally induced aggregates results in a previously unobserved structure in which both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains contribute to β-sheets. We propose a model for the structural organization of the aggregates and attribute the recruitment of the N-terminal domain into the fiber structure to intermolecular cross linking. PMID:24415662

  7. Cholesterol Depletion Reduces the Internalization of β-Amyloid Peptide in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qinghua; HE Li; SUI Senfang

    2006-01-01

    Deposition of amyloid in the brain is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The endocytosis of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is an important factor among the many factors that contribute to the genesis of amyloid deposits. Since cholesterol participates in many important physiological processes, the present work investigated the relationship between the cellular cholesterol content and the endocytosis of the exogenic Aβ, and found that reduction of the cholesterol content by methyl-β-cyclodextrin could reduce the endocytosis of Aβ. The study indicates that the endocytosis of Aβ is partly mediated by cholesterol.

  8. Influence of pH and sequence in peptide aggregation via molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enciso, Marta, E-mail: m.enciso@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne (Australia); Schütte, Christof, E-mail: schuette@zib.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zuse Institute Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Delle Site, Luigi, E-mail: luigi.dellesite@fu-berlin.de [Institute for Mathematics, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-12-28

    We employ a recently developed coarse-grained model for peptides and proteins where the effect of pH is automatically included. We explore the effect of pH in the aggregation process of the amyloidogenic peptide KTVIIE and two related sequences, using three different pH environments. Simulations using large systems (24 peptides chains per box) allow us to describe the formation of realistic peptide aggregates. We evaluate the thermodynamic and kinetic implications of changes in sequence and pH upon peptide aggregation, and we discuss how a minimalistic coarse-grained model can account for these details.

  9. Influence of pH and sequence in peptide aggregation via molecular simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ a recently developed coarse-grained model for peptides and proteins where the effect of pH is automatically included. We explore the effect of pH in the aggregation process of the amyloidogenic peptide KTVIIE and two related sequences, using three different pH environments. Simulations using large systems (24 peptides chains per box) allow us to describe the formation of realistic peptide aggregates. We evaluate the thermodynamic and kinetic implications of changes in sequence and pH upon peptide aggregation, and we discuss how a minimalistic coarse-grained model can account for these details

  10. Effects of Amyloid Precursor Protein 17 Peptide on the Protection of Diabetic Encephalopathy and Improvement of Glycol Metabolism in the Diabetic Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Heng Meng; Duo Zhang; Haishan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have proposed that amyloid precursor protein 17 peptide (APP17 peptide), an active fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the nervous system, has therapeutic effects on neurodegeneration. Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) is a neurological disease caused by diabetes. Here we use multiple experimental approaches to investigate the effect of APP17 peptide on changes in learning behavior and glycol metabolism in rats. It was found that rats with DE treated by APP17 peptide showed ...

  11. A Microliter-Scale High-throughput Screening System with Quantum-Dot Nanoprobes for AmyloidAggregation Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Yukako Ishigaki; Hiroyuki Tanaka; Hiroaki Akama; Toshiki Ogara; Koji Uwai; Kiyotaka Tokuraku

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid β protein (Aβ) is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and therefore inhibitory substances for Aβ aggregation may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential for AD. Here we report a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors based on fluorescence microscopy-imaging technology with quantum-dot Nanoprobes. This screening system could be analyzed with a 5-µl sample volume when a 1536-well plate was use...

  12. Impairment of context memory by β-amyloid peptide in terrestrial snail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined influence of the β-amyloid peptide (25-35 neurotoxic fragment (βAP on Helix lucorum food-aversion learning. Testing with aversively conditioned carrot showed that 2, 5, and 14 days after training the βAP-injected group responded in a significantly larger number of cases and with a significantly smaller latency than the sham-injected control group. The results demonstrate that the amyloid peptide partially impairs the learning process. In an attempt to specify what component of memory is impaired we compared responses in a context in which the snails were aversively trained, and in a neutral context. It was found that the sham-injected learned snails significantly less frequently took the aversively conditioned food in the context in which the snails were shocked, while the βAP-injected snails remembered the aversive context 2 days after associative training, but were not able to distinguish two contexts 5, and 14 days after training. In a separate series of experiments a specific context was associated with electric shock, and changes in general responsiveness were tested in two contexts several days later. It was found that the βAP-injected snails significantly increased withdrawal responses in all tested contexts, while the sham-injected control animals selectively increased responsiveness only in the context in which they were reinforced with electric shocks. These results demonstrate that the β-amyloid peptide (25-35 interferes with the learning process, and may play a significant role in behavioral plasticity and memory by selectively impairing only one

  13. Evidence for Inhibition of Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrillization by Peptide Fragments from Human Lysozyme: A Combined Spectroscopy, Microscopy, and Docking Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Rajiv K; Gazova, Zuzana; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Mroue, Kamal H; Ghosh, Anirban; Zhang, Ruiyan; Ulicna, Katarina; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-06-13

    Degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and prion diseases, as well as type II diabetes, have a pathogenesis associated with protein misfolding, which routes with amyloid formation. Recent strategies for designing small-molecule and polypeptide antiamyloid inhibitors are mainly based on mature fibril structures containing cross β-sheet structures. In the present study, we have tackled the hypothesis that the rational design of antiamyloid agents that can target native proteins might offer advantageous prospect to design effective therapeutics. Lysozyme amyloid fibrillization was treated with three different peptide fragments derived from lysozyme protein sequence R(107)-R(115). Using low-resolution spectroscopic, high-resolution NMR, and STD NMR-restrained docking methods such as HADDOCK, we have found that these peptide fragments have the capability to affect lysozyme fibril formation. The present study implicates the prospect that these peptides can also be tested against other amyloid-prone proteins to develop novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27116396

  14. Involvement of oxidative stress in the enhancement of acetylcholinesterase activity induced by amyloid beta-peptide

    OpenAIRE

    de Melo, Joana Barbosa; Agostinho, Paula; Oliveira, Catarina Resende

    2003-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity is increased within and around amyloid plaques, which are present in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patient's brain. In this study, using cultured retinal cells as a neuronal model, we analyzed the effect of the synthetic peptide A[beta]25-35 on the activity of AChE, the degradation enzyme of acetylcholine, as well as the involvement of oxidative stress in this process. The activity of AChE was increased when retinal cells were incubated with A[beta]25-35 (25 [m...

  15. Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for brain gangliosides in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Recently we deciphered the ganglioside-recognition code controlling specific ganglioside binding to Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ1-42) peptide and Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein. Cracking this code allowed us to engineer a short chimeric Aβ/α-synuclein peptide that recognizes all brain gangliosides. Here we show that ganglioside-deprived neural cells do no longer sustain the formation of zinc-sensitive amyloid pore channels induced by either Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein, as assessed by single-cell Ca(2+) fluorescence microscopy. Thus, amyloid channel formation, now considered a key step in neurodegeneration, is a ganglioside-dependent process. Nanomolar concentrations of chimeric peptide competitively inhibited amyloid pore formation induced by Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein in cultured neural cells. Moreover, this peptide abrogated the intracellular calcium increases induced by Parkinson's-associated mutant forms of α-synuclein (A30P, E46K and A53T). The chimeric peptide also prevented the deleterious effects of Aβ1-42 on synaptic vesicle trafficking and decreased the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spontaneous activity in rat hippocampal slices. Taken together, these data show that the chimeric peptide has broad anti-amyloid pore activity, suggesting that a common therapeutic strategy based on the prevention of amyloid-ganglioside interactions is a reachable goal for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:26655601

  16. Protective effects of Lingguizhugan decoction on amyloid-beta peptide (25-35)-induced cell injury: Anti-inflammatory effects☆

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Feifei; Sang, Feng; Zhou, Chunxiang; Ling, Yun

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) and BV-2 microglia were treated with amyloidpeptide (25–35), as a model of Alzheimer’s disease, to evaluate the protective effects of 10-3–10-8 g/mL Lingguizhugan decoction and to examine the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanism. Lingguizhugan decoction significantly enhanced the viability of SH-SY5Y cells with amyloidpeptide-induced injury, and lowered levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and ...

  17. Hydrolysis of Whey Protein Isolate with Bacillus licheniformis Protease: Fractionation and Identification of Aggregating Peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusot, N.P.; Gruppen, H.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify the dominant aggregating peptides from a whey protein hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis of 6.8%) obtained with Bacillus licheniformis protease. The aggregating peptides were fractionated with preparative reversed-phase chromatography and identified with liq

  18. Modeling the Interaction between β-Amyloid Aggregates and Choline Acetyltransferase Activity and Its Relation with Cholinergic Dysfunction through Two-Enzyme/Two-Compartment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedia Fgaier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of β-amyloid aggregates on activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT which is responsible for synthesizing acetylcholine (ACh in human brain is investigated through the two-enzyme/two-compartment (2E2C model where the presynaptic neuron is considered as compartment 1 while both the synaptic cleft and the postsynaptic neuron are considered as compartment 2 through suggesting three different kinetic mechanisms for the inhibition effect. It is found that the incorporation of ChAT inhibition by β-amyloid aggregates into the 2E2C model is able to yield dynamic solutions for concentrations of generated β-amyloid, ACh, choline, acetate, and pH in addition to the rates of ACh synthesis and ACh hydrolysis in compartments 1 and 2. It is observed that ChAT activity needs a high concentration of β-amyloid aggregates production rate. It is found that ChAT activity is reduced significantly when neurons are exposed to high levels of β-amyloid aggregates leading to reduction in levels of ACh which is one of the most significant physiological symptoms of AD. Furthermore, the system of ACh neurocycle is dominated by the oscillatory behavior when ChAT enzyme is completely inhibited by β-amyloid. It is observed that the direct inactivation of ChAT by β-amyloid aggregates may be a probable mechanism contributing to the development of AD.

  19. Differences between amyloidaggregation in solution and on the membrane: insights into elucidation of the mechanistic details of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Samuel A; Walsh, Patrick; Brender, Jeffrey R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-10-01

    The association of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide with cellular membranes is hypothesized to be the underlying phenomenon of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease. Misfolding of proteins and peptides, as is the case with Aβ, follows a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediates, ending at long, unbranched amyloid fibers. This tutorial review offers a perspective on the association of toxic Aβ structures with membranes as well as details of membrane-associated mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:24464312

  20. Differences between amyloidaggregation in solution and on the membrane: Insights towards elucidation of the mechanistic details of Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Samuel A.; Walsh, Patrick; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    The association of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide with cellular membranes is hypothesized to be the underlying phenomenon of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease. Misfolding of proteins and peptides, as is the case with Aβ, follows a progression from a monomeric state, through intermediates, ending at long, unbranched amyloid fibers. This tutorial review offers a perspective into the association of toxic Aβ structures with membrane as well as details into membrane-associated mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:24464312

  1. Metal-amyloidpeptide interactions: a preliminary investigation of molecular mechanisms for Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Although humans have spent exactly 100 years combating Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the molecular mechanisms of AD remain unclear. Owing to the rapid growth of the oldest age groups of the popula-tion and the continuous increase of the incidence of AD, it has become one of the crucial problems to modern sciences. It would be impossible to prevent or reverse AD at the root without elucidating its molecular mechanisms. From the point of view of metal-amyloidpeptide (Aβ) interactions, we review the molecular mechanisms of AD, mainly including Cu2+ and Zn2+ inducing the aggregation of Aβ, cata-lysing the production of active oxygen species from Aβ, as well as interacting with the ion-channel-like structures of Aβ. Moreover, the development of therapeutic drugs on the basis of metal-Aβ interactions is also briefly introduced. With the increasingly rapid progress of the molecular mechanisms of AD, we are now entering a new dawn that promises the delivery of revolutionary developments for the control of dementias.

  2. Tuning calcium carbonate growth through physical confinement and templating with amyloid-like polypeptide aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Martin Francis

    that this methodology does not extend to three-dimensional confined systems, as the water has no method of escape. Through the addition of an insoluble hydroscopic polymer to our microreactors, amorphous calcium carbonate of controllable sizes can be grown. However, crystalline calcium carbonate cannot be grown without some type of templating. Studies of calcium carbonate templating have predominantly been performed on SAMs or in poorly characterized gels or protein films. The use of ordered protein or polypeptide aggregates for templating permits both geometry and charge surface density to be varied. We have studied the kinetics and final morphology of ordered aggregates of poly-L-glutamic acid and a copolymer of glutamic acid and alanine through experiments and simulations. Electrostatics, not structure, of the monomer appeared to be the dominating factor in the aggregation, as pH and salt concentration changes led to dramatic changes in the kinetics. Examining our experimental with existing models provided inconsistent results, so we developed a new model that yielded physically realistic rate constants, while generating better fits with longer lag phases and faster growths. However, despite the similarity of aggregation conditions, the two polypeptides yielded vastly different morphologies, with the PEA forming typical amyloid-like fibrils and PE forming larger, twisted lamellar aggregates. Templating with these aggregates also yielded dramatically different patterns. Polycrystalline rhombohedral calcite with smooth faces and edges grew on PEA fibrils, with minimal templating in evidence. However, on PE, numerous calcite crystals with triangular projections tracked the surface of the aggregate. The PE lamellae are characterized by extensive beta-sheet structure. In this conformation, the glutamic acid spacings on the surface of the aggregates can mimic the spacings of the carboxylates in the calcite lattice. In addition, the high negative charge density on the

  3. Expression of secreted human single-chain fragment variable antibody against human amyloid beta peptide in Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiong Cai; Fang Li; Shizhen Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that monoclonal or polyclonal antibody injections ofamyloid β peptide arc effective in removing amyloid β peptide overload in the brain.OBJECTIVE: Based on successful screening of a human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide, this paper aimed to express recombinant human single-chain variable antibody against amyloid β peptide.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A single sample experiment was performed at the Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Hospital (Beijing, China) from January to July 2006.MATERIALS: Human single-chain fragment variable antibody gene against amyloid β peptide was screened from a human phage-display antibody library.METHODS: Human single-chain fragment variable antibody gene was mutated to eliminate a BamHI restriction site and cloned into a Teasy plasmid for pT-seFvAβ construction, which was identified by PCR amplification and endonuclease digestion. Plasmid pT-scFvA β was cut by EcoRl and Notl endonucleases, and the antibody gene was cloned into pPIC9K plasmid to construct pPIC9K-scFvA β expression vector, which was confirmed by gene sequencing. Linearized pPICgK-scFvA β was used to transform a Pichia pastoris GS115 cell line, and the recombinant was induced by 0.5 % methanol to express human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Protein electrophoresis was used to identify PCR products, gene sequencing was uscd to verify the pPIC9K-scFvA sequence, and SDS-PAGE was used to detect recombinant expression of human single-chain fragment variable antibody specific to amyloid β peptide in Pichia pastoris.RESULTS: Gene sequencing confirmed pPICgK-scFvA β orientation. Rccomhinants were obtained by lineadzed pPIC9K-scFvA β transformation. After induction with 0.5% methanol, the recombinant yeast cells secreted proteins of 33-ku size

  4. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. ► Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. ► FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. ► Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. ► Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  5. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Portelius, Erik; Andreasson, Ulf; Ringman, John M.; Buerger, Katharina; Daborg, Jonny; Buchhave, Peder; Hansson, Oskar; Harmsen, Andreas; Gustavsson, Mikael K; Hanse, Eric; Galasko, Douglas; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is ...

  6. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-Haagen, Bo; Biehl, Ralf; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Radulescu, Aurel; Richter, Dieter; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP) by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS). We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1–40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1–42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1–40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1–42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules. PMID:26919121

  7. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang-Haagen

    Full Text Available Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS. We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1-40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1-42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1-40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1-42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules.

  8. Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses the toxic effects of amyloid-beta peptide (25-35)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Kong; Maowen Ba; Hui Liang; Peng Shao; Tianxia Yu; Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we treated PC12 cells with 0-20 μM amyloidpeptide (25-35) for 24 hours to induce cytotoxicity, and found that 5-20 μM amyloidpeptide (25-35) decreased PC12 cell viability, but adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel activator diazoxide suppressed the decrease reactive oxygen species levels. These protective effects were reversed by the selective mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate. An inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine, also protected PC12 cells from intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. However, the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase could that the increases in both mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species levels adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and nitric oxide. Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses PC12 cell cytotoxicity induced by amyloid

  9. A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and β-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Núria; Álvarez, Beatriz; Montón, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatog...

  10. Interplay between the hydrophobic effect and dipole interactions in peptide aggregation at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Sai J; Matysiak, Silvina

    2016-01-28

    Protein misfolding is an intrinsic property of polypeptides, and misfolded conformations have a propensity to aggregate. In the past decade, the development of various coarse-grained models for proteins has provided key insights into the driving forces in folding and aggregation. We recently developed a low resolution Water Explicit Polarizable PROtein coarse-grained Model (WEPPROM) by adding oppositely charged dummy particles inside protein backbone beads. With this model, we were able to achieve significant α/β secondary structure content, without any added bias. We now extend the model to study peptide aggregation at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and draw comparisons to aggregation in explicit water solvent. Elastin-like octapeptides (GV)4 are used as a model system for this study. A condensation-ordering mechanism of aggregation is observed in water. Our results suggest that backbone interpeptide dipolar interactions, not hydrophobicity, plays a more significant role in fibril-like peptide aggregation. We observe a cooperative effect in hydrogen bonding or dipolar interactions, with an increase in aggregate size in water and at interfaces. Based on this cooperative effect, we provide a potential explanation for the observed nucleus size in peptide aggregation pathways. The presence of a hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface increases both (a) order of aggregates formed, and (b) rate of the aggregation process. Without dipolar particles, peptide aggregation is not observed at the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface. Thus, the presence of dipoles, not hydrophobicity, plays a key role in aggregation observed at hydrophobic interfaces. PMID:26698374

  11. Structural exploration and Förster theory modeling for the interpretation of gas-phase FRET measurements: Chromophore-grafted amyloidpeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Alexander; Daly, Steven; MacAleese, Luke; Antoine, Rodolphe; Dugourd, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    The distance-dependence of excitation energy transfer, e.g., being described by Förster theory (Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)), allows the use of optical techniques for the direct observation of structural properties. Recently, this technique has been successfully applied in the gas phase. The detailed interpretation of the experimental FRET results, however, relies on the comparison with structural modeling. We therefore present a complete first-principles modeling approach that explores the gas-phase structure of chromophore-grafted peptides and achieves accurate predictions of FRET efficiencies. We apply the approach to amyloid-β 12-28 fragments, known to be involved in amyloid plaque formation connected to Alzheimer's disease. We sample structures of the peptides that are grafted with 5-carboxyrhodamine 575 (Rh575) and QSY-7 chromophores by means of replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations upon an Amber-type forcefield parametrization as a function of the charge state. The generated ensembles provide chromophore-distance and -orientation distributions which are used with the spectral parameters of the Rh575/QSY-7 chromophores to model FRET-efficiencies for the systems. The theoretical values agree with the experimental average "action"-FRET efficiencies and motivate to use the herein reported parametrization, sampling, and FRET-modeling technique in future studies on the structural properties and aggregation-behavior of related systems.

  12. How Do the Size, Charge and Shape of Nanoparticles Affect Amyloid β Aggregation on Brain Lipid Bilayer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yuna; Park, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hyojin; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates Aβ-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar Aβ structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to Aβ than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and Aβ resulted in fewer β-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on Aβ aggregation on the brain SLB. Aβ was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with Aβ to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller Aβ aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in Aβ aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of Aβ-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning Aβ aggregate structures.

  13. The interaction with gold suppresses fiber-like conformations of the amyloid β (16-22) peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Luca; Ardèvol, Albert; Parrinello, Michele; Lutz, Helmut; Lu, Hao; Weidner, Tobias; Corni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic surfaces and nanoparticles can accelerate or inhibit the fibrillation process of proteins and peptides, including the biomedically relevant amyloid β peptide. However, the microscopic mechanisms that determine such an effect are still poorly understood. By means of large-scale, state-of-the-art enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, here we identify an interaction mechanism between the segments 16-22 of the amyloid β peptide, known to be fibrillogenic by itself, and the Au(111) surface in water that leads to the suppression of fiber-like conformations from the peptide conformational ensemble. Moreover, thanks to advanced simulation analysis techniques, we characterize the conformational selection vs. induced fit nature of the gold effect. Our results disclose an inhibition mechanism that is rooted in the details of the microscopic peptide-surface interaction rather than in general phenomena such as peptide sequestration from the solution.Inorganic surfaces and nanoparticles can accelerate or inhibit the fibrillation process of proteins and peptides, including the biomedically relevant amyloid β peptide. However, the microscopic mechanisms that determine such an effect are still poorly understood. By means of large-scale, state-of-the-art enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, here we identify an interaction mechanism between the segments 16-22 of the amyloid β peptide, known to be fibrillogenic by itself, and the Au(111) surface in water that leads to the suppression of fiber-like conformations from the peptide conformational ensemble. Moreover, thanks to advanced simulation analysis techniques, we characterize the conformational selection vs. induced fit nature of the gold effect. Our results disclose an inhibition mechanism that is rooted in the details of the microscopic peptide-surface interaction rather than in general phenomena such as peptide sequestration from the solution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  14. Molecular modeling of the ion channel-like nanotube structure of amyloid β-peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yong; YANG Pin

    2007-01-01

    The ion channel-like nanotube structure of the oligomers of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) was first investigated by molecular modeling. The results reveal that the hydrogen bond net is one of the key factors to stabilize the structure. The hydrophobicity distribution mode of the side chains is in favor of the structure inserting into the bilayers and forming a hydrophilic pore. The lumen space is under the control of the negative potential, weaker but spreading continuously, to which the cation selectivity attributes; meanwhile, the alternate distribution of the stronger positive and negative potentials makes the electrostatic distribution of the structure framework balance, which is also one of the key factors stabilizing the structure. The results lay the theoretical foundation for illuminating the structure stability and the ion permeability, and give a clue to elucidating the molecular mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and designing novel drugs to prevent or reverse AD at the root.

  15. All-d-Enantiomer of β-Amyloid Peptide Forms Ion Channels in Lipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Ricardo; Jang, Hyunbum; Kotler, Samuel A; Connelly, Laura; Teran Arce, Fernando; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Kagan, Bruce L; Nussinov, Ruth; Lal, Ratnesh

    2012-03-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of senile dementia in aging populations. Amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated dysregulation of ionic homeostasis is the prevailing underlying mechanism leading to synaptic degeneration and neuronal death. Aβ-dependent ionic dysregulation most likely occurs either directly via unregulated ionic transport through the membrane or indirectly via Aβ binding to cell membrane receptors and subsequent opening of existing ion channels or transporters. Receptor binding is expected to involve a high degree of stereospecificity. Here, we investigated whether an Aβ peptide enantiomer, whose entire sequence consists of d-amino acids, can form ion-conducting channels; these channels can directly mediate Aβ effects even in the absence of receptor-peptide interactions. Using complementary approaches of planar lipid bilayer (PLB) electrophysiological recordings and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that the d-Aβ isomer exhibits ion conductance behavior in the bilayer indistinguishable from that described earlier for the l-Aβ isomer. The d isomer forms channel-like pores with heterogeneous ionic conductance similar to the l-Aβ isomer channels, and the d-isomer channel conductance is blocked by Zn(2+), a known blocker of l-Aβ isomer channels. MD simulations further verify formation of β-barrel-like Aβ channels with d- and l-isomers, illustrating that both d- and l-Aβ barrels can conduct cations. The calculated values of the single-channel conductance are approximately in the range of the experimental values. These findings are in agreement with amyloids forming Ca(2+) leaking, unregulated channels in AD, and suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a receptor-independent, nonstereoselective mechanism. PMID:22423218

  16. Determining the Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Aggregation of Amyloid-Beta in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Suhag; Matticks, John; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease has been linked partially to genetic factors but the predicted environmental components have yet to be determined. In Alzheimer's, accumulation of amyloid-beta protein in the brain forms plaques resulting in neurodegeneration and loss of mental functions. It has been postulated that aluminum influences the aggregation of amyloid-beta. To test this hypothesis, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, CL2120, was used as a model organism to observe neurodegeneration in nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Behavioral testing, fluorescent staining, and fluorescence microscopy were used to test the effects of aggregation of amyloid-beta in the nervous systems of effected nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to quantify the total concentration of aluminum oxide that the worms were exposed to during the experiment. Exposure of transgenic and wild type worms to a concentration of 4 mg mL-1 aluminum oxide showed a decrease in the sinusoidal motion, as well as an infirmity of transgenic worms when compared to control worms. These results support the hypothesis that aluminum may play a role in neurodegeneration in C. elegans, and may influence and increase the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047 DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  17. Virtual Screening for Dipeptide Aggregation: Toward Predictive Tools for Peptide Self-Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Frederix, Pim W. J. M.; Ulijn, Rein V.; Hunt, Neil T.; Tuttle, Tell

    2011-01-01

    Several short peptide sequences are known to self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures with interesting properties. In this study, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is employed to rapidly screen all 400 dipeptide combinations and predict their ability to aggregate as a potential precursor to their self-assembly. The simulation protocol and scoring method proposed allows a rapid determination of whether a given peptide sequence is likely to aggregate (an indicator for the ability to sel...

  18. A microliter-scale high-throughput screening system with quantum-dot nanoprobes for amyloidaggregation inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Ishigaki

    Full Text Available The aggregation of amyloid β protein (Aβ is a key step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD, and therefore inhibitory substances for Aβ aggregation may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential for AD. Here we report a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors based on fluorescence microscopy-imaging technology with quantum-dot Nanoprobes. This screening system could be analyzed with a 5-µl sample volume when a 1536-well plate was used, and the inhibitory activity could be estimated as half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50. We attempted to comprehensively screen Aβ aggregation inhibitors from 52 spices using this system to assess whether this novel screening system is actually useful for screening inhibitors. Screening results indicate that approximately 90% of the ethanolic extracts from the spices showed inhibitory activity for Aβ aggregation. Interestingly, spices belonging to the Lamiaceae, the mint family, showed significantly higher activity than the average of tested spices. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the main inhibitory compound from Saturejahortensis, summer savory, a member of the Lamiaceae, using this system, and revealed that the main active compound was rosmarinic acid. These results demonstrate that this novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening system could be applied to the actual screening of Aβ aggregation inhibitors. Since this system can analyze at a microscopic scale, it is likely that further minimization of the system would easily be possible such as protein microarray technology.

  19. DCP-LA neutralizes mutant amyloid beta peptide-induced impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tetsu; Tomiyama, Takami; Tominaga, Takemi; Mori, Hiroshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) was monitored from the CA1 region of the intact rat hippocampus by delivering high frequency stimulation (HFS) to the Schaffer collateral commissural pathway. Intraventricular injection with mutant amyloid beta(1-42) peptide lacking glutamate-22 (Abeta(1-42)E22Delta), favoring oligomerization, 10 min prior to HFS, inhibited expression of LTP, with the potency more than wild-type amyloid beta(1-42) peptide. Intraperitoneal injection with the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) 70 min prior to HFS neutralized mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced LTP inhibition. In the water maze test, continuous intraventricular injection with mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide for 14 days prolonged the acquisition latency as compared with that for control, with the potency similar to wild-type Abeta(1-42) peptide, and intraperitoneal injection with DCP-LA shortened the prolonged latency to control levels. The results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA neutralizes mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced impairment of LTP and spatial learning. PMID:19716848

  20. Biophysical signatures of noncovalent aggregates formed by a glucagonlike peptide-1 analog: a prototypical example of biopharmaceutical aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Brandon L; Pollo, Mark J; Pekar, Allen H; Roy, Michael L; Thomas, Beth Ann; Brader, Mark L

    2005-12-01

    LY307161 is a 31 amino acid analog of glucagonlike peptide-1(7-37)OH susceptible to physical instability associated with pharmaceutical processing. Orthogonal biophysical studies were conducted to explore the origins of this physical instability and to distinguish pharmaceutically desirable states of this aggregating peptide from undesirable ones. Equilibrium sedimentation analysis established that LY307161 exists as a monomer at pH 3, and reversibly self-associates in the pH range 7.5-10.5. Causative factors for physical instability related to lyophilization conditions were investigated. Solution pH, acetonitrile content, and concentration of the peptide prior to lyophilization each impacted physicochemical properties of the resultant powders. A comparative study of two powder samples exhibiting physicochemically disparate properties established that LY307161 forms soluble noncovalent aggregates. FT-IR analyses in the solid and solution states identified a prominent band at 1657-1659 cm(-1) attributed to alpha-helix structure. Noncovalent soluble aggregate exhibited characteristic bands at 1615 and 1698 cm(-1) indicative of intermolecular beta-sheet structure. An agitation-induced, precipitated solid form of LY307161 exhibited a different FT-IR signature indicative of a conformationally distinct species. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy, together with dynamic light scattering measurements and dye-aggregate complexation, provided additional insights into the distinctions between aggregated and native LY307161. PMID:16258989

  1. Electrostatic Binding and Hydrophobic Collapse of Peptide-Nucleic Acid Aggregates Quantified Using Force Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Camunas-Soler, Joan; Bizarro, Cristiano V; de Loreno, Sara; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Ramsch, Roland; Vilchez, Susana; Solans, Conxita; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Albericio, Fernando; Eritja, Ramon; Giralt, Ernest; Dev, Sukhendu B; Ritort, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction between self-aggregating peptides and nucleic acids or other polyanions is key to the understanding of many aggregation processes underlying several human diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases). Determining the affinity and kinetic steps of such interactions is challenging due to the competition between hydrophobic self-aggregating forces and electrostatic binding forces. Kahalalide F (KF) is an anticancer hydrophobic peptide which contains a single positive charge that confers strong aggregative properties with polyanions. This makes KF an ideal model to elucidate the mechanisms by which self-aggregation competes with binding to a strongly charged polyelectrolyte such as DNA. We use optical tweezers to apply mechanical forces to single DNA molecules and show that KF and DNA interact in a two-step kinetic process promoted by the electrostatic binding of DNA to the aggregate surface followed by the stabilization of the complex due to hydrophobic interact...

  2. Mycoplasma hyorhinis markedly degrades β-amyloid peptides in vitro and ex vivo: a novel biological approach for treating Alzheimer’s disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ahsan; Deng, Juan; Hou, Huayan; Zou, Qiang; Giunta, Brian; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Obregon, Demian; Sawmiller, Darrell; Li, Song; Mori, Takashi; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides (predominantly Aβ40, 42) and their aggregation into plaques in the brain are thought to be the one of the major causes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Originally discovered in our Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line stably expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) (CHO/APPwt) cultures devoid of Aβ production, we found that Mycoplasma selectively degrades soluble Aβ in a time and dose (colony forming unit) dependent manner. Moreover, we fully characterized the Mycoplasma species as Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) by genetic and colony morphological analyses by light microscopy. Most interestingly, we attenuated the pathogenicity of M. hyorhinis by γ irradiation (3.5 Gy), and found that its ability to degrade Aβ was retained. On the other hand, heated and sonicated M. hyorhinis failed to retain this ability to degrade Aβ, suggesting that this degradation requires viable cells and likely a biologically active signaling pathway. In addition, we found that M. hyorhinis can degrade Aβ produced in AD model mice (PSAPP mice) ex vivo. Finally, we found that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis also can degrade Aβ produced in PSAPP mice in vivo. These studies suggest that irradiated (non-pathogenic) M. hyorhinis can be a novel and alternative biological strategy for AD treatment. PMID:24093060

  3. Hypocretin and brain β-amyloid peptide interactions in cognitive disorders and narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves A Dauvilliers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine relationships between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF Alzheimer’ disease (AD biomarkers and hypocretin-1 levels in patients with cognitive abnormalities and hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy-cataplexy (NC, estimate diagnostic accuracy, and determine correlations with sleep disturbances. Background: Sleep disturbances are frequent in AD. Interactions between brain β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation and a wake-related neurotransmitter hypocretin have been reported in a mouse model of AD. Methods: Ninety-one cognitive patients (37 AD, 16 mild cognitive impairment – MCI that converts to AD, 38 other dementias and 15 elderly patients with NC were recruited. Patients were diagnosed blind to CSF results. CSF A42, total tau, ptau181, and hypocretin-1 were measured. Sleep disturbances were assessed with questionnaires in 32 cognitive patients. Results: Lower CSF Aβ42 but higher tau and P-tau levels were found in AD and MCI compared to other dementias. CSF hypocretin-1 levels were higher in patients with MCI due to AD compared to other dementias, with a similar tendency for patients with advanced AD. CSF hypocretin-1 was significantly and independently associated with AD/MCI due to AD, with an OR of 2.70 after full adjustment, exceeding that for Aβ42. Aβ42 correlated positively with hypocretin-1 levels in advanced stage AD. No association was found between sleep disturbances and CSF biomarkers. No patients with NC achieved pathological cutoffs for Aβ42, with respectively one and four patients with NC above tau and P-tau cutoffs and no correlations between hypocretin-1 and other biomarkers. Conclusions: Our results suggest a pathophysiological relationship between Aβ42 and hypocretin-1 in the AD process, with higher CSF hypocretin-1 levels in early disease stages. Further longitudinal studies are needed to validate these biomarker interactions and to determine the cause-effect relationship and the role of wake/sleep behavior in amyloid

  4. The mechanism of the low-density lipoprotein receptor- related protein (LRP) in the production of amyloid-[Beta] peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Eunice Chungyu

    2008-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder affecting the elderly, presenting symptoms such as memory impairment and dementia. AD is pathologically characterized by the development of extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). The plaques are composed of amyloid-[Beta] peptide (A[Beta]) and the NFTs are composed of a hyperphosphorylated form of the tau protein. A[Beta] is formed by sequential proteolytic processing of the a...

  5. Mechanisms of plastein formation, and prospective food and nutraceutical applications of the peptide aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plastein is a protease-induced peptide aggregate with prospective application in enhancing the nutritional quality of proteins and debittering protein hydrolysates. These properties are yet to be applied in product development possibly due to economic considerations (production cost vs. product yields. This paper reviews currently proposed mechanisms of plastein formation including condensation, transpeptidation and physical interaction of aggregating peptides. Emerging findings indicate that plastein possesses bioactivities, thereby expanding its prospective application. The role of proteases in inducing peptide interaction in plastein remains unclear. Understanding the protease function will facilitate the development of efficient proteases and scalable industrial processes for plastein production.

  6. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Portelius, Erik; Andreasson, Ulf; Ringman, John M.; Buerger, Katharina; Daborg, Jonny; Buchhave, Peder; Hansson, Oskar; Harmsen, Andreas; Gustavsson, Mikael K; Hanse, Eric; Galasko, Douglas; Hampel, Harald; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid beta (A beta) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the A beta 1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional A beta peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of A beta. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF A beta isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing ...

  7. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Galasko Douglas; Hanse Eric; Gustavsson Mikael K; Harmsen Andreas; Hansson Oskar; Buchhave Peder; Daborg Jonny; Buerger Katharina; Ringman John M; Andreasson Ulf; Portelius Erik; Hampel Harald; Blennow Kaj; Zetterberg Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing sporadic AD (SAD...

  8. Aggregation of peptides in soy protein isolate hydrolysates : the individual contributions of glycinin- and ß-conglycinin-derived peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: Soy proteins, glycinin, β-conglycinin, enzymatic hydrolysis, peptides, aggregation, gelation, identification, mass-spectrometry, mappingThe aim of the work presented in this thesis is to understand howlimited e

  9. Viscoelastic response of neural cells governed by the deposition of amyloidpeptides (Aβ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ze; You, Ran; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Lin, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Because of its intimate relation with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the question of how amyloidpeptide (Aβ) deposition alters the membrane and cytoskeltal structure of neural cells and eventually their mechanical response has received great attention. In this study, the viscoelastic properties of primary neurons subjected to various Aβ treatments were systematically characterized using atomic force microrheology. It was found that both the storage ( G ') and loss ( G ″) moduli of neural cells are rate-dependent and grow by orders of magnitude as the driving frequency ω varies from 1 to 100 Hz. However, a much stronger frequency dependence was observed in the loss moduli (with a scaling exponent of ˜0.96) than that in G ' ( ˜ ω 0.2 ). Furthermore, both cell moduli increase gradually within the first 6 h of Aβ treatment before steady-state values are reached, with a higher dosage of Aβ leading to larger changes in cell properties. Interestingly, we showed that the measured neuron response can be well-explained by a power law structural damping model. Findings here establish a quantitative link between Aβ accumulation and the physical characteristics of neural cells and hence could provide new insights into how disorders like AD affect the progression of different neurological processes from a mechanics point of view.

  10. Molecular Dynamics Study on the Inhibition Mechanisms of Drugs CQ1-3 for Alzheimer Amyloid-β40 Aggregation Induced by Cu(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mingyan; Li, Haoyue; Hu, Dingkun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Xueying; Ai, Hongqi

    2016-05-18

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induced by Cu(2+) is a key factor in development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and metal ion chelation therapy enables treatment of AD. Three CQi (i = 1, 2, and 3 with R = H, Cl, and NO2, respectively) drugs had been verified experimentally to be much stronger inhibitors than the pioneer clioquinol (CQ) in both disaggregation of Aβ40 aggregate and reduction of toxicity induced by Cu(2+) binding at low pH. Due to the multiple morphologies of Cu(2+)-Aβ40 complexes produced at different pH states, we performed a series of molecular dynamics simulations to explain the structural changes and morphology characteristics as well as intrinsic disaggregation mechanisms of three Cu(2+)-Aβ40 models in the presence of any of the three CQi drugs at both low and high pH states. Three inhibition mechanisms for CQi were proposed as "insertion", "semi-insertion", and "surface" mechanisms, based on the morphologies of CQi-model x (CQi-x, x = 1, 2, and 3) and the strengths of binding between CQi and the corresponding model x. The insertion mechanism was characterized by the morphology with binding strength of more than 100 kJ/mol and by CQi being inserted or embedded into the hydrophobic cavity of model x. In those CQi-x morphologies with lower binding strength, CQi only attaches on the surface or inserts partly into Aβ peptide. Given the evidence that the binding strength is correlated positively with the effectiveness of drug to inhibit Aβ aggregation and thus to reduce toxicity, the data of binding strength presented here can provide a reference for one to screen drugs. From the point of view of binding strength, CQ2 is the best drug. Because of the special role of Asp23 in both Aβ aggregation and stabilizing the Aβ fibril, the generation of a H-bond between CQ3 and Asp23 of the Aβ40 peptide is believed to be responsible for CQ3 having the strongest disaggregation capacity. Therefore, besides strong binding, stronger propensity to

  11. α-Casein Inhibits Insulin Amyloid Formation by Preventing the Onset of Secondary Nucleation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librizzi, Fabio; Carrotta, Rita; Spigolon, Dario; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi

    2014-09-01

    α-Casein is known to inhibit the aggregation of several proteins, including the amyloid β-peptide, by mechanisms that are not yet completely clear. We studied its effects on insulin, a system extensively used to investigate the properties of amyloids, many of which are common to all proteins and peptides. In particular, as for other proteins, insulin aggregation is affected by secondary nucleation pathways. We found that α-casein strongly delays insulin amyloid formation, even at extremely low doses, when the aggregation process is characterized by secondary nucleation. At difference, it has a vanishing inhibitory effect on the initial oligomer formation, which is observed at high concentration and does not involve any secondary nucleation pathway. These results indicate that an efficient inhibition of amyloid formation can be achieved by chaperone-like systems, by sequestering the early aggregates, before they can trigger the exponential proliferation brought about by secondary nucleation mechanisms. PMID:26278257

  12. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 2,6-disubstituted pyridine derivatives as inhibitors of β-amyloid-42 aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Heiko; Sreenivasachary, Nampally; Hamel, Anne; Benderitter, Pascal; Varisco, Yvan; Giriens, Valérie; Paganetti, Paolo; Froestl, Wolfgang; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2016-07-15

    It is assumed that amyloidaggregation is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Novel 2,6-disubstituted pyridine derivatives were designed to interact with the β-sheet conformation of Aβ via donor-acceptor-donor hydrogen bond formation. A series of pyridine derivatives were synthesized and tested regarding their potential to inhibit the aggregation of Aβ. The 2,6-diaminopyridine moiety was identified as a key component to inhibit Aβ aggregation. Overall, compounds having three 2,6-disubstituted pyridine units separated by at least one C2- or C3-linker displayed the most potent inhibition of Aβ aggregation. PMID:27256911

  13. Chronic cladribine administration increases amyloid beta peptide generation and plaque burden in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal D Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Previous data has shown that 2-CDA has high affinity to the brain and readily passes through the blood brain barrier reaching CSF concentrations 25% of that found in plasma. However, whether long-term administration of 2-CDA can lead to any adverse effects in patients or animal models is not yet clearly known. METHODOLOGY: Here we show that exposure of 2-CDA to CHO cells stably expressing wild-type APP751 increased generation and secretion of amyloid β peptide (Aβ in to the conditioned medium. Interestingly, increased Aβ levels were noticed even at non-toxic concentrations of 2-CDA. Remarkably, chronic treatment of APdE9 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease with 2-CDA for 60 days increased amyloid plaque burden by more than 1-fold. Increased Aβ generation appears to result from increased turnover of APP as revealed by cycloheximide-chase experiments. Additionally, surface labeling of APP with biotin and immunoprecipitation of surface labeled proteins with anti-biotin antibody also indicated increased APP at the cell surface in 2-CDA treated cells compared to controls. Increased turnover of APP by 2-CDA in turn might be a consequence of decreased protein levels of PIN 1, which is known to regulate cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation of APP. Most importantly, like many other oncology drugs, 2-CDA administration led to significant delay in acquiring a reward-based learning task in a T maze paradigm. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the first time that chronic 2-CDA administration can increase amyloidogenic processing of APP leading to robustly increased plaque burden which may be responsible for the observed deficits in learning skills. Thus chronic treatment of mice with 2

  14. Amyloid at the nanoscale: AFM and single-molecule investigations of early steps of aggregation and mature fibril growth, structure, and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vinod

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of proteins into nanometer-scale fibrillar assemblies is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. We have investigated the self-assembly of the human intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein, involved in Parkinson's disease, into amyloid fibrils. A particularly relevant question is the role of early oligomeric aggregates in modulating the dynamics of protein nucleation and aggregation. We have used single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize conformational transitions of alpha-synuclein, and to gain insights into the structure and composition of oligomeric aggregates of alpha-synuclein. Quantitative atomic force microscopy and nanomechanical investigations provide information on amyloid fibril polymorphism and on nanoscale mechanical properties of mature fibrillar species, while conventional optical and super-resolution imaging have yielded insights into the growth of fibrils and into the assembly of suprafibrillar structures. We thank the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), and the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology for support.

  15. Effect of electrostatics on aggregation of prion protein Sup35 peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembly of misfolded proteins into ordered fibrillar structures is a fundamental property of a wide range of proteins and peptides. This property is also linked with the development of various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Environmental conditions modulate the misfolding and aggregation processes. We used a peptide, CGNNQQNY, from yeast prion protein Sup35, as a model system to address effects of environmental conditions on aggregate formation. The GNNQQNY peptide self-assembles in fibrils with structural features that are similar to amyloidogenic proteins. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay were employed to follow the aggregation process at various pHs and ionic strengths. We also used single molecule AFM force spectroscopy to probe interactions between the peptides under various conditions. The ThT fluorescence data showed that the peptide aggregates fast at pH values approaching the peptide isoelectric point (pI = 5.3) and the kinetics is 10 times slower at acidic pH (pH 2.0), suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to the peptide self-assembly into aggregates. This hypothesis was tested by experiments performed at low (11 mM) and high (150 mM) ionic strengths. Indeed, the aggregation lag time measured at pH 2 at low ionic strength (11 mM) is 195 h, whereas the lag time decreases ∼5 times when the ionic strength is increased to 150 mM. At conditions close to the pI value, pH 5.6, the aggregation lag time is 12 ± 6 h under low ionic strength, and there is minimal change to the lag time at 150 mM NaCl. The ionic strength also influences the morphology of aggregates visualized with AFM. In pH 2.0 and at high ionic strength, the aggregates are twofold taller than those formed at low ionic strength. In parallel, AFM force spectroscopy studies revealed minimal contribution of electrostatics to dissociation of transient peptide dimers. (paper)

  16. Electrochemical quantification of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-β (1–40 using amyloid-β fibrillization promoting peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyloidpeptide (Aβ is believed to be an important biomarker for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, practical and reliable methods to assay Aβ levels have been coveted. In this study, a rapid, sensitive, and selective electrochemical method for Aβ(1–40 detection using Cu2+ redox cycling on peptide-modified gold electrodes was developed. A 19-residue peptide that can promote Aβ fibrillization (AFPP was immobilized onto a gold electrode. After incubating an Aβ solution with the modified electrode for 1 h, a Cu2+ solution was added and cyclic voltammetry measurements were conducted. The voltammetric response was found to be proportional to the Aβ(1–40 concentration in the 0.1–5 μM range, and a detection limit of 18 nM was achieved. Washing with sodium hydroxide and ethylenediaminetetraacetate solutions easily reinitialized the modified electrode. Results obtained using the reinitialized electrode showed good reproducibility. Furthermore, when another amyloidogenic and Cu2+-binding protein amylin was used as the target, no voltammetric response was observed. These results indicate that the AFPP-modified electrode provides a promising, label-free, sensitive, selective, cost-effective, and easy method for the quantification of Aβ.

  17. "Prion-proof" for [PIN+]: infection with in vitro-made amyloid aggregates of Rnq1p-(132-405) induces [PIN+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Basant K; Liebman, Susan W

    2007-01-19

    Prions are self-propagating, infectious protein conformations. The mammalian prion, PrP(Sc), responsible for neurodegenerative diseases like bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; "mad cow" disease) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease, appears to be a beta-sheet-rich amyloid conformation of PrP(c) that converts PrP(c) into PrP(Sc). However, an unequivocal demonstration of "protein-only" infection by PrP(Sc) is still lacking. So far, protein only infection has been proven for three prions, [PSI(+)], [URE3] and [Het-s], all of fungal origin. Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that another protein, the yeast Rnq1p, can form a prion, [PIN(+)]. While Rnq1p does not lose any known function upon prionization, [PIN(+)] has interesting positive phenotypes: facilitating the appearance and destabilization of other prions as well as the aggregation of polyglutamine extensions of the Huntingtin protein. Here, we polymerize a Gln/Asn-rich recombinant fragment of Rnq1p into beta-sheet-rich amyloid-like aggregates. While the method used for [PSI(+)] and [URE3] infectivity assays did not yield protein-only infection for the Rnq1p aggregates, we did successfully obtain protein-only infection by modifying the protocol. This work proves that [PIN(+)] is a prion mediated by amyloid-like aggregates of Rnq1p, and supports the hypothesis that heterologous prions affect each other's appearance and propagation through interaction of their amyloid-like regions. PMID:17097676

  18. Virtual Screening for Dipeptide Aggregation: Toward Predictive Tools for Peptide Self-Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederix, Pim W J M; Ulijn, Rein V; Hunt, Neil T; Tuttle, Tell

    2011-10-01

    Several short peptide sequences are known to self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures with interesting properties. In this study, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is employed to rapidly screen all 400 dipeptide combinations and predict their ability to aggregate as a potential precursor to their self-assembly. The simulation protocol and scoring method proposed allows a rapid determination of whether a given peptide sequence is likely to aggregate (an indicator for the ability to self-assemble) under aqueous conditions. Systems that show strong aggregation tendencies in the initial screening are selected for longer simulations, which result in good agreement with the known self-assembly or aggregation of dipeptides reported in the literature. Our extended simulations of the diphenylalanine system show that the coarse-grain model is able to reproduce salient features of nanoscale systems and provide insight into the self-assembly process for this system. PMID:23795243

  19. Virtual Screening for Dipeptide Aggregation: Toward Predictive Tools for Peptide Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Several short peptide sequences are known to self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures with interesting properties. In this study, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is employed to rapidly screen all 400 dipeptide combinations and predict their ability to aggregate as a potential precursor to their self-assembly. The simulation protocol and scoring method proposed allows a rapid determination of whether a given peptide sequence is likely to aggregate (an indicator for the ability to self-assemble) under aqueous conditions. Systems that show strong aggregation tendencies in the initial screening are selected for longer simulations, which result in good agreement with the known self-assembly or aggregation of dipeptides reported in the literature. Our extended simulations of the diphenylalanine system show that the coarse-grain model is able to reproduce salient features of nanoscale systems and provide insight into the self-assembly process for this system. PMID:23795243

  20. Green tea aroma fraction reduces β-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans transfected with human β-amyloid minigene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Fujita, Takashi; Hasegawa, Toshio; Saito, Michio; Suganuma, Masami

    2014-01-01

    Green tea is a popular world-wide beverage with health benefits that include preventive effects on cancer as well as cardiovascular, liver and Alzheimer's diseases (AD). This study will examine the preventive effects on AD of a unique aroma of Japanese green tea. First, a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) CL4176 expressing human β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was used as a model of AD. A hexane extract of processed green tea was further fractionated into volatile and non-volatile fractions, named roasty aroma and green tea aroma fractions depending on their aroma, by microscale distillation. Both hexane extract and green tea aroma fraction were found to inhibit Aβ-induced paralysis, while only green tea aroma fraction extended lifespan in CL4176. We also found that green tea aroma fraction has antioxidant activity. This paper indicates that the green tea aroma fraction is an additional component for prevention of AD. PMID:25229860

  1. Individual aggregates of amyloid beta induce temporary calcium influx through the cell membrane of neuronal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Flint, Jennie; Shivji, Nadia; Jönsson, Peter; Wirthensohn, David; De Genst, Erwin; Vincke, Cécile; Muyldermans, Serge; Dobson, Chris; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    Local delivery of amyloid beta oligomers from the tip of a nanopipette, controlled over the cell surface, has been used to deliver physiological picomolar oligomer concentrations to primary astrocytes or neurons. Calcium influx was observed when as few as 2000 oligomers were delivered to the cell surface. When the dosing of oligomers was stopped the intracellular calcium returned to basal levels or below. Calcium influx was prevented by the presence in the pipette of the extracellular chaperone clusterin, which is known to selectively bind oligomers, and by the presence a specific nanobody to amyloid beta. These data are consistent with individual oligomers larger than trimers inducing calcium entry as they cross the cell membrane, a result supported by imaging experiments in bilayers, and suggest that the initial molecular event that leads to neuronal damage does not involve any cellular receptors, in contrast to work performed at much higher oligomer concentrations. PMID:27553885

  2. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Catherine M; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R.; Kholkin, Andrei; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic peptides such as diphenylalanine (FF) have the characteristic capacity to self-assemble into ordered nanostructures such as peptide nanotubes, which are biocompatible, thermally and chemically stable, and have strong piezoelectric activity and high mechanical strength. The physical properties of FF aggregates open up a variety of potential biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on...

  3. MMPBSA Decomposition of the Binding Energy throughout a Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Amyloid-Beta (Aß10−35 Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Campanera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments with amyloid-beta (Aβ peptides indicate that the formation of toxic oligomers may be an important contribution to the onset of Alzheimer’s disease. The toxicity of Aβ oligomers depend on their structure, which is governed by assembly dynamics. However, a detailed knowledge of the structure of at the atomic level has not been achieved yet due to limitations of current experimental techniques. In this study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations are used to identify the expected diversity of dimer conformations of Aβ10−35 monomers. The most representative dimer conformation has been used to track the dimer formation process between both monomers. The process has been characterized by means of the evolution of the decomposition of the binding free energy, which provides an energetic profile of the interaction. Dimers undergo a process of reorganization driven basically by inter-chain hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions and also solvation/desolvation processes.

  4. Einfluß einer In-vitro- und In-vivo-Cholesterol-Modulation in Hirnmembranen auf die zellulären Effekte von Amyloid-beta-Peptid

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsch, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Die exzessive Bildung und Ablagerung von aggregiertem Amyloid beta-Peptid im Gehirn von Alzheimer Patienten wird allgemein als zentrales Ereignis im Rahmen des Neurodegenerationsprozesses der Alzheimer Demenz betrachtet. Der Amyloid-Stoffwechsel ist dabei in sehr vielfältiger Weise mit dem zellulären Cholesterol-Stoffwechsel verknüpft. Hohe Cholesterolspiegel in spezifischen Membrandomänen wie Lipid-Rafts forcieren sehr wahrscheinlich die zelluläre Produktion als auch die Fibrillogenese von A...

  5. Cilostazol Upregulates Autophagy via SIRT1 Activation: Reducing AmyloidPeptide and APP-CTFβ Levels in Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rin Lee

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a vital pathway for the removal of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ and the aggregated proteins that cause Alzheimer's disease (AD. We previously found that cilostazol induced SIRT1 expression and its activity in neuronal cells, and thus, we hypothesized that cilostazol might stimulate clearances of Aβ and C-terminal APP fragment β subunit (APP-CTFβ by up-regulating autophagy.When N2a cells were exposed to soluble Aβ1-42, protein levels of beclin-1, autophagy-related protein5 (Atg5, and SIRT1 decreased significantly. Pretreatment with cilostazol (10-30 μM or resveratrol (20 μM prevented these Aβ1-42 evoked suppressions. LC3-II (a marker of mammalian autophagy levels were significantly increased by cilostazol, and this increase was reduced by 3-methyladenine. To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, N2aSwe cells (N2a cells stably expressing human APP containing the Swedish mutation were cultured in medium with or without tetracycline (Tet+ for 48 h and then placed in Tet- condition. Aβ and APP-CTFβ expressions were increased after 12~24 h in Tet- condition, and these increased expressions were significantly reduced by pretreating cilostazol. Cilostazol-induced reductions in the expressions of Aβ and APP-CTFβ were blocked by bafilomycin A1 (a blocker of autophagosome to lysosome fusion. After knockdown of the SIRT1 gene (to ~40% in SIRT1 protein, cilostazol failed to elevate the expressions of beclin-1, Atg5, and LC3-II, indicating that cilostazol increases these expressions by up-regulating SIRT1. Further, decreased cell viability induced by Aβ was prevented by cilostazol, and this inhibition was reversed by 3-methyladenine, indicating that the protective effect of cilostazol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity is, in part, ascribable to the induction of autophagy. In conclusion, cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing the activation of SIRT1, and thereby enhances Aβ clearance and increases cell viability.

  6. Nasal administration of amyloid-beta peptide decreases cerebral amyloid burden in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiner, H L; Lemere, C A; Maron, R;

    2000-01-01

    -Abeta antibodies of the IgG1 and IgG2b classes, and mononuclear cells in the brain expressing the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-4, interleukin-10, and tumor growth factor-beta. Our results demonstrate that chronic nasal administration of Abeta peptide can induce an immune response to Abeta that decreases...

  7. A mechanistic model of tau amyloid aggregation based on direct observation of oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, Sarah L.; Garcia, Gonzalo A.; Kumar, Satish; Kjaergaard, Magnus; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Shivji, Nadia; Mandelkow, Eva; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Klenerman, David

    2015-04-01

    Protein aggregation plays a key role in neurodegenerative disease, giving rise to small oligomers that may become cytotoxic to cells. The fundamental microscopic reactions taking place during aggregation, and their rate constants, have been difficult to determine due to lack of suitable methods to identify and follow the low concentration of oligomers over time. Here we use single-molecule fluorescence to study the aggregation of the repeat domain of tau (K18), and two mutant forms linked with familial frontotemporal dementia, the deletion mutant ΔK280 and the point mutant P301L. Our kinetic analysis reveals that aggregation proceeds via monomeric assembly into small oligomers, and a subsequent slow structural conversion step before fibril formation. Using this approach, we have been able to quantitatively determine how these mutations alter the aggregation energy landscape.

  8. Effect of cholesterol and amyloidpeptide on structure and function of mixed-lipid films and pulmonary surfactant BLES: an atomic force microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hane, Francis; Drolle, Elizabeth; Leonenko, Zoya

    2010-12-01

    Pulmonary surfactant forms a thin molecular film inside mammalian lung alveoli and lowers the surface tension of the air/fluid interface to reduce the work of breathing. Upon compression functional surfactant forms characteristic multilayer structures, which indicate surfactant surface activity. We showed that cholesterol adversely affects both structural and surface-active properties of BLES surfactant and DPPC/DOPG lipid films. Incorporation of small concentrations of fibril-forming peptide amyloid-β 1-40 helps to counteract the distractive effect of cholesterol by improving characteristic multilayer formation that occurs upon compression. In contrast to many negative effects of amyloid-forming peptides reported earlier, we report a positive effect of amyloidpeptide on surfactant function, which may aid in the designing of novel surfactant formulations. PMID:20493966

  9. Depression and Plasma Amyloid β Peptides in the Elderly with and without the Apolipoprotein E4 Allele

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Chiu, Chi Chia; Liebson, Elizabeth; Crivello, Natalia A.; Wang, Lixia; Caunch, Joshua; Folstein, Marshal; Rosenberg, Irwin; Mwamburi, D. Mkaya; Peter, Inga; Qiu, Wei Qiao

    2009-01-01

    Depression associated with low plasma Amyloidpeptide 42 (Aβ42) leading to a high ratio of Aβ40/Aβ42, a biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), may represent a unique depression subtype. The relationship between low plasma Aβ42 in depression and the major risk factor of AD, Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), is unknown. With the goal of clarifying this relationship, we analyzed 1060 homebound elders with ApoE characterization and depression status in a cross-sectional study. Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 wer...

  10. Cryogenic solid state NMR studies of fibrils of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloidpeptide: perspectives for DNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic Nuclear Polarization solid-state NMR holds the potential to enable a dramatic increase in sensitivity by exploiting the large magnetic moment of the electron. However, applications to biological solids are hampered in uniformly isotopically enriched biomacromolecules due to line broadening which yields a limited spectral resolution at cryogenic temperatures. We show here that high magnetic fields allow to overcome the broadening of resonance lines often experienced at liquid nitrogen temperatures. For a fibril sample of the Alzheimer’s disease β-amyloid peptide, we find similar line widths at low temperature and at room temperature. The presented results open new perspectives for structural investigations in the solid-state

  11. The new β amyloid-derived peptide Aβ1-6A2V-TAT(D) prevents Aβ oligomer formation and protects transgenic C. elegans from Aβ toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomede, Luisa; Romeo, Margherita; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Rossi, Alessandro; Beeg, Marten; Stravalaci, Matteo; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Di Fede, Giuseppe; Gobbi, Marco; Salmona, Mario

    2016-04-01

    One attractive pharmacological strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is to design small peptides to interact with amyloid-β (Aβ) protein reducing its aggregation and toxicity. Starting from clinical observations indicating that patients coding a mutated Aβ variant (AβA2V) in the heterozygous state do not develop AD, we developed AβA2V synthetic peptides, as well as a small peptide homologous to residues 1-6. These hindered the amyloidogenesis of Aβ and its neurotoxicity in vitro, suggesting a basis for the design of a new small peptide in D-isomeric form, linked to the arginine-rich TAT sequence [Aβ1-6A2V-TAT(D)], to allow translocation across biological membranes and the blood-brain barrier. Aβ1-6A2V-TAT(D) was resistant to protease degradation, stable in serum and specifically able to interfere with Aβ aggregation in vitro, reducing the appearance of toxic soluble species and protecting transgenic C. elegans from toxicity related to the muscular expression of human Aβ. These observations offer a proof of concept for future pharmacological studies in mouse models of AD, providing a foundation for the design of AβA2V-based peptidomimetic molecules for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26792398

  12. May bis-intercalator-peptides influence prion aggregation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Hlaváček, Jan; Stibor, I.

    Praha: ÚOCHB AV ČR, 2003 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 98-101 ISBN 80-86241-20-3. [Biologically Active Peptides /8./. Praha (CZ), 23.04.2003-25.04.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : prion * DNA * bis-intercalators Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  13. Optimization of a polyglutamine aggregation inhibitor peptide (QBP1) using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuro, Lora; Zhang, Guangtao; Tucker, Timothy J; Self, Christopher; Strittmatter, Warren J; Burke, James R

    2007-10-01

    Polyglutamine protein aggregates are a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, and increasing evidence suggests that reducing or inhibiting aggregation produces a therapeutic benefit in animal models of disease. Part of the challenge in designing compounds that interfere with protein aggregation is having a sensitive and consistent in vitro assay that allows for efficient screening and lead optimization. Here we describe a simplified polyglutamine assay that uses a soluble, pathological-length polyglutamine construct (62 glutamines [Q62]) fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and measure aggregate formation with fluorescence generated by thioflavin T binding. Controlled release of Q62 from GST using proteolytic cleavage resulted in time-dependent aggregate formation that was not observed for a non-pathological-length GST-Q19 construct. Cleavage of the polyglutamine domain from GST increased the rate of Q62 aggregation from days to hours, significantly decreasing the time for compound analysis. Controlled aggregate formation combined with the fluorescence sensitivity of the dye thioflavin T allowed us to screen a series of peptide analogs for lead optimization of a previously identified peptide aggregation inhibitor, QBP1. QBP1 analogs showed the greatest inhibitory potency when added prior to Q62 aggregate initiation, suggesting that the mechanism of inhibition was interference with early formed aggregates that were not detectable by ultraviolet or dye binding. The assay detected activities that differed by three orders of magnitudes with Z' = 0.56, which is suitable for high-throughput screening and allowed us to do lead optimization of QBP1 analogs for pharmacophore model building. PMID:17939755

  14. Effect of N-terminal amphiphilic peptide region on aggregation of ovalbumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregation of protein is widely observed in our daily life. For example, cooking is manipulation of protein state. Main cause of various human diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases is also considered to be aggregation of protein. One of model proteins is ovalbumin (OVA), which is a major protein in egg white. An OVA aqueous solution aggregates at high temperature and forms gel like sunny-side up above the threshold concentration. This phenomenon has been researched thoroughly from the viewpoint of turbidity, rheology, spectroscopy, scattering and so on. Then we, as chemists, think the next step for this research is manipulation of the aggregation state by modifying the chemical structure. Kawachi et al. concentrated on the N-terminal amphiphilic peptide region (pN1-22) and proved that this peptide region enhances the strength of OVA gel from the viewpoint of rheology. In contrast, aggregation ability of OVA without this peptide region (pOVA) is dramatically reduced. We assume that the reason for this phenomenon originates from the amphiphilic nature of the peptide. The aim of this research is to clarify the role of pN1-22 and the relationship between the microscopic chemical structure and the macroscopic physical properties. To clarify the mesoscopic structure, we conducted a SANS measurement at GP-SANS, High Flux Isotope Reactor at ORNL. Samples are solutions or gels of OVA, pOVA, peptide and their mixture with various concentrations before and after heating. pH of samples was set to 7, which is common condition for the application of OVA and their derivatives. We observed a strong upturn at low-q region in SANS curves for pOVA solutions/gels after heating. This behavior is similar to a phase separation of well-known poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA) solutions. From this result, we can see that the lack of amphiphilic peptide region makes the OVA solute unstable and promotes aggregation. In contrast to this, addition of amphiphilic peptide

  15. Dependence pH and proposed mechanism for aggregation of Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid-β(1-42) protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Tanaka, Yhuki; Kiyono, Mituhiro; Chino, Masahiro; Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Hoshi, Keiko; Ikeshima, Hideaki

    2015-08-01

    It is shown that the aggregation and oligomerization of β-amyloid protein (Aβ1-42) are strongly dependent on solution pH. Ionic forms of the side bands of Aβ1-42 were generated by adjusting the pH using different buffer solutions. As a result, it was possible to establish a relationship between the aggregation of Aβ1-42 and the pH. In addition, to gain insight into the mechanism of Aβ1-42 aggregation, aggregation models for Aβ17-42 (2-13 mer prepared at pH 7-8) were computed using a MMFF (molecular mechanics) method. When the pH was greater than the isoelectric point (IP) of Aβ17-42, the aggregation of Aβ17-42 was accelerated by intermolecular ion bridge relay binding of Asp23 with Lys28. Such binding of Asp23 with Lys28 can explain the high level of stability of Aβ fibrils and oligomers (plastic-like biopolymers found in the amyloid plaques observed in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease) produced as the result of Aβ aggregation. At pH 9.5, Aβ1-42 aggregation was not observed experimentally, because the side chain of Lys28 contained unprotonated amino groups (-NH2, not -NH3+). This result was also confirmed using the MMFF method.

  16. Mild exposure of RIN-5F β-cells to human islet amyloid polypeptide aggregates upregulates antioxidant enzymes via NADPH oxidase-RAGE: An hormetic stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Borchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of amyloid aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP, a hallmark of type 2 diabetes, contributes to pancreatic β-cell impairment, where oxidative stress plays a key role. A contribution of NADPH oxidase to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation after cell exposure to micromolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates has been suggested. However, little is known about β-cells exposure to lower amounts of hIAPP aggregates, similar to those found in human pancreas. Thus, we aimed to investigate the events resulting from RIN-5F cells exposure to nanomolar concentrations of toxic hIAPP aggregates. We found an early and transient rise of NADPH oxidase activity resulting from increased Nox1 expression following the engagement of receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE by hIAPP aggregates. Unexpectedly, NADPH oxidase activation was not accompanied by a significant ROS increase and the lipoperoxidation level was significantly reduced. Indeed, cell exposure to hIAPP aggregates affected the antioxidant defences, inducing a significant increase of the expression and activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase. We conclude that exposure of pancreatic β-cells to nanomolar concentrations of hIAPP aggregates for a short time induces an hormetic response via the RAGE-Nox1 axis; the latter stimulates the enzymatic antioxidant defences that preserve the cells against oxidative stress damage.

  17. Effects of Amyloid Precursor Protein 17 Peptide on the Protection of Diabetic Encephalopathy and Improvement of Glycol Metabolism in the Diabetic Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that amyloid precursor protein 17 peptide (APP17 peptide, an active fragment of amyloid precursor protein (APP in the nervous system, has therapeutic effects on neurodegeneration. Diabetic encephalopathy (DE is a neurological disease caused by diabetes. Here we use multiple experimental approaches to investigate the effect of APP17 peptide on changes in learning behavior and glycol metabolism in rats. It was found that rats with DE treated by APP17 peptide showed reversed behavioral alternation. The [18F]-FDG-PET images and other results all showed that the APP17 peptide could promote glucose metabolism in the brain of the DE rat model. Meanwhile, the insulin signaling was markedly increased as shown by increased phosphorylation of Akt and enhanced GLUT4 activation. Compared with the DE group, the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in the rat hippocampal gyrus were increased, while MDA decreased markedly in the DE + APP17 peptide group. No amyloid plaques in the cortex and the hippocampus were detected in either group, indicating that the experimental animals in the current study were not suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. These results indicate that APP17 peptide could be used to treat DE effectively.

  18. Conformational dynamics and aggregation behavior of piezoelectric diphenylalanine peptides in an external electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Catherine M; Northey, Thomas; Ryan, Kate; Brooks, Bernard R; Kholkin, Andrei L; Rodriguez, Brian J; Buchete, Nicolae-Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic peptides including diphenylalanine (FF) have the capacity to self-assemble into ordered, biocompatible nanostructures with piezoelectric properties relevant to a variety of biomedical applications. Electric fields are commonly applied to align FF nanotubes, yet little is known about the effect of the electric field on the assembly process. Using all-atom molecular dynamics with explicit water molecules, we examine the response of FF monomers to the application of a constant external electric field over a range of intensities. We probe the aggregation mechanism of FF peptides, and find that the presence of even relatively weak fields can accelerate ordered aggregation, primarily by facilitating the alignment of individual molecular dipole moments. This is modulated by the conformational response of individual FF peptides (e.g., backbone stretching) and by the cooperative alignment of neighboring FF and water molecules. These observations may facilitate future studies on the controlled formation of nanostructured aggregates of piezoelectric peptides and the understanding of their electro-mechanical properties. PMID:25240398

  19. Thioflavin T templates amyloid β(1-40) conformation and aggregation pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Carlo, Maria Giovanna; Minicozzi, Velia; Foderà, Vito;

    2015-01-01

    Aβ(1-40) peptide supramolecular assembly and fibril formation processes are widely recognized to have direct implications in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. The molecular basis of this biological process is still unknown and there is a strong need of developing effective strategies to con...

  20. Direct Observation of Aggregation-Induced Backbone Conformational Changes in Tau Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiji, A C; Shine, A; Vijayan, Vinesh

    2016-09-12

    In tau proteins, the hexapeptides in the R2 and R3 repeats are known to initiate tau fibril formation, which causes a class of neurodegenerative diseases called the taupathies. We show that in R3, in addition to the presence of the hexapeptides, the correct turn conformation upstream to it is also essential for producing prion-like fibrils that are capable of propagation. A time-dependent NMR aggregation assay of a slow fibril forming R3-S316P peptide revealed a trans to cis equilibrium shift in the peptide-bond conformation preceding P316 during the growth phase of the aggregation process. S316 was identified as the key residue in the turn that confers templating capacity on R3 fibrils to accelerate the aggregation of the R3-S316P peptide. These results on the specific interactions and conformational changes responsible for tau aggregation could prove useful for developing an efficient therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27513615

  1. Chronic exposure of NG108-15 cells to amyloid beta peptide (A beta(1-42)) abolishes calcium influx via N-type calcium channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, Jana; Lisá, Věra; Tuček, Stanislav; Doležal, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, 8-9 (2001), s. 1079-1084. ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : amyloid beta peptide * Alzheimer's disease * calcium Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2001

  2. Monodisperse carboxyl-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-coated magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres: application to the immunocapture of .beta.-amyloid peptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Daniel; Hlídková, Helena; Hiraoui, M.; Taverna, M.; Proks, Vladimír; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Smadja, C.; Kučerová, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 11 (2014), s. 1590-1599. ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12053 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 246513 - NADINE Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : β-amyloid peptides * CE-LIF detection * functionalization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.851, year: 2014

  3. Early stages of amyloid fibril formation studied by liquid-state NMR: the peptide hormone glucagon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Anna Sigrid Pii; Jahn, Kasper; Deva, Taru; Malmendal, Anders; Otzen, Daniel; Dittmer, Jens; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2008-01-01

    the course of the fibril formation process. Kinetic information is extracted from the time course of the residual free glucagon signal decay. This suggests that glucagon amyloids form by a nucleated growth mechanism in which trimers (rather than monomers) of glucagon interact directly with the growing...

  4. Oligomeric AmyloidPeptide on Sialylic Lewisx–Selectin Bonding at Cerebral Endothelial Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholpan Askarova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, which affects approximately 10% of the population aged 65 and 40% of people over the age 80. Currently, AD is on the list of diseases with no effective treatment. Thus, the study of molecular and cellular mechanisms of AD progression is of high scientific and practical importance. In fact, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB plays an important role in the onset and progression of the disease. Increased deposition of amyloid b peptide (Aβ in cerebral vasculature and enhanced transmigration of monocytes across the BBB are frequently observed in AD brains and are some of the pathological hallmarks of the diseases. Since the transmigration of monocytes across the BBB is both a mechanical and a biochemical process, the expression of adhesion molecules and mechanical properties of endothelial cells are the critical factors that require investigation.Methods: Because of recent advances in the biological applications of atomic force microscopy (AFM, we applied AFM with cantilever tips bio-functionalized by sLex in combination with the advanced immunofluorescent microscopy (QIM to study the direct effects of Aβ42 oligomers on the selectins expression, actin polymerization, and cellular mechanical and adhesion properties in cerebral endothelial cells (mouse bEnd3 line and primary human CECs and find a possible way to attenuate these effects. Results: QIM results showed that Aβ42 increased the expressions of P-selectin on the cell surface and enhanced actin polymerization. Consistent with our QIM results, AFM data showed that Aβ42 increased the probability of cell adhesion with sLex-coated cantilever and cell stiffness. These effects were counteracted by lovstatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug.  Surprisingly, the apparent rupture force of sLex-selectin bonding was significantly lower after treatment with Aβ42, as compared with the control (i.e. no treatment

  5. AmyloidPeptide Aβ3pE-42 Induces Lipid Peroxidation, Membrane Permeabilization, and Calcium Influx in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Adam P; Wong, Bruce X; Johanssen, Timothy; Griffith, James C; Masters, Colin L; Bush, Ashley I; Barnham, Kevin J; Duce, James A; Cherny, Robert A

    2016-03-18

    Pyroglutamate-modified amyloid-β (pE-Aβ) is a highly neurotoxic amyloid-β (Aβ) isoform and is enriched in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease compared with healthy aged controls. Pyroglutamate formation increases the rate of Aβ oligomerization and alters the interactions of Aβ with Cu(2+) and lipids; however, a link between these properties and the toxicity of pE-Aβ peptides has not been established. We report here that Aβ3pE-42 has an enhanced capacity to cause lipid peroxidation in primary cortical mouse neurons compared with the full-length isoform (Aβ(1-42)). In contrast, Aβ(1-42) caused a significant elevation in cytosolic reactive oxygen species, whereas Aβ3pE-42 did not. We also report that Aβ3pE-42 preferentially associates with neuronal membranes and triggers Ca(2+) influx that can be partially blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801. Aβ3pE-42 further caused a loss of plasma membrane integrity and remained bound to neurons at significantly higher levels than Aβ(1-42) over extended incubations. Pyroglutamate formation was additionally found to increase the relative efficiency of Aβ-dityrosine oligomer formation mediated by copper-redox cycling. PMID:26697885

  6. The amyloid beta-peptide is imported into mitochondria via the TOM import machinery and localized to mitochondrial cristae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson Petersen, Camilla A; Alikhani, Nyosha; Behbahani, Homira;

    2008-01-01

    The amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) has been suggested to exert its toxicity intracellularly. Mitochondrial functions can be negatively affected by Abeta and accumulation of Abeta has been detected in mitochondria. Because Abeta is not likely to be produced locally in mitochondria, we decided to...... investigate the mechanisms for mitochondrial Abeta uptake. Our results from rat mitochondria show that Abeta is transported into mitochondria via the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) machinery. The import was insensitive to valinomycin, indicating that it is independent of the mitochondrial membrane...... potential. Subfractionation studies following the import experiments revealed Abeta association with the inner membrane fraction, and immunoelectron microscopy after import showed localization of Abeta to mitochondrial cristae. A similar distribution pattern of Abeta in mitochondria was shown by...

  7. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid amyloid β peptide signatures in sporadic and PSEN1 A431E-associated familial Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasko Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with deposition of amyloid β (Aβ in the brain, which is reflected by low concentration of the Aβ1-42 peptide in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. There are at least 15 additional Aβ peptides in human CSF and their relative abundance pattern is thought to reflect the production and degradation of Aβ. Here, we test the hypothesis that AD is characterized by a specific CSF Aβ isoform pattern that is distinct when comparing sporadic AD (SAD and familial AD (FAD due to different mechanisms underlying brain amyloid pathology in the two disease groups. Results We measured Aβ isoform concentrations in CSF from 18 patients with SAD, 7 carriers of the FAD-associated presenilin 1 (PSEN1 A431E mutation, 17 healthy controls and 6 patients with depression using immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry. Low CSF levels of Aβ1-42 and high levels of Aβ1-16 distinguished SAD patients and FAD mutation carriers from healthy controls and depressed patients. SAD and FAD were characterized by similar changes in Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-16, but FAD mutation carriers exhibited very low levels of Aβ1-37, Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-39. Conclusion SAD patients and PSEN1 A431E mutation carriers are characterized by aberrant CSF Aβ isoform patterns that hold clinically relevant diagnostic information. PSEN1 A431E mutation carriers exhibit low levels of Aβ1-37, Aβ1-38 and Aβ1-39; fragments that are normally produced by γ-secretase, suggesting that the PSEN1 A431E mutation modulates γ-secretase cleavage site preference in a disease-promoting manner.

  8. Current and future treatment of amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankarcrona, M; Winblad, B; Monteiro, C; Fearns, C; Powers, E T; Johansson, J; Westermark, G T; Presto, J; Ericzon, B-G; Kelly, J W

    2016-08-01

    There are more than 30 human proteins whose aggregation appears to cause degenerative maladies referred to as amyloid diseases or amyloidoses. These disorders are named after the characteristic cross-β-sheet amyloid fibrils that accumulate systemically or are localized to specific organs. In most cases, current treatment is limited to symptomatic approaches and thus disease-modifying therapies are needed. Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with extracellular amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) fibrils and intracellular tau neurofibrillary tangles as pathological hallmarks. Numerous clinical trials have been conducted with passive and active immunotherapy, and small molecules to inhibit Aβ formation and aggregation or to enhance Aβ clearance; so far such clinical trials have been unsuccessful. Novel strategies are therefore required and here we will discuss the possibility of utilizing the chaperone BRICHOS to prevent Aβ aggregation and toxicity. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is symptomatically treated with insulin. However, the underlying pathology is linked to the aggregation and progressive accumulation of islet amyloid polypeptide as fibrils and oligomers, which are cytotoxic. Several compounds have been shown to inhibit islet amyloid aggregation and cytotoxicity in vitro. Future animal studies and clinical trials have to be conducted to determine their efficacy in vivo. The transthyretin (TTR) amyloidoses are a group of systemic degenerative diseases compromising multiple organ systems, caused by TTR aggregation. Liver transplantation decreases the generation of misfolded TTR and improves the quality of life for a subgroup of this patient population. Compounds that stabilize the natively folded, nonamyloidogenic, tetrameric conformation of TTR have been developed and the drug tafamidis is available as a promising treatment. PMID:27165517

  9. Acute stress increases interstitial fluid amyloid-β via corticotropin-releasing factor and neuronal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jae-Eun; Cirrito, John R.; Dong, Hongxin; John G. Csernansky; Holtzman, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the extracellular space of the brain is critical in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is produced by neurons and released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), a process regulated by synaptic activity. To determine whether behavioral stressors can regulate ISF Aβ levels, we assessed the effects of chronic and acute stress paradigms in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Isolation stress over 3 months increased Aβ levels by 84%. ...

  10. Synaptic silencing and plasma membrane dyshomeostasis induced by amyloidpeptide are prevented by Aristotelia chilensis enriched extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Jorge; Dibarrart, Andrea; Saez-Orellana, Francisco; Fuentes-Fuentes, María Cecilia; Oyanedel, Carlos N; Guzmán, José; Perez, Claudia; Becerra, José; Aguayo, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of different types of extracellular and neurotoxic aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ). Recently, bioactive compounds extracted from natural sources showing neuroprotective properties have become of interest in brain neurodegeneration. We have purified, characterized, and evaluated the protective potential of one extract enriched in polyphenols obtained from Aristotelia chilensis (MQ), a Chilean berry fruit, in neuronal models of AD induced by soluble oligomers of Aβ1-40. For example, using primary hippocampal cultures from rats (E18), we observed neuroprotection when the neurons were co-incubated with Aβ (0.5 μM) plus MQ for 24 h (Aβ = 23 ± 2%; Aβ + MQ = 3 ± 1%; n = 3). In parallel, co-incubation of Aβ with MQ recovered the frequency of Ca2+ transient oscillations when compared to neurons treated with Aβ alone (Aβ = 72 ± 3%; Aβ + MQ = 86 ± 2%; n = 5), correlating with the changes observed in spontaneous synaptic activity. Additionally, MAP-2 immunostaining showed a preservation of the dendritic tree, suggesting that the toxic effect of Aβ is prevented in the presence of MQ. A new complex mechanism is proposed by which MQ induces neuroprotective effects including antioxidant properties, modulation of cell survival pathways, and/or direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates. Our results suggest that MQ induces changes in the aggregation kinetics of Aβ producing variations in the nucleation phase (Aβ: k1 = 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10-3 s-1 MQ: k1 = 8.3 ± 0.6 × 10-3 s-1) and altering Thioflavin T insertion in β-sheets. In conclusion, MQ induces a potent neuroprotection by direct interaction with the Aβ aggregates, generating far less toxic species and in this way protecting the neuronal network. PMID:22728896

  11. The Structure of the AmyloidPeptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-β (Aβ) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of Aβ-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in Aβ may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of Aβ peptides complexed with Cu2+ in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length Aβ-Cu2+ peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the Aβ-Cu2+ complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu2+ binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to Aβ can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  12. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastus Neus

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  13. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Eyleen; Olmedo, Ivonne; Bastus, Neus G.; Guerrero, Simón; Puntes, Víctor F.; Giralt, Ernest; Kogan, Marcelo J.

    2008-11-01

    Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  14. Accumulation of murine amyloid-β mimics early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Markus; Bracke, Alexander; Avchalumov, Yosef; Schumacher, Toni; Hofrichter, Jacqueline; Paarmann, Kristin; Fröhlich, Christina; Lange, Cathleen; Brüning, Thomas; von Bohlen Und Halbach, Oliver; Pahnke, Jens

    2015-08-01

    Amyloidosis mouse models of Alzheimer's disease are generally established by transgenic approaches leading to an overexpression of mutated human genes that are known to be involved in the generation of amyloid-β in Alzheimer's families. Although these models made substantial contributions to the current knowledge about the 'amyloid hypothesis' of Alzheimer's disease, the overproduction of amyloidpeptides mimics only inherited (familiar) Alzheimer's disease, which accounts for mild cognitive impairment. Using behavioural tests, electrophysiology and morphological analyses, we compared different ABC transporter-deficient animals and found that alterations are most prominent in neprilysin × ABCC1 double-deficient mice. We show that these mice have a reduced probability to survive, show increased anxiety in new environments, and have a reduced working memory performance. Furthermore, we detected morphological changes in the hippocampus and amygdala, e.g. astrogliosis and reduced numbers of synapses, leading to defective long-term potentiation in functional measurements. Compared to human, murine amyloid-β is poorly aggregating, due to changes in three amino acids at N-terminal positions 5, 10, and 13. Interestingly, our findings account for the action of early occurring amyloid-β species/aggregates, i.e. monomers and small amyloid-β oligomers. Thus, neprilysin × ABCC1 double-deficient mice present a new model for early effects of amyloid-β-related mild cognitive impairment that allows investigations without artificial overexpression of inherited Alzheimer's disease genes. PMID:25991605

  15. Influence of dendrimer's structure on its activity against amyloid fibril formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhibition of fibril assembly is a potential therapeutic strategy in neurodegenerative disorders such as prion and Alzheimer's diseases. Highly branched, globular polymers-dendrimers-are novel promising inhibitors of fibril formation. In this study, the effect of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers (generations 3rd, 4th, and 5th) on amyloid aggregation of the prion peptide PrP 185-208 and the Alzheimer's peptide Aβ 1-28 was examined. Amyloid fibrils were produced in vitro and their formation was monitored using the dye thioflavin T (ThT). Fluorescence studies were complemented with electron microscopy. The results show that the higher the dendrimer generation, the larger the degree of inhibition of the amyloid aggregation process and the more effective are dendrimers in disrupting the already existing fibrils. A hypothesis on dendrimer-peptide interaction mechanism is presented based on the dendrimers' molecular structure

  16. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer’s disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies.

  17. Progress in the development of therapeutic antibodies targeting prion proteins and β-amyloid peptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are characterized by protein misfolding, and can lead to dementia. However, prion diseases are infectious and transmissible, while AD is not. The similarities and differences between these diseases have led researchers to perform comparative studies. In the last 2 decades, progress has been made in immunotherapy using anti-prion protein and anti-β-amyloid antibodies. In this study, we review new ideas and strategies for therapeutic antibodies targeting prion diseases and AD through conformation dependence.

  18. A novel antagonistic role of natural compound icariin on neurotoxicity of amyloid β peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhui Liu

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicated a novel antagonistic role of icariin in the neurotoxicity of Aβ1-42 via inhibiting its aggregation, suggesting that icariin might have potential therapeutic benefits to delay or modify the progression of AD.

  19. Amyloid-beta peptide degradation in cell cultures by mycoplasma contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell cultures have become an indispensable tool in Alzheimer's disease research for studying amyloid-β (Aβ metabolism. It is estimated that up to 35% of cell cultures in current use are infected with various mycoplasma species. In contrast with common bacterial and fungal infections, contaminations of cell cultures with mycoplasmas represent a challenging issue in terms of detectability and prevention. Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest self-replicating bacteria and the consequences of an infection for the host cells are variable, ranging from no apparent effect to induction of apoptosis. Findings Here we present evidence that mycoplasmas from a cell culture contamination are able to efficiently and rapidly degrade extracellular Aβ. As a result, we observed no accumulation of Aβ in the conditioned medium of mycoplasma-positive cells stably transfected with the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP. Importantly, eradication of the mycoplasma contaminant – identified as M. hyorhinis – by treatments with a quinolone-based antibiotic, restored extracellular Aβ accumulation in the APP-transfected cells. Conclusion These data show that mycoplasmas degrade Aβ and thus may represent a significant source of variability when comparing extracellular Aβ levels in different cell lines. On the basis of these results, we recommend assessment of mycoplasma contaminations prior to extracellular Aβ level measurements in cultured cells.

  20. Amyloid β-peptide directly induces spontaneous calcium transients, delayed intercellular calcium waves and gliosis in rat cortical astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Buibas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of astrocytes to the pathophysiology of AD (Alzheimer's disease and the molecular and signalling mechanisms that potentially underlie them are still very poorly understood. However, there is mounting evidence that calcium dysregulation in astrocytes may be playing a key role. Intercellular calcium waves in astrocyte networks in vitro can be mechanically induced after Aβ (amyloid β-peptide treatment, and spontaneously forming intercellular calcium waves have recently been shown in vivo in an APP (amyloid precursor protein/PS1 (presenilin 1 Alzheimer's transgenic mouse model. However, spontaneous intercellular calcium transients and waves have not been observed in vitro in isolated astrocyte cultures in response to direct Aβ stimulation in the absence of potentially confounding signalling from other cell types. Here, we show that Aβ alone at relatively low concentrations is directly able to induce intracellular calcium transients and spontaneous intercellular calcium waves in isolated astrocytes in purified cultures, raising the possibility of a potential direct effect of Aβ exposure on astrocytes in vivo in the Alzheimer's brain. Waves did not occur immediately after Aβ treatment, but were delayed by many minutes before spontaneously forming, suggesting that intracellular signalling mechanisms required sufficient time to activate before intercellular effects at the network level become evident. Furthermore, the dynamics of intercellular calcium waves were heterogeneous, with distinct radial or longitudinal propagation orientations. Lastly, we also show that changes in the expression levels of the intermediate filament proteins GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100B are affected by Aβ-induced calcium changes differently, with GFAP being more dependent on calcium levels than S100B.

  1. αB-Crystallin inhibits the cell toxicity associated with amyloid fibril formation by κ-casein and the amyloidpeptide

    OpenAIRE

    Dehle, Francis C.; Ecroyd, Heath; Musgrave, Ian F.; Carver, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid fibril formation is associated with diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and prion diseases. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation by molecular chaperone proteins, such as the small heat-shock protein αB-crystallin, may play a protective role in preventing the toxicity associated with this form of protein misfolding. Reduced and carboxymethylated κ-casein (RCMκ-CN), a protein derived from milk, readily and reproducibly forms fibrils at physiological temperature and pH. We inves...

  2. Expression of Fap amyloids in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and P. putida results in aggregation and increased biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Morten S.; Søndergaard, Mads T; Nilsson, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    The fap operon, encoding functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap), is present in most pseudomonads, but so far the expression and importance for biofilm formation has only been investigated for P. fluorescens strain UK4. In this study, we demonstrate the capacity of P. aeruginosa PAO1, P. fluorescens...... Pf-5, and P. putida F1 to express Fap fibrils, and investigated the effect of Fap expression on aggregation and biofilm formation. The fap operon in all three Pseudomonas species conferred the ability to express Fap fibrils as shown using a recombinant approach. This Fap overexpression consistently...

  3. Analysis of the length distribution of amyloid fibrils by centrifugal sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Cedervall, Tommy; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Linse, Sara

    2016-07-01

    The aggregation of normally soluble peptides and proteins into amyloid fibrils is a process associated with a wide range of pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. It has become apparent that aggregates of different sizes possess markedly different biological effects, with aggregates of lower relative molecular weight being associated with stronger neurotoxicity. Yet, although many approaches exist to measure the total mass concentration of aggregates, the ability to probe the length distribution of growing aggregates in solution has remained more elusive. In this work, we applied a differential centrifugation technique to measure the sedimentation coefficients of amyloid fibrils produced during the aggregation process of the amyloid β (M1-42) peptide (Aβ42). The centrifugal method has the advantage of providing structural information on the fibril distribution directly in solution and affording a short analysis time with respect to alternative imaging and analytical centrifugation approaches. We show that under quiescent conditions interactions between Aβ42 fibrils lead to lateral association and to the formation of entangled clusters. By contrast, aggregation under shaking generates a population of filaments characterized by shorter lengths. The results, which have been validated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) analysis, highlight the important role that fibril-fibril assembly can play in the deposition of aggregation-prone peptides. PMID:27033008

  4. Computational Modelling of the Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skeby, Katrine Kirkeby

    2014-01-01

    specific protein into amyloid fibrils. During this process, a cytotoxic event occurs which can be a serious actor in the evolvement of the disease. This thesis is concerned with elucidating the biological processes concerning amyloid proteins, more specifically, the peptide hormone human islet amyloid...... methods to interpret results correctly. Computational studies and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in particular have become important tools in the effort to understand biological mechanisms. The strength of these methods is the high resolution in time and space, and the ability to specifically design...... atoms are grouped into a single particle, reducing the number of particles in the system. Coarse grained MD simulations are necessary to study amyloid aggregation computationally, as the time scale and the system size needed for the process are not currently accessible with atomistic MD simulations...

  5. Recent progress in the study of intracellular toxicity of amyloid β peptide in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; YU Longchuan

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) deposition is one of the major pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Extracellular Aβ toxicity has been studied for a long time in AD research field. However, controversial data show that extracellular Aβ load does not correlate with the dementia levels of AD patients and extracellular Aβ only induces significant cell death at non-physiological high concentrations.With the evolvement of Aβ hypothesis, considerable attention has been devoted to the study of intracellular Aβ toxicity recently. Intracellular Aβ induces dramatic cell loss in AD transgenic models and in human primary neurons (at pM concentrations) through p53, Bax and caspase-6 pathways. Here, we review the generation, toxicity and possible pathways of intracellular Aβ toxicity, and discuss the implication and current knowledge of intracellular Aβ in neuronal cell loss in neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of amyloid β aggregation from seaweed extracts by a microliter-scale high-throughput screening system with a quantum dot nanoprobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, Toshiki; Takahashi, Tomohito; Yasui, Hajime; Uwai, Koji; Tokuraku, Kiyotaka

    2015-07-01

    Inhibitors of amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation have the potential to serve as lead compounds for anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) agents because Aβ aggregation is a key step in AD pathogenesis. Recently, we developed a novel microliter-scale high-throughput screening (MSHTS) system for Aβ aggregation inhibitors that applied fluorescence microscopic analysis with quantum dot nanoprobes, and attempted to comprehensively screen the inhibitors from spices using this system (Ishigaki et al., PLoS One, 8, e72992, 2013). In this study, we tried to evaluate the inhibitory activities of 11 seaweed extracts on Aβ aggregation using the MSHTS system. The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the ethanolic extracts from all seaweeds exceeded 4.9 mg/ml, indicating that the extracts inhibit Aβ aggregation although this activity was significantly lower than that displayed by members of the Lamiaceae, a family of herbal spices that showed highest activity among 52 spices tested in our 2013 study. On the other hand, the EC50 of boiling water extracts was 0.013-0.42 mg/ml which was comparable with the EC50 of the extracts from the Lamiaceae family. These results suggest that the extraction efficiency of the inhibitors by boiling water extraction was higher than that by ethanolic extraction. Moreover, analysis of fluorescence micrographs, which were obtained from the MSHTS system, revealed that the morphology of the Aβ aggregates coincubated with boiling water extracts differed from control aggregates, suggesting that the MSHTS system is also useful for screening substances that affect the morphology of aggregates. PMID:25534595

  7. The Effects of Endogenous Non-Peptide Molecule Isatin and Hydrogen Peroxide on Proteomic Profiling of Rat Brain Amyloid-β Binding Proteins: Relevance to Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei E. Medvedev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The amyloidpeptide is considered as a key player in the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Although good evidence exists that amyloid-β accumulates inside cells, intracellular brain amyloid-binding proteins remain poorly characterized. Proteomic profiling of rat brain homogenates, performed in this study, resulted in identification of 89 individual intracellular amyloid-binding proteins, and approximately 25% of them were proteins that we had previously identified as specifically binding to isatin, an endogenous neuroprotector molecule. A significant proportion of the amyloid-binding proteins (more than 30% are differentially expressed or altered/oxidatively modified in AD patients. Incubation of brain homogenates with 70 µM hydrogen peroxide significantly influenced the profile of amyloid-β binding proteins and 0.1 mM isatin decreased the number of identified amyloid-β binding proteins both in control and hydrogen peroxide treated brain homogenates. The effects of hydrogen peroxide and isatin have been confirmed in optical biosensor experiments with purified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of the known crucial amyloid-β binding proteins (also identified in this study. Data obtained suggest that isatin protects crucial intracellular protein targets against amyloid binding, and possibly favors intracellular degradation of this protein via preventing formation of amyloid-β oligomers described in the literature for some isatin derivatives.

  8. Amyloidpeptides and tau protein as biomarkers in cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid following traumatic brain injury: A review of experimental and clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmenion P. Tsitsopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors frequently suffer from life-long deficits in cognitive functions and a reduced quality of life. Axonal injury, observed in most severe TBI patients, results in accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP. Post-injury enzymatic cleavage of APP can generate amyloid-β (Aβ peptides, a hallmark finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. At autopsy, brains of AD and a subset of TBI victims display some similarities including accumulation of Aβ peptides and neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Most epidemiological evidence suggests a link between TBI and AD, implying that TBI has neurodegenerative sequelae. Aβ peptides and tau may be used as biomarkers in interstitial fluid (ISF using cerebral microdialysis and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF following clinical TBI. In the present review, the available clinical and experimental literature on Aβ peptides and tau as potential biomarkers following TBI is comprehensively analyzed. Elevated CSF and ISF tau protein levels have been observed following severe TBI and suggested to correlate with clinical outcome. Although Aβ peptides are produced by normal neuronal metabolism, high levels of long and/or fibrillary Aβ peptides may be neurotoxic. Increased CSF and/or ISF Aβ levels post-injury may be related to neuronal activity and/or the presence of axonal injury. The heterogeneity of animal models, clinical cohorts, analytical techniques and the complexity of TBI in available studies make the clinical value of tau and Aβ as biomarkers uncertain at present. Additionally, the link between early post-injury changes in tau and Aβ peptides and the future risk of developing AD remains unclear. Future studies using e.g. rapid biomarker sampling combined with enhanced analytical techniques and/or novel pharmacological tools could provide additional information on the importance of Aβ peptides and tau protein in both the acute pathophysiology and long

  9. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanatin, a 21-residue peptide, is an inducible insect peptide. In our previous study, we have identified a novel thanatin analog of S-thanatin, which exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi with low hemolytic activity. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of S-thanatin and identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. In this study, membrane phospholipid was found to be the target for S-thanatin. In the presence of vesicles, S-thanatin interestingly led to the aggregation of anionic vesicles and sonicated bacteria. Adding S-thanatin to Escherichia coli suspension would result in the collapse of membrane and kill bacteria. The sensitivity assay of protoplast elucidated the importance of outer membrane (OM) for S-thanatin's antimicrobial activity. Compared with other antimicrobial peptide, S-thanatin produced chaotic membrane morphology and cell debris in electron microscopic appearance. These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death.

  10. Membrane aggregation and perturbation induced by antimicrobial peptide of S-thanatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guoqiu, E-mail: guoqiuwu@163.com [Center of Clinical Laboratory Medicine of Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Hongbin; Li, Linxian; Fan, Xiaobo; Ding, Jiaxuan; Li, Xiaofang; Xi, Tao [Biotechnology Center, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shen, Zilong, E-mail: Zilongshen@sina.com [Biotechnology Center, Department of Life Science and Biotechnology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-04-23

    Thanatin, a 21-residue peptide, is an inducible insect peptide. In our previous study, we have identified a novel thanatin analog of S-thanatin, which exhibited a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi with low hemolytic activity. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of S-thanatin and identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. In this study, membrane phospholipid was found to be the target for S-thanatin. In the presence of vesicles, S-thanatin interestingly led to the aggregation of anionic vesicles and sonicated bacteria. Adding S-thanatin to Escherichia coli suspension would result in the collapse of membrane and kill bacteria. The sensitivity assay of protoplast elucidated the importance of outer membrane (OM) for S-thanatin's antimicrobial activity. Compared with other antimicrobial peptide, S-thanatin produced chaotic membrane morphology and cell debris in electron microscopic appearance. These results supported our hypothesis that S-thanatin bound to negatively charged LPS and anionic lipid, impeded membrane respiration, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released periplasmic material, which led to cell death.

  11. A synthetic peptide with the putative iron binding motif of amyloid precursor protein (APP does not catalytically oxidize iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP, which is a key player in Alzheimer's disease, was recently reported to possess an Fe(II binding site within its E2 domain which exhibits ferroxidase activity [Duce et al. 2010, Cell 142: 857]. The putative ligands of this site were compared to those in the ferroxidase site of ferritin. The activity was indirectly measured using transferrin, which scavenges the Fe(III product of the reaction. A 22-residue synthetic peptide, named FD1, with the putative ferroxidase site of APP, and the E2 domain of APP were each reported to exhibit 40% of the ferroxidase activity of APP and of ceruloplasmin. It was also claimed that the ferroxidase activity of APP is inhibited by Zn(II just as in ferritin. We measured the ferroxidase activity indirectly (i by the incorporation of the Fe(III product of the ferroxidase reaction into transferrin and directly (ii by monitoring consumption of the substrate molecular oxygen. The results with the FD1 peptide were compared to the established ferroxidase activities of human H-chain ferritin and of ceruloplasmin. For FD1 we observed no activity above the background of non-enzymatic Fe(II oxidation by molecular oxygen. Zn(II binds to transferrin and diminishes its Fe(III incorporation capacity and rate but it does not specifically bind to a putative ferroxidase site of FD1. Based on these results, and on comparison of the putative ligands of the ferroxidase site of APP with those of ferritin, we conclude that the previously reported results for ferroxidase activity of FD1 and - by implication - of APP should be re-evaluated.

  12. Non-fibrillar amyloidpeptide reduces NMDA-induced neurotoxicity, but not AMPA-induced neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloidpeptide (Aβ) is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that Aβ has important physiological roles in addition to its pathological roles. We recently demonstrated that Aβ42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but the relationship between Aβ42 assemblies and their neuroprotective effects remains largely unknown. In this study, we prepared non-fibrillar and fibrillar Aβ42 based on the results of the thioflavin T assay, Western blot analysis, and atomic force microscopy, and examined the effects of non-fibrillar and fibrillar Aβ42 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Non-fibrillar Aβ42, but not fibrillar Aβ42, protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, non-fibrillar Aβ42 decreased both neurotoxicity and increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), but not by α-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Our results suggest that non-fibrillar Aβ42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the NMDA receptor.

  13. Kinetic partitioning between aggregation and vesicle permeabilization by modified ADan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Lise W.; Vad, Brian; Christiansen, Gunna;

    2009-01-01

    changed to serines to emulate the reduced peptide. SerADan aggregates rapidly at pH 5.0 and 7.5 in a series of conformational transitions to form beta-sheet rich fibril-like structures, which nevertheless do not bind amyloid-specific dyes, probably due to the absence of organized beta-sheet contacts...

  14. Designed Trpzip-3 β-Hairpin Inhibits Amyloid Formation in Two Different Amyloid Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopping, Gene; Kellock, Jackson; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2013-09-12

    The trpzip peptides are small, monomeric, and extremely stable β-hairpins that have become valuable tools for studying protein folding. Here, we show that trpzip-3 inhibits aggregation in two very different amyloid systems: transthyretin and Aβ(1-42). Interestingly, Trp → Leu mutations renders the peptide ineffective against transthyretin, but Aβ inhibition remains. Computational docking was used to predict the interactions between trpzip-3 and transthyretin, suggesting that inhibition occurs via binding to the outer region of the thyroxine-binding site, which is supported by dye displacement experiments. PMID:24900756

  15. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) prevents β-amyloid aggregation, generation of advanced glycation-end products (AGEs), and acrolein-induced cytotoxicity on human neuronal-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Leonardo da Silva; Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Yatsu, Francini Kiyono Jorge; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Moresco, Karla Suzana; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Bassani, Valquiria Linck; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2014-11-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are considered potent molecules capable of promoting neuronal cell death and participating in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AGEs exacerbate β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and AGE-related cross-links are also detected in senile plaques. Acrolein (ACR) is an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde found in the environment and thermally processed foods, which can additionally be generated through endogenous metabolism. The role of ACR in AD is widely accepted in the literature. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Mart.) is popularly consumed by the population in Brazil, mainly for its stimulant activity. In the present study, we showed that guarana (10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL) is able to prevent protein glycation, β-amyloid aggregation, in vitro methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and ACR (20 μM)-induced toxicity on neuronal-like cells (SH-SY5Y). Since these are considered typical AD pathological hallmarks, we propose that guarana may deserve further research as a potential therapeutic agent in such a neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24840232

  16. The AmyloidPeptide of Alzheimer’s Disease Binds CuI in a Linear Bis-His Coordination Environment: Insight into a Possible Neuroprotective Mechanism for the AmyloidPeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.; Szalai, V

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to neuronal apoptosis associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Copper may participate in oxidative stress through redox-cycling between its +2 and +1 oxidation states to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vitro, copper binds to the amyloid-? peptide of AD, and in vivo, copper is associated with amyloid plaques characteristic of AD. As a result, the A?CuI complex may be a critical reactant involved in ROS associated with AD etiology. To characterize the A?CuI complex, we have pursued X-ray absorption (XAS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of A?CuII and A?CuI (produced by ascorbate reduction of A?CuII). The A?CuII complex Cu K-edge XAS spectrum is indicative of a square-planar CuII center with mixed N/O ligation. Multiple scattering analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data for A?CuII indicates that two of the ligands are imidazole groups of histidine ligands, indicating a (NIm)2(N/O)2 CuII ligation sphere for A?CuII. After reduction of the A?CuII complex with ascorbate, the edge region decreases in energy by 4 eV. The X-ray absorption near-edge spectrum region of A?CuI displays an intense pre-edge feature at 8984.1(2) eV. EXAFS data fitting yielded a two-coordinate geometry, with two imidazole ligands coordinated to CuI at 1.877(2) A in a linear geometry. Ascorbate reduction of A?CuII under inert atmosphere and subsequent air oxidation of A?CuI to regenerate A?CuII was monitored by low-temperature EPR spectroscopy. Slow reappearance of the A?CuII EPR signal indicates that O2 oxidation of the A?CuI complex is kinetically sluggish and A? damage is occurring following reoxidation of A?CuI by O2. Together, these results lead us to hypothesize that CuI is ligated by His13 and His14 in a linear coordination environment in ??, that A? may be playing a neuroprotective role, and that metal-mediated oxidative damage of A? occurs over multiple redox cycles.

  17. Accumulation of Exogenous Amyloid-Beta Peptide in Hippocampal Mitochondria Causes Their Dysfunction: A Protective Role for Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rosales-Corral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid-beta (Aβ pathology is related to mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied by energy reduction and an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Monomers and oligomers of Aβ have been found inside mitochondria where they accumulate in a time-dependent manner as demonstrated in transgenic mice and in Alzheimer’s disease (AD brain. We hypothesize that the internalization of extracellular Aβ aggregates is the major cause of mitochondrial damage and here we report that following the injection of fibrillar Aβ into the hippocampus, there is severe axonal damage which is accompanied by the entrance of Aβ into the cell. Thereafter, Aβ appears in mitochondria where it is linked to alterations in the ionic gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This effect is accompanied by disruption of subcellular structure, oxidative stress, and a significant reduction in both the respiratory control ratio and in the hydrolytic activity of ATPase. Orally administrated melatonin reduced oxidative stress, improved the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, and ameliorated the energy imbalance.

  18. Imaging β-amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease: a critical analysis through simulation of amyloid fibril polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polymerization of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides into fibrillary plaques is implicated, in part, in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ molecular imaging probes (Aβ-MIPs) have been introduced in an effort to quantify amyloid burden or load, in subjects afflicted with AD by invoking the classic PET receptor model for the quantitation of neuronal receptor density. In this communication, we explore conceptual differences between imaging the density of amyloid fibril polymers and neuronal receptors. We formulate a mathematical model for the polymerization of Aβ with parameters that are mapped to biological modulators of fibrillogenesis and introduce a universal measure for amyloid load to accommodate various interactions of Aβ-MIPs with fibrils. Subsequently, we hypothesize four Aβ-MIPs and utilize the fibrillogenesis model to simulate PET tissue time activity curves (TACs). Given the unique nature of polymer growth and resulting PET TAC, the four probes report differing amyloid burdens for a given brain pathology, thus complicating the interpretation of PET images. In addition, we introduce the notion of an MIP's resolution, apparent maximal binding site concentration, optimal kinetic topology and its resolving power in characterizing the pathological progression of AD and the effectiveness of drug therapy. The concepts introduced in this work call for a new paradigm that goes beyond the classic parameters B max and K D to include binding characteristics to polymeric peptide aggregates such as amyloid fibrils, neurofibrillary tangles and prions

  19. Biological evaluation of synthetic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl based cyclohexanone derivatives as neuroprotective novel inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and amyloidaggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Cheng-Pan; Qin, Hua-Li; Jantan, Ibrahim; Sher, Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad Wahab; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Hussain, Zahid; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2016-05-15

    A series of new α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based cyclohexanone derivatives was synthesized by simple condensation method and all compounds were characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. New compounds were evaluated for their effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These compounds were also screened for in vitro cytotoxicity and for inhibitory activity for self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation. The effect of these compounds against amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated. The findings of in vitro experiment revealed that most of these compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activity against AChE and self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation. The compound 3o exhibited best AChE (IC50=0.037μM) inhibitory potential. Furthermore, compound 3o disassembled the Aβ fibrils produced by self-induced Aβ aggregation by 76.6%. Compounds containing N-methyl-4-piperidone linker, showed high acetylcholinesterase and self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibitory activities as compared to reference drug donepezil. The pre-treatment of cells with synthetic compounds protected them against Aβ-induced cell death by up to 92%. Collectively, these findings suggest that some compounds from this series have potential to be promising multifunctional agents for AD treatment and our study suggest the cyclohexanone derivatives as promising new inhibitors for AChE and BuChE, potentially useful to treat neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27083471

  20. Weak glycolipid binding of a microdomain-tracer peptide correlates with aggregation and slow diffusion on cell membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lauterbach

    Full Text Available Organized assembly or aggregation of sphingolipid-binding ligands, such as certain toxins and pathogens, has been suggested to increase binding affinity of the ligand to the cell membrane and cause membrane reorganization or distortion. Here we show that the diffusion behavior of the fluorescently tagged sphingolipid-interacting peptide probe SBD (Sphingolipid Binding Domain is altered by modifications in the construction of the peptide sequence that both result in a reduction in binding to ganglioside-containing supported lipid membranes, and at the same time increase aggregation on the cell plasma membrane, but that do not change relative amounts of secondary structural features. We tested the effects of modifying the overall charge and construction of the SBD probe on its binding and diffusion behavior, by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR; Biacore analysis on lipid surfaces, and by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS on live cells, respectively. SBD binds preferentially to membranes containing the highly sialylated gangliosides GT1b and GD1a. However, simple charge interactions of the peptide with the negative ganglioside do not appear to be a critical determinant of binding. Rather, an aggregation-suppressing amino acid composition and linker between the fluorophore and the peptide are required for optimum binding of the SBD to ganglioside-containing supported lipid bilayer surfaces, as well as for interaction with the membrane. Interestingly, the strength of interactions with ganglioside-containing artificial membranes is mirrored in the diffusion behavior by FCS on cell membranes, with stronger binders displaying similar characteristic diffusion profiles. Our findings indicate that for aggregation-prone peptides, aggregation occurs upon contact with the cell membrane, and rather than giving a stronger interaction with the membrane, aggregation is accompanied by weaker binding and complex diffusion profiles indicative of heterogeneous

  1. Mechanism of fiber assembly; treatment of Aβ-peptide aggregation with a coarse-grained united-residue force field

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas, Ana; Liwo, Adam; Browne, Dana; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of growth of fibrils of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) was studied by means of a physics-based coarse-grained united-residue (UNRES) model and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To identify the mechanism of monomer addition to an Aβ1–40 fibril, an unstructured monomer was placed at a 20 Å distance from a fibril template, and allowed to interact freely with it. The monomer was not biased towards the fibril conformation, by either the force field or the MD algorithm. By using a coar...

  2. Polymorphic structures of Alzheimer's β-amyloid globulomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Misfolding and self-assembly of Amyloid-β (Aβ peptides into amyloid fibrils is pathologically linked to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Polymorphic Aβ structures derived from monomers to intermediate oligomers, protofilaments, and mature fibrils have been often observed in solution. Some aggregates are on-pathway species to amyloid fibrils, while the others are off-pathway species that do not evolve into amyloid fibrils. Both on-pathway and off-pathway species could be biologically relevant species. But, the lack of atomic-level structural information for these Aβ species leads to the difficulty in the understanding of their biological roles in amyloid toxicity and amyloid formation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we model a series of molecular structures of Aβ globulomers assembled by monomer and dimer building blocks using our peptide-packing program and explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Structural and energetic analysis shows that although Aβ globulomers could adopt different energetically favorable but structurally heterogeneous conformations in a rugged energy landscape, they are still preferentially organized by dynamic dimeric subunits with a hydrophobic core formed by the C-terminal residues independence of initial peptide packing and organization. Such structural organizations offer high structural stability by maximizing peptide-peptide association and optimizing peptide-water solvation. Moreover, curved surface, compact size, and less populated β-structure in Aβ globulomers make them difficult to convert into other high-order Aβ aggregates and fibrils with dominant β-structure, suggesting that they are likely to be off-pathway species to amyloid fibrils. These Aβ globulomers are compatible with experimental data in overall size, subunit organization, and molecular weight from AFM images and H/D amide exchange NMR. CONCLUSIONS: Our computationally modeled Aβ globulomers provide useful

  3. Self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides into microtubes with "turn on" fluorescence using an aggregation-induced emission molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Na; Mu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Qiuling; Wen, Jiying; Wang, Fangfang; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-10-01

    The self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides (l-Phe-l-Phe) into microtubes with "turn on" bright yellow green fluorescence was described, which was achieved using an aggregation-induced emission (AIE) molecule of 9,10-bis[4-(3-sulfonatopropoxyl)-styryl] anthracene (BSPSA) sodium. PMID:24045462

  4. Role of Side-Chains in Forming Peptide Aggregates and Fibrils. IR and VCD Spectroscopic Studies. Theory and Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chi, H.; Tobias, F.; Kessler, Jiří; Kubelka, J.; Bouř, Petr; Keiderling, T. A.

    Cambridge : Cell press, 2014. Roč. 108, Suppl 1 (2015), 523A. ISSN 0006-3495. [Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society /59./. 07.02.2015-11.02.2015, Baltimore] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : side chains * peptide aggregates * Glu * IR * VCD Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  5. An in vivo platform for identifying inhibitors of protein aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, JC; Young, LM; Mahood, RA; Jackson, MP; Revill, CH; Foster, RJ; Smith, DA; Ashcroft, AE; Brockwell, DJ; Radford, SE

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an array of human diseases, yet only one small molecule therapeutic has been successfully developed to date. Here, we introduce an in vivo system, based on a β-lactamase tripartite fusion construct, capable of identifying aggregation-prone sequences in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and inhibitors that prevent their aberrant self-assembly. We demonstrate the power of the system using a range of proteins, from small unstructured peptides (islet amyloid polypept...

  6. Induction of serine racemase expression and D-serine release from microglia by amyloid β-peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffin W Sue T

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roles for excitotoxicity and inflammation in Alzheimer's disease have been hypothesized. Proinflammatory stimuli, including amyloid β-peptide (Aβ, elicit a release of glutamate from microglia. We tested the possibility that a coagonist at the NMDA class of glutamate receptors, D-serine, could respond similarly. Methods Cultured microglial cells were exposed to Aβ. The culture medium was assayed for levels of D-serine by HPLC and for effects on calcium and survival on primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Microglial cell lysates were examined for the levels of mRNA and protein for serine racemase, the enzyme that forms D-serine from L-serine. The racemase mRNA was also assayed in Alzheimer hippocampus and age-matched controls. A microglial cell line was transfected with a luciferase reporter construct driven by the putative regulatory region of human serine racemase. Results Conditioned medium from Aβ-treated microglia contained elevated levels of D-serine. Bioassays of hippocampal neurons with the microglia-conditioned medium indicated that Aβ elevated a NMDA receptor agonist that was sensitive to an antagonist of the D-serine/glycine site (5,7-dicholorokynurenic acid; DCKA and to enzymatic degradation of D-amino acids by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAOx. In the microglia, Aβ elevated steady-state levels of dimeric serine racemase, the apparent active form of the enzyme. Promoter-reporter and mRNA analyses suggest that serine racemase is transcriptionally induced by Aβ. Finally, the levels of serine racemase mRNA were elevated in Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, relative to age-matched controls. Conclusions These data suggest that Aβ could contribute to neurodegeneration through stimulating microglia to release cooperative excitatory amino acids, including D-serine.

  7. Critical role for sphingosine kinase-1 in regulating survival of neuroblastoma cells exposed to amyloid-beta peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Pchejetski, Dimitri; Brizuela, Leyre; Garcia, Virginie; Altié, Marie-Françoise; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    We examined the role of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1), a critical regulator of the ceramide/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) biostat, in the regulation of death and survival of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in response to amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide (25-35). Upon incubation with Abeta, SH-SY5Y cells displayed a marked down-regulation of SphK1 activity coupled with an increase in the ceramide/S1P ratio followed by cell death. This mechanism was redox-sensitive; N-acetylcysteine totally abrogated the down-regulation of SphK1 activity and strongly inhibited Abeta-induced cell death. SphK1 overexpression impaired the cytotoxicity of Abeta, whereas SphK1 silencing by RNA interference mimicked Abeta-induced cell death, thereby establishing a critical role for SphK1. We further demonstrated that SphK1 could mediate the well established cytoprotective action of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) against Abeta toxicity. A dominant-negative form of SphK1 or its pharmacological inhibition not only abrogated IGF-I-triggered stimulation of SphK1 but also hampered IGF-I protective effect. Similarly to IGF-I, the neuroprotective action of TGF-beta1 was also dependent on SphK1 activity; activation of SphK1 as well as cell survival were impeded by a dominant-negative form of SphK1. Taken together, these results provide the first illustration of SphK1 role as a critical regulator of death and survival of Abeta-treated cells. PMID:17522181

  8. Calcium binding to beta-2-microglobulin at physiological pH drives the occurrence of conformational changes which cause the protein to precipitate into amorphous forms that subsequently transform into amyloid aggregates.

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    Sukhdeep Kumar

    Full Text Available Using spectroscopic, calorimetric and microscopic methods, we demonstrate that calcium binds to beta-2-microglobulin (β2m under physiological conditions of pH and ionic strength, in biological buffers, causing a conformational change associated with the binding of up to four calcium atoms per β2m molecule, with a marked transformation of some random coil structure into beta sheet structure, and culminating in the aggregation of the protein at physiological (serum concentrations of calcium and β2m. We draw attention to the fact that the sequence of β2m contains several potential calcium-binding motifs of the DXD and DXDXD (or DXEXD varieties. We establish (a that the microscopic aggregation seen at physiological concentrations of β2m and calcium turns into actual turbidity and visible precipitation at higher concentrations of protein and β2m, (b that this initial aggregation/precipitation leads to the formation of amorphous aggregates, (c that the formation of the amorphous aggregates can be partially reversed through the addition of the divalent ion chelating agent, EDTA, and (d that upon incubation for a few weeks, the amorphous aggregates appear to support the formation of amyloid aggregates that bind to the dye, thioflavin T (ThT, resulting in increase in the dye's fluorescence. We speculate that β2m exists in the form of microscopic aggregates in vivo and that these don't progress to form larger amyloid aggregates because protein concentrations remain low under normal conditions of kidney function and β2m degradation. However, when kidney function is compromised and especially when dialysis is performed, β2m concentrations probably transiently rise to yield large aggregates that deposit in bone joints and transform into amyloids during dialysis related amyloidosis.

  9. CD147 is a regulatory subunit of the gamma-secretase complex inAlzheimer's disease amyloid beta-peptide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shuxia; Zhou, Hua; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K.

    2005-04-06

    {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex that cleaves the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the transmembrane region, following prior processing by {beta}-secretase, producing amyloid {beta}-peptides (A{beta}{sub 40} and A{beta}{sub 42}). Errant production of A{beta}-peptides that substantially increases A{beta}{sub 42} production has been associated with the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. Biophysical and genetic studies indicate that presenilin-1 (Psn-1), which contains the proteolytic active site, and three other membrane proteins, nicastrin (Nct), APH-1, and PEN-2 are required to form the core of the active {gamma}-secretase complex. Here, we report the purification of the native {gamma}-secretase complexes from HeLa cell membranes and the identification of an additional {gamma}-secretase complex subunit, CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein with two immunoglobulin-like domains. The presence of this subunit as an integral part of the complex itself was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation studies of the purified protein from HeLa cells and solubilized complexes from other cell lines such as neural cell HCN-1A and HEK293. Depletion of CD147 by RNA interference was found to increase the production of A{beta} peptides without changing the expression level of the other {gamma}-secretase components or APP substrates while CD147 overexpression had no statistically significant effect on amyloid {beta}-peptide production, other {gamma}-secretase components or APP substrates, indicating that the presence of the CD147 subunit within the {gamma}-secretase complex directly down-modulates the production of A{beta}-peptides. {gamma}-secretase was first recognized through its role in the production of the A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (1). {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex with unusual aspartyl protease activity that cleaves a variety of type I membrane proteins

  10. IgG Conformer's Binding to Amyloidogenic Aggregates.

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    Monichan Phay

    Full Text Available Amyloid-reactive IgGs isolated from pooled blood of normal individuals (pAbs have demonstrated clinical utility for amyloid diseases by in vivo targeting and clearing amyloidogenic proteins and peptides. We now report the following three novel findings on pAb conformer's binding to amyloidogenic aggregates: 1 pAb aggregates have greater activity than monomers (HMW species > dimers > monomers, 2 pAbs interactions with amyloidogenic aggregates at least partially involves unconventional (non-CDR interactions of F(ab regions, and 3 pAb's activity can be easily modulated by trace aggregates generated during sample processing. Specifically, we show that HMW aggregates and dimeric pAbs present in commercial preparations of pAbs, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg, had up to ~200- and ~7-fold stronger binding to aggregates of Aβ and transthyretin (TTR than the monomeric antibody. Notably, HMW aggregates were primarily responsible for the enhanced anti-amyloid activities of Aβ- and Cibacron blue-isolated IVIg IgGs. Human pAb conformer's binding to amyloidogenic aggregates was retained in normal human sera, and mimicked by murine pAbs isolated from normal pooled plasmas. An unconventional (non-CDR component to pAb's activity was indicated from control human mAbs, generated against non-amyloid targets, binding to aggregated Aβ and TTR. Similar to pAbs, HMW and dimeric mAb conformers bound stronger than their monomeric forms to amyloidogenic aggregates. However, mAbs had lower maximum binding signals, indicating that pAbs were required to saturate a diverse collection of binding sites. Taken together, our findings strongly support further investigations on the physiological function and clinical utility of the inherent anti-amyloid activities of monomeric but not aggregated IgGs.

  11. Lipophilicity of amyloid β-peptide 12-28 and 25-35 to unravel their ability to promote hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermondi, G; Catalano, F; Vallaro, M; Ermondi, I; Camacho Leal, M P; Rinaldi, L; Visentin, S; Caron, G

    2015-11-10

    The growing interest for peptide therapeutics calls for new strategies to determine the physico-chemical properties responsible for the interactions of peptides with the environment. This study reports about the lipophilicity of two fragments of the amyloid β-peptide, Aβ 25-35 and Aβ 12-28. Firstly, computational studies showed the limits of log D(7.4)oct in describing the lipophilicity of medium-sized peptides. Chromatographic lipophilicity indexes (expressed as log k', the logarithm of the retention factor) were then measured in three different systems to highlight the different skills of Aβ 25-35 and Aβ 12-28 in giving interactions with polar and apolar environments. CD studies were also performed to validate chromatographic experimental conditions. Results show that Aβ 12-28 has a larger skill in promoting hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions than Aβ 25-35. This finding proposes a strategy to determine the lipophilicity of peptides for drug discovery purposes but also gives insights in unraveling the debate about the aminoacidic region of Aβ responsible for its neurotoxicity. PMID:26325311

  12. Early oligomerization stages for the non-amyloid component of α-synuclein amyloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Cindie; Laghaei, Rozita; Mousseau, Normand

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, much effort has focused on the early stages of aggregation and the formation of amyloid oligomers. Aggregation processes for these proteins are complex and their non-equilibrium nature makes any experimental study very difficult. Under these conditions, simulations provide a useful alternative for understanding the dynamics of the early stages of oligomerization. Here, we focus on the non-Aβ amyloid component (NAC) of the monomer, dimer, and trimer of α-synuclein, an important 35-residue sequence involved in the aggregation and fibrillation of this protein associated with Parkinson's disease. Using Hamiltonian and temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations combined with the coarse grained Optimized Potential for Efficient peptide structure Prediction potential, we identify the role of the various regions and the secondary structures for the onset of oligomerization. For this sequence, we clearly observe the passage from α-helix to β-sheet, a characteristic transition of amyloid proteins. More precisely, we find that the NAC monomer is highly structured with two α-helical regions, between residues 2-13 and 19-25. As the dimer and trimer form, β-sheet structures between residues 2-14 and 26-34 appear and rapidly structure the system. The resulting conformations are much more structured than similar dimers and trimers of β-amyloid and amylin proteins and yet display a strong polymorphism at these early stages of aggregation. In addition to its inherent experimental interest, comparison with other sequences shows that NAC could be a very useful numerical model for understanding the onset of aggregation.

  13. Monodisperse carboxyl-functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-coated magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres: application to the immunocapture of β-amyloid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, Daniel; Hlídková, Helena; Hiraoui, Mohamed; Taverna, Myriam; Proks, Vladimír; Mázl Chánová, Eliška; Smadja, Claire; Kučerová, Zdenka

    2014-11-01

    Identification and evaluation of small changes in β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) levels in cerebrospinal fluid is of crucial importance for early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Microfluidic detection methods enable effective preconcentration of Aβ using magnetic microparticles coated with Aβ antibodies. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres are coated with α-amino-ω-methoxy-PEG5000 /α-amino-ω-Boc-NH-PEG5000 Boc groups deprotected and NH2 succinylated to introduce carboxyl groups. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection confirms the efficient capture of Aβ 1-40 peptides on the microspheres with immobilized monoclonal anti-Aβ 6E10. The capture specificity is confirmed by comparing Aβ 1-40 levels on the anti-IgG-immobilized particles used as a control. PMID:25142028

  14. The Luminescent Oligothiophene p-FTAA Converts Toxic Aβ1-42 Species into Nontoxic Amyloid Fibers with Altered Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, Livia; Sandin, Linnea; Nelson, Erin; Khattak, Sikander Iqbal; Brorsson, Ann-Christin; Kågedal, Katarina

    2016-04-22

    Aggregation of the amyloidpeptide (Aβ) in the brain leads to the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques, which is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). It is a general hypothesis that soluble prefibrillar assemblies of the Aβ peptide, rather than mature amyloid fibrils, cause neuronal dysfunction and memory impairment in AD. Thus, reducing the level of these prefibrillar species by using molecules that can interfere with the Aβ fibrillation pathway may be a valid approach to reduce Aβ cytotoxicity. Luminescent-conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) have amyloid binding properties and spectral properties that differ when they bind to protein aggregates with different morphologies and can therefore be used to visualize protein aggregates. In this study, cell toxicity experiments and biophysical studies demonstrated that the LCO p-FTAA was able to reduce the pool of soluble toxic Aβ species in favor of the formation of larger insoluble nontoxic amyloid fibrils, there by counteracting Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, p-FTAA bound to early formed Aβ species and induced a rapid formation of β-sheet structures. These p-FTAA generated amyloid fibrils were less hydrophobic and more resistant to proteolysis by proteinase K. In summary, our data show that p-FTAA promoted the formation of insoluble and stable Aβ species that were nontoxic which indicates that p-FTAA might have therapeutic potential. PMID:26907684

  15. The Luminescent Oligothiophene p-FTAA Converts Toxic Aβ1–42 Species into Nontoxic Amyloid Fibers with Altered Properties*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitelli, Livia; Sandin, Linnea; Nelson, Erin; Khattak, Sikander Iqbal; Kågedal, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloidpeptide (Aβ) in the brain leads to the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques, which is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). It is a general hypothesis that soluble prefibrillar assemblies of the Aβ peptide, rather than mature amyloid fibrils, cause neuronal dysfunction and memory impairment in AD. Thus, reducing the level of these prefibrillar species by using molecules that can interfere with the Aβ fibrillation pathway may be a valid approach to reduce Aβ cytotoxicity. Luminescent-conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) have amyloid binding properties and spectral properties that differ when they bind to protein aggregates with different morphologies and can therefore be used to visualize protein aggregates. In this study, cell toxicity experiments and biophysical studies demonstrated that the LCO p-FTAA was able to reduce the pool of soluble toxic Aβ species in favor of the formation of larger insoluble nontoxic amyloid fibrils, there by counteracting Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity. Moreover, p-FTAA bound to early formed Aβ species and induced a rapid formation of β-sheet structures. These p-FTAA generated amyloid fibrils were less hydrophobic and more resistant to proteolysis by proteinase K. In summary, our data show that p-FTAA promoted the formation of insoluble and stable Aβ species that were nontoxic which indicates that p-FTAA might have therapeutic potential. PMID:26907684

  16. Beta-amyloid peptides enhance the proliferative response of activated CD4CD28 lymphocytes from Alzheimer disease patients and from healthy elderly.

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    Agnieszka Jóźwik

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most frequent form of dementia among elderly. Despite the vast amount of literature on non-specific immune mechanisms in AD there is still little information about the potential antigen-specific immune response in this pathology. It is known that early stages of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ- reactive antibodies production and inflammatory response. Despite some evidence gathered proving cellular immune response background in AD pathology, the specific reactions of CD4(+ and CD8(+ cells remain unknown as the previous investigations yielded conflicting results. Here we investigated the CD4(+CD28(+ population of human peripheral blood T cells and showed that soluble β-amyloids alone were unable to stimulate these cells to proliferate significantly, resulting only in minor, probably antigen-specific, proliferative response. On the other hand, the exposure of in vitro pre-stimulated lymphocytes to soluble Aβ peptides significantly enhanced the proliferative response of these cells which had also lead to increased levels of TNF, IL-10 and IL-6. We also proved that Aβ peptide-enhanced proliferative response of CD4(+CD28(+ cells is autonomous and independent from disease status while being associated with the initial, ex vivo activation status of the CD4(+ cells. In conclusion, we suggest that the effect of Aβ peptides on the immune system of AD patients does not depend on the specific reactivity to Aβ epitope(s, but is rather a consequence of an unspecific modulation of the cell cycle dynamics and cytokine production by T cells, occurring simultaneously in a huge proportion of Aβ peptide-exposed T lymphocytes and affecting the immune system performance.

  17. The Role of the Midmolecular Peptides in the Blood Cell Aggregation in Acute Periods of a Burn Disease

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    Egorikhina M.N.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of midmolecular peptide (MMP concentration on platelet and erythrocyte aggregation in severe burned patients. Materials and Methods. The investigation was carried out on 34 blood samples of healthy people and 30 blood samples of severe burned patients. There was determined the level of MMP, as well as that of creatinine, and urea. The “Amicon Ultra-4” microcentrifuge tubes were used to isolate MMP. Results. The level increase of average mass molecules isolated from the blood plasma of patients in an acute period of a burn disease has been stated to cause a progressive increase of platelet aggregation of healthy donors. The erythrocyte aggregation increase in such conditions is observed only in very high MMP concentrations. Creatinine and urea do not practically effect the ADP-induced platelet aggregation and the erythrocyte aggregation of healthy donors, and even decrease spontaneous thrombocyte aggregation in very high concentrations occur in an acute renal insufficiency. Conclusion. One of the reasons of platelet aggregation decrease under the influence of chemosorption in a burn disease can be the decrease of the MMP concentration in response to chemosorption.

  18. Effects of Yizhi Capsule (益智胶囊) on Learning and Memory Disorder and β-amyloid Peptide Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hang-yu; XU Jiang-ping; LI Lin; ZHU Bai-hua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of Yizhi Capsule (益智胶囊, YZC) on learning and memory disorder and β-amyloid peptide induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: Various doses of YZC were administered to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 8 consecutive days, twice a day. On the 8th day of the experiment,scopolamine hydrobromide was intraperitoneally injected to every rat and Morris water maze test and shuttle dark avoidance test were carried out respectively to explore the changes of learning and memory capacities in the rats. Besides, after the cerebral cortical neurons of newborn SD rats aged within 3 days were cultured in vitro for 7 days, drug serum containing YZC was added to the cultured neurons before or after β amyloid peptide25-35 (Aβ25-35) intoxication to observe the protective effect of YZC on neurotoxicity by MTT assay and to determine the LDH content in the supernatant. Results: Compared with those untreated with YZC, the rats having received YZC treatment got superiority in shorter time of platform seeking in Morris water maze test,as well as elongated latent period and less times of error in shuttle dark avoidance test. On the cultured neurons, YZC drug serum could effectively increase the survival rate of Aβ25-35 intoxicated neurons and reduce the LDH contents in cultured supernatant. Conclusion: YZC has an action of improving learning and memory disorder, and good protective effect on Aβ25-35 induced neurotoxicity in SD rats.

  19. Candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease are associated with individual differences in plasma levels of beta amyloid peptides in adults with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schupf, Nicole; Lee, Annie; Park, Naeun; Dang, Lam-Ha; Pang, Deborah; Yale, Alexander; Oh, David Kyung-Taek; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J; Jenkins, Edmund C; Luchsinger, José A; Zigman, Warren B; Silverman, Wayne; Tycko, Benjamin; Kisselev, Sergey; Clark, Lorraine; Lee, Joseph H

    2015-10-01

    We examined the contribution of candidates genes for Alzheimer's disease (AD) to individual differences in levels of beta amyloid peptides in adults with Down syndrom, a population at high risk for AD. Participants were 254 non-demented adults with Down syndrome, 30-78 years of age. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was genotyped using an Illumina GoldenGate custom array. We used linear regression to examine differences in levels of Aβ peptides associated with the number of risk alleles, adjusting for age, sex, level of intellectual disability, race and/or ethnicity, and the presence of the APOE ε4 allele. For Aβ42 levels, the strongest gene-wise association was found for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on CAHLM1; for Aβ40 levels, the strongest gene-wise associations were found for SNPs in IDE and SOD1, while the strongest gene-wise associations with levels of the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were found for SNPs in SORCS1. Broadly classified, variants in these genes may influence amyloid precursor protein processing (CALHM1, IDE), vesicular trafficking (SORCS1), and response to oxidative stress (SOD1). PMID:26166206

  20. Effect of nanoparticles binding ß-amyloid peptide on nitric oxide production by cultured endothelial cells and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antonina Orlando,1 Francesca Re,1 Silvia Sesana,1 Ilaria Rivolta,1 Alice Panariti,1 Davide Brambilla,2 Julien Nicolas,2 Patrick Couvreur,2 Karine Andrieux,2 Massimo Masserini,1 Emanuela Cazzaniga1 1Department of Health Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Institut Galien Paris Sud, University Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France Background: As part of a project designing nanoparticles for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, we have synthesized and characterized a small library of nanoparticles binding with high affinity to the β-amyloid peptide and showing features of biocompatibility in vitro, which are important properties for administration in vivo. In this study, we focused on biocompatibility issues, evaluating production of nitric oxide by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and macrophages, used as models of cells which would be exposed to nanoparticles after systemic administration. Methods: The nanoparticles tested were liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin, and PEGylated poly(alkyl cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (PEG-PACA. We measured nitric oxide production using the Griess method as well as phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and intracellular free calcium, which are biochemically related to nitric oxide production. MTT viability tests and caspase-3 detection were also undertaken. Results: Exposure to liposomes did not affect the viability of endothelial cells at any concentration tested. Increased production of nitric oxide was detected only with liposomes carrying phosphatidic acid or cardiolipin at the highest concentration (120 µg/mL, together with increased synthase phosphorylation and intracellular calcium levels. Macrophages exposed to liposomes showed a slightly dose-dependent decrease in viability, with no increase in production of nitric oxide. Exposure to solid lipid nanoparticles carrying phosphatidic acid decreased viability in

  1. Cilostazol Modulates Autophagic Degradation of β-Amyloid Peptide via SIRT1-Coupled LKB1/AMPKα Signaling in Neuronal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Suk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Kim, Hye Young; Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae

    2016-01-01

    A neuroprotective role of autophagy mediates the degradation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The previous study showed cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing beclin1, Atg5 and LC3-II expressions, and depletes intracellular Aβ accumulation. This study elucidated the mechanisms through which cilostazol modulates the autophagic degradation of Aβ in neurons. In N2a cells, cilostazol (10–30 μM), significantly increased the expression of P-AMPKα (Thr 172) and downstream P-ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) (Ser 79) as did resveratrol (SIRT1 activator), or AICAR (AMPK activator), which were blocked by KT5720, compound C (AMPK inhibitor), or sirtinol. Furthermore, phosphorylated-mTOR (Ser 2448) and phosphorylated-P70S6K (Thr 389) expressions were suppressed, and LC3-II levels were elevated in association with decreased P62/Sqstm1 by cilostazol. Cilostazol increased cathepsin B activity and decreased p62/SQSTM 1, consequently decreased accumulation of Aβ1–42 in the activated N2aSwe cells, and these results were blocked by sirtinol, compound C and bafilomycin A1 (autophagosome blocker), suggesting enhanced autophagosome formation by cilostazol. In SIRT1 gene-silenced N2a cells, cilostazol failed to increase the expressions of P-LKB1 (Ser 428) and P-AMPKα, which contrasted with its effect in negative control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA duplex. Further, N2a cells transfected with expression vectors encoding pcDNA SIRT1 showed increased P-AMPKα expression, which mimicked the effect of cilostazol in N2a cells; suggesting cilostazol-stimulated expressions of P-LKB1 and P-AMPKα were SIRT1-dependent. Unlike their effects in N2a cells, in HeLa cells, which lack LKB1, cilostazol and resveratrol did not elevate SIRT1 or P-AMPKα expression, indicating cilostazol and resveratrol-stimulated expressions of SIRT1 and P-AMPKα are LKB1-dependent. In conclusion, cilostazol upregulates autophagy by activating SIRT1-coupled P-LKB1/P-AMPKα and

  2. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Activation Attenuates Platelet Aggregation and Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Vendrig, Alison; Reheman, Adili; Siraj, M Ahsan; Xu, Xiaohong Ruby; Wang, Yiming; Lei, Xi; Afroze, Talat; Shikatani, Eric; El-Mounayri, Omar; Noyan, Hossein; Weissleder, Ralph; Ni, Heyu; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-06-01

    Short-term studies in subjects with diabetes receiving glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-targeted therapies have suggested a reduced number of cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying this unexpectedly rapid effect are not known. We cloned full-length GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mRNA from a human megakaryocyte cell line (MEG-01), and found expression levels of GLP-1Rs in MEG-01 cells to be higher than those in the human lung but lower than in the human pancreas. Incubation with GLP-1 and the GLP-1R agonist exenatide elicited a cAMP response in MEG-01 cells, and exenatide significantly inhibited thrombin-, ADP-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Incubation with exenatide also inhibited thrombus formation under flow conditions in ex vivo perfusion chambers using human and mouse whole blood. In a mouse cremaster artery laser injury model, a single intravenous injection of exenatide inhibited thrombus formation in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic mice in vivo. Thrombus formation was greater in mice transplanted with bone marrow lacking a functional GLP-1R (Glp1r(-/-)), compared with those receiving wild-type bone marrow. Although antithrombotic effects of exenatide were partly lost in mice transplanted with bone marrow from Glp1r(-/-) mice, they were undetectable in mice with a genetic deficiency of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The inhibition of platelet function and the prevention of thrombus formation by GLP-1R agonists represent potential mechanisms for reduced atherothrombotic events. PMID:26936963

  3. A synthetic peptide derived from the sequence of a type I collagen receptor inhibits type I collagen-mediated platelet aggregation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, T M; Kang, A H

    1997-01-01

    A synthetic peptide-1, an 18 amino acid residue peptide derived from a hydrophilic domain of a cloned platelet type I collagen receptor, was used to study the role of the receptor on types I and III collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the release of ATP. The peptide inhibits the type I, but not the type III, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the release of ATP in a dose-dependent manner. The [125I]peptide-1 specifically binds to type I collagen-coated microtiter wells in a dose-...

  4. The Role of the Midmolecular Peptides in the Blood Cell Aggregation in Acute Periods of a Burn Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Egorikhina M.N.; Levin G.Ya.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the effect of midmolecular peptide (MMP) concentration on platelet and erythrocyte aggregation in severe burned patients. Materials and Methods. The investigation was carried out on 34 blood samples of healthy people and 30 blood samples of severe burned patients. There was determined the level of MMP, as well as that of creatinine, and urea. The “Amicon Ultra-4” microcentrifuge tubes were used to isolate MMP. Results. The level increase of ave...

  5. Imaging of Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with Bivalent 99mTc-Hydroxamamide Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikuni, Shimpei; Ono, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Kenji; Yoshimura, Masashi; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Okamoto, Yoko; Ihara, Masafumi; Saji, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), characterized by the deposition of amyloid aggregates in the walls of cerebral vasculature, is a major factor in intracerebral hemorrhage and vascular cognitive impairment and is also associated closely with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We previously reported 99mTc-hydroxamamide (99mTc-Ham) complexes with a bivalent amyloid ligand showing high binding affinity for β-amyloid peptide (Aβ(1–42)) aggregates present frequently in the form in AD. In this article, we applied them to CAA-specific imaging probes, and evaluated their utility for CAA-specific imaging. In vitro inhibition assay using Aβ(1–40) aggregates deposited mainly in CAA and a brain uptake study were performed for 99mTc-Ham complexes, and all 99mTc-Ham complexes with an amyloid ligand showed binding affinity for Aβ(1–40) aggregates and very low brain uptake. In vitro autoradiography of human CAA brain sections and ex vivo autoradiography of Tg2576 mice were carried out for bivalent 99mTc-Ham complexes ([99mTc]SB2A and [99mTc]BT2B), and they displayed excellent labeling of Aβ depositions in human CAA brain sections and high affinity and selectivity to CAA in transgenic mice. These results may offer new possibilities for the development of clinically useful CAA-specific imaging probes based on the 99mTc-Ham complex.

  6. Study of the interaction of unaggregated and aggregated amyloid β protein (10-21) with outward potassium channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; ChaoFeng; FAN; Li; YANG; Pin

    2007-01-01

    Metal ion-induced aggregation of Aβinto insoluble plaques is a central factor in Alzheimer's disease. Zn2+ is the only physiologically available transition metal ion responsible for aggregating Aβ at pH 7.4. To make it clear that the neurotoxicity of Zn2+-induced aggregation of Aβ on neurons is the key to understand Aβ mechanism of action further. In this paper, we choose Aβ (10-21) as the model fragment to research hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. For the first time, we adopt the combination of spectral analysis with patch-clamp technique for the preliminary study of the mutual relations of Zn2+, Aβ and ion channel from the cell level. The following expounds upon the effects and mode of action of two forms (unaggregated and aggregated) of Aβ (10-21) on hippocampus outward potassium channel three processes (activation, inactivation and reactivation). It also shows the molecular mechanics of AD from the channel level. These results are significant for the further study of Aβ nosogenesis and the development of new types of target drugs for the treatment of AD.

  7. A fast and specific method to screen for intracellular amyloid inhibitors using bacterial model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Susanna; Carija, Anita; Muñoz-Torrero, Diego; Ventura, Salvador

    2016-10-01

    The aggregation of a large variety of amyloidogenic proteins is linked to the onset of devastating human disorders. Therefore, there is an urgent need for effective molecules able to modulate the aggregative properties of these polypeptides in their natural environment, in order to prevent, delay or halt the progression of such diseases. On the one hand, the complexity and cost of animal models make them inefficient at early stages of drug discovery, where large chemical libraries are usually screened. On the other hand, in vitro aggregation assays in aqueous solutions hardly reproduce (patho)physiological conditions. In this context, because the formation of insoluble aggregates in bacteria shares mechanistic and functional properties with amyloid self-assembly in higher organisms, they have emerged as a promising system to model aggregation in the cell. Here we show that bacteria provide a powerful and cost-effective system to screen for amyloid inhibitors using fluorescence spectroscopy and flow cytometry, thanks to the ability of the novel red fluorescent ProteoStat dye to detect specifically intracellular amyloid-like aggregates. We validated the approach using the Alzheimer's linked Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptides and tacrine- and huprine-based aggregation inhibitors. Overall, the present method bears the potential to replace classical in vitro anti-aggregation assays. PMID:26608003

  8. Quantitative Analysis of the Flavonoid Glycosides and Terpene Trilactones in the Extract of Ginkgo biloba and Evaluation of Their Inhibitory Activity towards Fibril Formation of β-Amyloid Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Xie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761 is used clinically in Europe for the symptomatic treatment of impaired cerebral function in primary degenerative dementia syndromes, and the results of numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have supported such clinical use. The abnormal production and aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ and the deposition of fibrils in the brain are regarded as key steps in the onset of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD, and the inhibition of Aβ aggregation and destabilization of the preformed fibrils represent viable approaches for the prevention and treatment of AD. Flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones (TTLs are the two main components of EGb761 which represent 24 and 6% of the overall content, respectively. In our research, seven abundant flavonoid glycosides 1–7 were isolated from the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves and characterized by spectroscopic analysis. Furthermore, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was established for the simultaneous quantification of these seven flavonoids. The inhibitory activities of these flavonoids, as well as four TTLs, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, and C and bilobalide (compounds 8–11, were evaluated towards Aβ42 fibril formation using a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. It was found that three flavonoids 1, 3 and 4 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities, whereas the other four flavonoids 2, 5, 6 and 7, as well as the four terpene trilactones, showed poor activity. This is the first report of the inhibition of Aβ fibril formation of two characteristic acylated flavonoid glycosides 6, 7 in Ginkgo leaves, on the basis of which the structure-activity relationship of these flavonoids 1–7 was discussed.

  9. Plug-Based Microfluidics with Defined Surface Chemistry to Miniaturize and Control Aggregation of Amyloidogenic Peptides**

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Matthias; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Choi, Se Hoon; Norstrom, Eric M.; Sisodia, Sangram S; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2009-01-01

    Small with control: For miniaturization of protein aggregation experiments the interfacial chemistry must be controlled to avoid protein aggregation caused by interfacial adsorption. Plug-based microfluidics with defined surface chemistry (see schematic picture) can then be used to perform hundreds of aggregation experiments with volume-limited samples, such as cerebrospinal fluid from mice.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits beta-amyloid peptide-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells and the underlying mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuqin Chen; Jingtian Li; Jinhui Zou; Bailing Li; Meng Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels are 55% lower in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients than in age-matched normal individuals, which suggests that H2S might be involved in some aspects of AD pathogenesis.OBJECTIVE: To observe the protective mechanisms of varied concentrations of H2S against β -amyloid-peptide (A β) induced apoptosis in pheochromoytoma (PC12) cells, and to analyze the pathway of action.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A controlled, observational, in vitro experiment was performed at Nenrophysiology Laboratory in Zhougshan Medical School, Sun Yat-sen University between July 2006 and May 2007.MATERIALS: PC12 cells were provided by the Animal Experimental Center of Medical School of Sun Yat-sen University. Glybenclamide, rhodamine123, and dihydrorhodamine123 were purchased from Sigma (USA).METHODS: PCI2 cells were incubated at 37℃ in a 5% CO2-enriched incubator with RPMI-1640 medium, supplemented with 5% horse-serum and 10% fetal bovine serum. Cells in logarithmic growth curves received different treatment: The PC12 cells were maintains at 37℃ with the original medium, then incubated in A β 25-35, sodium hydrosulfide (NariS), glybenclamide, NailS+ A β 25-35, or pretreated with glybenelamide 30 minutes prior to administration of and A β 25-35, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) The survival rate of PC12 cells was detected by MTT assay and Hoechst staining. (2) The apoptosis rate of PC12 cells was detected utilizing flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining, and morphological changes of apoptotic cells were observed. (3) The mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by Rhodamine 123-combined flow cytometry. (4) The intracellular reactive oxygen species content was detected by dihydrorhodamine123-combined flow cytometry. RESULTS: A β 25-35 induced significantly decreased viability and increased percentage of apoptosis in PC 12 cells, as well as dissipated mitochondrial membrane potential

  11. Multiple mechanisms of iron-induced amyloid beta-peptide accumulation in SHSY5Y cells: protective action of negletein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Anand, Shruti; Ganguly, Anirban; Righi, Giuliana; Bovicelli, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-12-01

    The increased accumulation of iron in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well documented, and excess iron is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. The adverse effects of accumulated iron in AD brain may include the oxidative stress, altered amyloid beta-metabolism and the augmented toxicity of metal-bound amyloid beta 42. In this study, we have shown that exogenously added iron in the form of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) leads to considerable accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) without a corresponding change in the concerned gene expression in cultured SHSY5Y cells during exposure up to 48 h. This phenomenon is also associated with increased β-secretase activity and augmented release of amyloid beta 42 in the medium. Further, the increase in β-secretase activity, in SHSY5Y cells, upon exposure to iron apparently involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB activation. The synthetic flavone negletein (5,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone), which is a known chelator for iron, can significantly prevent the effects of FAC on APP metabolism in SHSY5Y cells. Further, this compound inhibits the iron-dependent formation of ROS and also blocks the iron-induced oligomerization of amyloid beta 42 in vitro. In concentrations used in this study, negletein alone appears to have only marginal toxic effects on cell viability, but, on the other hand, the drug is capable of ameliorating the iron-induced loss of cell viability considerably. Our results provide the initial evidence of potential therapeutic effects of negletein, which should be explored in suitable animal models of AD. PMID:25249289

  12. Validation of assays for measurement of amyloidpeptides in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma specimens from patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with solanezumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachno, D Richard; Evert, Barbara A; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Robertson, Michael; Demattos, Ronald B; Konrad, Robert J; Talbot, Jayne A; Racke, Margaret M; Dean, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate new assays for measurement of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma specimens in clinical studies of solanezumab according to current regulatory recommendations. Four assays based on the INNOTEST® β-AMYLOID(1-42) and prototype INNOTEST β-AMYLOID(1-40) kits were developed and validated. To render these assays 'solanezumab-tolerant', excess drug was added to calibrators, quality control, and test samples via a 2-fold dilution with kit diluent. Validation parameters were evaluated by repeated testing of human CSF and EDTA-plasma pools containing solanezumab. Calibration curve correlation coefficients for the four assays were ≥0.9985. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 were ≤13 and ≤15%, respectively for both matrices. Dilutional linearity, within and between assays, was demonstrated for both analytes in CSF and plasma at clinically relevant dilution factors. This dilution regimen was successfully applied during Phase 3 clinical sample analysis. Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 were stable in CSF and plasma containing solanezumab at 2-8°C and room temperature for up to 8 h and during 5 additional freeze-thaw cycles from ≤-20 and ≤-70°C. Results of parallel tests on stored clinical samples using INNOTEST methods and proprietary ELISA methods were closely correlated (r2 > 0.9), although bias in reported concentrations was observed between assays. In conclusion, the modified INNOTEST assays provided (relatively) accurate and precise quantification of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in CSF and plasma containing solanezumab according to established consensus validation criteria. The clinical experience with these assays post validation has shown them to be robust and reliable. PMID:23302661

  13. Rescue of amyloid-Beta-induced inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by a peptide homologous to the nicotine binding domain of the alpha 7 subtype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur A Nery

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloidpeptide (Aβ and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD.

  14. Key Points Concerning Amyloid Infectivity and Prion-Like Neuronal Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espargaró, Alba; Busquets, Maria Antònia; Estelrich, Joan; Sabate, Raimon

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid aggregation has been related to an increasing number of human illnesses, from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases (AD/PD) to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Commonly, only prions have been considered as infectious agents with a high capacity of propagation. However, recent publications have shown that many amyloid proteins, including amyloid β-peptide, α-synuclein (α-syn) and tau protein, also propagate in a “prion-like” manner. Meanwhile, no link between propagation of pathological proteins and neurotoxicity has been demonstrated. The extremely low infectivity under natural conditions of most non-prion amyloids is far below the capacity to spread exhibited by prions. Nonetheless, it is important to elucidate the key factors that cause non-prion amyloids to become infectious agents. In recent years, important advances in our understanding of the amyloid processes of amyloid-like proteins and unrelated prions (i.e., yeast and fungal prions) have yielded essential information that can shed light on the prion phenomenon in mammals and humans. As shown in this review, recent evidence suggests that there are key factors that could dramatically modulate the prion capacity of proteins in the amyloid conformation. The concentration of nuclei, the presence of oligomers, and the toxicity, resistance and localization of these aggregates could all be key factors affecting their spread. In short, those factors that favor the high concentration of extracellular nuclei or oligomers, characterized by small size, with a low toxicity could dramatically increase prion propensity; whereas low concentrations of highly toxic intracellular amyloids, with a large size, would effectively prevent infectivity. PMID:27147962

  15. Key points concerning amyloid infectivity and prion-like neuronal invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba eEspargaró

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid aggregation has been related to an increasing number of human illnesses, from Alzheimer and Parkinson’s diseases to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Traditionally only prions have been considered as infectious agents with a high capacity of propagation. Although recent publications have showed that many amyloid proteins, including amyloid β-peptide, α-synuclein and tau protein, also propagate in a prion-like manner, the link between propagation of pathological proteins and neurotoxicity has not been evidenced. The extremely low infectivity in natural conditions of the most of non-prion amyloids is far from the spreading capacity displayed by the prions. However, it is important to elucidate the key factors that cause non-prion amyloids become infectious agents. In recent years, important advances in the understanding of the amyloid processes of amyloid-like proteins and unrelated prions (i.e., yeast and fungal prions have yielded essential information that can be applied to shed light on the prion phenomenon in mammals and humans. As shown in this review, recent evidences suggest that there are key factors that could dramatically modulate the prion capacity of proteins in the amyloid conformation. The concentration of nuclei, the presence of oligomers, and the toxicity, resistance and localization of these aggregates could be key factors affecting their spreading. In short, those factors that favor the high concentration of extracellular nuclei or oligomers, characterized by a small size, with a low toxicity could dramatically increase prion propensity; whereas low concentrations of highly toxic intracellular amyloids, with a large size, would prevent infectivity.

  16. The formation, function and regulation of amyloids: insights from structural biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreh, M; Sawaya, M R; Hipp, M S; Eisenberg, D S; Wüthrich, K; Hartl, F U

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid diseases are characterized by the accumulation of insoluble, β-strand-rich aggregates. The underlying structural conversions are closely associated with cellular toxicity, but can also drive the formation of functional protein assemblies. In recent years, studies in the field of structural studies have revealed astonishing insights into the origins, mechanisms and implications of amyloid formation. Notably, high-resolution crystal structures of peptides in amyloid-like fibrils and prefibrillar oligomers have become available despite their challenging chemical nature. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has revealed that dynamic local polymorphisms in the benign form of the prion protein affect the transformation into amyloid fibrils and the transmissibility of prion diseases. Studies of the structures and interactions of chaperone proteins help us to understand how the cellular proteostasis network is able to recognize different stages of aberrant protein folding and prevent aggregation. In this review, we will focus on recent developments that connect the different aspects of amyloid biology and discuss how understanding the process of amyloid formation and the associated defence mechanisms can reveal targets for pharmacological intervention that may become the first steps towards clinically viable treatment strategies. PMID:27237473

  17. Photoprotective effect of the N-terminal 5-mer peptide analog P165 of amyloid precursor protein in human dermal fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ying; Chen Hui; Lin Yuying; Wang Wen; Wang Rong; Lian Shi; Zhu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background We showed in our previous study that the N-terminal 17-mer peptide of amyloid precursor protein (APP17-mer peptide),an active peptide segment with trophic and antioxidative effects,protects skin fibroblasts against ultraviolet (UV) damage and downregulates matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) expression.The aim of the current study was to explore the protective effects of P165,the N-terminal 5-mer peptide analog of amyloid precursor protein that is resistant to enzymolysis,on UVA-induced damage in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).Methods HDFs were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium without and with P165 (concentrations were 1,10,and 100 μJmol/L).Then,15 J/cm2 UVA irradiation was used to obtain the UV-irradiated model.Cell proliferation was analyzed using MTT kit.The collagen type Ⅰ and MMP-1 contents in cell lysate were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Fluorometric assays were performed to detect the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells.Results P165 significantly protected the HDFs against UVA-induced cytotoxicity.Compared with the UVA-irradiated control,1,10,and 100 μmol/L P165 elevated cell proliferation by 14.98% (P<0.05),17.52% (P<0.01) and 28.34% (P<0.001),respectively.Simultaneously,10 and 100 μmol/L P165 increased collagen type Ⅰ content (both P<0.05).Moreover,P165 treatment (all concentrations) also markedly suppressed the UVA-induced MMP-1 expression (all P<0.001).P165 at 1,10,and 100 μmol/L also reduced UVA-induced ROS generation by 11.27%,13.69% (both P<0.05),and 25.48% (P<0.001),respectively.Conclusions P165 could protect the HDFs against UVA-induced photodamage,including cytotoxicity,and MMP-1 generation.Furthermore,it also increased the collagen type Ⅰ content in the cells.The inhibitory effect on intracellular ROS generation might be involved in these photoprotective effects.Thus,P165 may be a useful candidate in the prevention and

  18. Curcumin Improves Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42) Induced Spatial Memory Deficits through BDNF-ERK Signaling Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Zhang; Yu Fang; Yuming Xu; Yajun Lian; Nanchang Xie; Tianwen Wu; Haifeng Zhang; Limin Sun; Ruifang Zhang; Zhenhua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, the most active component of turmeric, has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have suggested that curcumin reduces the levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevents memory deficits and thus is beneficial to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's effect on cognitive functions are not well-understood. In the present study, we examined the working ...

  19. Transfer of Copper from an Amyloid to a Natural Copper-Carrier Peptide with a Specific Mediating Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michel; Bijani, Christian; Martins, Nathalie; Meunier, Bernard; Robert, Anne

    2015-11-16

    The oxidative stress that arises from the catalytic reduction of dioxygen by Cu(II/I)-loaded amyloids is the major pathway for neuron death that occurs in Alzheimer's disease. In this work, we show that bis-8(aminoquinoline) ligands, copper(II) specific chelators, are able to catalytically extract Cu(II) from Cu-Aβ1-16 and then completely release Cu(I) in the presence of glutathione to provide a Cu(I)-glutathione complex, a biological intermediate that is able to deliver copper to apo forms of copper-protein complexes. These data demonstrate that bis-8(aminoquinolines) can perform the transfer of copper ions from the pathological Cu-amyloid complexes to regular copper-protein complexes. These copper-specific ligands assist GSH to recycle Cu(I) in an AD brain and consequently slow down oxidative damage that is due to copper dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease. Under the same conditions, we have shown that the copper complex of PBT2, a mono(8-hydroxyquinoline) previously used as a drug candidate, does not efficiently release copper in the presence of GSH. In addition, we report that GSH itself was unable to fully abstract copper ions from Cu-β-amyloid complexes. PMID:26420347

  20. Increased efflux of amyloidpeptides through the blood-brain barrier by muscarinic acetylcholine receptor inhibition reduces pathological phenotypes in mouse models of brain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganetti, Paolo; Antoniello, Katia; Devraj, Kavi; Toni, Nicolas; Kieran, Dairin; Madani, Rime; Pihlgren, Maria; Adolfsson, Oskar; Froestl, Wolfgang; Schrattenholz, André; Liebner, Stefan; Havas, Daniel; Windisch, Manfred; Cirrito, John R; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The formation and accumulation of toxic amyloidpeptides (Aβ) in the brain may drive the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease and related disorders could result from treatments regulating Aβ homeostasis. Examples are the inhibition of production, misfolding, and accumulation of Aβ or the enhancement of its clearance. Here we show that oral treatment with ACI-91 (Pirenzepine) dose-dependently reduced brain Aβ burden in AβPPPS1, hAβPPSL, and AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice. A possible mechanism of action of ACI-91 may occur through selective inhibition of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR) on endothelial cells of brain microvessels and enhanced Aβ peptide clearance across the blood-brain barrier. One month treatment with ACI-91 increased the clearance of intrathecally-injected Aβ in plaque-bearing mice. ACI-91 also accelerated the clearance of brain-injected Aβ in blood and peripheral tissues by favoring its urinal excretion. A single oral dose of ACI-91 reduced the half-life of interstitial Aβ peptide in pre-plaque mhAβPP/PS1d mice. By extending our studies to an in vitro model, we showed that muscarinic AChR inhibition by ACI-91 and Darifenacin augmented the capacity of differentiated endothelial monolayers for active transport of Aβ peptide. Finally, ACI-91 was found to consistently affect, in vitro and in vivo, the expression of endothelial cell genes involved in Aβ transport across the Blood Brain Brain (BBB). Thus increased Aβ clearance through the BBB may contribute to reduced Aβ burden and associated phenotypes. Inhibition of muscarinic AChR restricted to the periphery may present a therapeutic advantage as it avoids adverse central cholinergic effects. PMID:24072071

  1. Influence of denaturation and aggregation of β-lactoglobulin on its tryptic hydrolysis and the release of functional peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, Elena; Götz, Alexander; Letzel, Thomas; Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2015-11-15

    Whereas previous studies showed that thermal pre-treatment of whey proteins promote their enzymatic hydrolysis, to date no correlation between the conformation of denatured protein and the release of individual peptides has been considered. Hence, in this study total denaturation of β-lactoglobulin was performed at defined pH-values to enable the generation of different denatured particles. The denatured proteins were used as substrate for tryptic hydrolysis and the hydrolysis progress was characterised by the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the release of functional peptides, detected using LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Denaturation and subsequent aggregation of β-lactoglobulin, induced by thermal treatment at pH 5.1, altered the DH slightly, whereas the release of investigated peptides was significantly decreased. Contrary, denaturation at pH 6.8 and 8.0 led to formation of non-native monomers and reduced the DH to 75%, but showed promoting as well as reducing effects on the release of peptides, depending on their location within the protein. PMID:25977062

  2. DNA aptamers detecting generic amyloid epitopes

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkevich, Olga V.; Kochneva-Pervukhova, Natalia V; Surina, Elizaveta R.; Benevolensky, Sergei V.; Kushnirov, Vitaly V.; Ter-Avanesyan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates resulting from non-covalent autocatalytic polymerization of various structurally and functionally unrelated proteins. Previously we have selected DNA aptamers, which bind specifically to the in vitro assembled amyloid fibrils of the yeast prionogenic protein Sup35. Here we show that such DNA aptamers can be used to detect SDS-insoluble amyloid aggregates of the Sup35 protein, and of some other amyloidogenic proteins, including mouse PrP, formed in yea...

  3. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...

  4. Proinsulin C-peptide interferes with insulin fibril formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreh, Michael [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Astrid Lindgren Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Willander, Hanna [KI-Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, NVS Department, Karolinska Institutet, S-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Soeder, Olle [Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Astrid Lindgren Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Karolinska Institutet and University Hospital, S-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Jan [KI-Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, NVS Department, Karolinska Institutet, S-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, S-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Joernvall, Hans, E-mail: Hans.Jornvall@ki.se [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, S-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin and C-peptide can interact under insulin fibril forming conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-peptide is incorporated into insulin aggregates and alters aggregation lag time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-peptide changes insulin fibril morphology and affects backbone accessibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C-peptide may be a regulator of fibril formation by {beta}-cell granule proteins. -- Abstract: Insulin aggregation can prevent rapid insulin uptake and cause localized amyloidosis in the treatment of type-1 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of C-peptide, the 31-residue peptide cleaved from proinsulin, on insulin fibrillation at optimal conditions for fibrillation. This is at low pH and high concentration, when the fibrils formed are regular and extended. We report that C-peptide then modulates the insulin aggregation lag time and profoundly changes the fibril appearance, to rounded clumps of short fibrils, which, however, still are Thioflavine T-positive. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry also indicates that C-peptide interacts with aggregating insulin and is incorporated into the aggregates. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry further reveals reduced backbone accessibility in insulin aggregates formed in the presence of C-peptide. Combined, these effects are similar to those of C-peptide on islet amyloid polypeptide fibrillation and suggest that C-peptide has a general ability to interact with amyloidogenic proteins from pancreatic {beta}-cell granules. Considering the concentrations, these peptide interactions should be relevant also during physiological secretion, and even so at special sites post-secretory or under insulin treatment conditions in vivo.

  5. Proinsulin C-peptide interferes with insulin fibril formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Insulin and C-peptide can interact under insulin fibril forming conditions. ► C-peptide is incorporated into insulin aggregates and alters aggregation lag time. ► C-peptide changes insulin fibril morphology and affects backbone accessibility. ► C-peptide may be a regulator of fibril formation by β-cell granule proteins. -- Abstract: Insulin aggregation can prevent rapid insulin uptake and cause localized amyloidosis in the treatment of type-1 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of C-peptide, the 31-residue peptide cleaved from proinsulin, on insulin fibrillation at optimal conditions for fibrillation. This is at low pH and high concentration, when the fibrils formed are regular and extended. We report that C-peptide then modulates the insulin aggregation lag time and profoundly changes the fibril appearance, to rounded clumps of short fibrils, which, however, still are Thioflavine T-positive. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry also indicates that C-peptide interacts with aggregating insulin and is incorporated into the aggregates. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry further reveals reduced backbone accessibility in insulin aggregates formed in the presence of C-peptide. Combined, these effects are similar to those of C-peptide on islet amyloid polypeptide fibrillation and suggest that C-peptide has a general ability to interact with amyloidogenic proteins from pancreatic β-cell granules. Considering the concentrations, these peptide interactions should be relevant also during physiological secretion, and even so at special sites post-secretory or under insulin treatment conditions in vivo.

  6. Curcumin Improves Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42 Induced Spatial Memory Deficits through BDNF-ERK Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the most active component of turmeric, has various beneficial properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor effects. Previous studies have suggested that curcumin reduces the levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevents memory deficits and thus is beneficial to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying curcumin's effect on cognitive functions are not well-understood. In the present study, we examined the working memory and spatial reference memory in rats that received a ventricular injection of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42, representing a rodent model of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The rats treated with Aβ1-42 exhibited obvious cognitive deficits in behavioral tasks. Chronic (seven consecutive days, once per day but not acute (once a day curcumin treatments (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg improved the cognitive functions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the beneficial effect of curcumin is accompanied by increased BDNF levels and elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK in the hippocampus. Furthermore, the cognition enhancement effect of curcumin could be mimicked by the overexpression of BDNF in the hippocampus and blocked by either bilateral hippocampal injections with lentiviruses that express BDNF shRNA or a microinjection of ERK inhibitor. These findings suggest that chronic curcumin ameliorates AD-related cognitive deficits and that upregulated BDNF-ERK signaling in the hippocampus may underlie the cognitive improvement produced by curcumin.

  7. The effect of HIV protease inhibitors on amyloidpeptide degradation and synthesis in human cells and Alzheimer's disease animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xiqian; Kiyota, Tomomi; Hanamsagar, Richa; Huang, Yunlong; Andrews, Scott; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Jialin C; Swindells, Susan; Carlson, George A; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2012-06-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) tremendously improved the lifespan and symptoms associated with AIDS-defining illness in affected individuals. However, chronic ART-treated patients frequently develop age-dependent complications, including dementia, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia: all risk factors of Alzheimer's disease. Importantly, the effect of ART compounds on amyloid generation and clearance has never been systematically examined. Nine prescribed HIV protease inhibitors were tested for their effect on amyloidpeptide (Aβ) clearance in primary cultured human monocyte-derived macrophages. Atazanavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir modestly inhibited of Aβ degradation, while lopinavir, nelfinavir, and ritonavir enhanced secretion of undigested Aβ after phagocytosis. Lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and saquinavir inhibited endogenous Aβ40 production from primary cultured human cortical neurons, which were associated with reduction in Beta-site APP Converting Enzyme 1 (BACE1) and γ-secretase enzyme activities. However, ART compounds showed little inhibition of purified BACE1 activity in vitro, suggesting the indirect effect of ART compounds on BACE1 activity in neurons. Finally, nefinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) were orally administered for 30 days into APP SCID mice expressing a double mutant form of APP 695 (KM670/671NL + V717F) in homozygosity for the scid allele of Prkdc. There was no difference in beta-amyloidosis by ART drug administration as determined by both immunohistochemistry and ELISA measurements although the therapeutic doses of the ART compounds was present in the brain. These data demonstrated that ART drugs can inhibit Aβ clearance in macrophages and Aβ production in neurons, but these effects did not significantly alter Aβ accumulation in the mouse brain. PMID:21826404

  8. Antiaggregation Potential of Padina gymnospora against the Toxic Alzheimer's Beta-Amyloid Peptide 25-35 and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Its Bioactive Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation in the cerebral cortex of the brain is a promising therapeutic and defensive strategy in identification of disease modifying agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Since natural products are considered as the current alternative trend for the discovery of AD drugs, the present study aims at the evaluation of anti-amyloidogenic potential of the marine seaweed Padina gymnospora. Prevention of aggregation and disaggregation of the mature fibril formation of Aβ 25-35 by acetone extracts of P. gymnospora (ACTPG was evaluated in two phases by Thioflavin T assay. The results were further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The results of antiaggregation and disaggregation assay showed that the increase in fluorescence intensity of aggregated Aβ and the co-treatment of ACTPG (250 μg/ml with Aβ 25-35, an extensive decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed in both phases, which suggests that ACTPG prevents the oligomers formation and disaggregation of mature fibrils. In addition, ACTPG was subjected to column chromatography and the bioactivity was screened based on the cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Finally, the active fraction was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the bioactive compound alpha bisabolol present in the alga might be responsible for the observed cholinesterase inhibition with the IC50 value < 10 μg/ml for both AChE and BuChE when compared to standard drug donepezil (IC50 value < 6 μg/ml and support its use for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  9. An in vivo platform for identifying inhibitors of protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Janet C; Young, Lydia M; Mahood, Rachel A; Jackson, Matthew P; Revill, Charlotte H; Foster, Richard J; Smith, D Alastair; Ashcroft, Alison E; Brockwell, David J; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-01

    Protein aggregation underlies an array of human diseases, yet only one small-molecule therapeutic targeting this process has been successfully developed to date. Here, we introduce an in vivo system, based on a β-lactamase tripartite fusion construct, that is capable of identifying aggregation-prone sequences in the periplasm of Escherichia coli and inhibitors that prevent their aberrant self-assembly. We demonstrate the power of the system using a range of proteins, from small unstructured peptides (islet amyloid polypeptide and amyloid β) to larger, folded immunoglobulin domains. Configured in a 48-well format, the split β-lactamase sensor readily differentiates between aggregation-prone and soluble sequences. Performing the assay in the presence of 109 compounds enabled a rank ordering of inhibition and revealed a new inhibitor of islet amyloid polypeptide aggregation. This platform can be applied to both amyloidogenic and other aggregation-prone systems, independent of sequence or size, and can identify small molecules or other factors able to ameliorate or inhibit protein aggregation. PMID:26656088

  10. Role of sequence and structural polymorphism on the mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwonchan Yoon

    Full Text Available Amyloid fibrils playing a critical role in disease expression, have recently been found to exhibit the excellent mechanical properties such as elastic modulus in the order of 10 GPa, which is comparable to that of other mechanical proteins such as microtubule, actin filament, and spider silk. These remarkable mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils are correlated with their functional role in disease expression. This suggests the importance in understanding how these excellent mechanical properties are originated through self-assembly process that may depend on the amino acid sequence. However, the sequence-structure-property relationship of amyloid fibrils has not been fully understood yet. In this work, we characterize the mechanical properties of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP fibrils with respect to their molecular structures as well as their amino acid sequence by using all-atom explicit water molecular dynamics (MD simulation. The simulation result suggests that the remarkable bending rigidity of amyloid fibrils can be achieved through a specific self-aggregation pattern such as antiparallel stacking of β strands (peptide chain. Moreover, we have shown that a single point mutation of hIAPP chain constituting a hIAPP fibril significantly affects the thermodynamic stability of hIAPP fibril formed by parallel stacking of peptide chain, and that a single point mutation results in a significant change in the bending rigidity of hIAPP fibrils formed by antiparallel stacking of β strands. This clearly elucidates the role of amino acid sequence on not only the equilibrium conformations of amyloid fibrils but also their mechanical properties. Our study sheds light on sequence-structure-property relationships of amyloid fibrils, which suggests that the mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils are encoded in their sequence-dependent molecular architecture.

  11. Amyloid-β-Anti-Amyloid-β Complex Structure Reveals an Extended Conformation in the Immunodominant B-Cell Epitope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Luke A; Wun, Kwok S; Crespi, Gabriela A.N.; Fodero-Tavoletti, Michelle T; Galatis, Denise; Bagley, Christopher J; Beyreuther, Konrad; Masters, Colin L; Cappai, Roberto; McKinstry, William J; Barnham, Kevin J; Parker, Michael W [SVIMR-A; (Hanson); (Heidelberg); (Melbourne)

    2012-04-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein, is central to AD pathogenesis. Most pharmaceutical activity in AD research has focused on Aβ, its generation and clearance from the brain. In particular, there is much interest in immunotherapy approaches with a number of anti-Aβ antibodies in clinical trials. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, called WO2, which recognises the Aβ peptide. To this end, we have determined the three-dimensional structure, to near atomic resolution, of both the antibody and the complex with its antigen, the Aβ peptide. The structures reveal the molecular basis for WO2 recognition and binding of Aβ. The Aβ peptide adopts an extended, coil-like conformation across its major immunodominant B-cell epitope between residues 2 and 8. We have also studied the antibody-bound Aβ peptide in the presence of metals known to affect its aggregation state and show that WO2 inhibits these interactions. Thus, antibodies that target the N-terminal region of Aβ, such as WO2, hold promise for therapeutic development.

  12. β-淀粉样肽对线粒体的损伤及其在阿尔茨海默病中的作用%Mitochondria injury by amyloidpeptide and it's function in Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨秀明

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, which characterized by extracellular amyloidpeptide (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles(NFTs). The etiological factors and pathogenesis are still unclear. Amyloidpeptide locates in mitochondria and it can induce a series of disorders in mitochondrial function, such as decreasing in ATP production, promoting oxidative stress, brokening the balance of mitochondrial fission/fusion and enhancing cellular apoptosis, and so on.%阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer′s disease,AD)是以老年斑(senile plaque,SP)和神经纤维缠结(neurofibrillary tangles,NFTs)为主要病理特征的中枢神经系统退行性疾病,其病因及发病机制至今仍不明确.AD的病变产物β-淀粉样肽(amyloidpeptide,Aβ)在线粒体内沉积导致线粒体功能障碍,如ATP产生减少、氧化应激增强、细胞凋亡增强以及线粒体分裂/融合异常等,进而引起AD的一系列病理变化.

  13. The architecture of amyloid-like peptide fibrils revealed by X-ray scattering, diffraction and electron microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Annette Eva; Morris, Kyle L; Serpell, Louise C;

    2015-01-01

    GNNQQNY peptide fragment of a yeast prion protein. Data from small-angle X-ray solution scattering, fibre diffraction and electron microscopy are combined with existing high-resolution X-ray crystallographic structures to investigate the fibrillation process and the hierarchical fibril structure of the...

  14. Activation of phospholipase A2 by temporin B: Formation of antimicrobial peptide-enzyme amyloid-type cofibrils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Code, Christian; Domanov, Y.A.; Killian, J.A.; Kinnunen, P.K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 have been shown to be activated in a concentration dependent manner by a number of antimicrobial peptides, including melittin, magainin 2, indolicidin, and temporins B and L. Here we used fluorescently labelled bee venom PLA2 (PLA2D) and the saturated phospholipid substrate 1,2-dip

  15. Self-assembling DNA-peptide hybrids: morphological consequences of oligonucleotide grafting to a pathogenic amyloid fibrils forming dipeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Nidhi; Kedracki, Dawid; Safir, Ilyès; Ngo, Kien Xuan; Vebert-Nardin, Corinne

    2012-06-01

    For the very first time, highly efficient synthesis of DNA-peptide hybrids to scaffold self-assembled nanostructures is described. Oligonucleotide conjugation to the diphenylalanine dipeptide triggers a morphological transition from fibrillar to vesicular structures which may potentially be used as delivery vehicles, since they exhibit pH triggered release. PMID:22534735

  16. Sugar microarray via click chemistry: molecular recognition with lectins and amyloid β (1–42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erino Matsumoto, Takahiro Yamauchi, Tomohiro Fukuda and Yoshiko Miura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar microarrays were fabricated on various substrates via click chemistry. Acetylene-terminated substrates were prepared by forming self-assembled monolayers (SAMs on a gold substrate with alkyl-disulfide and on silicon, quartz and glass substrates with a silane-coupling reagent. The gold substrates were subjected to surface plasmon resonance measurements, and the quartz and glass substrates were subjected to spectroscopy measurements and optical microscopy observation. The saccharide-immobilized substrate on the gold substrate showed specific interaction with the corresponding lectin, and the saccharides showed inert surface properties to other proteins with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also focused on the saccharide–protein interaction on protein amyloidosis of Alzheimer amyloid β. Amyloid β peptide showed conformation transition on the saccharide-immobilization substrate into a β-sheet, and fibril formation and amyloid aggregates were found on the specific saccharides.

  17. Sugar microarray via click chemistry: molecular recognition with lectins and amyloid β (1-42)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Erino; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Miura, Yoshiko

    2009-06-01

    Sugar microarrays were fabricated on various substrates via click chemistry. Acetylene-terminated substrates were prepared by forming self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold substrate with alkyl-disulfide and on silicon, quartz and glass substrates with a silane-coupling reagent. The gold substrates were subjected to surface plasmon resonance measurements, and the quartz and glass substrates were subjected to spectroscopy measurements and optical microscopy observation. The saccharide-immobilized substrate on the gold substrate showed specific interaction with the corresponding lectin, and the saccharides showed inert surface properties to other proteins with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also focused on the saccharide-protein interaction on protein amyloidosis of Alzheimer amyloid β. Amyloid β peptide showed conformation transition on the saccharide-immobilization substrate into a β-sheet, and fibril formation and amyloid aggregates were found on the specific saccharides.

  18. SS31, a Small Molecule Antioxidant Peptide, Attenuates β-Amyloid Elevation, Mitochondrial/Synaptic Deterioration and Cognitive Deficit in SAMP8 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan-Li; Sun, Su-Juan; Chen, Jing-Hong; Jia, Qian; Huo, Tian-Tian; Chu, Li-Fang; Bai, Jiang-Tao; Yu, Ye-Jing; Yan, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and β -amyloid (Aβ) formation are thought to cause neuronal and synaptic degeneration underlying cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice have been used as an animal model for mechanistic and translational research for AD. In the present study we characterized mitochondrial and synaptic alterations in SAMP8 mice relative to SAMR1control mice and explored a protective effect of the small molecule peptide SS31, a cell membrane penetrant antioxidant, on mitochondrial and synaptic protein integrity as well as cognitive performance. Electron microscopic analysis revealed mitochondrial/synaptic deterioration in 10 months-old SAMP8 relative to SAMR1 mice, with the changes in the former rescued following 8 weeks treatment with SS31 (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Elevation of Aβ42, mitochondrial fission protein (DLP1, Fis1) and matrix protein cyclophilin D (CypD), and reductions of mitochondrial fusion protein (Mfn2) and synaptic (i.e. synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein 95 and growth associated protein 43) proteins, were detected in hippocampal lysates in SAMP8 mice relative to SAMR1. The above altered protein expressions in the SAMP8 mouse brain were restored with the SS31 treatment. Moreover, the SS31 treatment rescued learning and memory deficits detected in 10 month-old SAMP8 mice. Together, the findings suggest that this mitochondria-targeting antioxidant peptide may be of potential utility for AD therapy, with its pharmacological efficacy involves lowering of central Aβ levels and protection of mitochondrial homeostasis and synaptic integrity, which may help slow down cognitive decline. PMID:26679857

  19. Validation of a Commercial Chemiluminescence Immunoassay for the Simultaneous Measurement of Three Different AmyloidPeptides in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid and Application to a Clinical Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klafki, Hans-W; Hafermann, Henning; Bauer, Chris; Haussmann, Ute; Kraus, Inga; Schuchhardt, Johannes; Muck, Stephan; Scherbaum, Norbert; Wiltfang, Jens

    2016-09-01

    A comprehensive assay validation campaign of a commercially available chemiluminescence multiplex immunoassay for the simultaneous measurement of the amyloidpeptides Aβ38, Aβ40, and Aβ42 in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is presented. The assay quality parameters we addressed included impact of sample dilution, parallelism, lower limits of detection, lower limits of quantification, intra- and inter-assay repeatability, analytical spike recoveries, and between laboratory reproducibility of the measurements. The assay performed well in our hands and fulfilled a number of predefined acceptance criteria. The CSF levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 determined in a clinical cohort (n = 203) were statistically significantly correlated with available ELISA data of Aβ1-40 (n = 158) and Aβ1-42 (n = 179) from a different laboratory. However, Bland-Altman method comparison indicated systematic differences between the assays. The data presented here furthermore indicate that the CSF concentration of Aβ40 can surrogate total CSF Aβ and support the hypothesis that the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio outperforms CSF Aβ42 alone as a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease due to a normalization to total Aβ levels. PMID:27567847

  20. Effects of Low-Dose Pioglitazone on Serum Levels of Adiponectin, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Amyloid Beta Peptide, and Lipid Profile in Elderly Japanese People with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Aoki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to see how pioglitazone at low doses could affect blood biomarkers related to atherosclerosis and aging. The effects of an add-on treatment with pioglitazone (15 mg for males and 7.5 mg for females for 6 months were assessed in 24 outpatients (12 males, 12 females with type 2 diabetes aged ≥ 70 years. As doses of sulfonylurea were reduced in 10 patients, no significant differences in HbA1c and glucose levels were seen. After the treatment, serum levels of HDL cholesterol, arachidonic acid (predominant in males, and high-molecular-weight adiponectin significantly increased. The level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate significantly decreased. No significant changes were seen in those of small dense LDL cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and amyloid beta peptides 1–40 and 1–42. There was a slight but significant increase in body weight, but apparent adverse effects were not observed. In conclusion, pioglitazone at low doses increased serum adiponectin, HDL cholesterol, and arachidonic acid levels but decreased serum dehydroepiandrosterone level, not associated with glycemia, in elderly Japanese people with type 2 diabetes. An optimal dose of pioglitazone should be sought for to minimize its adverse effects and to fully exert its pleiotropic effects such as antiatherosclerotic and antiaging effects.

  1. Neutron Scattering Studies of the Interplay of Amyloid β Peptide(1-40) and An Anionic Lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Durgesh K; Sharma, Veerendra K; Anunciado, Divina; O'Neill, Hugh; Mamontov, Eugene; Urban, Volker; Heller, William T; Qian, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between lipid bilayers and Amyloid β peptide (Aβ) plays a critical role in proliferation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is expected to affect one in every 85 humans by 2050, and therefore, deciphering the interplay of Aβ and lipid bilayers at the molecular level is of profound importance. In this work, we applied an array of neutron scattering methods to study the structure and dynamics of Aβ(1-40) interacting 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) bilayers. In the structural investigations of lipid bilayer's response to Aβ binding, Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Neutron Membrane Diffraction revealed that the Aβ anchors firmly to the highly charged DMPG bilayers in the interfacial region between water and hydrocarbon chain, and it doesn't penetrate deeply into the bilayer. This association mode is substantiated by the dynamics studies with high resolution Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments, showing that the addition of Aβ mainly affects the slower lateral motion of lipid molecules, especially in the fluid phase, but not the faster internal motion. The results revealed that Aβ associates with the highly charged membrane in surface with limited impact on the structure, but the altered membrane dynamics could have more influence on other membrane processes. PMID:27503057

  2. Identification of an amyloidogenic peptide from the Bap protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembré, Pierre; Vendrely, Charlotte; Martino, Patrick Di

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm associated proteins (Bap) are involved in the biofilm formation process of several bacterial species. The sequence STVTVT is present in Bap proteins expressed by many Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter baumanii and Salmonella enterica. The peptide STVTVTF derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected through the AGGRESCAN, PASTA, and TANGO software prediction of protein aggregation and formation of amyloid fibers. We characterized the self-assembly properties of the peptide STVTVTF by different methods: in the presence of the peptide, we observed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of Thioflavin T; many intermolecular β-sheets and fibers were spontaneously formed in peptide preparations as observed by infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. In conclusion, a 7 amino acids peptide derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein was sufficient for the spontaneous formation of amyloid fibers. The possible involvement of this amyloidogenic sequence in protein-protein interactions is discussed. PMID:24354773

  3. Density functional theory of equilibrium random copolymers: application to surface adsorption of aggregating peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E.

    2016-06-01

    We generalize a recently developed polymer density functional theory (PDFT) for polydisperse polymer fluids to the case of equilibrium random copolymers. We show that the generalization of the PDFT to these systems allows us to obtain a remarkable simplification compared to the monodispersed polymers. The theory is used to treat a model for protein aggregation into linear filaments in the presence of surfaces. Here we show that, for attractive surfaces, there is evidence of significant enhancement of protein aggregation. This behaviour is a consequence of a surface phase transition, which has been shown to occur with ideal equilibrium polymers in the presence of sufficiently attractive surfaces. For excluding monomers, this transition is suppressed, though an echo of the underlying ideal transition is present in the sudden change in the excess adsorption.

  4. Density functional theory of equilibrium random copolymers: application to surface adsorption of aggregating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E

    2016-06-22

    We generalize a recently developed polymer density functional theory (PDFT) for polydisperse polymer fluids to the case of equilibrium random copolymers. We show that the generalization of the PDFT to these systems allows us to obtain a remarkable simplification compared to the monodispersed polymers. The theory is used to treat a model for protein aggregation into linear filaments in the presence of surfaces. Here we show that, for attractive surfaces, there is evidence of significant enhancement of protein aggregation. This behaviour is a consequence of a surface phase transition, which has been shown to occur with ideal equilibrium polymers in the presence of sufficiently attractive surfaces. For excluding monomers, this transition is suppressed, though an echo of the underlying ideal transition is present in the sudden change in the excess adsorption. PMID:27115518

  5. Amyloid Fibril Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, L G; Auer, S

    2015-11-19

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain-side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding, and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove to be a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general. PMID:26496385

  6. Amyloid Fibril Solubility

    CERN Document Server

    Rizzi, L G

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that amyloid fibril solubility is protein specific, but how solubility depends on the interactions between the fibril building blocks is not clear. Here we use a simple protein model and perform Monte Carlo simulations to directly measure the solubility of amyloid fibrils as a function of the interaction between the fibril building blocks. Our simulations confirms that the fibril solubility depends on the fibril thickness and that the relationship between the interactions and the solubility can be described by a simple analytical formula. The results presented in this study reveal general rules how side-chain side-chain interactions, backbone hydrogen bonding and temperature affect amyloid fibril solubility, which might prove a powerful tool to design protein fibrils with desired solubility and aggregation properties in general.

  7. Take five—BACE and the γ-secretase quartet conduct Alzheimer's amyloid β-peptide generation

    OpenAIRE

    Haass, Christian

    2004-01-01

    In 1959, Dave Brubeck and Paul Desmond revolutionized modern jazz music by composing their unforgettable Take Five in 5/4, one of the most defiant time signatures in all music. Of similar revolutionary importance for biomedical and basic biochemical research is the identification of the minimal set of genes required to obtain a deadly time bomb ticking in all of us: Alzheimer's disease. It now appears that one needs to Take Five genes to produce a deadly peptide by a proteolytic mechanism, wh...

  8. Oligomer stability of Amyloid- β (A β) 25-35: A Dissipative Particle Dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peter, Emanuel

    Alzheimer's disease is strongly associated with an accumulation of Amyloid- β (A β) peptide plaques in the human brain. A β is a 43 residues long intrinsically disordered peptide and has a strong tendency to form aggregates. Evidence accumulates that A β acts toxic to the neurons in the brain through the formation of small soluble oligomers. A β 25-35 is the smallest fragment of A β which still retains its toxicity and its ability to form extended fibrils. In this talk we will present the results from simulations of aggregation of up to 100 A β 25-35 peptides using a novel polarizable coarse-grained protein model in combination with Dissipative Particle Dynamics.

  9. Molecular Mechanism of the Early Stage of Amyloidogenic Hexapeptides (NFGAIL) Aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peptides/proteins aggregation can give rise to pathological conditions of many human diseases. Small partially ordered oligomers formed in the early stage of aggregation, rather than mature fibrils, are thought to be the main toxicity agent for the living cell. Thus, understanding the pathway and the underlying physical mechanism in the early stage of aggregation is very important for prevention and treatment of these protein functional diseases. Herein we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of four NFGAIL hexapeptides (NFGAIL peptide is a core segment of human islet amyloid polypeptide and exhibits similar aggregation kinetics as the full-length polypeptide). We observe that the peptide monomers in water mainly adopt non-structural coil configurations; the four peptides which are randomly placed in water aggregate spontaneously to partially ordered oligomer (β-sheets) through dimerization or trimerization, with the dimerization predominated. Both parallel and anti-parallel β-sheets are observed. The hydrophobic interactions drive the initial peptides associations, and the subsequent conformational fluctuations promote the formation of more hydrogen bonds between the dangling hydrogen sites in the main chains of peptides. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Amyloid formation: functional friend or fearful foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, P; Roan, N R; Römling, U; Bevins, C L; Münch, J

    2016-08-01

    Amyloid formation has been most studied in the context of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, as well as in amyloidosis. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that amyloid is also present in the healthy setting; for example nontoxic amyloid formation is important for melanin synthesis and in innate immunity. Furthermore, bacteria have mechanisms to produce functional amyloid structures with important roles in bacterial physiology and interaction with host cells. Here, we will discuss some novel aspects of fibril-forming proteins in humans and bacteria. First, the amyloid-forming properties of the antimicrobial peptide human defensin 6 (HD6) will be considered. Intriguingly, unlike other antimicrobial peptides, HD6 does not kill bacteria. However, recent data show that HD6 can form amyloid structures at the gut mucosa with strong affinity for bacterial surfaces. These so-called nanonets block bacterial invasion by entangling the bacteria in net-like structures. Next, the role of functional amyloid fibrils in human semen will be discussed. These fibrils were discovered through their property to enhance HIV infection but they may also have other yet unknown functions. Finally, the role of amyloid formation in bacteria will be reviewed. The recent finding that bacteria can make amyloid in a controlled fashion without toxic effects is of particular interest and may have implications for human disease. The role of amyloid in health and disease is beginning to be unravelled, and here, we will review some of the most recent findings in this exciting area. PMID:27151743

  11. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase mediates neurobehavioral alterations induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid-β1-42 peptide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Leandro Cattelan; Jesse, Cristiano R; Antunes, Michelle S; Ruff, Jossana Rodrigues; de Oliveira Espinosa, Dieniffer; Gomes, Nathalie Savedra; Donato, Franciele; Giacomeli, Renata; Boeira, Silvana Peterini

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline along with various neuropsychiatric symptoms, including depression and anxiety. Increasing evidence has been proposed the activation of the tryptophan-degrading indoleamine-2,3-dyoxigenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme of kynurerine pathway (KP), as a pathogenic factor of amyloid-beta (Aβ)-related inflammation in AD. In the current study, the effects of an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 peptide (400pmol/mice; 3μl/site) on the regulation of KP biomarkers (IDO activity, tryptophan and kynurerine levels) and the impact of Aβ1-42 on neurotrophic factors levels were investigated as potential mechanisms linking neuroinflammation to cognitive/emotional disturbances in mice. Our results demonstrated that Aβ1-42 induced memory impairment in the object recognition test. Aβ1-42 also induced emotional alterations, such as depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, as evaluated in the tail suspension and elevated-plus maze tests, respectively. We observed an increase in levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the Aβ1-42-treated mice, which led to an increase in IDO activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus (HC). The IDO activation subsequently increased kynurerine production and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and decreased the levels of neurotrophic factors in the PFC and HC, which contributed to Aβ-associated behavioral disturbances. The inhibition of IDO activation by IDO inhibitor 1-methyltryptophan (1-MT), prevented the development of behavioral and neurochemical alterations. These data demonstrate that brain IDO activation plays a key role in mediating the memory and emotional disturbances in an experimental model based on Aβ-induced neuroinflammation. PMID:26965653

  12. Cryo-EM reveals the steric zipper structure of a light chain-derived amyloid fibril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Annamalai, Karthikeyan; Schmidt, Matthias; Grigorieff, Nikolaus; Fändrich, Marcus

    2016-05-31

    Amyloid fibrils are proteinaceous aggregates associated with diseases in humans and animals. The fibrils are defined by intermolecular interactions between the fibril-forming polypeptide chains, but it has so far remained difficult to reveal the assembly of the peptide subunits in a full-scale fibril. Using electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM), we present a reconstruction of a fibril formed from the pathogenic core of an amyloidogenic immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain. The fibril density shows a lattice-like assembly of face-to-face packed peptide dimers that corresponds to the structure of steric zippers in peptide crystals. Interpretation of the density map with a molecular model enabled us to identify the intermolecular interactions between the peptides and rationalize the hierarchical structure of the fibril based on simple chemical principles. PMID:27185936

  13. Mechanism of fiber assembly: treatment of Aβ peptide aggregation with a coarse-grained united-residue force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Ana; Liwo, Adam; Browne, Dana; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-12-01

    The growth mechanism of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide fibrils was studied by a physics-based coarse-grained united-residue model and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To identify the mechanism of monomer addition to an Aβ(1-40) fibril, we placed an unstructured monomer at a distance of 20 Å from a fibril template and allowed it to interact freely with the latter. The monomer was not biased towards fibril conformation by either the force field or the MD algorithm. With the use of a coarse-grained model with replica-exchange molecular dynamics, a longer timescale was accessible, making it possible to observe how the monomers probe different binding modes during their search for the fibril conformation. Although different assembly pathways were seen, they all follow a dock-lock mechanism with two distinct locking stages, consistent with experimental data on fibril elongation. Whereas these experiments have not been able to characterize the conformations populating the different stages, we have been able to describe these different stages explicitly by following free monomers as they dock onto a fibril template and to adopt the fibril conformation (i.e., we describe fibril elongation step by step at the molecular level). During the first stage of the assembly ("docking"), the monomer tries different conformations. After docking, the monomer is locked into the fibril through two different locking stages. In the first stage, the monomer forms hydrogen bonds with the fibril template along one of the strands in a two-stranded β-hairpin; in the second stage, hydrogen bonds are formed along the second strand, locking the monomer into the fibril structure. The data reveal a free-energy barrier separating the two locking stages. The importance of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the stability of the Aβ fibril structure was examined by carrying out additional canonical MD simulations of oligomers with different numbers of chains (4-16 chains), with the fibril

  14. Aggregation of human platelets by endotoxic glycolipid-bearing Salmonella minnesota Re595 is prevented by synthetic peptide analogs of cell adhesion sites of fibrinogen and fibronectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombocytopenia often accompanies sepsis due to endotoxin producing gram-negative bacteria. The authors have observed that mutant Re595 of S. minnesota induced aggregation of human platelets separated from plasma fibrinogen (Theta) and other proteins. This aggregation is dependent on ADP secreted from storage granules in response to mutant Re595. Platelet aggregation induced by mutant Re595 was prevented by simultaneously added EDTA and EGTA (5mM), whereas secretion of 14C-serotonin was maintained. Preincubation of platelets with chelators (1 hr, 370C), known to dissociate irreversibly the platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb x IIIa complex, abolished aggregation while serotonin secretion was decreased by only one fourth. Since the GPIIb x IIIa complex constitutes the receptor for Theta, its role was examined using synthetic peptide analogs of sites on gamma and alpha chains of Theta. Gamma 400-411 (225 μM) inhibited platelet aggregation induced by mutant Re595 while serotonin secretion was unaffected. Alpha 572-575 (RGDS; 100 μM), analogous to cell adhesion site of fibronectin, also prevented aggregation induced by mutant Re595. Thus, mutant Re595 causes platelet aggregation which is divalent cation-dependent and proceeds via receptor pathway for secreted adhesive macromolecules

  15. Effects of AmyloidPeptides on Voltage-Gated L-Type CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 Ca2+ Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sunoh; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2011-01-01

    Overload of intracellular Ca2+ has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Various mechanisms produce abnormalities in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis systems. L-type Ca2+ channels have been known to be closely involved in the mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative properties of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. However, most studies of L-type Ca2+ channels in Aβ-related mechanisms have been limited to CaV1.2, and surprisingly little is known about t...

  16. Functional Amyloid Formation within Mammalian Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid is a generally insoluble, fibrous cross-beta sheet protein aggregate. The process of amyloidogenesis is associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington disease. We report the discovery of an unprecedented functional mammalian amyloid structure generated by the protein Pmel17. This discovery demonstrates that amyloid is a fundamental nonpathological protein fold utilized by organisms from bacteria to humans. We have found that Pmel17 amyloid templates and accelerates the covalent polymerization of reactive small molecules into melanin-a critically important biopolymer that protects against a broad range of cytotoxic insults including UV and oxidative damage. Pmel17 amyloid also appears to play a role in mitigating the toxicity associated with melanin formation by sequestering and minimizing diffusion of highly reactive, toxic melanin precursors out of the melanosome. Intracellular Pmel17 amyloidogenesis is carefully orchestrated by the secretory pathway, utilizing membrane sequestration and proteolytic steps to protect the cell from amyloid and amyloidogenic intermediates that can be toxic. While functional and pathological amyloid share similar structural features, critical differences in packaging and kinetics of assembly enable the usage of Pmel17 amyloid for normal function. The discovery of native Pmel17 amyloid in mammals provides key insight into the molecular basis of both melanin formation and amyloid pathology, and demonstrates that native amyloid (amyloidin may be an ancient, evolutionarily conserved protein quaternary structure underpinning diverse pathways contributing to normal cell and tissue physiology.

  17. Degradation and aggregation of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) and two analogs in plasma and serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, M.V.; Saegesser, B.; Schoenenberger, G.A.

    1987-07-01

    The biostability of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) and two analogs in blood was investigated in order to determine if rates of inactivation contribute to variable effects in vivo. Incubation of DSIP in human or rat blood led to release of products having retention times on a gel filtration column equivalent to Trp. Formation of products was dependent on temperature, time, and species. Incubation of /sup 125/I-N-Tyr-DSIP and /sup 125/I-N-Tyr-P-DSIP, a phosphorylated analog, revealed slower degradation and, in contrast to DSIP, produced complex formation. An excess of unlabeled material did not displace the radioactivity supporting the assumption of non-specific binding/aggregation. It was concluded that the rapid disappearance of injected DSIP in blood was due to degradation, whereas complex formation together with slower degradation resulted in longer persistence of apparently intact analogs. Whether this could explain the sometimes stronger and more consistent effects of DSIP-analogs remains to be examined.

  18. Degradation and aggregation of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) and two analogs in plasma and serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biostability of DSIP (delta sleep-inducing peptide) and two analogs in blood was investigated in order to determine if rates of inactivation contribute to variable effects in vivo. Incubation of DSIP in human or rat blood led to release of products having retention times on a gel filtration column equivalent to Trp. Formation of products was dependent on temperature, time, and species. Incubation of 125I-N-Tyr-DSIP and 125I-N-Tyr-P-DSIP, a phosphorylated analog, revealed slower degradation and, in contrast to DSIP, produced complex formation. An excess of unlabeled material did not displace the radioactivity supporting the assumption of non-specific binding/aggregation. It was concluded that the rapid disappearance of injected DSIP in blood was due to degradation, whereas complex formation together with slower degradation resulted in longer persistence of apparently intact analogs. Whether this could explain the sometimes stronger and more consistent effects of DSIP-analogs remains to be examined

  19. Amyloid Properties of Asparagine and Glutamine in Prion-like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Man, Viet Hoang; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    2016-05-18

    Sequences rich in glutamine (Q) and asparagine (N) are intrinsically disordered in monomeric form, but can aggregate into highly ordered amyloids, as seen in Q/N-rich prion domains (PrDs). Amyloids are fibrillar protein aggregates rich in β-sheet structures that can self-propagate through protein-conformational chain reactions. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical study of N/Q-rich peptides, including sequences found in the yeast Sup35 PrD, in parallel and antiparallel β-sheet aggregates, and probe via fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations all their possible steric-zipper interfaces in order to determine their protofibril structure and their relative stability. Our results show that polyglutamine aggregates are more stable than polyasparagine aggregates. Enthalpic contributions to the free energy favor the formation of polyQ protofibrils, while entropic contributions favor the formation of polyN protofibrils. The considerably larger phase space that disordered polyQ must sample on its way to aggregation probably is at the root of the associated slower kinetics observed experimentally. When other amino acids are present, such as in the Sup35 PrD, their shorter side chains favor steric-zipper formation for N but not Q, as they preclude the in-register association of the long Q side chains. PMID:26911543

  20. Histidine-Rich Oligopeptides To Lessen Copper-Mediated Amyloid-β Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Ana B; Terol-Ordaz, Laia; Espargaró, Alba; Vázquez, Guillem; Nicolás, Ernesto; Sabaté, Raimon; Gamez, Patrick

    2016-05-17

    Brain copper imbalance plays an important role in amyloidaggregation, tau hyperphosphorylation, and neurotoxicity observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the administration of biocompatible metal-binding agents may offer a potential therapeutic solution to target mislocalized copper ions and restore metallostasis. Histidine-containing peptides and proteins are excellent metal binders and are found in many natural systems. The design of short peptides showing optimal binding properties represents a promising approach to capture and redistribute mislocalized metal ions, mainly due to their biocompatibility, ease of synthesis, and the possibility of fine-tuning their metal-binding affinities in order to suppress unwanted competitive binding with copper-containing proteins. In the present study, three peptides, namely HWH, HK(C) H, and HAH, have been designed with the objective of reducing copper toxicity in AD. These tripeptides form highly stable albumin-like complexes, showing higher affinity for Cu(II) than that of Aβ(1-40). Furthermore, HWH, HK(C) H, and HAH act as very efficient inhibitors of copper-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and prevent the copper-induced overproduction of toxic oligomers in the initial steps of amyloid aggregation in the presence of Cu(II) ions. These tripeptides, and more generally small peptides including the sequence His-Xaa-His at the N-terminus, may therefore be considered as promising motifs for the future development of new and efficient anti-Alzheimer drugs. PMID:27071336

  1. High plasma levels of islet amyloid polypeptide in young with new-onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan F Paulsson

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP is a beta cell hormone secreted together with insulin upon glucose stimulation. IAPP participates in normal glucose regulation, but IAPP is also known for its ability to misfold and form islet amyloid. Amyloid fibrils form through smaller cell toxic intermediates and deposited amyloid disrupts normal islet architecture. Even though IAPP and amyloid formation are much discussed in type 2 diabetes, our aim was to study the significance of IAPP in type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: Plasma IAPP levels in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (n = 224 were analysed and concentrations exceeding 100 pmol/L (127.2-888.7 pmol/L were found in 11% (25/224. The IAPP increase did not correlate with C-peptide levels. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Plasma levels of IAPP and insulin deviate in a subpopulation of young with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The determined elevated levels of IAPP might increase the risk for IAPP misfolding and formation of cell toxic amyloid in beta cells. This finding add IAPP-aggregation to the list over putative pathological factors causing type 1 diabetes.

  2. 670 nm laser light and EGCG complementarily reduce amyloid-{beta} aggregates in human neuroblastoma cells: basis for treatment of Alzheimer's disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, A.P.; Bieschke, J.; Friedrich, R.P.; Zhu, D.; Wanker, E. E.; Fecht, H.J.; Mereles, D; Hunstein, W

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to present the results of in vitro experiments with possible relevance in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Background Data: Despite intensive research efforts, there is no treatment for AD. One root cause of AD is the extra- and intracellular deposition of amyloid-beta (A{beta}) fibrils in the brain. Recently, it was shown that extracellular A{beta} can enter brain cells, resulting in neurotoxicity. Methods: After internalization of A{beta}...

  3. Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta links lens and brain pathology in Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet A Moncaster

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal disorder and the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability in humans. In DS, triplication of chromosome 21 invariably includes the APP gene (21q21 encoding the Alzheimer's disease (AD amyloid precursor protein (APP. Triplication of the APP gene accelerates APP expression leading to cerebral accumulation of APP-derived amyloid-beta peptides (Abeta, early-onset AD neuropathology, and age-dependent cognitive sequelae. The DS phenotype complex also includes distinctive early-onset cerulean cataracts of unknown etiology. Previously, we reported increased Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and disease-linked supranuclear cataracts in the ocular lenses of subjects with AD. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that related AD-linked Abeta pathology underlies the distinctive lens phenotype associated with DS. Ophthalmological examinations of DS subjects were correlated with phenotypic, histochemical, and biochemical analyses of lenses obtained from DS, AD, and normal control subjects. Evaluation of DS lenses revealed a characteristic pattern of supranuclear opacification accompanied by accelerated supranuclear Abeta accumulation, co-localizing amyloid pathology, and fiber cell cytoplasmic Abeta aggregates (approximately 5 to 50 nm identical to the lens pathology identified in AD. Peptide sequencing, immunoblot analysis, and ELISA confirmed the identity and increased accumulation of Abeta in DS lenses. Incubation of synthetic Abeta with human lens protein promoted protein aggregation, amyloid formation, and light scattering that recapitulated the molecular pathology and clinical features observed in DS lenses. These results establish the genetic etiology of the distinctive lens phenotype in DS and identify the molecular origin and pathogenic mechanism by which lens pathology is expressed in this common chromosomal disorder. Moreover, these findings confirm increased Abeta

  4. Nanoparticulate Radiolabelled Quinolines Detect Amyloid Plaques in Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick J. Bonte

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting aggregated amyloid peptides (Aβ plaques presents targets for developing biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Polymeric n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (PBCA nanoparticles (NPs were encapsulated with radiolabelled amyloid affinity I125-clioquinol (CQ, 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline as in vivo probes. I125-CQ-PBCA NPs crossed the BBB (2.3±0.9 ID/g (P<.05 in the WT mouse (N = 210, compared to I125-CQ (1.0±0.4 ID/g. I125-CQ-PBCA NP brain uptake increased in AD transgenic mice (APP/PS1 versus WT (N = 38; 2.54×105±5.31×104 DLU/mm2; versus 1.98×105±2.22×104 DLU/mm2 and in APP/PS1/Tau. Brain increases were in mice intracranially injected with aggregated Aβ42 peptide (N = 17; 7.19×105±1.25×105 DLU/mm2, versus WT (6.07×105±7.47×104 DLU/mm2. Storage phosphor imaging and histopathological staining of the plaques, Fe2+ and Cu2+, validated results. I125-CQ-PBCA NPs have specificity for Aβ in vitro and in vivo and are promising as in vivo SPECT (I123, or PET (I124 amyloid imaging agents.

  5. Imaging Alzheimer's disease-related protein aggregates in human cells using a selenium label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation of proteins and peptides is associated with a range of pathological conditions from the systemic amyloidoses to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While this link is well established there is a lack of understanding of the exact role protein aggregates play in disease pathogenesis. Part of the reason for this is that it has proved extremely challenging to characterise the localisation and structure of amyloid fibrils within the cellular environment due to a lack of contrast between the carbon rich protein aggregates and the carbon rich cell. We report a novel method for visualising Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid fibrils inside human cells without the use of invasive or unreliable stains or tags. The naturally occurring sulfur atom in the amyloidpeptide is replaced with a selenium atom, a heavier element in the same group of the periodic table of elements. Using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) the selenium-labelled aggregates can be identified within the cellular environment.

  6. Facile expression and purification of the antimicrobial peptide histatin 1 with a cleavable self-aggregating tag (cSAT) in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Xu, Wanghui; Zhou, Bihong; Chen, Yilu; Lin, Zhanglin

    2013-04-01

    Human histatin 1 (Hst1), a member of the histatin family, possesses antimicrobial properties. In this study, we applied a previously developed cleavable self-aggregating tag (cSAT) for the expression and purification of histatin 1 to demonstrate its utility for peptide expression and purification. The tag consists of a self-cleavable intein and a self-assembling peptide ELK16 (I-ELK16). First, an active insoluble aggregate of the recombinant histatin 1-Mxe GyrA intein-ELK16 (Hst1-I-ELK16) fusion protein was produced with a yield of 28.9 μg/mg wet cell pellet. The thiol reagent dithiothreitol (DTT) was then used to induce the intein-mediated cleavage and peptide release into the soluble fraction with a yield of 2.06 μg/mg wet cell pellet and a purity of 70%. The peptide was further purified by high performance liquid chromatography. These results were comparable to the yield and purity achieved when the more conventional glutathione transferase (GST) tag was used. The antimicrobial activities of this recombinant histatin 1 were confirmed against three Candida strains. This cSAT technique offers considerable advantages in terms of its simplicity and speed, eliminating the need for an exogenous protease, and reducing the number of chromatography purification steps. This technique should also be useful for the expression and purification of other AMPs. PMID:23403143

  7. Overproduction, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of human Fe65-PTB2 in complex with the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which releases the aggregation-prone amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and liberates the intracellular domain (AICD) that interacts with various adaptor proteins. The crystallized AICD–Fe65-PTB2 complex is of central importance for APP translocation, nuclear signalling, processing and Aβ generation. Alzheimer’s disease is associated with typical brain deposits (senile plaques) that mainly contain the neurotoxic amyloid β peptide. This peptide results from proteolytic processing of the type I transmembrane protein amyloid precursor protein (APP). During this proteolytic pathway the APP intracellular domain (AICD) is released into the cytosol, where it associates with various adaptor proteins. The interaction of the AICD with the C-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain of Fe65 (Fe65-PTB2) regulates APP translocation, signalling and processing. Human AICD and Fe65-PTB2 have been cloned, overproduced and purified in large amounts in Escherichia coli. A complex of Fe65-PTB2 with the C-terminal 32 amino acids of the AICD gave well diffracting hexagonal crystals and data have been collected to 2.1 Å resolution. Initial phases obtained by the molecular-replacement method are of good quality and revealed well defined electron density for the substrate peptide

  8. Nonequilibrium and generalized-ensemble molecular dynamics simulations for amyloid fibril

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloids are insoluble and misfolded fibrous protein aggregates and associated with more than 20 serious human diseases. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of amyloid fibril assembly and disassembly

  9. Nonequilibrium and generalized-ensemble molecular dynamics simulations for amyloid fibril

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Hisashi [Research Center for Computational Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan); Department of Structural Molecular Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Amyloids are insoluble and misfolded fibrous protein aggregates and associated with more than 20 serious human diseases. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of amyloid fibril assembly and disassembly.

  10. Nonequilibrium and generalized-ensemble molecular dynamics simulations for amyloid fibril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-01

    Amyloids are insoluble and misfolded fibrous protein aggregates and associated with more than 20 serious human diseases. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of amyloid fibril assembly and disassembly.

  11. Automated Ex Situ Assays of Amyloid Formation on a Microfluidic Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Kadi-Liis; Yates, Emma V; Müller, Thomas; Saunier, Séverine; Dobson, Christopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2016-02-01

    Increasingly prevalent neurodegenerative diseases are associated with the formation of nanoscale amyloid aggregates from normally soluble peptides and proteins. A widely used strategy for following the aggregation process and defining its kinetics involves the use of extrinsic dyes that undergo a spectral shift when bound to β-sheet-rich aggregates. An attractive route to carry out such studies is to perform ex situ assays, where the dye molecules are not present in the reaction mixture, but instead are only introduced into aliquots taken from the reaction at regular time intervals to avoid the possibility that the dye molecules interfere with the aggregation process. However, such ex situ measurements are time-consuming to perform, require large sample volumes, and do not provide for real-time observation of aggregation phenomena. To overcome these limitations, here we have designed and fabricated microfluidic devices that offer continuous and automated real-time ex situ tracking of the protein aggregation process. This device allows us to improve the time resolution of ex situ aggregation assays relative to conventional assays by more than one order of magnitude. The availability of an automated system for tracking the progress of protein aggregation reactions without the presence of marker molecules in the reaction mixtures opens up the possibility of routine noninvasive study of protein aggregation phenomena. PMID:26840721

  12. MetAmyl: a METa-predictor for AMYLoid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Emily

    Full Text Available The aggregation of proteins or peptides in amyloid fibrils is associated with a number of clinical disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and prion diseases, medullary thyroid cancer, renal and cardiac amyloidosis. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of fibril formation remain largely unknown. Several lines of evidence revealed that short amino-acid segments (hot spots, located in amyloid precursor proteins act as seeds for fibril elongation. Therefore, hot spots are potential targets for diagnostic/therapeutic applications, and a current challenge in bioinformatics is the development of methods to accurately predict hot spots from protein sequences. In this paper, we combined existing methods into a meta-predictor for hot spots prediction, called MetAmyl for METapredictor for AMYLoid proteins. MetAmyl is based on a logistic regression model that aims at weighting predictions from a set of popular algorithms, statistically selected as being the most informative and complementary predictors. We evaluated the performances of MetAmyl through a large scale comparative study based on three independent datasets and thus demonstrated its ability to differentiate between amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic polypeptides. Compared to 9 other methods, MetAmyl provides significant improvement in prediction on studied datasets. We further show that MetAmyl is efficient to highlight the effect of point mutations involved in human amyloidosis, so we suggest this program should be a useful complementary tool for the diagnosis of these diseases.

  13. Role of Prion Protein Aggregation in Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullio Florio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson, Alzheimer’s, Huntington, and prion diseases, the deposition of aggregated misfolded proteins is believed to be responsible for the neurotoxicity that characterizes these diseases. Prion protein (PrP, the protein responsible of prion diseases, has been deeply studied for the peculiar feature of its misfolded oligomers that are able to propagate within affected brains, inducing the conversion of the natively folded PrP into the pathological conformation. In this review, we summarize the available experimental evidence concerning the relationship between aggregation status of misfolded PrP and neuronal death in the course of prion diseases. In particular, we describe the main findings resulting from the use of different synthetic (mainly PrP106-126 and recombinant PrP-derived peptides, as far as mechanisms of aggregation and amyloid formation, and how these different spatial conformations can affect neuronal death. In particular, most data support the involvement of non-fibrillar oligomers rather than actual amyloid fibers as the determinant of neuronal death.

  14. Acetylcholinesterase triggers the aggregation of PrP 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a senile plaque component, promotes amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) fibril formation in vitro. The presence of prion protein (PrP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) senile plaques prompted us to assess if AChE could trigger the PrP peptides aggregation as well. Consequently, the efficacy of AChE on the PrP peptide spanning-residues 106-126 aggregation containing a coumarin fluorescence probe (coumarin-PrP 106-126) was studied. Kinetics of coumarin-PrP 106-126 aggregation showed a significant increase of maximum size of aggregates (MSA), which was dependent on AChE concentration. AChE-PrP 106-126 aggregates showed the tinctorial and optical amyloid properties as determined by polarized light and electronic microscopy analysis. A remarkable inhibition of MSA was obtained with propidium iodide, suggesting that AChE triggers PrP 106-126 and Aβ aggregation through a similar mechanism. Huprines (AChE inhibitors) also significantly decreased MSA induced by AChE as well, unveiling the potential interest for some AChE inhibitors as a novel class of potential anti-prion drugs

  15. Computational selection of inhibitors of Abeta aggregation and neuronal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Deliang; Martin, Zane S; Soto, Claudio; Schein, Catherine H

    2009-07-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the cerebral accumulation of misfolded and aggregated amyloid-beta protein (Abeta). Disease symptoms can be alleviated, in vitro and in vivo, by 'beta-sheet breaker' pentapeptides that reduce plaque load. However the peptide nature of these compounds, made them biologically unstable and unable to penetrate membranes with high efficiency. The main goal of this study was to use computational methods to identify small molecule mimetics with better drug-like properties. For this purpose, the docked conformations of the active peptides were used to identify compounds with similar activities. A series of related beta-sheet breaker peptides were docked to solid state NMR structures of a fibrillar form of Abeta. The lowest energy conformations of the active peptides were used to design three dimensional (3D)-pharmacophores, suitable for screening the NCI database with Unity. Small molecular weight compounds with physicochemical features and a conformation similar to the active peptides were selected, ranked by docking and biochemical parameters. Of 16 diverse compounds selected for experimental screening, 2 prevented and reversed Abeta aggregation at 2-3microM concentration, as measured by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and ELISA assays. They also prevented the toxic effects of aggregated Abeta on neuroblastoma cells. Their low molecular weight and aqueous solubility makes them promising lead compounds for treating AD. PMID:19540126

  16. Restraint stress and repeated CRF receptor activation in the amygdala both increase amyloid β precursor protein (APP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide but have divergent effects on BDNF and pre-synaptic proteins in the prefrontal cortex of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Balmiki; Gaskins, Denise L.; Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Spence, John P.; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Shekhar, Anantha; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2011-01-01

    Both environmental stress and anxiety may represent important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Previous studies demonstrate that restraint stress is associated with increased amyloid beta (Aβ) and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain. Aβ deposition, synaptic loss, and neurodegeneration define major hallmarks of AD, and BDNF is responsible for the maintenance of neurons. In contrast to restraint stress, repeated injections of sub-anxioge...

  17. Looking for a generic inhibitor of amyloid-like fibril formation among flavone derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Šneideris, Tomas; Baranauskienė, Lina; Jonathan G Cannon; Rutkienė, Rasa; Meškys, Rolandas; Smirnovas, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    A range of diseases is associated with amyloid fibril formation. Despite different proteins being responsible for each disease, all of them share similar features including beta-sheet-rich secondary structure and fibril-like protein aggregates. A number of proteins can form amyloid-like fibrils in vitro, resembling structural features of disease-related amyloids. Given these generic structural properties of amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, generic inhibitors of fibril formation would be of i...

  18. Tramiprosate, a drug of potential interest for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, promotes an abnormal aggregation of tau

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Francisco J; Del Rio Joaquín; Hernández Félix; Santa-Maria Ismael; Avila Jesús

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of two histopathological hallmarks; the senile plaques, or extracellular deposits mainly composed of amyloidpeptide (Aβ), and the neurofibrillary tangles, or intraneuronal inclusions composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Since Aβ aggregates are found in the pathological cases, several strategies are under way to develop drugs that interact with Aβ to reduce its assembly. One of them is 3-amino-1-propane sulfonic acid...

  19. Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwait BHADBHADE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Bhadbhade A, Cheng DW. Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing in Alzheimer’s Disease. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2012;6(1:1-5.Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia. The AD is characterized by presence of intraneuronal tangles and extracellular plaques in the brain. The plaques are composed of dense and mostly insoluble deposits of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ, formed by sequential cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP, by two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic. Tangles are composed of paired helical fragments, which aggregate to form, microtubular protein tau. Although Aβ plaques are established to be the cause of the disease, there exist genetic factors and other pathological identifications in addition to these which are an integral part of the disease. This article gives an overview into the mechanism of APP action, genetic factors and other pathological identifications contributing to Alzheimer’s disease formation.References Brookmeyer R, Gray S, Kawas C. Projections of Alzheimer’s disease in the United States and the public health impact of delaying disease onset. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(9:1337. Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Bienias JL, Bennett DA, Evans DA. Alzheimer disease in the US population. Arch Neurol 2003;60(8:1119-22. Möller HJ, Graeber M. The case described by Alois Alzheimer in 1911. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1998:248(3:111-122. Selkoe D J. (2002. Deciphering the genesis and fate of amyloid beta-protein yields novel therapies for Alzheimer disease. J Clinic Investigat 2002;110(10: 1375-82. Wolfe MS. Tau mutations in neurodegenerative diseases. J Biolog Chem 2009;284(10:6021. Selkoe DJ. Alzheimer’s disease: genes, proteins, and therapy. Physiological reviews 2001;81(2:741. Selkoe DJ. The cell biology of [beta]-amyloid precursor protein and presenilin in Alzheimer

  20. A chemical analog of curcumin as an improved inhibitor of amyloid Abeta oligomerization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Orlando

    Full Text Available Amyloid-like plaques are characteristic lesions defining the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The size and density of these plaques are closely associated with cognitive decline. To combat this disease, the few therapies that are available rely on drugs that increase neurotransmission; however, this approach has had limited success as it has simply slowed an imminent decline and failed to target the root cause of AD. Amyloid-like deposits result from aggregation of the Aβ peptide, and thus, reducing amyloid burden by preventing Aβ aggregation represents an attractive approach to improve the therapeutic arsenal for AD. Recent studies have shown that the natural product curcumin is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier in the CNS in sufficient quantities so as to reduce amyloid plaque burden. Based upon this bioactivity, we hypothesized that curcumin presents molecular features that make it an excellent lead compound for the development of more effective inhibitors of Aβ aggregation. To explore this hypothesis, we screened a library of curcumin analogs and identified structural features that contribute to the anti-oligomerization activity of curcumin and its analogs. First, at least one enone group in the spacer between aryl rings is necessary for measureable anti-Aβ aggregation activity. Second, an unsaturated carbon spacer between aryl rings is essential for inhibitory activity, as none of the saturated carbon spacers showed any margin of improvement over that of native curcumin. Third, methoxyl and hydroxyl substitutions in the meta- and para-positions on the aryl rings appear necessary for some measure of improved inhibitory activity. The best lead inhibitors have either their meta- and para-substituted methoxyl and hydroxyl groups reversed from that of curcumin or methoxyl or hydroxyl groups placed in both positions. The simple substitution of the para-hydroxy group on curcumin with a methoxy substitution improved

  1. Atomic force microscopy and MD simulations reveal pore-like structures of all-D-enantiomer of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide: relevance to the ion channel mechanism of AD pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Laura; Jang, Hyunbum; Arce, Fernando Teran; Capone, Ricardo; Kotler, Samuel A; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Kagan, Bruce L; Nussinov, Ruth; Lal, Ratnesh

    2012-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a protein misfolding disease characterized by a buildup of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide as senile plaques, uncontrolled neurodegeneration, and memory loss. AD pathology is linked to the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis and involves Aβ peptide-plasma membrane interactions. In principle, there are two possible ways through which disturbance of the ionic homeostasis can take place: directly, where the Aβ peptide either inserts into the membrane and creates ion-conductive pores or destabilizes the membrane organization, or, indirectly, where the Aβ peptide interacts with existing cell membrane receptors. To distinguish between these two possible types of Aβ-membrane interactions, we took advantage of the biochemical tenet that ligand-receptor interactions are stereospecific; L-amino acid peptides, but not their D-counterparts, bind to cell membrane receptors. However, with respect to the ion channel-mediated mechanism, like L-amino acids, D-amino acid peptides will also form ion channel-like structures. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we imaged the structures of both D- and L-enantiomers of the full length Aβ(1-42) when reconstituted in lipid bilayers. AFM imaging shows that both L- and D-Aβ isomers form similar channel-like structures. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations support the AFM imaged 3D structures. Previously, we have shown that D-Aβ(1-42) channels conduct ions similarly to their L- counterparts. Taken together, our results support the direct mechanism of Aβ ion channel-mediated destabilization of ionic homeostasis rather than the indirect mechanism through Aβ interaction with membrane receptors. PMID:22217000

  2. Phosphorylation modifies the molecular stability of β-amyloid deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Amininasab, Mehriar; Kumar, Sathish; Walter, Jochen; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Protein aggregation plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. A key feature of protein aggregates is their ubiquitous modification by phosphorylation. Little is known, however, about the molecular consequences of phosphorylation of protein aggregates. Here we show that phosphorylation of β-amyloid at serine 8 increases the stability of its pathogenic aggregates against high-pressure and SDS-induced dissociation. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation results in an elevated number of hydrogen bonds at the N terminus of β-amyloid, the region that is critically regulated by a variety of post-translational modifications. Because of the increased lifetime of phosphorylated β-amyloid aggregates, phosphorylation can promote the spreading of β-amyloid in Alzheimer pathogenesis. Our study suggests that regulation of the molecular stability of protein aggregates by post-translational modifications is a crucial factor for disease progression in the brain.

  3. Severe In Vivo Hyper-Homocysteinemia is not Associated with Elevation of AmyloidPeptides in the Tg2576 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Jia-Min; Praticò, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    Since hyper-homocysteinemia (HHcy) was recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), many studies tried to induce HHcy in animal models to investigate its effect on amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) metabolism. Previous reports found that HHcy induced in AD transgenic mouse models, by either feeding a methionine-enriched diet or vitamin Bs deficient diet, is associated with elevation of amyloid-β (Aβ) levels. However, there is no data available on the effect of dietary interventi...

  4. Sporadic Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy: Pathophysiology, Neuroimaging Features, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouis, Gregoire; Charidimou, Andreas; Greenberg, Steven M

    2016-06-01

    Sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a small vessel disorder defined pathologically by progressive amyloid deposition in the walls of cortical and leptomeningeal vessels resulting from disruption of a complex balance between production, circulation, and clearance of amyloidpeptide (Aβ) in the brain. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a major cause of lobar symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, transient focal neurologic episodes, and a key contributor to vascular cognitive impairment. The mechanisms and consequences of amyloid-β deposition at the pathological level and its neuroimaging manifestations, clinical consequences, and implications for patient care are addressed in this review. PMID:27214698

  5. Characterization of Amyloid-β Deposits in Bovine Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallino Costassa, Elena; Fiorini, Michele; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Peletto, Simone; Acutis, Pierluigi; Baioni, Elisa; Maurella, Cristiana; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Catania, Marcella; Gallo, Marina; Faro, Monica Lo; Chieppa, Maria Novella; Meloni, Daniela; D'Angelo, Antonio; Paciello, Orlando; Ghidoni, Roberta; Tonoli, Elisa; Casalone, Cristina; Corona, Cristiano

    2016-02-10

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are seen in aged individuals of many mammalian species that possess the same aminoacid sequence as humans. This study describes Aβ deposition in 102 clinically characterized cattle brains from animals aged 0 to 20 years. Extracellular and intracellular Aβ deposition was detected with 4G8 antibody in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. X-34 staining failed to stain Aβ deposits, indicating the non β-pleated nature of these deposits. Western blot analysis and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed in Tris, Triton, and formic acid fractions the presence of different Aβ peptides, characterized mainly by C-terminally truncated forms. Exploration of the genetic variability of APOE, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes involved in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis revealed several previously unreported polymorphisms. This study demonstrates certain similarities between Aβ deposition patterns exhibited in cattle brains and those in the human brain in early stages of aging. Furthermore, the identification of the same Aβ peptides reported in humans, but unable to form aggregates, supports the hypothesis that cattle may be protected against amyloid plaque formation. PMID:26890772

  6. Energy interactions in amyloid-like fibrils from NNQQNY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Inmaculada García; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M J

    2014-03-01

    We use large-scale MP2 calculations to analyze the interactions appearing in amyloid fibers, which are difficult to determine experimentally. To this end, dimers and trimers of the hexapeptide NNQQNY from the yeast prion-like protein Sup35 were considered as model systems. We studied the energy interactions present in the three levels of organization in which the formation of amyloid fibrils is structured. The structural changes in the hydrogen bonds were studied too. It was found that the most energetic process is the formation of the β-sheet, which is equally due to both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. The aromatic rings help stabilize these aggregates through stacking of the aromatic rings of tyrosine, the stability produced by the aromatics residues increasing with their aromaticity. The formation of the basic unit of the assembled proto-fiber, the steric zipper, is less energetic and is associated to both dispersion forces and hydrogen bonds. The interactions between pair of β-sheets across the peptide-to-peptide contact through the tyrosine rings are cooperative and due to dispersion effects. Moreover, the strength of this interaction can rationalize the variation of mobility of the aromatic ring in the tyrosine units found in solid NMR experiments. PMID:24458317

  7. Characterization of D-enantiomeric peptides binding to monomeric Amyloid beta (1-42) identified by a competitive mirror image phage display

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Stephan; Kutzsche, Janine; Klein, Antonia Nicole; Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prominent type of dementia in elderly people. Until now there is no curative therapy available.Amyloid beta (Aβ) is assumed to play a major role in the development and progression of the disease. Freely diffusible, toxic Aβ oligomers seem to have a major toxicological impact.

  8. Probing amyloid-β pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (tgArcSwe) mice using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlred, Louise; Michno, Wojciech; Kaya, Ibrahim; Sjövall, Peter; Syvänen, Stina; Hanrieder, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The pathological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not understood. The disease pathology is characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into extracellular plaques, however the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS)-based imaging was used to study Aβ deposition in transgenic mouse brain tissue and to elucidate the plaque-associated chemical microenvironment. The imaging experiments were performed in brain sections of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice carrying the Arctic and Swedish mutation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (tgArcSwe). Multivariate image analysis was used to interrogate the IMS data for identifying pathologically relevant, anatomical features based on their chemical identity. This include cortical and hippocampal Aβ deposits, whose amyloid peptide content was further verified using immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection followed by MALDI MS analysis. Subsequent statistical analysis on spectral data of regions of interest revealed brain region-specific differences in Aβ peptide aggregation. Moreover, other plaque-associated protein species were identified including macrophage migration inhibitory factor suggesting neuroinflammatory processes and glial cell reactivity to be involved in AD pathology. The presented data further highlight the potential of IMS as a powerful approach in neuropathology. Hanrieder et al. described an imaging mass spectrometry based study on comprehensive spatial profiling of C-terminally truncated Aβ species within individual plaques in tgArcSwe mice. Here, brain region-dependent differences in Aβ truncation and other plaque-associated proteins, such as

  9. Imaging Alzheimer's disease-related protein aggregates in human cells using a selenium label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, E K; McComb, D W; Porter, A E [Department of Materials, Imperial College, Exhibition Rd, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Motskin, M [Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3DY (United Kingdom); Knowles, T P J [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Ave, Cambridge, CB3 0FF (United Kingdom); Dobson, C M, E-mail: e.mcguire07@imperial.ac.u [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Rd, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation of proteins and peptides is associated with a range of pathological conditions from the systemic amyloidoses to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. While this link is well established there is a lack of understanding of the exact role protein aggregates play in disease pathogenesis. Part of the reason for this is that it has proved extremely challenging to characterise the localisation and structure of amyloid fibrils within the cellular environment due to a lack of contrast between the carbon rich protein aggregates and the carbon rich cell. We report a novel method for visualising Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid fibrils inside human cells without the use of invasive or unreliable stains or tags. The naturally occurring sulfur atom in the amyloid-{beta} peptide is replaced with a selenium atom, a heavier element in the same group of the periodic table of elements. Using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) in a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) the selenium-labelled aggregates can be identified within the cellular environment.

  10. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  11. Surface Aggregation of Urinary Proteins and Aspartic Acid-Rich Peptides on the Faces of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Investigated by In Situ Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin, and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS)6DDD and (DDDG)6DDD (D = aspartic acid, S = serine, and G = glycine) was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy. The results show that these four growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform...

  12. Inhibition of IAPP Aggregation and Toxicity by Natural Products and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Pithadia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrillar aggregates of human islet amyloid polypeptide, hIAPP, a pathological feature seen in some diabetes patients, are a likely causative agent for pancreatic beta-cell toxicity, leading to a transition from a state of insulin resistance to type II diabetes through the loss of insulin producing beta-cells by hIAPP induced toxicity. Because of the probable link between hIAPP and the development of type II diabetes, there has been strong interest in developing reagents to study the aggregation of hIAPP and possible therapeutics to block its toxic effects. Natural products are a class of compounds with interesting pharmacological properties against amyloids which have made them interesting targets to study hIAPP. Specifically, the ability of polyphenolic natural products, EGCG, curcumin, and resveratrol, to modulate the aggregation of hIAPP is discussed. Furthermore, we have outlined possible mechanistic discoveries of the interaction of these small molecules with the peptide and how they may mitigate toxicity associated with peptide aggregation. These abundantly found agents have been long used to combat diseases for many years and may serve as useful templates toward developing therapeutics against hIAPP aggregation and toxicity.

  13. Biophysical insights into the membrane interaction of the core amyloid-forming Aβ40 fragment K16-K28 and its role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Swapna; Korshavn, Kyle J; Kar, Rajiv K; Lim, Mi Hee; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-06-22

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) on neuronal membranes is implicated in both neuronal toxicity and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Unfortunately, the heterogeneous environment that results from peptide aggregation in the presence of lipids makes the details of these pathways difficult to interrogate. In this study, we report an investigation of the membrane interaction of an Aβ fragment (K16LVFFAEDVGSNK28, KK13), which maintains the amyloidogenic nature of the full-length peptide and is implicated in membrane-mediated folding, through a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Despite KK13's ability to form amyloids in solution, the monomer remains unstructured in the presence of lipid bilayers, unlike its full-length parent peptide. Additionally, NMR and molecular dynamics simulation results support that the presence of GM1 ganglioside, a lipid which strongly promotes binding between Aβ and lipid bilayers, promotes KK13 binding to but not folding on the membrane. Finally, we show that the peptide partitions between the membrane and aqueous solution based on the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal residues, regardless of lipid composition. These results support previous discoveries suggesting the importance of GM1 ganglioside in exacerbating membrane-driven aggregation while identifying the potential importance of C-terminal residues in membrane binding and folding, which has previously been unclear. PMID:27282693

  14. Amyloid-β depresses excitatory cholinergic synaptic transmission in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqun Fang; Jingjing Duan; Dongzhi Ran; Zihao Fan; Ying Yan; Naya Huang; Huaiyu Gu; Yulan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Objective Decline,disruption,or alterations of nicotinic cholinergic mechanisms contribute to cognitive dysfunctions like Alzheimer's disease (AD).Although amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation is a pathological hallmark of AD,the mechanisms by which Aβ peptides modulate cholinergic synaptic transmission and memory loss remain obscure.This study was aimed to investigate the potential synaptic modulation by Aβ of the cholinergic synapses between olfactory receptor neurons and projection neurons (PNs) in the olfactory lobe of the fruit fly.Methods Cholinergic spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) were recorded with whole-cell patch clamp from PNs in Drosophila AD models expressing Aβ40,Aβ42,or Aβ42Arc peptides in neural tissue.Results In fly pupae (2 days before eclosion),overexpression of Aβ42 or Aβ42Arc,but not Aβ40,led to a significant decrease of mEPSC frequency,while overexpression of Aβ40,Aβ42,or Aβ42Arc had no significant effect on mEPSC amplitude.In contrast,Pavlovian olfactory associative learning and lifespan assays showed that both short-term memory and lifespan were decreased in the Drosophila models expressing Aβ40,Aβ42,or Aβ42Arc.Conclusion Both electrophysiological and behavioral results showed an effect of Aβ peptide on cholinergic synaptic transmission and suggest a possible mechanism by which Aβ peptides cause cholinergic neuron degeneration and the consequent memory loss.

  15. Lactic acid induces aberrant amyloid precursor protein processing by promoting its interaction with endoplasmic reticulum chaperone proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Xiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acid, a natural by-product of glycolysis, is produced at excess levels in response to impaired mitochondrial function, high-energy demand, and low oxygen availability. The enzyme involved in the production of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ of Alzheimer's disease, BACE1, functions optimally at lower pH, which led us to investigate a potential role of lactic acid in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lactic acid increased levels of Aβ40 and 42, as measured by ELISA, in culture medium of human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, whereas it decreased APP metabolites, such as sAPPα. In cell lysates, APP levels were increased and APP was found to interact with ER-chaperones in a perinuclear region, as determined by co-immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy studies. Lactic acid had only a very modest effect on cellular pH, did increase the levels of ER chaperones Grp78 and Grp94 and led to APP aggregate formation reminiscent of aggresomes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that sustained elevations in lactic acid levels could be a risk factor in amyloidogenesis related to Alzheimer's disease through enhanced APP interaction with ER chaperone proteins and aberrant APP processing leading to increased generation of amyloid peptides and APP aggregates.

  16. Ligand-binding sites in human serum amyloid P component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N.H.H.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Roepstorff, P.; Robey, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    Amyloid P component (AP) is a naturally occurring glycoprotein that is found in serum and basement membranes, AP is also a component of all types of amyloid, including that found in individuals who suffer from Alzheimer's disease and Down's syndrome. Because AP has been found to bind strongly and...... of 25 mu M, while the IC50 of AP-(27-38)-peptide and AP-(33-38)-peptide are 10 mu M and 2 mu M, respectively, The understanding of the structure and function of active AP peptides will be useful for development of amyloid-targeted diagnostics and therapeutics....

  17. Tackling amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's disease with A2V variants of Amyloid-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Maderna, Emanuela; Morbin, Michela; Moda, Fabio; Colombo, Laura; Rossi, Alessandro; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Virgilio, Tommaso; Palamara, Luisa; Ruggerone, Margherita; Giaccone, Giorgio; Campagnani, Ilaria; Costanza, Massimo; Pedotti, Rosetta; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Salmona, Mario; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) exploiting the properties of a natural variant of Amyloid-β (Aβ) carrying the A2V substitution, which protects heterozygous carriers from AD by its ability to interact with wild-type Aβ, hindering conformational changes and assembly thereof. As prototypic compound we designed a six-mer mutated peptide (Aβ1-6A2V), linked to the HIV-related TAT protein, which is widely used for brain delivery and cell membrane penetration of drugs. The resulting molecule [Aβ1-6A2VTAT(D)] revealed strong anti-amyloidogenic effects in vitro and protected human neuroblastoma cells from Aβ toxicity. Preclinical studies in AD mouse models showed that short-term treatment with Aβ1-6A2VTAT(D) inhibits Aβ aggregation and cerebral amyloid deposition, but a long treatment schedule unexpectedly increases amyloid burden, although preventing cognitive deterioration. Our data support the view that the AβA2V-based strategy can be successfully used for the development of treatments for AD, as suggested by the natural protection against the disease in human A2V heterozygous carriers. The undesirable outcome of the prolonged treatment with Aβ1-6A2VTAT(D) was likely due to the TAT intrinsic attitude to increase Aβ production, avidly bind amyloid and boost its seeding activity, warning against the use of the TAT carrier in the design of AD therapeutics. PMID:26864599

  18. Tackling amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease with A2V variants of Amyloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Catania, Marcella; Maderna, Emanuela; Morbin, Michela; Moda, Fabio; Colombo, Laura; Rossi, Alessandro; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Virgilio, Tommaso; Palamara, Luisa; Ruggerone, Margherita; Giaccone, Giorgio; Campagnani, Ilaria; Costanza, Massimo; Pedotti, Rosetta; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Salmona, Mario; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) exploiting the properties of a natural variant of Amyloid-β (Aβ) carrying the A2V substitution, which protects heterozygous carriers from AD by its ability to interact with wild-type Aβ, hindering conformational changes and assembly thereof. As prototypic compound we designed a six-mer mutated peptide (Aβ1-6A2V), linked to the HIV-related TAT protein, which is widely used for brain delivery and cell membrane penetration of drugs. The resulting molecule [Aβ1-6A2VTAT(D)] revealed strong anti-amyloidogenic effects in vitro and protected human neuroblastoma cells from Aβ toxicity. Preclinical studies in AD mouse models showed that short-term treatment with Aβ1-6A2VTAT(D) inhibits Aβ aggregation and cerebral amyloid deposition, but a long treatment schedule unexpectedly increases amyloid burden, although preventing cognitive deterioration. Our data support the view that the AβA2V-based strategy can be successfully used for the development of treatments for AD, as suggested by the natural protection against the disease in human A2V heterozygous carriers. The undesirable outcome of the prolonged treatment with Aβ1-6A2VTAT(D) was likely due to the TAT intrinsic attitude to increase Aβ production, avidly bind amyloid and boost its seeding activity, warning against the use of the TAT carrier in the design of AD therapeutics. PMID:26864599

  19. Potent anticholinesterasic and neuroprotective pyranotacrines as inhibitors of beta-amyloid aggregation, oxidative stress and tau-phosphorylation for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Font, Nuria; Hayour, Hasna; Belfaitah, Ali; Pedraz, Jorge; Moraleda, Ignacio; Iriepa, Isabel; Bouraiou, Abdelmalek; Chioua, Mourad; Marco-Contelles, José; Oset-Gasque, María Jesús

    2016-08-01

    Herein we describe the synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of thirteen new, racemic, diversely functionalized 2-chloroquinolin-3-yl substituted PyranoTacrines (PTs) as multipotent tacrine analogues for Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. Among these compounds, 1-(5-amino-4-(2-chloro-7-methoxyquinolin-3-yl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrano [2,3-b]quinolin-3-yl)éthanone (9) and ethyl 5-amino-4-(2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)-2-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-4H-pyrano[2,3-b]quinoline-3-carboxylate (4) were found to be non-neurotoxic agents in human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells. Compounds 9 (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.13 μM) and 4 (IC50 = 0.48 ± 0.05 μM) are potent, mixed-type (9: Ki = 0.0142 ± 0.003 μM), and selective EeAChE inhibitors, binding at the both catalytic and peripheral anionic site of the enzyme. Compounds 9 and 4 are neuroprotective agents at low μM concentrations upon decreased viability of SHSY5Y cells induced by oxidative stress, and stimulators of GSK3β-dependent tau phosphorylation. In addition, molecules 9 and 4 effectively counteract Aβ-aggregation on exposure to Aβ1-40, as well as Aβ1-40 aggregation-dependent tau-oligomerization and phosphorylation in (396)Ser, which could be ascribed to the anti-aggregating properties shown in vitro. Thus, a new family of tacrine analogues, whose potent AChEI activity is linked to both their Aβ-aggregating and tau-phosphorylation inhibitory capacities, has been discovered for the potential treatment of AD. PMID:27128182

  20. Molecular insight into amyloid oligomer destabilizing mechanism of flavonoid derivative 2-(4' benzyloxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-chromen-4-one through docking and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Srivastava, Swati; Tripathi, Shubhandra; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Srikrishna, Saripella; Sharma, Ashok

    2016-06-01

    Aggregation of amyloid peptide (Aβ) has been shown to be directly related to progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ is neurotoxic and its deposition and aggregation ultimately lead to cell death. In our previous work, we reported flavonoid derivative (compound 1) showing promising result in transgenic AD model of Drosophila. Compound 1 showed prevention of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and neuroprotective efficacy in Drosophila system. However, mechanism of action of compound 1 and its effect on the amyloid is not known. We therefore performed molecular docking and atomistic, explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the process of Aβ interaction, inhibition, and destabilizing mechanism. Results showed different preferred binding sites of compound 1 and good affinity toward the target. Through the course of 35 ns molecular dynamics simulation, conformations_5 of compound 1 intercalates into the hydrophobic core near the salt bridge and showed major structural changes as compared to other conformations. Compound 1 showed interference with the salt bridge and thus reducing the inter strand hydrogen bound network. This minimizes the side chain interaction between the chains A-B leading to disorder in oligomer. Contact map analysis of amino acid residues between chains A and B also showed lesser interaction with adjacent amino acids in the presence of compound 1 (conformations_5). The study provides an insight into how compound 1 interferes and disorders the Aβ peptide. These findings will further help to design better inhibitors for aggregation of the amyloid oligomer. PMID:26208790

  1. Effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia on amyloid accumulation in ovariectomized mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Kaliyamurthi; V Thanigavelan; G Victor Rajamanickam

    2012-12-01

    A central hypothesis in the study of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the accumulation and aggregation of -amyloid peptide (A). Recent epidemiological studies suggest that patients with elevated cholesterol and decreased estrogen levels are more susceptible to AD through A accumulation. To test the above hypothesis, we used ovariectomized with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia (OVX) and hypercholesterolemia (HCL) diet alone mouse models. HPLC analysis reveals the presence of beta amyloid in the OVX and HCL mice brain. Congo red staining analysis revealed the extent of amyloid deposition in OVX and hypercholesterolemia mice brain. Overall, A levels were higher in OVX mice than in HCL. Secondly, estrogen receptors (ER) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and this suggested that there was a decreased expression of ER in OVX animals when compared to hypercholesterolemic animals. A was quantified by Western blot and ELISA analysis. Overall, Aβ levels were higher in OVX mice than in HCL mice. Our experimental results suggested that OVX animals were more susceptible to AD with significant increase in A peptide.

  2. General amyloid inhibitors? A critical examination of the inhibition of IAPP amyloid formation by inositol stereoisomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP or amylin forms amyloid deposits in the islets of Langerhans; a process that is believed to contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes and to the failure of islet transplants. An emerging theme in amyloid research is the hypothesis that the toxic species produced during amyloid formation by different polypeptides share common features and exert their effects by common mechanisms. If correct, this suggests that inhibitors of amyloid formation by one polypeptide might be effective against other amyloidogenic sequences. IAPP and Aβ, the peptide responsible for amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease, are particularly interesting in this regard as they are both natively unfolded in their monomeric states and share some common characteristics. Comparatively little effort has been expended on the design of IAPP amyloid inhibitors, thus it is natural to inquire if Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP, especially since no IAPP inhibitors have been clinically approved. A range of compounds inhibit Aβ amyloid formation, including various stereoisomers of inositol. Myo-, scyllo-, and epi-inositol have been shown to induce conformational changes in Aβ and prevent Aβ amyloid fibril formation by stabilizing non-fibrillar β-sheet structures. We investigate the ability of inositol stereoisomers to inhibit amyloid formation by IAPP. The compounds do not induce a conformational change in IAPP and are ineffective inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation, although some do lead to modest apparent changes in IAPP amyloid fibril morphology. Thus not all classes of Aβ inhibitors are effective against IAPP. This work provides a basis of comparison to work on polyphenol based inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation and helps provide clues as to the features which render them effective. The study also helps provide information for further efforts in rational inhibitor design.

  3. The protonation state of histidine 111 regulates the aggregation of the evolutionary most conserved region of the human prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Ornelas, Luis; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2016-08-01

    In a group of neurodegenerative diseases, collectively termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the prion protein aggregates into β-sheet rich amyloid-like deposits. Because amyloid structure has been connected to different prion strains and cellular toxicity, it is important to obtain insight into the structural properties of prion fibrils. Using a combination of solution NMR spectroscopy, thioflavin-T fluorescence and electron microscopy we here show that within amyloid fibrils of a peptide containing residues 108-143 of the human prion protein [humPrP (108-143)]-the evolutionary most conserved part of the prion protein - residue H111 and S135 are in close spatial proximity and their interaction is critical for fibrillization. We further show that residues H111 and H140 share the same microenvironment in the unfolded, monomeric state of the peptide, but not in the fibrillar form. While protonation of H140 has little influence on fibrillization of humPrP (108-143), a positive charge at position 111 blocks the conformational change, which is necessary for amyloid formation of humPrP (108-143). Our study thus highlights the importance of protonation of histidine residues for protein aggregation and suggests point mutations to probe the structure of infectious prion particles. PMID:27184108

  4. The Effect of HIV Protease Inhibitors on AmyloidPeptide Degradation and Synthesis in Human Cells and Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Xiqian; Kiyota, Tomomi; Hanamsagar, Richa; Huang, Yunlong; Andrews, Scott; Peng, Hui; Zheng, Jialin C.; Swindells, Susan; Carlson, George A.; Ikezu, Tsuneya

    2011-01-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) tremendously improved the lifespan and symptoms associated with AIDS-defining illness in affected individuals. However, chronic ART-treated patients frequently develop age-dependent complications, including dementia, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia: all risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease. Importantly, the effect of ART compounds on amyloid generation and clearance has never been systematically examined. Nine prescribed HIV protease inhibitors were tested fo...

  5. NMR Studies of Lipid Lateral Diffusion in the DMPC/Gramicidin D/Water System: Peptide Aggregation and Obstruction Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Orädd, Greger; Lindblom, Göran

    2004-01-01

    The PFG-NMR method has been used in macroscopically oriented bilayers to investigate the effect of the peptide gramicidin D on the lateral diffusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. By varying both the temperature (21–35°C) and the gramicidin content (0–5 mol %) we have introduced solid obstacles into the lipid liquid crystalline bilayer. It was shown that the obstruction effect exerted by the peptide can be described with several different theoretical models, each based on different premis...

  6. Simulations of nucleation and elongation of amyloid fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianing; Muthukumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained model for the growth kinetics of amyloid fibrils from solutions of peptides and address the fundamental mechanism of nucleation and elongation by using a lattice Monte Carlo procedure. We reproduce the three main characteristics of nucleation of amyloid fibrils: (1) existence of lag time, (2) occurrence of a critical concentration, and (3) seeding. We find the nucleation of amyloid fibrils to require a quasi-two-dimensional configuration, where a second layer of β ...

  7. Towards a Pharmacophore for Amyloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, Meytal; Sawaya, Michael R.; Faull, Kym F.; Laganowsky, Arthur; Jiang, Lin; Sievers, Stuart A.; Liu, Jie; Barrio, Jorge R.; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2011-09-16

    Diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's and other diseases associated with amyloid fibers remains a great challenge despite intensive research. To aid in this effort, we present atomic structures of fiber-forming segments of proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease in complex with small molecule binders, determined by X-ray microcrystallography. The fiber-like complexes consist of pairs of {beta}-sheets, with small molecules binding between the sheets, roughly parallel to the fiber axis. The structures suggest that apolar molecules drift along the fiber, consistent with the observation of nonspecific binding to a variety of amyloid proteins. In contrast, negatively charged orange-G binds specifically to lysine side chains of adjacent sheets. These structures provide molecular frameworks for the design of diagnostics and drugs for protein aggregation diseases. The devastating and incurable dementia known as Alzheimer's disease affects the thinking, memory, and behavior of dozens of millions of people worldwide. Although amyloid fibers and oligomers of two proteins, tau and amyloid-{beta}, have been identified in association with this disease, the development of diagnostics and therapeutics has proceeded to date in a near vacuum of information about their structures. Here we report the first atomic structures of small molecules bound to amyloid. These are of the dye orange-G, the natural compound curcumin, and the Alzheimer's diagnostic compound DDNP bound to amyloid-like segments of tau and amyloid-{beta}. The structures reveal the molecular framework of small-molecule binding, within cylindrical cavities running along the {beta}-spines of the fibers. Negatively charged orange-G wedges into a specific binding site between two sheets of the fiber, combining apolar binding with electrostatic interactions, whereas uncharged compounds slide along the cavity. We observed that different amyloid polymorphs bind different small molecules, revealing that a

  8. Inhibition of Protein Misfolding/Aggregation Using Polyglutamine Binding Peptide QBP1 as a Therapy for the Polyglutamine Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Popiel, H. Akiko; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Burke, James R.; Strittmatter, Warren J.; Toda, Tatsushi; Wada, Keiji; Nagai, Yoshitaka

    2013-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation in the brain have been recognized to be crucial in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and the polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, which are collectively called the “protein misfolding diseases”. In the polyQ diseases, an abnormally expanded polyQ stretch in the responsible proteins causes the proteins to misfold and aggregate, eventually resulting in neurodegeneration. Hypothesizing that polyQ protein misf...

  9. Phthalocyanines as Molecular Scaffolds to Block Disease-Associated Protein Aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente-Gabioud, Ariel A; Miotto, Marco C; Chesta, María E; Lombardo, Verónica; Binolfi, Andres; Fernández, Claudio O

    2016-05-17

    The aggregation of proteins into toxic conformations plays a critical role in the development of different neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Creutzfled-Jakob's disease (CJD). These disorders share a common pathological mechanism that involves the formation of aggregated protein species including toxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils. The aggregation of alpha-synuclein (αS) in PD and the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) and tau protein in AD results in neuronal death and disease onset. In the case of CJD, the misfolding of the physiological prion protein (PrP) induces a chain reaction that results in accumulation of particles that elicit brain damage. Currently, there is no preventive therapy for these diseases and the available therapeutic approaches are based on the treatment of the symptoms rather than the underlying causes of the disease. Accordingly, the aggregation pathway of these proteins represents a useful target for therapeutic intervention. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of amyloid formation and its inhibition is of high clinical importance. The design of small molecules that efficiently inhibit the aggregation process and/or neutralize its associated toxicity constitutes a promising tool for the development of therapeutic strategies against these disorders. In this accounts, we discuss current knowledge on the anti-amyloid activity of phthalocyanines and their potential use as drug candidates in neurodegeneration. These tetrapyrrolic compounds modulate the amyloid assembly of αS, tau, Aβ, and the PrP in vitro, and protect cells from the toxic effects of amyloid aggregates. In addition, in scrapie-infected mice, these compounds showed important prophylactic antiscrapie properties. The structural basis for the inhibitory effect of phthalocyanines on amyloid filament assembly relies on specific π-π interactions between the aromatic ring system of these molecules and aromatic residues in the

  10. Periodic acid-Schiff granules in the brain of aged mice: From amyloid aggregates to degenerative structures containing neo-epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manich, Gemma; Cabezón, Itsaso; Augé, Elisabet; Pelegrí, Carme; Vilaplana, Jordi

    2016-05-01

    Brain ageing in mice leads to the progressive appearance and expansion of degenerative granular structures frequently referred as "PAS granules" because of their positive staining with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS). PAS granules are present mainly in the hippocampus, although they have also been described in other brain areas such as piriform and entorhinal cortices, and have been observed in other mammals than mice, like rats and monkeys. PAS granules have been identified as a wide range of brain deposits related to numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles, Lafora bodies, corpora amylacea and polyglucosan bodies, and these identifications have generated controversy and particular theories about them. We have recently reported the presence of a neo-epitope in mice hippocampal PAS granules and the existence of natural IgM auto-antibodies directed against the neo-epitope in the plasma of the animals. The significance of the neo-epitope and the autoantibodies is discussed in this review. Moreover, we observed that the IgM anti-neo-epitope is frequently present as a contaminant in numerous commercial antibodies and is responsible of a considerable amount of false positive immunostainings, which may produce misinterpretations in the identification of the granules. Now that this point has been clarified, this article reviews and reconsiders the nature and physiopathological significance of these degenerative granules. Moreover, we suggest that neo-epitopes may turn into a useful brain-ageing biomarker and that autoimmunity could become a new focus in the study of age-related degenerative processes. PMID:26970374

  11. Amyloid-beta Alzheimer targets — protein processing, lipid rafts, and amyloid-beta pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbor, Sage C.; LaFontaine, Mike; Cumbay, Medhane

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials. An atomic resolution understanding of Aβ aggregates, which appear to exist in multiple conformations, is most desirable for future therapeutic development. The investigative difficulties, structures of these small Aβ aggregates, and current therapeutics are summarized in this review.

  12. Amyloid-beta Alzheimer targets - protein processing, lipid rafts, and amyloid-beta pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbor, Sage C; LaFontaine, Mike; Cumbay, Medhane

    2016-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials. An atomic resolution understanding of Aβ aggregates, which appear to exist in multiple conformations, is most desirable for future therapeutic development. The investigative difficulties, structures of these small Aβ aggregates, and current therapeutics are summarized in this review. PMID:27505013

  13. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel indandione derivatives as multifunctional agents with cholinesterase inhibition, anti-β-amyloid aggregation, antioxidant and neuroprotection properties against Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Chandra Bhushan; Manral, Apra; Kumari, Shikha; Saini, Vikas; Tiwari, Manisha

    2016-08-15

    A series of novel 2-(4-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)benzylidene)-1H-indene-1,3(2H)-diones were designed, synthesized and appraised as multifunctional anti-Alzheimer agents. In vitro studies of compounds 27-38 showed that these compounds exhibit moderate to excellent AChE, BuChE and Aβ aggregation inhibitory activity. Notably, compounds 34 and 38 appeared as most active multifunctional agents in the entire series and exhibited excellent inhibition against AChE (IC50=0.048μM: 34; 0.036μM: 38), Aβ aggregation (max% inhibition 82.2%, IC50=9.2μM: 34; max% inhibition 80.9%, IC50=10.11μM: 38) and displayed significant antioxidant potential in ORAC-FL assay. Both compounds also successfully diminished H2O2 induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Fascinatingly, compounds 34 and 38 showed admirable neuroprotective effects against H2O2 and Aβ induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Additionally, both derivatives showed no considerable toxicity in neuronal cell viability assay and represented drug likeness properties in the primarily pharmacokinetics study. All these results together, propelled out that compounds 34 and 38 might serve as promising multi-functional lead candidates for treatment of AD in the future. PMID:27353888

  14. Improving cognitive impairment by Tongxinluo via inhibiting expression of beta-secretase 1/beta-amyloid peptide in experimental vascular dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Jia; Wenbin Zhu; Lihui Wang; Yun Xu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tongxinluo has been clinically proven to be effective in improving memory and cognitive function in patients with post-stroke vascular dementia. Is the mechanism related to the deposition of beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in hippocampus? OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Tongxinluo on cognitive impairment in a mouse model with vascular dementia and the changes of Aβ deposition andβ-secretase 1 (BACE1) expression.DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.SETTING: State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology of Nanjing University and Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology of Nanjing University and Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from March 2006 to January 2007. A total of 36 healthy Kunming mice, 18 of each gender, were chosen. The study was conducted in accordance with the National Regulations of Experimental Animal Administration, and all animal experiments were approved by the Committee of Experimental Animal Administration of Nanjing University. Tongxinluo was provided by Shijiazhuang Yiling Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.METHODS: All mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, including naive control (n=6), sham-operated control (n=6) and experimental groups treated with different doses of Tongxinluo (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/kg/d; n=6 for each group) or vehicle (n=6). Five groups were subjected to bilateral common carotid arteries (2-VO) occlusion to produce a vascular dementia model(noocclusion was performed in sham-operated group). The mice in the Tongxinluo treatment groups were intragastricly administered daily with a Tongxinluo suspension (40 g/L in distilled water) at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg/d from day 1 to day 30 post-surgery. The animals in vehicle, sham-operated and naive groups were administered an equal volume of distilled water. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ①Escape latency time

  15. Amyloid Imaging in Aging and Dementia: Testing the Amyloid Hypothesis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Rabinovici

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid imaging represents a major advance in neuroscience, enabling the detection and quantification of pathologic protein aggregations in the brain. In this review we survey current amyloid imaging techniques, focusing on positron emission tomography (PET with ^{11}carbon-labelled Pittsburgh Compound-B (11C-PIB, the most extensively studied and best validated tracer. PIB binds specifically to fibrillar beta-amyloid (Aβ deposits, and is a sensitive marker for Aβ pathology in cognitively normal older individuals and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and Alzheimer’s disease (AD. PIB-PET provides us with a powerful tool to examine in vivo the relationship between amyloid deposition, clinical symptoms, and structural and functional brain changes in the continuum between normal aging and AD. Amyloid imaging studies support a model in which amyloid deposition is an early event on the path to dementia, beginning insidiously in cognitively normal individuals, and accompanied by subtle cognitive decline and functional and structural brain changes suggestive of incipient AD. As patients progress to dementia, clinical decline and neurodegeneration accelerate and proceed independently of amyloid accumulation. In the future, amyloid imaging is likely to supplement clinical evaluation in selecting patients for anti-amyloid therapies, while MRI and FDG-PET may be more appropriate markers of clinical progression.

  16. Heterologous amyloid seeding: revisiting the role of acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Létitia Jean

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases associated with abnormal protein folding and ordered aggregation require an initial trigger which may be infectious, inherited, post-inflammatory or idiopathic. Proteolytic cleavage to generate vulnerable precursors, such as amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta production via beta and gamma secretases in Alzheimer's Disease (AD, is one such trigger, but the proteolytic removal of these fragments is also aetiologically important. The levels of Abeta in the central nervous system are regulated by several catabolic proteases, including insulysin (IDE and neprilysin (NEP. The known association of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE with pathological aggregates in AD together with its ability to increase Abeta fibrilization prompted us to search for proteolytic triggers that could enhance this process. The hAChE C-terminal domain (T40, AChE(575-614 is an exposed amphiphilic alpha-helix involved in enzyme oligomerisation, but it also contains a conformational switch region (CSR with high propensity for conversion to non-native (hidden beta-strand, a property associated with amyloidogenicity. A synthetic peptide (AChE(586-599 encompassing the CSR region shares homology with Abeta and forms beta-sheet amyloid fibrils. We investigated the influence of IDE and NEP proteolysis on the formation and degradation of relevant hAChE beta-sheet species. By combining reverse-phase HPLC and mass spectrometry, we established that the enzyme digestion profiles on T40 versus AChE(586-599, or versus Abeta, differed. Moreover, IDE digestion of T40 triggered the conformational switch from alpha- to beta-structures, resulting in surfactant CSR species that self-assembled into amyloid fibril precursors (oligomers. Crucially, these CSR species significantly increased Abeta fibril formation both by seeding the energetically unfavorable formation of amyloid nuclei and by enhancing the rate of amyloid elongation. Hence, these results may offer an explanation

  17. Unusual cerebral vascular prion protein amyloid distribution in scrapie-infected transgenic mice expressing anchorless prion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, Alejandra; Race, Brent; Klingeborn, Mikael; Striebel, James; Chesebro, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background In some prion diseases, misfolded aggregated protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) is found in brain as amyloid, which can cause cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Small diffusible precursors of PrPres amyloid might flow with brain interstitial fluid (ISF), possibly accounting for the perivascular and intravascular distribution of PrPres amyloid. We previously reported that PrPres amyloid in scrapie-infected transgenic mice appeared to delay clearance of microinjected brain ISF trace...

  18. Interaction of glycine zipper fragments of Aβ-peptides with neuronal nitric oxide synthase: kinetic, thermodynamic and spectrofluorimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, E R; Whiteley, C G

    2013-06-01

    Five peptide fragments [Aβ(17-21); Aβ(25-29); Aβ(29-33); Aβ(33-37); Aβ(25-37)] of the toxic Aβ(1-40(42)) amyloid peptide were shown to bind with neuronal nitric oxide synthase by means of hydrophobic-hydrophobic forces. The enzyme has a single site for the amyloid peptide binding, which resulted in a quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the enzyme. Binding constants determined from Stern-Volmer analysis were between 9×10(-3) and 1.8×10(-2) μM(-1). As temperature increased these binding constants increased reflecting that the interaction of the amyloid peptides with nNOS was endothermic and the quenching was dynamic. Kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive interaction of the amyloid peptides to the enzyme with inhibitor constants of 5.1 μM for Aβ(17-21) to about 8-12 μM for the other peptides. According to the van't Hoff relationship the thermodynamic parameters, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG for the interaction of the amyloid peptides were all positive and between 41.28 and 77.86 kJ mol(-1)K(-1), 104.92 and 220.82 J mol(-1)K(-1) and 9.92 and 13.13 kJ mol(-1)K(-1), respectively. This suggested that the transition state, created by the amyloid peptide-nNOS complex and generated during the initial stages of Aβ aggregation had to, initially, overcome an activation barrier. Since the ΔG values decreased as temperature increased it not only implied a non-spontaneous interaction but that hydrophobic forces were operative during the binding. By FRET analysis the distance between the donor enzyme and the acceptor amyloid peptide was between 2.7 and 2.8 nm. As the temperature increased from 298 K through 313 K (and higher) the fraction of these tryptophan residues that became exposed increased, to approach a value of 1. There was strong support for the initial interaction being through the glycine zipper regions of Aβ(25-37). PMID:23375441

  19. Amyloid fibril formation requires a chemically discriminating nucleation event: studies of an amyloidogenic sequence from the bacterial protein OsmB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, J T; Lansbury, P T

    1992-12-15

    The sequence of the Escherichia coli OsmB protein was found to resemble that of the C-terminal region of the beta amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease, which seems to be the major determinant of its unusual structural and solubility properties. A peptide corresponding to residues 28-44 of the OsmB protein was synthesized, and its conformational properties and aggregation behavior were analyzed. The peptide OsmB(28-44) was shown to form amyloid fibrils, as did two sequence analogs designed to test the sequence specificity of fibril formation. These fibrils bound Congo red, and two of the peptides showed birefringence. The peptide fibrils were analyzed by electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Subtle differences were observed which were not interpretable at the molecular level. The rate of fibril formation by each peptide was followed by monitoring the turbidity of supersaturated aqueous solutions. The kinetics of aggregation were characterized by a delay period during which the solution remained clear, followed by a nucleation event which led to a growth phase, during which the solution became viscous and turbid due to the presence of insoluble fibrils. The observation of a kinetic barrier to aggregation is typical of a crystallization event. The delay period could be eliminated by seeding the supersaturated solution with previously formed fibrils. Each peptide could be nucleated by fibrils formed from that same peptide, but not by fibrils from closely related sequences, suggesting that fibril growth requires specific hydrophobic interactions. It appears likely that this repeated sequence motif, which comprises most of the OsmB protein sequence, dictates the structure and possibly the function of that protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1463722

  20. SERF Protein Is a Direct Modifier of Amyloid Fiber Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fabio Falsone

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The inherent cytotoxicity of aberrantly folded protein aggregates contributes substantially to the pathogenesis of amyloid diseases. It was recently shown that a class of evolutionary conserved proteins, called MOAG-4/SERF, profoundly alter amyloid toxicity via an autonomous but yet unexplained mode. We show that the biological function of human SERF1a originates from its atypical ability to specifically distinguish between amyloid and nonamyloid aggregation. This inherently unstructured protein directly affected the aggregation kinetics of a broad range of amyloidogenic proteins in vitro, while being inactive against nonamyloid aggregation. A representative biophysical analysis of the SERF1a:α-synuclein (aSyn complex revealed that the amyloid-promoting activity resulted from an early and transient interaction, which was sufficient to provoke a massive increase of soluble aSyn amyloid nucleation templates. Therefore, the autonomous amyloid-modifying activity of SERF1a observed in living organisms relies on a direct and dedicated manipulation of the early stages in the amyloid aggregation pathway.

  1. cAMP-Inhibits Cytoplasmic Phospholipase A2 and Protects Neurons against Amyloid-β-Induced Synapse Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Clive Bate; Alun Williams

    2015-01-01

    A key event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and the loss of synapses. In cultured neurons Aβ triggered synapse damage as measured by the loss of synaptic proteins. α-synuclein (αSN), aggregates of which accumulate in Parkinson’s disease, also caused synapse damage. Synapse damage was associated with activation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates synapse function and structure, and the production of prostaglandin (PG) E2. I...

  2. Amyloid cascade in Alzheimer's disease: Recent advances in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Tarek; Shakeri, Arash; Rao, Praveen P N

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease is of major concern all over the world due to a number of factors including (i) an aging population (ii) increasing life span and (iii) lack of effective pharmacotherapy options. The past decade has seen intense research in discovering disease-modifying multitargeting small molecules as therapeutic options. The pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease is attributed to a number of factors such as the cholinergic dysfunction, amyloid/tau toxicity and oxidative stress/mitochondrial dysfunction. In recent years, targeting the amyloid cascade has emerged as an attractive strategy to discover novel neurotherapeutics. Formation of beta-amyloid species, with different degrees of solubility and neurotoxicity is associated with the gradual decline in cognition leading to dementia. The two commonly used approaches to prevent beta-amyloid accumulation in the brain include (i) development of beta-secretase inhibitors and (ii) designing direct inhibitors of beta-amyloid (self-induced) aggregation. This review highlights the amyloid cascade hypothesis and the key chemical features required to design small molecules that inhibit lower and higher order beta-amyloid aggregates. Several recent examples of small synthetic molecules with disease-modifying properties were considered and their molecular docking studies were conducted using either a dimer or steric-zipper assembly of beta-amyloid. These investigations provide a mechanistic understanding on the structural requirements needed to design novel small molecules with anti-amyloid aggregation properties. Significantly, this work also demonstrates that the structural requirements to prevent aggregation of various amyloid species differs considerably, which explains the fact that many small molecules do not exhibit similar inhibition profile toward diverse amyloid species such as dimers, trimers, tetramers, oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils. PMID:26945113

  3. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42)-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gen-Lin; Luo, Zhen; Yang, Ju; Shen, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xue-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ) deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2)-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42) (fAβ42)-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA) agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26824354

  4. Curcumin Ameliorates the Reduction Effect of PGE2 on Fibrillar β-Amyloid Peptide (1-42-Induced Microglial Phagocytosis through the Inhibition of EP2-PKA Signaling in N9 Microglial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Lin He

    Full Text Available Inflammatory activation of microglia and β amyloid (Aβ deposition are considered to work both independently and synergistically to contribute to the increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Recent studies indicate that long-term use of phenolic compounds provides protection against AD, primarily due to their anti-inflammatory actions. We previously suggested that phenolic compound curcumin ameliorated phagocytosis possibly through its anti-inflammatory effects rather than direct regulation of phagocytic function in electromagnetic field-exposed N9 microglial cells (N9 cells. Here, we explored the prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2-related signaling pathway that involved in curcumin-mediated phagocytosis in fibrillar β-amyloid peptide (1-42 (fAβ42-stimulated N9 cells. Treatment with fAβ42 increased phagocytosis of fluorescent-labeled latex beads in N9 cells. This increase was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner by endogenous and exogenous PGE2, as well as a selective EP2 or protein kinase A (PKA agonist, but not by an EP4 agonist. We also found that an antagonist of EP2, but not EP4, abolished the reduction effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis. Additionally, the increased expression of endogenous PGE2, EP2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP, and activation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein, and PKA were depressed by curcumin administration. This reduction led to the amelioration of the phagocytic abilities of PGE2-stimulated N9 cells. Taken together, these data suggested that curcumin restored the attenuating effect of PGE2 on fAβ42-induced microglial phagocytosis via a signaling mechanism involving EP2 and PKA. Moreover, due to its immune modulatory effects, curcumin may be a promising pharmacological candidate for neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  6. The extracellular chaperone clusterin sequesters oligomeric forms of the Aβ1–40 peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Priyanka; Orte, Angel; Clarke, Richard W.; Bolognesi, Benedetta; Hook, Sharon; Ganzinger, Kristina A.; Meehan, Sarah; Wilson, Mark R.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    In recent genome-wide association studies, the extracellular chaperone protein, clusterin, has been identified as a novel risk factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have examined the interactions between clusterin and the AD-associated amyloid-β1–40 peptide (Aβ1–40) which is prone to aggregate into an ensemble of oligomeric intermediates implicated in both the proliferation of amyloid fibrils and in neuronal toxicity. Using highly sensitive single molecule fluorescence methods, we have found that Aβ1–40 forms a heterogeneous distribution of small oligomers (from dimers to 50mers), all of which interact with clusterin to form long-lived, stable complexes. Consequently, clusterin is able to influence strongly both the aggregation and disaggregation of Aβ1–40 by sequestration of the Aβ oligomers. These results not only elucidate the protective role of clusterin but also provide a molecular basis for the genetic link between clusterin and AD. PMID:22179788

  7. Taylor Dispersion Analysis Compared to Dynamic Light Scattering for the Size Analysis of Therapeutic Peptides and Proteins and Their Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Hawe, Andrea; Hulse, Wendy L.; Jiskoot, Wim; Forbes, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate Taylor dispersion analysis (TDA) as a novel method for determination of hydrodynamic radius of therapeutic peptides and proteins in non-stressed and stressed formulations and to compare it with dynamic light scattering (DLS). Methods The hydrodynamic radius of oxytocin, bovine serum albumin, various monoclonal antibodies (type IgG) and etanercept at concentrations between 0.05 and 50 mg/ml was determined by TDA and DLS. IgGs and etanercept were stressed (elevated ...

  8. Catechins and Procyanidins of Ginkgo biloba Show Potent Activities towards the Inhibition of β-Amyloid Peptide Aggregation and Destabilization of Preformed Fibrils

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Xie; Jing-Rong Wang; Lee-Fong Yau; Yong Liu; Liang Liu; Quan-Bin Han; Zhongzhen Zhao; Zhi-Hong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Catechins and procyanidins, together with flavonoid glycosides and terpene trilactones, are three important categories of components in the standard extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (EGb761). In this research, catechins and proanthocyanidins were found to exist in both the extract of Ginkgo leaves and Ginkgo products. By comparing with reference compounds, six of them were identified as (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, (−)-gallocatechin, (−)-epigallocatechin and procyanidins B1 and B3. The acti...

  9. Amyloid imaging in Alzheimer's disease: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidlitz, P; Voisin, T; Vellas, B; Payoux, P; Gabelle, A; Formaglio, M; Delrieu, J

    2014-07-01

    Therapies targeting amyloidpeptide currently represent approximately 50% of drugs now being developed for Alzheimer's disease. Some, including active and passive anti-Aβ immunotherapy, directly target the amyloid plaques. The new amyloid tracers are increasingly being included in the proposed updated diagnostic criteria, and may allow earlier diagnosis. Those targeting amyloidpeptide allow identification of amyloid plaques in vivo. We need to gain insight into all aspects of their application. As florbetapir (Amyvid™) and flutemetamol (Vizamyl™) have received marketing authorization, clinicians require deeper knowledge to be rationally used in diagnosis. In this paper, we review both completed and ongoing observational, longitudinal and interventional studies of these tracers, our main objective being to show the performance of the four most commonly used tracers and their validation. PMID:25226113

  10. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Kongsbak-Wismann, Pernille; Schlumberger, Chantal; Jelsing, Jacob; Terwel, Dick; Termont, Annelies; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-01-01

    One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E) and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9) of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c.), or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.). In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD. PMID:27421117

  11. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1 Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik H Hansen

    Full Text Available One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP and presenilin-1 (PS1 are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the 'London' (hAPPLon/PS1A246E and 'Swedish' mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c., or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.. In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD.

  12. Long-Term Treatment with Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Receptor Agonist, Has No Effect on β-Amyloid Plaque Load in Two Transgenic APP/PS1 Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkholt, Pernille; Kongsbak-Wismann, Pernille; Schlumberger, Chantal; Jelsing, Jacob; Terwel, Dick; Termont, Annelies; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-01-01

    One of the major histopathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is cerebral deposits of extracellular β-amyloid peptides. Preclinical studies have pointed to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors as a potential novel target in the treatment of AD. GLP-1 receptor agonists, including exendin-4 and liraglutide, have been shown to promote plaque-lowering and mnemonic effects of in a number of experimental models of AD. Transgenic mouse models carrying genetic mutations of amyloid protein precursor (APP) and presenilin-1 (PS1) are commonly used to assess the pharmacodynamics of potential amyloidosis-lowering and pro-cognitive compounds. In this study, effects of long-term liraglutide treatment were therefore determined in two double APP/PS1 transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease carrying different clinical APP/PS1 mutations, i.e. the ‘London’ (hAPPLon/PS1A246E) and ‘Swedish’ mutation variant (hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9) of APP, with co-expression of distinct PS1 variants. Liraglutide was administered in 5 month-old hAPPLon/PS1A246E mice for 3 months (100 or 500 ng/kg/day, s.c.), or 7 month-old hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice for 5 months (500 ng/kg/day, s.c.). In both models, regional plaque load was quantified throughout the brain using stereological methods. Vehicle-dosed hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice exhibited considerably higher cerebral plaque load than hAPPLon/PS1A246E control mice. Compared to vehicle-dosed transgenic controls, liraglutide treatment had no effect on the plaque levels in hAPPLon/PS1A246E and hAPPSwe/PS1ΔE9 mice. In conclusion, long-term liraglutide treatment exhibited no effect on cerebral plaque load in two transgenic mouse models of low- and high-grade amyloidosis, which suggests differential sensitivity to long-term liraglutide treatment in various transgenic mouse models mimicking distinct pathological hallmarks of AD. PMID:27421117

  13. Formation of Toxic Amyloid Fibrils by Amyloid β-Protein on Ganglioside Clusters

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    Katsumi Matsuzaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the conversion of the soluble, nontoxic amyloid β-protein (Aβ monomer to aggregated toxic Aβ rich in β-sheet structures is central to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the mechanism of the abnormal aggregation of Aβ in vivo is not well understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that lipid rafts (microdomains in membranes mainly composed of sphingolipids (gangliosides and sphingomyelin and cholesterol play a pivotal role in this process. This paper summarizes the molecular mechanisms by which Aβ aggregates on membranes containing ganglioside clusters, forming amyloid fibrils. Notably, the toxicity and physicochemical properties of the fibrils are different from those of Aβ amyloids formed in solution. Furthermore, differences between Aβ-(1–40 and Aβ-(1–42 in membrane interaction and amyloidogenesis are also emphasized.

  14. Selective and Sensitive Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in 100% Aqueous Solution and Cells with a Fluorescence Chemosensor Based on Peptide Using Aggregation-Induced Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Lok Nath; Oh, Eun-Taex; Park, Heon Joo; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2016-03-15

    A fluorescent peptidyl chemosensor for the detection of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution as well as in cells was synthesized on the basis of the peptide receptor for the metal ions using an aggregation-induced emission fluorophore. The peptidyl chemosensor (1) bearing tetraphenylethylene fluorophore showed an exclusively selective turn-on response to Hg(2+) among 16 metal ions in aqueous buffered solution containing NaCl. The peptidyl chemosensor complexed Hg(2+) ions and then aggregated in aqueous buffered solution, resulting in the significant enhancement (OFF-On) of emissions at around 470 nm. The fluorescent sensor showed a highly sensitive response to Hg(2+), and about 1.0 equiv of Hg(2+) was enough for the saturation of the emission intensity change. The detection limit (5.3 nM, R(2) = 0.99) of 1 for Hg(2+) ions was lower than the maximum allowable level of Hg(2+) in drinking water by EPA. Moreover, the peptidyl chemosensor penetrated live cells and detected intracellular Hg(2+) ions by the turn-on response. PMID:26872241

  15. Prions, amyloids, and RNA: Pieces of a puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Anton A; Antonets, Kirill S; Bondarev, Stanislav A; Inge-Vechtomov, Sergey G; Derkatch, Irina L

    2016-05-01

    Amyloids are protein aggregates consisting of fibrils rich in β-sheets. Growth of amyloid fibrils occurs by the addition of protein molecules to the tip of an aggregate with a concurrent change of a conformation. Thus, amyloids are self-propagating protein conformations. In certain cases these conformations are transmissible / infectious; they are known as prions. Initially, amyloids were discovered as pathological extracellular deposits occurring in different tissues and organs. To date, amyloids and prions have been associated with over 30 incurable diseases in humans and animals. However, a number of recent studies demonstrate that amyloids are also functionally involved in a variety of biological processes, from biofilm formation by bacteria, to long-term memory in animals. Interestingly, amyloid-forming proteins are highly overrepresented among cellular factors engaged in all stages of mRNA life cycle: from transcription and translation, to storage and degradation. Here we review rapidly accumulating data on functional and pathogenic amyloids associated with mRNA processing, and discuss possible significance of prion and amyloid networks in the modulation of key cellular functions. PMID:27248002

  16. Sorting of a HaloTag protein that has only a signal peptide sequence into exocrine secretory granules without protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita-Yoshigaki, Junko; Matsuki-Fukushima, Miwako; Yokoyama, Megumi; Katsumata-Kato, Osamu

    2013-11-15

    The mechanism involved in the sorting and accumulation of secretory cargo proteins, such as amylase, into secretory granules of exocrine cells remains to be solved. To clarify that sorting mechanism, we expressed a reporter protein HaloTag fused with partial sequences of salivary amylase protein in primary cultured parotid acinar cells. We found that a HaloTag protein fused with only the signal peptide sequence (Met(1)-Ala(25)) of amylase, termed SS25H, colocalized well with endogenous amylase, which was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy. Percoll-density gradient centrifugation of secretory granule fractions shows that the distributions of amylase and SS25H were similar. These results suggest that SS25H is transported to secretory granules and is not discriminated from endogenous amylase by the machinery that functions to remove proteins other than granule cargo from immature granules. Another reporter protein, DsRed2, that has the same signal peptide sequence also colocalized with amylase, suggesting that the sorting to secretory granules is not dependent on a characteristic of the HaloTag protein. Whereas Blue Native PAGE demonstrates that endogenous amylase forms a high-molecular-weight complex, SS25H does not participate in the complex and does not form self-aggregates. Nevertheless, SS25H was released from cells by the addition of a β-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, which also induces amylase secretion. These results indicate that addition of the signal peptide sequence, which is necessary for the translocation in the endoplasmic reticulum, is sufficient for the transportation and storage of cargo proteins in secretory granules of exocrine cells. PMID:24029466

  17. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  18. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 - 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 - 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  19. Binding of ACE-inhibitors to in vitro and patient-derived amyloid-β fibril models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavaraju, Manikanthan; Phillips, Malachi; Bowman, Deborah; Aceves-Hernandez, Juan M.; Hansmann, Ulrich H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, no drugs exist that can prevent or reverse Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disease associated with the presence, in the brain, of plaques that are composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Recent studies suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, a set of drugs used to treat hypertension, may inhibit amyloid formation in vitro. In the present study, we investigate through computer simulations the binding of ACE inhibitors to patient-derived Aβ fibrils and contrast it with that of ACE inhibitors binding to in vitro generated fibrils. The binding affinities of the ACE inhibitors are compared with that of Congo red, a dye that is used to identify amyloid structures and that is known to be a weak inhibitor of Aβ aggregation. We find that ACE inhibitors have a lower binding affinity to the patient-derived fibrils than to in vitro generated ones. For patient-derived fibrils, their binding affinities are even lower than that of Congo red. Our observations raise doubts on the hypothesis that these drugs inhibit fibril formation in Alzheimer patients by interacting directly with the amyloids.

  20. Adhesion of human platelets to serum amyloid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urieli-Shoval, Simcha; Shubinsky, George; Linke, Reinhold P; Fridkin, Mati; Tabi, Israel; Matzner, Yaacov

    2002-02-15

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase reactant, and its level in the blood is elevated to 1000-fold in response of the body to trauma, infection, inflammation, and neoplasia. SAA was reported to inhibit platelet aggregation and to induce adhesion of leukocytes. This study looked at adhesion of human platelets to SAA. Immobilized SAA supported the adhesion of human washed platelets; level of adhesion to SAA was comparable to fibronectin and lower than to fibrinogen. Adhesion to SAA was further enhanced by Mn(2+) and the physiological agonist, thrombin. Platelet adhesion to SAA was completely abolished by anti-SAA antibody. SAA-induced adhesion was inhibited by antibodies against the integrin receptor alphaIIbbeta3, by the peptide GRGDSP and by SAA-derived peptide containing YIGSR-like and RGD-like adhesion motifs (amino acids 29 to 42). Adhesion was not inhibited by control immunoglobulin G, by antibody against the integrin receptor alphaVbeta3, by the peptide GRGESP, and by SAA-derived peptide that includes incomplete RGD motif. SAA-derived peptide 29 to 42 also inhibited platelet adhesion to fibronectin. Transfected human melanoma cells expressing alphaIIbbeta3 adhered to SAA, whereas transfected cells expressing alphaVbeta3 did not. By using flow cytometry, the alphaIIbbeta3 cells displayed significantly higher levels of binding of soluble SAA than the alphaVbeta3 cells. These data indicate that human platelets specifically adhere to SAA in an RGD- and alphaIIbbeta3-dependent manner. Thus, SAA may play a role in modulating platelet adhesion at vascular injury sites by sharing platelet receptors with other platelet-adhesive proteins. PMID:11830469

  1. Real-time protein aggregation monitoring with a Bloch surface wave-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Sara; Barakat, Elsie; Descrovi, Emiliano; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    The misfolding and aggregation of amyloid proteins has been associated with incurable diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. In the specific case of Alzheimer's disease, recent studies have shown that cell toxicity is caused by soluble oligomeric forms of aggregates appearing in the early stages of aggregation, rather than by insoluble fibrils. Research on new strategies of diagnosis is imperative to detect the disease prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Here, we propose the use of an optical method for protein aggregation dynamic studies using a Bloch surface wave based approach. A one dimension photonic crystal made of a periodic stack of silicon oxide and silicon nitride layers is used to excite a Bloch surface wave, which is sensitive to variation of the refractive index of an aqueous solution. The aim is to detect the early dynamic events of protein aggregation and fibrillogenesis of the amyloid-beta peptide Aβ42, which plays a central role in the onset of the Alzheimer's disease. The detection principle relies on the refractive index changes caused by the depletion of the Aβ42 monomer concentration during oligomerization and fibrillization. We demonstrate the efficacy of the Bloch surface wave approach by monitoring in real-time the first crucial steps of Aβ42 oligomerization.

  2. Fold modulating function: Bacterial toxins to functional amyloids

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    AdnanKhawajaSyed

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria produce cytolytic toxins that target host cells or other competing microbes. It is well known that environmental factors control toxin expression, however recent work suggests that some bacteria manipulate the fold of these protein toxins to control their function. The β-sheet rich amyloid fold is a highly stable ordered aggregate that many toxins form in response to specific environmental conditions. When in the amyloid state, toxins become inert, losing the cytolytic activity they display in the soluble form. Emerging evidence suggest that some amyloids function as toxin storage systems until they are again needed, while other bacteria utilize amyloids as a structural matrix component of biofilms. This amyloid matrix component facilitates resistance to biofilm disruptive challenges. The bacterial amyloids discussed in this review reveal an elegant system where changes in protein fold and solubility dictate the function of proteins in response to the environment.

  3. Neuroinflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis affects amyloid metabolism

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    Anckarsäter Henrik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of amyloid precursor protein (APP and β-amyloid (Aβ is widely studied in Alzheimer's disease, where Aβ deposition and plaque development are essential components of the pathogenesis. However, the physiological role of amyloid in the adult nervous system remains largely unknown. We have previously found altered cerebral amyloid metabolism in other neuroinflammatory conditions. To further elucidate this, we investigated amyloid metabolism in patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB. Methods The first part of the study was a cross-sectional cohort study in 61 patients with acute facial palsy (19 with LNB and 42 with idiopathic facial paresis, Bell's palsy and 22 healthy controls. CSF was analysed for the β-amyloid peptides Aβ38, Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the amyloid precursor protein (APP isoforms α-sAPP and β-sAPP. CSF total-tau (T-tau, phosphorylated tau (P-tau and neurofilament protein (NFL were measured to monitor neural cell damage. The second part of the study was a prospective cohort-study in 26 LNB patients undergoing consecutive lumbar punctures before and after antibiotic treatment to study time-dependent dynamics of the biomarkers. Results In the cross-sectional study, LNB patients had lower levels of CSF α-sAPP, β-sAPP and P-tau, and higher levels of CSF NFL than healthy controls and patients with Bell's palsy. In the prospective study, LNB patients had low levels of CSF α-sAPP, β-sAPP and P-tau at baseline, which all increased towards normal at follow-up. Conclusions Amyloid metabolism is altered in LNB. CSF levels of α-sAPP, β-sAPP and P-tau are decreased in acute infection and increase after treatment. In combination with earlier findings in multiple sclerosis, cerebral SLE and HIV with cerebral engagement, this points to an influence of neuroinflammation on amyloid metabolism.

  4. Impaired processing of human pro-islet amyloid polypeptide is not a causative factor for fibril formation or membrane damage in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemtémourian, Lucie; Lahoz Casarramona, Gemma; Suylen, Dennis P L; Hackeng, Tilman M; Meeldijk, Johannes D; de Kruijff, Ben; Höppener, Jo W M; Killian, J Antoinette

    2009-11-24

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) forms amyloid fibrils in pancreatic islets of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). hIAPP is synthesized by islet beta-cells initially as a preprohormone, processing of which occurs in several steps. It has been suggested that in DM2 this processing is defective and that aggregation of the processing intermediates prohIAPP and prohIAPP(1-48) may represent the initial step in formation of islet amyloid. Here we investigate this possibility by analyzing the aggregation, the structure, and the membrane interaction of mature hIAPP and its precursors, prohIAPP and prohIAPP(1-48), in vitro. Our data reveal that both precursors form amyloid fibrils in solution but not in the presence of membranes. This inhibition is in contrast to the catalyzing effect of membranes on fibril formation of mature hIAPP. Importantly, in the presence of membranes, both precursors are able to inhibit fibrillogenesis of mature hIAPP. These differences in behavior between mature hIAPP and its precursors are most likely related to differences in their mode of membrane insertion. Both precursors insert efficiently and adopt an alpha-helical structure even with a high lipid/peptide ratio, while mature hIAPP rapidly adopts a beta-sheet conformation. Furthermore, while mature hIAPP affects the barrier properties of lipid vesicles, neither of the precursors is able to induce membrane leakage. Our study suggests that the hIAPP precursors prohIAPP and prohIAPP(1-48) do not serve as amyloid initiators but rather prevent aggregation and membrane damage of mature hIAPP in early stages of its biosynthesis and intracellular transport. PMID:19817482

  5. Formation of soluble amyloid oligomers and amyloid fibrils by the multifunctional protein vitronectin

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    Langen Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multifunctional protein vitronectin is present within the deposits associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, atherosclerosis, systemic amyloidoses, and glomerulonephritis. The extent to which vitronectin contributes to amyloid formation within these plaques, which contain misfolded, amyloidogenic proteins, and the role of vitronectin in the pathophysiology of the aforementioned diseases is currently unknown. The investigation of vitronectin aggregation is significant since the formation of oligomeric and fibrillar structures are common features of amyloid proteins. Results We observed vitronectin immunoreactivity in senile plaques of AD brain, which exhibited overlap with the amyloid fibril-specific OC antibody, suggesting that vitronectin is deposited at sites of amyloid formation. Of particular interest is the growing body of evidence indicating that soluble nonfibrillar oligomers may be responsible for the development and progression of amyloid diseases. In this study we demonstrate that both plasma-purified and recombinant human vitronectin readily form spherical oligomers and typical amyloid fibrils. Vitronectin oligomers are toxic to cultured neuroblastoma and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells, possibly via a membrane-dependent mechanism, as they cause leakage of synthetic vesicles. Oligomer toxicity was attenuated in RPE cells by the anti-oligomer A11 antibody. Vitronectin fibrils contain a C-terminal protease-resistant fragment, which may approximate the core region of residues essential to amyloid formation. Conclusion These data reveal the propensity of vitronectin to behave as an amyloid protein and put forth the possibilities that accumulation of misfolded vitronectin may contribute to aggregate formation seen in age-related amyloid diseases.

  6. Towards a Pharmacophore for Amyloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Meytal; Sawaya, Michael R.; Faull, Kym F.; Laganowsky, Arthur; Jiang, Lin; Sievers, Stuart A.; Liu, Jie; Barrio, Jorge R.; Eisenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating Alzheimer's and other diseases associated with amyloid fibers remains a great challenge despite intensive research. To aid in this effort, we present atomic structures of fiber-forming segments of proteins involved in Alzheimer's disease in complex with small molecule binders, determined by X-ray microcrystallography. The fiber-like complexes consist of pairs of β-sheets, with small molecules binding between the sheets, roughly parallel to the fiber axis. The structures suggest that apolar molecules drift along the fiber, consistent with the observation of nonspecific binding to a variety of amyloid proteins. In contrast, negatively charged orange-G binds specifically to lysine side chains of adjacent sheets. These structures provide molecular frameworks for the design of diagnostics and drugs for protein aggregation diseases. PMID:21695112

  7. Time Until Neuron Death After Initial Puncture From an Amyloid-Beta Oligomer

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Tanner

    2015-01-01

    Hardy and Higgins first proposed the amyloid cascade hypothesis in 1992, stating that the decrease in neuronal function observed in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is due to a process initiated by the oligomerization of amyloid-beta peptides. One hypothesis states that toxicity arises from the aggregation of amyloid-beta into a pore structure, which can then puncture the brain cell membrane; this allow toxic calcium ions to flood through the opening, causing eventual cell death. In 2007, neurobiologist Ruth Nussinov calculated the three pore sizes most likely to occur within the brain. Based on her findings, we constructed a method to determine the time it takes for a cell to die after the cell is punctured by the pore. Our findings have shown that cell death occurs within one second after the oligomer makes contact with the cell. We believe this is important because instant cell death has been one criticism of Nussinov's model, and we have calculated a concrete time value for that criticism. We identify two potenti...

  8. Amyloid β-Protein as a Substrate Interacts with Extracellular Matrix to Promote Neurite Outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Edward H.; Park, Lisa; Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1993-05-01

    Progressive deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and blood vessels is a characteristic feature of Alzheimer disease. Recent evidence suggests that addition of solubilized synthetic Aβ to medium may produce toxic or trophic effects on cultured hippocampal neurons. Because soluble Aβ may not accumulate in significant quantities in brain, we asked whether immobilized Aβ peptide as a substrate alters neurite outgrowth from cultured rat peripheral sensory neurons. This paradigm may closely mimic the conditions in Alzheimer disease brain tissue, in which neurites contact insoluble, extracellular aggregates of β-amyloid. We detected no detrimental effects of Aβ substrate on neurite outgrowth. Rather, Aβ in combination with low doses of laminin or fibronectin enhanced neurite out-growth from these neuronal explants. Our results suggest that insoluble Aβ in the cerebral neuropil may serve as a neurite-promoting matrix, perhaps explaining the apparent regenerative response of neurites observed around amyloid plaques in Alzheimer disease. Moreover, in concert with the recent discovery of Aβ production by cultured neurons, our data suggest that Aβ plays a normal physiological role in brain by complexing with the extracellular matrix.

  9. Protective effects of compound FLZ on β-amyloid peptide-(25-35)-induced mouse hippocampal injury and learning and memory impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang FANG; Geng-tao LIU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study the protective effects of compound FLZ, a novel synthetic analogue of natural squamosamide, on learning and memory impairment and lesions of the hippocampus caused by icv injection of β-amyloid25-35 (Aβ25-35) in mice. Methods: Mice were icv injected with the Aβ25-35 (15 nmol/mouse), and then treated with oral administration of 75 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg of FLZ once daily for 16 consecutive days. The impairment of learning and memory in mice were tested using step-down test and Morris water maze test. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Bax, and Bcl-2 in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus were measured by biochemical and immu-nohistochemical analysis, respectively. The pathological damages of hippocampus were observed using a microscope. Results: FLZ (75 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg) significantly attenuated Aβ25-35-induced impairment of learning and memory in the step-down test and Morris water maze test. FLZ also reduced pathological damages to the hippocampus induced by Aβ25-35 Furthermore, FLZ prevented the increase of AChE and Bax, and the decrease of Bcl-2 immunoreactive cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, and reduced the increase of MDA content in the hippocampus in mice injected with Aβ25-35. Conclusion: FLZ has protective action against the impairment of learning and memory and pathological damage to the hippocampus induced by icv injection of Aβ25-35 in mice.

  10. L655,240, acting as a competitive BACE1 inhibitor,efficiently decreases β-amyloid peptide production in HEK293-APPswe cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin LU; Wu-yan CHEN; Zhi-yuan ZHU; Jing CHEN; Ye-chun XU; Morakot KAEWPET; Vatcharin RUKACHAISIRIKUL; Li-li CHEN; Xu SHEN

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify a small molecule L655,240 as a novel β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitor and to investigate its effects on β-amyloid (Aβ)generation in vitro.Methods: Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to characterize the inhibitory effect of L655,240 on BACE1.Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology-based assay was performed to study the binding affinity of L655,240 for BACE1.The selectivity of L655,240 toward BACE1 over other aspartic proteases was determined with enzymatic assay.The effects of L655,240 on Aβ40,Aβ42,and sAPPβ production were studied in HEK293 cells stably expressing APP695 Swedish mutantK595N/M596L (HEK293-APPswe cells).The activities of BACE1,ν-secretase and α-secretase were assayed,and both the mRNA and protein levels of APP and BACE1 were evaluated using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis.Results: L655,240 was determined to be a competitive,selective BACE1 inhibitor (IC50=4.47±1.37 μmol/L),which bound to BACE1 directly (KD=17.9±0.72 μmol/L).L655,240 effectively reduced Aβ40,Aβ42,and sAPPβ production by inhibiting BACE1 without affecting the activities of y-secretase and α-secretase in HEK293-APPswe cells.L655,240 has no effect on APP and BACE1 mRNA or protein levels in HEK293-APPswe cells.Conclusion: The small molecule L655,240 is a novel BACE1 inhibitor that can effectively decreases Aβ production in vitro,thereby highlighting its therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Validation of a multiplex assay for simultaneous quantification of amyloidpeptide species in human plasma with utility for measurements in studies of Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachno, D Richard; Emerson, Julie K; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Gonzales, Celedon; Martényi, Ferenc; Konrad, Robert J; Talbot, Jayne A; Lowe, Stephen L; Oefinger, Paul E; Dean, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the INNO-BIA plasma amyloid-β (Aβ) forms assay for quantification of Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 according to regulatory guidance for bioanalysis and demonstrate its fitness for clinical trial applications. Validation parameters were evaluated by repeated testing of human EDTA-plasma pools. In 6 separate estimates, intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for repeated testing of 5 plasma pools were ≤9% and relative error (RE) varied between -35% and +22%. Inter-assay CV (n = 36) ranged from 5% to 17% and RE varied from -17% to +8%. Dilutional linearity was not demonstrated for either analyte using diluent buffer, but dilution with immuno-depleted plasma by 1.67-fold gave results within 20% of target. Analyte stability was demonstrated in plasma at 2-8 °C for up to 6 h. Stability during frozen storage up to 12 months and through 3 freeze-thaw cycles at ≤ -70 °C was also demonstrated in 5 of 6 individuals but deteriorated thereafter. Neither semagacestat nor LY2811376 interfered with the assay but solanezumab at 500 mg/L reduced recovery of Aβ1-42 by 53%. Specimens from a Phase I human volunteer study of the β-secretase inhibitor LY2811376 were tested at baseline and at intervals up to 12 h after single oral doses, demonstrating a clear treatment effect. During 1,041 clinical assay runs from semagacestat studies over 10 months, the CV for plasma quality control pools at three levels were ≤15% and RE were <10%. In conclusion, the INNO-BIA plasma assay was successfully validated and qualified for use in clinical research. PMID:22886018

  12. Doubly Phosphorylated Peptide Vaccines to Protect Transgenic P301S Mice against Alzheimer’s Disease Like Tau Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Richter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular senile plaques are potential targets for active and passive immunotherapies. In this study we used the transgenic mouse model P301S for active immunizations with peptide vaccines composed of a double phosphorylated tau neoepitope (pSer202/pThr205, pThr212/pSer214, pThr231/pSer235 and an immunomodulatory T cell epitope from the tetanus toxin or tuberculosis antigen Ag85B. Importantly, the designed vaccine combining Alzheimer’s disease (AD specific B cell epitopes with foreign (bacterial T cell epitopes induced fast immune responses with high IgG1 titers after prophylactic immunization that subsequently decreased over the observation period. The effectiveness of the immunization was surveyed by evaluating the animal behavior, as well as the pathology in the brain by biochemical and histochemical techniques. Immunized mice clearly lived longer with reduced paralysis than placebo-treated mice. Additionally, they performed significantly better in rotarod and beam walk tests at the age of 20 weeks, indicating that the disease development was slowed down. Forty-eight weeks old vaccinated mice passed the beam walk test significantly better than control animals, which together with the increased survival rates undoubtedly prove the treatment effect. In conclusion, the data provide strong evidence that active immune therapies can reduce toxic effects of deposits formed in AD.

  13. Multifunctional cholinesterase and amyloid Beta fibrillization modulators. Synthesis and biological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butini, Stefania; Brindisi, Margherita; Brogi, Simone; Maramai, Samuele; Guarino, Egeria; Panico, Alessandro; Saxena, Ashima; Chauhan, Ved; Colombo, Raffaella; Verga, Laura; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Bartolini, Manuela; Andrisano, Vincenza; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-12-12

    In order to identify novel Alzheimer's modifying pharmacological tools, we developed bis-tacrines bearing a peptide moiety for specific interference with surface sites of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) binding amyloid-beta (Aβ). Accordingly, compounds 2a-c proved to be inhibitors of hAChE catalytic and noncatalytic functions, binding the catalytic and peripheral sites, interfering with Aβ aggregation and with the Aβ self-oligomerization process (2a). Compounds 2a-c in complex with TcAChE span the gorge with the bis-tacrine system, and the peptide moieties bulge outside the gorge in proximity of the peripheral site. These moieties are likely responsible for the observed reduction of hAChE-induced Aβ aggregation since they physically hamper Aβ binding to the enzyme surface. Moreover, 2a was able to significantly interfere with Aβ self-oligomerization, while 2b,c showed improved inhibition of hAChE-induced Aβ aggregation. PMID:24900626

  14. Membrane disordering is not sufficient for membrane permeabilization by islet amyloid polypeptide: studies of IAPP(20-29) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jeffrey R; Heyl, Deborah L; Samisetti, Shyamprasad; Kotler, Samuel A; Osborne, Joshua M; Pesaru, Ranadheer R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-06-21

    A key factor in the development of type II diabetes is the loss of insulin-producing beta-cells. Human islet amyloid polypeptide protein (human-IAPP) is believed to play a crucial role in this process by forming small aggregates that exhibit toxicity by disrupting the cell membrane. The actual mechanism of membrane disruption is complex and appears to involve an early component before fiber formation and a later component associated with fiber formation on the membrane. By comparing the peptide-lipid interactions derived from solid-state NMR experiments of two IAPP fragments that cause membrane disordering to IAPP derived peptides known to cause significant early membrane permeabilization, we show here that membrane disordering is not likely to be sufficient by itself to cause the early membrane permeabilization observed by IAPP, and may play a lesser role in IAPP membrane disruption than expected. PMID:23493863

  15. The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP δ is differently regulated by fibrillar and oligomeric forms of the Alzheimer amyloidpeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Lars NG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factors CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP α, β and δ have been shown to be expressed in brain and to be involved in regulation of inflammatory genes in concert with nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. In general, C/EBPα is down-regulated, whereas both C/EBPβ and δ are up-regulated in response to inflammatory stimuli. In Alzheimer's disease (AD one of the hallmarks is chronic neuroinflammation mediated by astrocytes and microglial cells, most likely induced by the formation of amyloid-β (Aβ deposits. The inflammatory response in AD has been ascribed both beneficial and detrimental roles. It is therefore important to delineate the inflammatory mediators and signaling pathways affected by Aβ deposits with the aim of defining new therapeutic targets. Methods Here we have investigated the effects of Aβ on expression of C/EBP family members with a focus on C/EBPδ in rat primary astro-microglial cultures and in a transgenic mouse model with high levels of fibrillar Aβ deposits (tg-ArcSwe by western blot analysis. Effects on DNA binding activity were analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Cross-talk between C/EBPδ and NF-κB was investigated by analyzing binding to a κB site using a biotin streptavidin-agarose pull-down assay. Results We show that exposure to fibril-enriched, but not oligomer-enriched, preparations of Aβ inhibit up-regulation of C/EBPδ expression in interleukin-1β-activated glial cultures. Furthermore, we observed that, in aged transgenic mice, C/EBPα was significantly down-regulated and C/EBPβ was significantly up-regulated. C/EBPδ, on the other hand, was selectively down-regulated in the forebrain, a part of the brain showing high levels of fibrillar Aβ deposits. In contrast, no difference in expression levels of C/EBPδ between wild type and transgenic mice was detected in the relatively spared hindbrain. Finally, we show that interleukin-1β-induced C/EBPδ DNA

  16. Amyloid beta oligomers induce neuronal elasticity changes in age-dependent manner: a force spectroscopy study on living hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, Andreea-Alexandra; Benilova, Iryna; Krylychkina, Olga; Braeken, Dries; De Strooper, Bart; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Dotti, Carlos G.; Bartic, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Small soluble species of amyloid-beta (Aβ) formed during early peptide aggregation stages are responsible for several neurotoxic mechanisms relevant to the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), although their interaction with the neuronal membrane is not completely understood. This study quantifies the changes in the neuronal membrane elasticity induced by treatment with the two most common Aβ isoforms found in AD brains: Aβ40 and Aβ42. Using quantitative atomic force microscopy (AFM), we measured for the first time the static elastic modulus of living primary hippocampal neurons treated with pre-aggregated Aβ40 and Aβ42 soluble species. Our AFM results demonstrate changes in the elasticity of young, mature and aged neurons treated for a short time with the two Aβ species pre-aggregated for 2 hours. Neurons aging under stress conditions, showing aging hallmarks, are the most susceptible to amyloid binding and show the largest decrease in membrane stiffness upon Aβ treatment. Membrane stiffness defines the way in which cells respond to mechanical forces in their environment and has been shown to be important for processes such as gene expression, ion-channel gating and neurotransmitter vesicle transport. Thus, one can expect that changes in neuronal membrane elasticity might directly induce functional changes related to neurodegeneration. PMID:27173984

  17. Intracranial Injection of AAV Expressing NEP but Not IDE Reduces Amyloid Pathology in APP+PS1 Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Carty, Nikisha; Nash, Kevin R.; Brownlow, Milene; Cruite, Dana; Wilcock, Donna; Selenica, Maj-Linda B; Daniel C. Lee; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of β-amyloid peptides in the brain has been recognized as an essential factor in Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Several proteases, including Neprilysin (NEP), endothelin converting enzyme (ECE), and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), have been shown to cleave β-amyloid peptides (Aβ). We have previously reported reductions in amyloid in APP+PS1 mice with increased expression of ECE. In this study we compared the vector-induced increased expression of NEP and IDE. We used recombin...

  18. Self-assembly of a peptide with a tandem repeat of the Aβ16-22 sequence linked by a β turn-promoting dipeptide sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakama Sundari, Chandrasekaran; Bikshapathy, Erugurala; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-11-01

    Amyloid deposits have been found to be abundant in patients with Alzheimer's disease due to fibril formation by the Aβ peptides. Peptide Aβ16-22, comprising of the seven-residue segment KLVFFAE, spanning residues 16-22 of the full length Aβ42 peptide, aggregates to form fibrils or other nanostructures in isolation, depending on the conditions of dissolution and incubation. In this study, we have examined the self-assembly of PAβ, a tandem repeat peptide of the Aβ16-22 sequence, joined by a β-turn-inducing sequence Asn-Gly. To study the effect of various solvents on the self-association, hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP), trifluoroethanol (TFE) and methanol were used. The peptide was also incubated in fibril-promoting conditions of 20% fluorinated alcohol-water mixtures which form dynamical solvent clusters, as well as in 20% MeOH-water mixture which does not form solvent clusters. Secondary structural studies suggest the presence of β-structures. Electron microscopic images indicate that fibril formation occurs in a time-dependent manner, under different conditions of solvent composition. Thioflavin-T fluorescence studies confirm the presence of amyloid fibrils in the aggregates. Although the insertion of the Asn-Gly sequence has not facilitated the formation of an ideal Type I' rigid turn, the intramolecular interactions aid the formation of a flexible β-turn conformation, with twisted β-sheets. Interactions between the intermolecular β-sheets result in the formation of amyloid fibrils. Organic solvents appear to play an important role in modulating self-assembly of peptide PAβ during fibril formation. Studies on β-hairpin engineered amyloidogenic peptides could lead to knowledge about suitable conditions for generating a diverse range of polymorphic structures. PMID:26473431

  19. A potential amyloid-imaging probe for Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To screen out the human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) against amyloid β peptide 40 from a human synthetic antibody library, sub-clone its gene into E. coli expression system, and express and purify it for amyloid peptide imaging research. The overload of amyloid β peptide and the appearance of senile plaques in the human brain tissue is one of the hallmark of the Alzheimer's disease, and in vivo imaging of amyloidβ peptide is valuable for the earlier diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Methods: Amyloid β peptide 40 was bound on the solid surface of Nunc plates as antigen and a human antibody library constructed with human antibody heavy and light chain variable gene and nucleotides sequence coded (Gly4Ser)3 linker and displayed on the protein surface of filamentous phage was used to screen the binding clones. After five rounds of bio-panning, the host E. coli TG1 was infected with eluted filamentous phage from the last turn of selection. 55 well-separated colonies were picked randomly from the plates and several specific positive clones were identified by ELISA testing, and their binding sites were determined by competitive ELISA with amyloid 13 peptide 40, 1-16, 25-35. The single-chain Fv antibody gene was sequenced and their amino acids sequence was deduced. The scFv antibody gene was sub-cloned into a protokayotic expression vector pET-22b(+) and transformed into bacteria strain BL21 to express the His6-tagged single-chain antibody and the whole cell culture was subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis. The antibody was expressed in inclusion bodies and purified with serial buffers and verified with western blotting and their activity was tested by ELISA against amyloid β peptide 40. Results: ELISA testing showed that 33 clones could bind amyloid β peptide 40 and 10 of these clones could be inhibited by amyloid β peptide 40 itself to below 50% of its original binding activities. Five clones could also be inhibited by amyloid β peptide 1-16. DNA

  20. In vivo amyloid imaging in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targeted approaches to therapy for Alzheimer's disease have evolved based on detailed understanding of the genetic, molecular biologic, and neuropathologic basis of the disease. Given the potential for greater treatment efficacy in the earlier stages of the disease, the notion of early diagnosis has become more relevant. Current clinical and imaging diagnostic approaches lack reliability in the preclinical and prodromal phases of the disease. We review emerging studies on imaging of the molecular substrate of the disease, most notably the amyloid peptide, which hope to increase early diagnostic efficacy. We offer a brief overview of the demographics, diagnostic criteria, and current imaging tests, followed by a review of amyloid biology and developments in cerebral amyloid imaging yielded by recent in vitro, in vivo and human studies. (orig.)

  1. Molecular mechanisms of protein aggregation from global fitting of kinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisl, Georg; Kirkegaard, Julius B; Arosio, Paolo; Michaels, Thomas C T; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M; Linse, Sara; Knowles, Tuomas P J

    2016-02-01

    The elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which soluble proteins convert into their amyloid forms is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding and controlling disorders that are linked to protein aggregation, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, because of the complexity associated with aggregation reaction networks, the analysis of kinetic data of protein aggregation to obtain the underlying mechanisms represents a complex task. Here we describe a framework, using quantitative kinetic assays and global fitting, to determine and to verify a molecular mechanism for aggregation reactions that is compatible with experimental kinetic data. We implement this approach in a web-based software, AmyloFit. Our procedure starts from the results of kinetic experiments that measure the concentration of aggregate mass as a function of time. We illustrate the approach with results from the aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides measured using thioflavin T, but the method is suitable for data from any similar kinetic experiment measuring the accumulation of aggregate mass as a function of time; the input data are in the form of a tab-separated text file. We also outline general experimental strategies and practical considerations for obtaining kinetic data of sufficient quality to draw detailed mechanistic conclusions, and the procedure starts with instructions for extensive data quality control. For the core part of the analysis, we provide an online platform (http://www.amylofit.ch.cam.ac.uk) that enables robust global analysis of kinetic data without the need for extensive programming or detailed mathematical knowledge. The software automates repetitive tasks and guides users through the key steps of kinetic analysis: determination of constraints to be placed on the aggregation mechanism based on the concentration dependence of the aggregation reaction, choosing from several fundamental models describing assembly into linear aggregates and

  2. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. The nootropic and neuroprotective proline-containing dipeptide noopept restores spatial memory and increases immunoreactivity to amyloid in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, Rita U; Gruden, Marina A; Bobkova, Natalya A; Sewell, Robert D E; Gudasheva, Tatyana A; Samokhin, Alexander N; Seredinin, Sergey B; Noppe, Wim; Sherstnev, Vladimir V; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla A

    2007-08-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide, noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were investigated in NMRI mice following olfactory bulbectomy. We have shown previously that these animals developed Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like behaviour, morphology and biochemistry including impairment of spatial memory, regional neuronal degeneration and elevated Abeta peptide brain levels. In the current investigation, spatial memory was assessed using the Morris water maze and serum antibodies to in vitro morphologically characterized amyloid structures of both Abeta((25-35)) peptide and equine lysozyme, as well as to neurotrophic glial factor S100b, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Noopept (administered at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg for a period of 21 days and during a further 5 days training) restored spatial memory and increased serum antibody levels to oligomers of Abeta((25-35)) peptide but not to equine lysozyme amyloid or S100b protein in bulbectomized animals. The positive immunotropic effect of noopept to Abeta((25-35)) peptide prefibrillar aggregates was more marked in sham-operated compared to the bulbectomized subjects which were characterized by an overall suppression of immunoreactivity. Enhancement of the immune response to Abeta((25-35)) peptide prefibrils caused by noopept may attenuate the neurotoxic consequences of amyloid fibrillization and also be associated with an improvement in spatial memory in bulbectomized mice. These actions of noopept, combined with its previously reported neuroprotective and cholinomimetic properties, suggests that this dipeptide may well be useful for improving cognitive deficits induced by neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17092975

  4. Generation of amyloid-β is reduced by the interaction of calreticulin with amyloid precursor protein, presenilin and nicastrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Stemmer

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein by γ-secretase and the ensuing generation of amyloid-β is associated with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the identification of amyloid precursor protein binding proteins involved in regulating processing of amyloid precursor protein by the γ-secretase complex is essential for understanding the mechanisms underlying the molecular pathology of the disease. We identified calreticulin as novel amyloid precursor protein interaction partner that binds to the γ-secretase cleavage site within amyloid precursor protein and showed that this Ca(2+- and N-glycan-independent interaction is mediated by amino acids 330-344 in the C-terminal C-domain of calreticulin. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that calreticulin is not only associated with amyloid precursor protein but also with the γ-secretase complex members presenilin and nicastrin. Calreticulin was detected at the cell surface by surface biotinylation of cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and was co-localized by immunostaining with amyloid precursor protein and presenilin at the cell surface of hippocampal neurons. The P-domain of calreticulin located between the N-terminal N-domain and the C-domain interacts with presenilin, the catalytic subunit of the γ-secretase complex. The P- and C-domains also interact with nicastrin, another functionally important subunit of this complex. Transfection of amyloid precursor protein overexpressing cells with full-length calreticulin leads to a decrease in amyloid-β42 levels in culture supernatants, while transfection with the P-domain increases amyloid-β40 levels. Similarly, application of the recombinant P- or C-domains and of a synthetic calreticulin peptide comprising amino acid 330-344 to amyloid precursor protein overexpressing cells result in elevated amyloid-β40 and amyloid-β42 levels, respectively. These findings indicate that the interaction of

  5. Atomic force microscopy investigations of peptide self-assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Sedman, Victoria L.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of short peptide fragments to self-assemble in isolation as amyloid and amyloid-like structures has prompted their use as model systems for the study of amyloid formation and recently also for their utilisation as novel nanofibrillar material. The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used here to investigate the self-assembly of two peptide systems and the development of strategies to directly manipulate and control the structures they form. The studies presented in Chapter 2 addr...

  6. 不同pH环境下Cu2+和Zn2+诱导淀粉样β蛋白聚集作用的研究%Effects of different pH environments on transition mental ions (cooper and zinc) induced- aggregation of Amyloid beta-protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈妍; 李娟; 吴及

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察生理(pH=7.4)或病理性微酸(pH=6.6)环境下过渡金属离子(Cu2+、Zn2+)对阿尔茨海默病(AD)关键致病分子淀粉样β蛋白(β-amyloid,Aβ)聚集的诱导作用.方法 采用浊度法和考马斯亮蓝上清蛋白测定法观察Cu2+和Zn2+对Aβ1-40聚集的诱导作用.结果 (1)浊度法的结果表明,微酸性pH6.6下,Cu2+和Zn2+在5~20μm的浓度明显诱导Aβ(10μm)聚集,该作用呈剂量相关性;生理pH=7.4环境下,Zn2+在5~20μm的浓度仍能明显诱导Aβ(10μm)聚集,作用呈剂量相关性;而Cu2+在此浓度范围内诱导Aβ聚集作用不明显;(2)考马斯亮蓝上清蛋白测定法的结果显示,在微酸性pH6.6下,Cu2和Zn2+均能剂量依赖性地诱导Aβ聚集,且Cu2+诱导Aβ聚集作用较Zn2+更为明显;与浊度法的结果相似,Cu2+在生理pH7.4环境下诱导Aβ聚集作用不明显,而Zn2+仍能诱导Aβ聚集.结论 (1)Cu2+和Zn2+诱导Aβ聚集的作用具有剂量依赖性;(2)无论在生理或病理性微酸环境下,Zn2+均能够诱导Aβ聚集,而Cu2+对Aβ聚集的诱导作用具有明显的pH依赖性:在病理性微酸环境下能够明显诱导Aβ聚集,而在生理pH下,Cu2+未表现出对Aβ聚集的诱导作用.%Objective To investigate the influence of physiological (pH7. 4) and weak acidic (pH6.6) pH environment on metal ions (cooper and zinc) induced- β-amyloid aggregation by.Methods In this study,using the turbidometric assays and Coomassie brilliant blue protein assay methods to determine the effects of metal ions induced Aβ1-40 aggregation. Results (1)It is determined by turbidity that at pH 6.6,Cu2+ and Zn2+ (5~20 μM) induced aggregation of Aβ 10 μM is dose-dependent.At pH 7.4, the effect of Cu2+ (5~ 20μM) induced aggregation of Aβ 10 μM is not significant, however the effect of Zn2+ (5~20μM) induced aggregation of Aβ 10 μM is dose-dependent. (2) Using Coomassie brilliant blue protein assay, at pH 6.6, Cu2+ and Zn2+ (5 ~ 20 μM) induced the aggregation

  7. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology and...... characteristic amyloid X-ray fiber diffraction peaks. Fibrillation occurs over minutes to hours without a lag phase, is independent of seeding and shows only moderate concentration dependence, suggesting intramolecular aggregation nuclei. Nevertheless, multi-exponential increases in dye-binding signal and...

  8. Self-assembly of protein aggregates in ageing disorders: the lens and cataract model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John I

    2013-05-01

    Cataract, neurodegenerative disease, macular degeneration and pathologies of ageing are often characterized by the slow progressive destabilization of proteins and their self-assembly to amyloid-like fibrils and aggregates. During normal cell differentiation, protein self-assembly is well established as a dynamic mechanism for cytoskeletal organization. With the increased emphasis on ageing disorders, there is renewed interest in small-molecule regulators of protein self-assembly. Synthetic peptides, mini-chaperones, aptamers, ATP and pantethine reportedly regulate self-assembly mechanisms involving small stress proteins, represented by human αB-crystallin, and their targets. Small molecules are being considered for direct application as molecular therapeutics to protect against amyloid and protein aggregation disorders in ageing cells and tissues in vivo. The identification of specific interactive peptide sites for effective regulation of protein self-assembly is underway using conventional and innovative technologies. The quantification of the functional interactions between small stress proteins and their targets in vivo remains a top research priority. The quantitative parameters controlling protein-protein interactions in vivo need characterization to understand the fundamental biology of self-assembling systems in normal cells and disorders of ageing. PMID:23530262

  9. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors serve as sensitive targets that mediate β-amyloid neurotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang LIU; Jie WU

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of brain dementia characterized by the accumulation of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and loss of forebrain cholinergic neurons. Aβ accumulation and aggregation are thought to contribute to cholinergic neuronal degeneration, in turn causing learning and memory deficits, but the specific targets that mediate Aβ neurotoxicity remain elusive. Recently, accumlating lines of evidence have demonstrated that Aβ directly modulates the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), which leads to the new hypothesis that neuronal nAChRs may serve as important targets that mediate Aβ neurotoxicity. In this review, we summarize current studies performed in our laboratory and in others to address the question of how Aβ modulates neuronal nAChRs, especially nAChR subunit function.

  10. Immunotherapy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid-β or tau, which is the right target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo-Carranza DL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diana L Castillo-Carranza,1,2 Marcos J Guerrero-Muñoz,1,2 Rakez Kayed1–31Mitchell Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 2Departments of Neurology, Neuroscience, and Cell Biology, 3Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques composed mainly of amyloid-β (Aβ protein. Overproduction or slow clearance of Aβ initiates a cascade of pathologic events that may lead to formation of neurofibrillary tangles, neuronal cell death, and dementia. Although immunotherapy in animal models has been demonstrated to be successful at removing plaques or prefibrillar forms of Aβ, clinical trials have yielded disappointing results. The lack of substantial cognitive improvement obtained by targeting Aβ raises the question of whether or not this is the correct target. Another important pathologic process in the AD brain is tau aggregation, which seems to become independent once initiated. Recent studies targeting tau in AD mouse models have displayed evidence of cognitive improvement, providing a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. In this review, we describe new advances in immunotherapy targeting Aβ peptide and tau protein, as well as future directions.Keywords: immunotherapy, Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid, tau

  11. Neuroprotective approaches in experimental models of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity : Relevance to Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T; Hortobagyi, T; Sasvari, M; Konya, C; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM; Nyakas, C

    1999-01-01

    1. beta-Amyloid peptides (A beta s) accumulate abundantly in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain in areas subserving information acquisition arid processing, and memory formation. A beta fragments are producedin a process of abnormal proteolytic cleavage of their precursor, the amyloid precursor prot

  12. Neuroprotective Approaches in Experimental Models of β-Amyloid Neurotoxicity : Relevance to Alzheimer's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, Tibor; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Sasvári, Maria; Kónya, Csaba; Penke, Botond; Luiten, Paul G.M.; Nyakas, Csaba

    1999-01-01

    1. β-Amyloid peptides (Aβs) accumulate abundantly in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain in areas subserving information acquisition and processing, and memory formation. Aβ fragments are produced in a process of abnormal proteolytic cleavage of their precursor, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). W

  13. Adaptor protein sorting nexin 17 regulates amyloid precursor protein trafficking and processing in the early endosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Retamal, Claudio; Cuitino, Loreto; Caruano-Yzermans, Amy; Shin, Jung-Eun; van Kerkhof, Peter; Marzolo, Maria-Paz; Bu, Guojun

    2008-01-01

    Accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta peptide (A beta), generated from amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing by beta- and gamma-secretases, is toxic to neurons and is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Production of A beta from APP is greatly affected by the subcellular loca

  14. Cell Surface Binding and Internalization of Aβ Modulated by Degree of Aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Bateman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amyloid peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, are generated through endoproteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Here we have developed a model to investigate the interaction of living cells with various forms of aggregated Aβ40/42. After incubation at endosomal pH 6, we observed a variety of Aβ conformations after 3 (Aβ3, 24 (Aβ24, and 90 hours (Aβ90. Both Aβ4224 and Aβ4024 were observed to rapidly bind and internalize into differentiated PC12 cells, leading to accumulation in the lysosome. In contrast, Aβ40/4290 were both found to only weakly associate with cells, but were observed as the most aggregated using dynamic light scattering and thioflavin-T. Internalization of Aβ40/4224 was inhibited with treatment of monodansylcadaverine, an endocytosis inhibitor. These studies indicate that the ability of Aβ40/42 to bind and internalize into living cells increases with degree of aggregation until it reaches a maximum beyond which its ability to interact with cells diminishes drastically.

  15. Interactions of AChE with Aβ Aggregates in Alzheimer’s Brain: Therapeutic Relevance of IDN 5706

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Carvajal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7 plays a crucial role in the rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, in the central and peripheral nervous system and might also participate in non-cholinergic mechanism related to neurodegenerative diseases. Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of cognitive abilities, amyloidpeptide (Aβ accumulation and synaptic alterations. We have previously shown that AChE is able to accelerate the Aβ peptide assembly into Alzheimer-type aggregates increasing its neurotoxicity. Furthermore, AChE activity is altered in brain and blood of Alzheimer’s patients. The enzyme associated to amyloid plaques changes its enzymatic and pharmacological properties, as well as, increases its resistant to low pH, inhibitors and excess of substrate. Here, we reviewed the effects of IDN 5706, a hyperforin derivative that has potential preventive effects on the development of AD. Our results show that treatment with IDN5706 for 10 weeks increases brain AChE activity in seven month-old double transgenic mice (APPswe - PS1 and decreases the content of AChE associated with different types of amyloid plaques in this Alzheimer’s model. We concluded that early treatment with IDN 5706 decreases AChE-Aβ interaction and this effect might be of therapeutic interest in the treatment of AD.

  16. Universality in the morphology and mechanics of coarsening amyloid fibril networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzi, L.; Head, DA; Auer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Above a critical concentration a wide variety of peptides and proteins self-assemble into amyloid fibrils which entangle to form percolating networks called hydrogels. Such hydrogels have important applications as biomaterials and in nanotechnology, but their applicability often depends on their mechanical properties for which we currently have no predictive capability. Here we use a peptide model to simulate the formation of amyloid fibril networks, and couple these to elastic network theory...

  17. Targeted studies on the interaction of nicotine and morin molecules with amyloid β-protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathi, Subramaniam; Kolandaivel, Ponmalai

    2014-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that occurs due to progressive deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) in the brain. Stable conformations of solvated Aβ₁₋₄₂ protein were predicted by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation using the OPLSAA force field. The seven residue peptide (Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe-Ala-Glu) Aβ₁₆₋₂₂ associated with AD was studied and reported in this paper. Since effective therapeutic agents have not yet been studied in detail, attention has focused on the use of natural products as effective anti-aggregation compounds, targeting the Aβ₁₋₄₂ protein directly. Experimental and theoretical investigation suggests that some compounds extracted from natural products might be useful, but detailed insights into the mechanism by which they might act remains elusive. The molecules nicotine and morin are found in cigarettes and beverages. Here, we report the results of interaction studies of these compounds at each hydrophobic residue of Aβ₁₆₋₂₂ peptide using the hybrid ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31G**:UFF) method. It was found that interaction with nicotine produced higher deformation in the Aβ₁₆₋₂₂ peptide than interaction with morin. MD simulation studies revealed that interaction of the nicotine molecule with the β-sheet of Aβ₁₆₋₂₂ peptide transforms the β-sheet to an α-helical structure, which helps prohibit the aggregation of Aβ-protein. PMID:24567151

  18. Deciphering the structure, growth and assembly of amyloid-like fibrils using high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Emmanuel Milhiet

    Full Text Available Formation of fibrillar structures of proteins that deposit into aggregates has been suggested to play a key role in various neurodegenerative diseases. However mechanisms and dynamics of fibrillization remains to be elucidated. We have previously established that lithostathine, a protein overexpressed in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease and present in the pathognomonic lesions associated with this disease, form fibrillar aggregates after its N-terminal truncation. In this paper we visualized, using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM, growth and assembly of lithostathine protofibrils under physiological conditions with a time resolution of one image/s. Real-time imaging highlighted a very high velocity of elongation. Formation of fibrils via protofibril lateral association and stacking was also monitored revealing a zipper-like mechanism of association. We also demonstrate that, like other amyloid ß peptides, two lithostathine protofibrils can associate to form helical fibrils. Another striking finding is the propensity of the end of a growing protofibril or fibril to associate with the edge of a second fibril, forming false branching point. Taken together this study provides new clues about fibrillization mechanism of amyloid proteins.

  19. The depsipeptide method for solid-phase synthesis of difficult peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coin, Irene

    2010-05-01

    After about one century of peptide chemistry, the main limitation to the accessibility of peptides and proteins via chemosynthesis is the arising of folding and aggregation phenomena. This is true not only for sequences above a critical length but also for several biologically relevant substrates that are relatively short yet form either highly folded structures (e.g. WW domains) or fibrils and aggregates after final deprotection (beta-amyloid peptide). Such so-called difficult sequences may be more easily obtained via their corresponding depsipeptides (O-acyl isopeptides), ester isomers that are often easier to assemble and purify, and are smoothly converted to the parent amides under mild conditions. The depsipeptide method is the most recent technique to improve the outcome of difficult syntheses, applicable to sequences containing residues of serine or threonine. A brief overview is presented about chemical aspects of the method, the steps that have been undertaken for its optimization, and the evaluation of its efficiency. Further applications of analogous principles to other critical topics in peptide synthesis such as condensation of peptide segments and solid-phase synthesis of naturally occurring cyclodepsipeptides are addressed as well. PMID:20401924

  20. Vitamin E but not 17B-estradiol protect against vascular toxicity induced by B-amyloid wild type and the Dutch amyploid variant

    OpenAIRE

    Mu??oz L??pez, Francisco Jos??, 1964-; Opazo, Carlos; Gil G??mez, Gabriel; Tapia, Gladys; Fern??ndez, Virginia; Valverde, M A; Nibaldo C Inestrosa

    2002-01-01

    Amyloid ??-peptide (A??) fibril deposition on cerebral vessels produces cerebral amyloid angiopathy that appears in the majority of Alzheimer's disease patients. An early onset of a cerebral amyloid angiopathy variant called hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis of the Dutch type is caused by a point mutation in A?? yielding A??Glu22???Gln. The present study addresses the effect of amyloid fibrils from both wild-type and mutated A?? on vascular cells, as well as the putative protect...

  1. Drugs and drug delivery systems targeting amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Robinson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder with no cure and limited treatment solutions that are unable to target any of the suspected causes. Increasing evidence suggests that one of the causes of neurodegeneration is the overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ and the inability of Aβ peptides to be cleared from the brain, resulting in self-aggregation to form toxic oligomers, fibrils and plaques. One of the potential treatment options is to target Aβ and prevent self-aggregation to allow for a natural clearing of the brain. In this paper, we review the drugs and drug delivery systems that target Aβ in relation to Alzheimer's disease. Many attempts have been made to use anti-Aβ targeting molecules capable of targeting Aβ (with much success in vitro and in vivo animal models, but the major obstacle to this technique is the challenge posed by the blood brain barrier (BBB. This highly selective barrier protects the brain from toxic molecules and pathogens and prevents the delivery of most drugs. Therefore novel Aβ aggregation inhibitor drugs will require well thought-out drug delivery systems to deliver sufficient concentrations to the brain.

  2. In vitro inhibition of platelet aggregation by peptides derived from oat (Avena sativa L.), highland barley (Hordeum vulgare Linn. var. nudum Hook. f.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoyong; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Bolin; Fan, Junfeng

    2016-03-01

    Bioactive compounds present in foods could have beneficial effects on human health. In this study, we report the capacity of peptides released from oat, highland barley, and buckwheat proteins after enzymatic digestion to inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro. All hydrolysates showed high antiplatelet activity, with IC50 values of 0.282mg/ml (oat flour gastrointestinal hydrolysate, 6h) to 2.496mg/ml (highland barley glutelin tryptic hydrolysate, 14h) in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-eight peptides with more than seven residues were identified in the tryptic hydrolysates of oat globulin. Results of computational modeling revealed that nine peptides, including ALPIDVLANAYR, EFLLAGNNKR, GEEFGAFTPK, QLAQIPR, LQAFEPLR, ALPVDVLANAYR, GEEFDAFTPK, QKEFLLAGNNK, and TNPNSMVSHIAGK bound the cyclooxygenase-1 active centers with low binding energy (-6.5 to -7.5kcal/mol). This is the first report to identify antiplatelet peptides from grain hydrolysates and the binding modes at the molecular level, leading to their possible use as functional food ingredients to prevent thrombosis. PMID:26471595

  3. Dynamic assessment of Amyloid oligomers - cell membrane interaction by advanced impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, M.; David, S.; Polonschii, C.; Bratu, D.; Gheorghiu, E.

    2013-04-01

    The amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are believed to be pivotal in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and onset of vascular dysfunction. Recent studies indicate that Aβ1-42 treatment influences the expression of tight junction protein complexes, stress fibre formation, disruption and aggregation of actin filaments and cellular gap formation. Aiming for functional characterization of model cells upon Aβ1-42 treatment, we deployed an advanced Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing for monitoring cell evolution. A precision Impedance Analyzer with a multiplexing module developed in house was used for recording individual electrode sets in the 40 Hz - 100 KHz frequency range. In a step forward from the classical ECIS assays, we report on a novel data analysis algorithm that enables access to cellular and paracellular electrical parameters and cell surface interaction with fully developed cell monolayers. The evolution of the impedance at selected frequencies provides evidence for a dual effect of Aβ42 exposure, at both paracellular permeability and cell adherence level, with intricate dynamics that open up new perspectives on Aβ1-42 oligomers - cell membrane interaction. Validation of electrical impedance assays of the amyloid fibrils effect on cell membrane structure is achieved by both AFM analysis and Surface Plasmon Resonance studies. The capabilities of this noninvasive, real time platform for cell analysis in a wider applicative context are outlined.

  4. The Vitamin A Derivative All-Trans Retinoic Acid Repairs Amyloid-β-Induced Double-Strand Breaks in Neural Cells and in the Murine Neocortex

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuelle Gruz-Gibelli; Natacha Chessel; Clélia Allioux; Pascale Marin; Françoise Piotton; Geneviève Leuba; Herrmann, François R.; Armand Savioz

    2016-01-01

    The amyloidpeptide or Aβ is the key player in the amyloid-cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to trigger cell death but also production of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in aging and Alzheimer's disease. All-trans retinoic acid (RA), a derivative of vitamin A, was already known for its neuroprotective effects against the amyloid cascade. It diminishes, for instance, the production of Aβ peptides and their oligomerisation. In the present work we investigat...

  5. Extracellular DNA facilitates the formation of functional amyloids in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kelly; Ganesan, Mahesh; Payne, David E; Solomon, Michael J; Boles, Blaise R

    2016-01-01

    Persistent staphylococcal infections often involve surface-associated communities called biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development is mediated by the co-ordinated production of the biofilm matrix, which can be composed of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins including amyloid fibers. The nature of the interactions between matrix components, and how these interactions contribute to the formation of matrix, remain unclear. Here we show that the presence of eDNA in S. aureus biofilms promotes the formation of amyloid fibers. Conditions or mutants that do not generate eDNA result in lack of amyloids during biofilm growth despite the amyloidogeneic subunits, phenol soluble modulin peptides, being produced. In vitro studies revealed that the presence of DNA promotes amyloid formation by PSM peptides. Thus, this work exposes a previously unacknowledged interaction between biofilm matrix components that furthers our understanding of functional amyloid formation and S. aureus biofilm biology. PMID:26365835

  6. Supramolecular amplification of amyloid self-assembly by iodination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolani, Arianna; Pirrie, Lisa; Stefan, Loic; Houbenov, Nikolay; Haataja, Johannes S; Catalano, Luca; Terraneo, Giancarlo; Giancane, Gabriele; Valli, Ludovico; Milani, Roberto; Ikkala, Olli; Resnati, Giuseppe; Metrangolo, Pierangelo

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid supramolecular assemblies have found widespread exploitation as ordered nanomaterials in a range of applications from materials science to biotechnology. New strategies are, however, required for understanding and promoting mature fibril formation from simple monomer motifs through easy and scalable processes. Noncovalent interactions are key to forming and holding the amyloid structure together. On the other hand, the halogen bond has never been used purposefully to achieve control over amyloid self-assembly. Here we show that single atom replacement of hydrogen with iodine, a halogen-bond donor, in the human calcitonin-derived amyloidogenic fragment DFNKF results in a super-gelator peptide, which forms a strong and shape-persistent hydrogel at 30-fold lower concentration than the wild-type pentapeptide. This is remarkable for such a modest perturbation in structure. Iodination of aromatic amino acids may thus develop as a general strategy for the design of new hydrogels from unprotected peptides and without using organic solvents. PMID:26123690

  7. Mechanisms of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity : Perspectives of pharmacotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkany, T; Abraham, [No Value; Konya, C; Nyakas, C; Zarandi, M; Penke, B; Luiten, PGM

    2000-01-01

    One of the characteristic neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the extracellular accumulation of beta -amyloid peptides (A beta) in neuritic plaques, Experimental data indicate that different molecular forms of A beta affect a wide array of neuronal and glial functions and ther

  8. The biochemical aftermath of anti-amyloid immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoll James AR

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active and passive immunotherapy in both amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP transgenic mice and Alzheimer's Disease (AD patients have resulted in remarkable reductions in amyloid plaque accumulation, although the degree of amyloid regression has been highly variable. Nine individuals with a clinical diagnosis of AD dementia were actively immunized with the Aβ peptide 1-42 (AN-1792 and subjected to detailed postmortem biochemical analyses. These patients were compared to 6 non-immunized AD cases and 5 non-demented control (NDC cases. Results All patients were assessed for the presence of AD pathology including amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and vascular amyloidosis. This effort revealed that two immunotherapy recipients had dementia as a consequence of diseases other than AD. Direct neuropathological examination consistently demonstrated small to extensive areas in which amyloid plaques apparently were disrupted. Characterization of Aβ species remnants by ELISA suggested that total Aβ levels may have been reduced, although because the amounts of Aβ peptides among treated individuals were extremely variable, those data must be regarded as tentative. Chromatographic analysis and Western blots revealed abundant dimeric Aβ peptides. SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated a substantive number of Aβ-related peptides, some of them with elongated C-terminal sequences. Pro-inflammatory TNF-α levels were significantly increased in the gray matter of immunized AD cases compared to the NDC and non-immunized AD groups. Conclusions Immunotherapy responses were characterized by extreme variability. Considering the broad range of biological variation that characterizes aging and complicates the recognition of reliable AD biomarkers, such disparities will make the interpretation of outcomes derived from epidemiologic and therapeutic investigations challenging. Although in some cases the apparent removal of amyloid plaques

  9. Stop-and-go kinetics in amyloid fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Fonslet, Jesper; Andersen, Christian Beyschau; Krishna, Sandeep; Pigolotti, Simone; Hisashi, Yagi; Yuji, Goto; Otzen, Daniel; Jensen, Mogens Høgh

    2010-01-01

    Many human diseases are associated with protein aggregation and fibrillation. We present experiments on in vitro glucagon fibrillation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, providing real-time measurements of single-fibril growth. We find that amyloid fibrils grow in an intermi...

  10. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ... al. Course of cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation. Neurology. 2007;68:1411-1416. PMID: 17452586 www.ncbi. ...

  11. Seeded growth of β-amyloid fibrils from Alzheimer's brain-derived fibrils produces a distinct fibril structure

    OpenAIRE

    Paravastu, Anant K.; Qahwash, Isam; Leapman, Richard D.; Meredith, Stephen C.; Tycko, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Studies by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of amyloid fibrils prepared in vitro from synthetic 40-residue β-amyloid (Aβ1–40) peptides have shown that the molecular structure of Aβ1–40 fibrils is not uniquely determined by amino acid sequence. Instead, the fibril structure depends on the precise details of growth conditions. The molecular structures of β-amyloid fibrils that develop in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are therefore uncertain. We demonstrate through thioflavin T fluorescen...

  12. Magnetite-Amyloid-β deteriorates activity and functional organization in an in vitro model for Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Teller; Islam Bogachan Tahirbegi; Mònica Mir; Josep Samitier; Jordi Soriano

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the key mechanisms behind human brain deterioration in Alzheimer’ disease (AD) is a highly active field of research. The most widespread hypothesis considers a cascade of events initiated by amyloidpeptide fibrils that ultimately lead to the formation of the lethal amyloid plaques. Recent studies have shown that other agents, in particular magnetite, can also play a pivotal role. To shed light on the action of magnetite and amyloid-β in the deterioration of neuronal ci...

  13. Heterogeneous Seeding of a Prion Structure by a Generic Amyloid Form of the Fungal Prion-forming Domain HET-s(218-289)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, William; Bian, Wen; McDonald, Michele; Kijac, Aleksandra; Wemmer, David E.; Stubbs, Gerald [UCB; (Vanderbilt); (LBNL)

    2013-11-13

    The fungal prion-forming domain HET-s(218–289) forms infectious amyloid fibrils at physiological pH that were shown by solid-state NMR to be assemblies of a two-rung β-solenoid structure. Under acidic conditions, HET-s(218–289) has been shown to form amyloid fibrils that have very low infectivity in vivo, but structural information about these fibrils has been very limited. We show by x-ray fiber diffraction that the HET-s(218–289) fibrils formed under acidic conditions have a stacked β-sheet architecture commonly found in short amyloidogenic peptides and denatured protein aggregates. At physiological pH, stacked β-sheet fibrils nucleate the formation of the infectious β-solenoid prions in a process of heterogeneous seeding, but do so with kinetic profiles distinct from those of spontaneous or homogeneous (seeded with infectious β-solenoid fibrils) fibrillization. Several serial passages of stacked β-sheet-seeded solutions lead to fibrillization kinetics similar to homogeneously seeded solutions. Our results directly show that structural mutation can occur between substantially different amyloid architectures, lending credence to the suggestion that the processes of strain adaptation and crossing species barriers are facilitated by structural mutation.

  14. Neurogenesis, Neurodegeneration, Interneuron Vulnerability, and Amyloid-β in the Olfactory Bulb of APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; Ubeda-Banon, Isabel; Flores-Cuadrado, Alicia; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, mostly idiopathic and with palliative treatment. Neuropathologically, it is characterized by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein and extracellular plaques of amyloid β peptides. The relationship between AD and neurogenesis is unknown, but two facts are particularly relevant. First, early aggregation sites of both proteinopathies include the hippocampal formation and the olfactory bulb (OB), which have been correlated to memory and olfactory deficits, respectively. These areas are well-recognized integration zones of newly-born neurons in the adult brain. Second, molecules, such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin-1 are common to both AD etiology and neurogenic development. Adult neurogenesis in AD models has been studied in the hippocampus, but only occasionally addressed in the OB and results are contradictory. To gain insight on the relationship between adult neurogenesis and AD, this work analyzes neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, interneuron vulnerability, and amyloid-β involvement in the OB of an AD model. Control and double-transgenic mice carrying the APP and the presenilin-1 genes, which give rise amyloid β plaques have been used. BrdU-treated animals have been studied at 16, 30, 43, and 56 weeks of age. New-born cell survival (BrdU), neuronal loss (using neuronal markers NeuN and PGP9.5), differential interneuron (calbindin-, parvalbumin-, calretinin- and somatostatin-expressing populations) vulnerability, and involvement by amyloid β have been analyzed. Neurogenesis increases with aging in the granule cell layer of control animals from 16 to 43 weeks. No neuronal loss has been observed after quantifying NeuN or PGP9.5. Regarding interneuron population vulnerability: calbindin-expressing neurons remains unchanged; parvalbumin-expressing neurons trend to increase with aging in transgenic animals; calretinin-expressing neurons increase with aging in

  15. In Silico and in Vitro Study of Binding Affinity of Tripeptides to Amyloid β Fibrils: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viet, Man Hoang; Siposova, Katarina; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Antosova, Andrea; Nguyen, Truc Trang; Gazova, Zuzana; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-04-23

    Self-assembly of Aβ peptides into amyloid aggregates has been suggested as the major cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nowadays, there is no medication for AD, but experimental data indicate that reversion of the process of amyloid aggregation reduces the symptoms of disease. In this paper, all 8000 tripeptides were studied for their ability to destroy Aβ fibrils. The docking method and the more sophisticated MM-PBSA (molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area) method were employed to calculate the binding affinity and mode of tripeptides to Aβ fibrils. The ability of these peptides to depolymerize Aβ fibrils was also investigated experimentally using atomic force microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy (Thioflavin T assay). It was shown that tripeptides prefer to bind to hydrophobic regions of 6Aβ9-40 fibrils. Tripeptides WWW, WWP, WPW and PWW were found to be the most potent binders. In vitro experiments showed that tight-binding tripeptides have significant depolymerizing activities and their DC50 values determined from dose-response curves were in micromolar range. The ability of nonbinding (GAM, AAM) and weak-binding (IVL and VLA) tripeptides to destroy Aβ fibrils was negligible. In vitro data of tripeptide depolymerizing activities support the predictions obtained by molecular docking and all-atom simulation methods. Our results suggest that presence of multiple complexes of heterocycles forming by tryptophan and proline residues in tripeptides is crucial for their tight binding to Aβ fibrils as well as for extensive fibril depolymerization. We recommend PWW for further studies as it has the lowest experimental binding constant. PMID:25815792

  16. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsbury, C.; Wall, J.; Baxa, U.; Simon, M. N.; Steven, A. C.; Engel, A.; Aebi, U.; Muller, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).

  17. First effects of rising amyloid-β in transgenic mouse brain: synaptic transmission and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Damian M; Liu, Wenfei; Portelius, Erik; Bayram, Sevinç; Yasvoina, Marina; Ho, Sui-Hin; Smits, Hélène; Ali, Shabinah S; Steinberg, Rivka; Pegasiou, Chrysia-Maria; James, Owain T; Matarin, Mar; Richardson, Jill C; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Hardy, John A; Salih, Dervis A; Edwards, Frances A

    2015-07-01

    Detecting and treating Alzheimer's disease, before c