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Sample records for amylographs

  1. Chemometrics of Wheat Composites with Hemp, Teff, and Chia Flour: Comparison of Rheological Features

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    Marie Hrušková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixolab, a rheological device developed recently, combines approved farinograph and amylograph test procedures. Analysing wheat flour composites with hemp, teff, or chia in terms of all three mentioned rheological methods, correspondence of farinograph, and amylograph versus mixolab features was examined by principal component analysis. The first two principal components, PC1 and PC2, explained 75% of data scatter and allowed a satisfying confirmation of presumed relationships between farinograph or amylograph and mixolab parameters. Dough development time and stability were associated with gluten strength (C1 torque point and also dough softening (mixing tolerance index had a link to protein weakening (C1-C2 difference. In the second mentioned case, amylograph viscosity maximum and amylase activity (C3-C4 closeness was verified. Starch and starch gel properties during mixing (C3, C3-C2, and C4 affect dough viscosity (C1 and rheological behaviour (dough development time and stability. Another important finding is unequivocal distinguishing of the composite subsets (of hemp, teff, and chia ones by the used rheological methods and statistical treatment of multivariable data.

  2. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Vira Drobot; Anastasiya Semenova; Jelyzaveta Smirnova; Larisa Mykhonik

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes) on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural an...

  3. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars

    OpenAIRE

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph p...

  4. Evaluation of the Possibility to Replace Conventional Rheological Wheat Flour Quality Control Instruments with the New Measurement Tool – Mixolab

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    Tamara Dabčević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the belief that the rheological properties of wheat fl our and dough are related to the flour quality and its processing characteristics, they are of great importance in the baking and milling industries. The Farinograph, Extensograph, Amylograph and Alveograph tests are the most common empirical tests used for assessing rheological properties of wheat dough. Recently, new rheological tool for wheat fl our characterization, called Mixolab, has been developed.The advantage of using Mixolab is that one can measure protein and starch characteristics in a single test. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between Mixolab parameters and parameters obtained using Farinograph and Amylograph among flour samples of different technological quality. Mixolab water absorption value was significantly correlated to Farinograph water absorption value (r = 0.9816 as well as Mixolab dough formation time value (time for C1 to dough development time obtained using Farinograph (r = 0.9668, while the values which indicate dough stability have not expressed so high correlation (r = 0.7484. In addition, difference between the values of maximum torque (C1 and torque at the end of the first period of constant temperature (T= 30°C obtained by Mixolab expressed good correlation with the Farinograph degree of softening (r = 0.8504. A significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.8812 was determined between the Amylograph peak viscosity parameter and C3 value which is an indication of starch gelatinization.

  5. Effect of the addition of hydrocolloids on the rheological and baking properties of the products with added spelt flour (Triticum spelta L.

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    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the evaluation of the effect of additives on the rheological properties of composite flour made of wheat flour in the amount of 70% and spelt flour at 30%. As additives guar gum (0.5% by weight of flour and xanthan gum (0.16% by weight of flour were used. Properties of produced control dough and doughs with hydrocolloids were evaluated by means of rheological appliances by Farinograph, Extenzograph, Amylograph and Rheofermentometer. Based on the observed results it can be concluded that the addition of xanthan gum has a positive effect on increasing of farinographic water absorption capacity, extension of dough development time and dough stability and generally positively affected farinographic properties. The addition of guar gum has improved especially extensographic properties as extensographic energy and extensographic resistance. Based on amylographic evaluation of control doughs and doughs with additives it can be stated that in the dough with guar gum the amylographic maximum has slightly increased. Hydrocolloid guar gum contributed to an increased retention capacity of dough observed. Based on our measurements we can indicate that addition of guar and xanthan gum contributed to an increased rheological quality of doughs prepared with addition of flour from spelt wheat. With reference to the baking experiment it was found that the use of hydrocolloids has a positive effect on the improvement of the baking properties, in particular larger volume, specific volume, and the volume yield of the dough with the addition of guar and xanthan gum compared to the control. Our results showed that aditives significantly influenced rheological qualities of dough and a baking quality of products. These findings thus allow optimizing the recipe in order to increase the technological quality of leavened bakery products.

  6. Physic-chemical Study of Starch Extracted from Irradiated Corn Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on starch extracted from irradiated samples of corn flour were studied in the range 0,6 kGy-1,0 kGy. Amylographic properties, solubility and swelling powder of starch samples were determined immediately after irradiation and at 75 days storage at environment conditions (160C-310C, 55%-97% H.R.). Diffraction patterns of crystalline starch were also obtained by X-rays. Gelatinization temperature, swelling powder and diffraction patterns did not change upon irradiation, but a decrease in viscosity and an increase in starch solubility were observed within the dose-range and storage time studied. (author)

  7. Effect of Different Modification Techniques on the Physicochemical and Thermoanalytical Properties of Wheat and Corn Starch

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    H. G. Kotancilar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The starches of wheat and corn treated with four different modification methods (pregelatinized, thinnedwith acid, cross-linked and dextrinized were investigated in terms of changes in swelling, water-holdingcapacity, gelatinization and thermoanalytical properties. Modification processes caused significant changes inthe physicochemical properties of the starches. Also, having effect on the thermoanalytical properties ofstarch, of modification process pregelatinization, cross-linking and dextrinization increased the temperaturesof gelatinization initiation, peak, and final points. In addition, the modification process decreased the changein the value of entalphi. In general, peaks appeared in shorter time in corn starch amylograph than that inwheat starch for all the modified methods. The wheat starch had more swelling capacity than those of thecorn starch at 30 and 40 oC. The modifications applied, in this study, decreased water-holding capacity of thestarches of the wheat and corn at 70 oC.

  8. Effect of ingredients on rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of fibre and protein enriched baked energy bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Neelam; Darappa, Indrani

    2015-05-01

    Effect of substitution of brown flour (BF) with fiber rich ingredient mixture, FRIM (banana flour, psyllium husk, partially defatted coconut flour and oats) and protein rich ingredient mixture, PRIM (chickpea flour, sesame, soya protein isolate and whey protein concentrate) at the levels of 25, 50 and 75 % on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of baked energy bars (BEB) were studied. Use of increasing amount of FRIM increased farinograph water absorption and amylograph peak viscosity while PRIM decreased the aforementioned parameters. Addition of FRIM or PRIM increased the bar dough hardness and decreased cohesiveness and springiness. The overall quality score of BEB increased only up to the substitution of 50 % of BF with FRIM or PRIM. The BEB with 50 % FRIM and PRIM remained chemically stable during storage up to 3 months and showed 9 times increase in dietary fiber content and about 2 times increase in protein content respectively. PMID:25892802

  9. Physico-chemical properties and acceptability of yam flour substituted with soy flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B; Sobande, A O

    1995-07-01

    Yam flour was substituted 10, 20 and 40% with defatted and full fat soy flour. The effect of the substitution on the proximate composition, swelling power, solubility, water binding capacity and Brabender visco amylograph cooking properties of the yam flour and acceptability of the cooked paste (amala), were evaluated. Protein contents of the mixtures were 23.0 and 25.5% on substituting 40% full-and defatted soy flours for yam flour, ash and crude fibre contents increased while carbohydrate content, swelling power, Brabender paste viscosities decreased with increase in soy flour substitution of yam flour. Colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability of pastes (amala) from the mixed flours were rated lower than that of yam flour. Up to 10% defatted and 20% full fat soy flour substitution for yam flour was acceptable for amala. PMID:8719741

  10. Studies on sweet potatoes. Pt. 2. Isolation and characterization of starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan, B.; Susheelamma, N.S.; Tharanathan, R.N. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Dept. of Food Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    By differntial sedimentation and centrifugation steps four starch isolates were recovered from sun dried sweet potato flour. The granules in these isolates were of different size, shape and population characteristics, and were anionic in nature. They showed a single stage swelling with 30 to 35% solubility in water and only [proportional to]30% solubility in DMSO even after 72 h. Their starch content varied from [proportional to]48 to 88%. The presence of thermostable amylases in sweet potato resulted in considerable decrease in Brabender viscosity values as amylographic studies in the presence of HgCl[sub 2] showed significant increase in peak (PV) and setback (SBV) viscosities. The starch isolate I had 25% higher PV as compared to the isolate II but retrogradation was much low in this. Susceptibility to glucoamylase digestion showed a decreasing trend from the isolate I to the IV on solid basis, but comparable on starch basis. (orig.).

  11. Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Mirić Katarina V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work in concerned with the interdependence between technological quality of mill stream flours and fermentative activity of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each mill stream flour has its own specific properties, determined by the particle size, technological phase of its formation and part of the wheat kernel it consists of. Biochemical complexity of dough during examination of fermentative activity of baker's yeast confirmed the influence of a number of physical and biochemical flour properties, such as ash content, wet gluten content, rheological flour properties, phytic acid content and amylograph peak viscosity. Abudance of significant flour characteristic, their interaction and different behavior in the presence of the yeast, showed diversity and variation of result within the same category of the mill stream flour.

  12. Properties of starch and dietary fibre in raw and processed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales, J; Nair, B M

    1994-04-01

    We investigated certain properties of starch in raw and in heat-treated samples of quinoa, properties that are of importance to the nutritional quality of an infant food currently being developed. Scanning electron microscopy of the starch in raw seeds showed polygonal granules (0.6 to 2.0 microns diameter) to be present both singly and as spherical aggregates. Thermograms (DSC) of the flours showed one transition phase for gelatinisation of the starch and another for the amylose-lipid complex. The gelatinisation temperature of the starch was 67 degrees C. Cooked samples manifested the highest degree of gelatinisation (97%), followed by the drum-dried (96%) and autoclaved (27%) samples. Separation of the starch on a SEPHAROSE CL-2B column showed the quinoa starch to be affected by the heat treatment, manifesting changes in the degree and extent of degradation. The amylograph viscosity of the quinoa flour showed no distinct peak for pasting, but the viscosity remained constant after gelatinisation. Cooking and autoclaving modified the viscosity of the paste. The drum-dried sample manifested a higher initial viscosity at 25 degrees C. The in vitro digestibility of raw quinoa starch determined by incubation for 60 min with alpha-amylase was 22%, while that of autoclaved, cooked and drum-dried samples was 32%, 45% and 73%, respectively. Saponins did not affect the digestibility of the starch, though they tended to increase the amylograph viscosity. The total dietary fibre content in the cooked sample (11.0%) was significantly lower than that in the autoclaved (13.2%), drum-dried (13.3%) or raw samples (13.3%), while the insoluble dietary fibre fraction in the samples did not change with heat treatment. However, as compared with that of raw quinoa, the soluble dietary fibre fraction was reduced significantly both by cooking (0.9%) and by autoclaving (1.0%). PMID:8052579

  13. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

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    Mahvish Jabeen Channa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture % were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2% was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6%, high hardness values in Imdad (70.1% and Jouhar (70.2%. However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71%. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 oC for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 oC in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 oC. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality.

  14. The application of natural organic compounds in bakery industry

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    Davidović Dejan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations include the analysis of the impact of commercial products: complex additive (0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%, L-ascorbic acid (0.002, 0.004 and 0.012%, diacetyl ester of tartaric acid with monoglycerides (DATEM E472e, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5%, α-amylase (0.002, 0.006 and 0.012%, xylanase (0.004, 0.012 and 0.024%, alcohol extract of rosemary, thyme or sage (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%, as well as the combination of complex additive and rosemary, thyme and sage extract on rheological characteristics of dough. The study includes amylograph, farinograph and extensograph analysis of dough with and without additives (control sample. The volume of lost CO2 gas (mL is the lowest in dough samples with an added combination of complex additive and thyme extract (0.05 and 0.5% and rosemary extract (2.0%. In the samples with thyme extract (1.0% added, the volume of lost gas is at a level of samples with added complex additive, DATEM, and L-ascorbic acid.

  15. Evaluation of rheological, bioactives and baking characteristics of mango ginger (curcuma amada) enriched soup sticks.

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    Crassina, K; Sudha, M L

    2015-09-01

    Wheat flour was replaced with mango ginger powder (MGP) at 0, 5, 10 and 15 %. Influence of MGP on rheological and baking characteristics was studied. Farinograph was used to study the mixing profile of wheat flour-MGP blend. Pasting profile of the blends namely gelatinization and retrogradation were carried out using micro-visco-amylograph. Test baking was done to obtain the optimum level of replacement and processing conditions. Sensory attributes consisting texture, taste, overall quality and breaking strength were assessed. Nutritional characterization of the soup sticks in terms of protein and starch in vitro digestibility, dietary fiber, minerals, polyphenols and antioxidant activity were determined using standard methods. With the increasing levels of MGP from 0 to 15 %, the farinograph water absorption increased from 60 to 66.7 %. A marginal increase in the gelatinization temperature from 65.4 to 66.2 °C was observed. Retrogradation of gelatinized starch granules decreased with the addition of MGP. The results indicated that the soup stick with 10 % MG had acceptable sensory attributes. The soup stick showed further improvement in terms of texture and breaking strength with the addition of gluten powder, potassium bromate and glycerol monostearate. The total dietary fiber and antioxidant activity of the soup sticks having 10 % MGP increased from 3.31 to 8.64 % and 26.83 to 48.06 % respectively as compared to the control soup sticks. MGP in soup sticks improved the nutritional profile. PMID:26345009

  16. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT OF Rht3 DWARFING GENE ON SOME TRAITS OF WHEAT (Tr. aestivum L. em Thell

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    Marijan Jošt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available True-isogenic lines, differing only in the semi-dominant Rht3 dwarfing gene, were developed from the cross 'Tom Thumb x Bankuty 1201' during 17 years of continuous selection on heterozygous semidwarf plant. The effect of double (Rht3 Rht3 = full-dwarf, single (Rht3 rht3 =semi-dwarf, or no dwarfing gene (rht3 rht3 = tall dosage on some plant, seed, and flour quality traits were observed in the isogenic lines during two years field experiment, planted by 'honey-comb design' at Kri`evci, Croatia. Significant main effect of Rht3 gene was in shortening of plant height by 54% and 28% in double and single gene dosage respectively. Full-dwarf genotype (Rht3 Rht3 had by 12% more heads/plant, but the other yield components as number of grains/head, and grain weight/head were lower by 25 and 28% respectively, resulting in significantly lower grain yield/plant (-27%. However, this also could be a secondary side effect of prolonged vegetation influenced by doubled Rht3 gene. There was no significant effect on flour protein content. Double gene effect was strong and significant for maximum dough viscosity measured by amylograph in BU (101%. In our environment full dwarf (Rht3 Rht3 has no agronomic value, but single gene dosage could be of commercial interest in hybrid wheat breeding.

  17. PLEIOTROPIC EFFECT OF Rht3 DWARFING GENE ON SOME TRAITS OF WHEAT (Tr. aestivum L. em Thell

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    M. Jošt

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available True-isogenic lines, differing only in the semi-dominant Rht3 dwarfing gene, were developed from the cross 'Tom Thumb x Bankuty 1201' during 17 years of continuous selection on heterozygous semi-dwarf plant. The effect of double (Rht3 Rht3 = full-dwarf, single (Rht3 rht3 =semi-dwarf, or no dwarfing gene (rht3 rht3 = tall dosage on some plant, seed, and flour quality traits were observed in the isogenic lines during two years field experiment, planted by 'honey-comb design' at Kri`evci, Croatia. Significant main effect of Rht3 gene was in shortening of plant height by 54% and 28% in double and single gene dosage respectively. Full-dwarf genotype (Rht3 Rht3 had by 12% more heads/plant, but the other yield components as number of grains/head, and grain weight/head were lower by 25 and 28% respectively, resulting in significantly lower grain yield/plant (-27%. However, this also could be a secondary side effect of prolonged vegetation influenced by doubled Rht3 gene. There was no significant effect on flour protein content. Double gene effect was strong and significant for maximum dough viscosity measured by amylograph in BU (101%. In our environment full dwarf (Rht3 Rht3 has no agronomic value, but single gene dosage could be of commercial interest in hybrid wheat breeding.

  18. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Rheolgical Properties of Different Wheat Varieties Grown in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to investigate the physico-chemical and rheological properties of 17 wheat varieties (TJ-83, Jouhar, TD-1, Anmool, Mehran, Indus-66, Sindh B-1, Abadgar, Bhittai, Imdad, Mexi-Pak, Soughat, Blue Silver, Moomal, Marvi, Kiran, and Pak-70 ) commercially grown on experimental field of Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam. The results revealed that moisture percentage were in range of 11 to 12 among all varieties, high protein content of about 15.2 percentage was found in Mehran and Blue silver varieties, starch was found high in Maxi-pak (70.6 percentage), high hardness values in Imdad (70.1percentage) and Jouhar (70.2 percentage). However, zeleny content was found high in Marvi, Abadgaar and Mehran i.e. 71 percentage. Amylographic results showed that among all varieties the Bhittai variety required maximum temperature up to 65.7 Degree C for the beginning of gelatinization as compared to other varieties. The highest gelatinization temperature was noted up to 96.7 Degree C in Moomal whereas others had temperature from 82.7 to 89.0 Degree C. Highest gelatinization maxima (1782AU) acquired by T.J-83 variety. The results of Farinograph showed that highest water absorption was noted in Anmool variety. The highest dough development time and dough stability were found highest in Kiran and Indus-66, respectively. T.D-1 and Jouhar varieties had highest break down time as well as highest Farinograph quality. (author)

  19. Studies on the characteristic difference of quality betweennew and stored grains in Japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Changes in the milling quality, chemical characteristics, eating qualityand dynamic viscoelasticities of seven cultivars of japoinica rice after about eightmonths storage at room temperature were studied. Comparisons between new andstored rices showed that no obvious changes in milling quality, amylose and proteincontent were found. Though there was varietal difference, the palatability of allcultivars deteriorated with storage.The overall eating quality of Koshihikari andEtsunan162 stored rice were almost the same as that of new rice of Nihonbare andXiushui11. The deterioration in palatability was due to the deterioration of theappearance, taste and stickiness of cooked rice. New rice grain from cultivars witha good eating quality showed a relatively high palatability as compare with storedrice. The moduli of cooked rice grains of stored rice were increased and values ofloss tangent of cooked rice was lower than those of new rice, such cases in poorpalatability cultivars were much more obvious. The eating quality of stored rice wasgenerally poor for the cultivars with a high free fatty acid content. In addition, thebreakdown and maximum viscosity values in amylographic characteristics wereslightly increased.

  20. Studies on the characteristic differenced ofquality between new and stored grains in japonica rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Wenchao; Jin Qingsheng; Yu Faming; Qiu Boqin; Kastsura Tomita; Hisamitsu Horiuch

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the milling quality, chemical characteristics, eating quality and dynamic viscoelasticities of seven cultivars of japoinica rice after about eight months storage at room temperature were studied. Comparisons between new and stored rices showed that no obvious changes in milling quality, amylose and protein content were found. Though there was varietal difference, the palatability of all cultivars deteriorated with storage.The overall eating quality of Koshihikari and Etsunan162 stored rice were almost the same as that of new rice of Nihonbare and Xiushui11. The deterioration in palatability was due to the deterioration of the appearance, taste and stickiness of cooked rice. New rice grain from cultivars with a good eating quality showed a relatively high palatability aS compare with stored rice. The moduli of cooked rice grains of stored rice were increased and values of loss tangent of cooked rice was lower than those of new rice, such cases in poor palatability cultivars were much more obvious. The eating quality of stored rice was generally poor for the cultivars with a high free fatty acid content. In addition, the breakdown and maximum viscosity values in amylographic characteristics were slightly increased.

  1. Effect of heat treatment and milling on the seed, flour, rheology and baking quality of some amaranth ecotypes.

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    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Maya, S; Domingo, M V

    1985-12-01

    Forty-five harvests corresponding to the two predominating domestic species of amaranth in Mexico were studied. The proximate analysis revealed some statistically significant differences throughout three years of observation. The Ca, P and Fe content did not vary greatly in 15 samples. No chemical differences were either manifested in the Mercado and Aztec types of A. hypochondriacus, nor in the Mexican type of A. cruentus. The latter exhibits a higher grain yield and a shorter life cycle; however, its baking quality is apparently inferior to that of the Mercado type of A. hypochondriacus. The heat treatment of the seeds (toasting, popping and cooking) affected protein and lysine contents as does in cereals and leguminous seeds although toasting in particular improves its sensory characteristics without altering digestibility and PER. Popping only improves PER. Heating at 90 or 170 degrees C for three to five minutes, at the usual seed's moisture rate of 6 to 15%, does not affect protein content and does so only slightly in the case of the fatty acids content. Amylographic and farinographic values of the starchy fractions indicate similarities to C. quinoa and differences with respect to wheat. In the case of "amaranth milk", viscosity and gelatinization temperature produced satisfactory values. The extension of amaranth cultivation in the country is hereby suggested in view of the seed's nutritional quality, and considering the behavior of whole amaranth flour and its fractions. PMID:3842924

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on durum wheats and spaghetti quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficient control of insects in cereal grains has long been the main objective of processors who are always looking for safer and more economical methods. Gamma irradiation is a physical technique of food preservation that seems to have a potential to protect grains from insect infestation and microbial contamination during storage. It has been reported that gamma irradiation doses in the range of 0.2-1.0 kGy are effective in controlling insect infestation in cereals (IAEA 1991). Increasing the dose to 5 kGy totally kills the spores of many fungi surviving the lower doses (Murray 1990). Besides its protective role from insects and microorganisms, gamma irradiation also has important effects on various quality criteria of cereal grains. Experiments have been performed to study the effects of gamma irradiation on various aspects of wheat quality such as milling characteristics, dough properties, and baking quality (Lai et al 1959, Lee 1959, Fifield et al 1967, Rao et al 1975, Paredes-Lopez and Covarrubias-Alvarez 1984, MacArthur and D'Appolonia 1983, Ng et al 1989). It was reported that amylograph peak viscosity and falling number values of the flour decreased significantly as radiation levels increased (MacArthur and D'Appolonia 1983, Ng et al 1989). Rao et al (1975) showed that as radiation dose increased, amylograph peak height and dough stability decreased. At 10 kGy, loaf volume and crumb grain were impaired. Paredes-Lopez and Covarrubias-Alvarez (1984) found that the overall bread quality of wheat was greatly reduced at medium doses of radiation (1-10 kGy). At doses >5 kGy, irrespective of the baking formula used, loaf volume and baking quality deteriorated (Lai et al 1959). Irradiation of grain has also caused problems in noodle quality. Japanese noodles (udon) show increased cooking losses and inferior scores in sensory analysis when the bread wheats have been irradiated in the range of 0.2-1.0 kGy (Shibata et al 1974, Urbain 1986). However, no detailed

  3. Effect of Whey Powder on Rheological Properties of Dough and Staling of Sangak Bread

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    A. R. Rahimi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Whey powder, due to its lactose and protein contents, can be used as an important flour improver to decrease the rate of staling. In the present investigation, whey powder was added at 5 levels (zero to 5%, W/W to the flour of Sangak bread. Bread was baked according to the formula and procedure used by traditional Sangak bakeries. Bread samples were kept at room temperature or under refrigeration for 36 hours. They were then evaluated for staling by a taste panel. They were also subjected to proximate analysis. The dough was examined for farinographic, amylographic, extensographic and fermentographic properties. The data of staling tests including color, texture, flavor and also proximate analysis data were analyzed by ANOVA. Finally, differences among treatments were examined by Ducan’s multiple range procedure. The results indicated that the best treatment was the use of 3% whey powder, as far as staling and texture of bread are concerned. However, the best color of bread was achieved with 5% whey powder; so was true of the protein, ash and fat contents. Viscosity, as tested by amylography, and also parameters of farinography reached their highest levels in the dough prepared from flour having 5% whey powder in the formula. The best extensibility was observed with the flours containing 4% whey powder and the highest dough energy was associated with the dough prepared from flour having 5% whey powder. As for the loaf volume, best results were obtained with the dough prepared from flour having 3% whey powder. Overall, it is concluded that the use of 3% whey powder is the best treatment with regard to the delay in the rate of staling, increase in loaf volume, and color appeal of Sangak bread, and rheological properties of the dough.

  4. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

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    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  5. Influência do amido e carragena nas propriedades texturiais de surimi de tilápia (Oreochomis sp. Influence of starch and carrageenan on textural properties on tilapia (Oreochomis sp. surimi

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    Pedro Luiz Manique BARRETO

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial de tilápias (Oreochomis sp. na obtenção de carne de pescado separada mecanicamente (CPSM para elaboração de surimi. Amidos de diferentes fontes, como milho ceroso, milho ceroso modificado e mandioca, e o polissacarídeo carragena foram usados como ingredientes, e estudados seus efeitos no comportamento do gel de surimi. O surimi elaborado a partir de carcaças residuais da filetagem industrial, apresentou um rendimento final de 25% (peso/peso. A análise instrumental de textura apresentou um efeito fortalecedor, em relação à força de penetração dos amidos no gel de surimi, sendo esse efeito proporcional à viscosidade (r = 0,81, pFillet frames from industrial processing of tilapias (Oreochomis sp. was utilized to obtained minced meat for surimi. Starch from differents sources ( waxy maize starch, modified waxy maize starch and tapioca and the polysaccharide carrageenan was utilized like additives, and then studied their effects on surimi gel behaviour. Tilapia surimi showed a yield of 25% (weight/weight. The instrumental analysis of texture showed a strong effect of starch in relation to penetration force in surimi gel, these effect was proportional to starches viscosity (r = 0,81, p<0,05, studied by Brabender amylograph, by other hand, both starch and carrageenan showed a decresed in viscoelasticity of surimi gel (p<0,005.

  6. Effects of popping and extrusion processes on some hydration properties of amaranth

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    González R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of popping and extrusion processes on some of the hydration properties of Amarantus cruentus, which had already been degermed and dehulled, are discussed. Response surface methodology was used to analyse the effect of process variables (temperature and moisture on hydration properties, evaluated by water solubility (S and by amylographic retrogradation (R . Results show that precooked flours obtained by popping have a very high suspension consistency with low or intermediate S, while those obtained by extrusion have very high S but a much lower suspension consistency. The high S values for extruded samples are even higher than those for extruded waxy types of cereals. The effects of the variables on each response depend on each case. S increases as temperature (T and moisture (M increase in both processes, although in extrusion, a maximum value was observed at 200 masculineC and about 15% M. On the other hand, an inverse variable effect is observed for R; a minimum value is observed with extruded samples at about 14% M and for the whole T range, while a typical saddle-shaped surface is obtained for popped samples, with maximum values found at about 14 % and 18 % M for the two extreme T values, the highest and lowest, respectively. Another interesting effect is that the S-R pair values corresponding to popped samples do not fit the correlation between S and R, normally found with extruded samples. We can conclude that with the application of both processes it is possible to obtain precooked flours that have a wide range of hydration properties.

  7. Effects of Different Modification on Physicochemical Properties and Granule Structure of Rice Starch%不同改性方法对大米淀粉理化性质及颗粒结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张民; 吴娜; 董家美; 王芳

    2013-01-01

    采用压热处理、微波处理、超声波处理等方法对大米淀粉改性,用DSC、布拉班德粘度仪和扫描电镜等仪器测定了大米淀粉理化指标和颗粒结构.研究结果表明,与原淀粉相比,压热处理淀粉的To、Tp、Tm最高(143.61℃、159.82℃、170.30℃);峰值粘度最低(142 BU);抗酶解性最高(13.49%);除超声波处理,其它方法改性的淀粉的溶解度、膨胀能力、凝沉性都有一定程度的升高,淀粉颗粒均已熔融为一体,无完整的颗粒存在.%Rice starch was modified by autoclaving, microwave and ultrasonic methods, respectively. Then its physicochemical properties and granule structure were explored by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Brabender amylograph analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other test methods. The results showed that, in comparison with native starch, the autoclaving treated starch showed higher values of To (143.61 ℃), TP (159.82 ℃) and Tm (170.30 ℃) Jiigher anti-enzymatic property (13.49%) and lower peak viscosity (142BU). The solubility, swelling power, retrogradation of autoclaving and microwave modified starches increased. These starch melted blend and showed no complete particles.

  8. Molienda de Trigo: Ensayos Comparativos de Escala Industrial con Planta Piloto Wheat Milling: Comparative Tests between Experimental and Commercial Mills

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    Carlos A Osella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el potencial de la molienda experimental de planta piloto para la producción de harinas con características similares a las obtenidas en el proceso industrial. Se analizaron los aspectos físicos, químicos y tecnológicos de harinas provenientes de distintos trigos, producidas por dos molinos experimentales y por uno industrial. Las evaluaciones de las harinas fueron realizadas por triplicado y analizadas estadísticamente por el test de rango múltiple de Duncan. Se encontraron diferencias en los valores amilográficos, farinográficos y en la composición química de las harinas. Las características alveográficas y el comportamiento tecnológico mostraron diferencias no significativas (α=0.05. Se concluye que los diagramas propuestos en la molienda experimental pueden ser utilizados para predecir el comportamiento del trigo en la molienda industrial.The objective of the present study was the evaluation of experimental milling at a pilot plant for the production of flours having characteristics similar to those obtained in an industrial process. The physical, chemical, and technological aspects of flours from different wheats, produced by two experimental and one industrial mill were evaluated. The evaluations of the flours were carried out in triplicate and statistically analyzed using a Duncan multiple range test. Differences were found among amylographic and farinographic values, as well as in the chemical compositions of the flours. The alveographic and technological behavior showed not significant differences (a = 0.05. It is concluded that the diagrams proposed for experimental milling could be used to predict the behavior of flour in industrial mivdroppelmann@unab.cllling .

  9. Adição de inulina em géis de amido e leite utilizando planejamento experimental de misturas Addition of inulin to starch and milk gels using an experimental mixture design

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    Luciana Pereira Lobato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito combinado de inulina, amido e leite nas características texturais de géis e de propriedades de pastas empregando o planejamento experimental de misturas. Foram avaliados o perfil viscoamilográfico e a firmeza dos géis. Em todos os parâmetros avaliados, os modelos ajustados mostraram-se influenciados pela presença de inulina, amido e leite, assim como de algumas interações desses ingredientes. A viscosidade máxima e a viscosidade final foram influenciadas positivamente pela concentração de amido e negativamente pelas interações deste com leite e com inulina. A firmeza dos géis aumentou com o aumento do teor de amido, mas a interação amido-inulina foi antagônica, contribuindo para diminuir essa característica. O efeito da interação entre amido e inulina pode ser explicado pelo fato de que a inulina possui maior afinidade pela água, em relação ao amido, ou, ainda, por agir como diluente, fazendo com que haja menor contato entre os grânulos e/ou cadeias de amido. A partir dos resultados encontrados neste estudo, verifica-se que a inclusão da inulina em sistemas amido-leite pode influenciar nas características texturais e de viscosidade, possivelmente refletindo-se nas características sensoriais. Com isso, a avaliação das interações com outros ingredientes da formulação torna-se essencial.The objective of this work was to investigate the combined effect of milk, starch and inulin on the textural characteristics of gels and on the pasting properties, using an experimental mixture design. Gel firmness and the amylographic profile were evaluated. For all the parameters evaluated, the fitted models were shown to be influenced by the presence of inulin, starch and milk, as also some of the interactions between the ingredients. The maximum viscosity and final viscosity were positively influenced by the starch concentration and negatively by interactions between the starch and

  10. Extração de β-glucanas de cevada e caracterização parcial do amido residual Extraction of barley β-glucans and partial characterization of residual starch

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    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-12-01

    s amylograph for this starch showed a maximum viscosity of 164.67±1.30 RVU and breakdown viscosity of 45.79±2.06 RVU. The infrared spectrum of the residual starch was typical of native barley starch and similar to isolated starch from corn, wheat and cassava. According to the scanning electron micrographs fraction of starch, it was possible to see a mixture of large lenticular granules with an average diameter of 19.15µm and small spherically shaped ones, with 4.78µm. The characteristics showed by the residual starch from barley´s β-glucan extraction, suggest a possible application in the food industry.