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Sample records for amylase

  1. Amylase Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades, Adarelys; Contreras, Lellys M

    2017-01-01

    Amylase zymography was carried out for the detection of amylases produced by a Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain isolated from the Thermal Center "Las Trincheras" in Venezuela. Zymography is an electrophoretic technique used to study hydrolases by means of thin gels containing copolymerized-specific substrates, under nonreducing conditions. In this study, 0.1% starch was incorporated into the gel as substrate. The formation of clear zones against a dark background in the gel stained with iodine indicated the presence of amylolytic activity. The thermophilic bacteria released several extracellular amylases to a selective growth medium supplemented with 1% soluble starch at 55 °C after 40 h incubation. The amylolytic enzymes showed an optimum temperature of 60 °C and an optimum pH at 6.0. The amylases were partially purified by cold acetone precipitation followed by two chromatographic techniques. These purified amylases showed different molecular masses which were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and confirmed by zymography.

  2. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  3. Potency of Amylase-producing Bacteria and Optimization Amylase Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriati, G.; Megahati, R. R. P.; Rosba, E.

    2018-04-01

    Enzymes are capable to act as biocatalyst for a wide variety of chemical reactions. Amylase have potential biotechnological applications in a wide range of industrial processes and account for nearly 30% of the world’s enzyme market. Amylase are extracellular enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of internal α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch to dextrin, and other small carbohydrate molecules constituted of glucose units. Although enzymes are produced from animal and plant sources, the microbial sources are generally the most suitable for commercial applications. Bacteria from hot springs is widely used as a source of various enzymes, such as amylase. But the amount of amylase-producing bacteria is still very limited. Therefore it is necessary to search sources of amylase-producing bacteria new, such as from hot springs Pariangan. The purpose of this study was to isolation of amylase-producing bacteria from Pariangan hot spring, West Sumatera and amylase activity optimization. The results were obtained 12 isolates of thermophilic bacteria and 5 isolates of amyalse-producing bacteria with the largest amylolytic index of 3.38 mm. The highest amylase activity was obtained at 50°C and pH 7.5.

  4. Amylase Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/amylasetest.html Amylase Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Amylase Test? An amylase test measures the amount of amylase ...

  5. amylase from cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... The enzyme was stable up to 55°C and its pH stability was in range of 5.6 - 6.6. .... acrylamide gel and by gel filtration chromatography. Gel filtration .... Activity at 55 °C. Figure 8. Thermic inactivation at 37°C and 55°C of Periplaneta americana α-amylase. Thermal stability of the enzyme was followed for 1 h.

  6. Halophilic Amylase from a Moderately Halophilic Micrococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiroshi

    1972-01-01

    A moderately halophilic Micrococcus sp., isolated from unrefined solar salt, produced a considerable amount of extracellular dextrinogenic amylase when cultivated aerobically in media containing 1 to 3 m NaCl. The Micrococcus amylase had maximal activity at pH 6 to 7 in 1.4 to 2 m NaCl or KCl at 50 C. Calcium ion and a high concentration of NaCl or KCl were essential for activity and stability of the amylase. The salt response of the amylase depended greatly on the pH and temperature of the enzyme assay. PMID:5058445

  7. Estimated environmental loads of alpha-amylase from transgenic high-amylase maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Karaman, Sule [Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Environmental exposure of plants bioengineered to improve efficiencies of biofuel production is an important consideration for their adoption. High-amylase maize genetically engineered to produce thermostable alpha-amylase in seed endosperm is currently in development, and its successful adoption will entail >1000 km{sup 2} of annual production in the USA. Environmental exposure of thermostable amylase will occur in production fields from preharvest and harvest dropped grain, with minor additional contributions from stover and root biomass. Mass loadings of thermostable alpha-amylase are projected to be 16 kg km{sup -2} and represent a potential source of increased alpha-amylase activity in receiving soils. An understanding of the degradation, persistence, accumulation, and activity of thermostable alpha-amylase introduced from transgenic high-amylase maize will be necessary in order to effectively manage transgenic crop systems intended or biofeedstock production. (author)

  8. Activity of secreted amylases in Aspergillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocheva, S.S.; Kurnitskaya, L.N.

    1981-01-01

    When A. oryzae was cultivated in a synthetic liquid medium containing maltose as a sole source of C, the activity of extracellular amylase was 8.43-11.92 units/100 mL. Addition of 1.0% and 2.0% NaCl to the medium increased the amylase activity approximately 5- and 10-fold, respectively.

  9. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Anbu, Periasamy; Arshad, M K Md; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Voon, Chun Hong; Hashim, Uda; Chinni, Suresh V

    2017-01-01

    Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  10. Biotechnological Processes in Microbial Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash C. B. Gopinath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.

  11. Production of amylases by Aspergillus tamarii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Fabiana Guillen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Aspergillus tamarii, a filamentous fungus isolated from soil, was able to produce both a-amylase and glucoamylase activities in mineral media supplemented with 1% (w/v starch or maltose as the carbon source. Static cultivation led to significantly higher yields than those obtained using shaking culture. The production of amylases was tolerant to a wide range of initial culture pH values (from 4 to 10 and temperature (from 25 to 42oC. Two amylases, one a-amylase and one glucoamylase, were separated by ion exchange chromatography. Both partially purified enzymes had optimal activities at pH values between 4.5 and 6.0 and were stable under acid conditions (pH 4.0-7.0. The enzymes exhibited optimal activities at temperatures between 50o and 60o C and were stable for more than ten hours at 55oC.

  12. Optimisation of amylase and xylanase addition in dependance of white flour amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Davor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different quantities of added amylase to white wheat flours characterized with different activities of naturally existing amylases is tested. Response surface methodology is chosen to test the effects of main applied technological parameters on bread quality responses. Independent variables are chosen to be: quantity of added amylase and bulk fermentation time, while analysed responses are: specific volume, grain structure, bulk fermentation. Bread quality responses are statistically significant, while predicted and observed responses correspond very well, which allows good prediction of bread quality parameters based on applied technological parameters and flour characteristics. Score analysis shows that optimum quantity of amylase addition regarding bread quality depends on the activity of naturally existing amylases. Optimal quantity of added xylanase in bread samples made from both flour types is 0.004%. Xylanase improved properties of white wheat bread and higher effect is experienced with flour that has more active naturally existing amylases. Addition of amylase has statistically significantly increased a* values of crust. Addition of xylanase has statistically significantly decreased values of b* in comparison to the respective bread sample with only added amylase.

  13. Improved production, purification and some properties of α-amylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-04

    Oct 4, 2012 ... nology industries with many potential applications in food, fermentation, textile and .... Large scale production of α-amylase enzyme in a laboratory fermentor ..... induction on amylase production and low cost (Li et al.,. 2010).

  14. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  15. Factors influencing beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taylor, JRN

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available isozyme of pI approximately 4.4-4.5, unlike the many isozymes all of higher pI in barley. However, like barley, sorghum beta-amylase was more temperature-labile than its alpha-amylase. Beta-amylase activity in sorghum malt was increased by germination time...

  16. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... as Bacillus macerans, Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis. Heat treatment at 70oC denatured the β-amylase component of the amylase source while α-amylase retained its potency at this temperature. Calcium.

  17. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  18. Production of α-amylase from some thermophilic Aspergillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, thermostable amylase activities of some thermophilic Aspergillus species were evaluated. The suitable medium and microorganisms for α-amylase synthesis were selected. Subsequently, the α-amylase activity of the microorganism was researched. In the measurements made on the 7th day of production on ...

  19. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  20. Blood amylase - a biochemical radiation indicator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, R.; Hendriks, W.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    This study describes the suitability of the biological radiation indicator 'amylase in human blood serum' to identify, if previous irradiation has occurred. After 'in vivo' exposure, of the human body with organ doses > 0,5 Gy, high activities of the enzyme are found in serum. The important results of examinations from different work groups and from own experiments were summarized in tabular form and evaluated from the statistic point of view. The results show that in more than 90% of all cases, the amylase system is suitable to identify exposure beyond 0,5 to 1 Gy, approximately. However, this is only possible if the salivary glands were also exposed and blood samples are taken about 18 hours after exposure. For the differentiation between induced increase of amylase from disease and radiation induced increase, it is recommended to carry out the isoamylase test, which makes it possible to distinguish between the individual enzymes. The assessment of the total amylase is appropriate to detect, with a range of significance of P = 0,05 that radiation exposure has occurred. The increase of activity is dose dependent when the salivary glands lie in the radiation field, however, the variations of activity are very high. Therefore the radiation dose cannot be considered. Only in cases where a very high radiation induced increase of activity is observed, a rough estimation of dose at the parotid glands can be made. (orig./MG) [de

  1. [Amylase production by Aureobasidium pullulans in liquid and solid media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, P B; Forchiassin, F; Segovia de Huergo, M B

    1997-01-01

    Amylase production by a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated in the laboratory was evaluated in liquid media (complex and synthetic) and in solid medium (wheat bran). There was an inhibitory effect in amylase production or amylase secretion by glucose. Asparagine was the best nitrogen source for amylase production (4-6 g/l). Only chlamidospores and melanin but not, amylase activity, were obtained with ammonium sulfate. Amylase production in solid culture was higher than the production obtained in the liquid media assayed. Optimum initial moisture content in solid culture ranged between 57 and 74%. No difference was observed in amylase production between solid media inoculated with cells grown in liquid or solid media.

  2. Enhanced amylase production by fusarium solani in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, Y.; Jawhar, M.; Arabi, M.I.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the investigation carried out on the production of amylase by Fusarium species under solid state fermentation. All the tested Fusarium species were capable of producing amylase. A selected F. solani isolate SY7, showed the highest amylase production in solid state fermentation. Different substrates were screened for enzyme production. Among the several agronomic wastes, wheat bran supported the highest yield of amylase (141.18 U/g of dry substrate) after 3 days of incubation. Optimisation of the physical parameters revealed the optimum pH, temperature and moisture level for amylase production by the isolate as 8.0, 25 C and 70%, respectively. The above results indicate that the production of amylase by F. solani isolate SY7 could be improved by a further optimisation of the medium and culture conditions. (author)

  3. Purification and medium optimization of α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase was first time isolated and purified from Bacillus subtilis 168 (1A1). Purified α-amylase fraction showed a single protein band with a molecular weight of 55 kD. Chemical characterization of the purified α-amylase revealed optimum amylolytic activity at 37°C and pH 7.0 using starch as substrate. It was stable at pH ...

  4. Bottleneck in secretion of α-amylase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaomin; Wu, Guang

    2017-07-19

    Amylase plays an important role in biotechnology industries, and Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is a major host to produce heterogeneous α-amylases. However, the secretion stress limits the high yield of α-amylase in B. subtilis although huge efforts have been made to address this secretion bottleneck. In this question-oriented review, every effort is made to answer the following questions, which look simple but are long-standing, through reviewing of literature: (1) Does α-amylase need a specific and dedicated chaperone? (2) What signal sequence does CsaA recognize? (3) Does CsaA require ATP for its operation? (4) Does an unfolded α-amylase is less soluble than a folded one? (5) Does α-amylase aggregate before transporting through Sec secretion system? (6) Is α-amylase sufficient stable to prevent itself from misfolding? (7) Does α-amylase need more disulfide bonds to be stabilized? (8) Which secretion system does PrsA pass through? (9) Is PrsA ATP-dependent? (10) Is PrsA reused after folding of α-amylase? (11) What is the fate of PrsA? (12) Is trigger factor (TF) ATP-dependent? The literature review suggests that not only the most of those questions are still open to answers but also it is necessary to calculate ATP budget in order to better understand how B. subtilis uses its energy for production and secretion.

  5. Purification and Characterization of α-Amylase from Waste Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Irshad

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the α-amylase for industrial perspective. The production of α-amylase through solid-state fermentation by Ganoderma tsuage was investigated by using waste bread as substrates. Production parameters were optimized as 2 mL of inoculum size,.

  6. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 70 0C respectively, and the thermal stability curve gave a maximum activity of 9.75 U at 70oC for 60 min of incubation. Bacillus subtilis â-amylase is valuable for maltose production, which can be hydrolyzed further by other groups of amylase for the production of high cassava glucose syrup used as sweeteners in the food ...

  7. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  8. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  9. Expression and characterization of α-Amylases from penicillium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to enhance the industrial production of α-amylases in the tropics, sterile fresh bread was inoculated with spore suspensions of Penicillium citrinum at 25 oC. Extracellular α-amylases were produced and subjected to partial purification by ammonium sulphate precipitation and dialysis. Further purification by gel ...

  10. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  11. Purification and characterization of α-amylase from Ganoderma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to purify and characterize the α-amylase for industrial perspective. The production of α-amylase through solid-state fermentation by Ganoderma tsuage was investigated by using waste bread as substrates. Production parameters were optimized as 2 mL of inoculum size, moisture 50%, ...

  12. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; de Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2010-10-01

    Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  13. Nitrogen supplements effect on amylase production by Aspergillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The production of amylase by Aspergillus niger on three cassava whey media in liquid shake culture was compared. The supplemented cassava whey (SCW) medium exhibited gave amylase activity of 495 U/ml. Biomass cropped was 1.63 g/l in the SCW medium. Yeast extract employed as a nitrogen supplement increased ...

  14. Microbial amylases in the production of alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, H J

    1970-01-01

    This book is based on experiments carried out in the experimental distillery of the University of Hohenheim on the use of microbial enzyme preparations for processing wheat and maize, with particular reference to comparison of green and cured malts. The subject is divided into the following chapters: introduction (pp. -14); raw materials (pp. 5-6); enzymic dextrinizing and saccharification agents (pp. 6-10); technology of alcohol production with microbial amylses (pp. 11-27); experiments into, results of and discussion on special problems of the mashing and fermentation process with reference to application of microbial amylases (pp. 28-45); Analytical methods (pp. 46-51); and Resume (pp. 5254).

  15. Activity and storage of commercial amylases in the 2013 Louisiana grinding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A current problem in the application of amylases at sugarcane factories is the existence of a wide variation in the activities and activity per unit cost of commercial amylases. The efficiency of amylase action to break down starch in the factory is related to the activity of the amylase used. Until...

  16. Kinetics of alpha-amylase secretion in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anne Laurence Santerre; Carlsen, Morten; Bang de, H.

    1999-01-01

    -chase experiments were carried out to investigate the alpha-amylase secretion kinetics in A. oryzae. No unglycosylated alpha-amylase was detected neither intracellularly nor extracellularly demonstrating that glycosylation was not the rate controlling step in the secretory pathway. The pulse chase experiments...... indicated that there are two pools of intracellular alpha-amylase: a fast secreted and a slow secreted. The secretion of those two pools were described with a kinetic model, which was fitted to the pulse chase experiments. (C) 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 65: 76-82, 1999....

  17. Oligosaccharide binding to barley alpha-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, X.; Haser, R.; Mori, H.

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic subsite mapping earlier predicted 10 binding subsites in the active site substrate binding cleft of barley alpha-amylase isozymes. The three-dimensional structures of the oligosaccharide complexes with barley alpha-amylase isozyme 1 (AMY1) described here give for the first time a thorough...... in barley alpha-amylase isozyme 2 (AMY2), and the sugar binding modes are compared between the two isozymes. The "sugar tongs" surface binding site discovered in the AMY1-thio-DP4 complex is confirmed in the present work. A site that putatively serves as an entrance for the substrate to the active site...

  18. Adsorption of amylase enzyme on ultrafiltration membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Enevoldsen, Ann Dorrit; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    A method to measure the static adsorption on membrane surfaces has been developed and described. The static adsorption of an amylase-F has been measured on two different ultrafiltration membranes, both with a cut-off value of 10 kDa (a PES membrane and the ETNA10PP membrane, which is a surface......-modified PVDF membrane). The adsorption follows the Langmuir adsorption theory. Thus, the static adsorption consists of monolayer coverage. The static adsorption is expressed both as a permeability drop and an adsorption resistance. From the adsorption isotherms the maximum static permeability drops...... and the maximum static adsorption resistances are determined. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophobic PES membrane is 75 % and the maximum static adsorption resistance is 0.014 m2hbar/L. The maximum static permeability drop for the hydrophilic surface-modified PVDF membrane (ETNA10PP) is 23...

  19. Amylase activity of a starch degrading bacteria isolated from soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Key words: Amylase, Bacillus, kitchen waste, starch degrading. INTRODUCTION ... several sources such as plant, animal and microbes. (Kathiresan .... Test. Response of the strain. Gram's staining. +. Shape. Bacilli. Motility. +.

  20. Comparative Studies on the Amylase and Cellulase Production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    from different sources and examined for their ability to produce cellulase and amylase. Ten fungal ... microorganisms for enzymes and, eventually, also secondary metabolites with anti-microbial or ... polymer i.e. cellulose to smaller sugar.

  1. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... Addition of exogenous glucose repressed secretion of amylase, demonstrating that a classical glucose effect ... Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch is carried out under tem- ... thermal springs at Arbaminch, Awassa, Nazreth, Shalla.

  2. An Amylase-Responsive Bolaform Supra-Amphiphile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yuetong; Cai, Zhengguo; Tang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Kai; Wang, Guangtong; Zhang, Xi

    2016-02-01

    An amylase-responsive bolaform supra-amphiphile was constructed by the complexation between β-cyclodextrin and a bolaform covalent amphiphile on the basis of host-guest interaction. The bolaform covalent amphiphile could self-assemble in solution, forming sheet-like aggregates and displaying weak fluorescence because of aggregation-induced quenching. The addition of β-cyclodextrin led to the formation of the bolaform supra-amphiphile, prohibiting the aggregation of the bolaform covalent amphiphile and accompanying with the significant recovery of fluorescence. Upon the addition of α-amylase, with the degradation β-cyclodextrin, the fluorescence of the supra-amphiphile would quench gradually and significantly, and the quenching rate linearly correlated to the concentration of α-amylase. This study enriches the field of supra-amphiphiles on the basis of noncovalent interactions, and moreover, it may provide a facile way to estimate the activity of α-amylase.

  3. Thermal stability of α-amylase in aqueous cosolvent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    The activity and thermal stability of α-amylase were studied in the presence of different concentrations of ... 2.1 Materials ..... unfavourable free energy of transfer of amino acid side ..... folded protein with a hydrophobic dye: evidence that molten.

  4. Thermal stability of α-amylase in aqueous cosolvent systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Department of Protein Chemistry and Technology, Central Food Technological Research ... Keywords. α-Amylase; cosolvents; preferential interaction parameters; thermal stability ...... simulations of trehalose as a 'dynamic reducer' for solvent.

  5. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125 I-labeled HSMSL or 125 I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [ 125 I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  7. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  8. THE DYNAMICS OF TOTAL AMYLASE\\'S ACTIVITY IN PANICUM MILIACEUM AND SETARIA GLAUCA DURING THE GERMINATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available : It was studied the dynamics of total amylase\\'s activity in millet (Panicum miliaceum and bristle grass (Setaria glauca during the germination period. The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld method, the results obtained being expressed in M maltose / g. In both millet and bristle grass, it was evidenced that both parameters taken into study (the species and the germination time do influence the enzymatic activity, although to a different extent.

  9. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  10. [Are amylases in bakery products and flour potential food allergens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Jansen, A; Czuppon, A B

    1994-05-21

    The enzyme alpha-amylase from the mould Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o II) routinely used for the production of bread, cakes and pastries has in recent years been identified as an inhalative allergen for occupational diseases (bakers' asthma). It is doubtful whether this amylase in the final product, i.e. after the baking procedure, can still be regarded as an allergen. To clarify this question, detailed case histories on 138 subjects were recorded (98 allergics, 20 patients suffering form chronic intestinal diseases, 20 healthy controls). The clinical examinations included prick skin test and IgE antibody determination using one of the customary enzyme preparations. EAST showed a few of these 138 bread consumers to be weakly sensitized to the enzyme. One of the subjects displayed a significant reaction to alpha-amylase heated to 200 degrees C. As expected, eleven bakers sensitized to alpha-amylase by inhaling it in the workplace (positive prick test, positive case history) predominantly exhibited specific IgE antibodies to the native enzyme. Apart from one weakly positive finding, heated alpha-amylase yielded negative results in this collective. Baking conditions vary widely, especially with regard to single components, temperature and duration. Thus, further investigations as to residual allergenicity or the feasible occurrence of new antigenic determinants during the production of bread, cake and pastries are required. 27% of bakers examined and 9% of atopics showed antibodies to a flour inherent enzyme, a beta-amylase. On the whole, the selected conditions hinted at a weakly sensitizing potential inherent in baking flour and in added amylase.

  11. Lipase or amylase for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ola Z; Bhayana, Vipin

    2017-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rapid onset of inflammation of the pancreas causing mild to severe life threatening conditions [1, 2]. In Canada, acute pancreatitis is the 5th most expensive digestive disease in Canada with a considerable economic burden on the health care system [3]. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is usually based on the presence of abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase and/or lipase. Many health care centers use either serum amylase, lipase or both to diagnose acute pancreatitis without considering which one could provide a better diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this review is to investigate whether serum lipase alone is a sufficient biomarker for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. We have examined various studies looking at the utilization, sensitivity, specificity and cost associated savings of lipase and amylase in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. When comparing different studies, serum lipase offers a higher sensitivity than serum amylase in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Lipase also offers a larger diagnostic window than amylase since it is elevated for a longer time, thus allowing it to be a useful diagnostic biomarker in early and late stages of acute pancreatitis. Several recent evidence-based guidelines recommend the use of lipase over amylase. Nevertheless, both lipase and amylase alone lack the ability to determine the severity and etiology of acute pancreatitis. The co-ordering of both tests has shown little to no increase in the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Thus, unnecessary testing and laboratory expenditures can be reduced by testing lipase alone. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transglycosylation by barley α-amylase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mótyán, János A.; Fazekas, Erika; Mori, Haruhide

    2011-01-01

    The transglycosylation activity of barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K/S48G and V47G/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids...... play important role in substrate binding at subsites at −3 through −5. Although mutation increases the transglycosylation activity of enzymes, in the presence of acceptors the difference between wild type and mutants is not so significant. Oligomer transfer reactions of AMY1 wild type and its mutants...... as donor. 4-Methylumbelliferyl-α-d-maltoside, -maltotrioside, -maltotetraoside and -maltopentaoside have been synthesized. Products were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that AMY1 V47F preserved the stereo- and regioselectivity. The produced MU-α-d-MOSs of degree of polymerization...

  13. Importance of amylases for physiological quality in maize seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aparecida Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed quality is the result of the sum of genetic, physical, physiological and sanitary attributes that affect seed ability to perform vital functions related to germination, vigor, and longevity. The expression of genes associated with physiological quality can be assessed by means of germination and vigor analyses, as well as by transcript and protein analyses. The objective in this work was to review the relevance of amylase group enzymes to the physiological quality of maize seeds. Within this group, α-amylase (1,4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase E.C 3.2.1.1 plays an important role in starch hydrolysis, and is responsible for 90% of the amylolytic activity in maize seeds. It is responsible for starch conversion into sugars (e.g., destrin, which is used for embryo growth. β-amylase (1,4-α-D-glucan maltohydrolase E.C 3.2.1.2 catalyzes the release of maltose and dextrins from the non-reducing ends of starch. Research has shown that amylase enzymes are directly linked to physiological quality of maize seeds. Alpha- and beta-amylases are mainly involved in the germination process and seed heterosis, and can also be used as molecular markers associated with seed tolerance for drying.

  14. Alpha-amylase from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, E. C. M. J.; Pusey, M. L.; Ng, M. L.; Garriott, O. K.

    2003-01-01

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in, from an anthropocentric view, extreme environments such as hot springs. The ability of survival at extreme conditions has rendered enzymes from extremophiles to be of interest in industrial applications. One approach to producing these extremozymes entails the expression of the enzyme-encoding gene in a mesophilic host such as E.coli. This method has been employed in the effort to produce an alpha-amylase from a hyperthermophile (an organism that displays optimal growth above 80 C) isolated from a hydrothermal vent at the Rainbow vent site in the Atlantic Ocean. alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to produce smaller sugars and constitute a class of industrial enzymes having approximately 25% of the enzyme market. One application for thermostable alpha-amylases is the starch liquefaction process in which starch is converted into fructose and glucose syrups. The a-amylase encoding gene from the hyperthermophile Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and sequenced, revealing high similarity with other archaeal hyperthermophilic a-amylases. The gene encoding the mature protein was expressed in E.coli. Initial characterization of this enzyme has revealed an optimal amylolytic activity between 85-90 C and around pH 5.3-6.0.

  15. Zinc oxide nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhobale, Sandip; Thite, Trupti; Laware, S. L.; Rode, C. V.; Koppikar, Soumya J.; Ghanekar, Ruchika-Kaul; Kale, S. N.

    2008-11-01

    Amylase inhibitors, also known as starch blockers, contain substances that prevent dietary starches from being absorbed by the body via inhibiting breakdown of complex sugars to simpler ones. In this sense, these materials are projected as having potential applications in diabetes control. In this context, we report on zinc oxide nanoparticles as possible alpha-amylase inhibitors. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using soft-chemistry approach and 1-thioglycerol was used as a surfactant to yield polycrystalline nanoparticles of size ˜18 nm, stabilized in wurtzite structure. Conjugation study and structural characterization have been done using x-ray diffraction technique, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity studies on human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) and skin carcinoma (A-431) cell lines as well as mouse primary fibroblast cells demonstrate that up to a dose of 20 μg/ml, ZnO nanoparticles are nontoxic to the cells. We report for the first time the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of ZnO nanoparticles wherein an optimum dose of 20 μg/ml was sufficient to exhibit 49% glucose inhibition at neutral pH and 35 °C temperature. This inhibitory activity was similar to that obtained with acarbose (a standard alpha-amylase inhibitor), thereby projecting ZnO nanoparticles as novel alpha-amylase inhibitors.

  16. Acquired amylase production induced by radiotherapy in a myeloma patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakawa, Tamami; Nagoshi, Haruhisa; Takahashi, Atushi [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A 55-year-old patient with multiple myeloma (IgG-{lambda}) diagnosed in November 1988 was admitted because of bone pain throughout the body. After plasmapheresis and several courses of chemotherapy, a massive tumor of the left thoracic wall involving the rib appeared. Radiotherapy was performed to ameliorate the severe chest pain, after which myelomatous pleural effusion appeared on the left side. The serum, urine and pleural effusion revealed increased activity of amylase of the salivary type. Amylase activity was also detected in the supernatant of myeloma cells cultured from pleural effusion. We reviewed 12 cases of ectopic amylase-producing multiple myeloma. All the cases except one have been reported from Japan, and hyperamylasemia in these cases was detected at diagnosis or during course of the illness. Moreover, cytogenetic analysis of myeloma cells of previous reports revealed structural abnormalities including chromosome 1, near the amylase gene locus. This case also showed t (1; 10) (q21?; q26) by examination of 8 metaphase derived from bone marrow. These observations suggested that ectopic amylase production was induced by irradiation to the plasmacytoma of thoracic wall. (author).

  17. Salivary Alpha-Amylase Correlates with Subjective Heat Pain Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Amrei; Krummenacher, Peter; La Marca, Roberto; Ehlert, Ulrike; Folkers, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Self-reports of pain are important for an adequate therapy. This is a problem with patients and infants who are restricted in providing an accurate verbal estimation of their pain. Reliable, real-time, economical, and non-invasive physiological correlates might contribute to a more comprehensive description of pain. Salivary alpha-amylase constitutes one candidate biomarker, which reflects predominantly sympathetic nervous system alterations under stressful conditions and can be measured non-invasively. The current study investigated the effects of acute heat pain on salivary alpha-amylase activity. Heat pain tolerance was measured on the non-dominant forearm. Participants completed visual analog scales on pain intensity and unpleasantness. Saliva samples were collected directly after pain induction. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. While salivary alpha-amylase levels correlated positively with intensity and unpleasantness ratings in response to acute heat pain stimuli, there was no corresponding association with pain tolerance. Salivary alpha-amylase is suggested to be an indirect physiologic correlate of subjective heat pain perception. Future studies should address the role of salivary alpha-amylase depending on the origin of pain, the concerned tissue, and other pain assessment methods. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Acquired amylase production induced by radiotherapy in a myeloma patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Tamami; Nagoshi, Haruhisa; Takahashi, Atushi

    1995-01-01

    A 55-year-old patient with multiple myeloma (IgG-λ) diagnosed in November 1988 was admitted because of bone pain throughout the body. After plasmapheresis and several courses of chemotherapy, a massive tumor of the left thoracic wall involving the rib appeared. Radiotherapy was performed to ameliorate the severe chest pain, after which myelomatous pleural effusion appeared on the left side. The serum, urine and pleural effusion revealed increased activity of amylase of the salivary type. Amylase activity was also detected in the supernatant of myeloma cells cultured from pleural effusion. We reviewed 12 cases of ectopic amylase-producing multiple myeloma. All the cases except one have been reported from Japan, and hyperamylasemia in these cases was detected at diagnosis or during course of the illness. Moreover, cytogenetic analysis of myeloma cells of previous reports revealed structural abnormalities including chromosome 1, near the amylase gene locus. This case also showed t (1; 10) (q21?; q26) by examination of 8 metaphase derived from bone marrow. These observations suggested that ectopic amylase production was induced by irradiation to the plasmacytoma of thoracic wall. (author)

  19. Improvement of heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae by RNA interference with alpha-amylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Takashi; Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 has three alpha-amylase genes (amyA, amyB, and amyC), and secretes alpha-amylase abundantly. However, large amounts of endogenous secretory proteins such as alpha-amylase can compete with heterologous protein in the secretory pathway and decrease its production yields. In this study, we examined the effects of suppression of alpha-amylase on heterologous protein production in A. oryzae, using the bovine chymosin (CHY) as a reporter heterologous protein. The three alpha-amylase genes in A. oryzae have nearly identical DNA sequences from those promoters to the coding regions. Hence we performed silencing of alpha-amylase genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in the A. oryzae CHY producing strain. The silenced strains exhibited a reduction in alpha-amylase activity and an increase in CHY production in the culture medium. This result suggests that suppression of alpha-amylase is effective in heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  20. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.; Heederik, D.; Doekes, G.; Venables, K. M.; Newman, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...

  1. Culture medium for amylase production by toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueira Edson Luiz Zangrando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycelial growth and amylase production by a mycotoxigenic strain of Fusarium moniliforme and Aspergillus flavus were evaluated in a culture medium containing starch, glycerol, wheat bran or corn. With emphasis on corn, different fractions composed by germ, degermed seed, starch, milky stage corn and the respective starch or supernatant fraction were analyzed for F. moniliforme growth . The medium composed of milky stage corn supernatant promoted the best mycelial growth (p<0.05, and it was used to prepare amylase production medium in the next step. The medium composed with 2% ground corn in milky stage corn supernatant (350g of milky stage corn blended with 250mL water and centrifuged promoted the highest amylase production, which was at the 10th day of fermentation, both for F. moniliforme (42.32U/mL and A. flavus (4,745.54U/mL.

  2. The role of α-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary α-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added α-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  3. The role of alpha-amylase in the perception of oral texture and flavour in custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Engelen, L.; Weenen, H.

    2004-01-01

    The role of salivary a-amylase in odour, flavour, and oral texture sensations was investigated in two studies in which the activity of salivary amylase present in the mouth of human subjects was either increased by presenting custards with added alpha-amylase or decreased by presenting custards with

  4. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture...

  5. Evaluation of commercial a-amylase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assy (ELISA) test kits for wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    a-Amylase enzyme is associated with preharvest sprouting (PHS) and late-maturity a amylase (LMA) in wheat, and reduces wheat and flour quality. Various means have been developed to measure the presence of a-amylase, thereby predicting end-use quality; most are based on enzyme activity. An alternativ...

  6. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  7. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors....

  8. Characterization of a new cell-bound alpha-amylase in Bacillus subtilis 168 Marburg that is only immunologically related to the exocellular alpha-amylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Haddaoui, E; Petit-Glatron, M F; Chambert, R

    1995-01-01

    Immunoblot analysis of Bacillus subtilis cell extracts with polyclonal antibodies, raised against purified exocellular alpha-amylase, revealed one protein species of 82,000 Da. This protein was found even in cells in which the amyE gene, encoding exocellular alpha-amylase, was disrupted. Isolated from the membrane fraction, the 82,000-M(r) protein displayed an alpha-amylase activity in vitro.

  9. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate...... in the cc-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass....

  10. α-Amylase production by Penicillium fellutanum isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... products obtained by starch hydrolysis. Since this natural isolate produced low concentration of amylase, attempts were made to increase the productivity by optimizing the cultural conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Microorganism. The fungus, Penicillium fellutanum Biourge., was isolated from.

  11. Calcium-induced stabilization of -amylase against guanidine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation of native and Ca- depleted Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) was investigated both in the absence and presence of 2 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and biological activity. In both states (Cadepleted and native form), ...

  12. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... by its ability to gradually decrease the concentration of the starch solution used as substrate. The optimum ... synthesized during seed germination to mobilize stored food (starch .... basic property of all enzymes and is probably due to concomitant ... Use of potato starch as substrate for β-amylase by Bacillus ...

  13. Biochemical characterization of digestive amylase of wheat bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... ... Boyd et al., 2002). Wheat bug also feeds on different stage of developing grains. ... the grain during feeding, Wheat bug enzymes degrade gluten proteins and cause rapid relaxation of dough resulting in the production of .... A blank without substrate but with α-amylase extract and a control containing no ...

  14. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  15. Amylase catalyzed synthesis of glycosyl acrylates and their polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Wouter M.J.; Jovanovic, Danijela; Brouwer, Sander; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The enzymatic synthesis of novel (di)saccharide acrylates from starch and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybutyl acrylate (2-HEA, 2-HEMA and 4-HBA) catalyzed by various commercially available amylase preparations is demonstrated. Both liquefaction and

  16. Interaction of europium and curium with alpha-amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements; Heller, Anne [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. for Zoology, Molecular Cell Physiology and Endocrinology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry

    2016-07-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) revealed that Eu(III) and Cm(III) form two dominant species with the protein α-amylase (Amy): one with the coordination of a single carboxylate group of the protein and the other with three coordinating carboxylate groups.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, C.M.; van den Brink, R.L.; Nieuwenhuis, S.; Bosch, J.A.

    It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy

  18. Production and properties of alpha-amylase from Citrobacter species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebuta N. Etim-Osowo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from potato was optimized in batch culture studies under shake flask conditions. Effects and interactions of best sources and levels of carbon and nitrogen estimated by 4 x 5 and 4 x 4 factorial experimental arrangements were significant (P < 0.01 on amylase production. Optimal alpha-amylase yield was obtained in a medium containing sorghum flour (2.0 % w/v and a mixture of (NH42SO4 + soybean meal (1.5% w/v with an initial medium pH of 8.0. Under optimum conditions, amylase yield was maximal (0.499 U/ml after 60h incubation at room temperature (28oC ± 2oC. Characterization studies showed that the enzyme had maximum activity at 60oC, retained 100% of its original activities at 60oC for 2h, was maximally active at pH 7.0 and retained 100% of original activities at pH 9.0 for 2h. Enzyme activity was stimulated by urea, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+ but inhibited by Hg2+.

  19. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, D F; Carvalho, A F U; Oliveira, C C; Sousa, N M; Rocha-Bezerrra, L C B; Ferreira, P M P; Lima, G P G; Hissa, D C

    2010-05-01

    A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 A degrees C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing alpha-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale alpha-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1) in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  20. Production of extracellular amylase from agricultural residues by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-09

    Aug 9, 2010 ... parameter optimized in one experiment was maintained at its optimum level in further experiments. Enzyme extraction. Alpha amylase was extracted from SSF medium by a simple contact method (Ramesh and Lonsane, 1990). After specified incubation time in each case, 100 ml of sodium phosphate buffer.

  1. Determination of kinetic parameters of α-amylase producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... Bernfeld P (1955). Amylases alpha and beta. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 140-146. Brigidi P, González-Vera A, Rossi M (1997). Study of stability of recombinant plasmids during the continuous culture of Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB3621 in nonselective medium. Biotechnol.

  2. Secretory expression of Rhizopus oryzae α-amylase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kluyveromyces lactis is a non-conventional yeast species extensively used in the expression of heterologous genes. In this study, a genetically modified K. lactis with high-level expression of α- amylase from Rhizopus oryzae was obtained, which could successfully hydrolyze and use starch for growth very well. Shake flask ...

  3. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Farias

    Full Text Available A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of enzyme activities and the area of clear zones was obtained. The method was validated by testing α-amylase from barley at the concentrations of 2.4; 60; 300 and 1,500 U.mL-1. The proposed method turned out to be simpler, faster, less expensive and able to determine on a macro-scale α-amylase over a wide range (2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1 in scientific investigation as well as in teaching laboratory activities.

  4. Activity and cellular localization of amylases of rabbit cecal bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotek, Kamil; Marounek, Milan; Suchorská, O.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 309-312 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 848.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : amylases Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  5. Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid extracts on porcine pancreatic amylase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Patrick P; Shetty, Kalidas

    2004-01-01

    Porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) was allowed to react with herbal extracts containing rosmarinic acid (RA) and purified RA. The derivatized enzyme-phytochemical mixtures obtained were characterized for residual amylase activity. These in vitro experiments showed that the amylase activity was inhibited in the presence of these phytochemicals. The extent of amylase inhibition correlated with increased concentration of RA. RA-containing oregano extracts yielded higher than expected amylase inhibition than similar amount of purified RA, suggesting that other phenolic compounds or phenolic synergies may contribute to additional amylase inhibitory activity. The significance of food-grade, plant-based amylase inhibitors for modulation of diabetes mellitus and other oxidation-linked diseases is hypothesized and discussed.

  6. A comparative immunohistochemical study on amylase localization in the rat and human exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughsteen, Adib A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective was to localize amylase enzyme immunohistochemically in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using polyclonal sheep anti-human amylase antibody, and to compare between the intensities of their amylase-immunostaining. Indirect immunofluorescence method was applied on formaldehyde-fixed, and paraffin-embedded pancreatic sections obtained from adult male Wistar rats and autopsied human samples. Primary incubation was performed using sheep anti-amylase antibody followed by secondary incubation with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rabbit anti-sheep IgG serum. Control tests of amylase immunospecificity were also undertaken either by incubation with primary antibodies previously pre-adsorbed with an excess of human pancreatic amylase, or only with secondary antibodies. The amylase immunofluorescence was positively and homogenously detected in all acinar cells of both rat and human pancreatic stained sections. The immunostaining was clearly demonstrated in the cell apices and peri-nuclear areas, but it was consistently brighter and more intense in the human acinar cells compared with that of the rat pancreas. Control tests of amylase immunofluorescence revealed the specificity of the antibodies applied for amylase localization in rat and human pancreas. Although many previous immunohisto- and cytochemical reports have successfully localized amylase in the pancreas of different mammalian species, but all of them have used locally prepared anti-amylase antibodies. The present report successfully illustrates immuno-localization of amylase in the pancreatic acinar cells of rats and humans using commercial polyclonal sheep anti-human pancreatic amylase antibodies, and also suggests their useful application in the immunochemical studies on various mammalian species. Additionally, the results indicate a structural similarity between the human and rat pancreatic amylases, a concept required further exploration. (author)

  7. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of an α-amylase family from Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junying Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: α-Amylase is widely used in the starch processing, food and paper industries, hydrolyzing starch, glycogen and other polysaccharides into glucose, maltose and oligosaccharides. An α-amylase gene family from Aspergillus niger CBS513.88 encode eight putative α-amylases. The differences and similarities, biochemical properties and functional diversity among these eight α-amylases remain unknown. Results: The eight genes were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 by shaking-flask fermentation under the induction of methanol. The sequence alignment, biochemical characterizations and product analysis of starch hydrolysis by these α-amylases were investigated. It is found that the eight α-amylases belonged to three different groups with the typical structure of fungal α-amylase. They exhibited maximal activities at 30–40°C except AmyG and were all stable at acidic pH. Ca2+ and EDTA had no effects on the activities of α-amylases except AmyF and AmyH, indicating that the six amylases were Ca2+ independent. Two novel α-amylases of AmyE and AmyF were found. AmyE hydrolyzed starch into maltose, maltotriose and a small amount of glucose, while AmyF hydrolyzed starch into mainly glucose. The excellent physical and chemical properties including high acidic stability, Ca2+-independent and high maltotriose-forming capacity make AmyE suitable in food and sugar syrup industries. Conclusions: This study illustrates that a gene family can encode multiple enzymes members having remarkable differences in biochemical properties. It provides not only new insights into evolution and functional divergence among different members of an α-amylase family, but the development of new enzymes for industrial application. Keywords: Biochemical properties, Food industry, Fungal α-amylase, Glycosyl hydrolase family, Glycosyl hydrolase family, Industrial application, Paper industry, Recombinant Pichia pastoris, Starch processing, α-amylase cloning

  8. Alpha-amylase inhibitor, CS-1036 binds to serum amylase in a concentration-dependent and saturable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomohiro; Kaneno-Urasaki, Yoko; Ito, Takashi; Kimura, Takako; Matsushima, Nobuko; Okabe, Hiromi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    (2R,3R,4R)-4-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)pyrrolidin-3-yl 4-O-(6-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (CS-1036), which is an α-amylase inhibitor, exhibited biphasic and sustained elimination with a long t1/2 (18.4-30.0 hours) in rats and monkeys, but exhibited a short t1/2 (3.7-7.9 hours) in humans. To clarify the species differences in the t1/2, the plasma protein binding of CS-1036 was evaluated by ultrafiltration. A concentration-dependent and saturable plasma protein binding of CS-1036 was observed in rats and monkeys with the dissociation rate constant (KD) of 8.95 and 27.2 nM, and maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 52.8 and 22.1 nM, respectively. By the assessments of the recombinant amylase and immunoprecipitation, the major binding protein of CS-1036 in rats was identified as salivary amylase (KD 5.64 nM). CS-1036 also showed concentration-dependent and saturable binding to human salivary and pancreatic amylase, with similar binding affinity in rats. However, the protein binding of CS-1036 was constant in human plasma (≤10.2%) due to the lower serum amylase level compared with rats and monkeys. From the calculation of the unbound fraction (fu) in plasma based on in vitro KD and Bmax, the dose-dependent increase in fu after oral administration is speculated to lead to a dose-dependent increase in total body clearance and a high area under the curve/dose at lower doses, such as 0.3 mg/kg in rats.

  9. Amylase Production from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. BCC 021-50 Isolated from a Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Ahmed Simair

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of fermentation media is one of the technical barriers in amylase production from microbial sources. Amylase is used in several industrial processes or industries, for example, in the food industry, the saccharification of starchy materials, and in the detergent and textile industry. In this study, marine microorganisms were isolated to identify unique amylase-producing microbes in starch agar medium. More than 50 bacterial strains with positive amylase activity, isolated from marine water and soil, were screened for amylase production in starch agar medium. Bacillus sp. BCC 021-50 was found to be the best amylase-producing strain in starch agar medium and under submerged fermentation conditions. Next, fermentation conditions were optimized for bacterial growth and enzyme production. The highest amylase concentration of 5211 U/mL was obtained after 36 h of incubation at 50 °C, pH 8.0, using 20 g/L molasses as an energy source and 10 g/L peptone as a nitrogen source. From an application perspective, crude amylase was characterized in terms of temperature and pH. Maximum amylase activity was noted at 70 °C and pH 7.50. However, our results show clear advantages for enzyme stability in alkaline pH, high-temperature, and stability in the presence of surfactant, oxidizing, and bleaching agents. This research contributes towards the development of an economical amylase production process using agro-industrial residues.

  10. Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

  11. Interaction of Salivary alpha-Amylase and Amylase-Binding-Protein A (AbpA of Streptococcus gordonii with Glucosyltransferase of S. gordonii and Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Jason M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs, enzymes that produce extracellular glucans from dietary sucrose, contribute to dental plaque formation by Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus mutans. The alpha-amylase-binding protein A (AbpA of S. gordonii, an early colonizing bacterium in dental plaque, interacts with salivary amylase and may influence dental plaque formation by this organism. We examined the interaction of amylase and recombinant AbpA (rAbpA, together with Gtfs of S. gordonii and S. mutans. Results The addition of salivary alpha-amylase to culture supernatants of S. gordonii precipitated a protein complex containing amylase, AbpA, amylase-binding protein B (AbpB, and the glucosyltransferase produced by S. gordonii (Gtf-G. rAbpA was expressed from an inducible plasmid, purified from Escherichia coli and characterized. Purified rAbpA, along with purified amylase, interacted with and precipitated Gtfs from culture supernatants of both S. gordonii and S. mutans. The presence of amylase and/or rAbpA increased both the sucrase and transferase component activities of S. mutans Gtf-B. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using anti-Gtf-B antibody verified the interaction of rAbpA and amylase with Gtf-B. A S. gordonii abpA-deficient mutant showed greater biofilm growth under static conditions than wild-type in the presence of sucrose. Interestingly, biofilm formation by every strain was inhibited in the presence of saliva. Conclusion The results suggest that an extracellular protein network of AbpA-amylase-Gtf may influence the ecology of oral biofilms, likely during initial phases of colonization.

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF ALPHA AMYLASE ON THE QUALITY OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CHEREJI

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the quality of bread obtained from the control sample flour (M and the quality of bread obtained from flour with addition of 3 different percentages of alpha amylase (P1-280000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour; P2-560000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour;P3-840000 U.SKB/ 100kg flour. Fungal alpha amylase was used in these concentrations in order to establish which one is the most suitable to be added in flour in order to obtain superior quality characteristics for bread: superior volume of bread, finer texture of the bread, prolonging the freshness of the bread, improving the color and flavor of the bread, improving the slicing proprieties of the bread.

  13. Stabilization of α-amylase by using anionic surfactant during the immobilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Atia, K.S.; Eid, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the entrapment of α-amylase into butylacrylate-acrylic acid copolymer (BuA/AAc) using γ irradiation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (AOT), the reuse efficiency, and kinetic behavior of immobilized α-amylase were studied. Covering of α-amylase with bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) made the enzyme more stable than the uncovered form. The hydrolytic activity of the pre-coated immobilized α-amylase was increased below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (10mmol/L). The results showed an increase in the relative activity with increase in the degree of hydration. The pre-coated immobilized α-amylase showed a higher k cat /K m and lower activation energy compared to the free and uncoated-immobilized preparation, respectively. The results suggest that the immobilization of α-amylase is a potentially useful approach for commercial starch hydrolysis in two-phase systems

  14. Complete starch hydrolysis by the synergistic action of amylase and glucoamylase: impact of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presečki, Ana Vrsalović; Blažević, Zvjezdana Findrik; Vasić-Rački, Durđa

    2013-11-01

    Starch hydrolysis was performed by the synergistic action of amylase and glucoamylase. For that purpose glucoamylase (Dextrozyme) and two amylases (Liquozyme and Termamyl) in different combinations were investigated. Experiments were carried out in the repetitive- and fed-batch modes at 65 °C and pH 5.5 with and without the addition of Ca(2+) ions. 100 % conversion of starch to glucose was achieved in batch experiments. Calcium ions significantly enhanced stability of the amylase Termamyl. The intensity of synergism between amylase Termamyl and glucoamylase Dextrozyme was higher than in the experiments carried out with amylase Liquozyme and Dextrozyme. Mathematical model of the complete reaction system was developed. Using the model, a possible explanation of the synergism between the amylase and glucoamylase was provided.

  15. Stabilization of {alpha}-amylase by using anionic surfactant during the immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Batal, A.I. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Atia, K.S. [Nuclear Research Center, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Abo-Zable, P.O. Box 13759, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: ks_atia@yahoo.com; Eid, M. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2005-10-01

    This work describes the entrapment of {alpha}-amylase into butylacrylate-acrylic acid copolymer (BuA/AAc) using {gamma} irradiation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (AOT), the reuse efficiency, and kinetic behavior of immobilized {alpha}-amylase were studied. Covering of {alpha}-amylase with bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) made the enzyme more stable than the uncovered form. The hydrolytic activity of the pre-coated immobilized {alpha}-amylase was increased below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (10mmol/L). The results showed an increase in the relative activity with increase in the degree of hydration. The pre-coated immobilized {alpha}-amylase showed a higher k{sub cat}/K{sub m} and lower activation energy compared to the free and uncoated-immobilized preparation, respectively. The results suggest that the immobilization of {alpha}-amylase is a potentially useful approach for commercial starch hydrolysis in two-phase systems.

  16. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimzadeh, Mahsa; Jahanshahi, Samaneh; Moein, Soheila; Moein, Mahmood Reza

    2014-06-01

    One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and 0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  17. Stabilization of α-amylase by using anionic surfactant during the immobilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batal, A. I.; Atia, K. S.; Eid, M.

    2005-10-01

    This work describes the entrapment of α-amylase into butylacrylate-acrylic acid copolymer (BuA/AAc) using γ irradiation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (AOT), the reuse efficiency, and kinetic behavior of immobilized α-amylase were studied. Covering of α-amylase with bis-(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT) made the enzyme more stable than the uncovered form. The hydrolytic activity of the pre-coated immobilized α-amylase was increased below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) (10 mmol/L). The results showed an increase in the relative activity with increase in the degree of hydration. The pre-coated immobilized α-amylase showed a higher k/K and lower activation energy compared to the free and uncoated-immobilized preparation, respectively. The results suggest that the immobilization of α-amylase is a potentially useful approach for commercial starch hydrolysis in two-phase systems.

  18. Isolation and characterization of α-amylase from marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The α-amylase of marine Pseudomonas sp. K6-28-040 was purified through a series of three steps and the purity of enzymes was checked by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that, the enzyme was purified 4.7-fold with a specific activity of 134.6 U/mg protein and a yield of 44% ...

  19. Growth and α-amylase production by strains of Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cassava starch medium was used to analyse the dynamics of batch growth and α-amylase production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from cassava dried chips. The strains displayed a growth of 0.5h-1 and 0.55 h-1, a biomass yield on cassava starch of 0.49g/g and 0.5g/g, a maximum ...

  20. Selective sweep on human amylase genes postdates the split with Neanderthals

    OpenAIRE

    Inchley, Charlotte E.; Larbey, Cynthia D. A.; Shwan, Nzar A. A.; Pagani, Luca; Saag, Lauri; Antão, Tiago; Jacobs, Guy; Hudjashov, Georgi; Metspalu, Ene; Mitt, Mario; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq

    2016-01-01

    Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number expansion occurred and whether its spread was enhanced by selection. Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. Analysis of genetic variation in these regions supports the model of an early sele...

  1. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A.

    1993-01-01

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author)

  2. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase p...

  3. Production and characterization of amylases from Zea mays malt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Paula Menezes Biazus

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the α and β-amylase enzymes were obtained from maize (Zea mays malt and were biochemistry characterized. A germination study to obtain the maize malt with good amylase activity was made. The maize seeds were germinated in laboratory and the enzymatic activity was measured daily. Activity dependence to germination time were fitted to an exponential model (A=A0eµt, which showed that the behaviour of enzymatic activity in the germination process was similar to the growth of the microorganism. Its model could be applied to describe the mechanism of α-amylase production for each maize varieties and others cereals. Maize malt characterization showed that α and β-amylase had optimal pH between 4-6.5, optimal temperature 50 and 90ºC, and molecular weight of 67.4 and 47.5kDa, respectively. This work contributed with the advances in biotechnology generating of conditions for application of a new and of low price amylases source.Neste trabalho as enzimas α e β-amilases foram obtidas de malte de milho e depois foram caracterizadas bioquimicamente. Um estudo da germinação foi feito para obtenção do malte com boa atividade amilásica. A germinação ocorreu em escala laboratorial e a atividade enzimática foi medida diariamente. Um modelo exponencial do tipo A=A0eµt foi ajustado a dependência do tempo de germinação com a atividade, mostrando que o comportamento da atividade enzimática no processo de germinação é semelhante ao crescimento de microorganismos. Este modelo pode ser aplicado para descrever o mecanismo de produção da α-amilase para cada variedade de milho e de outros cereais. A caracterização do malte de milho mostrou que as α e β-amilase têm pH ótimo entre 4,0-6,5, temperatura ótima de 50 e 90ºC, e massa molar de 67,4 e 47,5 kDa, respectivamente. Este trabalho contribuiu com os avanços da biotecnologia gerando condições de emprego de uma nova e barata fonte de amilases.

  4. Mutational analysis of the β-trefoil fold protein barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor probes hot spots for the interaction with barley α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, P. K.; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics...

  5. Copy number variation of human AMY1 is a minor contributor to variation in salivary amylase expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Mitchell, Laura M; Armour, John A L

    2017-02-20

    Salivary amylase in humans is encoded by the copy variable gene AMY1 in the amylase gene cluster on chromosome 1. Although the role of salivary amylase is well established, the consequences of the copy number variation (CNV) at AMY1 on salivary amylase protein production are less well understood. The amylase gene cluster is highly structured with a fundamental difference between odd and even AMY1 copy number haplotypes. In this study, we aimed to explore, in samples from 119 unrelated individuals, not only the effects of AMY1 CNV on salivary amylase protein expression and amylase enzyme activity but also whether there is any evidence for underlying difference between the common haplotypes containing odd numbers of AMY1 and even copy number haplotypes. AMY1 copy number was significantly correlated with the variation observed in salivary amylase production (11.7% of variance, P structure may affect expression, but this was not significant in our data.

  6. Adrenergic effects on secretion of amylase from the rat salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1988-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly. The res......The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of adrenergic agents on secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in vivo. Saliva was collected from the distal oesophagus in conscious rats. Adrenaline increased the concentration of amylase in saliva and serum significantly....... The result of infusion of alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists as well as noradrenaline and isoproterenol showed that secretion of salivary amylase is predominantly mediated by stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors, especially of the beta 1-subtype. Investigation of the isoenzyme pattern in saliva......, pancreatic juice and serum demonstrated that the major component in serum is salivary amylase. This study has shown that beta-adrenergic agents stimulate secretion of amylase from the salivary glands in rats. Though the secretion is mainly exocrine small amounts of amylase is found in serum, which seems...

  7. Physico-chemical studies on amylases from fermented cassava waste water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Akindahunsi, A.A.

    2001-09-01

    Waste water from cassava mash fermented with pure strain of Saccharomycees cerevisae together with Lactobacillus delbruckii and Lactobacillus coryneformis (3 days) was assayed for amylase activity. The result of the study indicated that the fermentation waste water had amylase activity, the unit activity and the specific activity of the amylase in the waste water was 0.22μmole/min and 0.06μmole/min/mg, respectively. The amylase was partially purified using Gel filtration (Sephadex-G150). The partially purified enzyme was maximally activity at pH 6.0 and 60 deg. C temperature. It had its maximum stability between pH 6-7 for 4hr, and 30 deg. C for 50 mins. NaCl, NH 4 Cl, FeCl 3 , KCl, NaNO 3 activates the enzyme activity while CUSO 4 and HgCl 2 inhibit the activity of the amylase. It could be concluded that these amylases from the fermented cassava waste amylase were active at wide temperature and pH ranges, this quality could be explored in the industrial sector (most especially food industry) as a source of industrial amylase that requires a wide range of conditions (temperature and pH). (author)

  8. Binding of carbohydrates and protein inhibitors to the surface of alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozonnet, Sophie; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Kramhoft, B.

    2005-01-01

    This review on barley alpha-amylases 1 (AMY1) and 2 (AMY2) addresses rational mutations at distal subsites to the catalytic site, polysaccharide hydrolysis, and interactions with proteinaceous inhibitors. Subsite mapping of barley alpha-amylases revealed 6 glycone and 4 aglycone substrate subsite...

  9. Production and Partial Purification of Alpha Amylase from Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 121 Using Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyangana Raul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars and plays a pivotal role in a variety of areas like use as digestives, for the production of ethanol and high fructose corn syrup, detergents, desiring of textiles, modified starches, hydrolysis of oil-field drilling fluids, and paper recycling. In the present work, solid state fermentation (SSF for α-amylase production has been used in lieu of submerged fermentation (SmF due to its simple technique, low capital investment, lower levels of catabolite repression, and better product recovery. Bacillus subtilis has been well known as producer of alpha amylase and was tested using solid state fermentation for 48 hours at 37°C with wheat bran as substrate. Comparison between different fermentation hours demonstrated high yield of alpha amylase after 48 hours. This alpha amylase has optimum pH and temperature at 7.1 and 40°C, respectively. With the goal to purify alpha amylase, 30–70% (NH42SO4 cut concentrated the amylase activity threefold with respect to crude fermented extract. This was verified in quantitative DNS assay method as well as in zymogram gel profile. The exact molecular weight of the amylase is yet to be determined with the aid of other protein purification techniques.

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of an alpha-amylase from Pichia burtonii 15-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Saemi; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Mura, Kiyoshi; Takeuchi, Akiko; Tokue, Chiyoko; Arai, Soichi

    2007-12-01

    An alpha-amylase secreted by Pichia burtonii 15-1 isolated from a traditional starter murcha of Nepal, named Pichia burtonii alpha-amylase (PBA), was studied. The gene was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. PBA was deduced to consist of 494 amino acid residues. It shared certain degrees of amino acid sequence identity with other homologous proteins: 60% with Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase, 58% with Saccharomycopsis sp. alpha-amylase, and 47% with Taka-amylase A from Aspergillus oryzae. A three-dimensional structural model of PBA generated using the known three-dimensional structure of Taka-amylase A as a template suggested high structural similarity between them. Kinetic analysis revealed that the K(m) values of PBA were lower than those of Taka-amylase A for the oligosaccharides. Although the k(cat) values of PBA were lower than those of Taka-amylase A for the oligosaccharide substrates, the k(cat)/K(m) values of PBA were higher.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BACILLUS-STEAROTHERMOPHILUS ISOLATE - A HIGHLY THERMOSTABLE ALPHA-AMYLASE-PRODUCING STRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIND, RD; BUITELAAR, RM; EGGINK, G; HUIZING, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known alpha-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable alpha-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this

  12. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  13. Bacillus sp. R2 α-amylase production optimization: Pasta cooking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    α-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1; 1,4-α-D-glucanglucanohydrolase) are enzymes that are widely studied and used in industries. ... may be a promising medium for industrial amylase production due to its availability. ... technique is of utmost importance due to its economic .... medium would further reduce the costs of enzyme.

  14. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude Sclerocarya birrea stem bark (SBSB) extracts against human urinary α-amylase and Bacillus steatothermophilus α-glucosidase were ...

  15. Application of microbial α-amylase in industry – A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; de Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2010-01-01

    Amylases are one of the main enzymes used in industry. Such enzymes hydrolyze the starch molecules into polymers composed of glucose units. Amylases have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, fermentation and pharmaceutical industries. α-Amylases can be obtained from plants, animals and microorganisms. However, enzymes from fungal and bacterial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. The production of α-amylase is essential for conversion of starches into oligosaccharides. Starch is an important constituent of the human diet and is a major storage product of many economically important crops such as wheat, rice, maize, tapioca, and potato. Starch-converting enzymes are used in the production of maltodextrin, modified starches, or glucose and fructose syrups. A large number of microbial α-amylases has applications in different industrial sectors such as food, textile, paper and detergent industries. The production of α-amylases has generally been carried out using submerged fermentation, but solid state fermentation systems appear as a promising technology. The properties of each α-amylase such as thermostability, pH profile, pH stability, and Ca-independency are important in the development of fermentation process. This review focuses on the production of bacterial and fungal α-amylases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:24031565

  16. Partial purification and characterization of amylase enzyme under solid state fermentation from Monascus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathi Tallapragada

    2017-06-01

    It can be concluded that the fungus M. sanguineus is a good source of amylase production under solid state fermentation. Application of amylase produced by M. sanguineus in detergent industry was also carried out and it was proven very effective in stain removal from the fabrics.

  17. Isolation of α-amylase from malted rice (Wita 7) extract using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    microbial α-amylase enzymes has led to the studies in cereal malting (Hammond ... beta amylase and other starch degrading enzymes lead to an absolute ... water in a plastic container at a temperature of 28±1°C for 24 h. The soaked grains ...

  18. Serum amylase and lipase activities after exploratory laparotomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellah, J R; Bell, G

    1989-09-01

    Serum amylase and lipase activities and creatinine concentration were determined before surgery, and at 1 and 2 days after exploratory laparotomy in 24 dogs. Examination of all viscera was done during each laparotomy, but a surgical procedure was not performed. The mean serum activities for lipase were: before surgery, 0.71 (0.0 to 2.0) Cherry Crandall units (CCU)/L; 1 day after surgery, 2.1 (0.0 to 4.5) CCU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1.19 (0.0 to 3.9) CCU/L. The mean serum activities for amylase were: before surgery, 1,958 (1,027 to 3,426) IU/L; 1 day after surgery, 1,538 (937 to 2,659) IU/L; and 2 days after surgery, 1,663 (1,066 to 2,274) IU/L. Serum creatinine concentrations before surgery, 1 day after surgery, and 2 days after surgery were 0.88 (0.2 to 1.7) mg/dl, 0.78 (0.4 to 1.3) mg/dl, and 0.78 (0.3 to 1.3) mg/dl, respectively. Mean preoperative, day-1, and day-2 serum amylase activities and serum creatinine concentrations did not differ significantly from each other. Mean preoperative and day-2 serum lipase activities did not differ significantly; however, mean serum lipase activity was significantly greater when day 1 activities were compared with preoperative activities (P = 0.0002). Post-mortem examinations revealed no gross or histologic evidence of pancreatitis in any dog. The results of this study show that a 3 or more fold increase in serum lipase activity may occur after routine exploratory laparotomy in dogs without clinical signs or gross evidence of pancreatitis. Histologic evidence of pancreatitis was not found in the right pancreatic lobes in any dog.

  19. Kontrasepsi Hormonal Meningkatkan Kadar α-Amylase Saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Handajani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salivary α-amylase atau α-amylase saliva (SAA adalah salah satu enzim dalam saliva yang berperan penting pada inisiasi digesti karbohidrat dan fungsi interaksi bakteri. Kontrasepsi hormonal sangat populer di Indonesia untuk mencegah kehamilan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kadar SAA wanita pemakai kontrasepsi pil dan suntik. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 30 perempuan usia 20-35 tahun. Prosedur penelitian telah mendapat persetujuan dari Komite Etik Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta. Subjek dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok (pemakai kontrasepsi pil, suntik, dan kontrol, masing-masing 10 perempuan. Kriteria subjek antara lain subjek sehat, tidak menggunakan alat ortodontik, protesa atau mahkota, serta menggunakan kontrasepsi hormonal lebih dari 3 bulan. Sampel saliva dikumpulkan pada sore hari (16.00-18.00 WIB selama 1 menit dengan metode tanpa stimulasi. Kadar tingkat SAA diukur menggunakan ELISA kit (Salimetrics LLC dengan Optical Density (OD pada 405 nm. Data dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA (p<0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar SAA tertinggi pada perempuan pemakai kontrasepsi  pil dan ada perbedaan yang signifikan diantara tiga kelompok. Disimpulkan bahwa kontrasepsi hormonal meningkatkan kadar SAA. Hormonal Contraceptive Increased The Level of Salivary Α-Amylase. Salivary α-amylase (SAA is one of the most important enzymes in saliva. This enzyme was mainly involved in the initiation of the digestion of starch in the oral cavity and has significant bacterial interactive function. Hormonal contraceptives are very popular in Indonesia to avoid pregnancy. This study aimed to evaluate the level of SAA in woman who taking pill and by injection contraceptives. Thirty women were in subjects, 20-35 years old, approval ethical clearance from Ethic Committee Medical Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta Indonesia. Subjects were divided into three groups (taking pill contraceptive, by injection contraceptive and

  20. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  1. Amylase production by endophytic fungi Cylindrocephalum sp. isolated from medicinal plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Sunitha.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Amylases are among the most important enzymes used in modern biotechnology particularly in the process involving starch hydrolysis. Fungal amylase has large applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. Considering these facts, endophytic fungi isolated from the plant Alpinia calcarata (Haw. Roscoe were screened for amylolytic activity on glucose yeast extract peptone agar (GYP medium. Among thirty isolates of endophytic fungi, isolate number seven identified as Cylindrocephalum sp. (Ac-7 showed highest amylolytic activity and was taken for further study. Influence of various physical and chemical factors such as pH, temperature, carbon and nitrogen sources on amylase production in liquid media were studied. The maximal amylase production was found to be at 30ºC and at pH 7.0 of the growth medium. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, maltose at 1.5% and Sodium nitrate at 0.3% respectively gave optimum amylase production.

  2. Clinical Performance of a Salivary Amylase Activity Monitor During Hemodialysis Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Shimazaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodialysis procedure is thought to be a physical stressor in the majority of hemodialyzed patients. Previous studies suggest that elevated salivary amylase level may correlate with increased plasma norepinephrine level under psychological and physical stress conditions. In this study, we investigated biological stress reactivity during hemodialysis treatment using salivary amylase activity as a biomarker. Seven patients (male/female = 5/2, age:67.7+ /− 5.9 years who had been receiving regular 4 h hemodialysis were recruited. Salivary amylase activity was measured using a portable analyzer every hour during the hemodialysis session. Salivary amylase activity was shown to be relatively stable and constant throughout hemodialysis, whereas there were significant changes in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate associated with blood volume reduction. Our results show that hemodialysis treatment per se dose not affect salivary amylase activity.

  3. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

  4. Posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Asatsuma, Satoru; Itoh, Kimiko; Hori, Hidetaka; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Yukiko

    2004-06-01

    Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains GARE, although these were distinguishable in the embryo tissues at the early stage of germination. The gibberellin-responsible expression of alpha-amylase II-4 was also similar to that of alpha-amylase I-1. However, the level of alpha-amylase II-4 mRNA was not increased by gibberellin, indicating that the transcriptional enhancement of alpha-amylase II-4 expression did not occur in the aleurone. Gibberellin stimulated the accumulation of 45Ca2+ into the intracellular secretory membrane system. In addition, several inhibitors for Ca2+ signaling, such as EGTA, neomycin, ruthenium red (RuR), and W-7 prevented the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 effectively. While the gibberellin-induced expression of alpha-amylase II-4 occurred normally in the aleurone layer of a rice dwarf mutant d1 which is defective in the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein. Based on these results, it was concluded that the posttranscriptional regulation of alpha-amylase II-4 expression by gibberellin operates in the aleurone layer of germinating rice seed, which is mediated by Ca2+ but not the G protein.

  5. Liver alpha-amylase gene expression as an early obesity biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojbafan, Marzieh; Afsartala, Zohreh; Amoli, Mahsa M; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, for which preventive and therapeutic means are still needed. Alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme whose inhibition has been targeted as a potential anti-obesity strategy. However, alpha-amylase gene expression has not been particularly attended to, and in contrast with pancreatic and salivary amylases, fewer studies have focused on liver alpha-amylase. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of alpha-amylase gene in obese and normal mice at RNA and protein level as well as acarbose effect on this gene expression in hepatocyte cell culture. Control and case groups were fed by normal mouse pellet and high-fat diet respectively, during 8 weeks. After this period, serum biochemical parameters including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT and alpha-amylase were assayed. Liver alpha-amylase gene was analyzed by real time PCR, and liver enzyme was assayed with Bernfeld and ELISA methods Hepatocyte cell culture derived from both group were also treated by acarbose and alpha-amylase activity and gene expression was analyzed by above mentioned methods. All biochemical factors showed an increase in obese mice, but the increase in ALT and AST were not statistically significant. Alpha-amylase levels were also increased in obese mice, both at RNA and protein level, while a decrease was seen in obese mice derived hepatocytes after acarbose treatment. Elevated liver alpha-amylase levels may be indicative of initial stages of obesity and the use of acarbose could be considered as a treatment of obesity which could be potentially effective at multiple levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  6. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  7. Addition of Amylase from Aspergillus Awamori to the Diet of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Morgado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were performed to evaluate the hematological and blood biochemistry parameters, biometry of digestive organs, enzyme activities, protein content and absolute weight of the pancreas of broilers fed pre-starter and pre-starter diets supplemented or not with amylase from Aspergillus awamori. In total, 120 male Cobb chicks were housed in heated cages in each experiment. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (feed with and without amylase and six replicates per treatment of 10 birds each was applied. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the F-test at 5% probability level. The dietary amylase addition did not affect hematological and blood biochemistry parameters and the biometry of the gastrointestinal tract of 7- and 21-d-old broilers, nor the absolute weight, enzyme activities or protein concentration of the pancreas of 7-d-old broilers. However, the inclusion of amylase in the diet reduced amylase activity and pancreatic protein concentration in 21-d-old broilers. The application of amylase to broiler chicken pre-starter and starter feeds is not justified given the pancreatic amylase activity and protein concentrations.

  8. Effects of Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) Treatment on Enhancing Activity and Conformation of α-Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei-ling; Fang, Ting; Du, Mu-ying; Zhang, Fu-sheng

    2016-04-01

    To explore an efficient, safe, and speedy application of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology for enzymatic modification, effects of PEF treatment on the enzymatic activity, property and kinetic parameters of α-amylase were investigated. Conformational transitions were also studied with the aid of circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra. The maximum enzymatic activity of α-amylase was obtained under 15 kV/cm electric field intensity and 100 mL/min flow velocity PEF treatment, in which the enzymatic activity increased by 22.13 ± 1.14% compared with control. The activation effect could last for 18 h at 4 °C. PEF treatment could widen the range of optimum temperature for α-amylase, however, it barely exerted any effect on the optimum pH. On the other hand, α-amylase treated by PEF showed an increase of Vmax, t1/2 and ΔG, whereas a decrease of Km and k were observed. Furthermore, it can be observed from fluorescence and CD spectra that PEF treatment had increased the number of amino acid residues, especially that of tryptophan, on α-amylase surface with enhanced α-helices by 34.76% and decreased random coil by 12.04% on α-amylase when compared with that of untreated. These changes in structure had positive effect on enhancing α-amylase activity and property.

  9. Thermostable 𝜶-Amylase Activity from Thermophilic Bacteria Isolated from Bora Hot Spring, Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, F. M.; Suwastika, I. N.

    2018-03-01

    α-Amylase is one of the most important enzyme in biotechnology field, especially in industrial application. Thermostability of α-Amylase produced by thermophilic bacteria improves industrial process of starch degradation in starch industry. The present study were concerned to the characterization of α-Amylase activity from indigenous thermophilic bacteria isolated from Bora hot spring, Central Sulawesi. There were 18 isolates which had successfully isolated from 90°C sediment samples of Bora hot spring and 13 of them showed amylolytic activity. The α-Amylase activity was measured qualitatively at starch agar and quantitatively based on DNS (3,5-Dinitrosalicylic acid) methods, using maltose as standard solution. Two isolates (out of 13 amylolytic bacteria), BR 002 and BR 015 showed amylolytic index of 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm respectively, after being incubated at 55°C in the 0.002% Starch Agar Medium. The α-Amylase activity was further characterized quantitatively which includes the optimum condition of pH and temperature of α-Amylase crude enzyme from each isolate. To our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation and characterization of a thermostable α-Amylase from thermophilic bacteria isolated from Central Sulawesi particularly from Bora hot spring.

  10. Raw starch digestion by. alpha. -amylase and glucoamylase from Chalara paradoxa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monma, Mitsura; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kagei, Norio; Kainuma, Keiji

    1989-10-01

    Glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase of Chalara paradoxa were separated by hydrophobic column chromatography using butyl-Toyopearl 650M. The {alpha}-amylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.5 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 5.5-6.5 and at temperatures lower than 40{sup 0}C. The glucoamylase showed the highest activity at pH 5.0 and 45{sup 0}C, and was stable in the pH range of 4.0-7.5 and at temperatures lower than 45{sup 0}C. The molecular mass of the {alpha}-amylase and glucoamylase estimated by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 80,000 and 68,000, respectively. Both glucoamylase and {alpha}-amylase could digest more effectively raw rice starch and raw corn starch than raw sago starch and raw potato starch. 2% raw rice starch in 10 ml solution was digested by more than 90% by 100 units of each amylase. When these amylases were used combined, raw corn starch was more effectively digested than they were used singly. This cooperative action in raw corn starch digestion was also observed when C. paradoxa {alpha}-amylase and R. niveus glucoamylase were combined. (orig.).

  11. Enhancement of amylase production by Aspergillus sp. using carbohydrates mixtures from triticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dojnov Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of finding a suitable available inducer in combination with starvation, carbohydrate mixtures from triticale was used as inducers and compared with well-known amylase inducers in fungi. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of amylase cocktail (α-amylase and glucoamylase in Aspergillus niger, unlike induction with well-known inducers which induce only glucoamylase, showed by zymogram and TLC analysis of carbohydrates mixtures before and after fermentations. Glucoamylase production by A. niger was highest in the presence of extract obtained after autohydrolysis of starch from triticale (95.88 U/mL. Carbohydrate mixtures from triticale induced production of α-amylase in A. oryzae. More α-amylase isoforms were detected upon using complex carbohydrate mixture, compared to induction with maltose or starch. The 48 h induction was the most efficient by using triticale extract (101.35 U/mL. Carbohydrates from triticale extracts can be used as very good cheap amylase inducers. Triticale, still not fully utilized, could be taken into consideration as the inducer in amylase production by Aspergillus sp, such a way it could be used as sole substrate in fermentation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172048

  12. Synthesis of the light/pH responsive polymer for immobilization of α-amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Long [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710119 (China); Lei, Ming [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710119 (China); Zhao, Min [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710119 (China); Yang, Hong [Basic Experimental Teaching Center, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang, Hong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Kehu [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710119 (China); Lei, Zhongli, E-mail: lzl2016@snnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710119 (China)

    2017-02-01

    In this study, light/pH responsive methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-(5-propargylether-2-nitrobenzyl bromoisobutyrate)-poly methylacrylic acid-b-polystyrene (mPEG-ONB-PMAA-b-PS) polymers were synthesized, and successfully utilized to fabricate micelles and immobilize α-amylase. The critical micelle concentrations (CMC) of the polymers were measured with Pyrene Fluorescent Probe Technique. The morphology and diameter of micelles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). In addition, the effects of pH, temperature and light-responsive on the catalytic activity were investigated. The optimized fabrication conditions of α-amylase-loaded micelles which α-amylase gave the higher activity were as follows: Immobilization time, 60 min; Immobilization temperature, 50 °C; enzyme concentration, 10 U mL{sup −1}; PBS buffer, pH = 5.4. α-Amylase immobilized in these micelles was much more stable than that free α-amylase. - Highlights: • Light/pH dual-responsive polymer mPEG-ONB-PMAA-b-PS was developed. • The polymer mPEG-ONB-PMAA-b-PS was characterized and utilized to immobilized α-amylase. • A systematic study of dual-responsive polymer influence on α-amylase active was performed.

  13. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis α-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omidyan, R.; Kazemi, S.H.; Bordbar, A.K.; Zaynalpour, S.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of α-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and α-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic (ΔH o =-17.92 kJ mol -1 ) accompanied with increase in entropy (ΔS o between 109 to 135 J mol -1 K -1 ). Thus the binding of CTAB to α-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10 -3 M -1 and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K a ) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of α-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of α-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: → The Fluorescence quenching effect of α-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation α-amylase-CTAB complex. → The α-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of α-amylase. → Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  14. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis {alpha}-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidyan, R., E-mail: r.omidyan@sci.ui.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaynalpour, S. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The interaction between {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and {alpha}-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic ({Delta}H{sup o}=-17.92 kJ mol{sup -1}) accompanied with increase in entropy ({Delta}S{sup o} between 109 to 135 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). Thus the binding of CTAB to {alpha}-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10{sup -3} M{sup -1} and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K{sub a}) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of {alpha}-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: {yields} The Fluorescence quenching effect of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation {alpha}-amylase-CTAB complex. {yields} The {alpha}-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of {alpha}-amylase. {yields} Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  15. Polymeric amylase nanoparticles as a new semi-synthetic enzyme system for hydrolysis of starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Say, R. [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskişehir (Turkey); Şenay, R. Hilal [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Biçen, Özlem; Ersöz, Arzu; Şişman Yılmaz, Filiz [Anadolu University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, Yunus Emre Campus, Eskişehir (Turkey); Akgöl, Sinan, E-mail: sinanakgol@yahoo.co.uk [Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biochemistry Department, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Chemistry Department, 06532 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-05-01

    α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1; α-D-1,4,glucan glucanohydrolase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-D-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and various malto-oligosaccharides, by releasing α-anomeric products. In this study, a novel method has been developed to prepare nanoprotein particles that carry α-amylase as a monomer by using a photosensitive microemulsion polymerization process. The nanostructured α-amylase with photosensitive features have been characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Zeta Sizer. The fluorescence intensity of amylase nanoparticles was determined to be 658 a.u. at 610 nm and the average particle size of nanoamylase was found to be about 71.8 nm. Both free α-amylase and nanoparticles were used in the hydrolysis of starch under varying reaction conditions such as pH and temperature that affect enzyme activity and the results were compared to each other. K{sub m} values were 0.26 and 0.87 mM and V{sub max} values were 0.36 IU mg{sup −1} and 22.32 IU mg{sup −1} for nanoenzyme and free enzyme, respectively. Then, thermal stability, storage stability and reusability were investigated and according to the results, activity was preserved 60% at 60 °C; 20% at 70–80 °C temperature values and 80% after 105 days storage. Finally after 10 cycles, the activity was preserved 90% and this novel enzymatic polymeric amylase nanoparticle has showed considerable potential as reusable catalyst. - Highlights: ► Developing to prepare nanoprotein particles carrying α-amylase ► Characterization of nanostructured α-amylase ► Usability of α-amylase nanoparticles in hydrolysis of starch.

  16. Polymeric amylase nanoparticles as a new semi-synthetic enzyme system for hydrolysis of starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Say, R.; Şenay, R. Hilal; Biçen, Özlem; Ersöz, Arzu; Şişman Yılmaz, Filiz; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-01

    α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1; α-D-1,4,glucan glucanohydrolase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-D-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and various malto-oligosaccharides, by releasing α-anomeric products. In this study, a novel method has been developed to prepare nanoprotein particles that carry α-amylase as a monomer by using a photosensitive microemulsion polymerization process. The nanostructured α-amylase with photosensitive features have been characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Zeta Sizer. The fluorescence intensity of amylase nanoparticles was determined to be 658 a.u. at 610 nm and the average particle size of nanoamylase was found to be about 71.8 nm. Both free α-amylase and nanoparticles were used in the hydrolysis of starch under varying reaction conditions such as pH and temperature that affect enzyme activity and the results were compared to each other. K m values were 0.26 and 0.87 mM and V max values were 0.36 IU mg −1 and 22.32 IU mg −1 for nanoenzyme and free enzyme, respectively. Then, thermal stability, storage stability and reusability were investigated and according to the results, activity was preserved 60% at 60 °C; 20% at 70–80 °C temperature values and 80% after 105 days storage. Finally after 10 cycles, the activity was preserved 90% and this novel enzymatic polymeric amylase nanoparticle has showed considerable potential as reusable catalyst. - Highlights: ► Developing to prepare nanoprotein particles carrying α-amylase ► Characterization of nanostructured α-amylase ► Usability of α-amylase nanoparticles in hydrolysis of starch

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana AMY3 Is a Unique Redox-regulated Chloroplastic α-Amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seung, David; Thalmann, Matthias; Sparla, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    α-Amylases are glucan hydrolases that cleave α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch. In vascular plants, α-amylases can be classified into three subfamilies. Arabidopsis has one member of each subfamily. Among them, only AtAMY3 is localized in the chloroplast. We expressed and purified AtAMY3 from...... to be dependent on a conserved aspartic acid residue (Asp666), identified as the catalytic nucleophile in other plant α-amylases such as the barley AMY1. AtAMY3 released small linear and branched glucans from Arabidopsis starch granules, and the proportion of branched glucans increased after the predigestion...

  18. Kinetic studies of acid inactivation of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Villadsen, John

    1996-01-01

    The stability of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae has been studied at different pH. The enzyme is extremely stable at neutral pH (pH 5-8), whereas outside this pH-range a substantial loss of activity is observed. The acid-inactivation of alpha-amylase from A. oryzae was monitored on...... regains part of its activity, and the reactivation process also follows first-order kinetics. The irreversible loss of activity is found not to result from a protease contamination of the protein samples. A proposed model, where irreversibly inactivated a-amylase is formed both directly from the active...

  19. Production of alpha-amylase in batch and chemostat culture by bacillus stearothermophilus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P E; Cohen, D L; Whitaker, A

    1980-01-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by a strain of B.stearothermophilus isolated from leaf litter was investigated in a tryptone-maltose medium at 55 degrees in batch and chemostat culture. Amylase production was growth-limited and restricted to the exponential phase in batch culture. The enzyme yield was reduced by 40% when the culture pH was maintained at pH 7.2. Amylase production in chemostat culture was influenced by the growth rate throughout the dilution rate range used.

  20. Measurements of amylase isoenzymes in sera and saliva of patients after radiotherapy because of larynx carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasik, A.; Tarnawski, R.; Wierzynski, J.; Tarnawski, R.

    1994-01-01

    Serum and salivary alpha-amylase were measured for controls and patients with laryngeal carcinoma before and after localized irradiation including salivary glands. A significant increase in amylasemia was observed after irradiation. Alpha-amylase activity in saliva was decreased after irradiation but differences were not statistically significant due to the significant decrease of protein in saliva of irradiated group. An increase of salivary isoenzyme S activity was observed while pancreatic isoenzyme activity was not altered. This method allows easy differentiation of hyperamylasemia due to irradiation of parothyroid gland and disorders of the pancreas. Alpha-amylase activity measurements may detect metabolic changes in salivary glands after irradiation. (author)

  1. Effect of alpha amylase on early childhood caries: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...

  2. Seeking new mutation clues from Bacillus licheniformis amylase by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao

    2009-07-01

    Amylase is one of the most important industrial enzymes in the world. Researchers have been searching for a highly thermal stable mutant for many years, but most focus on point mutations of one or few nitrogenous bases. According to this molecular dynamic simulation of amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), the deletion of some nitrogenous bases would be more efficacious than point mutations. The simulation reveals strong fluctuation of the BLA structure at optimum temperature. The fluctuation of the outer domains of BLA is stronger than that of the core domain. Molecular simulation provides a clue to design thermal stable amylases through deletion mutations in the outer domain.

  3. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  4. Chemical synthesis of a dual branched malto-decaose: A potential substrate for alpha-amylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damager, Iben; Jensen, Morten; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2005-01-01

    A convergent block strategy for general use in efficient synthesis of complex alpha-(1 -> 4)- and alpha-(1 -> 6)-malto-oligosaccharides is demonstrated with the first chemical synthesis of a malto-oligosaccharide, the decasoccharide 6,6""-bis(alpha-maltosyl)-maltohexaose, with two branch points....... Using this chemically defined branched oligosaccharide as a substrate, the cleavage pattern of seven different alpha-amylases were investigated. alpha-Amylases from human saliva, porcine pancreas, barley alpha-amylose 2 and recombinant barley alpha-amylase 1 all hydrolysed the decasaccharide selectively....... This resulted in a branched hexasaccharide and a branched tetrasoccharide. alpha-Amylases from Asperagillus oryzae, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus sp. cleaved the decasoccharide at two distinct sites, either producing two branched pentasoccharides, or a branched hexasoccharide and a branched...

  5. α-Amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Sclerocarya birrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... birrea stem bark (SBSB) extracts against human urinary α-amylase and Bacillus steatothermophilus α ... levels, reduced plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and urea .... cycle and controlled conditions of temperature and humidity.

  6. In Vitro Screening of α-Amylase Inhibition by Selected Terpenes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their potential usefulness in the prevention and/or treatment of diabetes Type 2. ... eugenol and terpineol) in deonized water were prepared by ultrasonic and manual ... Keywords: α-Amylase, β-Pinene, Citral, Diabetes, Essential oil, Eugenol, ...

  7. Influence of carbon source on alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    on sucrose, fructose, glycerol, mannitol and acetate. During growth on acetate there was no production of alpha -amylase, whereas addition of small amounts of glucose resulted in alpha -amylase production. A possible induction by alpha -methyl-D-glucoside during growth on glucose was also investigated......, but this compound was not found to be a better inducer of alpha -amylase production than glucose. The results strongly indicate that besides acting as a repressor via the CreA protein, glucose acts as an inducer.......The influence of the carbon source on a-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in carbon-limited chemostat cultures. The following carbon sources were investigated: maltose, maltodextrin (different chain lengths), glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, glycerol, mannitol...

  8. Morphology and physiology of an alpha Amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae during batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    , whereas the alpha-amylase production has a sharper maximum at about pH 6. During batch cultivation with pellets the growth is described well by the cube-root law when pellet fragmentation can be neglected. The kinetic parameter k in the cube-root law is derived from the growth kinetics with no mass......, suggesting that ethanol is produced in the oxygen limited part of the biomass. A constitutive, low alpha-amylase production was observed at high glucose concentration. The specific alpha-amylase production was significantly higher for filamentous growth than for pellets and oxygen appears to be necessary...... for production of alpha-amylase. (C) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  9. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of alpha-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, Sabrina; Østergaard, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... increased during germination. Assessing the fragment minimum chain length by peptide mass fingerprinting suggested that alpha-amylase 2 ( gi vertical bar 4699831) initially was cleaved just prior to domain B that protrudes from the (beta alpha)(8)-barrel between beta-strand 3 and alpha-helix 3, followed...... essentially only full-length alpha-amylase forms. While only products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  10. Spatio-temporal profiling and degradation of α-amylase isozymes during barley seed germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak-Jensen, K.S.; Laugesen, S.; Østergaard, O.

    2007-01-01

    Ten genes from two multigene families encode barley alpha-amylases. To gain insight into the occurrence and fate of individual isoforms during seed germination, the alpha-amylase repertoire was mapped by using a proteomics approach consisting of 2D gel electrophoresis, western blotting, and mass...... identified only by immunostaining. Mass spectrometry identified 12 full-length forms and 12 fragments from the cultivar Barke. Products of both alpha-amylase 2 entries co-migrated in five full-length and one fragment spot. The alpha-amylase abundance and the number of fragments increased during germination...... products of the above three genes appeared by germination also of 15 other barley cultivars, the cultivars had distinct repertoires of charge and molecular mass variant forms. These patterns appeared not to be correlated with malt quality....

  11. Pilot plant production of glucose from starch with soluble. cap alpha. -amylase and immobilized glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D D; Reilly, P J; Collins, Jr, E V

    1975-01-01

    Pilot plant studies were conducted on cooking and thinning of corn starch with free ..cap alpha..-amylase and the conversion of the resulting dextrin with immobilized glucoamylase adsorbed on porous SiO/sub 2/. Feeds of intermediate DE values gave maximum yields unless the flow rate of low DE feeds was decreased. Final DE values and glucose concentrations after dextrin treated with Thermamyl 60 ..cap alpha..-amylase had been further hydrolyzed in an immobilized glucoamylase column, were slightly lower than they were when free glucoamylase was used. Similar results were obtained when dextrin, thinned with HT-1000 ..cap alpha..-amylase, was hydrolyzed at 38/sup 0/ and pH 4.4 in the immobilized glucoamylase column. Free glucoamylase yielded values of DE and glucose almost identical with dextrin thinned with Thermamyl 60 ..cap alpha..-amylase. Yields with the free glucoamylase were also slightly higher than they were with SiO/sub 2/-bound enzyme.

  12. Molecular improvements in microbial α-amylases for enhanced stability and catalytic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Madhavan, Aravind; Beevi, Ummalyma Sabeela; Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Abraham, Amith; Pandey, Ashok; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-12-01

    α-Amylases is one of the most important industrial enzyme which contributes to 25% of the industrial enzyme market. Though it is produced by plant, animals and microbial source, those from microbial source seems to have potential applications due to their stability and economic viability. However a large number of α-amylases from different sources have been detailed in the literature, only few numbers of them could withstand the harsh industrial conditions. Thermo-stability, pH tolerance, calcium independency and oxidant stability and starch hydrolyzing efficiency are the crucial qualities for α-amylase in starch based industries. Microbes can be genetically modified and fine tuning can be done for the production of enzymes with desired characteristics for specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from microorganisms, their heterologous production and the recent molecular strategies which help to improve the properties of this industrial enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma amylase activity as a biochemical indicator of radiation injury to salivary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G; Cionini, L; Porciani, S; Fallai, C; Pirtoli, L [Florence Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia

    1984-01-01

    Irradiation of the salivary glands produces a rapid increase of salivary amylase in serum, released by the highly radiation sensitive serous cells of the glands. Serial assays of salivary amylase in serum were performed in patients treated by radiation to the upper neck region. The changes observed were compared with the amount of salivary gland mass irradiated and with the dose fractionation modality used. The irradiated volume included either the entire salivary gland mass or less than 50 per cent of the gland. Two fractionation modalities were used: a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy per day, 5 times a week, or a multiple daily fractionation of 2 Gy, 3 times a day in two series of 4 days with a 4-day interval. Both parameters (salivary gland mass irradiated and fractionation modality used) significantly influenced the shape of the amylase curve in the serum. Serum amylase may therefore be considered a reliable biologic indicator of early injury to the salivary glands.

  14. Immunohistochemical and quantitative changes in salivary EGF, amylase and haptocorrin following radiotherapy for oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M E; Hansen, H S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes in t...... a reduction in the mitogenic peptide EGF both immunohistochemically and quantitatively following irradiation for oral cancer, results which may contribute to the understanding of the clinical signs of mucositis.......Epidermal growth factor (EGF), amylase and haptocorrin are molecules produced in the salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to determine immunohistochemical and quantitative alterations in EGF as compared with haptocorrin and amylase following radiotherapy for oral cancer. Changes....... The concentration of EGF in saliva before treatment was significantly higher in patients than in the control group (p oral tumors contribute with EGF to the saliva. In conclusion we have demonstrated...

  15. Isolation, characterization and partial purification of alpha-amylase from a marine bacillus NH-25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Zohra, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Total 399 marine strains were isolated from the sea water sample and screened for thermostable amylase production. Out of these 52 were to have amylogenic activity. Among them 2 isolates were able to grow and produce amylase at 55 degree C. Strain NH-25 tolerates 30% salt, a wide j-H range (4-8) and retained 64% activity at 50 degree C after 60 minutes. (author)

  16. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to p...

  17. Effect of decoyinine on the regulation of alpha-amylase synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, W L; Chambliss, G H

    1987-01-01

    Decoyinine, an inhibitor of GMP synthetase, allows sporulation in Bacillus subtilis to initiate and proceed under otherwise catabolite-repressing conditions. The effect of decoyinine on alpha-amylase synthesis in B. subtilis, an event which exhibits regulatory features resembling sporulation initiation, was examined. Decoyinine did not overcome catabolite repression of alpha-amylase synthesis in a wild-type strain of B. subtilis but did cause premature and enhanced synthesis in a mutant strai...

  18. New perspectives on the role of α- and β-amylases in transient starch synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex Chi; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Morell, Matthew K; Gilbert, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Transient starch in leaves is synthesized by various biosynthetic enzymes in the chloroplasts during the light period. This paper presents the first mathematical model for the (bio)synthesis of the chain-length distribution (CLD) of transient starch to aid the understanding of this synthesis. The model expresses the rate of change of the CLD in terms of the actions of the enzymes involved. Using this to simulate the experimental CLD with different enzyme combinations is a new means to test for enzymes that are significant to the rate of change of the CLD during synthesis. Comparison between the simulated CLD from different enzyme combinations and the experimental CLD in the leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana indicate α-amylase, in addition to the core starch biosynthetic enzymes, is also involved in the modification of glucans for the synthesis of insoluble starch granules. The simulations suggest involvement of β-amylase, in the absence of α-amylase in mutants, slows the rate of attaining a crystalline-competent CLD for crystallization of glucans to form insoluble starch. This suggests a minor role of β-amylase in shaping normal starch synthesis. The model simulation predicts that debranching of glucans is an efficient mechanism for the attainment of crystalline-competent CLD; however, attaining this is still possible, albeit slower, through combinations of α- and β-amylase in the absence of isoamylase-type debranching enzyme. In Arabidopsis defective in one of the isoamylase-type debranching enzymes, the impact of α-amylase in starch synthesis is reduced, while β-amylase becomes significantly involved, slowing the rate of synthesis in this mutant. Modeling of transient starch CLD brings to light previously unrecognized but significant effects of α- and β-amylase on the rate of transient starch synthesis.

  19. New perspectives on the role of α- and β-amylases in transient starch synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chi Wu

    Full Text Available Transient starch in leaves is synthesized by various biosynthetic enzymes in the chloroplasts during the light period. This paper presents the first mathematical model for the (biosynthesis of the chain-length distribution (CLD of transient starch to aid the understanding of this synthesis. The model expresses the rate of change of the CLD in terms of the actions of the enzymes involved. Using this to simulate the experimental CLD with different enzyme combinations is a new means to test for enzymes that are significant to the rate of change of the CLD during synthesis. Comparison between the simulated CLD from different enzyme combinations and the experimental CLD in the leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana indicate α-amylase, in addition to the core starch biosynthetic enzymes, is also involved in the modification of glucans for the synthesis of insoluble starch granules. The simulations suggest involvement of β-amylase, in the absence of α-amylase in mutants, slows the rate of attaining a crystalline-competent CLD for crystallization of glucans to form insoluble starch. This suggests a minor role of β-amylase in shaping normal starch synthesis. The model simulation predicts that debranching of glucans is an efficient mechanism for the attainment of crystalline-competent CLD; however, attaining this is still possible, albeit slower, through combinations of α- and β-amylase in the absence of isoamylase-type debranching enzyme. In Arabidopsis defective in one of the isoamylase-type debranching enzymes, the impact of α-amylase in starch synthesis is reduced, while β-amylase becomes significantly involved, slowing the rate of synthesis in this mutant. Modeling of transient starch CLD brings to light previously unrecognized but significant effects of α- and β-amylase on the rate of transient starch synthesis.

  20. Physical and catalytic properties of alpha-amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonocore, V; Poerio, E; Silano, V; Tomasi, M

    1976-01-01

    The amylase from Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (yellow mealworm) was characterized according to a number of its molecular and catalytic properties. The insect amylase is a single polypeptide chain with mol.wt. 68000, an isoelectric point of 4.0 and a very low content of sulphur-containing amino acids. The enzyme is a Ca2+-protein and behaves as an alpha-amylase. Removal of Ca2+ by exhaustive dialysis against water causes the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. Moreover, the enzyme is activated by the presence in the assay mixture of Cl-, or some other inorganic anions that are less effective than Cl-, and is inhibited by F-. Optimal conditions of pH and temperature for the enzymic activity are 5.8 and 37 degrees C. The insect amylase exhibits an identical kinetic behaviour toward starch, amylose and amylopectin; the enzyme hydrolyses glycogen with a higher affinity constant. Compared with the non-insect alpha-amylases described in the literature, Tenebrio molitor amylase has a lower affinity for starch. PMID:942374

  1. POTENTIAL USE OF AN EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME OF a-AMYLASE FROM INDIGENOUS INDONESIAN MESOPHILIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Lestari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Amylase enzyme has a great significance for industrial usages in  Indonesia. However, this enzyme is still imported. The use of bacteria in biotechnological process of industrial products such as enzyme production has stimulated the exploration of extracellular amylase producing  bacteria. This study aimed to identify and analyze the potential use of amylolytic bacterial enzymes for hydrolyzing cassava starch. Two bacterial isolates, i.e. MII-10 and DKW-8 originated from Indonesia soil were identified based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical properties according to the standard protocol. The isolates were then  cultivated on fermentation medium and their growth pattern and  enzymatic assays were observed. The acetone-precipitated crude enzyme harvested based on predetermined cultivation time was used for  enzymatic hydrolysis product characterization on cassava starch using thin layer chromatography (TLC. The results showed that the mesophilicbacteria isolates (MII-10 and DKW-8 were belonged to Bacillus licheniformis. The maximum bacterial cell growth and enzyme activity were reached at 48 hours after incubation. The MII-10 isolate was found more stable than DKW-8 in producing amylase enzyme. Amylase produced by the MII-10 and DKW- 8 isolates was identified to be an endo-a-amylase as confirmed by oligosaccharides and dextrin of the random hydrolysisproducts. Relatively high dextrose equivalence (DE value of a-amylase of MII-10 (DE of 9.96 suggests that the enzyme is prospective for  saccharification of starchy material in glucose syrup industry.

  2. Patterns of cortisol and alpha-amylase reactivity to psychosocial stress in maltreated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielock, Alyssa S; Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2017-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment can trigger enduring changes in major stress response systems, particularly in the context of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relative impact of maltreatment versus MDD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system stress reactivity is not well understood. This study examined salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 26 maltreated (15 with current MDD) and 26 non-maltreated (17 with current MDD) women. Maltreated women showed greater anticipatory cortisol reactivity during the TSST protocol compared to non-maltreated women. Maltreated women also showed rapid deceleration in cortisol levels. Whereas non-maltreated women showed initial declines in alpha-amylase levels but rapidly increasing alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol, maltreated women did not exhibit changes in alpha-amylase levels during the TSST protocol. Contrary to expectation, MDD did not impact cortisol or alpha-amylase responses. The present study is limited by retrospective report of childhood maltreatment, cross-sectional design, and modest sample sizes. These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment plays a greater role driving alterations in cortisol and alpha-amylase stress reactivity than MDD. Understanding the biological embedding of maltreatment is critical for elucidating mechanisms linking these experiences to risk for negative mental and physical health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cholecystokinin receptors: disparity between phosphoinositide breakdown and amylase releasing activity of CCK analogues in pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.W.; Grant, D.; Bianchi, B.; Miller, T.; Witte, D.; Shue, Y.K.; Nadzan, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) peptides are a family of hormones which also occur in brain. In pancreas CCK stimulates the release of amylase, a process that is dependent on the mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ . Recent evidence suggests that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, the breakdown product of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, is responsible for the rise in intracellular Ca 2+ . Their laboratory has developed assays to study synthetic CCK analogues using radioligand binding, PI breakdown and amylase release. They have shown that there are good correlations among these three assay systems for the carboxy terminal fragments of CCK 8 . Recently, they have discovered synthetic analogues of CCK 4 that are full agonists in amylase release but are ineffective in causing PI breakdown. In particular, A-61576, Boc-5-amino-2-indolemethylene-pent-2-ene-1-oyl-Leu-Asp-Phe-NH 2 , is a full agonist in the amylase releasing assay, but is devoid of PI stimulating activity. A-61576 completely reverses the stimulation of PI response induced by CCK 8 , indicative of an antagonist. Since a mechanism other than the PI breakdown is responsible for amylase release by A-61576, they suggest that separate receptors are responsible for PI breakdown and amylase release

  4. α-Amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paloma Michelle; Souza, Paula Monteiro; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silveira, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of α-amylase, enzyme that plays a role in digestion of starch and glycogen, is considered a strategy for the treatment of disorders in carbohydrate uptake, such as diabetes and obesity, as well as, dental caries and periodontal diseases. Plants are an important source of chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and can be used as therapeutic or functional food sources. A review about crude extracts and isolated compounds from plant source that have been tested for α-amylase inhibitory activity has been done. The analysis of the results shows a variety of crude extracts that present α-amylase inhibitory activity and some of them had relevant activity when compared with controls used in the studies. Amongst the phyto-constituents that have been investigated, flavonoids are one of them that demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities with the potential of inhibition related to number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule of the compound. Several phyto-constituents and plant species as α-amylase inhibitors are being reported in this article. Majority of studies have focused on the anti-amylase phenolic compounds.

  5. Alpha-amylase activity in wheat flour and breadmaking properties in relation to different climatic conditions

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    Rakita Slađana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to evaluate the influence of different climatic conditions on the activity of alpha-amylase in wheat samples and bread quality parameters. Three wheat varieties grown in three different localities in three years were chosen for this study. Commonly used methods for estimation of alpha-amylase activity in wheat grain were employed. The obtained results indicated that harvest year 2013, which was characterized with the excessive amount of rainfall, exhibited the highest level of alpha-amylase activity and the lowest values of the peak viscosity. The lowest alpha-amylase level and the highest peak viscosity and FN value were observed for samples harvested in 2012 which was characterized with the greatest number of days with an average daily temperature above 30 and 35°C. In addition, a decrease in Mixolab parameter torque C3 and specific bread loaf volume, as well as increase in the breakdown torque (C3-C4 of samples harvested in 2013 were observed, which could be attributed to rainy weather influencing increase in alpha-amylase activity. It is found that specific bread loaf volume of wheat samples is highest in 2012. Moreover, a negative correlation between alpha-amylase activity and specific bread volume for all the samples grown in three years was determined.

  6. Production of Amylase by Bacillus polymyxa NCIM No. 2539 from Agroindustrial Wastes

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    Abhishek Dutt Tripathi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: In the present study, Bacillus polymyxa NCIM No. 2539 was selected to utilize agro-industrial byproduct (orange peel for amylase production under submergedfermentation conditions.Material and Methods: Different agro-industrial byproducts like cane molasses, wheat bran, rice bran and orange peel were screened for maximum amylase production. Amylase activitiy of Bacillus polymyxa was studied using starch-agar plate method. MINITAB software Version 17 and central composite design were applied to evaluate effect of supplementation of substrate with different sulphur containing amino acids (cysteine, methionine and cystine and vitamin thiamine on enzyme activity. Further optimization of the parameters viz. amount of substrate, concentration of amino acid and vitamin for maximum amylase production was studied by central composite rotatable design.Results and Conclusion: Among 4 different agro-industrial substrates applied, orange peel showed maximum enzyme production (activity: 492.31 IU g-1 sample. Supplementation of the production media with cysteine showed maximum amylaseproduction (515.38 IU g-1 sample among all three amino acids and control. Supplementation with thiamine also showed more amylase production (469.23 IU g-1 sample as compared to control (415.38 IU g-1. Cysteine and thiamine proved to increaseamylase production significantly. Maximum amylase production was obtained at 7.7 g orange peel, 37.29 mg cysteine and 34.23 mg per 10 ml thiamine.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  7. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

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    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  8. Synthesis and study of the α-amylase inhibitory potential of thiadiazole quinoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Tariq Javid, Muhammad; Imran, Syahrul; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Ullah, Hayat; Rahim, Fazal; Khan, Fahad; Islam Mohammad, Jahidul; Mohammed Khan, Khalid

    2017-10-01

    α-Amylase is a target for type-2 diabetes mellitus treatment. However, small molecule inhibitors of α-amylase are currently scarce. In the course of developing small molecule α-amylase inhibitors, we designed and synthesized thiadiazole quinoline analogs (1-30), characterized by different spectroscopic techniques such as 1 HNMR and EI-MS and screened for α-amylase inhibitory potential. Thirteen analogs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28 and 30 showed outstanding α-amylase inhibitory potential with IC 50 values ranges between 0.002±0.60 and 42.31±0.17μM which is many folds better than standard acarbose having IC 50 value 53.02±0.12μM. Eleven analogs 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19 and 24 showed good to moderate inhibitory potential while seven analogs 8, 13, 16, 20, 21 and 29 were found inactive. Our study identifies novel series of potent α-amylase inhibitors for further investigation. Structure activity relationship has been established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Recurrent Rearrangements of Human Amylase Genes Create Multiple Independent CNV Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwan, Nzar A A; Louzada, Sandra; Yang, Fengtang; Armour, John A L

    2017-05-01

    The human amylase gene cluster includes the human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B), and is a highly variable and dynamic region of the genome. Copy number variation (CNV) of AMY1 has been implicated in human dietary adaptation, and in population association with obesity, but neither of these findings has been independently replicated. Despite these functional implications, the structural genomic basis of CNV has only been defined in detail very recently. In this work, we use high-resolution analysis of copy number, and analysis of segregation in trios, to define new, independent allelic series of amylase CNVs in sub-Saharan Africans, including a series of higher-order expansions of a unit consisting of one copy each of AMY1, AMY2A, and AMY2B. We use fiber-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) to define unexpected complexity in the accompanying rearrangements. These findings demonstrate recurrent involvement of the amylase gene region in genomic instability, involving at least five independent rearrangements of the pancreatic amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B). Structural features shared by fundamentally distinct lineages strongly suggest that the common ancestral state for the human amylase cluster contained more than one, and probably three, copies of AMY1. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. Effect of culture conditions on the activity of amylase used for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.D.; Ryu, Y.H.

    1973-01-01

    A wheat bran culture was used for media for the mold strains: Aspergillus oryzae, A. kawachii, A. usamii, and Rhizopus javanicus, to determine in which strain the amylase activity could be increased the most. The wheat bran media provided 47, 51, and 55% starch for each strain. To the media were added 3 nitrogen sources, viz.: (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, casein, and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ - casein mixture. Each nitrogen source was made available at 2, 4, and 6% levels except only 2% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was used. The results obtained were as follows: (1) The ..cap alpha..-amylase activity was highest in media with 47% starch and 6% casein. (2) The ..beta..-amylase activity was highest in media with 51% starch and 2% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ - casein. (3) Both ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase activities in A. usamii were highest in the media with 47% starch and no additional nitrogen source. (4) Of the 4 strains examined the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase activities in R. javanicus were both relatively the highest. (5) The ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-amylase activities of the strains examined decreased as the percentage of starch was increased except in R. javanicus.

  11. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase. PMID:27391425

  12. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

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    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  13. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  14. Structure based protein engineering of Bacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-amylase: toward a new substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasera, Ana Claudia [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas; Iulek, Jorge [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Delboni, Luis Fernando; Barbosa, Valma Martins Barbosa [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. Structural similarity is observed in all members of {alpha}-amylase family but different products are generated during hydrolysis of starch due to different affinities for intermediate dextrins. In order to understand the structural determinants for this property and to introduce different specificity to {alpha}-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus we intend to solve the three dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography of the native protein by using synchrotron radiation at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Protein was over expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallization experiments were carried out by using sparse matrix Crystal Screen and Crystal Screen II from Hampton Research (Laguna Hills, CA, USA). Several condition have produced crystals with some defined characteristic: MDP seems to be important to the crystallization: the preferential pH is around 7.5 with organic buffer (HEPES); organic solvent as 2-propanol seems to be also important for the crystallization. On those condition crystals appeared as cluster of needles or small crystals with high number of nucleation. New conditions are being prepared to improve the site and quality of crystals. Data collection of native of Bacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-amylase will e done at Protein Crystallography Station at LNLS. Crystal structure of mutated {alpha}-amylase bu site direct mutagenesis of residues suggested by the native crystal structure will be obtained. Co-crystallization of Bacillus stearothermophilus {alpha}-amylase and oligosaccharide will be carried out to identify residues involved in the binding site to plan new mutation. In another series of mutation the putative binding site residues, once identified, will be mutated to residues observed in TAKA amylase to confer different specificity to {alpha}-amylase. Based on the available TAKA amylase structure, in the primary sequence homology and in the three dimensional model of Bacillus stearothermophilus

  15. Structure based protein engineering of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase: toward a new substrate specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasera, Ana Claudia; Iulek, Jorge; Delboni, Luis Fernando; Barbosa, Valma Martins Barbosa

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Structural similarity is observed in all members of α-amylase family but different products are generated during hydrolysis of starch due to different affinities for intermediate dextrins. In order to understand the structural determinants for this property and to introduce different specificity to α-amylase of Bacillus stearothermophilus we intend to solve the three dimensional structure by X-ray crystallography of the native protein by using synchrotron radiation at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Protein was over expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallization experiments were carried out by using sparse matrix Crystal Screen and Crystal Screen II from Hampton Research (Laguna Hills, CA, USA). Several condition have produced crystals with some defined characteristic: MDP seems to be important to the crystallization: the preferential pH is around 7.5 with organic buffer (HEPES); organic solvent as 2-propanol seems to be also important for the crystallization. On those condition crystals appeared as cluster of needles or small crystals with high number of nucleation. New conditions are being prepared to improve the site and quality of crystals. Data collection of native of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase will e done at Protein Crystallography Station at LNLS. Crystal structure of mutated α-amylase bu site direct mutagenesis of residues suggested by the native crystal structure will be obtained. Co-crystallization of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase and oligosaccharide will be carried out to identify residues involved in the binding site to plan new mutation. In another series of mutation the putative binding site residues, once identified, will be mutated to residues observed in TAKA amylase to confer different specificity to α-amylase. Based on the available TAKA amylase structure, in the primary sequence homology and in the three dimensional model of Bacillus stearothermophilus α-amylase (using Bacillus

  16. α-amylase assay and action pattern determination using radioactive substrate, HPLC, and a radioactive flow detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsili, R.T.; Ostapenko, H.

    1987-01-01

    A new assay system is presented for the analysis of α-amylase. The disappearance of 14 C-labeled starch substrate and the appearance of its radioactive degradation products were monitored by HPLC and a radioactive flow detector/integrator. The hydrolysis of radioactive substrate was proportional to enzyme concentration when two commercially available α-amylase preparations of Bacillus subtilis origin were studied. The method demonstrated an average recovery of 101.7 +/- 6.5% when modified food starch was spiked with amylase and analyzed. In addition, the method was shown to be useful for predicting detailed action patterns of various types of amylases

  17. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

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    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  18. α-Amylase in Vaginal Fluid: Association With Conditions Favorable to Dominance of Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Beghini, Joziani; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Giraldo, Paulo C; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal glycogen is degraded by host α-amylase and then converted to lactic acid by Lactobacilli. This maintains the vaginal pH at ≤4.5 and prevents growth of other bacteria. Therefore, host α-amylase activity may promote dominance of Lactobacilli. We evaluated whether the α-amylase level in vaginal fluid is altered in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and whether its concentration was associated with levels of lactic acid isomers and host mediators. Vaginal fluid was obtained from 43 women with BV, 50 women with VVC, and 62 women with no vulvovaginal disorders. Vaginal fluid concentrations of α-amylase, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), hyaluronan, hyaluronidase-1, β-defensin, and elafin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vaginal concentrations of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 8, and d- and l-lactic acid levels in these patients were previously reported. The median vaginal fluid α-amylase level was 1.83 mU/mL in control women, 1.45 mU/mL in women with VVC, and 1.07 mU/mL in women with BV. Vaginal levels of α-amylase were correlated with d-lactic acid (P = .003) but not with l-lactic acid (P > .05) and with SLPI (P vaginal lumen by hyaluronidase-1 and MMP-8 may increase glycogen availability and promote α-amylase activity. The subsequent enhanced availability of glycogen breakdown products would favor proliferation of Lactobacilli, the primary producers of d-lactic acid in the vagina. Concomitant production of NGAL and SLPI would retard growth of BV-related bacteria. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Production, Purification, and Characterization of Thermostable α-Amylase Produced by Bacillus licheniformis Isolate AI20

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    Yasser R. Abdel-Fattah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization strategy, based on statistical experimental design, is employed to enhance the production of thermostable α-amylase by a thermotolerant B. licheniformis AI20 isolate. Using one variant at time (OVAT method, starch, yeast extract, and CaCl2 were observed to influence the enzyme production significantly. Thereafter, the response surface methodology (RSM was adopted to acquire the best process conditions among the selected variables, where a three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to create a polynomial quadratic model correlating the relationship between the three variables and α-amylase activity. The optimal combination of the major constituents of media for α-amylase production was 1.0% starch, 0.75% yeast extract, and 0.02% CaCl2. The predicted optimum α-amylase activity was 384 U/mL/min, which is two folds more than the basal medium conditions. The produced α-amylase was purified through various chromatographic techniques. The estimated enzyme molecular mass was 55 kDa and the α-amylase had an optimal temperature and pH of 60–80°C and 6–7.5, respectively. Values of Vmax and Km for the purified enzyme were 454 mU/mg and 0.709 mg/mL. The α-amylase enzyme showed great stability against different solvents. Additionally, the enzyme activity was slightly inhibited by detergents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, or chelating agents such as EDTA and EGTA. On the other hand, great enzyme stability against different divalent metal ions was observed at 0.1 mM concentration, but 10 mM of Cu2+ or Zn2+ reduced the enzyme activity by 25 and 55%, respectively.

  20. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

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    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  1. Phylogenetic and Comparative Sequence Analysis of Thermostable Alpha Amylases of kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huma, Tayyaba; Maryam, Arooma; Rehman, Shahid Ur; Qamar, Muhammad Tahir Ul; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    Alpha amylase family is generally defined as a group of enzymes that can hydrolyse and transglycosylase α-(1, 4) or α-(1, 6) glycosidic bonds along with the preservation of anomeric configuration. For the comparative analysis of alpha amylase family, nucleotide sequences of seven thermo stable organisms of Kingdom Archea i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Kingdom Prokaryotes i.e. Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C), Bacillus subtilis (70°C) and Bacillus KSM K38 (55°C) and Eukaryotes i.e. Aspergillus oryzae (60°C) were selected from NCBI. Primary structure composition analysis and Conserved sequence analysis were conducted through Bio Edit tools. Results from BioEdit shown only three conserved regions of base pairs and least similarity in MSA of the above mentioned alpha amylases. In Mega 5.1 Phylogeny of thermo stable alpha amylases of Kingdom Archea, Prokaryotes and Eukaryote was handled by Neighbor-Joining (NJ) algorithm. Mega 5.1 phylogenetic results suggested that alpha amylases of thermo stable organisms i.e. Pyrococcus furiosus (100-105°C), Bacillus licheniformis (90-95°C), Geobacillus stearothermophilus (75°C) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (72°C) are more distantly related as compared to less thermo stable organisms. By keeping in mind the characteristics of most thermo stable alpha amylases novel and improved features can be introduced in less thermo stable alpha amylases so that they become more thermo tolerant and productive for industry.

  2. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A A; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G; Armour, John A L

    2015-06-15

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index. In this work, we use paralogue ratio tests, microsatellite analysis, read depth and fibre-FISH to demonstrate that human amylase CNV is not a smooth continuum, but is instead partitioned into distinct haplotype classes. There is a fundamental structural distinction between haplotypes containing odd or even numbers of AMY1 gene units, in turn coupled to CNV in pancreatic amylase genes AMY2A and AMY2B. Most haplotypes have one copy each of AMY2A and AMY2B and contain an odd number of copies of AMY1; consequently, most individuals have an even total number of AMY1. In contrast, haplotypes carrying an even number of AMY1 genes have rearrangements leading to CNVs of AMY2A/AMY2B. Read-depth and experimental data show that different populations harbour different proportions of these basic haplotype classes. In Europeans, the copy numbers of AMY1 and AMY2A are correlated, so that phenotypic associations caused by variation in pancreatic amylase copy number could be detected indirectly as weak association with AMY1 copy number. We show that the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay previously applied to the high-throughput measurement of AMY1 copy number is less accurate than the measures we use and that qPCR data in other studies have been further compromised by systematic miscalibration. Our results uncover new patterns in human amylase variation and imply a potential role for AMY2 CNV in functional associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Obesity, starch digestion and amylase: association between copy number variants at human salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) amylase genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Danielle; Dhar, Sugandha; Mitchell, Laura M.; Fu, Beiyuan; Tyson, Jess; Shwan, Nzar A.A.; Yang, Fengtang; Thomas, Mark G.; Armour, John A.L.

    2015-01-01

    The human salivary amylase genes display extensive copy number variation (CNV), and recent work has implicated this variation in adaptation to starch-rich diets, and in association with body mass index. In this work, we use paralogue ratio tests, microsatellite analysis, read depth and fibre-FISH to demonstrate that human amylase CNV is not a smooth continuum, but is instead partitioned into distinct haplotype classes. There is a fundamental structural distinction between haplotypes containing odd or even numbers of AMY1 gene units, in turn coupled to CNV in pancreatic amylase genes AMY2A and AMY2B. Most haplotypes have one copy each of AMY2A and AMY2B and contain an odd number of copies of AMY1; consequently, most individuals have an even total number of AMY1. In contrast, haplotypes carrying an even number of AMY1 genes have rearrangements leading to CNVs of AMY2A/AMY2B. Read-depth and experimental data show that different populations harbour different proportions of these basic haplotype classes. In Europeans, the copy numbers of AMY1 and AMY2A are correlated, so that phenotypic associations caused by variation in pancreatic amylase copy number could be detected indirectly as weak association with AMY1 copy number. We show that the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay previously applied to the high-throughput measurement of AMY1 copy number is less accurate than the measures we use and that qPCR data in other studies have been further compromised by systematic miscalibration. Our results uncover new patterns in human amylase variation and imply a potential role for AMY2 CNV in functional associations. PMID:25788522

  4. High Temperature-Induced Expression of Rice α-Amylases in Developing Endosperm Produces Chalky Grains

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    Masaru Nakata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming impairs grain filling in rice and reduces starch accumulation in the endosperm, leading to chalky-appearing grains, which damages their market value. We found previously that high temperature-induced expression of starch-lytic α-amylases during ripening is crucial for grain chalkiness. Because the rice genome carries at least eight functional α-amylase genes, identification of the α-amylase(s that contribute most strongly to the production of chalky grains could accelerate efficient breeding. To identify α-amylase genes responsible for the production of chalky grains, we characterized the histological expression pattern of eight α-amylase genes and the influences of their overexpression on grain appearance and carbohydrate components through a series of experiments with transgenic rice plants. The promoter activity of most α-amylase genes was elevated to various extents at high temperature. Among them, the expression of Amy1A and Amy3C was induced in the internal, especially basal to dorsal, region of developing endosperm, whereas that of Amy3D was confined near the ventral aleurone. These regions coincided with the site of occurrence of chalkiness, which was in clear contrast to conventionally known expression patterns of the enzyme in the scutellum and aleurone during seed germination. Furthermore, overexpression of α-amylase genes, except for Amy3E, in developing endosperm produced various degrees of chalky grains without heat exposure, whereas that of Amy3E yielded normal translucent grains, as was the case in the vector control, even though Amy3E-overexpressing grains contained enhanced α-amylase activities. The weight of the chalky grains was decreased due to reduced amounts of starch, and microscopic observation of the chalky part of these grains revealed that their endosperm consisted of loosely packed round starch granules that had numerous pits on their surface, confirming the hydrolysis of the starch reserve by

  5. Characterization of purified α-amylase produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijay Kumar Sethi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase was produced by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using both liquid static surface (LSSF and solid-state fermentation using pearl millet residues as substrate. The maximum production of α-amylase was noticed at 30°C incubated for 96h. The crude α-amylase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and characterized. Characterization of amylase confirmed that the purified α-amylase was found to be most stable at pH 5.0, 60°C temperature, and a substrate concentration of 1.25%. The enzyme was active for 40 min at 70°C with an optimum enzyme–substrate reaction time of 60 min. Amylase was compatible with all detergents tested having highest activity with Surf excel followed by Henko and Ariel. SDS and Tween 20 reduced the activity. Among the metal ions tested, the maximum α-amylase activity was attained in the presence of Ca2+, followed by Mg2+ and Mn2+. The activity of α-amylase was not considerably affected in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100. Amylase activity was accelerated in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not significantly (or slightly affect the activity and stability. Tween 20, urea (5%, and the reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol significantly inhibited the activity of α-amylase. Owing to its noteworthy stability in the presence of detergents, additives, inhibitors, and metal ions, this α-amylase could be an impending enzyme for significant industrial exploitations.

  6. SALIVARY ALPHA-AMYLASE AS A BIOMARKER OF DENTAL FEAR AND ANXIETY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka GYERGYAY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental treatment represents a stress factor for most children. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation of salivary alpha-amylase concentration in children after a video viewing on dental treatments. In this study, 7 to 10 year-old school children were evaluated (n=119. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected before and after viewing a 15 min video on dental treatments performed on children. Changes in salivary alpha-amylase levels have been assessed. Video viewing on dental procedures led to a significant increase of the alpha-amylase level in the whole sample group. This was noticeable in terms of gender as well as age groups. From the viewpoint of age and gender, girls displayed significantly higher levels of amylase in all age groups, while this could be observed only in younger boys. In conclusion, analysis of salivary alpha-amylase revealed that the sight of dental treatment represents a significant source of stress among children.

  7. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase: subclinical indicators of stress as cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozma, S; Dima-Cozma, L C; Ghiciuc, C M; Pasquali, V; Saponaro, A; Patacchioli, F R

    2017-02-06

    Currently, the potential for cardiovascular (CV) stress-induced risk is primarily based on the theoretical (obvious) side effects of stress on the CV system. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase, produced respectively by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) system during stress response, are still not included in the routine evaluation of CV risk and require additional and definitive validation. Therefore, this article overviews studies published between 2010 and 2015, in which salivary cortisol and α-amylase were measured as stress biomarkers to examine their associations with CV/CMR (cardiometabolic risk) clinical and subclinical indicators. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus electronic databases was performed, and 54 key articles related to the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as subclinical indicators of stress and CV/CMR factors, including studies that emphasized methodological biases that could influence the accuracy of study outcomes, were ultimately identified. Overall, the biological impact of stress measured by salivary cortisol and α-amylase was associated with CV/CMR factors. Results supported the use of salivary cortisol and α-amylase as potential diagnostic tools for detecting stress-induced cardiac diseases and especially to describe the mechanisms by which stress potentially contributes to the pathogenesis and outcomes of CV diseases.

  8. Comparison of salivary alpha-amylase levels in gingivitis and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Nindita Carolina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of periodontal disease is influenced by bacteria-plaque, while there are also several factors modifying the host’s response, one of which is psychological stress. Alpha-amylase as a biomarker is also associated with periodontal inflammatory disease. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the difference of alpha-amylase level between gingivitis and periodontitis. Methods: This research constitutes a descriptive study involving 44 subjects, divided into two groups: one of 22 gingivitis subjects and the other of 22 periodontitis subjects. These individuals completed a PSS-14 questionnaire before their levels of alpha salivary amylase were measured by Cocorometer. Data was analyzed by means of a paired T test and a Mann Whitney test with p < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between the alpha-amylase levels of gingivitis and periodontitis. However, no significant contrast existed in the PSS-14 scores of the two periodontal disease groups. Conclusion: In conclusion alpha-amylase levels in the periodontitis group were higher than those in the gingivitis group and could be used as marker indicators of stress.

  9. Long-term stability of diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; La Marca, Roberto; Gollwitzer, Mario; Müller, Andreas; Limm, Heribert; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Nater, Urs M

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate long-term stability and variability of diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase patterns. Diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns were assessed on a single workday with three waves of measurement across a total time period of 24months in 189 participants. Separate hierarchical linear models were analyzed, with and without a number of potential predictor variables (age, BMI, smoking, chronic stress, stress reactivity). While low long-term stability was found in diurnal cortisol, the stability of diurnal alpha-amylase was moderate across the time period of 24months. Several predictor variables had a positive impact on diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns averaged across waves. Our findings underpin the notion that long-term stability is not necessarily warranted in longitudinal studies. It is important to choose an appropriate study design when attempting to disentangle clinically and biologically relevant changes from naturally occurring variations in diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New insight into structure/function relationships in plant alpha-amylase family GH13 members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Eun-Seong; Andersen, Joakim Mark; Nielsen, Morten Munch

    2010-01-01

    Two carbohydrate binding surface sites (SBSs) on barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) displayed synergy in interactions with starch granules, thus being pivotal for hydrolysis of supramolecular substrates. Mutational analysis showed that SBS1 is more critical for the ......Two carbohydrate binding surface sites (SBSs) on barley α-amylase 1 (AMY1) of glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13) displayed synergy in interactions with starch granules, thus being pivotal for hydrolysis of supramolecular substrates. Mutational analysis showed that SBS1 is more critical...... binding domains (SBDs) mediate binding to starch granules. SBDs are currently categorised into 9 carbohydrate binding module (CBM) families. A novel CBM20 subfamily encountered in regulatory enzymes possesses characteristically low affinity for β-CD. Although α-amylase is essential for starch mobilisation...... in germinating barley seeds, efficient degradation requires the concerted action of α-amylase, β-amylase, limit dextrinase (LD) and possibly α-glucosidase. Limit dextrinase (LD) is encoded by a single gene and represents the sole debranching activity during germination. Recent expression of functional LD...

  11. Salinity Inhibits Rice Seed Germination by Reducing α-Amylase Activity via Decreased Bioactive Gibberellin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination plays important roles in the establishment of seedlings and their subsequent growth; however, seed germination is inhibited by salinity, and the inhibitory mechanism remains elusive. Our results indicate that NaCl treatment inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing the contents of bioactive gibberellins (GAs, such as GA1 and GA4, and that this inhibition can be rescued by exogenous bioactive GA application. To explore the mechanism of bioactive GA deficiency, the effect of NaCl on GA metabolic gene expression was investigated, revealing that expression of both GA biosynthetic genes and GA-inactivated genes was up-regulated by NaCl treatment. These results suggest that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency is caused by up-regulated expression of GA-inactivated genes, and the up-regulated expression of GA biosynthetic genes might be a consequence of negative feedback regulation of the bioactive GA deficiency. Moreover, we provide evidence that NaCl-induced bioactive GA deficiency inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression. Additionally, exogenous bioactive GA rescues NaCl-inhibited seed germination by enhancing α-amylase activity. Thus, NaCl treatment reduces bioactive GA content through promotion of bioactive GA inactivation, which in turn inhibits rice seed germination by decreasing α-amylase activity via down-regulation of α-amylase gene expression.

  12. Effects of germination on the activities of amylases and phenolic enzymes in sorghum varieties grouped according to food end-use properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dicko, M.H.; Gruppen, H.; Zouzouho, O.C.; Traore, A.S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty sorghum varieties were screened to determine the effects of germination on levels of starch, -amylase, -amylase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). Germination decreased starch content, with amylose being more degraded than amylopectin. In

  13. Evaluation of Esophageal Anastomotic Integrity With Serial Pleural Amylase Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Helms, Gerald A; Mayfield, William R

    2018-01-01

    An anastomotic leak is the most devastating and potentially fatal complication after esophagectomy. Current detection methods can be inaccurate and place patients at risk of other complications. Analysis of pleural fluid for amylase may be more accurate and place patients at less of a risk for evaluating the integrity of an esophageal anastomosis. We retrospectively reviewed prospective data of 45 consecutive patients who underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy over an 18-month period and evaluated their anastomotic integrity with serial pleural amylase levels (PAL). There were 40 men (89%), and median age was 63 years (range, 35 to 79). Indication for esophagectomy was cancer in 38 patients (84%); 27 (71%) underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation. A barium swallow was performed in the first 25 patients at median postoperative day (POD) 5 (range, 5 to 10); the swallow was negative in 23 patients (93%). Serial PALs were obtained starting on POD 3 and stopped 1 day after toleration of clear liquids. The PALs in the no-leak patients were highest on POD 3 (median 42 IU/L; range, 20 to 102 IU/L) and decreased (median 15 IU/L; range, 8 to 34 IU/L) to the lowest levels 1 day after clear liquid toleration (p = 0.04). Two patients had a leak and had peak PALs of 227 IU/L and 630 IU/L, respectively; both leaks occurred on POD 4, 1 day before their scheduled swallow test. The last 20 patients underwent serial PALs only, without a planned swallow test or computed tomography scan for anastomotic integrity evaluation. One of these patients had a leak on POD 5 with a low PAL of 55 IU/L the day before the spike of more than 4,000 IU/L. Two of the leaks were treated with esophageal stent placement and intravenous antibiotics, and the remaining patient's leak resolved with intravenous antibiotics, no oral intake, and observation only. None of the leak patients required transthoracic esophageal repair or drainage of an empyema. There was 1 postoperative death (2%) secondary to aspiration

  14. Diurnal Salivary Alpha-amylase Dynamics among Dementia Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C.; Almeida, David M.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. Methods A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Results Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 minutes after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Conclusions Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. PMID:27786517

  15. ON THE ACTIVITY OF α-AMYLASE IN SOME CULTURE AND SPONTANEOUS GRAMINACEAE, DURING THEIR GERMINATION PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ciornea

    2006-08-01

    amylase (595.871 M maltose / g has been evidenced 12 hours after the beginning of germination, while, in the case of bristle grass, -amylase attains the maximum level of its activity after 144 hours of germination (429.824 M maltose / g.

  16. Engineering of factors determining alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase specificity in the cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosulfurigenes EM1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, RD; Buitelaar, RM; Dijkhuizen, L

    1998-01-01

    The starch-degrading enzymes alpha-amylase and cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) are functionally and structurally closely related, with CGTases containing two additional domains (called D and E) compared to the three domains of alpha-amylases (A, B and C). Amino acid residue 196

  17. A Kinetic Model to Explain the Maximum in alpha-Amylase Activity Measurements in the Presence of Small Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the presence of several small carbohydrates on the measurement of the -amylase activity was determined over a broad concentration range. At low carbohydrate concentrations, a distinct maximum in the -amylase activity versus concentration curves was observed in several cases. At higher

  18. Using CRISPR/Cas9 to Knock out Amylase in Acinar Cells Decreases Pancreatitis-Induced Autophagy

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    Kohei Yasunaga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm that originates from acinar cells. Acinar cells get reprogrammed to become duct cells, resulting in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatitis is an acinar cell inflammation, leading to “impaired autophagy flux”. Pancreatitis promotes acinar-to-ductal transdifferentiation. Expression of amylase gets eliminated during the progression of pancreatic cancer. Amylase is considered as an acinar cell marker; however, its function in cells is not known. Thus, we investigated whether amylase affects the acinar cell autophagy and whether it plays any role in development of pancreatitis. Here, we knocked out ATG12 in a pancreatic cancer cells and acinar cells using CRISPR/Cas9. Autophagy inhibition led to an increase in the expression of duct cell markers and a simultaneous decrease in that of acinar cell markers. It also caused an increase in cell viability and changes in mitochondrial morphology. Next, we knocked out amylase in acinar cells. Amylase deficiency decreased autophagy induced by pancreatitis. Our results suggest that amylase controls pancreatitis-induced autophagy. We found that eliminating amylase expression contributes to pancreatic cancer etiology by decreasing autophagy. Furthermore, our results indicate that amylase plays a role in selective pancreatitis-induced autophagy of pancreatic enzyme vesicles.

  19. High yield of amylase from Aspergillus niger by the effect of gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Saadany, R.M.A.; Salem, F.A.; El-Manawaty, H.K.

    1984-02-01

    When irradiated rice was used as a media for Aspergillus niger a noticeable increase of amylase production was observed. Molecular degradation of starch molecules did occur, and an increase in starch acidity and solubility was noticed, whereas a marked decrease in viscosity as well as swelling capacity was observed. Gelatinization time and temperature of irradiated starch became shorter or lower resp. These results showed that internal changes in irradiated starch molecules and an alteration in its molecular configuration occured. They may affect the pathway of the growth of the fungi Aspergillus niger. When the amount of amylase was determined by measuring enzyme activity, it was observed that amylases in the irradiated media were higher than in the control media.

  20. A high yield of amylase from Aspergillus niger by the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Saadany, R.M.A.; Salem, F.A.; El-Manawaty, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    When irradiated rice was used as a media for Aspergillus niger a noticeable increase of amylase production was observed. Molecular degradation of starch molecules did occure, and an increase in starch acidity and solubility was noticed, whereas a marked decrease in viscosity as well as swelling capacity was observed. Gelatinization time and temperature of irradiated starch became shorter or lower resp. These results showed that internal changes in irradiated starch molecules and an alteration in its molecular configuration occured. They may affect the pathway of the growth of the fungi Aspergillus niger. When the amount of amylase was determined by measuring enzyme activity, it was observed that amylases in the irradiated media were higher than in the control media. (orig.) [de

  1. Bacterial and Archaeal α-amylases: Diversity and amelioration of the desirable characteristics for industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepika Mehta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  2. Bacterial and Archaeal α-Amylases: Diversity and Amelioration of the Desirable Characteristics for Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deepika; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2016-01-01

    Industrial enzyme market has been projected to reach US$ 6.2 billion by 2020. Major reasons for continuous rise in the global sales of microbial enzymes are because of increase in the demand for consumer goods and biofuels. Among major industrial enzymes that find applications in baking, alcohol, detergent, and textile industries are α-amylases. These are produced by a variety of microbes, which randomly cleave α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch leading to the formation of limit dextrins. α-Amylases from different microbial sources vary in their properties, thus, suit specific applications. This review focuses on the native and recombinant α-amylases from bacteria and archaea, their production and the advancements in the molecular biology, protein engineering and structural studies, which aid in ameliorating their properties to suit the targeted industrial applications.

  3. Study of the solubility of a modified Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase around the isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornilius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    The solubility of a modified recombinant Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (mBLA) has been studied by batch crystallization. A semi-pure preparation was chosen containing five isoforms with pI values from 6 to 7.3 (weighted average of 6.6). Small amounts (... sodium sulfate at all pH values and increased with 0.5 mol.L-1 sodium thiocyanate at pH 7 and pH 8. The effect of anions on alpha-amylase solubility followed the Hofmeister series, and only weak evidence of reversal was seen below the isoelectric point. Cations had little effect on solubility. The sign...... and magnitude of the alpha-amylase zeta potential was determined in the presence and absence of 0.1 mol.L-1 salt. Qualitatively, zeta potential correctly predicted the different salts influence on mBLA solubility....

  4. Traditionally used plants in diabetes therapy: phytotherapeutics as inhibitors of alpha-amylase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Funke

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia. There are many and diverse therapeutic strategies in the management of Type 2 diabetes. The inhibition of alpha-amylase activity is only one possibility to lower postprandial blood glucose levels. In our in-vitro studies we could demonstrate that different plants, mostly traditionally used in common diabetic therapy in Africa or Europe, are able to inhibit alpha-amylase, which is responsible for the breakdown of oligosaccharides into monosaccharides which are absorbed. An inhibition of alpha-amylase activity of 90% was seen with the extract of the leaves of Tamarindus indica. To quantify inhibtion rates, acarbose was used (IC50: 23.2 µM. Highest inhibition level of acarbose in our testmodel was about 85%. Additionally tests with pure polyphenolic compounds might explain the biological activity of the selected plants.

  5. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Emanovic, D.; Simpraga, M.; Nejedli, S.; Stojevic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32 P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32 P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on the formation of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in germinating wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Vakil, U.K.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of alpha-amylase during seedling growth commenced after a prolonged lag-period in wheat (cv. Vijay), irradiated at a high dose (200 krad). Also, a different requirement for exogenous gibberellins (GA) to stimulate the enzyme synthesis was noted in control and irradiated seeds. Further, the developmental patterns of three major isoenzymes of alpha-amylase (designated as α 1 , α 2 - and α 3 ) during germination were different. It was observed that α 1 -isoenzyme which appeared on the fourth day of germination of control seeds, was delayed in its development and was undetectable up to 4 days in samples irradiated with 200 krad. However, α 1 -isoenzyme appeared after 6 days or after 4 days in GA-treated samples in germinating seeds exposed to a high dose. These results suggested that two systems differing in their radiosensitivity and response to GA application were operating in germinating wheat for the synthesis of functional alpha-amylase molecules. (author)

  7. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC 50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC 50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  8. Smart phone: a popular device supports amylase activity assay in fisheries research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprajukaew, Karun; Choodum, Aree; Sa-E, Barunee; Hayee, Ummah

    2014-11-15

    Colourimetric determinations of amylase activity were developed based on a standard dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) staining method, using maltose as the analyte. Intensities and absorbances of red, green and blue (RGB) were obtained with iPhone imaging and Adobe Photoshop image analysis. Correlation of green and analyte concentrations was highly significant, and the accuracy of the developed method was excellent in analytical performance. The common iPhone has sufficient imaging ability for accurate quantification of maltose concentrations. Detection limits, sensitivity and linearity were comparable to a spectrophotometric method, but provided better inter-day precision. In quantifying amylase specific activity from a commercial source (P>0.02) and fish samples (P>0.05), differences compared with spectrophotometric measurements were not significant. We have demonstrated that iPhone imaging with image analysis in Adobe Photoshop has potential for field and laboratory studies of amylase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intra-Operative Amylase Concentration in Peri-Pancreatic Fluid Predicts Pancreatic Fistula After Distal Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Christopher B; de Reuver, Philip R; Hugh, Thomas J; Pearson, Andrew; Gill, Anthony J; Samra, Jaswinder S; Mittal, Anubhav

    2017-06-01

    Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a potentially severe complication following distal pancreatectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of intra-operative amylase concentration (IOAC) in peri-pancreatic fluid after distal pancreatectomy for the diagnosis of POPF. Consecutive patients who underwent a distal pancreatectomy between November 2014 and September 2016 were included in the analysis. IOAC was measured, followed by drain fluid analysis for amylase on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 5. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminative capacity of IOAC as a predictor of POPF. IOAC was measured after distal pancreatectomy in 26 patients. The IOAC correlated significantly with (i) PODs 1, 3, and 5 drain amylase (p  1000 experienced a post-operative complication (OR 18.3, 95% CI 2.51-103, p pancreatectomy.

  10. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Fatoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degrading starch into glucose, and then the process was continued by fermentation to produce bioethanol. Theamylase producer bacterium was proposed as genus Thermus sp. The crude amylase that was obtained has the optimumtemperature of 60°C and optimum pH of 8.0, optimum substrate concentration at 10% (w/w and optimum enzymatic reactiontime of 45 minutes. These enzymes convert the starches of waste tapioca at optimum conditions, with the result of 2.9%ethanol produced from raw materials.

  11. Selective sweep on human amylase genes postdates the split with Neanderthals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inchley, Charlotte E.; Larbey, Cynthia D. A.; Shwan, Nzar A. A.; Pagani, Luca; Saag, Lauri; Antão, Tiago; Jacobs, Guy; Hudjashov, Georgi; Metspalu, Ene; Mitt, Mario; Eichstaedt, Christina A.; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Mormina, Maru; Mägi, Reedik; Villems, Richard; Metspalu, Mait; Jones, Martin K.; Armour, John A. L.; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    Humans have more copies of amylase genes than other primates. It is still poorly understood, however, when the copy number expansion occurred and whether its spread was enhanced by selection. Here we assess amylase copy numbers in a global sample of 480 high coverage genomes and find that regions flanking the amylase locus show notable depression of genetic diversity both in African and non-African populations. Analysis of genetic variation in these regions supports the model of an early selective sweep in the human lineage after the split of humans from Neanderthals which led to the fixation of multiple copies of AMY1 in place of a single copy. We find evidence of multiple secondary losses of copy number with the highest frequency (52%) of a deletion of AMY2A and associated low copy number of AMY1 in Northeast Siberian populations whose diet has been low in starch content. PMID:27853181

  12. Spatio-temporal appearance of α-amylase and limit dextrinase in barley aleurone layer in response to gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahpiri, Azar; Talaei, Nasim; Finnie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Release of LD was found to differ from that of amylase and was suggested to depend on programmed cell death (PCD). Despite detection of intracellular amylase in untreated aleurone layers or aleurone layers treated with ABA or SA, α-amylase was not released from these samples. Nevertheless, the re...

  13. Polymeric amylase nanoparticles as a new semi-synthetic enzyme system for hydrolysis of starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Say, R; Şenay, R Hilal; Biçen, Özlem; Ersöz, Arzu; Şişman Yılmaz, Filiz; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-05-01

    α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1; α-D-1,4,glucan glucanohydrolase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-D-(1,4)-glucosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and various malto-oligosaccharides, by releasing α-anomeric products. In this study, a novel method has been developed to prepare nanoprotein particles that carry α-amylase as a monomer by using a photosensitive microemulsion polymerization process. The nanostructured α-amylase with photosensitive features have been characterized by fluorescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Zeta Sizer. The fluorescence intensity of amylase nanoparticles was determined to be 658 a.u. at 610 nm and the average particle size of nanoamylase was found to be about 71.8 nm. Both free α-amylase and nanoparticles were used in the hydrolysis of starch under varying reaction conditions such as pH and temperature that affect enzyme activity and the results were compared to each other. Km values were 0.26 and 0.87 mM and Vmax values were 0.36 IU mg(-1) and 22.32 IU mg(-1) for nanoenzyme and free enzyme, respectively. Then, thermal stability, storage stability and reusability were investigated and according to the results, activity was preserved 60% at 60 °C; 20% at 70-80 °C temperature values and 80% after 105 days storage. Finally after 10 cycles, the activity was preserved 90% and this novel enzymatic polymeric amylase nanoparticle has showed considerable potential as reusable catalyst. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  15. [Alpha-amylase as an occupational allergen in baking industry employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Larese, F; Molinari, S

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 226 bakers and pastry makers and in 88 students of a training school for bakers, we evaluated skin sensitization to the common allergens, wheat and alpha amylase. Skin prick tests were positive to the enzyme in 17 exposed subjects (7.5%) and in one student with previous occupational exposure as a baker; 27 exposed subjects (11.9%) and 2 students were sensitized to wheat. Among the 42 exposed workers who complained of work-related symptoms, 12 (28.6%) cases were skin positive to amylase and 17 (42.9%) to wheat. Among the 17 workers who were positive to amylase, 16 were also sensitized to wheat and/or common allergens, 12 complained of symptoms at work but since in many cases there was a positive response to wheat, too, it is impossible to speculate on the role of each allergen in inducing symptoms. One case, with work-related rhinoconjunctivitis, had skin sensitization only to alpha amylase but no specific IgE in the serum. These findings confirm that bakers are at risk of sensitization not only to wheat allergen but also to amylase from Aspergillus oryzae. The enzyme should be included in the list of substances to be tested among bakers in whom an occupational allergy is suspected, but particular care should be taken in evaluating the cutaneous response, especially if compared to wheat wheals. Further investigations are also needed to identify the source of risk and to better define the characteristics of the enzyme and the relationship between skin reaction to amylase, sensitization to wheat and atopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Purification and some properties of a novel maltohexaose-producing exo-amylase from Aerobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainuma, K; Wako, K; Kobayashi, S; Nogami, A; Suzuki, S

    1975-12-18

    Maltohexaose producing amylase (EC 3.2.1.-) is the fourth known exo-amylase, the three previously known being glucoamylase, beta-amylase and Pseudomonas stutzeri maltotetraose producing amylase. The enzyme after release from Aerobacter aerogenes cells by 0.1% sodium lauryl sulfate extraction was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration to 80-fold of the original sodium lauryl sulfate extract activity, It gave a single band on disc electrophoresis, and the molecular weight by gel filtration was 54 000. This amylase showed maximal activity at 50 degrees C and pH 6.80. The pH stability range was relatively wide, the enzyme retaining more than 90% of its initial activity in the range of 6.50-9.0. 80% of the activity was retained after 15 min at 50 degrees C. This enzyme produced maltohexaose from starch, amylose and amylopectin by exo-attack, but did not act on alpha- or beta-cyclodextrin, pullulan or maltohexaitol. Also the enzyme acted on beta-limit dextrins of amylopectin and glycogen to form branched oligosaccharides. The unusual reaction of this enzyme on beta-limit dextrin is discussed from the standpoint of the stereochemistry of 1,4-alpha- and 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds. This is the anomalous amylase for which it is recognized that 1,6-alpha-glucosidic linkages in the substrates can mimic the effect of 1,4-alpha-bonds, as previously observed in pseudo-priming reactions of E. coli phosphorylase.

  17. Abdominal Drainage and Amylase Measurement for Detection of Leakage After Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schots, Judith P M; Luyer, Misha D P; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P

    2018-05-07

    To investigate the value of daily measurement of drain amylase for detecting leakage in gastric cancer surgery. This was a retrospective analysis including all patients who underwent a gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From January 2013 until December 2015, an intra-abdominal drain was routinely placed. Drain amylase was measured daily. Receiver operator characteristic curves were created to assess the ability of amylase to predict leakage. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value of amylase in drain fluid were determined. Leakage of the gastrojejunostomy or esophagojejunostomy, enteroenterostomy, duodenal stump, or pancreas was diagnosed by CT scan, endoscopy, or during re-operation. From January 2016 until April 2017, no drain was inserted. Surgical outcome and postoperative complications were compared between both groups. Median drain amylase concentrations were higher for each postoperative day in patients with leakage. The optimal cutoff value was 1000 IU/L (sensitivity 77.8%, specificity 98.2%, negative predictive value 96.6%). Sixty-seven consecutive procedures were performed with a drain and 40 procedures without. No differences in group characteristics were observed except for gender. Fourteen patients (13.1%) had a leakage. The incidence and severity of leakage were not different between the patients with and without a drain. There was no significant difference in time to diagnosis (1 vs. 0 days; p 0.34), mortality rate (7.5 vs. 2.5%; p 0.41), and median length of hospital stay (9 days in both groups; p 0.46). Daily amylase measurement in drain fluid does not influence the early recognition and management of leakage in gastric cancer surgery.

  18. Optimization of the growth conditions for amylase production by bacillus licheniformis 208 isolated from local hotsprings of karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, W.; Saleem, F.; Ajaz, M.; Rasool, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the optimum conditions for the production of extracellular amylase were carried out with a newly isolated strain of Bacillus 208 from the hotsprings in Karachi. The optimum temperature, initial medium pH and incubation period for amylase production were 50 degree C, 7.0 and 24 hrs respectively. Furthermore, cells when grown in the complex media showed high amylase production compared to the minimal medium. Effect of different carbon sources revealed that soluble starch (1%) increased the amylase yield significantly. Peptone (as nitrogen source) gave higher yield as compared to other nitrogen sources tested. Under optimized conditions, the organism entered the stationary phase after 12 hrs and amylase production was observed to be maximum at 24th hrs of cultivation. Enzyme production regulation is influenced by catabolite repression. Reduction in enzyme production was observed in the presence of EDTA while addition of tween 20 and CaCl/sub 2/ helped to enhance the enzyme production. (author)

  19. Two-step purification and partial characterization of an extra cellular α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zare Mirakabadi, A.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was production and partial purification of α-amylase enzyme by Bacillus licheniformis. B. Licheniformis was allowed to grow in broth culture for purpose of inducing α-amylase enzyme. Optimal conditions for amylase production by B. Licheniformis are incubation period of 120 h, temperature of 37 °C and pH 7.0. The α-amylase enzyme was purified by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-sepharose CL-6B and sephadex G-100 gel filtration with a 19.1-fold increase in specific activity as compared to the concentrated supernatant and with a specific activity of 926.47 U/mg. The α-amylase had the highest activity at pH 7.0 and 65 °C. According to the data on native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 72 kDa.

  20. High-resolution α-amylase assay combined with high-performance liquid chromatography−solid-phase extraction−nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for expedited identification of α-amylase inhibitors – proof of concept and α-amylase inhibitor in cinnamon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okutan, Leyla; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Jäger, Anna

    2014-01-01

    . In combination with HPLC–HRMS–SPE–NMR, this provides an analytical platform that allows simultaneous chemical and biological profiling of α-amylase inhibitors in plant extracts. Proof-of-concept with an artificial mixture of six compounds—of which three are known α-amylase inhibitors—showed that the high...

  1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND α-AMYLASE INHIBITION ACTIVITIES OF PANCHSAKAR CHURNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar B.S.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Panchsakar Churna is the composition of Cassia angustifolia, Terminalia chebula, Zingiber officinale, Foeniculum vulgare and Saindhava lavana. Aqueous extract of churna was used to investigate antioxidant activity by ferrous ion chelating assay and ferric reducing power and alpha amylase inhibition activity by dinitrosalicylic acid method (DNSA. Aqueous extract of churna showed maximum ferrous chelating activity - 42.01 and ferric reducing power - 1.5 and 83.33 % of inhibition protein denaturation at 1000 µg/ml. Panchsakar churna showed significant antioxidant and alpha amylase inhibition activities.

  2. Exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Petar; Myny, Katrien; Braeckman, Lutgart; van Sprundel, Marc; Kusters, Edouard; Doekes, Gert; Pössel, Kerstin; Droste, Jos; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries. The study included 70 bakeries from the northern part of Belgium. Based on the degree of automation and a clear division of individual job tasks, four bakeries were identified as industrial and the remaining 66 were identified as traditional ones. Personal, as well as stationary, samples of inhalable dust were collected during full shift periods, usually 5-7 h. The portable pumps aspirated 2 l/min through Teflon personal dust samplers (Millipore, pore size 1.0 microm) mounted in PAS-6 sampling heads. In the collected samples the inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens were determined. Wheat flour allergens were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition and an antiwheat IgG4 serum pool. The alpha-amylase allergens were measured using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay with affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. In total, 440 samples (300 personal and 140 stationary) were processed. The highest inhalable dust exposure was observed in traditional bakeries among bread [geometric mean (GM) 2.10 mg/m3] and bread and pastry workers (GM 1.80 mg/m3). In industrial bakeries the highest dust exposure was measured in bread-producing workers (GM 1.06 mg/m3). Similar relations were observed for wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens. Bread baking workers in traditional bakeries had the highest exposure to both allergens (wheat flour GM 22.33 microg/m(3), alpha-amylase GM 0.61 ng/m3). The exposure to wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial bakeries was higher in bread baking workers (wheat flour GM 6.15 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.47 ng/m3) than in bread packing workers (wheat flour GM 2.79 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.15 ng/m3). The data presented suggest that, on average, exposure in the Belgium bakeries studied-industrial as well as traditional-is lower than or similar to

  3. Different agroresidues used in solid substrate fermentation for alpha- amylase production by bacillus subtilis-329

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, M.; Bhatty, M.B.; Nadeem, M.; Nasreen, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The best mass ratio for agroresidue fermentation for a-amylase production by locally isolated Bacillus subtilis-239 was found to be wheat bran to rice bran 2:1 with 70% initial moisture content for 60 h incubation time. Among different inorganic nitrogen sources supplemented, sodium nitrate and ammonium chloride (0.5% w/w) increased the enzyme yield upto 178 U/ml and 176 U/ml, respectively, whereas all the organic nitrogen sources decreased the enzyme production. Addition of glucose (1% w/w) as a carbon source enhanced a-amylase synthesis to 185 U/ml as compared to the control (134 U/ml). (author)

  4. Amylase-Binding Protein B of Streptococcus gordonii Is an Extracellular Dipeptidyl-Peptidase▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Biswendu; Paju, Susanna; Haase, Elaine M.; Vickerman, M. Margaret; Tanzer, Jason M.; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral commensal bacterium Streptococcus gordonii interacts with salivary amylase via two amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB. Based on sequence analysis, the 20-kDa AbpA protein is unique to S. gordonii, whereas the 82-kDa AbpB protein appears to share sequence homology with other bacterial dipeptidases. The aim of this study was to verify the peptidase activity of AbpB and further explore its potential functions. The abpB gene was cloned, and histidine-tagged AbpB (His-AbpB) was expre...

  5. Improving the Yield of Glucoamylase and α-amylase in Solid-state Co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takefuji Haruka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steamed rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, called Koji, is an essential ingredient for making amazake or brewing sake. However, A. oryzae usually offers low enzyme yield, especially in case of glucoamylase. Co-culture of Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains in Koji increased glucoamylase and α-amylase activities. The ratio of initial spore counts of A. oryzae and R. oryzae influenced the activity of amylolytic enzymes. When this ratio was 1:1, α-amylase showed maximum activity (573 U/g-substrate, 95 h, and when this ratio was 200:1, glucoamylase showed maximum activity (180 U/g-substrate, 95 h.

  6. Improving the Yield of Glucoamylase and α-amylase in Solid-state Co-culture

    OpenAIRE

    Takefuji Haruka; Ninomiya Junko; Morita Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Steamed rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, called Koji, is an essential ingredient for making amazake or brewing sake. However, A. oryzae usually offers low enzyme yield, especially in case of glucoamylase. Co-culture of Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains in Koji increased glucoamylase and α-amylase activities. The ratio of initial spore counts of A. oryzae and R. oryzae influenced the activity of amylolytic enzymes. When this ratio was 1:1, α-amylase showed maximum activity (573 U/g-subs...

  7. Dry-grind processing using amylase corn and superior yeast to reduce the exogenous enzyme requirements in bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Conventional corn dry-grind ethanol production process requires exogenous alpha and glucoamylases enzymes to breakdown starch into glucose, which is fermented to ethanol by yeast. This study evaluates the potential use of new genetically engineered corn and yeast, which can eliminate or minimize the use of these external enzymes, improve the economics and process efficiencies, and simplify the process. An approach of in situ ethanol removal during fermentation was also investigated for its potential to improve the efficiency of high-solid fermentation, which can significantly reduce the downstream ethanol and co-product recovery cost. The fermentation of amylase corn (producing endogenous α-amylase) using conventional yeast and no addition of exogenous α-amylase resulted in ethanol concentration of 4.1 % higher compared to control treatment (conventional corn using exogenous α-amylase). Conventional corn processed with exogenous α-amylase and superior yeast (producing glucoamylase or GA) with no exogenous glucoamylase addition resulted in ethanol concentration similar to control treatment (conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase addition). Combination of amylase corn and superior yeast required only 25 % of recommended glucoamylase dose to complete fermentation and achieve ethanol concentration and yield similar to control treatment (conventional corn with exogenous α-amylase, conventional yeast with exogenous glucoamylase). Use of superior yeast with 50 % GA addition resulted in similar increases in yield for conventional or amylase corn of approximately 7 % compared to that of control treatment. Combination of amylase corn, superior yeast, and in situ ethanol removal resulted in a process that allowed complete fermentation of 40 % slurry solids with only 50 % of exogenous GA enzyme requirements and 64.6 % higher ethanol yield compared to that of conventional process. Use of amylase corn and superior yeast in the dry-grind processing industry

  8. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA. Aim: To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged. Wilcoxon′s Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80 years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to

  9. Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Subodh; Sagar, Sushma; Subramanian, Arulselvi; Albert, Venencia; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kapoor, Nitika

    2012-04-01

    There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA). To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged). Wilcoxon's Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80) years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to be significant. Day 1 serum amylase, AST, ALT, hemoglobin, and

  10. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

    1987-01-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production

  11. Utilization of corn starch as sustrate for ß-Amylase by Bacillus SPP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn starch was used as substrate for ß -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans, ...

  12. Proteinase, amylase, and proteinase-inhibitor activities in the gut of six cockroach species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinokurov, Konstantin; Taranushenko, Yuliya; Krishnan, Natraj; Sehnal, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, - (2007), s. 794-802 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA522/06/1591; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : amylases * Blattodea * gut pH Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.294, year: 2007

  13. Halotolerant ability and α-amylase activity of some saltwater fungal isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niknejad, F.; Moshfegh, M.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Houbraken, J.; Rezaei, S.; Zarrini, G.; Faramarzi, M.A.; Nafissi-Varcheh, N.

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum

  14. Investigating the Hydrolysis of Starch Using "a"-Amylase Contained in Dishwashing Detergent and Human Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munegumi, Toratane; Inutsuka, Masato; Hayafuji, Yukitaka

    2016-01-01

    Although saliva has commonly been used to teach about digestion by organisms, the phenomenon of digestion is actually caused by enzymes as catalytic substances. This activity explores the hydrolysis of starch by "a"-amylase in cleaning materials as well as a comparison with the similar reaction using human saliva. The fact that the…

  15. Enhanced starch hydrolysis using α-amylase immobilized on cellulose ultrafiltration affinity membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalova, Viktoriia; Guzikevich, Kateryna; Burban, Anatoliy; Kujawski, Wojciech; Jarzynka, Karolina; Kujawa, Joanna

    2016-11-05

    In order to prepare ultrafiltration membranes possessing biocatalytic properties, α-amylase has been immobilized on cellulose membranes. Enzyme immobilization was based on a covalent bonding between chitosan and a surface of cellulose membrane, followed by an attachment of Cibacron Blue F3G-A dye as affinity ligand. Various factors affecting the immobilization process, such as enzyme concentration, pH of modifying solution, zeta-potential of membrane surface, and stability of immobilized enzyme were studied. The applicability of immobilized α-amylase has been investigated in ultrafiltration processes. The immobilization of α-amylase on membrane surface allows to increase the value of mass transfer coefficient and to decrease the concentration polarization effect during ultrafiltration of starch solutions. The enzyme layer on the membrane surface prevents a rapid increase of starch concentration due to the amylase hydrolysis of starch in the boundary layer. The presented affinity immobilization technique allows also for the regeneration of membranes from inactivated enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Isolation of α-amylase from malted rice (Wita 7) extract using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude α-amylase from the 8th day malt extract was subsequently purified using starch column procedure. The purified extract recorded an estimated activity of 75.549 U/ml. The project further examined the effects of varying the ratios of starch adsorbent height to column diameter (L/D) during the purification step. For the ...

  17. Pancreatitis with normal lipase and amylase in setting of end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anuj; Masood, Umair; Khan, Babar; Chawla, Kunal; Manocha, Divey

    2017-09-01

    Pancreatitis with normal lipase and amylase level is a rare phenomenon. This is especially true in patient with end-stage renal disease as lipase and amylase are renally excreted. Literature review reveals previous case report of pancreatitis with normal lipase and amylase level, however, none of them occurred in the setting of end-stage renal disease. Our case is the first such reported case of pancreatitis in such setting. Here we report a 30year old male with past medical history of end-stage renal disease who presented in emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Laboratory work up revealed normal lipase and amylase level. However, radiological work up was consistent with pancreatitis. This case report highlight the importance of taking the overall clinical picture rather than laboratory work up to rule in or rule out the diagnosis of pancreatitis. Furthermore, this should also serve an important reminder for clinicians to further investigate where clinical suspicion for pancreatitis is high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation between salivary amylase and cortisol respnses to different stress tasks: Impact of sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stegeren, A.H.; Wolf, O.T.; Kindt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Neuro-endocrine markers such as salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol (CORT) play an important role in establishing human responses to stressful events. Whereas sAA levels reflect sympathetic system activity, salivary cortisol appears to be a valid measure for HPA axis activity. Although many

  19. Surface binding sites in amylase have distinct roles in recognition of starch structure motifs and degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Nielsen, Morten M.; Christiansen, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    degrading enzymes and critically important for their function. The affinity towards a variety of starch granules as well as soluble poly- and oligosaccharides of barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1) wild-type and mutants of two SBSs (SBS1 and SBS2) was investigated using Langmuir binding analysis, confocal laser...

  20. NMR-based metabolomics for identification of α-amylase inhibitors in rowan berries (Sorbus spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Sofie L.; Gramsbergen, Simone; Nyberg, Nils

    Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder estimated to affect millions of people all over the world.1 One way of reducing diabetes-related complications is to control postprandial glucose.2 Inhibition of the carbohydrate digestive enzyme α-amylase is a therapeutic target for maintaining low blood g...... a 1H-NMR method suitable for NMR-based metabolomics...

  1. A rapid lateral flow immunoassay for the detection of fungal alpha-amylase at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koets, M.; Sander, I.; Bogdanovic, J.; Doekes, G.; Amerongen, van A.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal alpha-amylase is a flour supplement which is added to improve the quality of bakery products. Various studies have shown that exposure to this enzyme is an important risk factor for the development of bakers allergy and this allergy is reported to be one of the most frequent causes of

  2. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  3. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  4. Peer Victimization and Aggression: Moderation by Individual Differences in Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Karen D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examined whether variations in salivary measures of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (alpha amylase [sAA]) contribute to individual differences in the association between peer victimization and aggression. Children (N = 132; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer…

  5. Salivary alpha-amylase : a measure associated with satiety and subsequent food intake in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harthoorn, L.F.

    2008-01-01

    Food intake regulation in humans involves various central and peripheral mechanisms. In this study salivary -amylase was examined for functioning as a measure of satiety and food intake. In a 1.25-h session, 32 fasted subjects were given a preload of starch-based custard (849 kJ) followed by ad

  6. Role of electrostatic repulsion on colloidal stability of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Kim Bruno; Randolf, Theodor

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus halmapalus α-amylase (BHA) as a model protein. Repulsive forces between partly unfolded monomers were shown to strongly affect aggregation. Adding salt, increasing valence of counter ions or decreasing pH in the direction of pI resulted in a shift in the rate-limiting step from association...

  7. Effects of calcium ion concentration on starch hydrolysis of barley α-amylase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuk, Jeong-Bin; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Tae-Hee

    2008-01-01

    Barley (x-amylase genes, amyl and amy2, were separately cloned into the expression vector of pPICZ alpha A and recombinant Pichia strains were established by homologous recombination. Both AMYs from Pichia shared almost identical hydrolysis patterns on short maltooligosaccharides to result...

  8. Synthesis and in vitro study of benzofuran hydrazone derivatives as novel alpha-amylase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Muhammad; Shah, Syed Adnan Ali; Imran, Syahrul; Afifi, Muhammad; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Manikandan; Rahim, Fazal; Ullah, Hayat; Zaman, Khalid; Vijayabalan, Shantini

    2017-12-01

    The α-amylase acts as attractive target to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore in discovering a small molecule as α-amylase inhibitor, we have synthesized benzofuran carbohydrazide analogs (1-25), characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as 1 HNMR and EI-MS. All screened analog shows good α-amylase inhibitory potentials with IC 50 value ranging between 1.078±0.19 and 2.926±0.05µM when compared with acarbose having IC 50 =0.62±0.22µM. Only nine analogs among the series such as analogs 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 21, 23 and 24 exhibit good inhibitory potential with IC 50 values 1.644±0.128, 1.078±0.19, 1.245±0.25, 1.843±0.19, 1.350±0.24, 1.629±0.015, 1.353±0.232, 1.359±0.119 and 1.488±0.07µM when compare with standard drug acarbose. All other analogs showed good to moderate α-amylase inhibitory potentials. The SAR study was conducted on the basis of substituent difference at the phenyl ring. The binding interaction between analogs and active site of enzyme was confirmed by docking studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laboratory rotting of Egusi Fruits was completed in 120 hours. At this stage pulp became soft and the seeds were extracted easily with the fingers. The changes in the composition of the pulp, alpha-amylase activity and titratable acidity during the controlled rotting of egusi fruit (Colocynthis citrullus L.) for the harvesting of ...

  10. Attenuation of Porphyromonas gingivalis oral infection by α-amylase and pentamidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Miao, Yu-Song; Fu, Yun; Li, Xi-Ting; Yu, Shao-Jie

    2015-08-01

    The Porphyromonas gingivalis bacterium is one of the most influential pathogens in oral infections. In the current study, the antimicrobial activity of α-amylase and pentamidine against Porphyromonas gingivalis was evaluated. Their in vitro inhibitory activity was investigated with the agar overlay technique, and the minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were determined. Using the bactericidal concentration, the antimicrobial actions of the inhibitors were investigated. In the present study, multiple techniques were utilized, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), general structural analysis and differential gene expression analysis. The results obtained from SEM and bactericidal analysis indicated a notable observation; the pentamidine and α-amylase treatment destroyed the structure of the bacterial cell membranes, which led to cell death. These results were used to further explore these inhibitors and the mechanisms by which they act. Downregulated expression levels were observed for a number of genes coding for hemagglutinins and gingipains, and various genes involved in hemin uptake, chromosome replication and energy production. However, the expression levels of genes associated with iron storage and oxidative stress were upregulated by α-amylase and pentamidine. A greater effect was noted in response to pentamidine treatment. The results of the present study demonstrate promising therapeutic potential for α-amylases and pentamidine. These molecules have the potential to be used to develop novel drugs and broaden the availability of pharmacological tools for the attenuation of oral infections caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis.

  11. Production of Active Bacillus licheniformis Alpha-Amylase in Tobacco and its Application in Starch Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, J; MOLENDIJK, L; Quax, Wim J.; SIJMONS, PC; VANOOYEN, AJJ; VANDENELZEN, PJM; RIETVELD, K; HOEKEMA, A

    As a first example of the feasibility of producing industrial bulk enzymes in plants, we have expressed Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in transgenic tobacco, and applied the seeds directly in starch liquification. The enzyme was properly secreted into the intercellular space, and maximum

  12. Production of a Thermostable Α-Amylase and its Assay using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for amylolytic properties from obtained isolates was carried out on starch agar plates while production and characterization of α-amylase was carried out using submerged fermentation. The isolated organism was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. Physiological studies on the isolate showed that temperature of ...

  13. Intra-Operative Amylase Concentration in Peri-Pancreatic Fluid Predicts Pancreatic Fistula After Distal Pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahm, C.B.; Reuver, P.R.; Hugh, T.J.; Pearson, A.; Gill, A.J.; Samra, J.S.; Mittal, A.

    2017-01-01

    Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a potentially severe complication following distal pancreatectomy. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of intra-operative amylase concentration (IOAC) in peri-pancreatic fluid after distal pancreatectomy for the diagnosis of POPF.

  14. Michaelis kinetic analysis of extracellular cellulase and amylase excreted by Lactobacillus plantarum during cassava fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frediansyah, Andri; Kurniadi, Muhamad

    2017-01-01

    Our previous study reveal that single culture of Lactobacillus plantarum has ability to ferment cassava tuber in relation to produce modified cassava flour (mocaf). It was used to accelerate a fermentation process. L. plantarum grow well and produce some extracellular enzymes i.e. cellulase to change the structure and breakdown the cell wall of cassava tuber. Then, the starchy materials will be hydrolyzed by i.e. amylase into simple sugar and convert to organic acid. All of these process will give new characteristic of cassava i.e. lower fiber content, good flavor, taste, aroma and texture and the amount of cyanide acid is lower. Therefore this present study was to analyze Michaelis kinetics of extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase and amylase production by L. plantarum during cassava fermentation. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase and amylase activity of 8.60 U/ml and 14.07 U/ml, respectively, were obtained from filtrate which has been incubated at 37°C for 18 h under stationary conditions. The Vmax and Km of CMCase were 0.8506 × 10-3 U/ml and 0.9594 × 10-3 g/mL, respectively. For amylase were 9.291 × 10-3 U/ml and 0.9163 × 10-3 g/ml, respectively.

  15. Enhancing Maritime Education and Training: Measuring a Ship Navigator's Stress Based on Salivary Amylase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Koji; Wakida, Shin-Ichi; Miyado, Takashi; Fukushi, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yuji; Stone, Laurie C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the measurement of salivary amylase activity is an effective index to evaluate the stress of a ship navigator for safe navigation training and education. Design/methodology/approach: Evaluation comes from the simulator and actual on-board experiments. The subjects are real captains who have…

  16. The studies on radiation mutation breeding of Bacillus subtilis with high-yield of amylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Zhang Liang; Zhang Jianguo; Zhou Liwei

    2008-01-01

    The mutagenesis effects on the yield of amylase have been investigated with Bacillus subtilis irradiated by γ-rays and fast neutrons in once or twice irradiation at various dose rates and total irradiation doses. Several parameters such as flat transparent circle, colony diameter, transparent circle diameter and the ratio of flat transparent circle to colony diameter (HC) are used to estimate the radiation mutation of Bacillus subtilis. A series of results has been obtained as (1) Irradiation both with neutrons and γ-rays could make Bacillus subtilis mutationed to produce high-yield amylase effectively. (2) The average colony diameter of Bacillus subtilis irradiated by γ-rays or fast neutrons is smaller than that of control group at various total doses and dose rates. And their colony diameter becomes smaller slightly with the increment of γ-rays irradiation dose. (3) After the second neutrons irradiation, the values of average colony diameter, the biggest colony diameter, average transparent circle diameter and the biggest transparent circle diameter of all mutationed Bacillus subtilis exceed that of original strains greatly. (4) Three kinds of mutationed Bacillus subtilis strains with high-yield amylase have been screened out, in which two strains can produce high-yield amylase steadily after 15 times breeding. Their biggest colony diameter, the biggest transparent circle diameter and the biggest HC value are up to 8.32 mm, 22.38 mm and 5.39 respectively. (authors)

  17. Characterization and increment of amylase production in mutant strains of Iranian native Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mobini-Dehkordi

    2017-03-01

    Results: In this study, two interesting mutant strains were isolated and named B.L.2.M.1 and B.L.2.M.2. Mutations caused many changes in bacteria such as cell growth speed and enzyme production content. Differences in cell growth, production of amylase and other characters were significant at 0.05 level (Pvalue

  18. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  19. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri ...

  20. Adipokinetic hormones control amylase activity in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana) gut

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bodláková, K.; Jedlička, Pavel; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 259-269 ISSN 1672-9609 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : AKH * AKH receptor * amylase * enzyme * gene expression * midgut Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Entomology; Biochemistry and molecular biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2016

  1. In vitro antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of spiced red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spiced chili paste (green or red), locally known as Datta, is a traditional popular spicy paste consumed in Ethiopia. This study investigated the total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), in vitro antioxidant, and α-amylase inhibition activities of water, acetone, petroleum ether, methanol, and 80% methanol ...

  2. Production of α-amylase by solid state fermentation by Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... However, only a few strains of fungi and bacteria meet the criteria for production of ... amylase production, but solid-state fermentation (SSF) is emerging as a ..... synthesis of lactic acid in R. oryzae and Rhizopus arrhizus using ...

  3. Determinants of salivary evening alpha-amylase in a large sample free of psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Although determinants of sAA have been described, they have not been studied within the same study with a large sample size

  4. A calorimetric study of solute effects on the kinetic stability of a-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Kim Bruno; Øgendal, Lars Holm

    2009-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the applications of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) to Study solute effects on the kinetics of irreversible protein denaturation. More specifically, denaturation of Bacillus Halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) was initiated by addition of EDTA to the calorimetric cell...

  5. Interactions between Barley a-Amylases, Substrates, Inhibitors and Regulatory Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachem, Maher Abou; Bozonnet, Sophie; Willemoës, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Barley a-amylase binds sugars at two sites on the enzyme surface in addition to the active site. Crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis highlight the importance of aromatic residues at these surface sites as demonstrated by Kd values determined for ß-cyclodextrin by surface plasmon resonan...

  6. Study on the mould-resistant properties of moso bamboo treated with high pressure and amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Dong Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo's products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for...

  7. Morphological characterization of recombinant strains of Aspergillus oryzae producing alpha-amylase during batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1997-01-01

    Three alpha-amylase producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae used for recombinant protein production have been studied with respect to growth and protein production. By comparing the three strains with respect to morphology and protein production it is shown that a morphological mutant with a more...

  8. Production of alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae for several industrial applications in a single step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirif, María C; Milatich, Esteban J; Farruggia, Beatriz M; Romanini, Diana

    2016-06-01

    A one-step method as a strategy of alpha-amylase concentration and purification was developed in this work. This methodology requires the use of a very low concentration of biodegradable polyelectrolyte (Eudragit(®) E-PO) and represents a low cost, fast, easy to scale up and non-polluting technology. Besides, this methodology allows recycling the polymer after precipitation. The formation of reversible soluble/insoluble complexes between alpha-amylase and the polymer Eudragit(®) E-PO was studied, and their precipitation in selected conditions was applied with bioseparation purposes. Turbidimetric assays allowed to determine the pH range where the complexes are insoluble (4.50-7.00); pH 5.50 yielded the highest turbidity of the system. The presence of NaCl (0.05M) in the medium totally dissociates the protein-polymer complexes. When the adequate concentration of polymer was added under these conditions to a liquid culture of Aspergillus oryzae, purification factors of alpha-amylase up to 7.43 and recoveries of 88% were obtained in a simple step without previous clarification. These results demonstrate that this methodology is suitable for the concentration and production of alpha-amylase from this source and could be applied at the beginning of downstream processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-throughput hydrolysis of starch during permeation across α-amylase-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Suguru; Kubota, Noboru; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kohei; Sugo, Takanobu

    2002-02-01

    Two kinds of supporting porous membranes, ethanolamine (EA) and phenol (Ph) fibers, for immobilization of α-amylase were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of an epoxy-group-containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane, and subsequent ring-opening with EA and Ph, respectively. An α-amylase solution was forced to permeate radially outward through the pores of the EA and Ph fibers. α-Amylase was captured at a density of 0.15 and 6.6 g/L of the membrane by the graft chain containing 2-hydroxyethylamino and phenyl groups, respectively. A permeation pressure of 0.10 MPa provided a space velocity of 780 and 1500 h -1 for the α-amylase-immobilized EA and Ph fibers, respectively. Quantitative hydrolysis of starch during permeation of a 20 g/L starch solution in the buffer across the α-amylase-immobilized Ph fiber was attained up to a space velocity of about 2000 h -1; this was achieved because of negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance of the starch to the α-amylase due to convective flow, whereas an enzyme reaction-controlled system was observed for the α-amylase-immobilized EA fiber.

  10. High-throughput hydrolysis of starch during permeation across α-amylase-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Suguru; Kubota, Noboru; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Saito, Kyoichi; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kohei; Sugo, Takanobu

    2002-01-01

    Two kinds of supporting porous membranes, ethanolamine (EA) and phenol (Ph) fibers, for immobilization of α-amylase were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of an epoxy-group-containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane, and subsequent ring-opening with EA and Ph, respectively. An α-amylase solution was forced to permeate radially outward through the pores of the EA and Ph fibers. α-Amylase was captured at a density of 0.15 and 6.6 g/L of the membrane by the graft chain containing 2-hydroxyethylamino and phenyl groups, respectively. A permeation pressure of 0.10 MPa provided a space velocity of 780 and 1500 h -1 for the α-amylase-immobilized EA and Ph fibers, respectively. Quantitative hydrolysis of starch during permeation of a 20 g/L starch solution in the buffer across the α-amylase-immobilized Ph fiber was attained up to a space velocity of about 2000 h -1 ; this was achieved because of negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance of the starch to the α-amylase due to convective flow/ whereas an enzyme reaction-controlled system was observed for the α-amylase-immobilized EA fiber.

  11. High-throughput hydrolysis of starch during permeation across {alpha}-amylase-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Suguru; Kubota, Noboru; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Saito, Kyoichi E-mail: marukyo@xtal.tf.chiba-u.ac.jp; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kohei; Sugo, Takanobu

    2002-02-01

    Two kinds of supporting porous membranes, ethanolamine (EA) and phenol (Ph) fibers, for immobilization of {alpha}-amylase were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of an epoxy-group-containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane, and subsequent ring-opening with EA and Ph, respectively. An {alpha}-amylase solution was forced to permeate radially outward through the pores of the EA and Ph fibers. {alpha}-Amylase was captured at a density of 0.15 and 6.6 g/L of the membrane by the graft chain containing 2-hydroxyethylamino and phenyl groups, respectively. A permeation pressure of 0.10 MPa provided a space velocity of 780 and 1500 h{sup -1} for the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized EA and Ph fibers, respectively. Quantitative hydrolysis of starch during permeation of a 20 g/L starch solution in the buffer across the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized Ph fiber was attained up to a space velocity of about 2000 h{sup -1}; this was achieved because of negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance of the starch to the {alpha}-amylase due to convective flow/ whereas an enzyme reaction-controlled system was observed for the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized EA fiber.

  12. The relationship between the level of salivary alpha amylase activity and pain severity in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Assessment of dental pain severity is very challenging in dentistry. Previous studies have suggested that elevated salivary alpha amylase may contribute to increased physical stresses. There is a close association between salivary alpha amylase and plasma norepinephrine under stressful physical conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain severity and salivary alpha amylase levels in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Thirty-six patients (20 females and 16 males with severe tooth pain due to symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were selected. The visual analogue scale (VAS score was used to assess the pain severity in each patient. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and the level of alpha amylase activity was assessed by the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13. Results The level of alpha amylase was significantly increased in the saliva in association with pain severity assessed by VAS. The salivary alpha amylase was also elevated with increased age and in males. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between the VAS pain scale and salivary alpha amylase level, which indicates this biomarker may be a good index for the objective assessment of pain intensity.

  13. Production of α-amylase by Aspergillus terreus NCFT 4269.10 using pearl millet and its structural characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIJAY KUMAR eSETHI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, Aspergillus terreus NCFT4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (LSSF and solid state (SSF fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. One-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. The maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (PM as substrate by SSF (19.19± 0.9 Ug-1 and also in presence of 1mM magnesium sulphate, 0.025% (w/v gibberellic acid and 30 mg/100ml (w/v of vitamin E (~ 60 fold higher production of amylase with the initial medium pH of 7.0 and incubation at 30 ºC for 96 h. In addition, maltose, gelatin and isoleucine also influenced the α-amylase production. Amylase was purified to homogeneity with molecular mass around 15.3 kDa. The enzyme comprised of a typical secondary structure containing α-helix (12.2%, β-pleated sheet (23.6% and β-turn (27.4%. Exploitation of PM for α-amylase production with better downstream makes it the unique enzyme for various biotechnological applications.

  14. Characterization of a digestive α-amylase in the larvae of Pieris brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash eZibaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study deals with a digestive α-amylase in the larvae of Pieris brassicae L. through purification, enzymatic characterization, gene expression and in vivo effect of a specific inhibitor, Acarbose. Although α-amylase activity was the highest in the whole gut homogenate of larvae but compartmentalization of amylolytic activity showed an equal activity in posterior midgut (PM and anterior midgut (AM. A three step purification using ammonium sulfate, Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-Cellulose Fast flow revealed an enzyme with a specific activity of 5.18 U/mg, recovery of 13.20, purification fold of 19.25 and molecular weight of 88 kDa. The purified α-amylase had the highest activity at optimal pH and temperature of 8 and 35 ºC. Also, the enzyme had Vmax values of 4.64 and 3.02 U/mg protein and Km values of 1.37 and 1.74% using starch and glycogen as substrates, respectively. Different concentrations of acarbose, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethylether N, N, N′, N′-tetraacetic acid significantly decreased activity of the purified α-amylase. The 4th instar larvae of P. brassicae were fed on the treated leaves of Raphanus sativus L. with 0.22 mM of Acarbose to find in vivo effects on nutritional indices, α-amylase activity and gene expression. The significant differences were only found in conversion efficiency of digested food, relative growth rate and metabolic cost of control and fed larvae on Acarbose. Also, amylolytic activity significantly decreased in the treated larvae by both biochemical and native-PAGE experiments. Results of RT-PCR revealed a gene with 621 bp length responsible for α-amylase expression that had 75% identity with Papilio xuthus and P. polytes. Finally, qRT-PCR revealed higher expression of α-amylase in control larvae compared to acarbose-fed ones.

  15. Production and immobilization of alpha amylase using biotechnology techniques for use in biological and medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasher, E.E.F.

    2009-01-01

    The immobilized enzymes on polymeric supports are prepared for purpose of repeated use and the possibilities of continuous reaction system. One of the most important properties is the stability of proteins when they are used in some medical and industrial applications. The immobilization of the enzymes improves this property as well as many other properties.In this study, alpha amylase was purified and immobilized onto two different polymers. α- amylase was used in this study for its biological and industrial applications. It is used in paper textile, pharmaceutical applications, food, and detergent industries. α- amylase was found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Purification of α-amylase from microorganisms is the main source of α-amylase because it was excreted from many bacteria and fungi. In this study, α-amylase was purified from Aspergillus niger. Fractional precipitation of the α- amylase produced by A. niger with 80% ammonium sulphate saturation. The crude enzyme was applied on column chromatography packed with Sephadex G 100 for purification. The active eluents containing partially purified enzyme were collected for further investigation. The specific activity of α-amylase was (34.9 U/mg) which was corresponding to 2.09 fold purification for the tested organism. The purified α-amylase was immobilized by entrapment method into two types of polymers. One of them was natural consist of chitosan and alginate. The other polymer was synthetic consist of N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. The temperature optimum and thermal inactivation showed a severe loss in the activity of the free enzymes, while the temperature profile of the immobilized enzymes was much broader at higher temperatures demonstrating the effectiveness of the polymer protecting the enzymes. Also, the immobilized enzymes (natural polymer and synthetic polymer) showed higher thermal stability. Optimum ph and stability showed that immobilization of enzymes resulted in more

  16. Pancreatic α-Amylase Controls Glucose Assimilation by Duodenal Retrieval through N-Glycan-specific Binding, Endocytosis, and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kimie; Satoh, Ayano; Iida, Kaoruko; Ogawa, Haruko

    2015-01-01

    α-Amylase, a major pancreatic protein and starch hydrolase, is essential for energy acquisition. Mammalian pancreatic α-amylase binds specifically to glycoprotein N-glycans in the brush-border membrane to activate starch digestion, whereas it significantly inhibits glucose uptake by Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) at high concentrations (Asanuma-Date, K., Hirano, Y., Le, N., Sano, K., Kawasaki, N., Hashii, N., Hiruta, Y., Nakayama, K., Umemura, M., Ishikawa, K., Sakagami, H., and Ogawa, H. (2012) Functional regulation of sugar assimilation by N-glycan-specific interaction of pancreatic α-amylase with glycoproteins of duodenal brush border membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 23104–23118). However, how the inhibition is stopped was unknown. Here, we show a new mechanism for the regulation of intestinal glucose absorption. Immunohistochemistry revealed that α-amylase in the duodena of non-fasted, but not fasted, pigs was internalized from the pancreatic fluid and immunostained. We demonstrated that after N-glycan binding, pancreatic α-amylase underwent internalization into lysosomes in a process that was inhibited by α-mannoside. The internalized α-amylase was degraded, showing low enzymatic activity and molecular weight at the basolateral membrane. In a human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, Alexa Fluor 488-labeled pancreatic α-amylase bound to the cytomembrane was transported to lysosomes through the endocytic pathway and then disappeared, suggesting degradation. Our findings indicate that N-glycan recognition by α-amylase protects enterocytes against a sudden increase in glucose concentration and restores glucose uptake by gradual internalization, which homeostatically controls the postprandial blood glucose level. The internalization of α-amylase may also enhance the supply of amino acids required for the high turnover of small intestine epithelial cells. This study provides novel and significant insights into the control of blood sugar during the absorption

  17. Predictive value of α-amylase in tracheal aspirates for ventilator-associated pneumonia in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ge-Ping; Fang, Xiang-Qun; Xu, Ya-Ping; Shi, Min; Wang, Yang; Gong, Mei-Liang; Fang, Hao-Ming

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the correlation between α-amylase in tracheal aspirates and risk factors of aspiration, as well as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), in elderly patients undergoing mechanical ventilation and explore the clinical value of α-amylase for predicting VAP. Tracheal aspirates were collected from elderly patients within 2 weeks after tracheal intubation in mechanical ventilation, and α-amylase was detected. Patients were grouped according to the presence of VAP. The correlation between α-amylase and risk factors of aspiration before intubation, as well as VAP, were analyzed. The sample of this study comprised 147 patients. The average age of these patients was 86.9 years. The incidence of VAP was 21% during the study period. Tracheal aspirate α-amylase level increased with the increase in the number of risk factors for aspiration before intubation, α-amylase level was significantly higher in the VAP group than in the non-VAP group, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of the diagnostic value of α-amylase for VAP was 0.813 (95% CI: 0.721-0.896), threshold value was 4,681.5 U/L, sensitivity was 0.801 and specificity was 0.793. Logistic multivariate analysis revealed the following risk factors for VAP: a number of risk factors before intubation of ≥3, a Glasgow score of aspiration of subglottic secretion and a tracheal aspirate α-amylase level of >4681.5 U/L. Tracheal aspirate α-amylase can serve as a biomarker for predicting VAP in elderly patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Two Strategies for Microbial Production of an Industrial Enzyme-Alpha-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Garriott, Owen; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that thrive in, from an anthropocentric view, extreme environments including hot springs, soda lakes and arctic water. This ability of survival at extreme conditions has rendered extremophiles to be of interest in astrobiology, evolutionary biology as well as in industrial applications. Of particular interest to the biotechnology industry are the biological catalysts of the extremophiles, the extremozymes, whose unique stabilities at extreme conditions make them potential sources of novel enzymes in industrial applications. There are two major approaches to microbial enzyme production. This entails enzyme isolation directly from the natural host or creating a recombinant expression system whereby the targeted enzyme can be overexpressed in a mesophilic host. We are employing both methods in the effort to produce alpha-amylases from a hyperthermophilic archaeon (Thermococcus) isolated from a hydrothermal vent in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as from alkaliphilic bacteria (Bacillus) isolated from a soda lake in Tanzania. Alpha-amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of internal alpha-1,4-glycosidic linkages in starch to produce smaller sugars. Thermostable alpha-amylases are used in the liquefaction of starch for production of fructose and glucose syrups, whereas alpha-amylases stable at high pH have potential as detergent additives. The alpha-amylase encoding gene from Thermococcus was PCR amplified using carefully designed primers and analyzed using bioinformatics tools such as BLAST and Multiple Sequence Alignment for cloning and expression in E.coli. Four strains of Bacillus were grown in alkaline starch-enriched medium of which the culture supernatant was used as enzyme source. Amylolytic activity was detected using the starch-iodine method.

  19. Engineering high α-amylase levels in wheat grain lowers Falling Number but improves baking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Whan, Alex; Larroque, Oscar; Leyne, Emmett; Pritchard, Jeni; Dielen, Anne-Sophie; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Late maturity α-amylase (LMA) and preharvest sprouting (PHS) are genetic defects in wheat. They are both characterized by the expression of specific isoforms of α-amylase in particular genotypes in the grain prior to harvest. The enhanced expression of α-amylase in both LMA and PHS results in a reduction in Falling Number (FN), a test of gel viscosity, and subsequent downgrading of the grain, along with a reduced price for growers. The FN test is unable to distinguish between LMA and PHS; thus, both defects are treated similarly when grain is traded. However, in PHS-affected grains, proteases and other degradative process are activated, and this has been shown to have a negative impact on end product quality. No studies have been conducted to determine whether LMA is detrimental to end product quality. This work demonstrated that wheat in which an isoform α-amylase (TaAmy3) was overexpressed in the endosperm of developing grain to levels of up to 100-fold higher than the wild-type resulted in low FN similar to those seen in LMA- or PHS-affected grains. This increase had no detrimental effect on starch structure, flour composition and enhanced baking quality, in small-scale 10-g baking tests. In these small-scale tests, overexpression of TaAmy3 led to increased loaf volume and Maillard-related browning to levels higher than those in control flours when baking improver was added. These findings raise questions as to the validity of the assumption that (i) LMA is detrimental to end product quality and (ii) a low FN is always indicative of a reduction in quality. This work suggests the need for a better understanding of the impact of elevated expression of specific α-amylase on end product quality. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Unripe Fruit's Extract of Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller as a Potent Alpha-amylase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Koutb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alpha-amylase inhibitors has recently gained in popularity with the success and growth of carbohydrate restricted diets. In this study, two different stages from the unripe fruits of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller have been tested for their potentiality in alpha-amylase inhibition as a key enzyme in carbohydrates assimilation. Our results revealed that addition of different concentrations from extracts (0, 2, 4, 6, 8mg of dry mass of each stage of unripe fruits resulted in drastically decrease in the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase by the percent of (0%, 42.6%, 21%, 26.3%, and 16.9% for the stage 1. Extracts from the stage 2 were more effective in enzymatic inhibition (0%, 26.9%, 3.8%, 0.2%, and 0.4%. The GC/MS analysis revealed that quince extract contains (sorbitol, quinic acid, p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid. To explore which components are involved in the inhibition process, two pure components of the quince extract (sorbitol and quinic acid were used in inhibition assay. Neither sorbitol nor quinic acid shows any significant inhibition; therefore, these two components could be excluded from the inhibition process. Our current study suggested that p-vinylphenol and cyclopropane carboxylic acid might act as a-amylase inhibitors in vitro separately or synergistically. The possible explanation for the presence of cyclopropane carboxylic acid (CPCA in this critical phase of the unripe fruit will be discussed. This study suggests that the unripe fruits of quince can be used as a natural starch blocker containing alpha-amylase inhibitors which would be of interest for people requiring carbohydrate restricted diets.

  1. Progress of pancreatitis disease biomarker alpha amylase enzyme by new nano optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, M S; Al-Radadi, Najlaa S

    2016-12-15

    A new nano optical sensor binuclear Pd-(2-aminothiazole) (urea), Pd(atz,ur) complex was prepared and characterized for the assessment of the activity of alpha amylase enzyme in urine and serum samples for early diagnosis of Pancreatitis disease. The assessment of alpha amylase activity is carried out by the quenching of the luminescence intensity of the nano optical sensor binuclear Pd(atz,ur) complex at 457nm by the 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2-CNP) which produced from the reaction of the enzyme with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-d-maltotrioside (CNPG3) substrate. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity at 457nm of nano Pd(atz,ur) doped in sol-gel matrix by various concentrations of the 2-CNP was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of α-amylase activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 8.5×10(-6) to 1.9×10(-9)molL(-1) 2-CNP with a correlation coefficient of (0.999) and a detection limit of (7.4×10(-10)molL(-1)). The method was used satisfactorily for the assessment of the α-amylase activity over activity range (3-321U/L) in different urine and serum samples of pancreatitis patients. The assessment of the alpha amylase biomarker by the proposed method increases its sensitivity (96.88%) and specificity (94.41%) for early diagnosis of pancreatitis diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Are salivary amylase and pH - Prognostic indicators of cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Atmakuri Shanmukha; Uppala, Divya; Majumdar, Sumit; Surekha, Ch; Deepak, K G K

    2015-01-01

    Saliva, "Mirror of body's health" has long been of particular interest as a substitute for blood for disease diagnosis and monitoring. The radiation effects on salivary glands are of particular interest in which salivary amylase is a good indicator of salivary glands function. Thus, estimation of these parameters represents a reasonable approach in evaluation of patient's risk for disease occurrence, intensity and prognosis. To evaluate and compare the pH and amylase levels in saliva of cancer patients prior to treatment, patients during treatment. Saliva samples of 90 individuals were taken which were divided into 3 groups - 30 individuals without cancer, 30 cancer patients prior treatment and 30 cancer patients during treatment. Materials used were pH strips and pH meter, Salivary Amylase assay. Statistical analysis - ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey's test. 1) Significant decrease in salivary amylase levels - in cancer patients, during treatment when compared to others. 2) Significant decrease in salivary pH levels in newly diagnosed cancer patients prior to treatment. To conclude, pH strips and pH meter showed to be a useful tool in the measurement of pH of saliva in individuals with and without cancer. This study showed that cancer patients without treatment have a lower pH of saliva. Treatment increased the pH of the saliva to a more alkaline level whereas amylase levels decreased in those subjects. Therefore those parameters can be an area of further research with an increased sample size, which in-turn may help in opening the doors for new dimension in non invasive prognostic markers.

  3. Improvement of Raw-Starch Digestibility of Amylase from Aspergillus awamori by Gamma Radiation Mutation for Alcohol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanlayakrit, Werasit; Piadang, Nattayana; Maweang, Metinee

    2006-09-01

    Aspergillus awamori was induced to mutation by gamma ray to improve raw-starch digestibility of amylase enzyme. Twenty fungal colonies were selected base on and amylase and glucoamylase activities including raw starch digestibility. The result showed that isolate A a(i)-2(16) was the best isolate for raw-starch digestion (65.64 %). It produced extracellular amylase enzyme which showed highest raw-starch digestibility more than wild type about 2 folds. Based on enzymes from solid culture showed activities higher from liquid medium. Therefore solid culture is suitable for fungal enzyme production.

  4. Downregulation of chloroplast-targeted beta-amylase leads to a starch-excess phenotype in leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheidig, A.; Fröhlich, A.; Schulze, S.

    2002-01-01

    showed that the protein product was a functional beta-amylase that could degrade both starch granules and solubilized amylopectin, while import experiments demonstrated that the beta-amylase was imported and processed into pea chloroplasts. To study the function of the protein in transitory starch......A functional screen in Escherichia coli was established to identify potato genes coding for proteins involved in transitory starch degradation. One clone isolated had a sequence very similar to a recently described chloroplast-targeted 5-amylase of Arabidopsis. Expression of the gene in E. coli...

  5. Mutational analysis of target enzyme recognition of the beta-trefoil fold barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Nielsen, Per K.; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2005-01-01

    The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor ( BASI) inhibits alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) with subnanomolar affinity. The contribution of selected side chains of BASI to this high affinity is discerned in this study, and binding to other targets is investigated. Seven BASI residues along the AMY2-BASI...... interface and four residues in the putative protease-binding loop on the opposite side of the inhibitor were mutated. A total of 15 variants were compared with the wild type by monitoring the alpha-amylase and protease inhibitory activities using Blue Starch and azoalbumin, respectively, and the kinetics...

  6. A single gene directs synthesis of a precursor protein with beta- and alpha-amylase activities in Bacillus polymyxa.

    OpenAIRE

    Uozumi, N; Sakurai, K; Sasaki, T; Takekawa, S; Yamagata, H; Tsukagoshi, N; Udaka, S

    1989-01-01

    The Bacillus polymyxa amylase gene comprises 3,588 nucleotides. The mature amylase comprises 1,161 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127,314. The gene appeared to be divided into two portions by the direct-repeat sequence located at almost the middle of the gene. The 5' region upstream of the direct-repeat sequence was shown to be responsible for the synthesis of beta-amylase. The 3' region downstream of the direct-repeat sequence contained four sequences homologous with those in other a...

  7. Radiation effects on the parotid gland of mammals. Pt. 2. Modifications of plasma and parotid amylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balzi, M; Cremonini, D; Tomassi, I; Becciolini, A; Giannardi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Radiologia; Pelu, G [I.N.R.C.A., Florence (Italy). Inst. of Radiology

    1979-08-01

    The early modifications of the activity of plasma and parotid amylase have been evaluated in rats after whole-body irradiation in different experimental conditions. The modifications observed in the rat are less evident than in humans. The results have shown an initial decrease and a subsequent increase appearing significant 74 hours after irradiation. This could be due to a direct action of ionizing radiation on the parotid glands. However we cannot exclude that the increase of ..cap alpha..-amylase could be determined by the intestinal radiation syndrome. In fact, this syndrome leads to a reduced food uptake, and consequently ..cap alpha..-amylase could accumulate in parotids.

  8. EFFECT OF GAMMA IRRADIATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON -AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE FROM SOME AGRICULTURAL WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATTAR, Z.A.

    2008-01-01

    Amylases are one of the most important and oldest industrial enzymes. The optimization of production of α -amylase from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae fungi, using different agro-wastes as sole carbon sources, was performed. The highest productivity of α -amylase by the two organisms was recorded at pH 6 and incubation temperature at 30 0C when the two organisms were grown on potato peels (PPs) and/or wheat straw (Ws) after days of cultivation. Pre-treated PPs and Ws with 20 kGy gave the best enzyme productivity by the two organisms compared with untreated ones. Also, exposing the inoculums of A. niger and A.oryzae to 0.5 and 0.75 kGy, respectively, led to enhancement of α-amylase to 48 and 46 μ/ml, respectively

  9. Inhibitory effects of edible seaweeds, polyphenolics and alginates on the activities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2018-01-01

    Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibition......,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was found to be a potent inhibitor of α-amylase with an IC50 value of 0.046 ± 0.004 mg/ml. Alginates found in brown seaweeds appeared to be potent inhibitors of α-amylase activity with an IC50 of (0.075 ± 0.010–0.103 ± 0.017) mg/ml, also a mixed-type inhibition. Overall, the findings provide...... information that crude extracts of brown edible seaweeds, phenolic compounds and alginates are potent α-amylase inhibitors, thereby potentially retarding glucose liberation from starches and alleviation of postprandial hyperglycaemia....

  10. Isolation, purification and characterization of β-amylase from Dioscorea hispida Dennst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktiarni, Dwita; Lusiana, Simamora, Febri Yanti; Gaol, Jusni M. Lumban

    2015-09-01

    β-amylase (E.C 3.2.1.2) is an enzyme commonly found in plants and bacteria. The enzyme is an exo-acting carbohydrolase which hydrolyzes α-1.4-glucosidic linkages of starch, removing maltose units from the non-reducing end of the polysaccharide chain, producing β-maltose and β-limit dextrin as the final product. β-amylase is widely distributed in the higher plants such as sweet potato. Besides the use in starch hydrolysis, starch-converting enzymes are also used in a number of other industrial applications, such as laundry and porcelain detergents or as anti-stalling agents in baking. This enzyme was extracted from Dioscorea hispida Dennst in 0.05 M acetate buffer pH 4.8 and followed by ammonium sulfate fractionation at cold temperature (10°C). Ammonium sulfate fractionation was shared into fraction of 0-60%, 60-70%, 70-80% and 80-100%. The fraction containing high of specific activity (determined by Somogyi-Nelson and Lowry methods) was futher purified by dialysis. Fraction with high enzyme activity of β-amylase were fraction 60-70% and 70-80%, with specific activity of Dioscorea hispida Dennst were 1.32 and 1.55 mg sugar.mg protein-1.minute-1, whereas specific activity of crude extract enzyme was 0.21 mg sugar.mg protein-1.minute-1. After purified with dialysis, fraction with high enzyme activity of β-amylase were fraction of 60-70% and 70-80%, with specific activity of Dioscorea hispida Dennst was 2.72 and 4.24 mg sugar.mg protein-1.minute-1. The purified Dioscorea hispida Dennst β-amylase from dialysis showed increasing in spesific activity the crude enzyme as much as 24 folds. The characterization of enzyme showed that Dioscorea hispida Dennst derived enzyme had optimum pH of 5.5 and temperature of 70°C. The kinetic parameters of purified Dioscorea hispida Dennst β-amylase showed that the KMapp, Vmaxapp value and Hill constant were 0.0211 mg/ml, 9.63 mg sugar.minute-1 and 1.34, respectively.

  11. α-Amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits α-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira-Neto Osmundo B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei, is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an α-amylase inhibitor gene (α-AI1, which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. Results We transformed C. arabica with the α-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (α-AI1 from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L. The presence of the α-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against α-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum α-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the α-AI1 protein against H. hampei α-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. Conclusions This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  12. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  13. Digestive alpha-amylases of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella - adaptation to alkaline environment and plant inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Hubert, J.; Lepšík, Martin; Šobotník, Jan; Šindelka, Radek; Křížková, I.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 13 (2009), s. 3531-3546 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550617; GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA301/09/1752 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : alkaline adaptation * alpha - amylase * alpha - amylase inhibitor * Ephestia kuehniella * plant-insect interaction Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2009

  14. Growth temperature of different local isolates of Bacillus sp. in the solid state affects production of raw starch digesting amylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šokarda-Slavić Marinela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural amylase producers, wild type strains of Bacillus sp., were isolated from different regions of Serbia. Strains with the highest amylase activity based on the starch-agar plate test were grown on solid-state fermentation (SSF on triticale. The influence of the substrate and different cultivation temperature (28 and 37°C on the production of amylase was examined. The tested strains produced α-amylases when grown on triticale grains both at 28 and at 37°C, but the activity of amylases and the number and intensity of the produced isoforms were different. Significant hydrolysis of raw cornstarch was obtained with the Bacillus sp. strains 2B, 5B, 18 and 24B. The produced α-amylases hydrolyzed raw cornstarch at a temperature below the temperature of gelatinization, but the ability for hydrolysis was not directly related to the total enzyme activity, suggesting that only certain isoforms are involved in the hydrolysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172048

  15. Chloride Activated Halophilic α-Amylase from Marinobacter sp. EMB8: Production Optimization and Nanoimmobilization for Efficient Starch Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Halophiles have been perceived as potential source of novel enzymes in recent years. The interest emanates from their ability to catalyze efficiently under high salt and organic solvents. Present work encompasses production optimization and nanoimmobilization of an α-amylase from moderately halophilic Marinobacter sp. EMB8. Media ingredients and culture conditions were optimized by “one-at-a-time approach.” Starch was found to be the best carbon source at 5% (w/v concentration. Glucose acted as catabolic repressor for amylase production. Salt proved critical for amylase production and maximum production was attained at 5% (w/v NaCl. Optimization of various culture parameters resulted in 48.0 IU/mL amylase production, a 12-fold increase over that of unoptimized condition (4.0 IU/mL. α-Amylase was immobilized on 3-aminopropyl functionalized silica nanoparticles using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. Optimization of various parameters resulted in 96% immobilization efficiency. Starch hydrolyzing efficiency of immobilized enzyme was comparatively better. Immobilized α-amylase retained 75% of its activity after 5th cycle of repeated use.

  16. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  17. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biom......The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations...... and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted...... in a decreased maximum specific growth rate, but also in drastic changes in morphology. Furthermore, the expression of alpha-amylase was completely derepressed and creA thus seems to be the only regulatory protein responsible for glucose repression of alpha-amylase expression. The effect of different carbon...

  19. Isolation and Characterization of an Amylase Producing Yeast and its Application in Carotenoid Production Using Dual Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nahvi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a plant polysaccharide with unique applications in Iran. Its increasing production and processing recently have led to large volumes of industrial effluent as an environmental pollutant. In this study, an amylase producing yeast is isolated and identified as “Cryptococcus aerius” to investigate some of its characteristics such as its amylase secretion and starch digesting patterns, kinetics of amylase complex, and its capability for carotenoid production in dual culture. The results indicate that C.aerius is capable of soluble and raw maize starch digestion and assimilation. Raw starch digestion is scarce among yeast species; hence, it is industrially important. C.aerius digests soluble starch in the first 10 hours of cultivation and on the basis of amylase secreting patterns, it is therefore categorized with fast growing species on starch as carbon source. Non-pathogenicity, digestion of raw starch, heat stability of the secreted amylases complex (>55˚C, and the optimum pH level of 5.5- 6 for amylases complex are the set of properties that make this species capable of use in microbial production on an industrial scale. Absorption of carotenoid extract obtained from dual fermentation of C.aerius and Rhodotorula sp. indicates that the quality of carotenoids produced in dual fermentation is the same as that produced from pure Rhodotorula sp culture.

  20. Chemical modification, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities of corn silk polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuhan; Chen, Haixia; Tian, Jingge; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha; Wang, Jia

    2013-10-15

    Water-soluble corn silk polysaccharides (CSPS) were chemically modified to obtain their sulfated, acetylated and carboxymethylated derivatives. Chemical characterization and bioactivities of CSPS and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scavenging DPPH free radical assay, scavenging hydroxyl radical assay, ferric reducing power assay, lipid peroxidation inhibition assay and α-amylase activity inhibitory assay, respectively. Among the three derivatives, carboxylmethylated polysaccharide (C-CSPS) demonstrated higher solubility, narrower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, significantly higher antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory abilities compared with the native polysaccharide and other derivatives. C-CSPS might be used as a novel nutraceutical agent for human consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amylase production by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial wastes using Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajshree Saxena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state fermentation was carried out using various agro- industrial wastes with the best amylase producing strain isolated from soil. Different physicochemical conditions were varied for maximum enzyme production. The strain produced about 5400 units/g of amylase at 1:3 moisture content, 20% inoculum, after 72 h of incubation with Mustard Oil seed cake as the substrate. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme activity were found to be 50ºC and 6 respectively. The enzyme was found to be thermostable at 70ºC for about 2 h without any salt. It showed stability at pH range 5-7. The metal ions as Na+, Ca++, Mg++ and Co++ enhanced the enzyme activity.

  2. Effect of the glass transition temperature on alpha-amylase activity in a starch matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vinita; Panyoyai, Naksit; Small, Darryl M; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-02-10

    This study optimises a protocol for the estimation of α-amylase activity in a condensed starch matrix in the vicinity of the glass transition region. Enzymatic activity on the vitrified starch system was compared with that of a reference substrate, maltodextrin. The activity was assayed as the rate of release of reducing sugar using a dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The condensed carbohydrate matrices served the dual purpose of acting as a substrate as well as producing a pronounced effect on the ability to enzymatic hydrolysis. Activation energies were estimated throughout the glass transition region of condensed carbohydrate preparations based on the concept of the spectroscopic shift factor. Results were used to demonstrate a considerable moderation by the mechanical glass transition temperature, beyond the expected linear effect of the temperature dependence, on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis by α-amylase in comparison with the low-molecular weight chain of maltodextrin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Immobilization of alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Gargi; Nagpal, Varima; Banerjee, Rintu

    2002-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for immobilizing alpha-amylase from Bacillus circulans GRS 313 on coconut fiber was developed. The immobilization conditions for highest efficiency were optimized with respect to immobilization pH of 5.5, 30 degrees C, contact time of 4 h, and enzyme to support a ratio of 1:1 containing 0.12 mg/mL of protein. The catalytic properties of the immobilized enzyme were compared with that of the free enzyme. The activity of amylase adsorbed on coconut fiber was 38.7 U/g of fiber at its optimum pH of 5.7 and 48 degrees C, compared with the maximum activity of 40.2 U/mL of free enzyme at the optimum pH of 4.9 and 48 degrees C. The reutilization capacity of the immobilized enzyme was up to three cycles.

  4. Response surface methodology for the optimization of alpha amylase production by serratia marcescens SB08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venil, C.K.; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, central composite design combining with response surface methodology was successfully employed to optimize medium composition for the production of alpha amylase by Serratia marcescens SB08 in submerged fermentation. The process parameters that influence the enzyme production were identified using Plackett- Burman design. Among the various factors screened, inoculum concentration, pH, NaCl and CaCl/sub 2/ were found to be most significant. The optimum level of pH was 5.0, inoculum concentration 3%, NaCl 0.30 g/l and CaCl/sub 2/ 0.13 g/l. The actual enzyme yield before and after optimization was 56.43 U/ml and 87.23 U/ml, respectively. Thus, it is advisable to the microbial industry sponsors to apply such profitable bioprocess to maintain high yield for mass production of alpha amylase. (author)

  5. Heterocyclic Compounds: Effective α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Mina; Hadjiakhondi, Abbas; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Manayi, Azadeh

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels. Recently, it has emerged as an important and global health problem with long-term complications and high economic burden. α-Amylase (α-Amy) and α-glucosidase (α-Gls) are two enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of starch into sugars and disaccharides leading to the increase of blood glucose level. Hence, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase plays key role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Heterocyclic compounds -both synthetic and naturally occurring derivatives- possess efficient biological properties. At this juncture, they have demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against α-Amy and α-Gls and were found to be versatile tools for the development of novel anti-diabetic agents.

  6. Improved Production of a Heterologous Amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zihe; Liu, Lifang; Osterlund, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    this modification alone, the amylase secretion could be improved by 35%. As a complement to the identification of genomic variants, transcriptome analysis was also performed in order to understand on a global level the transcriptional changes associated with the improved amylase production caused by UV mutagenesis.......The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...... is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pathway, which has not been fully exploited. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic...

  7. Morphology and solubility of multiple crystal forms of Taka-amylase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Kumiko; Yamamoto, Tenyu; Oheda, Tadashi; Sato, Kiyotaka; Sazaki, Gen; Matsuura, Yoshiki

    2001-01-01

    An α-amylase originating from a mold Aspergillus oryzae, Taka-amylase A (Mr of 52 kDa, pI of 3.8), has been purified to an electrophoretically single band grade. Crystallization behaviors were investigated using ammonium sulfate and polyethleneglycol 8000 as precipitants. The variations in the morphology of the crystals obtained with changing crystallization parameters are described. Five apparently different crystal forms were obtained, and their morphology and crystallographic data have been determined. Solubility values of four typical forms were measured using a Michelson-type two-beam interferometer. The results of these experiments showed that this protein can be a potentially interesting and useful model for crystal growth study with a gram-amount availability of pure protein sample.

  8. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  9. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ponnusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL-1, Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL-1, isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL-1 and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL-1. The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL-1, isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL-1, acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL-1 and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL-1. Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

  10. Chewing bread: impact on alpha-amylase secretion and oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole

    2017-02-22

    During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.

  11. [Activity of alpha-amylase and concentration of protein in saliva of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejak, Magdalena; Olszewska, Maria; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Zebiełowicz, Dariusz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2007-01-01

    One of the hypothetical reasons of the increased incidence of caries in women during the pregnancy may be the increased activity of alpha-amylase, which can be found in their saliva. The enzyme takes part in the process of decomposition of simple sugars, which make basic substrate for caries-causing bacteria. The aim of the paper was the evaluation of the influence of pregnancy and gestational age on the activity of alpha-amylase and the concentration of protein in women's saliva. The examined group consisted of 64 pregnant women at age 17-39, between 21st and 40th week of pregnancy. The control group consisted of 44 healthy women at age 20-35, who were not pregnant. In saliva, which was taken before morning meal, without stimulation, protein concentration was determined by Bradford method and the activity of amylase was determined by kinetic method. The activity of amylase correlated strongly and positively with protein concentration in saliva of both the pregnant (RS = +0.65; p women. There were no significant differences between examined parameters in the examined and the control group. It has been observed in the examined group, that there is the significant negative correlation between protein concentration in saliva and the week of pregnancy (RS = -0.35; p increased caries incidence of pregnant women. However, the observed changes of total protein concentration in saliva during pregnancy, suggest that the exact cognition of proteins in pregnant women's saliva may reveal new mechanisms, which lead to an increase of caries risk.

  12. Viscoelastic properties of sweet potato complementary porridges as influenced by endogenous amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabubuya, Agnes; Namutebi, Agnes; Byaruhanga, Yusuf; Schuller, Reidar B; Narvhus, Judith; Wicklund, Trude

    2017-11-01

    Sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) roots contain amylolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze starch thus having the potential to affect the viscosity of sweet potato porridges provided the appropriate working conditions for the enzymes are attained. In this study, the effect of sweet potato variety, postharvest handling conditions, freshly harvested and room/ambient stored roots (3 weeks), and slurry solids content on the viscoelastic properties of complementary porridges prepared using amylase enzyme activation technique were investigated. Five temperatures (55°C, 65°C, 70°C, 75°C, and 80°C) were used to activate sweet potato amylases and the optimum temperature was found to be 75°C. Stored sweet potato roots had higher soluble solids (⁰Brix) content in the pastes compared to fresh roots. In all samples, activation of amylases at 75°C caused changes in the viscoelastic parameters: phase angle (tan δ) and complex viscosity (η * ). Postharvest handling conditions and slurry solids content significantly affected the viscoelastic properties of the porridges with flours from stored roots yielding viscous (liquid-like) porridges and fresh roots producing elastic (solid-like) porridges. Increase in slurry solids content caused reduction in the phase angle values and increase in the viscosity of the sweet potato porridges. The viscosity of the porridges decreased with storage of sweet potato roots. These results provide a possibility for exploiting sweet potato endogenous amylases in the preparation of complementary porridges with both drinkable viscosities and appropriate energy and nutrient densities for children with varying energy needs.

  13. De novo design of alpha-amylase inhibitor: A small linear mimetic of macromolecular proteinaceous ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marešová, Lucie; Pavlík, Manfred; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 12 (2005), 1349-1357 ISSN 1074-5521 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP203/02/P081; GA MŠk(CZ) OC D16.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : amylase * peptide inhibitor * combinatorial chemistry Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.138, year: 2005

  14. Isolation and characterisation of a novel alpha-amylase from the extreme haloarchaeon Haloterrigena turkmenica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Marco; Maurelli, Luisa; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella; Fiume, Immacolata; Squillaci, Giuseppe; La Cara, Francesco; Del Monaco, Giovanni; Morana, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    An extracellular halophilic alpha-amylase (AmyA) was produced by the haloarchaeon Haloterrigena turkmenica grown in medium enriched with 0.2% (w/v) starch. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analyses showed a major band at 66.0kDa and a peak of 54.0kDa, respectively. Analysis of tryptic fragments of the protein present in the major SDS-PAGE band by nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS led to identification of the alpha-amylase catalytic region, encoded by the htur2110 gene, as the protein possessing the described activity. Optimal values for activity were 55°C, pH 8.5 and 2M NaCl, and high thermostability was showed at 55°C and 3M NaCl. AmyA activity was enhanced by Triton X-100 and was not influenced by n-hexane and chloroform. Starch hydrolysis produced different oligomers with maltose as the smallest end-product. The efficiency of AmyA in degrading starch contained in agronomic residues was tested in grape cane chosen as model substrate. Preliminary results showed that starch was degraded making the enzyme a potential candidate for utilization of agro-industrial waste in fuel and chemicals production. AmyA is one of the few investigated amylases produced by haloarchaea, and the first alpha-amylase described among microorganisms belonging to the genus Haloterrigena. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. α-Amylase: an enzyme specificity found in various families of glycoside hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E. Ann

    2014-01-01

    of all carbohydrate-active enzymes, it is one of the most frequently occurring glycoside hydrolases (GH). α-Amylase is the main representative of family GH13, but it is probably also present in the families GH57 and GH119, and possibly even in GH126. Family GH13, known generally as the main α...... investigation because of an obvious, but unexpected, homology with inverting β-glucan-active hydrolases....

  16. Structural and regulatory differences in amylase isoenzymes in germinating Brazilian barley cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg-Kraemer J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amylase electrophoretic patterns of 10 Brazilian brewing-barley varieties with different malting grades and diastatic power were analyzed during the 7-day germination which occurs during the malting process. Intra and inter-variety genetic variability was observed at both the structural and regulatory level. In the first few days after germination all varieties showed a few active loci, all of them with low activity. In subsequent days, new loci became active and those already detected since early germination showed increased activity. All varieties showed a continuous increase in amylase synthesis until the 3rd and/or 4th day after germination. Some varieties maintained high amylase activity until the last day of germination, while others showed a decrease in activity on the 5th or 6th day. No specific band increased or decreased its intensity independently of the others. A total of 14 loci were detected, out of which only one locus was polymorphic, indicating very low structural genetic variability, with only 2.8% polymorphic loci, an average of 1.04 alleles per loci, and an average expected heterozygosity of only 0.7%. The mean intra-variety Jaccard similarity coefficient complement (1 - S J was 0.009. The mean intra-variety difference based on regulatory differences was higher (1 - S J = 0.17 than that obtained based on structural differences, suggesting differential gene activation. Inter-variety differentiation also showed low structural variability, with 1 - S J = 0.026 and a Nei genetic distance (D value of 0.0076, and a remarkable increase in divergence caused by differential gene activation (1 - S J = 0.34. These results indicate that regulatory polymorphism is the principal agent responsible for amylase variability in the barley varieties analyzed.

  17. Use of Potato Nitrogen Concentrate in the Production of α-Amylase by Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Thaller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of various nitrogen sources and media supplements on α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1 formation by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 1011 was investigated in shake flask experiments and batch fermentations. Both inorganic and organic nitrogen-containing supplements have been applied, while corn starch and ammonium sulphate were used as the major source of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Shake flask experiments revealed that potato nitrogen concentrate (PNC is almost equivalent to corn steep liquor (CSL in supporting amylase formation. A pretreatment step consisting of clarification of the turbid material did not show any significant effect. The replacement of the inorganic nitrogen source by sodium nitrate led to lower enzyme yields. Other complex supplements may reduce the enzyme level formed, e.g. casein hydrolysate, or increase the amylase titre slightly, e.g. yeast extract or malt extract. Cultivations in instrumented bench top reactors on media supplemented with PNC led to higher cell growth rates and yields of α-amylase in comparison with the medium without any supplement. Replacement of PNC by CSL revealed a slightly increased enzyme level, which is in the range of 9–17 % after 100 h of cultivation. Only minor differences were revealed in the growth kinetics and enzyme formation when PNC was used as the sole nitrogen source, replacing a mixture of soybean meal, yeast extract, malt extract and casein hydrolysate in bioreactor cultivations with lactose as the carbon source. However, metabolic differences as seen from the course of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT, α-amino nitrogen concentration and the amount of acid needed to maintain a constant pH were observed.

  18. Slow-release amylase increases in vitro ruminal digestion of maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of slow-release α-amylase in ruminal in vitro digestion of maize and sorghum grains. Digestibility was measured using an in vitro procedure with 40 mL of buffer and 10 mL of ruminal fluid, flushed with CO2 and incubated at 39 °C. The digestibility of sorghum and maize ...

  19. Amylase and chymotrypsinogen synthesis and secretion by the anesthetized rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovanna, J.; Giorgi, D.; Dagorn, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the origin of nonparallel secretion, pancreatic juice was collected in the anesthetized rat, during infusion of [ 3 H]phenylalanine. In the basal state, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratios of activities and of [ 3 H] incorporations were 3.5 and 2.5 times higher than in the homogenate, respectively. Both ratios decreased to the value in the homogenate upon caerulein stimulation (600 ng/kg). Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide (15 ng/kg) did not alter enzyme secretion ratios, and depressed basal protein output only partly, suggesting similar secretory pathways for basal and stimulated secretion. Finally, when [ 3 H]phenylalanine was given before anesthesia, the amylase to chymotrypsinogen ratio of incorporations was again higher in basal secretion than in homogenate, even when further protein synthesis was blocked by cycloheximide before urethane injection. Hence, basal secretion comes from a pancreatic compartment which is functional, although minor, in the conscious animal, and shows a higher rate of amylase synthesis, compared to chymotrypsinogen, than the rest of the gland. It could consist of a subpopulation of acinar cells

  20. Purification and physicochemical properties of α-amylase from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Vakil, U.K.

    1981-01-01

    α-Amylases from control and gamma-irradiated (at 0.2 and 2.0 kGy dose levels) wheat seedlings were purified to homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight of the enzyme from a 2 kGy irradiated sample was slightly lower than that of the control; other general and catalytic properties also showed some differences. α-Amylase from the irradiated (2kGy) sample had a narrow range of pH optimum and was inactivated faster at alkaline pH and by heat treatment than the enzyme from unirradiated wheat. A high apparent Michaelis constant (Ksub(m)) and a low maximal velocity (Vsub(max)) for the hydrolysis of soluble starch catalyzed by the enzyme from irradiated (2kGy) wheat, suggested some modifications in the formation of the substrate α-amylase complex. Further, of the total number of amino acid residues lost on irradiation, dicarboxylic amino acids constituted the largest percentage; these structural alterations in the enzyme may be responsible for its partial inactivation. The total sugars liberated upon amylolysis of starch with the 2kGy irradiated enzyme were lower than control, and there was accumulation of higher maltodextrins in the place of maltose. (auth.)

  1. Purification and physicochemical properties of. cap alpha. -amylase from irradiated wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaiah, J P; Vakil, U K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1981-06-01

    ..cap alpha..-Amylases from control and gamma-irradiated (at 0.2 and 2.0 kGy dose levels) wheat seedlings were purified to homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight of the enzyme from a 2 kGy irradiated sample was slightly lower than that of the control; other general and catalytic properties also showed some differences. ..cap alpha..-Amylase from the irradiated (2kGy) sample had a narrow range of pH optimum and was inactivated faster at alkaline pH and by heat treatment than the enzyme from unirradiated wheat. A high apparent Michaelis constant (Ksub(m)) and a low maximal velocity (Vsub(max)) for the hydrolysis of soluble starch catalyzed by the enzyme from irradiated (2kGy) wheat, suggested some modifications in the formation of the substrate ..cap alpha..-amylase complex. Further, of the total number of amino acid residues lost on irradiation, dicarboxylic amino acids constituted the largest percentage; these structural alterations in the enzyme may be responsible for its partial inactivation. The total sugars liberated upon amylolysis of starch with the 2kGy irradiated enzyme were lower than control, and there was accumulation of higher maltodextrins in the place of maltose.

  2. Cloning and Characterization of an Alpha-amylase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Thermococcus Thioreducens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsdotter, Eva C. M. J.; Pusey, Marc L.; Ng, Joseph D.; Garriott, Owen K.

    2004-01-01

    The gene encoding an extracellular a-amylase, TTA, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus thioreducens was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Primary structural analysis revealed high similarity with other a-amylases from the Thermococcus and Pyrococcus genera, as well as the four highly conserved regions typical for a-amylases. The 1374 bp gene encodes a protein of 457 amino acids, of which 435 constitute the mature protein preceded by a 22 amino acid signal peptide. The molecular weight of the purified recombinant enzyme was estimated to be 43 kDa by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Maximal enzymatic activity of recombinant TTA was observed at 90 C and pH 5.5 in the absence of exogenous Ca(2+), and the enzyme was considerably stable even after incubation at 90 C for 2 hours. The thermostability at 90 and 102 C was enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Ca(2+). The extraordinarily high specific activity (about 7.4 x 10(exp 3) U/mg protein at 90 C, pH 5.5 with soluble starch as substrate) together with its low pH optimum makes this enzyme an interesting candidate for starch processing applications.

  3. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies of alpha amylase from bacillus licheniformis mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram-ul-Haq, M.; Javed, M.M.; Hameed, U.; Adnan, F.

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the purification and characterization of enzyme a'-amylase from a mutant strain of Bacillus licheniformis EMS-6. A laboratory scale stirred fermentor of 7.5 L capacity was used for the enzyme production under optimal conditions. The enzyme was purified up to homogeneity level by Ammonium sulphate and ion-exchange chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) system. The specific activity of the enzyme increased 4-5 times while the yield was found to be 40.4%. The purification fold by RESOURCE-S was recorded to be 3.58. The molecular weight was found to be 55 KDa. In the present research work, the Vmax (2778 U/mg/min) and Km (8.3mg/ml) of a'-amylase were derived from the Lineweaver Burke plot. Thermodynamic parameters for soluble starch hydrolysis, Ea, AH, AS and AG of a'-amylase from B. licheniformis EMS-6 were found to be 25.14 KJ/mol, 22.53 KJ/mole, -110.95 J/mole/K and 36968 J/mole, respectively. The enzyme was stable over a pH range of 4.5-9.0 and gave pH optimum of 7.0. The pKa1 and pKa2 of ionizable groups of active site controlling Vmax, determined by Dixon plot, were 6.0 and 7.5, respectively. (author)

  4. Properties and Gamma Radiation Stability of Immobilized Alpha Amylase on Synthetic and Natural Polymer Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaill, S.A.; Mobasher, E.F.; Shousha, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    αAmylase was immobilized onto two different copolymers. One of them was chitosan/alginate copolymer. The other copolymer was N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. αAmylase was immobilized by entrapment method. The optimum temperature and thermal inactivation of the free enzyme and the immobilized one were investigated. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was stable at higher temperature. Immobilized enzyme was stable under different ph. The immobilized enzymes showed a slight decrease in the relative activity after being used 12 times. Storage of the free and immobilized enzymes for 2 months showed that the free αamylase lost most of its catalytic activity after storage at this period. The storage of the immobilized enzyme in dry state was much better than that in the wet state. Storage at room temperature showed much less stability of the immobilized enzyme than in 4 degree C. Exposure the free and immobilized enzymes to gamma- radiation at doses (0-50 kGy) showed complete loss in activity of free enzyme at 5 kGy, while the immobilized enzyme showed high resistance to gamma- radiation. The kinetic studies of free and immobilized enzymes showed that the immobilization process increased Km and decreased V m ax values of the enzyme

  5. Properties and Gamma Radiation Stability of Immobilized Alpha Amylase on Synthetic and Natural Polymer Blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaill, S.A.; Mobasher, E.F.; Shousha, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    αAmylase was immobilized onto two different copolymers. One of them was chitosan/alginate copolymer. The other copolymer was N- isopropyl acrylamide and alginate. αAmylase was immobilized by entrapment method. The optimum temperature and thermal inactivation of the free enzyme and the immobilized one were investigated. The activity of the immobilized enzyme was stable at higher temperature. Immobilized enzyme was stable under different ph. The immobilized enzymes showed a slight decrease in the relative activity after being used 12 times. Storage of the free and immobilized enzymes for 2 months showed that the free αamylase lost most of its catalytic activity after storage at this period. The storage of the immobilized enzyme in dry state was much better than that in the wet state. Storage at room temperature showed much less stability of the immobilized enzyme than in 4 degree C. Exposure the free and immobilized enzymes to gamma- radiation at doses (0-50 kGy) showed complete loss in activity of free enzyme at 5 kGy, while the immobilized enzyme showed high resistance to gamma- radiation. The kinetic studies of free and immobilized enzymes showed that the immobilization process increased Km and decreased V m ax values of the enzyme

  6. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapati Bhanja Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103 using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL, maximum clarity (%T660nm = 97.0% of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 ºC in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  7. Application of decolourized and partially purified polygalacturonase and α-amylase in apple juice clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Tapati Bhanja; Banerjee, Rintu

    2014-01-01

    Polygalacturonase and α-amylase play vital role in fruit juice industry. In the present study, polygalacturonase was produced by Aspergillus awamori Nakazawa MTCC 6652 utilizing apple pomace and mosambi orange (Citrus sinensis var mosambi) peels as solid substrate whereas, α-amylase was produced from A. oryzae (IFO-30103) using wheat bran by solid state fermentation (SSF) process. These carbohydrases were decolourized and purified 8.6-fold, 34.8-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively by activated charcoal powder in a single step with 65.1%, 69.8% and 60% recoveries, respectively. Apple juice was clarified by these decolourized and partially purified enzymes. In presence of 1% polygalacturonase from mosambi peels (9.87 U/mL) and 0.4% α-amylase (899 U/mL), maximum clarity (%T(660 nm) = 97.0%) of juice was attained after 2 h of incubation at 50 °C in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. Total phenolic content of juice was reduced by 19.8% after clarification, yet with slightly higher %DPPH radical scavenging property.

  8. The important role of salivary α-amylase in the gastric digestion of wheat bread starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniela; Le Feunteun, Steven; Panouillé, Maud; Souchon, Isabelle

    2018-01-24

    The role of salivary α-amylase (HSA) in starch digestion is often overlooked in favour of that of pancreatic α-amylase due to the short duration of the oral phase. Although it is generally accepted that the amylase of salivary origin can continue to be active in the stomach, studies ascertaining its contribution are lacking. This study aimed to address this issue by coupling in vitro oral processing with an in vitro dynamic system that mimicked different postprandial gastric pH reduction kinetics observed in vivo following a snack- or lunch-type meal. The digestion of both starch and protein from wheat bread as well as the interplay between the two processes were studied. We have observed that the amylolytic activity of saliva plays a preponderant role hydrolysing up to 80% of bread starch in the first 30 min of gastric digestion. Amylolysis evolved exponentially and nearly superimposing curves were obtained regardless of the acidification profiles, revealing its high efficiency.

  9. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  10. Influence of media composition on the production of alkaline α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis CB-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonnaya, Nwokoro; Odiase, Anthonia

    2012-01-01

    Starch, a homopolysaccharide is an important and an abundant food reserve and energy source. Starches are processed to yield different products which find many industrial applications. Alpha-amylases hydrolyze starch by cleaving α-1,4-glucosidic bonds and have been used in food, textile and pharmaceutical industries [Sun et al. 2010]. Enzymatic conversion of starch with amylase presents an economically superior alternative to the conventional method of starch gelatinization. Alkaline α-amylase has an important position in the global enzyme market as a constituent of detergent. In this paper, we screened soil bacteria and an isolate, alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis CB-18 was found to produce an alkaline α-amylase in different media. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Screening of the isolates for amylolytic activity was carried out by growing bacteria isolated from the soil in starch agar plates and subsequently staining the plates with iodine solution to reveal zones of hydrolysis of starch. The selected isolate, Bacillus subtlis CB-18 was grown in different media at alkaline pH to evaluate the influence of media composition on alkaline α-amylase production. Enzyme assay was carried out by growing the culture in a broth medium and obtaining cell - free culture supernatant after centrifugation at 2515 × g for 15 minutes Amylase activity was determined by incubating 0.5 ml of crude enzyme solution in 0.1M Tris/HCl buffer (pH 8.5) with 0.5 ml of 1% soluble starch solution. The reaction was terminated by the addition of DNS reagent and reducing sugar produced from the amylolytic reaction was determined. Bacillus subtilis CB-18 used for this work was selected because it produced 7 mm zone diameter on starch agar plate. This organism was cultured in different alkaline broth media containing 2% soluble starch as inducer carbohydrate for α-amylase production. Among the carbon sources used for enzyme production, sorbitol was the best to stimulate enzyme production with α-amylase

  11. Partial characterization of amylases of two indigenous Central Amazonian rhizobia strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlem Nascimento de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production and partial characterization of crude enzyme preparations from two rhizobia strains (R-926 and R-991 were evaluated. For both the strains, maximal amylase activities were achieved during the early-to-mid- exponential growth phase; both were active over a pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 and temperature from 30 to 50 ºC. None of the ions studied (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Hg2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ was required for the catalytic activity of strain R-926; amylase activity of strain R-991 was stimulated in the presence of K+, Hg2+ and Zn2+. The surfactants SDS, Triton X-100 and Tween-80 did not have a pronounced inhibitory effect on enzyme activities; SDS and Tween-80 caused the highest stimulatory effects. Amylase activities from the rhizobia strains were reduced by up to 30% in the presence of EDTA; amylase activity of R-926 was also inhibited by HgCl2, suggesting that Ca2+and cysteine residues could be important for activity of this strain.A produção e parcial caracterização de extratos brutos de amilase de duas estirpes de rizóbio (R-926 e R-991 foram avaliadas. Para ambas as estirpes, as máximas atividades amilolíticas foram obtidas no início/meio da fase exponencial de crescimento. As amilases rizobiais foram ativas numa variação de pH de 4,5 a 8,5 e temperatura de 30 a 50 ºC. Nenhum dos íons testados (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Hg2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Cu2+ e Zn2+ foi exigido para a atividade catalítica da estirpe R-926. A amilase produzida pelo R991 foi estimulada na presença de K+, Hg2+ e Zn2+. Os surfactantes SDS, Triton X-100 e Tween-80 não exerceram um pronunciado efeito inibitório sobre as atividades enzimáticas, e SDS e Tween-80 causaram os maiores efeitos estimulatórios. A atividade amilolítica rizobial foi reduzida em até 30% na presença de EDTA; a amilase produzida pela estirpe R-926 também foi inibida pelo HgCl2, sugerindo, ao menos em parte, a importância de Ca2+ e resíduos de cisteína na atividade amilolítica dessa

  12. Effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bin Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of indomethacin suppositories on serum amylase, inflammatory factors and immune function after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. Methods: A total of 85 patients with common bile duct stones or obstructive jaundice were divided into the observation group (n=45 and the control group (n=40 according to the different treatment methods, both two groups patients were treated with ERCP, patients in the observation group was given indomethacin suppositories 50 mg preoperative 30 min. Serum amylase, inflammatory factors and T cell subsets were detected preoperative, postoperative 6 h and postoperative 24 h. Inflammatory factors including interleukin -10 (IL-10, interleukin -6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-4 (IL-4. T cell subsets including CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and calculated CD4+ / CD8+ . Results: In both two groups, postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly higher than before surgery; in the observation group, the postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum amylase were significantly lower than in the control group at the same time point and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum proinflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α increased first and then decreased, both were significantly higher than before surgery; both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h serum anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 gradually increased, both were significantly higher than before surgery, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05; In the observation group, antiinflammatory factor IL-10 and IL-4 significantly increased while pro-inflammatory factor IL-6 and TNF-α significantly decreased compared with the control group at the same time point 6 h and 24 h after surgery, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05. Both two groups’ postoperative 6 h, 24 h T cell subsets CD3+ , CD4+ , CD4

  13. Partial purification and characterization of {alpha}-amylases from one insecticide-resistant population of Sitophilus zeamais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, K.V.; Oliveira, M.G.A.; Paixao, G.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Veloso, R.V.S.; Marinho, J.S.; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: {alpha}-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1) constitute a family of endo-amylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of a-D- (1,4)-glucan linkages in st ach components and various other related carbohydrates. They play a central role in carbohydrate metabolism of animals, plants and microorganisms. Many insects, especially those that feed on grain products during larval and/or adult life, depend on their amylases for survival. This is particularly true for the Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. It is mainly controlled by insecticides. Amylases from adults of S.zeamais insecticide-resistant were purified by using a sequential procedure of glycogen-complex precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Specific activity increased from 58,0454 AU/dL/mg protein in the crude homogenate to 2558,8720 AU/dL/mg protein in the final purified sample. Amylase unit (AU/dL) refers to the amount of amylase that hydrolysis 10 mg starch in 30 min at 37 deg C. The purified amylase ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. From a plot of log molecular weight against relative mobility in 10% acrylamide gel, molecular weight was estimated to be 56 kDa. The enzyme had a K{sub m} of 0,2243 g/L for soluble starch and was most active at ph 5,0. The temperature of major activity was 40 deg C. The activity of enzyme was unaffected by presence or absence of Cl{sup -} and Ca{sup 2+}.

  14. α-/β-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activities of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Ethanol Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisca Evalina Gondokesumo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease, characterized by hyperglycemia due to disturbance in both insulin secretion and function. One of theurapeutic approaches is to reduce blood glucose levels by inhbiting α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase involved in carbohydrate digestion. Thus, inhibition of these enzymes play important role in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been known to have several medicinal properties and potency as an antidiabetics agents. This reseacrh aimed to observe antidiabetic properties of roselle ethanol extract (REE towards α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase and α-amylase. Materials and Methods: REE was done with maceration technique using diluent of 70% ethanol. Antidiabetic properties were measured by inhibitory activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Results: REE was able to inhibit α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase in the highest concentration with inhibition percentage of 72.68, 47.34 and 73.08% respectively, and were comparable with Acarbose of 81.49, 50.97, 73.08%. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50 of α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase of REE were 15.81, 41.77, 18.09 μg/mL respectively, and Acarbose were 9.45, 22.57, 3.64 μg/mL respectively. Conclusions: REE inhibits α-/β-glucosidase and α-amylase. Keywords: Roselle, Acarbose, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, α-amylase, antidiabetic

  15. Amylase, lipase, and volume of drainage fluid in gastrectomy for the early detection of complications caused by pancreatic leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyung Won; Yoon, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Shin, Yeon Myung; Choi, Kyung Hyun; Hwang, Hyun Yong

    2011-12-01

    Pancreatic leakage is a serious complication of gastrectomy due to stomach cancer. Therefore, we analyzed amylase and lipase concentrations in blood and drainage fluid, and evaluated the volume of drainage fluid to discern their usefulness as markers for the early detection of serious pancreatic leakage requiring reoperation after gastrectomy. From January 2001 to December 2007, we retrospectively analyzed data from 24,072 patient samples. We divided patients into two groups; 1) complications with pancreatic leakage (CG), and 2) no complications associated with pancreatic leakage (NCG). Values of amylase and lipase in the blood and drainage fluid, volume of the drainage fluid, and relationships among the volumes, amylase values, and lipase values in the drainage fluid were evaluated, respectively in the two groups. The mean amylase values of CG were significantly higher than those of NCG in blood and drainage fluid (P < 0.05). For lipase, statistically significant differences were observed in drainage fluid (P < 0.05). The mean volume (standard deviation) of the drained fluid through the tube between CG (n = 22) and NCG (n = 236) on postoperative day 1 were 368.41 (266.25) and 299.26 (300.28), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (P = 0.298). There was a correlation between the amylase and lipase values in the drainage fluid (r = 0.812, P = 0.000). Among postoperative amylase and lipase values in blood and drainage fluid, and the volume of drainage fluid, the amylase in drainage fluid was better differentiated between CG and NCG than other markers. The volume of the drainage fluid did not differ significantly between groups.

  16. Improved α-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae after a double deletion of genes involved in carbon catabolite repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Sakurako; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2014-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, the expression of secretory glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, such as those for amylases, cellulases, and xylanases, is generally repressed in the presence of glucose. CreA and CreB have been observed to be regulating factors for carbon catabolite repression. In this study, we generated single and double deletion creA and/or creB mutants in Aspergillus oryzae. The α-amylase activities of each strain were compared under various culture conditions. For the wild-type strain, mRNA levels of α-amylase were markedly decreased in the later stage of submerged culture under inducing conditions, whereas this reduced expression was not observed for single creA and double creA/creB deletion mutants. In addition, α-amylase activity of the wild-type strain was reduced in submerged culture containing high concentrations of inducing sugars, whereas all constructed mutants showed higher α-amylase activities. In particular, the α-amylase activity of the double deletion mutant in a medium containing 5% starch was >10-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain under the same culture conditions. In solid-state cultures using wheat bran as a substrate, the α-amylase activities of single creA and double deletion mutants were >2-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. These results suggested that deleting both creA and creB resulted in dramatic improvements in the production of secretory glycoside hydrolases in filamentous fungi.

  17. Partial purification and characterization of α-amylases from one insecticide-resistant population of Sitophilus zeamais

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, K.V.; Oliveira, M.G.A.; Paixao, G.P.; Visotto, L.E.; Veloso, R.V.S.; Marinho, J.S.; Guedes, R.N.C.; Oliveira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: α-Amylases (EC 3.2.1.1) constitute a family of endo-amylases that catalyze the hydrolysis of a-D- (1,4)-glucan linkages in st ach components and various other related carbohydrates. They play a central role in carbohydrate metabolism of animals, plants and microorganisms. Many insects, especially those that feed on grain products during larval and/or adult life, depend on their amylases for survival. This is particularly true for the Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a cosmopolitan pest of stored products. It is mainly controlled by insecticides. Amylases from adults of S.zeamais insecticide-resistant were purified by using a sequential procedure of glycogen-complex precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. Specific activity increased from 58,0454 AU/dL/mg protein in the crude homogenate to 2558,8720 AU/dL/mg protein in the final purified sample. Amylase unit (AU/dL) refers to the amount of amylase that hydrolysis 10 mg starch in 30 min at 37 deg C. The purified amylase ran as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. From a plot of log molecular weight against relative mobility in 10% acrylamide gel, molecular weight was estimated to be 56 kDa. The enzyme had a K m of 0,2243 g/L for soluble starch and was most active at ph 5,0. The temperature of major activity was 40 deg C. The activity of enzyme was unaffected by presence or absence of Cl - and Ca 2+

  18. In silico sequence analysis and homology modeling of predicted beta-amylase 7-like protein in Brachypodium distachyon L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERTUĞRUL FILIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beta-amylase (β-amylase, EC 3.2.1.2 is an enzyme that catalyses hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds in polysaccharides. In this study, we analyzed protein sequence of predicted beta-amylase 7-like protein in Brachypodium distachyon. pI (isoelectric point value was found as 5.23 in acidic character, while the instability index (II was found as 50.28 with accepted unstable protein. The prediction of subcellular localization was revealed that the protein may reside in chloroplast by using CELLO v.2.5. The 3D structure of protein was performed using comparative homology modeling with SWISS-MODEL. The accuracy of the predicted 3D structure was checked using Ramachandran plot analysis showed that 95.4% in favored region. The results of our study contribute to understanding of β-amylase protein structure in grass species and will be scientific base for 3D modeling of beta-amylase proteins in further studies.

  19. Amylase, Lipase, and Acute Pancreatitis in People With Type 2 Diabetes Treated With Liraglutide: Results From the LEADER Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, William M; Buse, John B; Ghorbani, Marie Louise Muus; Ørsted, David D; Nauck, Michael A

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate serum amylase and lipase levels and the rate of acute pancreatitis in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk randomized to liraglutide or placebo and observed for 3.5-5.0 years. A total of 9,340 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to either liraglutide or placebo (median observation time 3.84 years). Fasting serum lipase and amylase were monitored. Acute pancreatitis was adjudicated in a blinded manner. Compared with the placebo group, liraglutide-treated patients had increases in serum lipase and amylase of 28.0% and 7.0%, respectively. Levels were increased at 6 months and then remained stable. During the study, 18 (0.4% [1.1 events/1,000 patient-years of observation] [PYO]) liraglutide-treated and 23 (0.5% [1.7 events/1,000 PYO]) placebo patients had acute pancreatitis confirmed by adjudication. Most acute pancreatitis cases occurred ≥12 months after randomization. Liraglutide-treated patients with prior history of pancreatitis ( n = 147) were not more likely to develop acute pancreatitis than similar patients in the placebo group ( n = 120). Elevations of amylase and lipase levels did not predict future risk of acute pancreatitis (positive predictive value pancreatitis among liraglutide-treated patients (regardless of previous history of pancreatitis) compared with the placebo group. Liraglutide was associated with increases in serum lipase and amylase, which were not predictive of an event of subsequent acute pancreatitis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. The enhanced inhibition of water extract of black tea under baking treatment on α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Da-Peng; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper studied the inhibition of water extract of natural or baked black tea on the activity of α-amylase and α- glucosidase. Baking treatment was found to be one effective way to enhance the inhibition of black tea on both α-amylase and α- glucosidase, and IC 50 of water extract of baked black tea (BBTWE) were 1.213mg/mL and 4.190mg/mL, respectively, while IC 50 of water extract of black tea (BTWE) were 1.723mg/mL and 6.056mg/mL, respectively. This study further studied the mechanism of the effect of water extract on α-amylase and α- glucosidase using HPLC, circular dichroism, and synchronous fluorescence. HPLC analysis of tea polyphenols showed that the content of tea polyphenols with low polarity increased after baking. In addition, BBTWE had higer abilty on decreasing the hydrophobicity of tryptophan residues than BTWE for both α-amylase and α- glucosidase.The increase of α-helix proportion of α-amylase when treated with BBTWE was more obvious than that when treated with BTWE. In a word, thermal process of baked foods may be beneficial for tea polyphenols to reduce the rate of starch digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aqueous extracts of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.) varieties inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts of two varieties (red and white) of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) calyces on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), with the aim of providing the possible mechanism for their antidiabetes properties. Aqueous extracts were prepared (1:100 w/v) and the supernatant used for the analysis. The extracts caused inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro.The IC(50) revealed that the red variety (25.2 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-glucosidase inhibitory activity than the white variety (47.4 μg/mL), while the white variety (90.5 μg/mL) exhibited higher α-amylase inhibitory activity than the red variety (187.9 μg/mL). However, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of both calyces were higher than that of their α-amylase. In addition, the red variety possessed higher antioxidant capacity as exemplified by the (•)OH scavenging abilities, Fe(2+) chelating ability, and inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced pancreatic lipid peroxidation in vitro. The enzyme inhibitory activities and antioxidant properties of the roselle extracts agreed with their phenolic content. Hence, inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, coupled with strong antioxidant properties could be the possible underlying mechanism for the antidiabetes properties of H. sabdariffa calyces; however, the red variety appeared to be more potent.

  2. Comparing Dental Stress in New Child Patients and Returning Patients Using Salivary Cortisol, Immunoglobulin-A and Alpha- Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaki, Sumer M; Safi, Ayman; Ouda, Soliman; Nadhreen, Alaa

    this study was aimed at comparing dental stress in children having their first dental visit to those returning for dental treatment using salivary biomarkers of stress including salivary cortisol (s-cortisol), Immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA) and alpha-amylase (s-α-amylase). Additionally, the study was aimed at monitoring the change in stress in new patients as they progressed from the waiting to the clinical areas. salivary samples were collected from 40 children who had not been to a dentist before and similar samples were collected from 40 children who were returning for completion of dental treatment. Salivary cortisol, s-IgA and s-α-amylase concentrations were obtained by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). salivary cortisol levels were higher for new patients at the waiting area compared to that at the dental chair (p=0.05). Salivary alpha-amylase significantly increased in new patients while being seated in the dental chair. Returning patients had higher s-α-amylase (p=0.001) and s-IgA (p=0.016) compared to new patients. Returning patients had the lowest level of s-cortisol when providers were faculty pediatric dentists than with students and interns (p=0.035). children coming in for their first dental visit may experience dental stress at the waiting area before being seated for dental examination. Returning children may experience higher levels of stress compared to new child patients possibly due to previous dental exposure.

  3. A hyper-thermostable α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus accumulates in Nicotiana tabacum as functional aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Reynolds, L Bruce; Menassa, Rima

    2017-06-19

    Alpha amylase hydrolyzes α-bonds of polysaccharides such as starch and produces malto-oligosaccharides. Its starch saccharification applications make it an essential enzyme in the textile, food and brewing industries. Commercially available α-amylase is mostly produced from Bacillus or Aspergillus. A hyper-thermostable and Ca 2++ independent α-amylase from Pyrococcus furiosus (PFA) expressed in E.coli forms insoluble inclusion bodies and thus is not feasible for industrial applications. We expressed PFA in Nicotiana tabacum and found that plant-produced PFA forms functional aggregates with an accumulation level up to 3.4 g/kg FW (fresh weight) in field conditions. The aggregates are functional without requiring refolding and therefore have potential to be applied as homogenized plant tissue without extraction or purification. PFA can also be extracted from plant tissue upon dissolution in a mild reducing buffer containing SDS. Like the enzyme produced in P. furiosus and in E. coli, plant produced PFA preserves hyper-thermophilicity and hyper-thermostability and has a long shelf life when stored in lyophilized leaf tissue. With tobacco's large biomass and high yield, hyper-thermostable α-amylase was produced at a scale of 42 kg per hectare. Tobacco may be a suitable bioreactor for industrial production of active hyperthermostable alpha amylase.

  4. A Proposed Mechanism for the Thermal Denaturation of a Recombinant Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-amylase - the Effect of Calcium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anders D.; Pusey, Marc L.; Fuglsang, Claus C.; Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stability of a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) has been investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This alpha-amylase is homologous to other Bacillus alpha-amylases where previous crystallographic studies have identified the existence of 3 calcium binding sites in the structure. Denaturation of BHA is irreversible with a Tm of approximately 89 C, and DSC thermograms can be described using a one-step irreversible model. A 5 C increase in T(sub m) in the presence of 10 fold excess CaCl2 was observed. However, a concomitant increase in the tendency to aggregate was also observed. The presence of 30-40 fold excess calcium chelator (EDTA or EGTA) results in a large destabilization of BHA corresponding to about 40 C lower T(sub m), as determined by both CD and DSC. Ten fold excess EGTA reveals complex DSC thermograms corresponding to both reversible and irreversible transitions, which possibly originate from different populations of BHA:calcium complexes. The observations in the present study have, in combination with structural information of homologous alpha-amylases, provided the basis for the proposal of a simple denaturation mechanism of BHA. The proposed mechanism describes the irreversible thermal denaturation of different BHA:calcium complexes and the calcium binding equilibrium involved. Furthermore, the model accounts for a temperature induced reversible structural change associated with calcium binding.

  5. An exceptionally cold-adapted alpha-amylase from a metagenomic library of a cold and alkaline environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede; Glaring, Mikkel Andreas; Stougaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A cold-active α-amylase, AmyI3C6, identified by a functional metagenomics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Sequence analysis showed that the AmyI3C6 amylase was similar to α-amylases from the class Clostridia and revealed classical characteristics of cold......-adapted enzymes, as did comparison of the kinetic parameters Km and kcat to a mesophilic α-amylase. AmyI3C6 was shown to be heat-labile. Temperature optimum was at 10-15 °C, and more than 70 % of the relative activity was retained at 1 °C. The pH optimum of AmyI3C6 was at pH 8-9, and the enzyme displayed activity...... in two commercial detergents tested, suggesting that the AmyI3C6 α-amylase may be useful as a detergent enzyme in environmentally friendly, low-temperature laundry processes....

  6. Cow dung is an ideal fermentation medium for amylase production in solid-state fermentation by Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amylase production by Bacillus cereus IND4 was investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF using cow dung substrate. The SSF conditions were optimized by using one-variable-at-a-time approach and two level full factorial design. Two level full factorial design demonstrated that moisture, pH, fructose, yeast extract and ammonium sulphate have significantly influenced enzyme production (p < 0.05. A central composite design was employed to investigate the optimum concentration of these variables affecting amylase production. Maximal amylase production of 464 units/ml of enzyme was observed in the presence of 100% moisture, 0.1% fructose and 0.01% ammonium sulphate. The enzyme production increased three fold compared to the original medium. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of amylase were found to be 8.0 and 50 °C, respectively. This enzyme was highly stable at wide pH range (7.0–9.0 and showed 32% enzyme activity after initial denaturation at 50 °C for 1 h. This is the first detailed report on the production of amylase by microorganisms using cow dung as the low cost medium.

  7. Enhanced Production and Characterization of a Solvent Stable Amylase from Solvent Tolerant Bacillus tequilensis RG-01: Thermostable and Surfactant Resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Tiwari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten bacterial strains isolated from the soil samples in the presence of cyclohexane were screened for amylase production. Among them, culture RG-01 was adjudged as the best amylase producer and was identified as Bacillus tequilensis from MTCC, Chandigarh. The isolate showed maximum amylase production (8100 U/mL in the presence of starch, peptone, and Ca2+ ions at 55°C pH 7.0 within 24 h of incubation. The enzyme was stable in the presence of n-dodecane, isooctane, n-decane, xylene, toluene, n-hexane, n-butanol, and cyclohexane, respectively. The presence of benzene, methanol, and ethanol marginally reduced the amylase stability, respectively. The enzyme was showed it 100% activity at 55°C and pH 7.0 with 119% and 127% stability at 55°C and pH 7.0, respectively. The enzyme was also stable in the presence of SDS, Tween-40, Tween-60, and Tween-80 (1% and was found stimulatory effect, respectively. Only Triton-X-100 showed a moderate inhibitory effect (5% on amylase activity. This isolate (Bacillus tequilensis RG-01 may be useful in several industrial applications owing to its thermotolerant and organic solvents and surfactants resistance characteristics.

  8. Optimization of the production of extracellular α-amylase by Kluyveromyces marxianus IF0 0288 by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota-Yiolanda Stergiou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of extracellular α-amylase by Kluyveromyces marxianus IF0 0288 using optimized nutritional and cultural conditions in a complex yeast medium under aerobic batch fermentation. By applying the conventional "one-variable-at-a-time" approach and the response surface methodology, the effect of four fermentation parameters (type of carbon source, initial culture pH, temperature, and incubation time on the growth and α-amylase production was evaluated. The production of α-amylase during 60 h of fermentation increased 13-fold under optimized conditions (1% starch, pH 6.0, 30ºC in comparison to the conventional optimization method. The initial pH value of 6.13 and temperature of 30.3ºC were optimal conditions by the response surface methodology, leading to further improvement (up to 13-fold in the production of extracellular α-amylase. These results constituted first evidence that K. marxianus could be potentially used as an effective source of extracellular α-amylase.

  9. Microencapsulation of Purified Amylase Enzyme from Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel in Arabic Gum-Chitosan using Freeze Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylase is one of the most important enzymes in the world due to its wide application in various industries and biotechnological processes. In this study, amylase enzyme from Hylocereus polyrhizus was encapsulated for the first time in an Arabic gum-chitosan matrix using freeze drying. The encapsulated amylase retained complete biocatalytic activity and exhibited a shift in the optimum temperature and considerable increase in the pH and temperature stabilities compared to the free enzyme. Encapsulation of the enzyme protected the activity in the presence of ionic and non-ionic surfactants and oxidizing agents (H2O2 and enhanced the shelf life. The storage stability of amylase is found to markedly increase after immobilization and the freeze dried amylase exhibited maximum encapsulation efficiency value (96.2% after the encapsulation process. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the encapsulation of the enzyme in a coating agent using freeze drying is an efficient method to keep the enzyme active and stable until required in industry.

  10. Optimization, Purification, and Starch Stain Wash Application of Two New α-Amylases Extracted from Leaves and Stems of Pergularia tomentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Lahmar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A continuous research is attempted to fulfil the highest industrial demands of natural amylases presenting special properties. New α-amylases extracted from stems and leaves of Pergularia tomentosa, which is widespread and growing spontaneously in Tunisia, were studied by the means of their activities optimization and purification. Some similarities were recorded for the two identified enzymes: (i the highest amylase activity showed a promoted thermal stability at 50°C; (ii the starch substrate at 1% enhanced the enzyme activity; (iii the two α-amylases seem to be calcium-independent; (iv Zn2+, Cu2+, and Ag2+ were considered as important inhibitors of the enzyme activity. Following the increased gradient of elution on Mono Q-Sepharose column, an increase in the specific activity of 11.82-fold and 10.92-fold was recorded, respectively, for leaves and stems with the presence of different peaks on the purification profiles. Pergularia amylases activities were stable and compatible with the tested commercial detergents. The combination of plant amylase and detergent allowed us to enhance the wash performance with an increase of 35.24 and 42.56%, respectively, for stems and leaves amylases. Characterized amylases were reported to have a promoted potential for their implication notably in detergent industry as well as biotechnological sector.

  11. Determinants of wheat antigen and fungal alpha-amylase exposure in bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Teschke, K; Bartlett, K; Kennedy, S M

    1998-05-01

    The study's objectives were to measure flour antigen exposure in bakeries and define the determinants of exposure. Ninety-six bakery workers, employed in seven different bakeries, participated in the study. Two side-by-side full-shift inhalable dust samples were obtained from each study participant on a single occasion. The flour antigen exposure was measured as wheat antigen and fungal alpha-amylase content of the water-soluble fraction of inhalable dust, assayed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. During the entire sampling period bakers were observed and information on 14 different tasks was recorded at 15-minute intervals. Other production characteristics were also recorded for each sampling day and used in statistical modeling to identify significant predictors of exposure. The mean alpha-amylase antigen exposure was 22.0 ng/m3 (ranging from below the limit of detection of 0.1 ng/m3 to 307.1 ng/m3) and the mean wheat antigen exposure was 109 micrograms/m3 (ranging from below the limit of detection of 1 microgram/m3 to 1018 micrograms/m3). Regression models that explained 74% of variability in wheat antigen and alpha-amylase antigen exposures were constructed. The models indicated that tasks such as weighing, pouring, and operating dough-brakers increased flour antigen exposure, while packing and decorating resulted in lower exposures. Croissant, puff-pastry, and bread/bun production lines were associated with increased exposure, while cake production and substitution of dusting with the use of divider oil were associated with decreased exposure. Exposure levels can be reduced by the automation of forming tasks, alteration of tasks requiring pouring of flour, and changes to the types of products manufactured.

  12. Copy number variation in salivary amylase: A participant-based study on genetic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips, E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Amylase (AMY1 is an enzyme found in the mouth that is used to help digest carbohydrates. It has been found that the copy number of AMY1 has been positively associated with protein levels within an individual and also that individual’s population. This information can correspond to the positive ancestral linkage of high starch consumption within agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies. A high starch consumption means that the AMY1 enzyme will be more prevalent within their bodies, and the presence of AMY1 could both help bodies process starches better and prevent future conditions or intestinal diseases. The amylase gene is conclusively connected to the AMY1 copy number production. I hypothesized that individuals within a population will have a similar copy number of the AMY1 gene to each other. Twenty-five high school students located in Norman, Oklahoma were asked to retrieve buccal swabs from the inside of their cheek. DNA then was abstracted from these samples, and a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, a machine used to detect the amount of genetic material found in the DNA, was completed in order to determine the copy number within each salivary sample. The qPCR was completed two different times in order to ensure correct results when the data was presented. Results indicated that the copy number within the population were similar to each other, and ranged from 1-12. This means that individuals located in this population have a lower production of amylase, and this provides indication that they are more likely to become obese than in previous research papers located in Arizona. Research shows that a smaller production of AMY1 may contribute to the chances of obesity in the future.

  13. Inhibition of α-Amylases by Condensed and Hydrolysable Tannins: Focus on Kinetics and Hypoglycemic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Gabriel Kato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro inhibitory effects on the salivary and pancreatic α-amylases and the in vivo hypoglycemic actions of the hydrolysable tannin from Chinese natural gall and the condensed tannin from Acacia mearnsii. The human salivary α-amylase was more strongly inhibited by the hydrolysable than by the condensed tannin, with the concentrations for 50% inhibition (IC50 being 47.0 and 285.4 μM, respectively. The inhibitory capacities of both tannins on the pancreatic α-amylase were also different, with IC50 values being 141.1 μM for the hydrolysable tannin and 248.1 μM for the condensed tannin. The kinetics of the inhibition presented complex patterns in that for both inhibitors more than one molecule can bind simultaneously to either the free enzyme of the substrate-complexed enzyme (parabolic mixed inhibition. Both tannins were able to inhibit the intestinal starch absorption. Inhibition by the hydrolysable tannin was concentration-dependent, with 53% inhibition at the dose of 58.8 μmol/kg and 88% inhibition at the dose of 294 μmol/kg. For the condensed tannin, inhibition was not substantially different for doses between 124.4 μmol/kg (49% and 620 μmol/kg (57%. It can be concluded that both tannins, but especially the hydrolysable one, could be useful in controlling the postprandial glycemic levels in diabetes.

  14. Amylase for Apple Juice Processing: Effects of pH, Heat, and Ca2+ Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana N. Ceci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of pH, heat, and Ca2+ ions on the α-amylase activities in a commercial amylolytic enzyme (Tyazyme L300, used for apple juice processing. Kinetics of thermal inactivation was studied in acetate and citrate/phosphate buffers at different temperatures (55–70 °C and enzyme concentrations (0.276 and 0.552 mL/100 mL. Maximum α-amylase activity was observed at pH=3.4 in both buffers. Effects of the addition of calcium chloride during and after thermal treatments were also investigated. α-amylase activities were measured by an iodometric method and thermal inactivation constants and D values (time for reducing 90 % of the enzymatic activity were estimated. The enzyme was more sensible to pH changes and heat when citrate ions were present in the reaction medium. If Ca2+ in the enzyme structure is bound to citrate then the resistance of the enzyme to pH changes and heat is lowered. Kinetics obtained according to Arrhenius equation and two enzymatic fractions (thermo-labile and thermoresistant were observed too. In citrate buffer the following relation was observed for thermo-labile fraction: log (D value = -0.144 t/°C + 12.992. The level of thermal inactivation also depended on the enzyme concentration. Higher thermal inactivation rates were obtained by increasing the enzyme concentration in the case when citrate was present. It was also found that the addition of calcium chloride (1 g/L after thermal treatment in median containing citrate reactivated the enzyme treated at 60 and 65 °C. The possible implications of these findings in apple juice processing were discussed.

  15. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Amylase and Protease Production from Aspergillus awamori in Single Bioreactor Through EVOP Factorial Design Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Negi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary operation (EVOP factorial design technique was explored in order to economically produce amylase and protease at their optimum level in a single bioreactor by modified solid-state fermentation. Maximum yields of amylase and protease were achieved, using wheat bran as a substrate by a highly potent, locally isolated strain of Aspergillus awamori: Nakazawa MTCC 6652. The strain had been induced previously, inferring the ability to produce both enzymes concomitantly in a single bioreactor with their maximum capacity. The highest secretion of amylase and protease were measured to be 9420.6 and 1930 U/g, respectively, at 37 °C. pH and relative humidity were found to be optimum at 4 and 85 %, evaluated through EVOP method.

  17. [POLYMORPHISM OF ALFA-AMYLASE AND CONJUGATION IN COMMON WHEAT ENZYME TYPES WITH QUANTITATIVE TRAITS OF PLANTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvetaev, V P; Bondarenko, L S; Motorina, I P

    2015-01-01

    Using polymorphism of alpha-amylase in the winter common wheat studied inheritance isoenzymes and its conjugation enzyme types with germinating grain on the "vine", grain productivity, plant height and time of ear formation. It is shown that the polymorphism isoenzyme of alpha-amylase wheat is limited by the presence of different loci whose products are similar in electrophoretic parameters. In this regard, one component of the enzyme can be controlling at one or two or three genes. Identification of a locus controlling alpha-amylase isoenzyme in the fast moving part of the electrophoretogram, designated as α-Amy-B7. Determine the distance of the locus to factor α-Amy-B6.

  18. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of α-amylase in high concentration (50-200 mg) by radiation induced polymerization at low temperature, with HEMA has been studied. A feature of the high concentration α-amylase system is phase separation of the mixed solution prior to polymerization, markedly at HEMA concentrations above 50%. Useful immobilization is possible, however, by irradiation of the suspended composition at -196 0 C, which is obtained by shaking the phase-separated system. At temperatures below 0 0 C, the immobilization is possible, but not above this because of the phase separation. The polymerizability of HEMA changes abruptly at 0 0 C. The largest polymerization rate is obtained at -24 0 C, possibly due to phase change by crystallization of water of the buffer solution at 0 0 C. Activity of the immobilized high-concentration α-amylase is as high as 80-85% being somewhat higher than that in the low-concentration case. (auth.)

  19. High-level production of α-amylase by manipulating the expression of alanine racamase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Penghui; Zhang, Zeying; Cai, Dongbo; Chen, Yaozhong; Wang, Hao; Wei, Xuetuan; Li, Shunyi; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-09-01

    To improve target protein production by manipulating expression levels of alanine racemase in Bacillus licheniformis. The gene of dal was identified to be responsible for alanine racemase function. Based on the selection marker of dal, a food-grade expression system was constructed in B. licheniformis, and effects of different dal expression levels mediated by promoters on α-amylase production were investigated. The highest α-amylase activity (155 U/ml) was obtained in BL10D/pP43SAT-PtetDal, increased by 27% compared with that of the control strain BL10/pP43SAT in tetracycline-based system (123 U/ml). Moreover, the dal transcriptional level was not correlated positively with that of amyL. A food-grade system for high-level production of α-amylase was constructed in B. licheniformis, revealing that expression levels of selection marker significantly affected target protein production.

  20. Effects of Cadmium Stress on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Seed Amylase Activities in Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yu HE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two rice varieties, Xiushui 110 with high cadmium (Cd tolerance and Xiushui 11 with low Cd tolerance were used to study the effects of Cd stress on seed germination, seedling growth and amylase activities. The low cadmium concentration had little effect on seed germination rate. However, cadmium stress could significantly inhibit plumule and radicle growth, especially for radicle growth. Germination index, vigour index, radicle length and amylase activities of Xiushui 11 decreased more significantly with the increasing cadmium level compared with Xiushui 110. The cadmium content in seedlings of Xiushui 11 was higher than that in Xiushui 110 when the cadmium concentration exceeded 5 μmol/L, which caused lower mitotic index in root tips and amylase activities, and more serious cadmium toxicity in Xiushui 11.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Hung; Peng, Wen-Yan; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Ming-Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization of rice α-amylase/subtilisin bifunctional inhibitor is reported. Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum and other grains by using a fungal amylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaisten, R J

    1961-01-01

    Destilasa is the trade ame of a fungal ..gamma..-amylase obtained from a strain of Aspergillus awamori for use in grain distilleries in Argentina. Using sorghum mash, 57% starch, 2 to 5% Destilasa gave fermentation efficiencies from 76 to 94%, malt 78%, acid conversion 75%. Other starchy materials tested were rye, potatoes, and sweet potatoes. Cooking and saccharification procedures were given in detail for corn, sorghum, and rye. An industrial procedure was outlined in detail and might be applicable to alcohol distilleries using sugar cane.

  3. Effect of the medium composition on formation of amylase by Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Oliveira. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the alpha -amylase synthesis was carried out with a moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic Bacillus sp, isolated from soil samples. The cells were cultivated in a complex medium containing soluble starch or maltose as carbon source. The levels of the alpha -amylaseactivity detected in culture supernatants varied greatly with the type of carbon source used. Maltose, soluble starch and citrate stimulated alpha -amylaseformation. Addition of exogenous glucose repressed formation of alpha -amylase, demonstrating that a classical glucose effect was operative in this organism. The concentration of yeast extract was found to be important factor in the alpha -amylase synthesis bythe isolate.The activity of the enzyme increased between 2 and 5 g/L yeast extract concentration and then fell very rapidly beyond this point. The best concentration of peptone to alpha-amylase formation was found to be around 10g/L.Estudos sobre a síntese de alfa -amilase foram realizados com uma bactéria termofílica moderada e facultativa anaeróbica, isolada de amostras de solo. As células foram cultivadas em um meio complexo contendo amido solúvel ou maltose como fonte de carbono. Os níveis da atividade de alfa -amilase detectados no sobrenadante da cultura variaram grandemente com o tipo da fonte de carbono utilizada. Amido solúvel, maltose e citrato estimularam a formação de alfa -amilase. A adição de glicose as culturas reprimiu a formação da alfa -amilase, demonstrando que o clássico efeito glicose foi operativo neste organismo. A concentração de extrato de levedura foi um fator importante na formação de alfa -amilase pelo isolado. A atividade da enzima aumentou entre concentrações de 2 a 5 g/L e então caiu muito rapidamente em torno deste ponto. A melhor concentração de peptona para a formação da alfa -amilase foi em torno de 10 g/L.

  4. Modification of the activity of an alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis by several surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Rodríguez,Vicente; Jurado Alameda,Encarnación; Martínez Gallegos,Juan Francisco; Reyes Requena,Antonia; García López,Ana Isabel; Sampaio Cabral,Joaquim Manuel; Fernandes,Pedro; Pina da Fonseca,Luis Joaquim

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different commercial surfactants on the enzymatic activity of a commercial alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (Termamyl 300 L) has been studied. As non-ionic surfactants, alkyl polyglycosides (Glucopon® 215, Glucopon® 600 and Glucopon® 650) were studied, as were fatty alcohol ethoxylates (Findet 1214N/23 and Findet 10/15), and nonyl phenol ethoxylate (Findet 9Q/21.5NF). Also, an anionic surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) was assayed. In general, none of t...

  5. Peptide-evoked release of amylase from isolated acini of the rat parotid gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goll, R; Poulsen, J H; Schmidt, P

    1994-01-01

    on isolated acini of the rat parotid gland. Furthermore, the occurrence and location of the peptides in the gland was studied. Finally, binding of 125I-BH-SP to isolated acini were studied in order to characterize their tachykinin receptor(s) and their binding kinetics. Only SP, NKA, NPK and VIP stimulated...... of NK1-receptors. Thus, the results of the present study support previous suggestions that the tachykinins and VIP are likely to be involved in amylase secretion in the rat parotid gland....

  6. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  7. Alpha amylase from a fungal culture grown on oil cakes and its properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran,Sumitra; Patel,Anil K.; Nampoothiri,Kesavan Madhavan; Chandran,Sandhya; Szakacs,George; Soccol,Carlos Ricardo; Pandey,Ashok

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation was carried out for the production of alpha-amylase using Aspergillus oryzae. Different oil cakes such as coconut oil cake (COC) sesame oil cake (SOC), groundnut oil cake (GOC), palm kernel cake (PKC) and olive oil cake (OOC) were screened to be used as substrate for the enzyme production and also compared with wheat bran (WB). GOC was found to be the best producer of the enzyme among these. Combination of WB and GOC (1:1) resulted higher enzyme titres than the indivi...

  8. Effect of α-Amylase Degradation on Physicochemical Properties of Pre-High Hydrostatic Pressure-Treated Potato Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Raad, Leyla; Sun, Hong-Nan; Wang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the susceptibility of potato starch (25%, w/v) suspended in water to degradation by exposure to bacterial α-amylase (0.02%, 0.04% and 0.06%, w/v) for 40 min at 25°C was investigated. Significant differences (p starch (PS) exposed to α-amylase (0.06%, w/v) showed a significantly greater degree of hydrolysis and amount of reducing sugar released compared to α-amylase at a concentration of 0.04% (w/v) or 0.02% (w/v). Native PS (NPS) granules have a spherical and elliptical form with a smooth surface, whereas the hydrolyzed NPS (hNPS) and hydrolyzed HHP-treated PS granules showed irregular and ruptured forms with several cracks and holes on the surface. Hydrolysis of HHP-treated PS by α-amylase could decrease the average granule size significantly (p starch in both the ordered and the amorphous structure, especially in hydrolyzed HHP600 PS. The B-type of hydrolyzed HHP600 PS with α-amylase at a concentration 0.06% (w/v) changed to a B+V type with an additional peak at 2θ = 19.36°. The HHP600 starch with 0.06% (w/v) α-amylase displayed the lowest value of T o (onset temperature), T c (conclusion temperature) and ΔH gel (enthalpies of gelatinization). These results indicate the pre-HHP treatment of NPS leads to increased susceptibility of the granules to enzymatic degradation and eventually changes of both the amorphous and the crystalline structures. PMID:26642044

  9. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. FGF7 and cell density are required for final differentiation of pancreatic amylase-positive cells from human ES cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa-Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yoshie, Susumu; Yue, Fengming; Mogi, Akimi; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2013-12-01

    The major molecular signals of pancreatic exocrine development are largely unknown. We examine the role of fibroblast growth factor 7 (FGF7) in the final induction of pancreatic amylase-containing exocrine cells from induced-pancreatic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Our protocol consisted in three steps: Step I, differentiation of definitive endoderm (DE) by activin A treatment of hES cell colonies; Step II, differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells by re-plating of the cells of Step I onto 24-well plates at high density and stimulation with all-trans retinoic acid; Step III, differentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells with a combination of FGF7, glucagon-like peptide 1 and nicotinamide. The expression levels of pancreatic endodermal markers such as Foxa2, Sox17 and gut tube endoderm marker HNF1β were up-regulated in both Step I and II. Moreover, in Step III, the induced cells expressed pancreatic markers such as amylase, carboxypeptidase A and chymotrypsinogen B, which were similar to those in normal human pancreas. From day 8 in Step III, cells immunohistochemically positive for amylase and for carboxypeptidase A, a pancreatic exocrine cell product, were induced by FGF7. Pancreatic progenitor Pdx1-positive cells were localized in proximity to the amylase-positive cells. In the absence of FGF7, few amylase-positive cells were identified. Thus, our three-step culture protocol for human ES cells effectively induces the differentiation of amylase- and carboxypeptidase-A-containing pancreatic exocrine cells.

  11. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  13. Functional characterization and crystal structure of thermostable amylase from Thermotoga petrophila, reveals high thermostability and an unusual form of dimerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Uzma; Price, Ian; Ikram-Ul-Haq

    2017-01-01

    and able to hydrolyze starch into dextrin between 90 and 100°C, with optimum activity at 98°C and pH8.5. The activity increased in the presence of Rb(1+), K(1+) and Ca(2+) ions, whereas other ions inhibited activity. The crystal structure of Tp-AmyS at 1.7Å resolution showed common features of the GH-13...... of salivary amylase from a previous crystal structure, and thus could be a functional feature of some amylases....

  14. Alternative method for quantification of alfa-amylase activity Alternativa para quantificação de alfa-amilase

    OpenAIRE

    DF. Farias; AFU. Carvalho; CC. Oliveira; NM. Sousa; LCB. Rocha-Bezerrra; PMP. Ferreira; GPG. Lima; DC. Hissa

    2010-01-01

    A modification of the sensitive agar diffusion method was developed for macro-scale determination of alfa-amylase. The proposed modifications lower costs with the utilisation of starch as substrate and agar as supporting medium. Thus, a standard curve was built using alfa-amylase solution from Aspergillus oryzae, with concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 7,500 U.mL-1. Clear radial diffusion zones were measured after 4 hours of incubation at 20 °C. A linear relationship between the logarithm of...

  15. Starch Hydrolysis, Polyphenol Contents, and In Vitro Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Properties of Some Nigerian Foods As Affected by Cooking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Saidu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of cooking on starch hydrolysis, polyphenol contents, and in vitro α-amylase inhibitory properties of mushrooms (two varieties Russula virescens and Auricularia auricula-judae, sweet potato (Ipomea batatas, and potato (Solanum tuberosum was investigated. The total, resistant, and digestible starch contents of the raw and cooked food samples (FS ranged from 6.4 to 64.9; 0 to 10.1; and 6.4 to 62.7 g/100 g, respectively, while their percentages of starch digestibility (DS values expressed as percentages of total starch hydrolyzed ranged from 45.99 to 100. Raw and boiled unpeeled potato, raw and boiled peeled potato, raw A. auricula-judae, and sweet potato showed mild to high α-amylase inhibition (over a range of concentration of 10–50 mg/mL, which was lower than that of acarbose (that had 69% inhibition of α-amylase over a range of concentration of 2–10 mg/mL, unlike raw R. virescens, boiled A. auricula-judae, and boiled sweet potatoes that activated α-amylase and boiled R. virescens that gave 0% inhibition. The FS contained flavonoids and phenols in addition. The significant negative correlation (r = −0.55; P = 0.05 between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their SD indicates that the α-amylase inhibitors in these FS also influenced the digestibility of their starches. In addition, the significant positive correlation between the α-amylase inhibitory properties of the raw and cooked FS versus their resistant starch (RS (r = 0.59; P = 0.01 contents indicates that the RS constituents of these FS contributed to their α-amylase inhibitory properties. The study showed the usefulness of boiled unpeeled potato, boiled potato peeled, and raw sweet potato as functional foods for people with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effects of alpha-amylase reaction mechanisms on analysis of resistant-starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Samuel A; Ai, Yongfeng; Chang, Fengdan; Jane, Jay-lin

    2015-01-22

    This study aimed to understand differences in the resistant starch (RS) contents of native and modified starches obtained using two standard methods of RS content analysis: AOAC Method 991.43 and 2002.02. The largest differences were observed in native potato starch, cross-linked wheat distarch phosphate, and high-amylose corn starch stearic-acid complex (RS5) between using AOAC Method 991.43 with Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BL) and AOAC Method 2002.02 with porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA). To determine possible reasons for these differences, we hydrolyzed raw-starch granules with BL and PPA with equal activity at pH 6.9 and 37°C for up to 84 h and observed the starch granules displayed distinct morphological differences after the hydrolysis. Starches hydrolyzed by BL showed erosion on the surface of the granules; those hydrolyzed by PPA showed pitting on granule surfaces. These results suggested that enzyme reaction mechanisms, including the sizes of the binding sites and the reaction patterns of the two enzymes, contributed to the differences in the RS contents obtained using different methods of RS analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortisol, salivary alpha-amylase and children's perceptions of their social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Davide; Muehlenbein, Michael P; Geary, David C; Flinn, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of social network analysis in biobehavioral research. Despite the well-established importance of social relationships in influencing human behavior and health, little is known about how children's perception of their immediate social relationships correlates with biological parameters of stress. In this study we explore the association between two measures of children's personal social networks, perceived network size and perceived network density, with two biomarkers of stress, cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase. Forty children (mean age = 8.30, min age = 5, and max age = 12) were interviewed to collect information about their friendships and three samples of saliva were collected. Our results show that children characterized by a lower pre-interview cortisol concentration and a lower salivary alpha-amylase reactivity to the interview reported the highest density of friendships. We discuss this result in light of the multisystem approach to the study of children's behavioral outcomes, emphasizing that future work of this kind is needed in order to understand the cognitive and biological mechanisms underlying children's and adolescents' social perceptual biases.

  18. ALPHA-AMYLASE PRODUCTION FROM Aspergillus oryzae M BY SUBMERGED FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleimenova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of present study was implementation of the Aspergillus oryzae M strain improved technology using earlier developed method of microorganism selection. 8 pure strains of Aspergillus fungi were screened for the production of extra cellular alpha-amylase using agar medium with starch as a substrate and incubated for 72h at 30 ºС. Zone of clearance was observed for screening of the amylolytic fungi (in mm. Aspergillus oryzae M has demonstrated the highest zone of clearance. Aspergillus oryzae M was cultivated for 42 days in submerged conditions of growth using new method of fungal cultivation. This method based on immobilizing enzymes producers on solid career in submerged conditions of growth gives the way to improve quality of filtrates, which remain clear, does not require additional filtering and easily separated from the mycelium. Moreover, it allows to prolong the process of fungal cultivation and to maintain high enzymatic activity for a long period of time. Presented method allowed increasing alpha-amylase production from 321 U/ml (before immobilization to 502 U/ml (after immobilization.

  19. Amylosucrase, a glucan-synthesizing enzyme from the alpha-amylase family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, L K; Mirza, Osman Asghar; Henriksen, A

    2001-01-01

    Amylosucrase (E.C. 2.4.1.4) is a member of Family 13 of the glycoside hydrolases (the alpha-amylases), although its biological function is the synthesis of amylose-like polymers from sucrose. The structure of amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea is divided into five domains: an all helical N...... of amylosucrase is at the bottom of a pocket at the molecular surface. A substrate binding site resembling the amylase 2 subsite is not found in amylosucrase. The site is blocked by a salt bridge between residues in the second and eight loops of the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel. The result is an exo-acting enzyme. Loop......-terminal domain that is not similar to any known fold, a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel A-domain, B- and B'-domains displaying alpha/beta-structure, and a C-terminal eight-stranded beta-sheet domain. In contrast to other Family 13 hydrolases that have the active site in the bottom of a large cleft, the active site...

  20. Adsorption of {alpha}-amylase onto poly(N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid) hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuemtuerk, Hayrettin; Caykara, Tuncer; Kantoglu, Oemer; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-05-02

    {alpha}-Amylase enzyme was adsorbed on poly(N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid) (P(VP/IA)) hydrogels prepared by irradiating the ternary mixtures of VP/IA/water by {gamma}-rays at ambient temperature. The adsorption capacity of the hydrogels was determined to increase from 2.30 to 3.40 mg {alpha}-amylase/g dry gel with increasing amount of IA in gel system. Kinetic parameters were calculated as 2.51 g/dm{sup 3} for K{sub m} and 1.67x10{sup -3} g/dm{sup 3} min for V{sub max} for free enzyme and in the range of 3.88-5.02 g/dm{sup 3} for K{sub m} and 1.62x10{sup -3}-2.27 x 10{sup -3} g/dm{sup 3} min for V{sub max} depending on the amount of IA in the hydrogel. Enzyme activities were found to increase from 49.9% to 77.4% with increasing amount of IA in the gel system and retained their activities for one month storage. On the other hand, the free enzyme loses its activity completely after 20 days.

  1. High yield recombinant thermostable α-amylase production using an improved Bacillus licheniformis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Gui-Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some strains of Bacillus licheniformis have been improved by target-directed screening as well as by classical genetic manipulation and used in commercial thermostable α-amylase and alkaline protease production for over 40 years. Further improvements in production of these enzymes are desirable. Results A new strain of B. licheniformis CBBD302 carrying a recombinant plasmid pHY-amyL for Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA production was constructed. The combination of target-directed screening and genetic recombination led to an approximately 26-fold improvement of BLA production and export in B. licheniformis. Furthermore, a low-cost fermentation medium containing soybean meal and cottonseed meal for BLA production in shake-flasks and in a 15 liter bioreactor was developed and a BLA concentration of up to 17.6 mg per ml growth medium was attained. Conclusion This production level of BLA by B. licheniformis CBBD302(pHY-amyL is amongst the highest levels in Gram-positive bacteria reported so far.

  2. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Smyth, Thomas J; Soler-Vila, Anna; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2013-12-01

    To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 53.6 and 44.7 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.49 μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of diluting starch mixtures with bacterial amylase on the heat treatment of the grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinikov, B A; Gromov, S I; Poluyanova, M T

    1971-01-01

    A higher yield of alcohol can be obtained from finely ground grain by diluting the mixtures prior to boiling down with amylolyic enzymes or acids, using thermophilic bacteria. Bacterium diastaticus can withstand temperature as high as 90 to 95/sup 0/C. Experiments are described for studying the effect of time and temperature of boiling on ground grain of different particle size, and of preliminary dilution of the mashes with bacterial amylase. The particle sizes used in the experiment were 0.7 to 1, 1.5 to 2 and 2.5 to 3 mm. The 40 g samples were diluted with 140 ml water and 2 vol % liquid bacterial diastaticus culture with an activity of 160 units/100 ml. 40 minutes on a water bath caused gelation of the starch. Following this treatment, the samples were autoclaved for 10 to 120 minutes at 133, 141, 151 and 158/sup 0/C. Results, expressed in graph form, show that addition of bacterial amylase enabled the grain mash boiling period to be shortened.

  4. Thermophilic and unusually acidophilic amylase produced by a thermophilic acidophilic bacillus sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, F

    1982-01-01

    Bacillus sp. 11-1S, a thermophilic acidophilic bacterial strain, produced an extracellular amylase with unusual characteristics. The enzyme was purified 40-fold by SE-Sephadex column chromatography. The pH optimum for activity was 2.0, and substantial activity was noted in the pH range of 1.5-3.5. The optimal temperature was 70 degrees C, but the activity decreased markedly in lower reaction temperatures. Arrhenius plots of the reaction showed two straight lines intersecting at about 50 degrees C. The activity or stability of the enzyme was not likely to depend on Ca2+. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 54,000 calculated from the electrophoretic mobility. The enzyme behaved like an alpha-amylase (1,4-alpha-D- glucan glucanohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.1). About 34% of glucosidic linkages of soluble starch was hydrolyzed at 65 degrees C and pH 2.0, in 24 hours, and the major products were maltotriose and maltose. (Refs. 14).

  5. Maltose Production Using Starch from Cassava Bagasse Catalyzed by Cross-Linked β-Amylase Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Araujo-Silva

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Barley β-amylase was immobilized using different techniques. The highest global yield was obtained using the cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEA technique, employing bovine serum albumin (BSA or soy protein isolate (SPI as feeder proteins to reduce diffusion problems. The CLEAs produced using BSA or SPI showed 82.7 ± 5.8 and 53.3 ± 2.4% global yield, respectively, and a stabilization effect was observed upon immobilization at neutral pH value, e.g., after 12 h at 55 °C, the free β-amylase is fully inactivated, while CLEAs retained 25 and 15% of activity (using BSA and SPI, respectively. CLEA using SPI was selected because of its easier recovery, being chosen to convert the residual starch contained in cassava bagasse into maltose. This biocatalyst permitted to reach almost 70% of maltose conversion in 4 h using 30.0 g/L bagasse starch solution (Dextrose Equivalent of 15.88 and 1.2 U of biocatalyst per gram of starch at pH 7.0 and 40 °C. After 4 reuses (batches of 12 h the CLEA using SPI maintained 25.50 ± 0.01% of conversion due to the difficulty of recovering.

  6. Immobilization of α-amylase onto poly(glycidyl methacrylate) grafted electrospun fibers by ATRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Burcu; Demir, Serap; Kayaman-Apohan, Nilhan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel α-amylase immobilized poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibers were prepared. The PVA nanofiber surfaces were functionalized with 2-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBBr) and followed by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). The morphology of the poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) grafted PVA nanofibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also PGMA brushes were confirmed by X-ray photo electron microscopy (XPS). α-Amylase was immobilized in a one step process onto the PGMA grafted PVA nanofiber. The characteristic properties of the immobilized and free enzymes were examined. The thermal stability of the enzyme was improved and showed maximum activity at 37 °C by immobilization. pH values of the maximum activity of the free and immobilized enzymes were also found at 6.0 and 6.5, respectively. Free enzyme lost its activity completely within 15 days. The immobilized enzyme lost only 23.8% of its activity within 30 days. - Highlights: • Electrospun photocrosslinkable PVA nanofiber was prepared. • PGMA brushes were conducted on PVA nanofiber via SI-ATRP. • The immobilized enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 6.0 and at 37 °C. • Functionalized nanofibers may be used as promising supports for enzyme immobilization

  7. Inhibitory effects of chickpea and Tribulus terrestris on lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-15

    The total saponin content and its in vitro bioaccessibilities in Tribulus terrestris and chickpea were determined by a static in vitro digestion method (COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST). Also, in vitro inhibitory effects of the chosen food samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes were determined by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. The tested T. terrestris and chickpea showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 6967 ± 343 and 2885 ± 85.4 μg/ml, respectively) and α-amylase (IC50 343 ± 26.2 and 167 ± 6.12 μg/ml, respectively). The inhibitory activities of T. terrestris and chickpea against lipase were 15.3 ± 2.03 and 9.74 ± 1.09 μg/ml, respectively. The present study provides the first evidence that these food samples (T. terrestris, chickpea) are potent inhibitors of key enzymes in digestion of carbohydrates and lipids in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of heavy atoms on the thermal stability of α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Sugahara

    Full Text Available Currently, there are no versatile and established methods for improving stability of proteins. In an entirely different approach from conventional techniques such as mutagenesis, we attempted to enhance enzyme stability of α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae using a heavy-atom derivatization technique. We evaluated changes in stability using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Candidate heavy atoms were identified using the Heavy-Atom Database System HATODAS, a Web-based tool designed to assist in heavy-atom derivatization of proteins for X-ray crystallography. The denaturation temperature of α-amylase derivatized with gadolinium (Gd or samarium (Sm ions increased by 6.2 or 5.7°C, respectively, compared to that of the native protein (60.6°C. The binding of six Gd ions was confirmed by X-ray crystallography of the enzyme at 1.5 Å resolution. DSC and dynamic light-scattering data revealed a correlation between stability and the aggregation state upon addition of Gd ions. These results show that HATODAS search is an effective tool for selecting heavy atoms for stabilization of this protein.

  9. Study on the Mould-Resistant Properties of Moso Bamboo Treated with High Pressure and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo’s products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for six different treatment durations. The results showed that reducing sugar content was decreased dramatically from 0.92 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L and the starch content decreased from 1.18% to 0.96% when the pressure was increased from 0 psi to 100 psi. Regression analysis showed that the effects of an individual amylase reaction and individual pressure treatment on the starch or reducing sugar content were significant with a high correlation coefficient. Three traditional types of moso bamboo moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Trichoderma viride were then used for mould resistance testing. The results revealed that the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo blocks could be greatly improved by the combined effect of enzyme activity and pressure treatment. Mould resistance was enhanced by increasing the pressure or prolonging the treatment time. This research could provide a new method for the protection of bamboo from mould attack.

  10. THE ENZYMATIC EFFECT (α-AMYLASE ON VISCOSITY AND CARBOHYDRATE COMPOSITION OF MAIZE FLOUR MODIFIED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarni Suarni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology is required in making new product of maize flour. Enzymatic modification of three varieties of maize flours i.e. MS2, Srikandi and Local product has been conducted using α-amylase from mung bean sprouts has been carried out in Laboratorium Bioproses BB Pascapanen Bogor. A research was performed used the flour without addition of sprouts (as control and with addition of 10, 20, 30 % of sprouts. Parameters observed were the change in viscosity of the maize flour; amylose, glucose and oligosaccharide contents. Results showed that there were changes in polymerization degree, dextrose equivalent, amylase content, viscosity (50 oC, viscosity (50 ºC/20΄, and carbohydrate composition. An enzymatic treatment using 20% of sprout to the three varieties gave results as follows:  amylose content was 20.02 - 24.02%, viscosity (50 ºC was  210 - 230 BU, and viscosity (50 ºC/20΄ was 200 - 220 BU. Functional properties of the flour fulfilled with the soft texture product, such as  food material for children under five years old. Data of the modified flour can be utilized by consuments as an alternative food material.   Keywords: modified maize flour, viscosity and carbohydrate composition

  11. A comparison of the effects of added saliva, α-amylase and water on texture perception in semisolids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, R.A. de; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Bilt, A. van der; Weenen, H.; Bosman, F.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of adding saliva or a saliva-related fluid (α-amylase solution and water) to custard prior to ingestion on the sensory ratings of odour, flavour and lip-tooth-, mouth- and after-feel sensations was investigated. Saliva had previously been collected from the subjects and each subject

  12. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  13. Relationships between falling number, a-Amylase activity, milling, and sponge cake quality of soft white wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falling Number of wheat is an important quality predictor and carries with it significant economic impact. Lower Falling Numbers are associated with higher a-amylase activity and poorer soft wheat end-use quality, especially sponge cake. In the present study two sample sets were examined, the first ...

  14. The impact of respiration and oxidative stress response on recombinant α-amylase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Ruiz, José Luis; Meza, Eugenio; Petranovic, Dina

    2016-01-01

    by overexpressing the endogenous HAP1 gene in a S. cerevisiae strain overproducing recombinant α-amylase. We demonstrate how Hap1p can activate a set of oxidative stress response genes and meanwhile contribute to increase the metabolic rate of the yeast strains, therefore mitigating the negative effect of the ROS...

  15. A stochastic model for predicting dextrose equivalent and saccharide composition during hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A stochastic model was developed that was used to describe the formation and breakdown of all saccharides involved during -amylolytic starch hydrolysis in time. This model is based on the subsite maps found in literature for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens -amylase (BAA) and Bacillus licheniformis

  16. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Bruins, M.E.; Matser, A.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with ¿-amylase from

  17. The Effect of a Brief Salivary α-Amylase Exposure During Chewing on Subsequent in Vitro Starch Digestion Curve Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Brennan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available There is inconsistency between current in vitro digestion methods with regard to accommodation of a (salivary α-amylase exposure during the oral phase. The effect of a salivary α-amylase pre-exposure on subsequent in vitro starch digestion curve profiles for various foods was investigated. Foods were chewed, expectorated and the boluses left to rest for 0–15 min. During pancreatic digestion, aliquots were taken and hydrolysis curves constructed for comparison against those of the same foods comminuted with a manually-operated chopper, hence spared exposure to saliva. Hydrolysate aliquots taken at T0 (time zero of the digestion of chewed samples contained higher levels of glucose and dextrins compared with chopped samples. Pancreatin activity immediately overwhelmed differences in sugar released due to salivary amylase activity. Within 10 min no differences were detectable between hydrolysis curves for chewed and chopped foods. Salivary amylase pretreatment does not contribute to the robustness or relative accuracy of in vitro methods.

  18. Concurrent attenuated reactivity of alpha-amylase and cortisol is related to disruptive behavior in male adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouw, M.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van de Ven, P.M.; Popma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Attenuated reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase has been proposed as a specific sympathetic marker of disruptive behavior in juveniles and may have additional value to studying other autonomic parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Investigating the interrelationships between

  19. Comparison of Salivary Cortisol and α-amylase Levels and Psychological Profiles in Patients with Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratzehi, Tahereh; Salimi, Saeedeh; Parvaee, Azadeh

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels and psychological profiles in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and healthy subjects. Spitting method was used to collect unstimulated salivary. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels were determined using ELISA and the Caraway starch-iodine technique. SLC-90 questionnaire was used to determine the psychological profiles. The difference between mean of salivary cortisol levels in patients with BMS and in healthy subjects was not significant (4.50 ± 3.68 ng/mL vs. 3.69 ± 3.07 ng/mL, p = 0.377). The difference between mean of α-amylase levels in the BMS patients and healthy subjects was significant (351.68 ± 142.5 and 146.22 ± 130.4, p = 0.001). Note that, 83.4% and 18% of the patients in the case and control groups had psychological problems (p = 0.001). The results showed higher salivary levels of cortisol and α-amylase in patients with BMS compared to healthy individuals. Psychological problem was prevalent in patients. © 2017 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  1. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM. PMID:28367491

  2. alfa-Amylase as a reliable and convenient measure of sympathetic activity: don’t start salivating just yet!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, JA; Veerman, J.W.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Proctor, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in salivary α-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Saliva offers many advantages as a biomarker fluid and sAA is one of its most plentiful components. sAA is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch, which

  3. Structure of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase crystallized with and without the substrate analogue acarbose and maltose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne-Iversen, Louise; Hobley, Timothy John; Kaasgaard, Svend G.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) was studied in two different crystal forms. The first crystal form was obtained by crystallisation of BHA at room temperature in the presence of acarbose and maltose - data was collected at cryogenic temperatures to a resolution of 1.9 Å...

  4. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Tokeer; Sardar, Meryam

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO 2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO 2 nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO 2 nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO 2 nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall

  5. Evening salivary alpha-amylase, major depressive disorder, and antidepressant use in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, Gerthe; Giltay, Erik J.; Licht, Carmilla M. M.; Vreeburg, Sophie A.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Zitman, Frans G.

    2013-01-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) may be a suitable index for sympathetic activity and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The relationship between antidepressants and depression with sAA levels was studied, since antidepressants were previously shown to have a profound impact on heart rate

  6. Production of α-amylase from Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain using agro-industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édilla Ribeiro dos Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.5 trillion tons are the estimated yearly biomass production, making it an essentially unlimited source of raw material for environmentally friendly and biocompatible products transformed by microorganism, specially fungi and actinomycetes. Several lignocellulosic residues, such as sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse contain starch in their structures which could become important sources for the production of amylases. This study evaluated the production of amylolytic enzymes using Streptomyces sp. SLBA-08 strain, isolated from a semi-arid soil, according to their ability to grow on soluble starch as the sole carbon source. The effect of the carbon source (sisal waste and sugarcane bagasse on α-amylase production was studied using submerged cultivations at 30 ºC. The highest level of α-amylase activity corresponded to 10.1 U. mL-1 and was obtained using sisal waste (2.7% and urea (0.8% in submerged fermentation after 3 days of cultivation. The partial characterization showed the best α-amylase activity at 50ºC and pH 7.0. These results are of great importance for the use of sisal waste as a substrate for biotechnological proposes.

  7. Effects of antiretroviral agents during pregnancy on liver enzymes and amylase in HIV-exposed, uninfected newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia El Beitune

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of antiretroviral drugs administered to pregnant women on amylase and liver enzymes of the neonate. A prospective study was conducted on 52 neonates divided into three groups: infants born to HIV-infected mothers taking zidovudine (ZDV group, n = 18, infants born to mothers taking zidovudine + lamivudine + nelfinavir (TT group, n = 22 and infants born to normal women (control group, n = 12. Umbilical cord blood from the newborn infant was used to determine liver transaminases and amylase. Data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The median levels for TT group newborns were 33.3 U/L for oxaloacetic transaminase, 21.5 U/L for pyruvic transaminase, 1.9 mg/dL for total bilirubin, 153 mg/dL for alkaline phosphatase, and 9.6 U/L for amylase. These results did not differ from those obtained for Control newborns or newborns exposed to ZDV alone. No association was observed between the use of antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and adverse effects on neonatal amylase and hepatic parameters at birth.

  8. Relationship Between Meditation Depth and Waking Salivary Alpha-Amylase Secretion Among Long-Term MBSR Instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wirth, Michael D; Robb, Sara Wagner

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize sympathetic activity by using waking salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) concentrations in a group of long-term meditation instructors and to examine the association between meditation (depth, dose and duration) and the waking alpha-amylase response. Salivary alpha-amylase samples were collected (immediately upon waking and at 15-min, 30-min and 45-min intervals after waking) from mindfulness-based stress reduction instructors to determine both the area under the curve and the awakening slope (difference in alpha-amylase concentrations between waking and 30-min post-waking). It was determined through general linear models that neither years of meditation nor meditation dose were associated with the awakening sAA slope, but higher scores for meditation depth (greater depth) was associated with a more negative (or steeper) awakening slope [Quartile (Q)1: -7 versus Q4: -21 U/mL; p = 0.06], in fully adjusted models. Older age (p = 0.04) and a later time of waking (p meditate more deeply. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effects of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid on α-amylase activity in the aleurone of barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yidi; Xiao, Huiyuan; Guo, Chunli; Wu, Hong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2018-03-03

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, often accumulates in plants exposed to certain environmental stimuli. Previous studies indicated that a closed relationship existed between endogenous GABA and seed germination. However, there are few studies on the effect of exogenous GABA on seed germination. The objective of this study was to explore whether exogenous GABA affected α-amylase activity which the activation is an important stage in seed germination. The level of endogenous GABA in barley seeds rose gradually during germination, suggesting that endogenous GABA was involved in germination. We measured starch degradation under application of various concentration GABA and found that GABA promoted seed starch degradation with a dose-responsive effect. The relationship between GABA and α-amylase activity was investigated by treating barley aleurone with exogenous GABA. The result showed that α-amylase activity began to rise after about 24 h and reached a peak at 48 h. Molecular evidence suggested that GABA increased α-amylase gene expression. We explore the possible roles played by GABA in signal transduction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrospray mass spectrometry characterization of post-translational modifications of barley alpha-amylase 1 produced in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, M; Andersen, Jens S.; Roepstorff, P

    1993-01-01

    We have used electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) in combination with protein chemistry and genetics to delineate post-translational modifications in yeast of barley alpha-amylase 1 (AMY1), a 45 kD enzyme crucial for production of malt, an important starting material in the manufacture of beer...

  11. Overexpression, purification, and characterization of recombinant barley alpha-amylases 1 and 2 secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N; Andersen, Jens S.; Tull, D

    1996-01-01

    , and 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl beta-D-maltoheptaoside as well as in Ca2+ dependency of activity. Pichia pastoris thus produced in high yields recombinant alpha-amylase that is similar with respect to structure and function to the enzyme purified from malt extracts. This greatly facilitates future mutational...

  12. Enzymatic activity of α-amylase in alimentary tract Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Characterization and Compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Darvishzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae damages a wide variety of crops in Middle East. Their hosts include cotton, alfalfa, eggplant, tomato, lettuce, bean and some ornamental crops. The intensive use of broad-spectrum insecticides against S. littoralis has led to the development of resistance to many registered pesticides use for its control. The purpose of the present study is biochemical characterization of digestive enzymes of this pest to gain a better understanding of the digestive physiology. The physiology and biochemistry of the insect digestive enzyme had an important role in the study of novel insecticidal strategies. The Egyptian cotton leafworm alimentary canal consists of a short foregut, a long midgut and a short hindgut. Application of pH indicators showed that alimentary canal was alkaline. Our results showed that activities of gut α-amylase were different in three parts of the insect gut. Also shown the greatest activity of α-amylase observed in the midgut followed by hindgut and foregut, respectively. However, there were not significant differences in activity of the enzyme in the midgut and hindgut. The optimal pH α-amylase in foregut, midgut and hindgut were 10.0. Zymogram analysis of different part of gut showed four bands in midgut, hind gut and two bands in foregut. Therefore, in midgut of S. littoralis, four isoenzymes were present. These results explain why more amylase activity was seen in these regions in the spectrophotometric assay.

  13. Chemical composition and α-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oil from Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongyu; Fang, Chen; Yang, Jiao; Li, Minjing; Liu, Hengming; Yang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Sabina chinensis cv. Kaizuca (SCK) is a variant of S. chinensis L. The essential oil from its leaves exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity in vitro and the IC 50 value was 187.08 ± 0.56 μg/mL. Nineteen compounds were identified from this essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The major compounds identified were bornyl acetate (42.6%), elemol (20.5%), β-myrcene (13.7%) and β-linalool (4.0%). In order to study the reason of the α-amylase inhibitory activity of this essential oil, the identified compounds were docked with α-amylase by molecular docking individually. Among these compounds, γ-eudesmol exhibited the lowest binding energy (-6.73 kcal/mol), followed by α-copaen-11-ol (-6.66 kcal/mol), cubedol (-6.39 kcal/mol) and α-acorenol (-6.12 kcal/mol). The results indicated that these compounds were the active ingredients responsible for the α-amylase inhibitory activity of essential oil from SCK.

  14. α-Amylase as a reliable and convenient measure of sympathetic activity: don't start salivating just yet!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.A.; Veerman, E.C.I.; de Geus, E.J.; Proctor, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in salivary α-amylase (sAA) as a non-invasive marker for sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Saliva offers many advantages as a biomarker fluid and sAA is one of its most plentiful components. sAA is a digestive enzyme that breaks down starch, which

  15. Determination of antioxidant capacity and a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils from citronella grass and lemongrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of and in vitro a-amylase inhibitory activity of the essential oils extracted from citronella grass and lemongrass. The chemical composition of the extracted essential oils was determined by GC-MS. The antioxidant capacity ...

  16. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of enzymes by radiation-induced polymerization at low temperatures has been studied. It is important to know how the enzymes are affected by irradiation. The radiation effect of enzyme itself before immobilization must thus be investigated. In radiation effect on α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, interesting results were obtained, as follows. The enzyme is very stable for irradiation in the total dose range of 1 x 10 4 to 1 x 10 7 R, and the activity is hardly affected. And further, the relative activity increases by irradiation, when the α-amylase is of high purity or contains some appropriate additive. A certain substance such as diatomaceous earth or CaCl 2 thus decreases the activity, while the addition of DRIERITE composed mainly of CaSO 4 increases the activity. α-Amylase is then more stable and higher in activity in the irradiation at lower temperatures. The activity is independent of presence or absence of the ambient air. In conclusion, α-amylase is very stable for irradiation at low temperatures; therefore, its immobilization by polymerization at low temperature is recommended. (auth.)

  17. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effect of the concentrations of maltogenic α-amylase and fat on the technological and sensory quality of cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Soledad Bedoya-Perales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics that define cake quality can be improved by the use of adequate ingredients and a correct balance of the formulation. Fat is used for its effect on softness and because it imparts flavor and calories. Enzymes such as maltogenic α-amylase can also have a positive effect on cake texture during storage by decreasing amylopectin re-crystallization and thus delaying starch retrogradation providing longer-lasting crumb softness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of maltogenic α-amylase and fat on the technological and sensory characteristics of cakes. Therefore, balanced formulations with three different fat concentrations (20, 40, and 60 g/100 g, based on the flour content were used to evaluate the addition of maltogenic α-amylase (0, 500, and 1000 mg/kg. Technological quality determinations were carried out on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage. The best results in terms of cake quality (greater specific volume, higher crumb moisture content, lower crumb firmness, and greater sensory acceptance were obtained with the combination of 20 g/100 g fat and 1000 mg/kg maltogenic α-amylase (based on the flour content, which proved to be an alternative to reduce the fat levels in the elaboration of this type of product.

  19. Daytime Secretion of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sharon A.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Granger, Douglas A.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Anders, Thomas F.; Tager, Ira B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined daytime salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) secretion levels and variability in preschool-aged children with autism (AUT) and typically developing children (TYP). Fifty-two subjects (26 AUT and 26 TYP) were enrolled. Salivary samples were obtained at waking, midday, and bedtime on two consecutive days at three phases…

  20. Growth and enzyme production during continuous cultures of a high amylase-producing variant of Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangirolami, Teresa; Carlsen, M.; Nielsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Growth and product formation by a selected variant of Aspergillus oryzae showing high alpha-amylase production was studied in continuous cultivations carried out at six different specific growth rates, using glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient. The analysis of the steady-state data revealed...

  1. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Amylase Gene from the Rice Pest Walker and its Inhibitor from Wheat (Variety MP Sehore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scirpophaga incertulas Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralideae, commonly known as yellow stem borer, is a predominant monophagous pest of rice, which causes 5% to 30% loss of the rice crop. We report for the first time, the cloning and sequence analysis of the amylase gene of this pest. The cloned gene translates into a protein of 487 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 54,955 daltons and a theoretical pI of 5.9. The 3D structure of the amylase is predicted from its amino acid sequence by homology modeling using the structure of the amylase from Tenebrio molitor L (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. We also report the purification of a dimeric α-amylase inhibitor from a local variety of wheat MP Sehore that is specific for the amylase of this pest and does not inhibit human salivary amylase or porcine pancreatic amylase. The gene encoding this inhibitor has been cloned and its sequence has been analysed to find a possible explanation for this specificity.

  3. Employing in vitro directed molecular evolution for the selection of α-amylase variant inhibitors with activity toward cotton boll weevil enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Del Sarto, Rafael Perseghini; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Rigden, Daniel John; Teixeira, Fabíola Rodrigues; Bezerra, Caroline de Andrade; Albuquerque, Erika Valéria Saliba; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-09-20

    Numerous species of insect pests attack cotton plants, out of which the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main insect in Brazil and must be controlled to avert large economic losses. Like other insect pests, A. grandis secretes a high level of α-amylases in the midgut lumen, which are required for digestion of carbohydrates. Thus, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) represent a powerful tool to apply in the control of insect pests. Here, we applied DNA shuffling and phage display techniques and obtained a combinatorial library containing 10⁸ α-AI variant forms. From this library, variants were selected exhibiting in vitro affinity for cotton boll weevil α-amylases. Twenty-six variant sequences were cloned into plant expression vectors and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformed plant extracts were assayed in vitro to select specific and potent α-amylase inhibitors against boll weevil amylases. While the wild type inhibitors, used to create the shuffled library, did not inhibit the A. grandis α-amylases, three α-AI mutants, named α-AIC3, α-AIA11 and α-AIG4 revealed high inhibitory activities against A. grandis α-amylases in an in vitro assay. In summary, data reported here shown the potential biotechnology of new α-AI variant genes for cotton boll weevil control. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylases from cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis and structural relations to plant inhibitors: an approach to insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Batista, João A N; Rigden, Daniel J; Franco, Octávio L; Falcão, Rosana; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Mello, Luciane V; dos Santos, Roseane C; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    2003-01-01

    Anthonomus grandis, the cotton boll weevil, causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. Here we demonstrate the presence of starch in the cotton pollen grains and young ovules that are the main A. grandis food source. We further demonstrate the presence of alpha-amylase activity, an essential enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism for many crop pests, in A. grandis midgut. Two alpha-amylase cDNAs from A. grandis larvae were isolated using RT-PCR followed by 5' and 3' RACE techniques. These encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 50.8 and 52.7kDa, respectively, which share 58% amino acid identity. Expression of both genes is induced upon feeding and concentrated in the midgut of adult insects. Several alpha-amylase inhibitors from plants were assayed against A. grandis alpha-amylases but, unexpectedly, only the BIII inhibitor from rye kernels proved highly effective, with inhibitors generally active against other insect amylases lacking effect. Structural modeling of Amylag1 and Amylag2 showed that different factors seem to be responsible for the lack of effect of 0.19 and alpha-AI1 inhibitors on A. grandis alpha-amylase activity. This work suggests that genetic engineering of cotton to express alpha-amylase inhibitors may offer a novel route to A. grandis resistance.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of an α-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C A; Macedo, L L P; Amorim, T M L; Santos, V O; Fragoso, R R; Lucena, W A; Meneguim, A M; Valencia-Jimenez, A; Engler, G; Silva, M C M; Albuquerque, E V S; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2014-12-10

    α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1879 bp, containing a 1458 bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sitophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels were found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The α-Amylase Induction in Endosperm during Rice Seed Germination Is Caused by Gibberellin Synthesized in Epithelium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Miyuki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We recently isolated two genes (OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2) from rice (Oryza sativa) encoding 3β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of active gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis (H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, N. Sentoku, H. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Kobayashi [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 8909–8914). Using these cloned cDNAs, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the 3β-hydroxylase genes and also an α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) during rice seed germination to investigate the relationship between GA biosynthesis and α-amylase expression. Northern-blot analyses revealed that RAmy1A expression in the embryo occurs before the induction of 3β-hydroxylase expression, whereas in the endosperm, a high level of RAmy1A expression occurs 1 to 2 d after the peak of OsGA3ox2 expression and only in the absence of uniconazol. Based on the analysis of an OsGA3ox2 null mutant (d18-Akibare dwarf), we determined that 3β-hydroxylase produced by OsGA3ox2 is important for the induction of RAmy1A expression and that the OsGA3ox1 product is not essential for α-amylase induction. The expression of OsGA3ox2 was localized to the shoot region and epithelium of the embryo, strongly suggesting that active GA biosynthesis occurs in these two regions. The synthesis of active GA in the epithelium is important for α-amylase expression in the endosperm, because an embryonic mutant defective in shoot formation, but which developed epithelium cells, induced α-amylase expression in the endosperm, whereas a mutant defective in epithelium development did not. PMID:11950975

  7. Utilization of α-amylase enzyme from Bacillus stearothermophilus RSAII1B for maltodextrin production from sago starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfah, R. A.; Ahmad, A.; Dali, S.; Djide, M. N.; Mahdalia; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    The dried sago flour derived from Palopo contains 28.80% amylose and 91.23% total carbohydrate. Based on the data, sago starch has the potential to become an alternative raw material for themaltodextrin production. Maltodextrin is one of the starch derivative products produced by hydrolysis process using the α-amylase enzyme with amaximum DE (dextrose equivalent) value of 20. The use of maltodextrin for food and pharmaceutical industries is increasing because of maltodextrin is widely used as thickener filler, surfactant and sugar substitute in milk powder. The aims of this study are to optimize the addition of enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time of α -amylase enzyme to obtain high quality ofmaltodextrin This study also aimed to characterization the obtained maltodextrin. The first step was isolation and purification α-amylase from the isolate of Bacillus stearothermophilus RSAII1B, followed by determination of the α-amylase concentration (0.05%, 0.07% and 0.09%) in 2.0% starch substrate, and the hydrolysis time ofα-amilase (60, 90, 120, 240 minutes). Maltodextrin characters observed were dextrose equivalent (DE), reducing sugar, moisture content, pH changes, color, solubility, viscosity, and total plate count (TPC). The results showed that the value of DE was 12.31, reducing sugar was 11.4%; water content was 10.92%; pH was 4.85; The color of maltodextrin powder was white bone color; solubility was 153.2 g/L; Viscositywas 210-240 cps, TPCwas 380 cfu/g. Maltodextrins produced from sago starch using the α-amylase enzyme from B.stearothermophillus RSAIIm met the quality requirements of SNI 7599: 2010.

  8. Analysis of a preferential action of α-amylase from B. licheniformis towards amorphous regions of waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresti, María Laura; Williams, María del Pilar; Martínez-García, Ricardo; Vázquez, Analía

    2014-02-15

    Waxy maize starch was subjected to α-amylase (Bacillus licheniformis) hydrolysis in buffered medium to determine the evolution of reaction in quantitative terms and also in terms of the morphology and crystallinity of the partially hydrolyzed starch granules. Gathered data allowed studying the pattern of action of this α-amylase over waxy maize starch granules, with particular focus on a preferential hydrolysis of the amorphous regions of starch. Results showed that waxy maize starch hydrolysis followed a two-stage kinetic profile with an initial stage characterized by high reaction rate, followed by a slower second stage. The change of hydrolysis rate occurred at approximately 6h of reaction, a time for which X-ray diffraction data quantitatively analyzed by three different techniques showed a maximum of crystallinity in partially hydrolyzed granules. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated the action of α-amylases which implied the exoerosion of the granules surface, the entry of α-amylases into the granules through radial channels, their endoerosion towards the granule exterior, and their fragmentation. Fragmentation of waxy maize starch granules revealed internal layered structures of starch which were interpreted as hydrolyzed/non-hydrolyzed growth rings. Under the conditions chosen, kinetic, electron microscopy and X-ray data all gave evidence of a preferential action of α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis towards the less ordered regions of waxy maize starch. Results showed that, provided the proper hydrolysis time is chosen, starch granules with increased crystallinity can be obtained by a pure enzymatic treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Trans-Chalcone on Amylase Activity, Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Diabetic and Non Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Alpha amylase is the most important decomposing enzyme in starch. Digestion and absorption of starch in the intestine can be prevented and also the blood sugar levels can be controlled by restrain and control of alpha amylase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of trans-chalcone on amylase activity, blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic and non diabetic rats. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 1388 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Sixty rats were randomly divided to ten equal groups: non diabetic control, diabetic control, four non diabetic experiments and four diabetic experiments. Control groups received grape seed oil and experimental groups received 2, 8,16 and 32 mg/kg of body weight in a period of 24 days with a gastric cannula. Blood sugar, every two days, serum insulin levels in days 0,12, and 24 and at the end of the experiment, lipoproteins and alpha amylase activity were measured.The data were analyzed by one way analysis of variance, ANOVA, followed by Turkey,s test with SPSS soft ware . Results: On average Chalcone reduced 25.5% of blood sugar in normal and diabetic rats. IT also decreased the serum insulin level. On average, chalcone decreased 34.9% of alpha amylase activity in normal and diabetic rats. Following disturbances in lipids metabolism caused by diabetes, this drug improved lipoproteins metabolism and reduced water, food and urine volume. Conclusion: This study shows that trans-Chalcone reduces blood sugar and body weight via inhibition of alpha amylas. Moreover, improvement of lipoprotein metabolism may happen via the inhibitory effect of this drug on hydroxyl methyl glutaryl -COA reductase and phosphodiesterase.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Thermostable and Detergent-Stable α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. AH1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Matpan Bekler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermostable and detergent-stable α-amylase from a newly isolated Anoxybacillus sp. AH1 was purifi ed and characterized. Maximum enzyme production (1874.8 U/mL was obtained at 24 h of incubation. The amylase was purified by using Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, after which an 18-fold increase in specific activity and a yield of 9 % were achieved. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme was estimated at 85 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature values of the enzyme were 7.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme was highly stable in the presence of 30 % glycerol, retaining 85 % of its original activity at 60 °C within 120 min. Km and vmax values were 0.102 μmol and 0.929 μmol/min, espectively, using Lineweaver-Burk plot. The enzyme activity was increased by various detergents, but it was significantly inhibited in the presence of urea. Mg2+ and Ca2+ also significantly activated α-amylase, while Zn2+, Cu2+ and metal ion chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen greatly inhibited the enzyme activity. α-Amylase activity was enhanced by β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME and dithiothreitol (DTT to a great extent, but inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB. Iodoacetamide (IAA and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM had a slight, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF had a strong inhibitory effect on the amylase activity.

  11. Irradiation Effect on Secreting Function, Amylase Activity and Nucleic Acid Contents of Rat Parotid Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Jin; Park, Tae Won

    1990-01-01

    This experiment was performed to clarify the effects of 60 Co gamma irradiation on secretory function, amylase activity and contents of nucleic acids of parotid gland in rat. Experimental animals were divided into 6th hours, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th days after irradiation and control. The experimental animals are singly irradiated with 20 Gy (2,000 rad) through protective lead block. Secretory function of parotid gland was evaluated by uptake and clearance of 99m TcO 4 . 99m TcO 4 , 0.2μ ci/gm, was injected into peritonium in uptake groups. Rats were sacrificed with cervical dislocation after 30 minutes and gland was excised. In the clearance group, pilocarpine nitrate (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected at 30 minutes after 99m TcO 4 injection and rats were sacrificed 30 minutes after pilocarpine infection. Radioactivity of excised parotid gland was measured by using of gamma counter and stimulation-secretion coefficient, uptake radioactivity divided by clearance radioactivity, was calculated. Amylase activity and contents of DNA and RNA were determined by spectrophotometry. The results obtained were as follows: 1. In the uptake test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight increase in experimental group except 6th hours group, compared with control groups and showed a peak at 3rd days after irradiation. 2. In the clearance test, the radioactivity of 99m TcO 4 per unit weight rose to a peak at 3rd days after irradiation and gradually recovered thereafter. 3. Stimulation-secretion coefficient of parotid gland decreased at 6th hours, 3rd and 7th days after irradiation, and gradually increased. 4. Amylase activity of parotid gland decreased in 3rd and 7th days group, and especially lowest in 3rd days after irradiation. 5. The contents of DNA showed no definite difference in all the experimental groups, but RNA was seemed to decrease with time after irradiation.

  12. In-vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, M Nirmali; Punchihewa, J C; Wickramaratne, D B M

    2016-11-15

    Diabetes has caused a major burden to the health sector in the developing countries and has shown an increasing trend among the urban population. It is estimated that most patients are with type II diabetes which could be easily treated with dietary changes, exercise, and medication. Sri Lanka carries a long history ayurvedic medicine where it uses the plant for treating many diseases. Therefore it is important to screen medicinal plants scientifically so they could be used safely and effectively in the traditional medical system and also be used for further investigations. Adenanthera pavonina is a plant used in the Ayurvedic medical system in Sri Lanka for treating many diseases including diabetics. We evaluated the anti-diabetic properties and the antioxidant properties of Adenanthera pavonina leaves. The methanol extract of the leaves was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether and thereafter was partitioned between EtOAc, and water. The α-amylase inhibition assay was performed using the 3,5- dinitrosalicylic acid method. The antioxidant activities were measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. The cytotoxicity of the extract was evaluated using the Brine shrimp bioassay. The IC 50 values of α amylase inhibitory activity of MeOH, EtOAc, petroleum ether, and water were 16.16 ± 2.23, 59.93 ± 0.25, 145.49 ± 4.86 and 214.85 ± 9.72 μg/ml respectively and was similar to that of Acarbose (18.63 ± 1.21 (μg/ml). Antioxidant activities were also determined and the EtOAc fraction showed the highest total phenolic content (34. 62 ± 1.14 mg/g extract) and the highest DPPH scavenging activity with an IC 50 of 249.92 ± 3.35 μg/ml. The leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina exhibit remarkable α-amylase inhibitory activity in the crude methanolic extract. Hence leaves of Adenanthera pavonina has a potential to be used as a regular green vegetable and

  13. Purification and properties of heat stable /alpha/-amylase from Bacillus brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, V T; Emanuilova, E I

    1989-09-01

    An extracellular /alpha/-amylase has been isolated from a continuous culture of a thermophilic strain of Bacillus brevis. This enzyme was purified eightfold and obtained in electrophoretically homogenous form. The enzyme had a molecular weight of about 58 000, a pH optimum from 5.0 to 9.0 and a temperature optimum at 80/sup 0/C. The half-life of the purified enzyme in the presence of 5 mM CaCl/sub 2/ at 90/sup 0/C and pH 8.0 was 20 min. The K/sub m/ value for soluble starch was calculated to be 0.8 mg/ml. (orig.).

  14. Effect of repeated applications of buprofezin and acephate on soil cellulases, amylase, and invertase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M Naga; Venkateswarlu, K

    2014-10-01

    The impact of repeated applications of buprofezin and acephate, at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 kg ha(-1), on activities of cellulases, amylase, and invertase in unamended and nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium (NPK) fertilizer-amended soil planted with cotton was studied. The nontarget effect of selected insecticides, when applied once, twice, or thrice on soil enzyme activities, was dose-dependent; the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of insecticides. However, there was a rapid decline in activities of enzymes after three repeated applications of insecticides in unamended or NPK-amended soil. Our data clearly suggest that insecticides must be applied judiciously in pest management in order to protect the enzymes largely implicated in soil fertility.

  15. Self-compassionate young adults show lower salivary alpha-amylase responses to repeated psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breines, Juliana G; McInnis, Christine M; Kuras, Yuliya I; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that participants higher in dispositional self-compassion would show lower stress-induced reactivity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of sympathetic nervous system activation. Thirty-three healthy participants (18-34 years old) were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor on two consecutive days. Self-compassion, self-esteem, and demographic factors were assessed by questionnaire and sAA was assessed at baseline and at 1, 10, 30, and 60 minutes following each stressor. Self-compassion was a significant negative predictor of sAA responses on both days. This relationship remained significant when controlling for self-esteem, subjective distress, age, gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI). These results suggest that self-compassion may serve as a protective factor against stress-induced physiological changes that have implications for health.

  16. Low frequency ultrasonic-assisted hydrolysis of starch in the presence of α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaquere-Parker, Anne; Taylor, Tamera; Hutson, Raihannah; Rizzo, Ashley; Folds, Aubrey; Crittenden, Shastina; Zahoor, Neelam; Hussein, Bilal; Arruda, Aaron

    2018-03-01

    Hydrolysis of starch is an important process in the food industry and in the production of bioethanol or smaller carbohydrate molecules that can be used as starting blocks for chemical synthesis. Such hydrolysis can be enhanced by lowering the pH, heating the reaction mixture or catalyzing the reaction with enzymes. This study reports the effect of sonication on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis at different temperatures, in the presence or absence of alpha-amylase. Starch Azure, a commercially available potato starch covalently linked with Remazol Brilliant Blue, has been chosen since its hydrolysis releases a blue dye, which concentration can be monitored by UV Vis spectroscopy. Ultrasounds, regardless of experimental conditions, provide the highest reaction rate for such hydrolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary alpha amylase in on-call from home fire and emergency service personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of working on-call from home on the sympatho-adrenal medullary system activity is currently unknown. This study had two aims, Aim 1: examine salivary alpha amylase awakening response (AAR and diurnal salivary alpha amylase (sAA profile in fire and emergency service workers who operate on-call from home following a night on-call with a call (NIGHT-CALL, a night on-call without a call (NO-CALL and an off-call night (OFF-CALL, and Aim 2: explore whether there was an anticipatory effect of working on-call from home (ON compared to when there was an off-call (OFF on the diurnal sAA profile. Participants wore activity monitors, completed sleep and work diaries and collected seven saliva samples a day for one week. AAR area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG, AAR area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI, AAR reactivity, diurnal sAA slope, diurnal sAA AUCG and mean 12-h sAA concentrations were calculated. Separate generalised estimating equation models were constructed for each variable of interest for each aim. For Aim 1, there were no differences between NIGHT-CALL or NO-CALL and OFF-CALL for any response variable. For Aim 2, there was no difference between any response variable of interest when ON the following night compared to when OFF the following night (n = 14. These findings suggest that there is no effect of working on-call from home on sAA, but should be interpreted with caution, as overnight data were not collected. Future research, using overnight heart rate monitoring, could help confirm these findings.

  18. Homogeneity and heterogeneity in amylase production by Bacillus subtilis under different growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploss, Tina N; Reilman, Ewoud; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Denham, Emma L; Piersma, Sjouke; Lingner, Anja; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Lorenz, Patrick; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2016-03-29

    Bacillus subtilis is an important cell factory for the biotechnological industry due to its ability to secrete commercially relevant proteins in large amounts directly into the growth medium. However, hyper-secretion of proteins, such as α-amylases, leads to induction of the secretion stress-responsive CssR-CssS regulatory system, resulting in up-regulation of the HtrA and HtrB proteases. These proteases degrade misfolded proteins secreted via the Sec pathway, resulting in a loss of product. The aim of this study was to investigate the secretion stress response in B. subtilis 168 cells overproducing the industrially relevant α-amylase AmyM from Geobacillus stearothermophilus, which was expressed from the strong promoter P(amyQ)-M. Here we show that activity of the htrB promoter as induced by overproduction of AmyM was "noisy", which is indicative for heterogeneous activation of the secretion stress pathway. Plasmids were constructed to allow real-time analysis of P(amyQ)-M promoter activity and AmyM production by, respectively, transcriptional and out-of-frame translationally coupled fusions with gfpmut3. Our results show the emergence of distinct sub-populations of high- and low-level AmyM-producing cells, reflecting heterogeneity in the activity of P(amyQ)-M. This most likely explains the heterogeneous secretion stress response. Importantly, more homogenous cell populations with regard to P(amyQ)-M activity were observed for the B. subtilis mutant strain 168degUhy32, and the wild-type strain 168 under optimized growth conditions. Expression heterogeneity of secretory proteins in B. subtilis can be suppressed by degU mutation and optimized growth conditions. Further, the out-of-frame translational fusion of a gene for a secreted target protein and gfp represents a versatile tool for real-time monitoring of protein production and opens novel avenues for Bacillus production strain improvement.

  19. Removal of polymeric filter cake in petroleum wells. A study of commercial amylase stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, Etel; Coelho, Maria Alice Z. [Escola de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Tecnologia, Bloco E, Lab. 113, Cidade Universitaria, 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); De Queiroz Neto, Joao C. [Cenpes/Petrobras, Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Langone, Marta A.P. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, PHLC/IQ sala 310, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The drilling fluid contact with the productive zone of drilling wells, with horizontal or complex configurations, can reduce its productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Drilling fluids usually comprise natural polymers as starch and xanthan gum. These polymers are deposited as a filter cake on the wellbore wall. A common approach to remove this filter cake is the application of acids or strong oxidative solutions. However, these are non-specific species and a possible alternative lies in enzymatic preparations that are able to hydrolyze such polymers. The enzymes catalyze specific substrates, are environmentally friendly and the enzymatic degradation rate is slower than that achieved by the oxidative species, permitting to produce uniform degradation of the filter cake. Openhole operations require thermo and pressure stability of these enzymatic products. The results herein reported deals with the technical viability analysis of a commercial {alpha}-amylase as a new catalyst for filter cake removal. The effects of process parameters, like temperature (65, 80 and 95 C), enzyme concentration (1, 5.5 and 10% v/v), calcium concentration (5, 70 and 135 ppm), and pressure (100, 500, 100 and 6000 psi), on amylase stability under openhole operations were investigated. Temperature demonstrated to be the most important parameter for the enzyme stability. The enzyme thermostability behavior in high salt (NaCl) concentration (completion fluid) was not significantly different from the control solution in distillated water. The pressure effect on enzyme stability did not affect the enzyme stability as temperature. Hydrostatic pressure (6000 psi) did not impact the amylolytic activity in brine solution. Combined pressure-temperature assays showed that temperature is the key factor in enzyme stability for application in polymeric filter cake removal in petroleum wells. (author)

  20. SusG: A Unique Cell-Membrane-Associated [alpha]-Amylase from a Prominent Human Gut Symbiont Targets Complex Starch Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2010-09-21

    SusG is an {alpha}-amylase and part of a large protein complex on the outer surface of the bacterial cell and plays a major role in carbohydrate acquisition by the animal gut microbiota. Presented here, the atomic structure of SusG has an unusual extended, bilobed structure composed of amylase at one end and an unprecedented internal carbohydrate-binding motif at the other. Structural studies further demonstrate that the carbohydrate-binding motif binds maltooligosaccharide distal to, and on the opposite side of, the amylase catalytic site. SusG has an additional starch-binding site on the amylase domain immediately adjacent to the active cleft. Mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that these two additional starch-binding sites appear to play a role in catabolism of insoluble starch. However, elimination of these sites has only a limited effect, suggesting that they may have a more important role in product exchange with other Sus components.

  1. Inducing mechanism of dextrins with different de values on production of alpha-amylase by B. subtilis zjf-1A5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.; Zhao, R.; Liu, B.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-amylase was widely used in food industries, textile technology, paper manufacturing and so on. In this paper, the inducing mechanism of corn dextrins with different DE values (dextrose equivalent value) on production of a-amylase by Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) ZJF-1A5 was investigated. The results showed that the yield of a-amylase by B.subtilis ZJF-1A5 was increased by using dextrin with a certain DE value range as carbon source, which could be attributed to the presence of oligosaccharide in dextrins. By ordinary fermentation with oligosaccharide as carbon source, it was found that the inducing activity of maltopentaose was the strongest. It could be confirmed that the dextrins played important roles during the process of production of a-amylase by B.subtilis ZJF-1A5. (author)

  2. Stilbene Glucoside, a Putative Sleep Promoting Constituent from Polygonum multiflorum Affects Sleep Homeostasis by Affecting the Activities of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Salivary Alpha Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qian; Ta, Guang; He, Wenjing; Wang, Wei; Wu, Qiucheng

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for treating insomnia for centuries. The most used CHM for insomnia was Polygonum multiflorum. However, the molecular mechanism for CHM preventing insomnia is unknown. Stilbene glucoside (THSG), an important active component of P. multiflorum, may play an important role for treating insomnia. To test the hypothesis, Kunming mice were treated with different dosages of THSG. To examine the sleep duration, a computer-controlled sleep-wake detection system was implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) electrodes were implanted to determine sleep-wake state. RT-PCR and Western blot was used to measure the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and saliva alpha amylase. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to identify the strength of correlation between the variables. The results showed that THSG significantly prolonged the sleep time of the mice (palpha amylase (palpha amylase (pamylase were negatively associated with sleep duration (palpha amylase.

  3. Effects of a dietary Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, J M; Abney, M D; Galyean, M L; Rivera, J D; Hanson, K C; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of roughage source (alfalfa hay vs. cottonseed hulls) and supplemental alpha-amylase at 950 dextrinizing units (DU)/kg of DM. Significant roughage source x alpha-amylase interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for performance. In steers fed cottonseed hulls, supplemental alpha-amylase increased ADG through d 28 and 112 and tended (P < 0.15) to increase ADG in all other periods. The increases in ADG were related to increased DMI and efficiency of gain during the initial 28-d period but were primarily related to increased DMI as the feeding period progressed. Supplemental alpha-amylase increased (P = 0.02) the LM area across both roughage sources. In Exp. 2, 96 crossbred heifers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of corn processing (dry cracked vs. high moisture) and supplemental alpha-amylase concentration (0, 580, or 1,160 DU/kg of DM). Alpha-amylase supplementation increased DMI (P = 0.05) and ADG (P = 0.03) during the initial 28 d on feed and carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.04) across corn processing methods. Longissimus muscle area was greatest (quadratic effect, P = 0.04), and yield grade was least (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) in heifers fed 580 DU of alpha-amylase/kg of DM across corn processing methods. In Exp. 3, 56 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of supplemental alpha-amylase (930 DU/kg of DM) on performance when DMI was restricted to yield a programmed ADG. Alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect performance when DMI was restricted. We conclude that dietary alpha-amylase supplementation of finishing beef diets may result in

  4. Mammalian Mucosal ?-Glucosidases Coordinate with ?-Amylase in the Initial Starch Hydrolysis Stage to Have a Role in Starch Digestion beyond Glucogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Gidley, Michael J.; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing pre...

  5. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of the effects of initial glucose on the production of ?-amylase from Penicillium sp. under solid-state and submerged fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Ertan (?nceo?lu), Figen; Balkan, Bilal; Yark?n, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    The effects of catabolite repression of initial glucose on the synthesis of ?-amylase from Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium griseofulvum were investigated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) systems. The results obtained from either fermentation were compared with each other. In the SmF system, initial glucose concentration above 10?mg/mL completely repressed the production of ?-amylase from P. chrysogenum and P. griseofulvum. However, the repression i...

  7. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    OpenAIRE

    Reka Palanivel; Thahira Banu Azeez; Seethalakshmi Muthaya

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015). Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase...

  8. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  9. Molecular Identification of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis BI19 and Optimization of Production Conditions for Enhanced Production of Extracellular Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biplab Kumar Dash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out with a newly isolated bacterial strain yielding extracellular amylase. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences revealed this strain as clustered with the closest members of Bacillus sp. and identified as Bacillus subtilis BI19. The effect of various fermentation conditions on amylase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Rice flour (1.25% as a cheap natural carbon source was found to induce amylase production mostly. A combination of peptone and tryptone as organic and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen sources gave highest yield. Maximum production was obtained after 24 h of incubation at 37°C with an initial medium pH 8.0. Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme production, respectively. Amylase production was 3.06 times higher when optimized production conditions were used. Optimum reaction temperature and pH for crude amylase activity were 50°C and 6.0, respectively. The crude enzyme showed activity and stability over a fair range of temperature and pH. These results suggest that B. subtilis BI19 could be exploited for production of amylase at relatively low cost and time.

  10. Multi-spectral and thermodynamic analysis of the interaction mechanism between Cu2+ and α-amylase and impact on sludge hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruiqi; Liu, Hong; Hou, Guangying; Ju, Lei; Liu, Chunguang

    2017-04-01

    An increasing amount of heavy metals (e.g., Cu 2+ ) is being discharged into sewage treatment plants and is accumulating in sludge, which is toxic to the enzyme in sludge or soil when the sludge is used as fertilizer, resulting in unfavorable effect on the biological treatment of sludge and the circulation and conversion of materials in soil. In this research, effect of Cu 2+ on sludge hydrolysis by α-amylase is studied from the respect of concentration and components of soluble organic matter in sludge, using three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. Results show that Cu 2+ exposure not only inhibits the hydrolysis of sludge due to the denaturation of α-amylase but also affects the components of soluble organic matter in sludge. In order to illuminate the interaction mechanism between Cu 2+ and α-amylase (a model of hydrolase in sludge), multi-spectra and isothermal titration microcalorimetry techniques are applied. Results show that the secondary structure of α-amylase is changed as that the α-helical content increases and the structure loosens. The microenvironment of amino acid residue in α-amylase is changed that the hydrophobicity decreases and the polarity increases with Cu 2+ exposure. Isothermal titration calorimetry results show that Van der Waals force and hydrogen bond exist in the interaction between Cu 2+ and α-amylase. Results from this research would favor the development of advanced process for the biological treatment of sludge containing heavy metals.

  11. Reflection on design and testing of pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors: an in silico comparison between rat and rabbit enzyme models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil-Moghaddam Shiva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of pancreatic alpha-amylase are potential drugs to treat diabetes and obesity. In order to find compounds that would be effective amylase inhibitors, in vitro and in vivo models are usually used. The accuracy of models is limited, but these tools are nonetheless valuable. In vitro models could be used in large screenings involving thousands of chemicals that are tested to find potential lead compounds. In vivo models are still used as preliminary mean of testing compounds behavior in the whole organism. In the case of alpha-amylase inhibitors, both rats and rabbits could be chosen as in vivo models. The question was which animal could present more accuracy with regard to its pancreatic alpha-amylase. Results As there is no crystal structure of these enzymes, a molecular modeling study was done in order to compare the rabbit and rat enzymes with the human one. The overall result is that rabbit enzyme could probably be a better choice in this regard, but in the case of large ligands, which could make putative interactions with the −4 subsite of pancreatic alpha-amylase, interpretation of results should be made cautiously. Conclusion Molecular modeling tools could be used to choose the most suitable model enzyme that would help to identify new enzyme inhibitors. In the case of alpha-amylase, three-dimensional structures of animal enzymes show differences with the human one which should be taken into account when testing potential new drugs.

  12. Molecular Identification of a Newly Isolated Bacillus subtilis BI19 and Optimization of Production Conditions for Enhanced Production of Extracellular Amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Biplab Kumar; Rahman, M Mizanur; Sarker, Palash Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A study was carried out with a newly isolated bacterial strain yielding extracellular amylase. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequences revealed this strain as clustered with the closest members of Bacillus sp. and identified as Bacillus subtilis BI19. The effect of various fermentation conditions on amylase production through shake-flask culture was investigated. Rice flour (1.25%) as a cheap natural carbon source was found to induce amylase production mostly. A combination of peptone and tryptone as organic and ammonium sulfate as inorganic nitrogen sources gave highest yield. Maximum production was obtained after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C with an initial medium pH 8.0. Addition of surfactants like Tween 80 (0.25 g/L) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.2 g/L) resulted in 28% and 15% increase in enzyme production, respectively. Amylase production was 3.06 times higher when optimized production conditions were used. Optimum reaction temperature and pH for crude amylase activity were 50 °C and 6.0, respectively. The crude enzyme showed activity and stability over a fair range of temperature and pH. These results suggest that B. subtilis BI19 could be exploited for production of amylase at relatively low cost and time.

  13. Spatio-temporal appearance of α-amylase and limit dextrinase in barley aleurone layer in response to gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahpiri, Azar; Talaei, Nasim; Finnie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Cereal seed germination involves mobilization of storage reserves in the starchy endosperm to support seedling growth. In response to gibberellin produced by the embryo the aleurone layer synthesizes hydrolases that are secreted to the endosperm for degradation of storage products. In this study analysis of intracellular protein accumulation and release from barley aleurone layers is presented for the important enzymes in starch degradation: α-amylase and limit dextrinase (LD). Proteins were visualized by immunoblotting in aleurone layers and culture supernatants from dissected aleurone layers incubated up to 72 h with either gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA) or salicylic acid (SA). The results show that α-amylase is secreted from aleurone layer treated with GA soon after synthesis but the release of LD to culture supernatants was significantly delayed and coincided with a general loss of proteins from aleurone layers. Release of LD was found to differ from that of amylase and was suggested to depend on programmed cell death (PCD). Despite detection of intracellular amylase in untreated aleurone layers or aleurone layers treated with ABA or SA, α-amylase was not released from these samples. Nevertheless, the release of α-amylase was observed from aleurone layers treated with GA+ABA or GA+SA. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The Importance of Surface-Binding Site towards Starch-Adsorptivity Level in α-Amylase: A Review on Structural Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Baroroh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is a polymeric carbohydrate composed of glucose. As a source of energy, starch can be degraded by various amylolytic enzymes, including α-amylase. In a large-scale industry, starch processing cost is still expensive due to the requirement of high temperature during the gelatinization step. Therefore, α-amylase with raw starch digesting ability could decrease the energy cost by avoiding the high gelatinization temperature. It is known that the carbohydrate-binding module (CBM and the surface-binding site (SBS of α-amylase could facilitate the substrate binding to the enzyme’s active site to enhance the starch digestion. These sites are a noncatalytic module, which could interact with a lengthy substrate such as insoluble starch. The major interaction between these sites and the substrate is the CH/pi-stacking interaction with the glucose ring. Several mutation studies on the Halothermothrix orenii, SusG Bacteroides thetaiotamicron, Barley, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera α-amylases have revealed that the stacking interaction through the aromatic residues at the SBS is essential to the starch adsorption. In this review, the SBS in various α-amylases is also presented. Therefore, based on the structural point of view, SBS is suggested as an essential site in α-amylase to increase its catalytic activity, especially towards the insoluble starch.

  15. α--AMYLASES OF Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae AND Bacillus subtilis: THE SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY AND RESISTANCE TO A NUMBER OF CHEMICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Avdiyuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 and Bacillus subtilis 147 α-amylases to split different carbohydrate-containing substrates, such as maltose, sucrose, trehalose, dextrin, α- and β-cyclodextrin, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, pullulan, soluble starch, insoluble starch, corn starch, wheat starch, dextran 500 has been studied. It was shown that investigated enzymes differ by substrate specificity. α-Amylase of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 rapidly hydrolysed soluble potato and wheat starch, while the α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 — only wheat starch. Both enzymes don’t cleave maltose, α-cyclodextrin and dextran 500. A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 α-amylase display very small ability to hydrolyze pullulan, while α-amylase of B. subtilis 147 it does not act in general. The lowest values of Michaelis constant for both enzymes at splitting of glycogen have been obtained, indicating that enzymes have the greatest affinity to this substrate. The studies of influence of chemically active substances on activity of A. flavus var. oryzae 80428 and B. subtilis 147 ?-amylases show there are resistant to urea, deoxycholic acid, Tween-80, Triton X-100 and hydrogen peroxide. It’s indicate the enzymes tested may be competitive in compare with earlier described in literature enzymes. The obtained results give a possibility to propose in future usage these enzymes in different fields of industry, foremost in detergent industry.

  16. Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2006-03-01

    In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. A gibberellin-stimulated transcript, OsGASR1, controls seedling growth and α-amylase expression in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Han, Soon-Ki; An, Gynheung; Kim, Seong-Ryong

    2017-07-01

    From a T-DNA-tagging population in rice, we identified OsGASR1 (LOC_Os03g55290), a member of the GAST (gibberellin (GA)-Stimulated Transcript) family that is induced by salt stress and ABA treatment. This gene was highly expressed in the regions of cell proliferation and panicle development, as revealed by a GUS assay of the mutant line. In the osgasr1 mutants, the second leaf blades were much longer than those of the segregating wild type due to an increase in cell length. In addition, five α-amylase genes were up-regulated in the mutants, implying that OsGASR1 is a negative regulator of those genes. These results suggest that OsGASR1 plays important roles in seedling growth and α-amylase gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Anaerobic α-Amylase Production and Secretion with Fumarate as the Final Electron Acceptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zihe; Österlund, Tobias; Hou, Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we focus on production of heterologous α-amylase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under anaerobic conditions. We compare the metabolic fluxes and transcriptional regulation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the objective of identifying the final electron acceptor...... reticulum are transferred to fumarate as the final electron acceptor. This model is supported by findings that the addition of fumarate under anaerobic (but not aerobic) conditions improves cell growth, specifically in the α-amylase-producing strain, in which it is not used as a carbon source. Our results...... provide a model for the molecular mechanism of anaerobic protein secretion using fumarate as the final electron acceptor, which may allow for further engineering of yeast for improved protein secretion under anaerobic growth conditions....

  20. Molecular genetic analysis of cereal β-amylase genes using exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratula Olga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proteins encoded by cereal β-amylase genes Bamy1 and Bamy2 genes play an important role in seedling germination and in the brewing process. Here, we use exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC to analyse Bamy1 and Bamy2 genetic diversity among 38 accessions belonging to six Poaceae tribes. DNA sequence alignment of multiple Poaceae species β-amylase sequences allowed design of EPIC primers that simultaneously amplify Bamy1 and Bamy2 in all the cereal species investigated. The genetic variation observed in the samples investigated is analysed and discussed, and illustrates the effectiveness of this approach for intra- and interspecific analysis in plant species.

  1. [Optimization of fermentation conditions for cold-adapted amylase production by Micrococcus antarcticus and its enzymatic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong-xi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Zhi-pei

    2009-08-15

    By single factor experiments, the fermentation conditions for cold-adapted amylase production from Micrococcus antarcticus were determined as follows(medium g/L): Na2 HPO4 2.0, KH2PO4 1.0, MgSO4 x 7H2O 0.1, NaCl 5.0, (NH4)2SO4 2.5, maltose 5.0, trace element solution 5.0 mL, pH 8.0, 100 mL/Erlenmeyer flask (500 mL); cultivation was in a rotating shaker at 12 degrees C and 160 r/min for 64 h.Under those conditions,the highest total enzyme activity (2.6 U/mL) was obtained and increased by 10.8 fold compared with the original value of 0.24 U/mL before optimization. This amylase was purified by concentration with ultrafiltration membrane module, Hitrap Q anion exchange chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for the purified amylase were 30 degrees C and 6.0, respectively.It still showed high activity at low temperature 10-15 degrees C. It was sensitive to high temperature but was stable at pH 6.0-10.0 with at least 70% activity remained. These results indicated that it was a typical cold-adapted enzyme. The enzyme activity was stimulated by Ca2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Mg2+; but inhibited by Zn2+, Ba2+, Ag+, Cu2+, Al3+, Fe2, Fe3+, Hg2+, EDTA and citrate. This cold-adapted amylase showed resistance to inactivation of 0.1% nonionic surfactants such as Tween 80, TrintonX-100, etc. Its Km was 0.90 mg/mL.

  2. Studies on activity, distribution, and zymogram of protease, α-amylase, and lipase in the paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H; Sun, H T; Xiong, D M

    2012-06-01

    A series of biochemical determination and electrophoretic observations have been conducted to analyze the activities and characteristics of protease, α-amylase, and lipase of paddlefish Polyodon spathula. The results obtained have been compared with those of bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and hybrid sturgeon (Huso dauricus ♀ × Acipenser schrenki Brandt ♂), in order to increase available knowledge of the physiological characteristics of this sturgeon species and to gain information with regard to its nutrition. Further, a comparative study of enzymatic activity, distribution, and characterization between commercial feed-reared paddlefish (CG) and natural live food-reared (NG) paddlefish was conducted. Results showed that higher proteolytic activity was observed in the pH range 2.5-3.0 and at a pH of 7.0 for paddlefish. Levels of acid protease activity of paddlefish were similar to that of hybrid sturgeon, and significantly higher than that of bighead carp. The inhibition assay of paddlefish showed that the rate of inhibition of tosyl-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone was approximately 2.6-fold that of tosyl-lysine chloromethyl ketone. There was no significant difference observed for acid protease activity between PG and CG groups, whereas the activity of alkaline protease, α-amylase, and lipase in the PG group were significantly lower than those in the CG group. The substrate sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis further showed that there were certain types of enzymes, especially α-amylase, with similar molecular mass in the paddlefish and hybrid sturgeon. It can be inferred that acid digestion was main mechanism for protein hydrolysis in paddlefish, as reported for other fishes with a stomach. This indicates that the paddlefish requires higher alkaline protease, α-amylase, and lipase activity to digest natural live food.

  3. Heat, Acid and Chemically Induced Unfolding Pathways, Conformational Stability and Structure-Function Relationship in Wheat α-Amylase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Singh

    Full Text Available Wheat α-amylase, a multi-domain protein with immense industrial applications, belongs to α+β class of proteins with native molecular mass of 32 kDa. In the present study, the pathways leading to denaturation and the relevant unfolded states of this multi-domain, robust enzyme from wheat were discerned under the influence of temperature, pH and chemical denaturants. The structural and functional aspects along with thermodynamic parameters for α-amylase unfolding were probed and analyzed using fluorescence, circular dichroism and enzyme assay methods. The enzyme exhibited remarkable stability up to 70°C with tendency to aggregate at higher temperature. Acid induced unfolding was also incomplete with respect to the structural content of the enzyme. Strong ANS binding at pH 2.0 suggested the existence of a partially unfolded intermediate state. The enzyme was structurally and functionally stable in the pH range 4.0-9.0 with 88% recovery of hydrolytic activity. Careful examination of biophysical properties of intermediate states populated in urea and GdHCl induced denaturation suggests that α-amylase unfolding undergoes irreversible and non-coincidental cooperative transitions, as opposed to previous reports of two-state unfolding. Our investigation highlights several structural features of the enzyme in relation to its catalytic activity. Since, α-amylase has been comprehensively exploited for use in a range of starch-based industries, in addition to its physiological significance in plants and animals, knowledge regarding its stability and folding aspects will promote its biotechnological applications.

  4. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmad, Tokeer [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Sardar, Meryam, E-mail: msardar@jmi.ac.in [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall.

  5. Optimization of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Production Via Mix Agricultural-Residues and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini RAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports utilization of mixture of wheat and barley bran (1:1 for the production of thermostable alpha-amylase enzyme through a spore former, heat tolerant strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in solid state fermentation. Maximum yield of alpha-amylase (252.77 U mL-1 was obtained in following optimized conditions, inoculums size 2 mL (2 × 106 CFU/mL, moisture 80%, pH 7±0.02, NaCl (3%, temperature 38±1°C, incubation for 72 h, maltose (1% and tryptone (1%. After SSF crude enzyme was purified via ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and column chromatography by DEAE Cellulose. Purified protein showed a molecular weight of 42 kDa by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. After purification, purified enzyme was characterized against several enzymes inhibitors such as temperature, NaCl, pH, metal and surfactants. Pure enzyme was highly active over broad temperature (50-70°C, NaCl concentration (0.5-4 M, and pH (6-10 ranges, indicating it’s a thermoactive and alkali-stable nature. Moreover, CaCl2, MnCl2, =-mercaptoethanol were found to stimulate the amylase activity, whereas FeCl3, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, CuCl3 and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA strongly inhibited the enzyme. Moreover, enzyme specificity and thermal stability conformed by degradation of different soluble starch up to 55°C. Therefore, the present study proved that the extracellular alpha-amylase extracted through wheat flour residues by organism B. amyloliquefaciens MCCB0075, both have considerable potential for industrial application owing to its properties.

  6. Digestive alpha-amylases of the flour moth Ephestia kuehniella - adaptation to alkaline environment and plant inhibitors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Hubert, J.; Lepšík, Martin; Šobotník, Jan; Šindelka, Radek; Křížková, I.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl. 1 (2009), s. 162-162 ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /34/. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600; GA AV ČR IAA400550617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Ephestia kuehniella * alpha amylase * alkaline adaptation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pytelková, Jana; Lepšík, Martin; Šanda, Miloslav; Talacko, Pavel; Marešová, Lucie; Mareš, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2012), s. 1-8 ISSN 1471-2091 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/09/P600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Aca s 4 * Acarus siro * alpha - amylase s Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.776, year: 2012 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2091/13/3

  8. Assessing agreement between salivary alpha amylase levels collected by passive drool and eluted filter paper in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameringer, Suzanne; Munro, Cindy; Elswick, R K

    2012-07-01

    To assess the validity of filter paper (FP) against the gold standard of passive drool (PD) for collecting salivary alpha amylase as a surrogate biomarker of psychological stress in adolescents with cancer. Part of a longitudinal, descriptive study of symptoms in adolescents with cancer during chemotherapy. A pediatric hematology/oncology treatment center. 33 saliva sample pairs from nine adolescents with cancer, aged 13-18 years. Salivary alpha amylase was collected by PD and FP at four time points during a cycle of chemotherapy: days 1 (time 1) and 2 (time 2) of chemotherapy, day 7-10 (time 3), and day 1 of the next cycle (time 4). A random effects regression was used to assess the correlation between PD and FP values, and a Bland Altman analysis was conducted to assess agreement between the values. Salivary alpha amylase. The estimated correlation between PD and FP values was r = 0.91, p < 0.001. Regression results were also used to rescale FP values to the levels of the PD values because the FP values were on a different scale than the PD values. The Bland Altman analysis revealed that the agreement between the rescaled FP values and PD values was not satisfactory. Eluted FP may not be a valid method for collecting salivary alpha amylase in adolescents with cancer. Psychological stress in adolescents with cancer may be linked to negative outcomes, such as greater symptom severity and post-traumatic stress disorder. Nurses need valid, efficient, biobehavioral measures to assess psychological stress in the clinical setting.

  9. GROWTH AND ENZYME PRODUCTION DURING CONTINUOUS CULTURES OF A HIGH AMYLASE-PRODUCING VARIANT OF Aspergillus Oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Zangirolami,T.C.; Carlsen,M.; Nielsen,J.; Jørgensen,S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Growth and product formation by a selected variant of Aspergillus oryzae showing high alpha-amylase production was studied in continuous cultivations carried out at six different specific growth rates, using glucose as the growth-limiting nutrient. The analysis of the steady-state data revealed that the variant and wild-type strains were similar with respect to glucose uptake system and stoichiometric coefficients. However, the variant was capable of maintaining an enzyme production as high a...

  10. THESIS-ABSTRACT Supplementation levels of exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H B; Silva, M I A; Mesquita, F R

    2017-08-17

    This study aimed to evaluate the supplementation levels of an exogenous alpha-amylase in broilers diets and compare two indicators in determining the diets energy. The experiment was divided into two parallel evaluations, being one of performance and the other of metabolism. In performance assay, 1,700 one-day-old Cobb-500 male chicks were used. The animals were distributed in 50 experimental plots and evaluated five treatments with ten replicates in a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatments were: a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC) and three alpha-amylase supplementation levels 200, 400 and 600 g/t, and the NC was formulated with 50 and 90 kcal of energy reduction in relation to the PC to the phases from 1 to 21 days and from 22 to 42 days, respectively. In the metabolism assay were used 240 animals, 150 birds for stage from 14 to 21 days and 90 birds to stage from 35 to 42 days of age and the treatments were the same as the performance assay, with six replicates per treatment in CRD. All diets of metabolism test contained the digestibility indicators Lipe ® (eucalyptus purified lignin) and chromic oxide (Cr 2 O 3 ), in concentrations of 0.05 and 1.0%, respectively. In the period from 1 to 21 days old, no significant differences were observed in weight gain (WG) (P > 0.05), however, feed intake (FI) was found higher by using 200 ppm of enzyme (P 0.05), but were observed lower FI and better FC to PC treatment (P 0.05), but there was lower FI and better FC for the PC treatment (P < 0.05). The AMEn (apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance), determined using the total collection, reaffirmed the values ​​calculated for the PC and NC with intermediate data obtained from the enzyme use (200, 400 and 600 ppm). Comparing the total collection using Lipe ® and Cr 2 O 3 , a correlation was observed only for the PC results, that were always higher, and for the NC results, that were lower for the three methodologies. For IDE

  11. Micrococcus luteus mediated dual mode synthesis of gold nanoparticles: involvement of extracellular α-amylase and cell wall teichuronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Pichaimani; Thanalakshmi, Muthukrishnan; Kumar, Priyadarsini; Premkumar, Kumpati

    2013-03-01

    In the present study we have utilized the bioreductive potential of Micrococcus luteus for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Biochemical and physiological analysis indicate that the biosynthesized GNPs were achieved by dual mode, involving extracellular α-amylase and cell wall teichuronic acid (TUA) of M. luteus. The biosynthetic potential of both α-amylase and TUA, after isolation from bacterium, was examined. Under optimum conditions, these biomolecules reduces Au(3+) into Au(0) and the resulting GNPs were found to be stable for 1 month. The synthesized GNPs were characterized by UV-VIS spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Results demonstrated that the synthesized GNPs were found to be monodispersive and spherical in shape with an average size of ∼6 nm and ∼50 nm for α-amylase and teichuronic acid, respectively. These findings suggest that M. luteus can be exploited as a potential biosource for the eco-friendly synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production and Catalytic Properties of Amylases from Lichtheimia ramosa and Thermoascus aurantiacus by Solid-State Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ana Paula Aguero; Silvestre, Maria Alice; Garcia, Nayara Fernanda Lisboa; Alves-Prado, Heloíza Ferreira; Rodrigues, André; da Paz, Marcelo Fossa; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2016-01-01

    The present study compared the production and the catalytic properties of amylolytic enzymes obtained from the fungi Lichtheimia ramosa (mesophilic) and Thermoascus aurantiacus (thermophilic). The highest amylase production in both fungi was observed in wheat bran supplemented with nutrient solution (pH 4.0) after 96 hours of cultivation, reaching 417.2 U/g of dry substrate (or 41.72 U/mL) and 144.5 U/g of dry substrate (or 14.45 U/mL) for L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus, respectively. The enzymes showed higher catalytic activity at pH 6.0 at 60°C. The amylases produced by L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus were stable between pH 3.5–10.5 and pH 4.5–9.5, respectively. The amylase of L. ramosa was stable at 55°C after 1 hour of incubation, whereas that of T. aurantiacus maintained 60% of its original activity under the same conditions. Both enzymes were active in the presence of ethanol. The enzymes hydrolyzed starch from different sources, with the best results obtained with corn starch. The enzymatic complex produced by L. ramosa showed dextrinizing and saccharifying potential. The enzymatic extract produced by the fungus T. aurantiacus presented only saccharifying potential, releasing glucose monomers as the main hydrolysis product. PMID:27413773

  13. Production, purification and characterization of thermostable α-amylase from soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain B-10

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    Ravindra Nath Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain B-10 that produces α-amylase was isolated from compost and kitchen waste receiving agricultural soil. Based on microbiological and biochemical tests the isolate B-10 was identified as Bacillus sp. Alpha-amylase produced by this isolate was purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation and DEAE cellulose ion-exchange chromatography showing 15.91 and 48.21 fold purification, respectively. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme confirmed the purification and monomeric nature of the enzyme. The purified α-amylase showed maximum activity at pH 7 and temperature 50°C. The enzyme was significantly active in the temperature range of 30-60°C for the studied period of 2 h. During the incubation of purified enzyme at pH ranging from 5 to 10 for 24 h the maximum stability was observed at pH 7 followed by pH 8, whereas at extreme pH, the stability was very poor. Km and Vmax were found to be 1.4 mg/mL and 6.2 U/mL, respectively.

  14. Transcription Factor AREB2 Is Involved in Soluble Sugar Accumulation by Activating Sugar Transporter and Amylase Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qi-Jun; Sun, Mei-Hong; Lu, Jing; Liu, Ya-Jing; Hu, Da-Gang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-08-01

    Sugars play important roles in plant growth and development, crop yield and quality, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a multifunctional hormone. However, the exact mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation is largely unknown in plants. Here, we tested the expression profile of several sugar transporter and amylase genes in response to ABA treatment. MdSUT2 and MdAREB2 were isolated and genetically transformed into apple ( Malus domestica ) to investigate their roles in ABA-induced sugar accumulation. The MdAREB2 transcription factor was found to bind to the promoters of the sugar transporter and amylase genes and activate their expression. Both MdAREB2 and MdSUT2 transgenic plants produced more soluble sugars than controls. Furthermore, MdAREB2 promoted the accumulation of sucrose and soluble sugars in an MdSUT2 -dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that the ABA-responsive transcription factor MdAREB2 directly activates the expression of amylase and sugar transporter genes to promote soluble sugar accumulation, suggesting a mechanism by which ABA regulates sugar accumulation in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Production and Catalytic Properties of Amylases from Lichtheimia ramosa and Thermoascus aurantiacus by Solid-State Fermentation

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    Ana Paula Aguero de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the production and the catalytic properties of amylolytic enzymes obtained from the fungi Lichtheimia ramosa (mesophilic and Thermoascus aurantiacus (thermophilic. The highest amylase production in both fungi was observed in wheat bran supplemented with nutrient solution (pH 4.0 after 96 hours of cultivation, reaching 417.2 U/g of dry substrate (or 41.72 U/mL and 144.5 U/g of dry substrate (or 14.45 U/mL for L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus, respectively. The enzymes showed higher catalytic activity at pH 6.0 at 60°C. The amylases produced by L. ramosa and T. aurantiacus were stable between pH 3.5–10.5 and pH 4.5–9.5, respectively. The amylase of L. ramosa was stable at 55°C after 1 hour of incubation, whereas that of T. aurantiacus maintained 60% of its original activity under the same conditions. Both enzymes were active in the presence of ethanol. The enzymes hydrolyzed starch from different sources, with the best results obtained with corn starch. The enzymatic complex produced by L. ramosa showed dextrinizing and saccharifying potential. The enzymatic extract produced by the fungus T. aurantiacus presented only saccharifying potential, releasing glucose monomers as the main hydrolysis product.

  16. Purification and characterization of an alpha-amylase of Pichia burtonii isolated from the traditional starter "murcha" in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akiko; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Mura, Kiyoshi; Okada, Sanae; Tokue, Chiyoko; Arai, Soichi

    2006-12-01

    Among more than 20 yeast strains isolated from the traditional starter "murcha" in Nepal, we characterized a yeast that might be involved in saccharification. This strain, identified as Pichia burtonii, produced an extracellular amylolytic enzyme when cultured in the presence of starch in the medium. Since no amylase secreted by P. burtonii has yet been reported, we purified the enzyme and determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence. Together with the results of a hydrolyzing activity assay toward various substrates, it was found to be an alpha-amylase. The purified enzyme, named Pichia burtonii alpha-amylase (PBA), was a glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa. Enzyme activity was optimal at pH 5.0 at 40 degrees C. The enzyme retained 80% of its original activity after incubation under the optimal pH condition at 50 degrees C for 30 min. The activity was inhibited by metal ions such as Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Al(3+), and Zn(2+).

  17. Optimization of cultural conditions for the production of alpha amylase by aspergillus niger (btm-26) in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, R.; Shaheen, N.; Iqtedar, M.; Naz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation, screening and selection of native fungal strain for the alpha amylase production. Forty fungal strains were isolated from different soil samples. These strains were initially screened qualitatively on starch agar medium and quantitative screening was carried out in solid state fermentation. A strain of Aspergillus niger showing maximum production (432 +- 0.9 U/ml/min) of enzyme was selected and assigned the code BTM-26. The yield on various agricultural products, namely, coconut oil cake (COC), rice bran (RB), vegetable wastes or banana peel and wheat bran (WB) was compared. Wheat bran proved to be the best substrate for alpha amylase production. The effect of incubation temperature, initial pH, and inoculum size was investigated for the enzyme production. The maximum enzyme production was obtained at 30 degree C, pH 5, and inoculum size of 1 ml. The rate of fermentation was also studied and the highest yield of enzyme was obtained after 72 h of inoculation. Addition of 1.5% lactose as carbon source and 0.2% (NH/sub 4/)2SO/sub 4/ and 0.3% yeast extract as inorganic and organic nitrogen sources respectively gave enzyme production 990 +- 0.81 U/ml/min which reflects about 1.87 fold increase in alpha amylase production as compared to the medium containing wheat bran alone as substrate. (author)

  18. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for Treatment of Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus - Screening for Pancreatic Lipase and α-Amylase Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Tina; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-02-01

    In order to find new pancreatic lipase (PL) and α-amylase inhibitors from natural sources for the treatment of obesity and related diseases as diabetes mellitus II, 23 medicinal plants with weight-reducing, serum glucose-reducing or related potential were investigated. Methanolic and water extracts of the plants were evaluated by using two in vitro test systems. Our findings have shown that the methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) showed high inhibitory activities to PL (IC50 : 35.8 ± 0.8 µg/mL) and α-amylase (IC50 : 29.3 ± 0.5 µg/mL). Furthermore, the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae) showed a high anti-lipase (IC50 : 152.0 ± 7.0 µg/mL) and the aqueous extract a high anti-amylase (IC50 : 139.4 ± 9.0 µg/mL) activity. This work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of obesity and associated diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization of α-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature in the presence of an adsorbent has been studied. In the previous method, part of the enzyme escapes from the immobilized composition of HEMA polymer with a few enzyme reactions. This is prevented, however, by the present method in which the adsorbent-HEMA-α-amylase mixtures is immobilized by the polymerization with HEMA. Anhydride of an inorganic salt such as calcium carbonate, sodium acetate, calcium acetate, or DRIERETE (composed mainly of calcium sulfate) is especially useful as the adsorbent. Use of an inorganic ion such as Ca ++ or Na + improves remarkably heat-stability of the immobilized composition. The most effective composition for immobilization is 200 μg of α-amylase, 1 ml of 30% HEMA solution (in 0.02M phosphate buffer solution, pH 6.9) and 0.3g of DRIERETE. Frozen and irradiated with γ-rays of Co-60 to a total dose 1 x 10 6 R at -24 0 C, the immobilized enzyme has the activity about 93% that of the native one. (auth.)

  20. Study on the immobilization of alpha-amylase by radiation-induced polymerization at low-temperature, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Masaru; Kumakura, Minoru; Kaetsu, Isao

    1975-07-01

    The immobilization α-amylase in low concentration (50-250μg) by radiation induced polymerization at low temperature, with HEMA has been studied. The immobilization was performed in the temperature range of -196 0 C to +40 0 C. Activity of the immobilized enzyme decreases at temperatures above 0 0 C. The optimum temperatures for immobilization of α-amylase are -78 0 C - -24 0 C, where only the polymerization by irradiation is effective. HEMA is a suitable monomer as the immobilization carrier, because of its high polymerization rate of 100% in the temperature range. The suitable concentration of HEMA is less than 30%, and above this concentration the activity of enzyme decreases considerably. The optimum irradiation dose for immobilization is 1 x 10 6 R, and the activity of enzyme decreases at 5 x 10 6 R. The polymerization composition is porous gel structure, so the enzymatic reaction can be carried out merely by introducing a substrate to the composition. The activity attained in the immobilized enzyme is 75-80% that of the native α-amylase. The immobilized enzyme is more heat-resistant than the native one. (auth.)

  1. In vitro antibacterial, alpha-amylase inhibition potential of three nudibranchs extracts from South East coast of India

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    Giji Sadhasivam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antiamylase properties of methanol and acetone extracts of nudibranchs including Bursatella leachii (B. leachii, Kalinga ornata (K. ornata, Aplysia sp. Methods: Crude methanol and acetone extracts of sea slugs were tested for inhibition of fish bacterial pathogens' growth through disc diffusion method. The activity was measured based on the formation of inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with crude extracts. The α-amylase inhibitory effect was also measured calorimetrically. The chemical fingerprinting of the extract was recorded with HPTLC and GC-MS. Results: The solvent extracts of all the three sea slugs showed antibacterial property. The maximum zone of inhibition (>15-20 mm was recorded for methanol and acetone extracts of K. ornata. The methanol extract of Aplysia sp. exhibited 93% inhibition against α-amylase, following by B. leachii (methanol 70.6% and K. ornata (methanol 49.03% inhibition respectively. The acetone extracts didn' t show any notable inhibition. The presence of free amino acids like lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine etc., terpenoids and pigents were confirmed through HPTLC analysis. The presence of siloxanes and propanoic acid were also revealed through GC-MS. Conclusions: This study suggests that further scrutinisation of the B. leachii, K. ornata and Aplysia sp. will pave the way for development of antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory agent for therapeutic application.

  2. Saliva amylase as a measure of sympathetic change elicited by autogenic training in patients with functional somatic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiba, Tadashi; Kanbara, Kenji; Ban, Ikumi; Kato, Fumie; Kawashima, Sadanobu; Saka, Yukie; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Nishiyama, Junji; Mizuno, Yasuyuki; Abe, Tetsuya; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of autogenic training (AT) on patients with functional somatic syndrome (FSS) using salivary amylase, the skin temperature of the finger, subjective severity of symptoms, and psychological characteristics as measures. We assessed 20 patients with FSS and 23 healthy controls before and after AT. Baseline levels of salivary amylase prior to an AT session were significantly higher in the FSS group than in the control group. However, this difference was not significant after AT. The skin temperature of the finger increased after AT in both the FSS and control groups. AT contributed to the improvement of somatic symptoms in patients with FSS. Our results regarding psychological characteristics suggest that mood disturbances are deeply involved in the pathology of FSS. Individuals with FSS exhibited elevated levels of sympathetic activity compared with healthy controls. Our data indicates that AT eased dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system in patients with FSS. Thus, salivary amylase may be a useful index of change induced by AT in patients with FSS.

  3. Evaluation of salivary catalase, vitamin C, and alpha-amylase in smokers and non-smokers: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Motamayel, Fatemeh; Falsafi, Parisa; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2017-05-01

    Saliva and its defence systems such as antioxidants and minerals are very important in the pathogenesis of different diseases. Cigarette smoking has many destructive effects. Oxidative stresses play an important role in the side effects of smoking. This study assessed the effect of cigarette smoking on salivary levels of catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase. This retrospective cohort study was carried out in Hamadan, Iran, on 510 subjects; 259 subjects were smokers (the exposed group) and 251 were non-smokers (the unexposed group). Five microliters of unstimulated saliva was collected by spitting method. Catalase, vitamin C, and α-amylase salivary levels were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with t-test using STATA 12. Vitamin C level in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers. The salivary catalase levels were lower and α-amylase levels were higher in smokers, but the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.416 and P = 0.265, respectively). Smokers were younger than non-smokers. Smoking resulted in a change in salivary antioxidant levels. Changes in antioxidant levels can influence the deleterious effects of smoking on oral mucosa; it might also indicate systemic changes and changes in the serum levels of oxidative agents. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanisms and real effects of smoking, to determine the benefits of supplementary antioxidants for treatment and to reduce the dangerous side effects of smoking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 2-Aryl benzimidazoles: Synthesis, In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity, and molecular docking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Akande Akinsola; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Salar, Uzma; Aboaba, Sherifat Adeyinka; Kanwal; Chigurupati, Sridevi; Fatima, Itrat; Taha, Mohammad; Wadood, Abdul; Mohammad, Jahidul Isalm; Khan, Huma; Perveen, Shahnaz

    2018-04-25

    Despite of many diverse biological activities exhibited by benzimidazole scaffold, it is rarely explored for the α-amylase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, 2-aryl benzimidazole derivatives 1-45 were synthesized and screened for in vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity. Structures of all synthetic compounds were deduced by various spectroscopic techniques. All compounds revealed inhibition potential with IC 50 values of 1.48 ± 0.38-2.99 ± 0.14 μM, when compared to the standard acarbose (IC 50  = 1.46 ± 0.26 μM). Limited SAR suggested that the variation in the inhibitory activities of the compounds are the result of different substitutions on aryl ring. In order to rationalize the binding interactions of most active compounds with the active site of α-amylase enzyme, in silico study was conducted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Immobilization of α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 on ReliZyme and Immobead Supports

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    Ummirul Mukminin Kahar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (ASKA is a thermostable enzyme that produces a high level of maltose from starches. A truncated ASKA (TASKA variant with improved expression and purification efficiency was characterized in an earlier study. In this work, TASKA was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment on three epoxide (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M activated supports. Several parameters affecting immobilization were analyzed, including the pH, temperature, and quantity (mg of enzyme added per gram of support. The influence of the carrier surface properties, pore sizes, and lengths of spacer arms (functional groups on biocatalyst performances were studied. Free and immobilized TASKAs were stable at pH 6.0–9.0 and active at pH 8.0. The enzyme showed optimal activity and considerable stability at 60 °C. Immobilized TASKA retained 50% of its initial activity after 5–12 cycles of reuse. Upon degradation of starches and amylose, only immobilized TASKA on ReliZyme HFA403/M has comparable hydrolytic ability with the free enzyme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an immobilization study of an α-amylase from Anoxybacillus spp. and the first report of α-amylase immobilization using ReliZyme and Immobeads as supports.

  6. Salivary type alpha-amylase activity in serum and in urine of patients with lung adenocarcinoma; Aktywnosc alfa-amylazy sliniankowej w surowicy i moczu chorych na gruczolakoraka pluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakrzewska, I.; Wolska, K.; Koput, A. [Zaklad Laboratoryjnej Diagnostyki Klinicznej, Akademia Medyczna, Bialystok (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Total alpha-amylase activity in sera and urine of 30 patients with lung adenocarcinoma has been tested. The results were compared with control group of 30 healthy voluntaries. The activity of pancreatic type was differentiated from salivary alpha amylase. Salivary type was inhibited selectively by Triticum aestivum. Higher levels of total and salivary type amylase were noted in patients with lung adenocarcinoma in comparison to healthy control. The increase was significant (p<0.005). Correlation was observed between the activity of salivary type amylase and the stage of adenocarcinoma. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Evaluation of the alpha-amylase activity as an indicator of pasteurization efficiency and microbiological quality of liquid whole eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Menezes, Liliane Denize Miranda; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Oliveira, Daniela Duarte de; Silva, Carla Aparecida; Klein, Roger Wilker Tavares; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-09-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of the pasteurization process in liquid whole eggs, an UV/visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the assessment of alpha-amylase activity. Samples were collected from 30 lots of raw eggs (n = 30) and divided into three groups: one was reserved for analysis of the raw eggs, the second group was pasteurized at 61.1°C for 3.5 minutes (n = 30), and the third group was pasteurized at 64.4°C for 2.5 minutes (n = 30). In addition to assessing alpha-amylase activity, the microbiological quality of the samples was also evaluated by counting total and thermotolerant coliforms, mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus spp., and Salmonella spp. The validated spectrophotometric method demonstrated linearity, with a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.99, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.48 mg kg-1 and 1.16 mg kg-1, respectively, and acceptable precision and accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 10% and recovery rates between 98.81% and 105.40%. The results for alpha-amylase activity in the raw egg samples showed high enzyme activity due to near-complete hydrolysis of the starch, while in the eggs pasteurized at 61.1°C, partial inactivation of the enzyme was observed. In the samples of whole eggs pasteurized at 64.4°C, starch hydrolysis did not occur due to enzyme inactivation. The results of the microbiological analyses showed a decrease (P pasteurized egg samples according to the two binomials under investigation, compared to the raw egg samples, which showed high rates of contamination (P pasteurization, only one sample (3.33%) was positive for Salmonella spp., indicating failure in the pasteurization process, which was confirmed by the alpha-amylase test. It was concluded that the validated methodology for testing alpha-amylase activity is adequate for assessing the efficiency of the pasteurization process, and that the time

  8. Mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases coordinate with α-amylase in the initial starch hydrolysis stage to have a role in starch digestion beyond glucogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function.

  9. Isolation, identification and in silico analysis of alpha-amylase gene of Aspergillus niger strain CSA35 obtained from cassava undergoing spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenetega J. Avwioroko

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, a gene (CDF_Amyl encoding extracellular α-amylase in Aspergillus niger strain CSA35 associated with cassava spoilage was amplified using specific primers and characterized in silico. The gene had a partial nucleotide sequence of 968 bp and encoded a protein of 222 aa residues with a molecular weight and isoelectric point of 25.13 kDa and 4.17, respectively. Its catalytic site was located in the active site domain. BLASTp analysis showed that the protein primary sequence of the α-amylase gene had 98% and 99% homologies with the α-amylase of A. niger and A. oryzae RIB40, respectively. The gene is more closely related to α-amylase genes from fungi than to bacterial, plant, or animal α-amylase genes. Restriction mapping of the gene showed it can be digested with restriction enzymes like NcoI, PstI, SmaI, and BcLI among others but not with EcoRI and EcoRV. Its protein product had a hydrophobicity score of − 0.43 but no transmembrane helix. The CDF_Amyl protein was subcellularly localized in the secretory pathway, an indication of its release into extracellular space after secretion. Also, the 3D structure of the CDF-Amyl protein was barrel-shaped with domains characteristic of α-amylases. The encoded α-amylase Vmax is 6.90 U/mg protein and Km is 6.70 mg/ml. It was concluded that the unique characteristics of the CDF_Amyl gene and its deduced protein could find applications in biotechnological, food and pharmaceutical industries where cloning and further modification of this gene would be required for product development and improvement.

  10. The influence of α-amylase supplementation, γ-irradiation (60Co) as well as long time of storage of wheat grain on flour technological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchalewski, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The varieties of winter wheat, Aria and Beta, were studied. The Aria variety was stored for the period of four years. The part of wheat grain from Beta variety was irradiated with γ rays ( 60 Co). In extracts from wheat kernels and flour protein content, total α- and β-amylolytic activity as well as α-amylolytic activity were determined, α-amylases of native and fungal origin were added to the flour obtained from samples of stored wheat kernels (Aria), irradiated and non-irradiated (Beta). Consequently native α-amylase activity of flour increased by 25% and 50%, respectively. Extensive technological estimation of grain and flour with amylase supplements was carried out. The study included: sedimentation analysis, falling number test, milling experiment, farinogram and extensogram analyses, measurement of the degree of damaged starch and flour colour, as well as baking experiment. The obtained experimental loaves of bread were tested for their ability to remain fresh. It was found out that the stored grain flour was characterized by the highest α-amylolytic activity and the lowest falling number value, whereas the irradiated grain flour showed the highest degree of starch damage and water absorption. When α-amylase supplementation to doughs was not accompanied by either irradiation or storage of grain, it definitely changed their physical properties for the worse. The negative influence of native α-amylases appeared to be less significant than that of fungal α-amylases. The positive influence of α-amylase supplementations, especially of those increasing by 25% the native α-amylolytic activity of flour on volume, and freshness of loaves of bread was observed. (author)

  11. Mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases coordinate with α-amylase in the initial starch hydrolysis stage to have a role in starch digestion beyond glucogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Dhital

    Full Text Available Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph, and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary

  12. Biochemical characterization of digestive carbohydrases from Xanthogaleruca luteola and inhibition of its α-amylase by inhibitors extracted from the common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifi Mahbobeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogaleruca luteola Müll. (Col.: Chrysomelidae is a major urban insect pest on elm trees in Iran. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the elm leaf beetle is facilitated by some carbohydrases which are responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates. The presence of digestive carbohydrases was determined in the digestive system of adult and last larval instar of the elm leaf beetle. The specific activity of α-amylase in the digestive system of adult females and last larval instars were 0.49± 0.05 and 0.72± 0.07 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Also, the amylase activity in the midgut of the last larval instar was 3.125- and 4.16-fold higher than that its activity in the foregut and hindgut, respectively. Results showed that optimum activity for α-amylase was found at pH 5. As calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots, the Km values for α-amylase were 0.64 and 1.44 mg/ml, when glycogen and starch were used as substrates, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature on α- and ß-glucosidase and α- and β-galactosidase activities was determined in the digestive system of X. luteola. Results showed that the activity of α- and ß-glucosidases in adult females was higher than in larvae, but the Яgalactosidase activity in larvae was more than that of the adult. In adult females the glucosidase activity was higher than the galactosidase activity. The zymogram pattern in the native gel revealed that X. luteola α-amylase, β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase in the digestive system had one, three and one isoforms. α-amylase inhibitors, purified from Phaseolus vulgaris L. with an ion-exchange DEAE cellulose column showed good inhibitory activity on X. luteola gut α-amylase.

  13. Mammalian Mucosal α-Glucosidases Coordinate with α-Amylase in the Initial Starch Hydrolysis Stage to Have a Role in Starch Digestion beyond Glucogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Sushil; Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Hamaker, Bruce R.; Gidley, Michael J.; Muniandy, Anbuhkani

    2013-01-01

    Starch digestion in the human body is typically viewed in a sequential manner beginning with α-amylase and followed by α-glucosidase to produce glucose. This report indicates that the two enzyme types can act synergistically to digest granular starch structure. The aim of this study was to investigate how the mucosal α-glucosidases act with α-amylase to digest granular starch. Two types of enzyme extracts, pancreatic and intestinal extracts, were applied. The pancreatic extract containing predominantly α-amylase, and intestinal extract containing a combination of α-amylase and mucosal α-glucosidase activities, were applied to three granular maize starches with different amylose contents in an in vitro system. Relative glucogenesis, released maltooligosaccharide amounts, and structural changes of degraded residues were examined. Pancreatic extract-treated starches showed a hydrolysis limit over the 12 h incubation period with residues having a higher gelatinization temperature than the native starch. α-Amylase combined with the mucosal α-glucosidases in the intestinal extract showed higher glucogenesis as expected, but also higher maltooligosaccharide amounts indicating an overall greater degree of granular starch breakdown. Starch residues after intestinal extract digestion showed more starch fragmentation, higher gelatinization temperature, higher crystallinity (without any change in polymorph), and an increase of intermediate-sized or small-sized fractions of starch molecules, but did not show preferential hydrolysis of either amylose or amylopectin. Direct digestion of granular starch by mammalian recombinant mucosal α-glucosidases was observed which shows that these enzymes may work either independently or together with α-amylase to digest starch. Thus, mucosal α-glucosidases can have a synergistic effect with α-amylase on granular starch digestion, consistent with a role in overall starch digestion beyond their primary glucogenesis function. PMID

  14. Autonomic markers associated with generalized social phobia symptoms: heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rubio, María J; Espín, Laura; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Salvador, Alicia; Gómez-Amor, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The study of autonomic nervous system changes associated with generalized social phobia (GSP) disorder has increased in recent years, showing contradictory results. The present study aimed to evaluate how young people with GSP reacted before, during, and after exposure to the Trier Stress Social Test (TSST), focusing on their autonomic changes (heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA)) compared to a control group (non-GSP). Some psychological variables were also considered. Sex was specifically studied as a possible modulator of autonomic fluctuations and psychological state. Eighty young people were randomly distributed into two counterbalanced situations: stress condition (N = 18 and 21 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively) and control condition (N = 21 and 20 for GSP and non-GSP, respectively), where cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded. Psychological questionnaires about mood and perceived stress were filled out, and five saliva samples were collected to analyze sAA. GSP participants showed higher values on low- and high-frequency ratios (HR domains), compared to non-GSP people, during exposure to the TSST, but no differences were observed after the stressor. Furthermore, the two groups did not differ in sAA. Importantly, positive affect in GSP participants was modulated by sex. The present study suggests that the balance between high- and low-frequency domains of HRV is a key cardiovascular marker reflecting the stress response of GSP people, as well the importance of sex in positive affect when facing a stressful situation.

  15. Silver nanoparticles: a potential nanocatalyst for the rapid degradation of starch hydrolysis by α-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Vinita; Shiny, P J; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, N

    2012-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are proven to be an effective catalytic material for various applications due to their excellent optical and electronic properties. In this paper, we describe a novel approach for the degradation of starch using the catalytic behaviour of AgNPs in an enzyme catalysed reaction of starch hydrolysis by α-amylase. AgNPs were synthesized by soluble starch reducing silver nitrate to silver atoms. An increase of 4.7-fold in reducing sugar formation and 1.5 times faster enzyme activity confirmed the catalytic activity of AgNPs as a nanocatalyst. Surprisingly, starch degradation tests revealed that 9.9 mg of starch was hydrolysed within 5 min, which corroborates with the reducing sugar assay. In short, the present study paves way for the faster degradation of starch by immobilizing the enzyme onto the surface of the AgNP, which could be a promising application in the food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Taka-amylase A in the conidia of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cong Ha; Tsurumizu, Ryoji; Sato, Tsutomu; Takeuchi, Michio

    2005-11-01

    A study of Taka-amylase A of conidia from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40 was done. During the research, proteins from conidia and germinated conidia were analyzed using SDS-PAGE, 2-D gel electrophoresis, Western blot analysis, MALDI-TOF Mass spectrometry, and native-PAGE combined with activity staining of TAA. The results showed that TAA exists not only in germinated conidia but also in conidia. Some bands representing degraded products of TAA were detected. Conidia, which formed on starch (SCYA), glucose (DCYA), and glycerol (GCYA) plates, contained mature TAA. Only one active band of TAA was detected after native-PAGE activity staining. In addition, TAA activity was detected in cell extracts of conidia using 0.5 M acetate buffer, pH 5.2, as extraction buffer, but was not detected in whole conidia or cell debris. The results indicate that TAA exists in conidia in active form even when starch, glucose, or glycerol is used as carbon source. TAA might belong to a set of basal proteins inside conidia, which helps in imbibition and germination of conidia.

  17. Salivary amylase induction by tannin-enriched diets as a possible countermeasure against tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, G; Lamy, E; Capela e Silva, F; Andersen, J; Sales Baptista, E; Coelho, A V

    2008-03-01

    Tannins are characterized by protein-binding affinity. They have astringent/bitter properties that act as deterrents, affecting diet selection. Two groups of salivary proteins, proline-rich proteins and histatins, are effective precipitators of tannin, decreasing levels of available tannins. The possibility of other salivary proteins having a co-adjuvant role on host defense mechanisms against tannins is unknown. In this work, we characterized and compared the protein profile of mice whole saliva from animals fed on three experimental diets: tannin-free diet, diet with the incorporation of 5% hydrolyzable tannins (tannic acid), or diet with 5% condensed tannins (quebracho). Protein analysis was performed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight mass spectrometry to allow the dynamic study of interactions between diet and saliva. Since abundant salivary proteins obscure the purification and identification of medium and low expressed salivary proteins, we used centrifugation to obtain saliva samples free from proteins that precipitate after tannin binding. Data from Peptide Mass Fingerprinting allowed us to identify ten different proteins, some of them showing more than one isoform. Tannin-enriched diets were observed to change the salivary protein profile. One isoform of alpha-amylase was overexpressed with both types of tannins. Aldehyde reductase was only identified in saliva of the quebracho group. Additionally, a hypertrophy of parotid salivary gland acini was observed by histology, along with a decrease in body mass in the first 4 days of the experimental period.

  18. Response surface methodology to evaluation the recovery of amylases by hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Baptista Severo Júnior

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the pH and the transmembrane pressure effects during the recovery of alpha and beta amylases enzymes from corn malt (Zea mays by hollow fiber membrane. The optimal condition was obtained for a statistical model, established by response surface methodology (RSM. The response surface analysis showed that the best operation condition for amylolitics enzymes recovery by hollow fiber membrane was 0.05 bar and pH 5.00, while the enzymes were purified about of 26 times.Este trabalho objetivou estudar o efeito do pH e da pressão trans-membrana durante a recuperação das enzimas alfa e beta amilases do malte de milho (Zea mays por membranas de fibras ocas, a obtenção das condições ótimas foi feita por um modelo estatístico, estabelecido pela metodologia de superfície de resposta (RSM. A análise da superfície de resposta mostrou que as melhores condições operacionais para a recuperação das enzimas amiloliticas por membranas de fibras ocas foi 0,05 bar e pH 5,00; onde as enzimas foram purificadas cerca de 26 vezes.

  19. Alcohol-induced structural transitions in the acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyani Azizah Abd Halim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol-induced structural changes in the acid-denatured Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA at pH 2.0 were studied by far-ultra violet circular dichroism, intrinsic, three-dimensional and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence, acrylamide quenching and thermal denaturation. All the alcohols used in this study produced partial refolding in the acid-denatured BLA as evident from the increased mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm, increased intrinsic fluorescence and decreased ANS fluorescence. The order of effectiveness of these alcohols to induce a partially folded state of BLA was found to be: 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol/tert-butanol > 1-propanol/2-propanol > 2-chloroethanol > ethanol > methanol. Three-dimensional fluorescence and acrylamide quenching results obtained in the presence of 5.5 M tert-butanol also suggested formation of a partially folded state in the acid-denatured BLA. However, 5.5 M tert-butanol-induced state of BLA showed a non-cooperative thermal transition. All these results suggested formation of a partially folded state of the acid-denatured BLA in the presence of these alcohols. Furthermore, their effectiveness was found to be guided by their chain length, position of methyl groups and presence of the substituents.

  20. Salivary a-amylase protects enamel surface against acid induced softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazovic, Maja Bruvo; Moe, Dennis; Kirkeby, Svend

    Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were not iden......Objectives: Recently we have demonstrated individual differences in protection against acid-induced enamel softening offered by experimentally developed saliva pellicles. Although ethnicity seemed to be related to protection level, the saliva proteins responsible for the differences were......, and one Chinese. After collection, saliva was dialysed and lyophilised and re-dissolved at 0.5% in Type I water. Next, four polished bovine enamel specimens were immersed into each sample under gentle and constant shaking for 12 hours. Last, specimens were exposed to an erosive challenge of pH 2.3 for 4......-TOF mass fingerprinting following trypsin digestion. Each persistent peak in the HPLC chromatograms was related to the protective effect against acid-induced enamel softening obtained by the corresponding saliva sample by multiple regression analysis. Results: One peak identified as a-amylase had...