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Sample records for amyl acetate

  1. Inert Reassessment Document for Amyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both acetates have a number of industrial uses such as solvents for lacquers, paints, and inks. Pharmaceutically, ethyl acetate is a flavoring aid and amyl acetate is used in extraction of penicillin.

  2. Method for calibrating olfactometer output. Part 2. Amyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolo, K C; Walker, J C; Ogden, M W

    2000-07-01

    A method for measuring amyl acetate in air was developed and validated. Known volumes of air samples from the output of an olfactometer, a device used to generate odor stimuli, were passed through charcoal sorbent tubes. Following extraction of the sorbent with carbon disulfide, the amount of amyl acetate collected on each tube was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The method was used to determine the actual concentrations of amyl acetate presented to experimental participants in odor sensitivity testing.

  3. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate using a composite bead biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wu-Chung; Su, Mei-Qi

    2008-11-01

    Biodegradation kinetic behaviors of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in a composite bead biofilter were investigated. The composite bead was the spherical PVA/peat/KNO3/GAC composite bead which was prepared in our previous works. Both microbial growth rate and biochemical reaction rate were inhibited at higher inlet concentration. For the microbial growth process, the microbial growth rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The degree of inhibitive effect was almost the same for ethyl acetate and amyl acetate in this concentration range. The half-saturation constant Ks values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 16.26 and 12.65ppm, respectively. The maximum reaction rate Vm values of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 4.08 and 3.53gCh(-1)kg(-1) packed material, respectively. Zero-order kinetic with the diffusion limitation could be regarded as the most adequate biochemical reaction model. For the biochemical reaction process, the biochemical reaction rate of ethyl acetate was greater than that of amyl acetate in the inlet concentration range of 100-400ppm. The inhibitive effect for ethyl acetate was more pronounced than that for AA in this concentration range. The maximum elimination capacity of ethyl acetate and amyl acetate were 82.3 and 37.93gCh(-1)m(-3) bed volume, respectively. Ethyl acetate degraded by microbial was easier than amyl acetate did.

  4. The sensitizing potential of primary amyl acetate in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, B; Tyler, T R; Auletta, C S

    1986-06-01

    Primary amyl acetate is a liquid mixture of the isomeric forms of pentyl acetate, which is used as a volatile organic solvent. Because of the possibility for skin contact, primary amyl acetate was investigated for its potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Using a guinea pig maximization procedure, primary amyl acetate was found to be a possible marginal skin sensitizer.

  5. Behavioral determination of olfactory thresholds to amyl acetate in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krestel, D; Passe, D; Smith, J C; Jonsson, L

    1984-01-01

    By use of a modified conditioned suppression technique, olfactory thresholds to amyl acetate were determined for four beagle dogs. Using the same odorant and olfactometer and a similar breathing chamber, olfactory thresholds were obtained in eight human subjects. It was determined that the olfactory sensitivity of the dogs was about 2.5 log units better than that of the human subjects.

  6. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity study of amyl acetate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, M W; Tyler, T R; Beyrouty, P C

    2000-01-01

    An inhalation toxicity study was conducted with rats to examine the potential for amyl acetate vapor to produce alterations in nervous system structure and function following repeated exposure. The study was performed as part of a USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Section 4e Enforceable Consent Agreement for amyl acetate. Rats (CD) were exposed to amyl acetate vapor at concentrations of 0, 300, 600 or 1200 ppm, 6 h per day, 4 or 5 days per week, for at least 65 exposures. Treatment groups consisted of 15 rats per gender for the control and 1200 ppm groups and 10 rats per gender for the 300 and 600 ppm groups. Evaluations included clinical observations before, during and after each exposure, weekly detailed clinical examinations, weekly body weight and food consumption measurements and monthly functional observational battery and motor activity measurements conducted on non-exposure days. Neuropathology examination of the central and peripheral nervous system was performed at the end of the study. Exposure to amyl acetate did not result in overt clinical signs of toxicity or changes in body weight or food consumption. Transient, subtle decreases in general activity level during the 6-h exposure period were noted for animals in the 600 and 1200 ppm groups during the first 2 weeks of the study. Functional observational battery evaluations, automated motor activity measurements and neuroanatomy were unaffected by exposure. The no observed-effect level for subchronic neurotoxicity for this study was at least 1200 ppm, which is greater than an order of magnitude above the occupational threshold limit value (8-h, time-weighted average) for amyl acetate (100 ppm). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE TERNARY SYSTEMS PROPIONIC ACID - WATER - SOLVENT (n-AMYL ALCOHOL AND n-AMYL ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZMEN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data have been obtained at 25 oC for ternary systems propionic acid-water-n-amyl alcohol and propionic acid-water-n-amyl acetate. The reliability of the experimental tie line data are checked using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The distribution coefficients and separation factors were obtained from experimental results and are also reported. The predicted tie line data obtained by UNIFAC method are compared with experimental data. It is concluded that n-amyl alcohol and n-amyl acetate are suitable separating agents for dilute aqueous propionic acid solutions.

  8. A comparison of the acute behavioral effects of inhaled amyl, ethyl, and butyl acetate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, S E; Balster, R L

    1997-02-01

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of three acetates (amyl, ethyl, and n-butyl acetate) were investigated after 20-min inhalation exposures in mice using locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB). Ethyl and n-butyl acetate produced significant decreases in locomotor activity at the highest concentrations examined, while amyl acetate was without effect. Minimally effective concentrations for activity-decreasing effects were 2000 ppm for ethyl acetate and 8000 ppm for n-butyl acetate. The potency order was similar in the FOB where ethyl acetate was more potent in disrupting the neurobehavioral measures. The FOB profile of effects for all three acetates included changes in posture, decreased arousal, increased tonic/clonic movements, disturbances in gait, delayed righting reflexes, and increased sensorimotor reactivity. Furthermore, handling-induced convulsions were produced in some mice acutely exposed to each of these acetates. Recovery from the acute effects of these acetates was rapid and began within minutes of removal from the exposure chamber. The acetates produced a profile of neurobehavioral effects that were different from those reported for depressant solvents (i.e., toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane) that are subject to abuse. Evidence is emerging for qualitative differences in the acute neurobehavioral effects of various volatile chemicals.

  9. Olfactory event-related potentials to amyl acetate in congenital anosmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, L; Evans, W J

    1997-04-01

    Olfactory function was evaluated by olfactory event-related potentials and standardized psychophysical measures including the Smell Identification Test and odor detection threshold tests for 3 chemosensory stimulants in 9 subjects with isolated congenital anosmia and 9 age- and gender-matched normosmic controls. There was a significant difference in Smell Identification Test scores (P acetate (P amyl acetate and air control stimuli presented at volume flow rate of 5 l/min, stimulus duration of 40 ms, and randomized interstimulus intervals of 6-30 s. In the control subjects, evoked potentials to amyl acetate were characterized by 4 reproducible components (P1, N1, P2, and N2). In the subjects with congenital anosmia, no reproducible evoked potential components were identified in response to amyl acetate. No reproducible evoked potential components were seen in response to the air control stimulus in either the anosmic or normosmic groups. These data suggest that olfactory evoked potentials provide a specific measure of olfactory function.

  10. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE TERNARY SYSTEMS PROPIONIC ACID - WATER - SOLVENT (n-AMYL ALCOHOL AND n-AMYL ACETATE)

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek ÖZMEN

    2005-01-01

    The experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data have been obtained at 25 oC for ternary systems propionic acid-water-n-amyl alcohol and propionic acid-water-n-amyl acetate. The reliability of the experimental tie line data are checked using the methods of Othmer-Tobias and Hand. The distribution coefficients and separation factors were obtained from experimental results and are also reported. The predicted tie line data obtained by UNIFAC method are compared with experimental data. It i...

  11. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate) is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. I...

  12. Amyl: A Misunderstood Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonaas, Richard A.

    1996-12-01

    There is much confusion associated with the word amyl. For example, many textbooks draw a structural formula of n-pentyl acetate rather than isopentyl acetate when referring to the chief component of banana oil (amyl acetate). When younger chemists are taught to use the words propyl, butyl, and pentyl in place of n-propyl, n-butyl, and n-pentyl, they then incorrectly assume that this practice also applies to the word amyl. As is the case with banana oil, if the word amyl is going to be used to refer to just one of the isomeric pentyl groups, it should rightfully be isopentyl. The reason for this dates back to an abundant and important article of commerce called amylic alcohol (also called potato oil) which consisted chiefly of isopentyl alcohol. In fact, one can look in various chemical catalogs and handbooks of today and see such names as amyl benzoate and amyl nitrite used in place of isopentyl benzoate and isopentyl nitrite. Adding to all the confusion is the common practice of using the word amyl along with the singular form of another word when referring to an isomeric mixture; i.e. using amyl acetate rather than amyl acetates when referring to a mixture of pentyl acetates.

  13. Responsivity to two odorants, androstenone and amyl acetate, and the affective impact of odors on interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John D; Cohen, Adam B; Ulrich, Patricia M

    2004-03-01

    Substantial variation exists in the importance of olfaction in influencing individuals' preferences, yet the sources of this variation remain elusive. The authors explored responsivity to 2 odorants as 1 potential source. Participants (N = 258) completed the Affective Impact of Odor Scale and were assessed for responsivity to the putative human pheromone androstenone and amyl acetate. Results showed a significant relationship between odorant responsivity and self-reports of the influence of odors. People able to smell androstenone more commonly reported odors as having a negative effect on interpersonal relationships than did people anosmic to androstenone, whereas responsivity to amyl acetate was associated with positive effects of odors on relationships. Responsivity to certain odorants may be an important factor affecting human social interactions. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  14. Comparison of the sensitivity of C57BL/6J and AKR/J mice to airborne molecules of isovaleric acid and amyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtier, L; Sicard, G

    1990-07-01

    Wysocki et al. (1977) have previously compared the abilities of several inbred strains of mice to avoid odorized drinks after odor-aversion conditioning and have proposed C57BL/6 mice as an animal model to study the specific anosmia to isovaleric acid. We have compared the olfactory performances of C57BL/6J mice and AKR/J mice using one-bottle and two-bottle tests to study the latencies of contacts with odorized or control drinks after odor-aversion conditioning. In both inbred strains, sensitivities to airborne molecules of amyl acetate (control odor) or isovaleric acid are demonstrated. Differences in behavioral strategies are suggested but the results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective hyposmia to isovaleric acid in C57BL/6J mice.

  15. Enhancement of esophageal carcinogenesis induced in rats by N-amyl-N-methylnitrosamine in the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsufuji, H; Ueo, H; Mori, M; Kuwano, H; Sugimachi, K

    1987-11-01

    The effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a tumor-promoting phorbol diester, were determined with regard to the induction of esophageal cancer in Wistar rats following a low-dose initial administration of the esophageal carcinogen N-amyl-N-methylnitrosamine [(AMN) CAS: 13256-07-0]. The induction of esophageal cancer was enhanced by TPA given in drinking water after AMN administration; i.e., the incidence of developing esophageal cancers and the multiplicity (number of esophageal cancers per rat) were significantly higher in groups given TPA solution orally after an oral administration of AMN than in those given the AMN solution alone. The enhancement of carcinogenesis with TPA was not affected by the interval between the administration of AMN and the administration of TPA. However, pretreatment with TPA before AMN administration did not enhance the induction of esophageal cancer. Neoplasms were not detected in groups given only TPA or tap water. Because this approach is similar to the phenomenon of two-stage carcinogenesis in the skin, it should provide a meaningful experimental model for studying two-stage carcinogenesis in the esophagus.

  16. Assessment, measurement and correlation of (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of (carbon dioxide + butyl, isobutyl, and amyl formate) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yanshu; Zheng, Danxing; Li, Xinru; Li, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Selected three formates that have relative perfect absorption performance for CO 2 . • Measured the VLE data of CO 2 + butyl, isobutyl, and amyl formates systems. • Correlated the VLE data by using PR EOS with two mixing rules and SRK EOS with one mixing rule. • Concluded amyl formate has potential research value as CO 2 physical absorbent. -- Abstract: In this work, three formates (butyl, isobutyl, and amyl formate) were considered as relative perfect CO 2 absorption performance based on the excess Gibbs function as the thermodynamics criterion. An online static-analytical method was used to measure the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the CO 2 + butyl, isobutyl, and amyl formates under the pressure of (0.2 to 6) MPa and the temperatures at a range from (283.15 to 343.15) K. Then the VLE data were correlated by Peng–Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with classic mixing rule, PR EOS with Wong–Sandler (WS) mixing rule and Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) EOS with classic mixing rule. It is shown that SRK EOS is comparatively appropriate for CO 2 + butyl formate binary system. Both PR EOS with classic mixing rule and SRK EOS can be used to correlate the binary systems of CO 2 + isobutyl, amyl formate. It is found that the solubility order of three formates for CO 2 from high to low is arranged as CO 2 + amyl formate > CO 2 + butyl formate > CO 2 + isobutyl formate, showing the system of CO 2 + amyl formate has the best absorption performance. By comparison, it indicates that formates have a greater solubility for CO 2 than acetates on the condition of the same temperature and pressure. In addition, the thermophysical properties, mole absorption and mass absorptive amount of several industrial absorbents were assessed and the absorption performance of amyl formate for CO 2 is better than other physical absorbents. Thus, the study concluded that amyl formate has potential research value as physical absorbent for CO 2 capture

  17. Synthesis of aspartame precursor with an immobilized thermolysin in tert-amyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayasu, T; Miyanaga, M; Tanaka, T; Sakiyama, T; Nakanishi, K

    1994-05-01

    N-(Benzyloxycarbonyl)-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (Z-AspPheOMe), a precursor of the synthetic sweetner asparatame, was synthesized from N-(benzyloxycarbolyl)-L-aspartic acid (Z-Asp) and L-phenylalanine methyl ester (PheOMe) with an immobilized thermolysin in various organic solvents. We found that in tert-amyl alcohol containing a small amount of water the immobilized enzyme showed a high activity comparble to that in ethyl acetate with quite a high stability. The immobilized enzyme was fully stable up to 70 degrees C in tert-amyl alcohol in the absence of the subatrate, and up to 50 degrees C in the presence of the substrate. The high stability in the presence of the substrate was found due to the fact that the release of calcium ions, the stabilizing factor of thermolysin, is suppressed.The substrate concentration dependence of the initial synthetic rate with the immobilized enzyme was quite different from that with the free enzyme in the biphasic system, in contrast to that in ethyl acetate. Finally, Z-AspPheOMe was continuously synthesized in a column reactor using 200 mM PheOMe and 120 mM Z-Asp as the substrate for over 300 h at 45 degrees C and a space velocity of 1 h(-1) without any loss of acivity. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. MetAmyl: a METa-predictor for AMYLoid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Emily

    Full Text Available The aggregation of proteins or peptides in amyloid fibrils is associated with a number of clinical disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and prion diseases, medullary thyroid cancer, renal and cardiac amyloidosis. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of fibril formation remain largely unknown. Several lines of evidence revealed that short amino-acid segments (hot spots, located in amyloid precursor proteins act as seeds for fibril elongation. Therefore, hot spots are potential targets for diagnostic/therapeutic applications, and a current challenge in bioinformatics is the development of methods to accurately predict hot spots from protein sequences. In this paper, we combined existing methods into a meta-predictor for hot spots prediction, called MetAmyl for METapredictor for AMYLoid proteins. MetAmyl is based on a logistic regression model that aims at weighting predictions from a set of popular algorithms, statistically selected as being the most informative and complementary predictors. We evaluated the performances of MetAmyl through a large scale comparative study based on three independent datasets and thus demonstrated its ability to differentiate between amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic polypeptides. Compared to 9 other methods, MetAmyl provides significant improvement in prediction on studied datasets. We further show that MetAmyl is efficient to highlight the effect of point mutations involved in human amyloidosis, so we suggest this program should be a useful complementary tool for the diagnosis of these diseases.

  19. The determination of molybdenum in sea water by atomic absorption spectrophotometric method with BMPP-iso-amyl alcohol extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Yoshifumi; Nakai, Toshio; Kawamura, Fumikazu

    1979-01-01

    A trace of molybdenum in sea water is determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry using solvent extraction. Molybdenum (VI) is complexed with 4-benzoyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-pyrazolone (BMPP) and extracted into iso-amyl alcohol. To find the optimum condition for the extraction of molybdenum, experiments are tried on the effects of pH, concentration of BMPP, and interference of divers ions. It is shown that extraction is complete in the pH range 1.0 - 3.0 at 0.2 w/v% BMPP concentration and that Na, K, Sr, Ca and Mg at high concentration have no effects on the extraction but in excess of 2 mg Fe(III), Cr(VI), and V(V) depress the absorbance of molybdenum markedly, probably because of complex formation or preferential extraction. One liter of sea water in which 10 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid is added is concentrated to 200 ml by heating and then filtered using Toyo Roshi No. 3 filter paper. The solution adjusted to pH 2.5 by the addition of sodium acetate is placed in a separatory funnel, and then extracted with 10 ml of 0.2 w/v% solution of BMPP in iso-amyl alcohol by shaking for 10 min. It is found out that the sea water samples contain 7 - 11 μg Mo/liter and the results are agreed well with those that have previously been published. (author)

  20. 21 CFR 250.100 - Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... human use. 250.100 Section 250.100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC HUMAN DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.100 Amyl nitrite inhalant as a prescription drug for human use. (a...

  1. Does amyl nitrite have a role in the management of pre-hospital mass casualty cyanide poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2010-07-01

    Amyl nitrite has been recommended as a cyanide antidote for several decades. Its antidotal properties were initially attributed to induction of methemoglobin and later to a nitric oxide mediated hemodynamic effect. The ease of administration and alleged rapid clinical effect would recommend its wide use in the pre-hospital management of mass casualty cyanide poisoning; yet there are concerns regarding the use of amyl nitrite for this indication. Review the data on amyl nitrite in cyanide poisoning and evaluate its efficacy and safety in mass casualty cyanide poisoning. A literature search utilizing PubMed, Toxnet, textbooks in toxicology and pharmacology, and the bibliographies of the articles retrieved identified 17 experimental studies and human reports on the use of amyl nitrite in cyanide poisoning, and 40 additional articles on amyl nitrite's properties and adverse effects. One paper was excluded as it was a conference abstract with limited data. The antidotal properties of amyl nitrite were attributed initially to induction of methemoglobinemia and later to nitric oxide mediated vasodilation. Animal studies on the use of amyl nitrite in cyanide poisoning are limited, and their results are inconsistent, which makes their extrapolation to humans questionable. Clinical reports are limited in number and the part played by amyl nitrite relative to the other treatments administered (e.g. life support, sodium nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) is unclear. Amyl nitrite can be associated with potentially serious adverse reactions such as hypotension, syncope, excessive methemoglobinemia, and hemolysis in G6PD deficient patients. These effects are more pronounced in young children, in the elderly, and in patients with cardiac and pulmonary disorders. Dose regimen. The method of administration of amyl nitrite (breaking pearls into gauze or a handkerchief and applying it intermittently to the victim's nose and mouth for a few minutes) is not easily controlled, might result

  2. Metabolism of methyl n-amyl ketone (2-heptanone) and its binding to DNA of rat liver in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albro, P W; Corbett, J T; Schroeder, J L

    1984-10-01

    Methyl n-amyl ketone (2-heptanone), a reported metabolite of 2-ethylhexanol which in turn is a primary metabolite of plasticizers such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, is metabolized in male Fischer 344 rats to CO2, acetate and a variety of compounds that could be either anabolic or catabolic or a combination of the two. A significant percentage of the radioactivity given orally (gavage) as [2-14C]-2 heptanone, at least 10%, was not excreted from the body in 48 h. Radioactivity was incorporated into liver protein in the form of three unidentified products as well as [14C]arginine, and into DNA both as 14C-labeled normal nucleosides (50-75%) and as presently unidentified hydrophobic materials (25-50%). Urea and cholesterol were significantly labeled, indicative of anabolic reutilization of [2-14C]-2-heptanone breakdown products. The 2-heptanone also bound to DNA spontaneously in vitro, to the extent of 400 pmol/mg DNA.

  3. Physicochemical properties and radiolytic degradation studies on tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasulu, B.; Sivaraman, Nagarajan [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Homi Bhabha National Inst.; Suresh, A.; Rajeswari, S.; Ramanathan, N.; Antony, M.P.; Joseph, M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India). Chemistry Group

    2017-06-01

    The solvent composed of tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP) in n-dodecane (n-DD) is regarded as a promising candidate for reprocessing of spent fuel. In this context, the radiolytic degradation of a solution of TiAP in n-dodecane was investigated by irradiating the solvent to various absorbed dose levels of γ-radiation. The neat extractant or a solution of extractant in n-dodecane was irradiated in the presence of nitric acid. Physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity and interfacial tension (IFT) were measured for unirradiated and irradiated solutions. The extent of degradation was determined by measuring the variation in extraction behavior of U(VI) and Pu(IV) with irradiated solvent systems. Uranium and plutonium retention with irradiated solvents was also measured. The distribution ratio of uranium and plutonium increased with increase in absorbed dose. Effect of alpha degradation was studied by plutonium retention as a function of time using 1.1 M TiAP/n-DD. Laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric technique was employed to identify the possible radiolytic degradation products. Similar studies were also carried out with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) based solvent system under identical experimental conditions and the results are compared.

  4. Comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of chemical equilibria in the reacting system of the tert-amyl methyl ether synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Andreas; Kapteina, Simon; Verevkin, Sergey P

    2007-09-20

    The chemical equilibrium of the reactive system (methanol+isoamylenesmethyl tert-amyl ether) was studied in the temperature range 298-393 K in the liquid phase using the method of sealed ampoules as well as in the gaseous phase using a tubular flow reactor in the temperature range 355-378 K. In both cases, a cation exchanger Amberlist-15 was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The reactive system of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis exhibits a strong nonideal behavior of the mixture compounds in the liquid phase. The knowledge of the activity coefficients is required in order to obtain the thermodynamic equilibrium constants Ka. Two well-established procedures, UNIFAC and COSMO-RS, have been used to assess activity coefficients of the reaction participants in the liquid phase. Thermodynamic equilibrium constants KP measured in the gaseous phase together with the vapor pressures of the pure compounds have been used to obtain Ka in the liquid phase on a consistent experimental basis in order to check the results obtained from the UNIFAC and COSMO-RS methods. Enthalpies of reactions DeltarH degrees of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis reaction in the gaseous and in the liquid phase were obtained from temperature dependences of the corresponding thermodynamic equilibrium constants. Consistency of the experimental data of DeltarH degrees was verified with help of enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization of methyl tert-amyl ether, methanol, and methyl-butenes, available from the literature. For the sake of comparison, high-level ab initio calculations of the reaction participants have been performed using the Gaussian-03 program package. Absolute electronic energy values, normal frequencies (harmonic approximation), and moments of inertia of the molecules have been obtained using G2(MP2), G3(MP2), and G3 levels. Using these results, calculated equilibrium constants and the enthalpy of reaction of the methyl tert-amyl ether synthesis in the gaseous phase

  5. Clostebol acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maccaroni

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C21H29ClO3 [systematic name (8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,17S-4-chloro-3-oxoandrost-4-en-17β-yl acetate], is a 4-chloro derivative of testosterone, used as an anabolic androgenic agent or applied topically in ophthalmological and dermatological treatments. The absolute configurations at positions 8, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17 were established by refinement of the Flack parameter as R, S, R, S, S, and S, respectively. Rings B and C of the steroid ring system adopt chair conformations, ring A has a half-chair conformation, while ring D is in a C13 envelope conformation. Ring B and C, and C and D are trans fused. In the crystal, molecules are linked by a weak C—H...O interaction.

  6. Screening for occupational vitiligo in workers exposed to hydroquinone monomethyl ether and to paratertiary-amyl-phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, J.J.; Stevenson, C.J.

    1981-11-01

    Two men reported previously with vitiligo after occupational exposure to hydroquinone monomethyl ether (HMME) have been reviewed after eight years. Repigmentation of significant degree was found in one man and of limited degree in the other. One hundred and sixty-nine men in the same works have been screened with Wood's light for evidence of vitiligo. No cases were found in the 148 men exposed to HMME (colleagues who screened 100 men exposed to HMME in two other factories also found no case) or in the 129 who had been exposed to paratertiary-amyl-phenol. Loss of light reflection on Wood's light examination was observed in 13 men due to scars or to other skin disorders.

  7. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  8. Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol-ecule of pallidol hexa-acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis-[4-(acet-yloxy)phen-yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra-hydro-indeno-[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra-acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol-ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa-acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å) is 54.73 (6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol-ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C-O(carb-oxy)-C-C torsion angles = -70.24 (14), -114.43 (10) and -72.54 (13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C-H⋯O inter-actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol-ecules reside.

  9. Effects of fermentation temperature and aeration on production of natural isoamyl acetate by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaztekin, Murat; Cabaroglu, Turgut; Erten, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Isoamyl acetate is a natural flavour ester, widely used as a source of banana flavour by the food industry. Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus is a yeast which can produce isoamyl acetate by esterification of amyl alcohols with acetyl coenzyme A via fermentation. The evaluation of this kind of production as an alternative way to obtain natural banana flavour could be possible, if the levels produced were high enough to make a commercial product. In this study, the effects of temperature (15°C and 25°C) and aeration (aerobic, semiaerobic, and anaerobic) on the production of isoamyl acetate by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus from sugar beet molasses were examined. According to the results obtained, isoamyl acetate production rate and specific productivity were higher at 25°C than at 15°C and at semiaerobic condition than aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus showed a production rate of 0.703 mg (-1) h(-1) and a specific productivity of 0.0297 mg L(-1) cell(-1) h(-1) isoamyl acetate with semiaerobic condition at 25°C. The maximum amount of isoamyl acetate reached with these conditions was 118 mg/L.

  10. Effects of Fermentation Temperature and Aeration on Production of Natural Isoamyl Acetate by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yilmaztekin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoamyl acetate is a natural flavour ester, widely used as a source of banana flavour by the food industry. Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus is a yeast which can produce isoamyl acetate by esterification of amyl alcohols with acetyl coenzyme A via fermentation. The evaluation of this kind of production as an alternative way to obtain natural banana flavour could be possible, if the levels produced were high enough to make a commercial product. In this study, the effects of temperature (15°C and 25°C and aeration (aerobic, semiaerobic, and anaerobic on the production of isoamyl acetate by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus from sugar beet molasses were examined. According to the results obtained, isoamyl acetate production rate and specific productivity were higher at 25°C than at 15°C and at semiaerobic condition than aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus showed a production rate of 0.703 mg L−1 h−1 and a specific productivity of 0.0297 mg L−1 cell−1 h−1 isoamyl acetate with semiaerobic condition at 25°C. The maximum amount of isoamyl acetate reached with these conditions was 118 mg/L.

  11. Biotechnological Utilisation of Fusel Oil, A Food Industry By-Product - A Kinetic Model on Enzymatic Esterification of i-Amyl Alcohol and Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Gubicza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusel oil is a by-product of distilleries, its main component is i-amyl alcohol, which can form ester compounds. Esterification of oleic acid and i-amyl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation in n-heptane solvent was studied in this work. Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomena taken into account was applied as a complex kinetic model. The parameters of the model were determined by numerical methods. It was found that four-parameter model fitted well with the experimental results and described properly the enzymatic reaction.

  12. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    A significant (P<0.05) increase was recorded in GPT, creatinine and uric acid levels ... chemical composition of the compound containing lead, ... their body weight. Each group comprised five chicks. Treatment. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were treated once a day with lead acetate at a dose rate of 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and ...

  13. 2-Phenylimidazolium acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan Yao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two 2-phenylimidazole cations and two acetate anions in the asymmetric unit of the title molecular salt, C9H9N2+·C2H3O2−. The dihredral angles between the five- and six-membered rings are 5.50 (2 and 6.90 (2° in the two molecules. The structure is stabilized by N—H...O and weak C—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between the cations and anions, resulting in chains propagating in [110].

  14. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  15. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 439 - Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Dichloroethane 1 Ethyl acetate 1 Esters. Isopropyl acetate n-Amyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Methyl formate...) Diethyl amine Triethyl amine Acetone 1 4-methyl-2-pentanone n-Amyl acetate n-Butyl acetate Ethyl acetate... Treatability class Amyl alcohol Alcohols. Ethanol 1 Isopropanol 1 Methanol 1 Phenol Isobutyraldehyde 1...

  17. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  18. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  19. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na2SO3 microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjuan; Lu, Yanmin; Liu, Fei; Shang, Kai; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yanzhao

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl(4)(-)CTAB(+). The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol(-1) and -84.87 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E%>99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the effect of gamma radiolysis on the chromatographic composition profile of tri-isoAmyl-phosphate-n-dodecane-nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, S.D.; Lokhande, Manisha; Bindu, M.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Tri-Iso-Amyl phosphate (TiAP), a higher homologue of tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) is the solvent proposed for the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) origin. TiAP-n-dodecane has extraction behavior comparable to that of TBP-n-dodecane system, without third phase formation and an aqueous solubility ∼ 19mg/L, that is far too less in case as compared to that with TBP(∼400gm/L). We have initiated our study to examine the radiolytic degradation behavior of TiAP-n-dodecane in comparison to that of TBP and explore its full potential for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. A 30% mixture of TiAP with n-dodecane equilibrated with nitric acid of concentrations 2M has been subjected to steady state gamma radiolysis using 60 Co source. The samples were irradiated for increasing absorbed dose of 6,12 and 18M rad. Each of these samples were subjected to gas chromatographic analysis under optimised condition using thermal conductivity detector. Separately, these samples were also methylated using diazomethane for the determination of acidic phosphate species as their volatile methyl ester

  1. Extraction of gold(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by CTAB/n-heptane/iso-amyl alcohol/Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} microemulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Wenjuan; Lu Yanmin; Liu Fei; Shang Kai; Wang Wei [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Aggregated Materials of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang Yanzhao, E-mail: yzhyang@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Aggregated Materials of Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-02-28

    The extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion was studied. The extraction experiments were carried out using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as surfactant and iso-amyl alcohol as co-surfactant. Au(III) was found to be extracted into the microemulsion phase due to ion pair formation such as AuCl{sub 4}{sup -}CTAB{sup +}. The influence of temperature on the extraction of Au(III) has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 288 to 313 K. Temperature was found to decrease the distribution of Au(III). Thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy and entropy of the extraction, calculated by applying Van't Hoff equation, were -36.76 kJ mol{sup -1} and -84.87 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}, respectively. Furthermore, the influence of the concentrations of hydrogen ion and chloride anion on the extraction efficiency (E%) were verified. Au(III) was extracted quantitatively (E% > 99%) and selectively at the whole range of HCl concentrations (0.2-5 M). Recovery of gold from electrical waste and treatment of CTAB wastewater generated from the extraction were also discussed. Thus, the extraction of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by microemulsion is an effective approach.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bis(O-amyl dithiocarbonato-κ2S,S′bis(4-cyanopyridine-κNnickel(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The [Ni(S2CO-n-C5H112(C6H4N22] adduct of 4-cyanopyridine with [Ni(S2CO-n-C5H112] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurement, IR, electronic spectral data, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The Ni atom in the title complex is octahedrally coordinated within a trans-N2S4 donor set, with the Ni atom located on a centre of inversion. The title compound exhibits magnetic moment value (3.20 B.M which is in agreement with magnetic moment values observed for paramagnetic octahedral complexes of nickel(II. The title complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with unit cell parameters a = 11.455(5, b = 9.602(4, and c = 26.374(1 Å. Crystal structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full matrix least-squares procedures to a final R value of 0.0499 for 2004 observed reflections. The amyl chain is disordered over two sets of sites, with occupancy ratios of 0.595 : 0.405. Infinite long chains of molecules are formed with the help of C–H⋯N hydrogen bond.

  3. Equilibrium surface tension and the interaction energy of DMSO with tert-butyl alcohol or iso-amyl alcohol at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Ahmad; Moradian, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Surface tension of non-ideal binary systems of alcohol/DMSO determined. • The surface tension data of binary mixtures were correlated with five equations. • The interaction energy values were calculated by using LWW model. • The U 12 value shows different behavior for two systems with increasing temperature. - Abstract: Surface tension of binary mixtures of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and iso-amyl alcohol (IAA) with DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) were measured over the entire concentration range at pressure of 82.5 kPa at temperatures between (298.15 and 328.15) K. Correlating the surface tension and surface tension deviation of the above mentioned binary systems was performed with empirical and thermodynamic based models. The average relative error obtained from the comparison of experimental and calculated surface tension values for the two binary systems with five models at various temperatures is less than 2%. The effect of temperature on the interaction energy values in binary mixtures has been used to obtain information about solute structural effects on DMSO. Also, the experimental data were used to evaluate the nature and type of intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures

  4. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  5. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  6. Radioluminescence of solid ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroh, J.; Plonka, A.; Wyszywacz, K.

    1977-01-01

    In the crystalline environment the reaction of thermalized electrons with ethyl acetate molecules is less effective than in glassy environment. Therefore more excess electrons are observed in crystalline ethyl acetate by isothermal luminescence and radiothermoluminescence. In the glassy environment other trapped species, like radical-anions CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 - or radicals CH 3 COOCHCH 3 , become reactive at lower temperatures than in the crystalline environment because of glass transition. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 60.489 - List of chemicals produced by affected facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Aminoethylethanolamine. 123-30-8 p-Aminophenol. 628-63-7, 123-92-2 Amyl acetates. 71-41-0 c Amyl alcohols. 110-58-7 Amyl amine. 543-59-9 Amyl chloride. 110-66-7 c Amyl mercaptans. 1322-06-1 Amyl phenol. 62-53-3 Aniline. 142...-4 Bromonaphthalene. 106-99-0 Butadiene. 106-98-9 1-butene. 123-86-4 n-butyl acetate. 141-32-2 n...

  8. Solubilities of some organic solutes in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Chromatographic measurements and predictions from COSMO-RS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenboom, Jan-Georg; Afzal, Waheed; Prausnitz, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New solubility data are reported. ► Two experimental procedures for measuring solubilities are used. ► The experimental results from both procedures are compared. ► Experiments are compared with the theoretical calculations. - Abstract: Infinite-dilution activity coefficients and Henry’s constants for several organic solutes in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac] were measured from T = 313 K to T = 413 K using two types of gas–liquid chromatography columns: packed columns and an open tubular wall-coated (OTWC) column. The organic solutes include n-hexane, 1-hexene, cyclohexane, heptane, benzene, toluene, ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, 1,4-dioxane, acetonitrile, nitromethane, 1,2-methoxyethane, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, t-butanol and t-amyl alcohol. Results using packed columns are in good agreement with those using the OTWC column. However, there is a useful advantage associated with an OTWC column: for solutes such as alcohols, that have strong interactions with the stationary phase, measurements are faster due to their shorter retention time compared to those in packed columns.

  9. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are...

  10. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by...); for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of ethyl acetate are distilled by this...

  11. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...... species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing...

  12. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1-Propyl alcohol. Iso-Propyl alcohol. Butyl alcohol. Amyl alcohol. Acetone. Acetic anlıy!ride . . Carbon disulphide. Chloroform. Chlorobyenzeme. Renzeme. Aniso. Carbo) tetrachloride. Acetophenone. Cyclohexane. (yellohexanone. Cyclohexanol. Paraldehyde. Formaldehyde (solution). Benzyl acetate. Amyl acetate. Water.

  13. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  14. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  15. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  16. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific...-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  18. Solubility determination and thermodynamic models for dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in mixed solvents of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao; Cong, Yang; Du, Cunbin; Wang, Jian; Yao, Ganbing; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubilities of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in mixed solvents were determined. • The measured solubility data were correlated with three thermodynamic models. • The standard dissolution enthalpies of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate were calculated. - Abstract: The solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in binary solvent mixtures of (ethyl acetate + methanol), (ethyl acetate + ethanol) and (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) was determined experimentally by using an isothermal dissolution equilibrium method within the temperature range from (273.15 to 313.15) K under atmosphere pressure (101.1 kPa). The solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate increases with increasing temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate in each binary system. At the same temperature and mass fraction of ethyl acetate, the solubility of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate was greater in (ethyl acetate + isopropanol) than in the other two mixed solvents. The measured solubility values were correlated with the Jouyban-Acree model, van’t Hoff-Jouyban-Acree model, and modified Apelblat-Jouyban-Acree model. The Jouyban-Acree model was proven to give better representation for the experimental solubility, which provided the lowest relative average deviation and root-mean-square deviation (0.49 × 10 −2 and 0.97 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + methanol, 0.44 × 10 −2 and 0.82 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + ethanol, and 0.92 × 10 −2 and 3.05 × 10 −4 for ethyl acetate + isopropanol, respectively). Based on the solubility values obtained, the standard dissolution enthalpies for the dissolution process were computed. The dissolution process of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in these mixed solvents was endothermic. The experimental solubility and the equations presented in the present work can be employed as essential data and models in the practical process for production and purification of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate.

  19. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  1. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacteri...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  3. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiari, L; Brunger, M J; Zecca, A; Blanco, F; García, G

    2014-01-01

    Using a Beer–Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C 4 H 6 O 2 ) in the incident positron energy range 0.15–50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1–1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ∼2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect. (paper)

  4. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  5. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  6. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  7. complexes containing acetate and tetradentate Schiff bases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    s12039-015-0842-x. Syntheses, structures and luminescence behaviour of some zinc(II) complexes containing acetate and tetradentate Schiff bases. ASHIS KUMAR MAJI, SUBHASIS ROY, SOMNATH CHOUBEY, RAJARSHI GHOSH∗ and.

  8. Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

  9. Tie line data for the (water + butyric acid + n-butyl alcohol or amyl alcohol) at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K and (water + butyric acid + isoamyl alcohol) at T = 298.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh Gilani, A.; Ghanadzadeh Gilani, H.; Amouzadeh, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Liquid equilibrium data of (water + BA + alcohols) systems were measured. • Experimental LLE data were correlated with NRTL and UNIQUAC models. • Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated. -- Abstract: In this study, solubility and tie-line data of the (water + butyric acid + n-butyl alcohol or amyl alcohol) ternary systems were determined at T = (298.2, 308.2, and 318.2) K and p = 101.3 kPa for the first time. Due to the structural similarity, the tie-line data for (water + butyric acid + isoamyl alcohol) system were also measured and correlated at T = 298.2 K. The ternary systems investigated display type-1 behaviour of LLE. The cloud point method was used to measure the solubility data and the Karl-Fischer, acidimetric titration, and refractive index methods were used to determine the tie-line data. For each system, the experimental tie-line data were correlated using the UNIQUAC and NRTL models. The Othmer–Tobias and Hand correlations equations were used to establish the quality of the LLE data. Experimental distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated over the immiscibility regions

  10. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi

    2017-06-15

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m 3 ). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Co-extraction and co-stripping of U(VI) and Pu(IV) using tri-iso-amyl phosphate and tri-n-butyl phosphate in n-dodecane from nitric acid media under high loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasulu, Balija; Suresh, Ammath; Sivaraman, Nagarajan; Rao, P.R. Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of Pu(IV) using 1.1 M solution of tri-iso-amyl phosphate (TiAP)/n-dodecane (DD) from plutonium nitrate solutions in nitric acid media was examined as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase metal ion concentration and equilibrium aqueous phase acidity at 303 K. The nitric acid concentration in the organic phase was measured as a function of equilibrium organic phase plutonium concentration. The co-extraction of U(VI) and Pu(IV) was studied using 1.1 M TiAP/DD system as a function of their equilibrium aqueous phase metal ion concentration and compared with 1.1 M tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)/n-DD system under identical conditions. Co-extraction and co-stripping of U(VI) and Pu(IV) were studied using 1.1 M TiAP/DD and 1.1 M TBP/DD systems in cross current mode to evaluate the number of stages required for the extraction and stripping of heavy metal ions (uranium and plutonium). The extraction and stripping efficiencies were calculated for both the systems. The saturation limit of the organic phase was also established in these studies.

  12. Hemo-De as substitute for ethyl acetate in formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Neimeister, R; Logan, A L; Gerber, B; Egleton, J H; Kleger, B

    1987-01-01

    In comparative studies, Hemo-De (PMP Medical Industries, Inc., Irving, Tex.) was found to be a suitable replacement for ethyl acetate in the Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. With essentially equivalent recovery rates for both procedures, the Formalin-Hemo-De concentration technique is considered to be the preferred technique because Hemo-De is less toxic and less flammable and does not present disposal problems, and its cost is approximately one-fourth that of ethyl acetate.

  13. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  14. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets... having had added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance...

  15. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  16. Genera and species in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuzo; Yukphan, Pattaraporn

    2008-06-30

    Taxonomic studies of acetic acid bacteria were historically surveyed. The genus Acetobacter was first introduced in 1898 with a single species, Acetobacter aceti. The genus Gluconobacter was proposed in 1935 for strains with intense oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid rather than oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid and no oxidation of acetate. The genus "Acetomonas" was described in 1954 for strains with polar flagellation and no oxidation of acetate. The proposals of the two generic names were due to confusion, and "Acetomonas" was a junior subjective synonym of Gluconobacter. The genus Acetobacter was in 1984 divided into two subgenera, Acetobacter and Gluconoacetobacter. The latter was elevated to the genus Gluconacetobacter in 1998. In the acetic acid bacteria, ten genera are presently recognized and accommodated to the family Acetobacteraceae, the Alphaproteobacteria: Acetobacteer, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Gluconacetobacter, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia and Granulibacter. In contrast, the genus Frateuria, strains of which were once named 'pseudacetic acid bacteria', was classified into the Gammaproteobacteria. The genus Gluconacetobacter was phylogenetically divided into two groups: the Gluconacetobacter liquefaciens group and the Gluconacetobacter xylinus group. The two groups were discussed taxonomically.

  17. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kimiyasu, E-mail: sato.kimiyasu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Hueseyin [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 41400, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  18. 24 CFR Appendix I to Subpart C of... - Specific Hazardous Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Hazardous Liquids Acetic Acid Acetic Anhydride Acetone Acrylonitrile Amyl Acetate Amyl Alcohol Benzene Butyl Acetate Butyl Acrylate Butyl Alcohol Carbon Bisulfide Carbon Disulfide Cellosolve Cresols Crude Oil (Petroleum) Cumene Cyclohexane No. 2 Diesel Fuel Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Acrylate Ethyl Alcohol Ethyl Benzene...

  19. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  20. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Andrea Cercan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  1. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 2. Cellulose acetate electrospun nanofibrous membrane: fabrication, characterization, drug loading and antibacterial properties. NAZNIN SULTANA ... The CA nanofibrous membrane was non-toxic to human skin fibroblast cells. Thus the CA ...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements... displayed thereon: CAUTION: Contains lead acetate. For external use only. Keep this product out of children...

  3. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for 14 ...

  4. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  6. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mg trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant... estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate... trenbolone acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (G...

  7. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  8. Air-oxidized linalyl acetate - an emerging fragrance allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Berglund, Victoria; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Linalyl acetate is a fragrance chemical that is prone to autoxidation. Exposure to linalyl acetate occurs through cosmetic products and essential oils, but is difficult to assess, as linalyl acetate is not labelled in the EU. To investigate the frequencies of contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate among dermatitis patients, and to investigate the autoxidation of linalyl acetate in terms of hydroperoxide formation and sensitization potency. Hydroperoxide formation in air-exposed linalyl acetate was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitization potencies of hydroperoxides were determined with the local lymph node assay. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen patients were patch tested with oxidized linalyl acetate at 6.0% in petrolatum. Of the patients, 2.2% showed positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate. Forty-three per cent of the positive patients also had positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers. Linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were detected early in the autoxidation process, and accumulated to a concentration of 37% after 42 weeks of air exposure. The linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were classified as moderate sensitizers. The frequency of positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate is comparable to that of previously studied oxidized fragrance terpenes. Oxidized linalyl acetate could thus be a common fragrance contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process.

  10. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  11. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  12. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potentiometric titrations in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Port, L.

    1966-03-01

    The method used for studying anhydrous acetic acid is potentiometry with a glass electrode. We have in this way studied the titration of common inorganic acids (HClO 4 - HBr - H 2 SO 4 - HCl - HNO 3 - H 3 PO 4 ) and of some metallic salts. Furthermore we have shown that complex acids are formed between HCl and some metallic chlorides. An analysis of the titration curves for the inorganic acids against pyridinium chloride has made it possible to calculate a certain number of values for the dissociation pK of these acids and of the corresponding pyridinium salts. The titration of metallic perchlorates constitutes a method of studying the stability of acetates; we have thus been able to draw up a classification for some of these acetates. The metallic chlorides studied fall into two groups according to their behaviour in weak or strong acids. The differences have been explained on the basis of the role played by solvolysis. In the third part we have studied the acidic properties of mixtures of HCl with certain metallic chlorides. This work has demonstrated the existence, in certain cases, of acid complexes of the type (HCl) m MCl n . (author) [fr

  15. Acetic acid sclerotheraphy of renal cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hoon Pyo; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kong, Keun Young; Kim, Eui Jong; Goo, Jang Sung

    1998-01-01

    Sclerotherapy for renal cysts was performed, using 50% acetic acid as new sclerosing agent. We report the methods and results of this procedure. Fifteen patients underwent sclerotherapy for renal cyst, using 50% acetic acid. Because four patients were lost to follow-up, only 11 of the 15 were included in this study. The renal cysts, including one infected case, were diagnosed by ultrasonograpy (n=3D10) ormagnetic resonance imaging (n=3D1). The patient group consisted of four men and seven women(mean age, 59 years; range, 23-77). At first, the cyst was completely aspirated, and 25 volume% of aspirated volume was replaced with 50% sterile acetic acid through the drainage catheter. During the follwing 20 minutes, the patient changed position, and the acetic acid was then removed from the cyst. Finally, the drainage catheter was removed, after cleaning the cyst with saline. After treatment of infection by antibiotics and catheter drainage for 7 days, sclerotherapy in the infected case followed the same procedure. In order to observe changes in the size of renal cysts and recurrence, all patients were followed up by ultrasound between 2 and 8 months. We defined response to therapy as follows:complete regression as under 5 volume%, partial regression as 5-50 volume% and no response as more than 50 volume% of initial cyst volume. No clinically significant complication occured during the procedures or follow-up periods. All cysts regressed completely during follow-up of 8 months. Complete regression occurred as follows: two cysts at 2 months, seven cysts at 4 months, two cysts at 6 months. Two cysts showed residues at the last follow-up, at 4 and 6 months, respectively. The volume of residual cysts decreased to under 5 volume% of initial volume, however. Completely regressed cysts did not recurr during follow-up. Acetic acid sclerotherapy for renal cysts showed good results, regardless of the dilution of sclerosing agent with residual cyst fluid, and no significant

  16. Lipase Mediated Isoamyl Acetate Synthesis in Solvent-Free System Using Vinyl Acetate as Acyl Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of isoamyl acetate, a flavour ester extensively used in food industry, has been carried out in a solvent-free system. In the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the isoamyl acetate synthesis yield by transesterification of isoamyl alcohol with vinyl acetate using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase. In the present synthesis, substrates had no inhibitory effect on immobilized lipase. The effects of various reaction parameters on isoamyl acetate synthesis were studied and maximum conversion was achieved at 16 % (by mass per volume of immobilized lipase, 40 °C and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, 8-hour reaction time was sufficient to reach a high ester conversion of 95 % with 0.5 mol/L of isoamyl alcohol. The structure of the transesterified product was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Immobilized lipase had Km and vmax values of 306.53 mmol/L and 99 µmol/(h·g respectively, for isoamyl acetate synthesis in a solvent-free system.

  17. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  18. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  20. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction......, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate....... conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly...

  1. Tuning magnetization avalanches in Mn12-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bo; McHugh, S.; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a systematic study of magnetic avalanches (abrupt magnetization reversals) in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate using a micron-sized Hall sensor array. Measurements were taken for: (a) fixed magnetic field (constant barrier against spin reversal); and (b) fixed energy release obtained by adjusting the barrier and δM. A detailed comparison with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [1] will be presented and discussed. [1] D. A. Garanin and E. M. Chudnovsky, Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)

  2. Long-term continuous evolution of acetate resistant Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2003-10-05

    Elevated concentrations of cytotoxic acetate are found in many environmental niches, and few species are relatively resistant to acetate. In particular the high-level acetate resistance of so-called acetic acid bacteria that occurs in industrial settings must be constantly selected for. To investigate the nature of such high-level resistance, we grew the moderately acetate-resistant Acetobacter aceti wild-type and acetate-sensitive Escherichia coli in long-term continuous cultures with increasing acetate concentrations at near neutral pH. While E. coli did not acquire any significant resistance after 125 generations of selection, A. aceti evolved the capability to grow at acetate concentrations exceeding 50 g/L within 240 generations. This phenotype was found to be stable for several generations in the absence of selective pressure, hence must be genetically determined. Intracellular acetate concentrations were significantly lower in evolved A. aceti, when compared to wild-type A. aceti and E. coli, indicating that cytoplasmatic anion accumulation is an important component of acetate toxicity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 40-44, 2003.

  3. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  5. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND LUMINESCENCE DETERMINATION OF ABIRATERONE ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The methods of the spectrophotometric (SP and fluorimetric (FL determination of a new anticancer drug, abiraterone acetate (AA have been proposed. SP method is based on measurement of light absorbance of ethanol solution of AA at a wavelength 253 nm. The calibration graph (CG is linear in the concentration range 1.0–30.0 AA μg/ml, the limit of detection (LOD is 0.35 μg/ml.Two versions of FL determination of AA: on its native luminescence (λex=253 nm; λlum=350  nm and on quenching sensitized luminescence of the terbium(III complex by abiraterone acetate have been developed. CG in the case of native fluorescence is linear in the range of 0.05–7.0 μg/ml, Stern-Folmer calibration curve is linear in the interval of concentrations of AA 0.5– 70 μg/ml. LOD of both fluorescent methods is 0.017 μg/ml.

  6. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  7. Fabrication of Gold Nanochains with Octreotide Acetate Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We described a facile method for assembly gold nanochains by using octreotide acetate as template in aqueous environment. In acidic solution, octreotide acetate was conferred positive charges and its structure changed to chain-like. The monodisperse negative gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of octreotide acetate template by electrostatic attraction and the interaction of gold nanoparticles with amino acid residues (tryptophan and lysine. The fabricated gold nanostructure presented chain-like observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of gold nanochains was examined by tetrazolium dye-based microtitration (MTT assay, which demonstrated significantly less toxicity than that of octreotide acetate alone. The MTT assay also reflected the combinative action between the gold nanoparticles with octreotide acetate. Our work lays the groundwork for developing octreotide acetate-templated nanomaterials that can be used as a building block for the creation of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the harmfulless gold nanochains have great application prospects in the biomedical filed.

  8. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  9. Proton conductivity and relaxation properties of chitosan-acetate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, E.; Luna-Bárcenas, G.; González-Campos, J.B.; Kovalenko, Yu.; García-Carvajal, Z.Y.; Mota-Morales, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of conductivity, the number of density and proton mobility in chitosan-acetate film. - Highlights: • DD, conductivity, Vogel temperature dependent on the concentration of acetic acid. • Proton conductivity of CS-acetate films interpreted using two Grotthuss mechanisms. • Transformation between two mechanisms observed at the glass transition temperature. - Abstract: The effect of aqueous acetic acid solution concentration during the preparation of chitosan-acetate (CS-acetate) films on the conductivity and relaxation properties were studied by dielectric and FTIR spectroscopies, TGA measurements and X-Ray diffraction. Analyses of the experimental results on the degree of deacetylation, water absorption, conductivity, Vogel temperature and activation energy demonstrate a strong dependence of these parameters on the concentration of the acid acetic solutions from which the films have been obtained. The proton conductivity and relaxation properties of CS-acetate films have been interpreted using two Grotthuss “structural diffusion” and “pack-acid” mechanisms. The transformation between these two mechanisms observed at temperature higher than CS-acetate glass transition temperature is due to an increase in the thermal motion of CS chains, water evaporation, hydrogen bond between water molecules and side groups of CS breaking and formation of new bonds between NH 3 + and acetate ions. Additionally, application of the Rice and Roth model allowed estimating the temperature dependence of proton number and their mobility in CS-acetate films. A systematic interpretation on the appropriate conductivity mechanism will help trigger the design of smart materials used in flexible electronic, solid polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and solid polymer batteries based on CS-acetate films.

  10. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    OpenAIRE

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containi...

  11. Spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate treatment of giant uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgovic, Z; Habek, D; Cerkez Habek, J; Hrgovic, I; Jerkovic Gulin, S; Gulin, D

    2018-02-01

    Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator, pharmacologically inhibits endometrial proliferation and thereby prevents pregnancy. It is primarily used as emergency contraception, but also for the treatment of fibroids in women of reproductive age. There have been no published cases of pregnancy, while on therapy with ulipristal acetate. In this article, we present a case report of spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with spontaneous conception, while on ulipristal acetate treatment. There were no drug-related complications, and the pregnancy resulted in the delivery of a healthy baby. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  13. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Çehreli

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  14. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA OF THE ACETIC ACID-WATER-MIXED SOLVENT (CYCLOHEXYL ACETATE-CYCLOHEXANOL) SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Çehreli S.

    2002-01-01

    Mixtures of cyclohexyl acetate and cyclohexanol were used as a mixed solvent to study liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) of the acetic acid-water-cyclohexanol-cyclohexyl acetate quaternary system. The solubility diagram and tie-line data were determined at 298±0.20 K and atmospheric pressure, using various compositions of mixed solvent. Reliability of the data was ascertained by making Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots.

  15. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  16. Emergency Contraception Options: Focus on Ulipristal Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T. Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulipristal acetate (UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that is available for emergency contraception (EC and can be taken up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing UPA with levonorgestrel (LNG for EC, demonstrated that UPA has higher efficacy than LNG. This higher efficacy is supported by biomedical studies that have demonstrated that UPA is a more potent inhibitor of ovulation, being able to delay ovulation in the immediate preovulatory period, when LNG is no longer effective. A recent study that explored risk factors for failure of EC, demonstrated that obese women were at increased risk of EC failure, with either UPA or LNG. However, failure was significantly less amongst women receiving UPA than those receiving LNG. There is growing evidence therefore, that UPA should be the preferred oral method of EC.

  17. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.

    1964-01-01

    De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

  18. Ulipristal acetate as an emergency contraceptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alan M; Thomas, Michael A

    2012-09-01

    Emergency contraceptive agents play a crucial role in preventing unplanned pregnancy. These agents and devices have been studied since the 1960s and have had varied results in terms of side effects and efficacy. A new oral tablet for emergency contraception (EC), ulipristal acetate (UPA) , is a selective progesterone receptor modulator and can be used up to 120 h following unprotected intercourse, without an increase in adverse effects or a decrease in efficacy. This article reviews studies that evaluate the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and safety profile of UPA as an emergency contraceptive agent. UPA, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, is administered as a single 30 mg dose for EC. This agent provides a comparable, if not better, efficacy and side effect profile than seen with levonorgestrel or mifepristone. Because it has both agonistic and antagonistic effects on the progesterone receptor, ongoing clinical trials are documenting UPA's use for patients with endometriosis and as an extended use contraceptive.

  19. Ulipristal acetate: a new emergency contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jade L; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2011-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is a newly developed emergency contraceptive currently available in the USA and Europe. It is approved as a 30 mg one-time dose taken within 120 h (5 days) of unprotected intercourse or failed contraception. This selective progesterone receptor modulator appears to be more effective than the levonorgestrel-containing emergency contraceptive, which must be taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse. According to pharmacodynamic trials, UPA delays follicular maturation and ovulation. In addition, UPA may modulate the endometrium. Both Phase III clinical trials found that UPA does not lose efficacy within the 120-h dosing interval. Throughout all phases of clinical studies, UPA was shown to be well tolerated with only minimal adverse drug reactions, all of which are similar to competitor therapies.

  20. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  1. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, T.J.; Vajgand, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  2. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  3. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  4. Bioelectrochemical Ethanol Production through Mediated Acetate Reduction by Mixed Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaap, J.D.; Kampman, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate

  5. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... implicated in conversion of ethanol into acetic acid. (Tayama et al., 1989). Therefore, incapacity of these strains to produce acetic acid at 45 °C is probably due to several factors unexplained in our knowledge especially since Moghadami et al. (2013) have demonstrated that thermotolerant strains have high.

  6. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    TCA cycle intermediates when F. oxysporum cells were grown on mixtures of acetate and glucose compared to growth on only glucose. Our data support the hypothesis that it higher flux through TCA cycle during acetate consumption could significantly increase the pool of NADH, resulting in the activation...

  7. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  8. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri dish and characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ...

  9. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  10. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, Alex; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E.; Ploeg, van der Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W.M.; Oost, van der John; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2017-01-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the

  11. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  12. Antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract isolated from edible fungi, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon, growing in Algeria, was investigated. Extraction was done by the Soxhlet and the fractions obtained were purified with silica-gel column. Two fractions of ethyl acetate extract were tested against ...

  13. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in ...

  14. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were ... [Ignacimuthu S and Shanmugam N 2010 Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub ..... of natural products for antimycobacterial activity by using.

  15. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    to form furfuraldiethyl acetal at room temperature using ethanol as a renewable solvent. Among the tested catalysts,H-USY (6) provided the highest catalytic activity (79% acetal yield), excellent selectivity and reusabilityin five consecutive reaction runs. Process parameters such as, e.g. reaction time...

  16. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  17. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of ...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of. Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  19. Samarium (III) acetate-chloride hydrates: dimers and chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, G.; Lossin, A.; Schleid, T.

    1991-01-01

    Except for samarium chloride and samarium acetate, the system Sm 3+ /Ac - /Cl - /H 2 0 contains two acetate-chloride hydrates, [SmAc(H 2 0) 6 ]Cl 2 . H 2 0 (1) and [SmAc 2 (H 2 0) 3 ]Cl (2). Single crystals of 1 are obtained from an aqueous acetic-acid solution of SmCl 3 .6H 2 0 by slow isothermal evaporation at room temperature, those of 2 analogously but from a solution of SmOCl. 1 crystallizes with the triclinic system and contains centro-symmetric dimers with nine-coordinate Sm 3+ (six aquo ligands and one tridentate bridging acetate anion). 2 crystallizes with the monoclinic system with one-dimensional infinite chains, and Sm 3+ again in a ninefold oxygen coordination (three aquo and two tridentate bridging acetate ligands)

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Butyl acetate, Ethyl acetate and Isopropyl alcohol on undesirable microorganisms in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, C; Malet, G; Cupferman, S

    2016-10-01

    The microbiological contamination risk of a cosmetic product has to be assessed by the manufacturer, according to the composition, to determine whether microbiological testing is required. Certain ingredients in cosmetic formulations help to create an environment hostile towards microbial growth. In this study, the influence on microbial survival of some solvents used in nail varnishes was evaluated. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to define the thresholds to be considered for the exemption of products from microbiological testing. The second was to assess the cross-contamination risk linked to the use on successive consumers of solvent-based products in beauty salons. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum were exposed to various concentrations of ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol in culture medium to estimate their MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). These strains are relevant to cosmetic products as they are associated with skin and nail infections. Mixtures of the three solvents, which are characteristic of nail varnish compositions, were also tested for their cidal activity. Ethyl and butyl acetates had a stronger impact than isopropyl alcohol: the MIC of ethyl and butyl acetate is ≤5% for all of the tested strains, whereas that of isopropyl alcohol is ≤10%. Various combinations of the three solvents tested showed a significant effect on both fungal and bacterial strains (greater than 3 log reduction in 15 min for the bacterial test strains and in 30 min for T. rubrum). Products containing more than 5% ethyl or butyl acetate or more than 10% isopropyl alcohol are hostile towards microbial growth. These products can therefore be considered as microbiologically low risk during both production and use, and so do not require microbiological testing (challenge test and end-product testing). Moreover, the nine tested mixtures of these three

  1. Delineation of myocardial oxygen utilization with carbon-11-labeled acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.; Marshall, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although positron-emission tomography (PET) with labeled fatty acid delineates infarct size and permits qualitative assessment of fatty acid utilization, quantification of oxidative metabolism is limited by complex alterations in the pattern of utilization of fatty acid during ischemia and reperfusion. Because metabolism of acetate by myocardium is less complex than that of glucose or palmitate, we characterized kinetics of utilization of radiolabeled acetate in 37 isolated rabbit hearts perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer and performed a pilot tomographic study in man. Results of initial experiments with carbon-14-labeled acetate ( 14 C-acetate) indicated that the steady-state extraction fraction of acetate averaged 61.5 +/- 4.0% in control hearts (n = 4), 93.6 +/- 0.9% in hearts rendered ischemic (n = 4), and 54.8 +/- 4.0% in hearts reperfused after 60 min of ischemia (n = 3). Oxidation of 14 C-acetate, assessed from the rate of efflux of 14 CO 2 in the venous effluent, correlated closely with the rate of oxygen consumption under diverse metabolic conditions (r = .97, p less than .001). In addition, no significant differences were observed between rates of efflux of total 14 C in all chemical species (reflecting total clearance of tracer from myocardium) and efflux of 14 CO 2 . Clearance of 11 C-acetate, measured externally with gamma probes in normal and ischemic myocardium, correlated closely with clearance of 14 C-acetate measured directly in the effluent (r = .99, p less than .001) and with overall myocardial oxygen consumption (r = .95, p less than .001). Accumulation and clearance of 11 C-acetate from human myocardium with PET demonstrated kinetics comparable to those seen with radiolabeled acetate in vitro

  2. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  3. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  4. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  5. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    OpenAIRE

    Nhi Dinh Bui; Ngo Dinh Vu; Thao Thi Minh; Huong Thi Thanh Dam; Regina Romanovna Spiridonova; Semenovich Alexandr Sirotkin

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.%) has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate group...

  6. Vapour pressures and vapour-liquid equilibria of propyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with ethanol or 2-propanol at 0.15 MPa. Binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susial Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapour pressures of propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate and 2-propanol from 0.004 to 1.6 MPa absolute pressure and VLE data for the binary systems propyl acetate+ethanol, propyl acetate+2-propanol, isobutyl acetate+ethanol and isobutyl acetate+2-propanol at 0.15 MPa have been determined. The experimental VLE data were verified with the test of van Ness and the Fredenslund criterion. The propyl acetate+ethanol or +2-propanol binary systems have an azeotropic point at 0.15 MPa. The different versions of the UNIFAC and ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  7. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester.

  8. Acetate oxidation by bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, R; Cruz, F S; Leon, W; Schmunis, G A

    1979-05-01

    Bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma cruzi had a substantial increase in respiration in the presence of acetate. Oxidation of acetate took place via the tricarboxylic acid cycle and involved an antimycin A-sensitive respiratory pathway. Oxygen uptake in the presence of acetate was a sensitive to antimycin A inhibition as was CO2 production. There was a 6--7% residual O2 uptake which was not inhibited by high antimycin concentrations. Human anti-T. cruzi sera had no effect on oxygen uptake.

  9. Study of alkaline-earth element complexes in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, N.

    1968-10-01

    We have studied the complexes of alkaline-earth elements in anhydrous acetic acid. Using glass-electrode potentiometry we have studied the titration of alkaline earth acetates with perchloric acid which is the strongest acid in anhydrous acetic acid. These titrations have shown that the basic strength of these acetates increases as follows: Mg 4 ); the mixed acetate-acid sulfate complex of barium: Ba (OAc)(HSO 4 ); the mixed acetate-chloride of barium: Ba (OAc)(Cl). (author) [fr

  10. Measurement and correlation of the solubility of gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in different solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, H.; Liu, X. Y.; Zhai, X.; Yao, X. C.

    2018-01-01

    The equilibrium method was used to measure the solubility of gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate at temperature from 288.15 to 315.15. The Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation model were adopted to correlate the experimental data. For gossypol acetic acid, the root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) were observed in the range of 0.023-4.979 and 0.0112-0.614 for the Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation, respectively. For gossypol acetic acid of optical activity, the RMSD were observed in the range of 0.021-2.211 and 0.021-2.243 for the Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation, individually. And the maximum relative average deviation was 7.5%. Both equations offered an accurate mathematical expression of the experimental results. The calculated solubility showed a good relationship with the experimental solubility for most of solvents. This study provided valuable datas not only for optimizing the process of purification of gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in industry but also for further theoretical studies.

  11. Conditioned suppression to odorous stimuli in pigeons, 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henton, Wendon W.

    1969-01-01

    The conditioned suppression technique was employed to establish criterion discrimination of an amyl acetate concentration of 3% of vapor saturation, and to generate differential response rates in the presence of equal concentrations of amyl acetate and butyl acetate. The magnitude of suppression was also recorded as a function of amyl acetate concentration, with the concentrations presented in descending, ascending, and irregular series. The three stimulus presentation procedures generated approximately equivalent suppression versus concentration functions. Amyl acetate suppression thresholds were 0.16%, 0.50%, and 0.73% of vapor saturation for three subjects. Amyl acetate, butyl acetate, and butyric acid thresholds for two additional subjects were approximately 0.10% of vapor saturation. No suppression was recorded during control trials. PMID:5778311

  12. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  14. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2015-02-18

    academicjournals.org/AJB. African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research Paper. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in authoctonus Lemna gibba plants from. Xochimilco Lake. Orlando Ortega-Acosta.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of rotational isomerism in ethyl halo acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasem, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Infrared spectra of ethyl flouro acetate,ethyl chloro acetate ethyl bromo acetate and ethyl iodo acetate have been recorded in the region 4000-200 cm - 1 in the solid liquid and vapour phases.The spectra have shown that some bands are increasing in intensity upon moving from the solid to the liquid and to the vapour phases and some other bands are decreasing.Vibrational frequency assignments of the fundamental modes of vibration were made enthalpy differences between these isomers were determined for each compound in each phase.The values were used as a measure of the relative stability of the isomers.Furthermore,activation energy for the conformations from one isomer into another were estimated using arrhenius equation.Effects of solvents were investigated in this work too.(39 tabs., 46 figs., 55 refs.)

  16. Degradation by acetic acid for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Uchiyama, Naomi; Hara, Yukiko

    2015-04-01

    The degradation of crystalline Si photovoltaic modules during damp-heat test was studied using some test modules with and without polymer film insertion by observing electrical and electroluminescence properties and by chemical analyses. Acetic acid generated by the hydrolysis decomposition of ethylene vinyl acetate used as an encapsulant is the main origin of degradation. The change in electroluminescence images is explained on the basis of the corrosion of electrodes by acetic acid. On the other hand, little change was observed at the pn junction even after damp-heat test for a long time. Therefore, carrier generation occurs even after degradation; however, such generated carriers cannot be collected owing to corrosion of electrodes. The guiding principle that module structure and module materials without saving acetic acid into the modules was obtained.

  17. Densities, speeds of sound, and refractive indices of the ternary mixtures (toluene + methyl acetate + butyl acetate) and (toluene + methyl acetate + methyl heptanoate) at 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, Alejandra; Postigo, Miguel; Gonzalez-Salgado, Diego; Romani, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Density, ρ, speed of sound, u, and refractive index, n D , at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure have been measured over the entire composition range for (toluene + methyl acetate + butyl acetate) and (toluene + methyl acetate + methyl heptanoate) systems. Excess molar volumes, V E , isentropic compressibility, κ s , isentropic compressibility deviations, Δκ s , and changes of refractive index on mixing, Δn D , for the above systems, have been calculated from experimental data and fitted to Cibulka, Singh et al., and Nagata and Sakura equations, standard deviations from the regression lines are shown. Geometrical solution models, Tsao and Smith, Kholer, Jacob and Fitzner, Rastogi et al. were also applied to predict ternary properties from binary contributions

  18. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  19. The reactivity of phenylethanethiolated gold nanoparticles with acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Nan; Gan, Zibao; Liao, Lingwen; Zhuang, Shengli; Wu, Zhikun

    2017-10-24

    We report the size-dependent reactivity of phenylethanethiolated gold nanoparticles with acetic acid. Employing this reactivity, we synthesize a novel nanocluster Au 38 (PET) 26 (PET: phenylethanethiolate), which is otherwise difficult to obtain and exhibits remarkably different photoluminescence and electrochemical properties compared with the well-known Au 38 (PET) 24 nanoclusters. And the reaction process between Au 38 (PET) 26 and acetic acid was probed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

  20. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose Acetate Succinate: Potential Drug–Excipient Incompatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zedong; Choi, Duk Soon

    2008-01-01

    The stability of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) and its potential incompatibility with active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) carrying hydroxyl group(s) were investigated in this research. HPMC-AS may undergo hydrolysis under harsh processing conditions with the generation of succinic acid and acetic acid, which can form ester bond(s) with the hydroxyl group(s) in API. In this case, the hot-melt extrusion (HME) product prepared from HPMC-AS and our model compound (...

  1. Roots of Acetate-Vanadium Linkage Isomerism: A QTAIM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Filipe; Mosquera, Ricardo; Melo, André; Freire, Cristina; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2016-04-04

    The possibility of linkage isomerism in a number of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) complexes with acetate was surveyed using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Bader's Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). The results show that vanadium-acetate linkages may be classified as bidentate symmetrical, bidentate asymmetrical, or monodentate, the latter being observed in about 40% of the cases. These latter ones correspond to situations where the two oxygen atoms of the acetate moiety are not equivalent. They are associated with an energy penalty of about 263 kJ·mol(-1), as determined by the distribution of the scaled kinetic energy of the atomic basins forming the acetate ligand. In the presence of bidentate symmetrical vanadium-acetate linkages, the inner valence-shell charge concentrations on the vanadium atom deviate from the traditional VSEPR-derived arrangement, with an energy penalty of about 780 kJ·mol(-1). A compromise situation is partially accomplished in the case of bidentate asymmetrical linkages, which allow a Gillespiean-like arrangement of the inner valence-shell charge concentrations. In this case, one of these local charge concentrations lies close to a V-OAcO bond, which slightly disrupts the equivalence between the two oxygen atoms in the acetate ligand.

  2. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M.

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc 3 - complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [fr

  3. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Aleksander J; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E; van der Ploeg, Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W M; van der Oost, John; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2017-05-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the discovery of a new enzyme (Eat1) from the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus that resulted in high ethyl acetate production when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purified Eat1 showed alcohol acetyltransferase activity with ethanol and acetyl-CoA. Homologs of eat1 are responsible for most ethyl acetate synthesis in known ethyl acetate-producing yeasts, including S. cerevisiae, and are only distantly related to known alcohol acetyltransferases. Eat1 is therefore proposed to compose a novel alcohol acetyltransferase family within the α/β hydrolase superfamily. The discovery of this novel enzyme family is a crucial step towards the development of biobased ethyl acetate production and will also help in selecting improved S. cerevisiae brewing strains. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mitigation of radiation injury by polyphenolic acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kavya; Singh, Saurabh; Agrawala, Paban K.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are naturally occurring heterocyclic compounds, which have diverse biological and pharmacological implications. Calreticulin mediated protein acetylation (CRTase) system has been recently demonstrated by our groups using semi-synthetic polyphenolic acetates (PA) as the acetyl group donor. Owing to the anti-oxidant property of the parental moiety (polyphenols) coupled with the acetyl group donating ability; PAs have the potential to be developed as countermeasure agents against radiation damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective and mitigative potential of PAs namely 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin (DAMC) and 7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylthiocoumarin (DAMTC) in total body irradiated (TBI) mice. These compounds exhibited protective as well as mitigative potential against lethal dose of radiation, with ∼ 80% survival conferred by DAMTC when administered 24 h post TBl. A 3.8 fold increase in the number of splenic colonies at day 10 post TBI in the DAMTC treated mice as visualised by the endogenous spleen colony forming assay suggested amelioration of radiation induced hematopoietic injury. A significant recovery in the numbers of WBCs and lymphocytes was noted on day 21 post TBI by DAMTC with a ∼ 2.6 fold increase for WBCs and ∼ 6.5 for lymphocytes. DAMTC reduced the radiation induced apoptosis and increased cell proliferation in the bone marrow and spleen at days 3 and 21 post TBI corroborating its potency in stimulating hematopoietic recovery after TBl. Histopathology revealed ∼ 3 fold and ∼ 2.2 fold increases in the numbers of intestinal crypts on days 3 and 7 respectively in the DAMTC treated mice. A significant increase (∼ 3.5 and ∼ 2.9 fold) in the villi length was observed on days 3 and 7 respectively, accompanied by a concomitant increase in the crypt height by ∼ 3.5 folds. These results establish the potential of DAMTC to mitigate acute effects of radiation that appear to stem from its ability to ameliorate radiation induced

  5. Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) for binary mixtures containing diethyl carbonate, phenyl acetate, diphenyl carbonate, or ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Hsiao-Yun; Shu, So-Siou; Wang, San-Jang; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data were measured. • Binary mixtures contain ethyl acetate, diethyl carbonate, phenyl acetate, diphenyl carbonate. • No azeotrope formed in the systems investigated. • The VLE data were correlated well with Wilson-HOC, NRTL-HOC, UNIQUAC-HOC models. - Abstract: The isothermal (vapour + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) (P–T–x i –y i ) was determined the binary systems of (ethyl acetate + diethyl carbonate) from T = (373.2 to 453.2) K, (ethyl acetate + phenyl acetate) at T = 373.2 K, and (diethyl carbonate + phenyl acetate) at T = 373.2 K, while the VLE (P–T–x i ) of three diphenyl carbonate-containing binary systems was also determined experimentally at temperatures from (373.2 to 453.2) K. The experimental results show no azeotrope formation and near ideal solution behaviour for each binary system. These new VLE (P–T–x i –y i ) data have been passed by the point, area, and infinite dilution thermodynamic consistency tests. The Wilson-HOC, the NRTL-HOC, and the UNIQUAC-HOC models were applied to correlate the VLE results and the optimal values of the model parameters have been determined through data reduction. Comparable results were obtained from these three models.

  6. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  7. Continuous production of palm biofuel under supercritical ethyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komintarachat, Cholada; Sawangkeaw, Ruengwit; Ngamprasertsith, Somkiat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous synthesized biofuel from palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate was examined. • Mass flow rate of palm oil and ethyl acetate mixture influent to biofuel production in continuous system. • Water addition to reacting mixture improves the production of fatty acid ethyl esters and triacetin. • The generated acetic acid from ETA hydrolysis can protect the products from thermal decomposition. - Abstract: The interesterification of palm oil in supercritical ethyl acetate (ETA) to produce fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEEs) or biofuel was conducted in a continuous tubular reactor. The density of the mixtures in the system was estimated using the Peng–Robinson equation of state process simulator, and the residence time was calculated. The effects of the reaction conditions, including the molar ratios of palm oil to ethyl acetate, the temperature, and the pressure, were investigated under various mass flow rates of the mixtures and optimized. The results showed that reaction temperatures above 653 K and long residence times affected the content of FAEEs and triacetin, a valuable by-product. The addition of water to the mixture in a 1:30:10 M ratio of palm oil to ethyl acetate to water at 653 K, 16 MPa, and a mixture mass flow rate of 1.5 g/min increased the total production of FAEEs and triacetin from 90.9 to 101.5 wt% in 42.4 min. The main finding of the present study is that triglyceride associated with ETA hydrolysis used to form acetic acid protected the products from decomposition at high temperatures and long residence times. The results will aid the selection of an efficient and economical process for alternative biofuel production from palm oil in supercritical ETA

  8. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Katoh, Harumi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okado, Kohta; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg −1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg −1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L −1 and 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L −1 to 3.33 mol L −1 . It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg -1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  9. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  10. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  11. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  12. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  13. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion inS. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

  14. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes. PMID:29354649

  15. Study on the Reduction of Acetic Acid from Cabinets for Microfilms

    OpenAIRE

    佐野, 千絵; 古田嶋, 智子; 井上, さやか; 津田, 徹英; 呂, 俊民

    2012-01-01

    Concentration of acetic acid in cabinets, film storage and adjacent room were measured. Two cabinets were filled with acetic acid generated from aged microfilms. Absorbents were placed in one of the cabinets to remove acetic acid. It was confirmed thatconcentration of acetic acid decreased one week after setting the absorbents. Concentration in the other cabinet in which acetic-acid-absorbents were not placed remained high. From this result, it may be said that the absorbents were effective i...

  16. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with

  17. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  18. Pulse radiolysis of ethyl acetate and its solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanan, G.

    1976-01-01

    Pure ethyl acetate was subjected to electron pulse radiolysis in the liquid state and the absorption spectrum of the transient species produced was obtained between 280 and 650 nm. Two different species were produced, one with a short life of about 150 ns absorbing at longer wavelengths attributed to the solvated electron and a much longer lived radical absorbing at wavelengths less than 400 nm. The solute triplet yields were followed using anthracene and biphenyl at different concentrations. An upperlimit for the yield of excited singlet anthracene was estimated from the study of fluorescence to be G approximately equal to 0.1. Anthracene singlet yields in the presence of benzene at different concentrations were measured and the contribution of ethyl acetate positive ions in forming the additional exicted singlets is discussed. The free ion yield is G = 0.25. Yield of ethyl acetate positive ions scavengeable at high benzene concentrations is G = 0.63

  19. Crystal structure of febuxostat–acetic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutyloxyphenyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid–acetic acid (1/1], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat molecule and an acetic acid molecule. In the febuxostat molecule, the thiazole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid molecules are linked by O—H...O, O—H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π–π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thiazole and benzene rings of adjacent molecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17 and 3.9296 (17 Å.

  20. Measurement of acetic acid using a fibre Bragg grating interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, C; Silva, S F O; Castanheira, M; GonzálezAguilar, G; Frazão, O; Jorge, P A S; Baptista, J M

    2009-01-01

    An optical fibre sensor for determination of acetic acid is presented. The sensing probe is based on a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) Fabry–Perot cavity, coated with a thin film of sol–gel–PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) composite material. The polymeric thin film renders the interferometric output sensitive to the presence of carboxylic acid species. Results show that the wavelength of the interferometric peaks changes with acetic acid concentration, enabling its quantification. Coupling the fibre probe with a serrodyne modulated readout interferometer enables pseudo-heterodyne interrogation and the detection of acetic acid with a sensitivity of 92.6 deg/% L/L and a resolution of 0.2% L/L. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme to operate as a sensitive chemical sensor platform

  1. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti.

  2. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A., E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.b, E-mail: smrrocha@ipen.b, E-mail: mstela@ipen.b, E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.b, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pedreira, Walter dos R., E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.b [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in {mu}g g{sup -1}: Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  3. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three

  4. Unimolecular Gas-Phase Thermolysis of Ethyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1983-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolysis of ethyl acetate has been investigated by the Flash-Vacuum-Thermolysis/Field-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FVT/FI-MS) method in combination with Collision Activation (CA) mass spectrometry at 1253K. Two predominant reactions are observed: elimination...... of ethylene affording acetic acid, the latter to some extent consecutively yielding ketene, and intramolecular oxygen to oxygen ethyl group migration. Additionally minor amounts of acetaldehyde is formed. The mechanistic aspects are discussed based on 18O and 18O/ 13C labelling....

  5. Adsorption Equilibria of Acetic Acid on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyong-Mok; Nam, Hee-Geun; Mun, Sungyong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the adsorption equilibria of acetic acid on activated carbon were investigated at the temperatures of 313.15 K and 323.15 K. The obtained adsorption data were then fitted by Langmuir, Bi-Langmuir, and Freundlich models, in which the relevant model parameters were determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of deviations between experimental data and calculated values. The comparison results revealed that Bi-Langmuir model could account for the adsorption equilibrium data of acetic acid with the highest accuracy among the three adsorption models considered.

  6. 4,4′-Bipyridine acetic acid disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ye

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C10H8N2·2C2H4O2, is built up from 4,4′-bipyridine and acetic acid molecules linked by strong O—H...N hydrogen bonds. The 4,4′-bipyridine and the two acetic acid molecules are further connected through weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds to form a supramolecular two-dimensional network parallel to the (001 plane. The two pyridine rings make a dihedral angle of 31.8 (1°.

  7. Retinyl acetate-loaded nanoparticles: dermal penetration and release of the retinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayachukeat, Sunatda; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P; Tree-Udom, Thapakorn

    2011-02-14

    Retinyl acetate (RA) loaded polymeric nanoparticle (NP) carriers were prepared using two different single polymers, ethyl cellulose (EC) and poly (ethylene glycol)-4-methoxycinnamoylphthaloylchitosan (PCPLC). The stability of RA to aqueous solution and UVA light was significantly improved when encapsulated with PCPLC, whilst EC encapsulation gave some improved stability in water but showed no improved photostability. Ex vivo application of free RA and the RA-loaded PCPLC NPs onto the surface of the freshly excised skin from a baby mouse indicated a significantly slower skin absorption rate for the encapsulated RA. However, 100% retention of the encapsulated RA in the skin tissue was observed after 24h. Confocal fluorescent analysis of the skin pieces applied with the RA-loaded PCPLC NPs indicated likely entry and accumulation of the PCPLC NPs and RA at the hair follicles. Release of RA from the PCPLC NP carriers was confirmed through the detection of an increasingly higher RA/PCPLC fluorescent signal ratio deeper into the dermis and away from the hair follicles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with [3H]trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group

  9. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  10. Density, refraction index and vapor–liquid equilibria of N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate plus (methyl acetate or ethyl acetate or propyl acetate) at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, V.H.; Mattedi, S.; Aznar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities, refraction indices and VLE were measured for ester + m-2-HEAB mixtures. ► V E , apparent molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. ► Peng–Robinson EoS + Wong–Sandler mixing rule + COSMO-SAC predicted the data. -- Abstract: This paper reports the densities, refraction indices, and vapor liquid equilibria for binary systems ester + N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate (m-2-HEAB): methyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2), ethyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB and propyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2). The excess molar volumes, deviations in the refraction index, apparent molar volumes, and thermal expansion coefficients for the binary systems were fitted to polynomial equations. The Peng–Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, is used to describe the experimental data. Since the predictive activity coefficient model COSMO-SAC is used in the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, the resulting thermodynamic model is a completely predictive one. The prediction results for the density and for the vapor–liquid equilibria have a deviation lower than 1.0% and 1.1%, respectively

  11. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Dinh Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.% has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation.

  12. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    able processes but also to the hydrolysis of environmen- tally friendly polyvinyl alcohol in the film formations, separation and bioprocesses, or coatings (figure 4). 4. Conclusion. The cobalt-mediated controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied in bulk. It indicated a faster rate than solution polymerization.

  13. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation. Wilfried YAO, Honoré G. OUATTARA, Bernadette GOUALIE, Souleymane SOUMAHORO, Sébastien. NIAMKE. Laboratoire de Biotechnologies, UFR Biosciences, Université Félix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY ...

  14. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  15. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enriched yeast) and vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant status of broilers fed diets enriched in n-3 PUFAs using fish oil. Day-old Hubbard-JV strain broiler chicks allocated to one ...

  16. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  17. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I ... Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S C Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032, India ...

  18. In situ acetate separation in microbial electrosynthesis from CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Burg, van den Bart; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Wever, De Heleen; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Pant, Deepak; Strik, David P.B.T.B.

    2017-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to multi-carbon organic compounds particularly acetate has been achieved in microbial electrosynthesis (MES) using the reducing equivalents produced at the electrically polarized cathode. MES based on CO2 reduction

  19. Antimicrobial activity of rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Stolaříková, Jiřina

    2017-03-15

    Twenty-four 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid (rhodanine-3-acetic acid)-based amides, esters and 5-arylalkylidene derivatives were synthesized, characterized and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents against a panel of bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. All of the derivatives were active against mycobacteria. N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide demonstrated the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8-16μM. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were the most susceptible to 2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acids (MIC values ⩾32μM). The highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exhibited 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetate (MIC⩾15.62μM). Several structure-activity relationships were identified. The activity against Gram-negative and fungal pathogens was marginal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Adsorption of Acetic Acid, Cadmium ions, Lead ions and Iodine Using Activated. Carbon from Waste Wood and Rice Husks. GOODHEAD, T O; DAGDE, K K. Department of Chemical/Petrochemical Engineering, Rivers State university of Science and Technology. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: This paper presents the ...

  1. Megestrol acetate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThere are many non-elucidated questions concerning cancer, especially of the breast, in which hormones are involved. The scope of this particular study is to bring more clarity on the role of the progestin megestrol acetate in the hormonal treatment of breast cancer. It should be kept in

  2. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 123; Issue 6. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan Dutta I Ravikumar Pradyut Ghosh. Volume 123 Issue 6 November 2011 pp 869- ...

  3. Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Optical Detection of Sodium Salts of Fluoride, Acetate and Phosphate by a Diacylhydrazine. Ligand via the Formation of a Colour Alkali Metal Complex. Purnandhu Bose, Ranjan Dutta, I. Ravikumar and Pradyut Ghosh. ∗. Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A & 2B Raja ...

  4. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  5. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shell) Neobuccinum living in the Antarctic ice-covered sea. An open reading frame of 1203 bp, coding for acetate kinase gene, called ack, was amplified, cloned into the expression vector, pETY-16b, and the enzyme was overproduced by ...

  6. Antisecretory and antiulcerative effects of ethyl acetate fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was carried out to investigate the possible effects of ethyl acetate seed fraction of Nigella sativa on gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretions using the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-induced (NSAID) model. Phytochemical screening according to Trease and Evans, 2002 and acute toxicity tests ...

  7. Induction of estrus in Sahel goats using Fluorogestone Acetate (FGA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on estrus response in Sahel (SH) goats. One hundred (n=100) SH does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponge for 14 days. At the end ...

  8. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CARMIE

    2013-03-31

    Mar 31, 2013 ... Abstract. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a progestagen treatment (fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red. Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone ...

  9. Contraception with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical experience with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital st st between 1 of January 2004 and 31 of December 2013 is presented. This was a descriptive retrospective study aimed at establishing the acceptance, safety and ...

  10. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  11. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of zinc on brain weight, glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated following the ad libitum ingestion of zinc acetate (30 mg/L) in drinking water for two weeks. Results show that protein-undernutrition induced significant ...

  12. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions compete with the free radical reaction. Solvent cage in the solution polymerization has been suggested to account for the reduced rate and diffusivity of the radicals, and there- fore, higher branching of the polymer (Semsarzadeh et al. 1997). The ATRP reactions of acrylates with vinyl acetate macroradicals are reported ...

  13. In Vivo Activity of (8-Hydroxymethylen)-Trieicosanyl Acetate against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxymethylen)-trieicosanyl acetate was evaluated in BALB/c mice during the acute phase of Chagas' disease (15 days after infection). Animals were treated during 15 days at doses of 16.8 and 33.6 μg/g, reduced parasitemia of 77.6 and 64.1% was ...

  14. Protective role of flaxseed oil against lead acetate induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though the toxic effects of lead compounds had been studied over many years, inconsistent results have been obtained about their oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats. Lead acetate (20 mg/kg) alters the histology of testes as well as enhances lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and testes ...

  15. Effect of doping on TSD relaxation in cellulose acetate films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The peak currents, released charge and activation energies associated with the peaks are affected by AA doping. The effect of doping with acrylic acid on the discharge current indicates the formation of molecular aggregates. Keywords. TSD relaxation; cellulose acetate; acrylic acid; molecular aggregates. 1. Introduction.

  16. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and ...

  17. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated following the ad libitum ingestion of zinc acetate (30 mg/L) in drinking water ... biochemical changes associated with protein-undernutrition-induced brain damage particularly reduction in brain weight. ... rehabilitation of PEM is important to the survival of protein- ...

  18. Protective effects of ethyl acetate extraction from Gastrodia elata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Damage of the blood brain barrier (BBB) during the process of cerebral ischemic injury is a key factor which influences the therapeutic efficacy to the cerebral ischemic injury. The present study was designed to verify the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extraction from ...

  19. New substituted indene derivatives from bicyclic Baylis-Hillman acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen AMRI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A convenient protocol for the synthesis of highly functionalized indenes 4 has been developed. The coupling reaction of bicyclic Baylis-Hillman acetate 2 with nitroalkane salts in basic conditions led to the corresponding substituted indenes in good yields and high purity.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... therapy is started, the animal should be confined for 3 to 8 days or until cessation of bleeding, since...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1341 Megestrol acetate... in pregnant animals. (9) Do not use in the presence of a disease of the reproductive system or with...

  1. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  2. π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matrix isolation infrared spectra of O-H···π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic acid with Benzene. PUJARINI BANERJEE, INDRANI BHATTACHARYA and TAPAS CHAKRABORTY. ∗. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032, India.

  3. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    NMR spectra showed the appearance of specific peaks for acetate group. Differences between chitosan ... sustained fashion. Propranolol hydrochloride is subject to an extensive and highly variable hepatic first pass metabolism following oral administration with a reported systemic bioavailability of 15 – 23 %, indicating the.

  4. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADHU

    (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A.vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97% reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 μg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds ...

  5. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hatice BASMANCIOGLU

    vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant ... diet supplemented with 200 mg α-TA/kg feed; (3) OrgSe0.15: Control with inorganic Se replaced with 0.15 ... lipid oxidation, which can impair meat and egg quality such as off-tastes and off-odours, thereby reducing.

  6. Controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in presence of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mesoporous silica; heterogeneous catalyst; specific sequences; controlled free radical polymerization; ... copolymers. CRP is a common technique for synthesis of (co)polymers with well-defined molecular parameters. (Mw/Mn), reactive end groups, composition and ... bulk copolymerization of vinyl acetate with butyl acrylate.

  7. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... gluconeogenesis (Bergman, 1990). However, the contri- bution of propionate to blood glucose via gluconeogenesis could probably be covered by the glucose infused into the abomasum. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given individually on rumen papillae size, and IGF-I, IGFBP-. 3, GH and ...

  8. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  9. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...

  10. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  11. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  12. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Wheals, 2004; Romero-Cortes et al., 2012). Generally, AAB emerged after 24 h of fermentation when air comes in fermentation heap (Nielsen et al., 2007) and then oxidize ethanol previously produced by yeasts to acetic acid by exothermic reaction. This acid diffuses into beans and in combination with heat ...

  13. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W. M.; Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T9) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  14. Recycling Solvent Mixtures of Ethyl Acetate and Hexanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Timothy J.

    1998-12-01

    A method to recycle ethyl acetate-hexanes mixtures from thin-layer or column chromatography experiments is described. The procedure consists of co-distillation of the mixture followed by estimation of the composition by reference to an Rf vs percent composite graph. The mixture is then diluted with the appropriate solvent to achieve the desired composition.

  15. Phytochemical composition and in vitro effects of the ethyl acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distemonanthus benthamianus is a tree used in traditional African medicine to treat bacterial, fungal and viral infections. The pasty phase and the granular phase obtained from the ethyl acetate bark extract of D. benthamianus were tested for antimicrobial purposes on Staphylococcus aureus and on Streptococcus ...

  16. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study investigates the acidification capacity under various culture conditions of high acetic acid producer AAB strains previously isolated from Ivoirian cocoa beans fermentation. Methodology and Results: Effect of culture conditions was studied in agar medium and acid production was monitored by ...

  17. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria (AAB), involved in Côte d'Ivoire cocoa fermentation. Methods and results: Six day heap fermentation on banana leaves was conducted at farm level and AAB growth was monitored during this process at 24 h interval by numeration on plate agar.

  18. Cryotherapy Following Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer can be prevented and mortality/morbidity reduced by early detection and referral. Developing countries are likely to benefit from more cost effective methods of screening and treatment. Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol`s iodine (VIA/VILI) offers a see and treat solution thus an ...

  19. Phytochemical Constituents and Analgesic Activity of Ethyl Acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the active fraction of pomegranate fruit extract and screen it for analgesic activity. Methods: The analgesic activity of pomegranate ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) was examined using three models of pain: writhing, hot tail flick and plantar tests. EtOAc was administered by oral gavage in doses of 100, ...

  20. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  1. [Metabolism of C(14)-acetate by some trematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Byong Seol; Rim, Han Jong; Min, Yong Ok; Rhee, Sang Don; Lee, Tong Hoon; Yun, Myong Soon

    1965-12-01

    The adult trematodes, Fasciola hepatica, Eurytrema pancreaticum and Paramphistomum cervi, employed in this experiment were obtained from the cattle slaughtered at the local abbatoir. The worms selected and washed several times in normal sterilized saline solution. Each about ten of intact F. hepatica, fourty of E. pancreaticum, and twenty of P. cervi were incubated in 50 cc volume of special incubation flasks with incubation medium consisting of 10 cc. of Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer(pH 7.4) The incubation medium was added C(14)-1-acetate and non-radioactive carrier Na-acetate so as to contain acetate concentration of 50 mg per cent. The worms were allowed to incubate for 5 hours in the Dubnoff metabolic shaking incubator at 38 degrees C. After incubation period, respiratory CO2 samples from central well of incubation flask were analysed for total CO2 production rate and their specific activity of respiratory CO2. The lactate and pyruvate appearance rates were determined by analyzing the lactate and pyruvate concentration in a medium after incubation. The glycogen samples isolated from worms were analyzed for the tissue concentration and their radioactivities in order to determine the turnover rate of glycogen pool. Radioactivities of these series of experiments were counted by an endwindow Geiger-Muller counter as an infinitely thin samples. The quantitative analysis of C(14)-acetate utilized by F. hepatica, E. pancreaticum and P. cervi were compared and discussed in this report. According to these data of the experiment, it is suggested that the fatty acid such as acetate may play a part of their oxidative process into the respiratory CO2 and the synthetic process into glycogen in the above species of trematodes.

  2. Topical vitamin E and hydrocortisone acetate treatment after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S; Ozoğul, C; Gurelik, G; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    2000-04-01

    To investigate the effects of topical vitamin E and hydrocortisone acetate treatments on corneal healing response after -10.0 D photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbits. Thirty-three New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups and -10 D PRK was performed under in vivo conditions. Following PRK, group 1 (n = 9) received no topical treatment and served as control. Group 2 (n = 8) received 0.1% hydrocortisone acetate ointment twice a day, group 3 (n = 8) received 1% vitamin E ointment and group 4 (n = 8) received both 0.1% hydrocortisone acetate and 1% vitamin E twice a day for a month. At the end of the third month, corneal haze was graded and the corneal hydroxyproline levels were measured, as a crude indicator of new collagen synthesis. Finally corneal samples were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Non-homogeneously distributed strong haze was identified in group 1 which was greater than in the other groups; haze was least in groups 2 and 4. Corneal hydroxyproline levels were found to be significantly lower in groups 2, 3 and 4 compared with the control (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). Histopathologically, the most aggressive wound healing response was detected in group 1. The corneal wound healing response of group 2 was less than that of group 1 and equal to or more than that of group 4. Deep corneal photoablation induces an aggressive healing response, and topical hydrocortisone acetate reduces this corneal wound healing effectively. The inhibitory effect of topical vitamin E on corneal wound healing seems to be less than that of hydrocortisone acetate, but combined treatment with these two drugs may have an additive effect in controlling corneal wound healing after PRK.

  3. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  4. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  5. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatogr...

  6. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  7. 40 CFR 439.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5 0.2 Isobutyraldehyde 1.2 0.5 n-Amyl acetate 1.3 0.5 n-Butyl acetate 1.3 0.5 Ethyl acetate 1.3 0.5 Isopropyl acetate 1.3 0.5 Methyl formate 1.3 0.5 Amyl alcohol 10.0 4.1 Ethanol 10.0 4.1 Isopropanol 3.9 1.6...

  8. 40 CFR 439.15 - New source performance standards (NSPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-pentanone 0.5 0.2 Isobutyraldehyde 1.2 0.5 n-Amyl acetate 1.3 0.5 n-Butyl acetate 1.3 0.5 Ethyl acetate 1.3 0.5 Isopropyl acetate 1.3 0.5 Methyl formate 1.3 0.5 Amyl alcohol 10.0 4.1 Ethanol 10.0 4.1...

  9. The effective reaction of 2-chloro-3-formylquinoline and acetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formylquinolines in a single step by treating with sodium acetate and acetic acid under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds have been established by IR, NMR and mass spectral data. Unexpectedly ...

  10. The obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansurov, M.M.; Lugovenko, A.N.; Mirzoeva, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to obtaining of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis. The method of synthesis of iron acetate from processed iron comprising catalyst of ammonia synthesis was elaborated. The structure of complex was determined.

  11. Acetate repression of methane oxidation by supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a peat soil microcosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2011-06-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using (13)C-methane and (12)C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  12. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples. PMID:21515721

  13. Acetate Repression of Methane Oxidation by Supplemental Methylocella silvestris in a Peat Soil Microcosm ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, M. Tanvir; Crombie, Andrew; Moussard, Hélène; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J. Colin

    2011-01-01

    Methylocella spp. are facultative methanotrophs that grow on methane and multicarbon substrates, such as acetate. Acetate represses transcription of methane monooxygenase of Methylocella silvestris in laboratory culture. DNA stable-isotope probing (DNA-SIP) using 13C-methane and 12C-acetate, carried out with Methylocella-spiked peat soil, showed that acetate also repressed methane oxidation by Methylocella in environmental samples.

  14. Acetate oxidation is the dominant methanogenic pathway from actetate in the absence of Methanosaetaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.; Trably, Eric

    2006-01-01

    lake were surveyed for their dominant methanogenic population by using fluorescent in situ hybridization and for the degree of acetate oxidation relative to aceticlastic conversion by using radiolabeled [2-C-14]acetate in batch incubations. When Methanosaetaceae were not present, acetate oxidation...... was the dominant methanogenic pathway. Acetielastic conversion was observed only in the presence of Methanosaetaceae....

  15. A Highly Efficient Solvent-Free Acetalization of Aldehydes to 1,1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    1,1-Diacetates, sulfonic acid functionalized silica, acetalization, solvent-free reaction, SiO2-Pr-SO3H. 1. Introduction. Protection of aldehydes is a frequently used and important method in organic chemistry. Many procedures have been developed for this aim. For the acetalization of carbonyl groups, acetic anhydride can be ...

  16. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate,

  17. Methanogenic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria co-cultured on acetate: teamwork or coexistence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozuolmez, D.; Na, H.; Lever, M.A.; Kjeldsen, K.U.; Jørgensen, B.B.; Plugge, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate is a major product of fermentation processes and an important substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea. Most studies on acetate catabolism by sulfate reducers and methanogens have used pure cultures. Less is known about acetate conversion by mixed pure cultures and

  18. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal feed...

  19. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    lactate and acetate as fermentation products and is ready for test in the MFC modules. 1. Anode materials We compared the performances of acetate-fed...Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so- butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO

  20. Bazedoxifene acetate for the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, S

    2011-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a gender-related disease that is especially prevalent in postmenopausal women. New drugs have been developed led by issues of interest and concerns about this disease, each one striving to be more effective and safer than the previous one. Bazedoxifene acetate is a new, third-generation, selective estrogen receptor modulator. This drug is used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis in women with a high risk of fracture. Bazedoxifene acetate significantly prevents bone mass loss at 20 mg/day in healthy postmenopausal women with normal or low bone mineral density. The risk of vertebral fractures in women with osteoporosis was reduced by 42% (P menopause and a greater antiestrogen effect at the level of the uterus. This has made this compound an appropriate option in young postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and a risk of fractures. Copyright 2011 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  1. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of acetates in air using differential ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Zajiczek, Żaneta; Maziejuk, Mirosław

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds are one of the most important group of air pollutants. Potential health and environmental problems resulting from their emission prompted the requirement for monitoring these species. It motivates development of new measurement techniques which are fast, cost effective, reliable and field deployable. One of novel approaches is ion mobility spectrometry. It dwells on ion separation in electric field, based on differences in ion mobility. Many variants of this method are developed. In this wok, differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) was considered in respect of acetate measurements in air. It was demonstrated that DMS offers linear response to methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl acetate in concentration range from 0.3 ppm to 7 ppm. Positive ions spectrum has to be utilised for this purpose. We showed that fragments of DMS spectrum which secure linearity are compound-specific. The obtained results are promising from the application point of view.

  3. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  5. First total synthesis of (-)-ichthyothereol and its acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, C; Miyakoshi, N; Hanaoka, M

    2001-08-24

    The first and stereoselective total syntheses of (-)-ichthyothereol (1) and its acetate ((+)-2) were achieved by incorporation of the two chiral centers of diethyl L-tartrate. The starting diethyl L-tartrate was converted into trans-2-ethynyl-3-hydroxytetrahydropyran 14 in a stereoselective manner via the endo mode cyclization of the epoxy-alkyne derivative 12. The alcohol 12 was then transformed into (E)-iodoolefin derivative 15, which was exposed to a coupling reaction with 1-tributylstannyl-1,3,5-heptyne (19), derived from the corresponding 1-trimethylsilyl-1,3,5-heptyne (18), under Stille conditions to produce the all-carbon framework of the target natural products. Chemical modification of the coupled product 20 under conventional conditions completed the first total synthesis of (-)-ichthyothereol (1) and its acetate ((+)-2).

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    Six strains of thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from different full-scale thermophilic biogas plants in China and Denmark. The strain isolated from the Chinese biogas plant was designated KN-6P and the isolates from the Danish full-scale biogas plants were......, utilizing the substrates acetate, methanol and methylamines but not hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Strain Methanosarcina sp. SO-2P was able to grow mixotrophically on methanol and hydrogen/carbon dioxide with methane formation from hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurring after methanol depletion. All six...... that the similarity level between strains from the Danish biogas plants and Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was higher than 70%, and thus these strains should be considered as organisms belonging to the species Methanosarcina thermophila. DNA of strain KN-6P was only distantly related to the DNA of Methanosarcina...

  7. Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamil

    2000-09-01

    An overhead projector demonstration is described in which 4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water contained in a 10-cm diameter Petri dish. Within a minute or so of the addition, image of a turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames. The phenomenon arises because as ethyl acetate evaporates from the region where it has spread in the form of a monolayer, fresh material gets transferred to take its place. Because of the viscosity effects, this transfer of the surface film causes movement in the bulk of the material as well, making the process visible.

  8. Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

    1995-07-01

    The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

  9. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  10. FTIR studies of chitosan acetate based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Arof, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. As such, depending on the degree of deacetylation, the carbonyl, C=O-NHR band can be observed at ∼1670 cm -1 and the amine, NH 2 band at 1590 cm -1 . When lithium triflate is added to chitosan to form a film of chitosan acetate-salt complex, the bands assigned to chitosan in the complex and the spectrum as a whole shift to lower wavenumbers. The carbonyl band is observed to shift to as low as 1645 cm -1 and the amine band to as low as 1560 cm -1 . These indicate chitosan-salt interactions. Also present are the bands due to lithium triflate i.e. ∼761, 1033, 1182 and 1263 cm -1 . When chitosan and ethylene carbonate (EC) are dissolved in acetic acid to form a film of plasticized chitosan acetate, the bands in the infrared spectrum of the films do not show any significant shift indicating that EC does not interact with chitosan. EC-LiCF 3 SO 3 interactions are indicated by the shifting of the C-O bending band from 718 cm -1 in the spectrum of EC to 725 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum. The Li + -EC is also evident in the ring breathing region at 893 cm -1 in the pure EC spectrum. This band has shifted to 898 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum. C=O stretching in the doublet observed at 1774 and 1803 cm -1 in the spectrum of pure EC has shifted to 1777 and 1808 cm -1 in the EC-salt spectrum

  11. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  12. Tuning magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12 -acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, S.; Wen, Bo; Ma, Xiang; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2009-05-01

    Using micron-sized Hall sensor arrays to obtain time-resolved measurements of the local magnetization, we report a systematic study in the molecular magnet Mn12 acetate of magnetic avalanches controllably triggered in different fixed external magnetic fields and for different values of the initial magnetization. The speeds of propagation of the spin-reversal fronts are in good overall agreement with the theory of magnetic deflagration of Garanin and Chudnovsky [Phys. Rev. B 76, 054410 (2007)].

  13. Propagation of avalanches in Mn12-acetate: magnetic deflagration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko; Sarachik, M P; Chudnovsky, E M; McHugh, S; Gonzalez-Rubio, R; Avraham, Nurit; Myasoedov, Y; Zeldov, E; Shtrikman, H; Chakov, N E; Christou, G

    2005-09-30

    Local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization of single crystals of Mn12-acetate indicate that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity that is roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. We argue that this phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance.

  14. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    dilution. The values Λm o and Ka are reasonably constant at the initial temperature of the reaction. They are respectively 39.1 Sm2 mol-1 and 1.8×10-5. [18]. Table 1: .... model was also able to replicate the experimental concentration of acetic acid produced in the reactor to a high level of confidence. Number of Degrees.

  15. Vacuum FTIR study on the hygroscopicity of magnesium acetate aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Na; Cai, Chen; He, Xiang; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are two important properties, which determine the composition, concentration, size, phase state of SOA and thus chemical and optical properties for SOA. In this work, magnesium acetate (Mg(Ac)2) aerosol was used as a simple SOA model in order to reveal relationship between hygroscopicity and volatility. A novel approach was set up based on a combination of a vacuum FTIR spectrometer and a home-made relative humidity (RH) controlling system. The striking advantage of this approach was that the RH and the compositions of aerosols could be obtained from a same IR spectrum, which guaranteed the synchronism between RH and spectral features on a sub-second scale. At the constant RH of 90% and 80% for 3000 s, the water content within Mg(Ac)2 aerosol particles decreased about 19.0% and 9.4% while there were 13.4% and 6.0% of acetate loss. This was attributed to a cooperation between volatile of acetic acid and Mg2 + hydrolysis in Mg(Ac)2 aerosols, which greatly suppressed the hygroscopicity of Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. When the RH changed with pulsed mode between 70% and 90%, hygroscopicity relaxation was observed for Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Diffuse coefficient of water in the relaxation process was estimated to be 5 × 10- 12 m2·s- 1 for the Mg(Ac)2 aerosols. Combining the IR spectra analysis, the decrease in the diffuse coefficient of water was due to the formation of magnesium hydroxide accompanying acetic acid evaporation in the aerosols.

  16. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: 32 P, 33 P, 35 S, 3 H, 14 C, 125 I and 45 Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  17. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, N.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2- 14 C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for 14 C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 deg. C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16 S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 deg. C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of 14 C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste. (authors)

  18. Acetic acid denaturing for RNA capillary polymer electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Keiko; Sasaki, Motoyasu; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2009-05-01

    A strong denaturant to cleave intramolecular hydrogen bonds in RNA is required for RNA size separation in a small sample volume (RNA and the RNA separation performance was dramatically improved by capillary electrophoresis with a sieving matrix containing acetic acid. We revealed that the denaturing ability of 2.0 M acetic acid was stronger than that of either 2.5 M formaldehyde or 7.0 M urea by estimating DNA melting temperature. Consequently, we suggested "in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis" as the RNA size separation methodology to simultaneously denature and separate RNA in a small sample volume without conventional in vitro sample preparation before electrophoresis. The baseline separation of RNA with a size of 100-10,000 nt was achieved in 25 min by "in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis" with the running buffer containing 2.0 M acetic acid. The resolution and the theoretical plates of RNA separation peaks were larger than those of the RNA separation in a conventional CGE with in vitro sample preparation by 7.0 M urea. In addition, we detected RNA peaks from the nucleic acids extracted from NIH 3T3 cells without DNase enzyme treatment.

  19. Acetate enhances startup of a H₂-producing microbial biocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Croese, Elsemiek; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-01

    H(2) can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H(2) at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H(2) production rate. In this study, the effects of cathode potential and carbon source on microbial biocathode startup were investigated. Application of a more negative cathode potential did not decrease the startup time of the biocathode. If acetate instead of bicarbonate was used as carbon source, the biocathode started up more than two times faster. The faster startup was likely caused by a higher biomass yield for acetate than for bicarbonate, which was supported by thermodynamic calculations. To increase the H(2) production rate, a flow through biocathode fed with acetate was investigated. This biocathode produced 2.2 m(3) H(2) m(-3)  reactor day(-1) at a cathode potential of -0.7 V versus NHE, which was seven times that of a parallel flow biocathode of a previous study. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Formic and acetic acid aggregation in the liquid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imberti, Silvia; Bowron, Daniel T, E-mail: silvia.imberti@stfc.ac.u [STFC, ISIS facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-13

    The microscopic structure of neat formic and acetic acid have been measured by neutron diffraction with H/D substitution on SANDALS at the ISIS neutron spallation source. These data, together with complementary x-ray data, have been modeled via the empirical potential structure refinement (EPSR) method, which integrates information obtained from the diffraction data in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to provide a three-dimensional model of the system under study compatible with the measured structure factors. Two models have been generated for each acid, in order to test their consistency, with positive results. The final structure obtained is that of two liquids that are very similar to each other, with high connectivity although rather disordered. They present a hierarchy of probability for hydrogen bond formation, where weaker bonds involving the carbonyl hydrogen for formic acid or the methyl hydrogen for acetic acid are more abundant than the stronger bonds involving the hydroxyl hydrogen. Cooperative effects are found to be fundamental for the description of aggregation of formic and acetic acid, but the structure in the liquid presents a greater variety of bonds than in the solid state.

  1. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C. [Centro de Biologia Molecular, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: {sup 32}P,{sup 33}P, {sup 35}S,{sup 3}H,{sup 14}C,{sup 125}I and {sup 45}Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  2. Iron oxides alter methanogenic pathways of acetate in production water of high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Pan; Hong, Bo; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) resulting in a 48.34% conversion to methane. Methane production in acetate-amended, β-FeOOH (akaganéite)-supplemented microcosms was much faster and acetate consumption was greatly improved compared to the other conditions in which the stoichiometric expected amounts of methane were not produced. Microbial community analysis showed that Thermacetogenium spp. (known syntrophic acetate oxidizers) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens closely related to Methanothermobacter spp. were enriched in acetate and acetate/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) microcosms suggesting that methanogenic acetate metabolism was through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers. The acetate/β-FeOOH (akaganéite) microcosms, however, differed by the dominance of archaea closely related to the acetoclastic Methanosaeta thermophila. These observations suggest that supplementation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) accelerated the production of methane further, driven the alteration of the methanogenic community, and changed the pathway of acetate methanogenesis from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers to acetoclastic.

  3. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  4. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qiuxia [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; College; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Cooper, Alan R. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Wang, Jian-guo [College; Albrecht, Karl O. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Mei, Donghai [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest

    2017-12-13

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxyl groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  5. X-ray diffraction studies of chitosan acetate-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Abdul Kariem Arof

    2002-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. This paper presents the x-ray diffraction patterns of chitosan acetate, plasticised chitosan acetate and plasticised-salted chitosan acetate films. The results show that the chitosan acetate based polymer electrolyte films are not completely amorphous but it is partially crystalline. X-ray diffraction study also confirms the occurrence of the complexation between chitosan and the salt and the interaction between salt and plasticizer. The salt-chitosan interaction is clearly justified by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  6. Can Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma be Cured by Percutaneous Acetic Acid Injection Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-T. Fan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of ultrasound (US-guided percutaneous acetic acid (in concentrations of 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% injection for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs for long-term prognosis, percutaneous acetic acid injection using 15% to 50% acetic acid was performed in 91 patients with one to four HCCs smaller than 3 cm during the past 6.5 years. During the series of treatment sessions for each patient, the same concentration of acetic acid was used. All tumors could be treated successfully with percutaneous acetic acid injection despite the differences in acetic acid concentration used. The number of treatment sessions to treat similar size of tumor was less when the higher concentration of acetic acid was used. No serious complications occurred as a direct sequela to percutaneous acetic acid injection. None of the tumor treated regrew. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates for 91 patients were 95%, 87%, 80%, 63%, and 49%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year cancer-free survival rates of these patients were 83%, 54%, 50%, 37%, and 29%, respectively. Both liver function and size of tumor affected both survival rate and cancer-free survival rate significantly, but the number of tumors did not. The concentration of acetic acid did not affect the survival rate. Percutaneous acetic acid using 15% to 50% acetic acid will be effective therapy for small HCCs for long-term prognosis.

  7. Influence of Alkylammonium Acetate Buffers on Protein-Ligand Noncovalent Interactions Using Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Gavriilidou, Agni F. M.; Zenobi, Renato

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the influence of three volatile alkylammonium acetate buffers on binding affinities for protein-ligand interactions determined by native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Four different types of proteins were chosen for this study. A charge-reduction effect was observed for all the cases studied, in comparison to the ions formed in ammonium acetate solution. When increasing the collision energy, the complexes of trypsin and the ligand were found to be more stable when sprayed from alkylammonium acetate buffers than from ammonium acetate. The determined dissociation constant (Kd) also exhibited a drop (up to 40%) when ammonium acetate was replaced by alkylammonium acetate buffers for the case of lysozyme and the ligand. The prospective uses of these ammonium acetate analogs in native ESI-MS are discussed in this paper as well.

  8. Acetobacter aceti possesses a proton motive force-dependent efflux system for acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazunobu; Inoue, Taketo; Adachi, Osao; Toyama, Hirohide

    2005-07-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are obligate aerobes able to oxidize ethanol, sugar alcohols, and sugars into their corresponding acids. Among them, Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter species have very high ethanol oxidation capacity, leading to accumulation of vast amounts of acetic acid outside the cell. Since these bacteria are able to grow in media with high concentrations of acetic acid, they must possess a specific mechanism such as an efflux pump by which they can resist the toxic effects of acetic acid. In this study, the efflux pump of Acetobacter aceti IFO 3283 was examined using intact cells and membrane vesicles. The accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in intact cells was increased by the addition of a proton uncoupler and/or cyanide, suggesting the presence of an energy-dependent efflux system. To confirm this, right-side-out and inside-out membrane vesicles were prepared from A. aceti IFO 3283, and the accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in the vesicles was examined. Upon the addition of a respiratory substrate, the accumulation of acetic acid/acetate in the right-side-out vesicles was largely decreased, while its accumulation was very much increased in the inside-out vesicles. These respiration-dependent phenomena observed in both types of membrane vesicles were all sensitive to a proton uncoupler. Acetic acid/acetate uptake in the inside-out membrane vesicles was dependent not on ATP but on the proton motive force. Furthermore, uptake was shown to be rather specific for acetic acid and to be pH dependent, because higher uptake was observed at lower pH. Thus, A. aceti IFO 3283 possesses a proton motive force-dependent efflux pump for acetic acid.

  9. Deletion of acetate transporter gene ADY2 improved tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against multiple stresses and enhanced ethanol production in the presence of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Keyu; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of deleting acetate transporter gene ADY2 on growth and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of inhibitors. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that three genes encoding plasma membrane carboxylic acid transporters, especially ADY2, were significantly downregulated under the zinc sulfate addition condition in the presence of acetic acid stress, and the deletion of ADY2 improved growth of S. cerevisiae under acetic acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide stresses. Consistently, a concomitant increase in ethanol production by 14.7% in the presence of 3.6g/L acetic acid was observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae BY4741. Decreased intracellular acetic acid, ROS accumulation, and plasma membrane permeability were observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant. These findings would be useful for developing robust yeast strains for efficient ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  12. [Use of cyproterone acetate in the treatment of acne].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero Martín, J; Acosta, H

    1982-01-01

    Forty two female patients with strong acne and oiliness were studied all of them were treated with a tablet daily of 2 mg. of cyprosterone Acetate and 0.05 mg of ethinyl oestradiol for 3 weeks and a week without it. We found intolerance to the treatment in 9 out of 42 patients and a high percentage of cure or marked improvement in 96.9% of patients. In conclusion this drug is a good help to the treatment of female acne with seborrheic skin.

  13. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response inSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1 Δ and hac1 Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  15. Minimal inhibitory concentration of natural vinegar and of aluminium acetate-tartrate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Vinegar and aluminium acetate preparations are used for treatment of ear infections. It is instrumental to know the minimal inhibitory concentration to get effective remedies. This study was performed to assess the lowest dilution of vinegar (specified content, 6% acetic acid) and aluminium acetate-tartrate solution (specified content, 1.4% aluminium and 6% acetic acid) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration against bacteria commonly found in chronic ear infections. Laboratory study on 2 samples of aluminium acetate-tartrate and on 1 sample of natural white wine vinegar on antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Performing of a susceptibility testing-determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the method of microbouillon dilution (DIN 58940 part 7). Acetic acid was found to be effective in vitro in concentrations of 0.1% to 0.2% against the tested bacteria; aluminium acetate-tartrate solution was found to be effective in vitro in concentrations of 1.25% to 2.5% against the tested bacteria. Vinegar respectively acetic acid diluted with water and aqueous aluminium acetate-tartrate solution could be effective ototopic preparations caused by one of the tested bacteria. For its effectiveness, an acid pH not higher than 4.5 is essential. Experiments with aluminium acetate-tartrate preparations on animals and clinical trials are required to obtain information about the response rates in ear infections and about any adverse effects.

  16. Selective inhibition of methanogenesis to enhance ethanol and n-butyrate production through acetate reduction in mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Arvaniti, E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Acetate reduction is an alternative digestion process to convert organic waste into ethanol. Using acetate for fuel ethanol production offers the opportunity to use organic waste materials instead of sugar-containing feedstock. Methanogenesis, however, competes with acetate reduction for acetate and

  17. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphorylated Polyacrylonitrile Fibers as an Efficient and Greener Acetalization Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Cao, Jian; Zhao, Yali; Zheng, Lishuo; Tao, Minli; Zhang, Wenqin

    2017-10-05

    A novel solid acid catalyst (PAN EAP F) is developed by immobilization of phosphoric acid on polyacrylonitrile fiber through covalent bonding. Various characterization techniques such as elemental analysis (EA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), etc. are utilized to confirm the successful grafting and the stability of the fiber catalysts during application. PAN EAP F shows high catalytic activity in the acetalization of aldehydes owing to the high utilization efficiency of its functionalized acid sites. In addition, the strong polarity micro-environment in the surface layers of PAN EAP F make it highly suitable for catalytic application in both water and alcohol. Furthermore, the fiber catalyst can be applied to the acetalization of aldehydes in a continuous-flow process at room temperature, and shows excellent reactivity and superior recyclability (over 20 times). The many advantages of PAN EAP F such as simple preparation, convenient regulation of acid amount, high durability, and eco-friendly process make it very attractive for fixed-bed reactors in the chemical industry. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Neutron dosimetry using aqueous solutions of lithium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakovan, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    A thermal neutron dosimetry system using the 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction and liquid scintillation counting of tritium was developed. Lithium acetate was chosen to supply the 6 Li in the aqueous dosimetry solutions. Neutron irradiations were completed using The Ohio State University Research Reactor. After two sets of samples were irradiated, variables in the system such as the mass of lithium acetate in the solutions and the counting window of the liquid scintillation counter used to analyze the sample were chosen. The system was evaluated by completing two sets of 23 minute irradiations with the reactor at 500 kW, 50 kW, 5 kW, and one irradiation at 500 W. The samples irradiated at 500 W were below the threshold of the system, and could not be used. Prompt analysis was essential due to loss of detectable emissions in the dosimetry solutions over time. The thermal neutron fluences calculated with the data from the samples were compared to the fluences determined from gold wire irradiations. The fluence values differed at most by 6%. The fluence values calculated from the samples were consistently less than those determined from the gold wires

  20. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Caro, G. M. Muñoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH 3 COOCH 3 , through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A 1 or A 2 ), EA species (E 1 ), AE species (E 2 ), and EE species (E 3 or E 4 ). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 ± 0.5) × 10 15 cm –2 . The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 ± 1.0) × 10 14 cm –2 . Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  1. Protective effect of carvacrol on acetic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana Souza, Marilia Trindade; Teixeira, Daiane Franco; de Oliveira, Janaíne Prata; Oliveira, Alan Santos; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Correa, Cristiane Bani; Camargo, Enilton Aparecido

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacological therapy for inflammatory bowel diseases continues to be problematic, and requires new alternative options. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that carvacrol (CAR), a phenolic monoterpene with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, can treat experimental colitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice (n=8/group) were subjected to intrarectal administration of acetic acid (5%) to induce colitis. Mice were pretreated with CAR (25, 50 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) every 12h for three days prior to the induction. Abdominal hyperalgesia, macroscopic and microscopic colon damage, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels, oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. Pretreatment with all doses of CAR significantly decreased abdominal hyperalgesia and colon MPO activity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels. A reduction in macroscopic and microscopic damage (p<0.05) was observed at doses of 50 and 100mg/kg CAR. Pretreatment with CAR significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (for all doses) and increased sulfhydryl groups (at 100mg/kg). This effect was accompanied by a significant increase in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities. These findings indicate that CAR protected mice from acetic acid-induced colitis by reducing inflammatory, nociceptive, and oxidative damages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  3. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  4. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  5. Vitamin A acetate: a behavioral teratology study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutz, S A; Troise, N J; Cimprich, R E; Yearsley, S M; Rugen, P J

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of maternal administration of vitamin A acetate on pup development and behavior. Vitamin A acetate was administered by oral gavage to pregnant rats (N = 10/treatment) on gestation days 6-19 at doses of 25,000, 50,000 or 100,000 I.U./kg/day. Male and female pups from dams that received 100,000 I.U./kg/day showed a significantly reduced live birth index but few external abnormalities. Twenty-four and 48 hour survival indices were also significantly reduced. The mean pup body weight gain at 100,000 I.U./kg/day was significantly reduced at days 1-3, 3-7 and 21-42. Pinna detachment and eye opening were significantly delayed in all male pups and in female pups from the 50,000 and 100,000 I.U./kg/day groups. Incisor eruption was significantly delayed in male and female pups from the 25,000 and 50,000 I.U./kg/day groups. The following showed no treatment effects: dam mean weight change, length of gestation, total litter size, surface righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, swimming development, open field activity and discriminatory learning.

  6. Transport Parameters in a Porous Cellulose Acetate Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPolo, R.; Sha'afi, R. I.; Solomon, A. K.

    1970-01-01

    The transport parameters of a cellulose acetate membrane prepared from a mixture of cellulose acetate, formamide, and acetone, 25:25:50 by weight, were studied. The membrane consists of a thin, porous layer, the skin, in series with a thick, highly porous layer, the coarse support. In the skin the diffusional permeability coefficient, ω, of a number of small amides and alcohols depends critically upon the partition coefficient, Ks, the size of the molecule, and the apparent hydrogen-bonding ability, Ns, of the solute. These observations are in general agreement with our earlier conclusions on the properties of nonporous membranes. On the other hand, the corrected reflection coefficient, σ', is not a very sensitive function of either Ns or Ks taken separately. The correlation between σ' and molecular diameter is reasonably good; however, it is much improved when both Ns and Ks are taken into consideration. Isotope interaction was also studied in the present preparation and was found to provide only a small (5–8%) contribution to the diffusional permeability coefficient of ethylene glycol. The contribution of solute-water friction was found to be less than 24% of the total solute friction. PMID:5410490

  7. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  8. Synergistic effect of radiation on colon carcinogenesis induced by methylazoxymethanol acetate in ACI/N rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Morishita, Yukio; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Suzui, Masumi; Kojima, Toshihiro; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Mori, Hideki

    1993-01-01

    The effect on colon and liver carcinogenicity in rats of a single X-irradiation exposure given either before or after methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate was studied in ACI/N rats of both sexes. A single dose of X-irradiation (3 Gy) was administered either 3 months before or after three weekly s.c. injection of MAM acetate (25 mg/kg body weight). At 365 days after the start, the incidence and multiplicity of MAM acetate-induced intestinal tumors were enhanced by X-irradiation either prior to or after the MAM acetate treatment. In addition, X-irradiation before MAM acetate increased the incidence of hepatocellular foci in either sex. In females, X-irradiation either before or after MAM acetate exposure decreased intestinal tumorigenesis. These findings suggest an apparent synergism of these agents in intestinal carcinogenesis of male rats. (author)

  9. Double salt ionic liquids based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and hydroxyl-functionalized ammonium acetates: strong effects of weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Berton, Paula; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-10-11

    The properties of double salt ionic liquids based on solutions of cholinium acetate ([Ch][OAc]), ethanolammonium acetate ([NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH][OAc]), hydroxylammonium acetate ([NH 3 OH][OAc]), ethylammonium acetate ([NH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ][OAc]), and tetramethylammonium acetate ([N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc]) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Through mixture preparation, the solubility of [N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc] is the lowest, and [Ch][OAc] shows a 3-fold lower solubility than the other hydroxylated ammonium acetate-based salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] at room temperature. NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of the pure salts suggest that the molecular-level mechanisms governing such miscibility differences are related to the weaker interactions between the -NH 3 groups and [OAc] - , even though three of these salts possess the same strong 1 : 1 hydrogen bonds between the cation -OH group and the [OAc] - ion. The formation of polyionic clusters between the anion and those cations with unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors seems to be a new tool by which the solubility of these salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] can be controlled.

  10. Patch testing with fragrances: results of a multicenter study of the European Environmental and Contact Dermatitis Research Group with 48 frequently used constituents of perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Pilz, B; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1995-01-01

    ), citronellol (1) and amyl salicylate (1)). The remaining 41 fragrances were negative. 28 irritant or doubtful reactions on day 3/4 were observed to a total of 19 FF materials (more than 1 reaction: 5% citronellol (2), 1% amyl salicylate (2), 1% isononyl acetate (3), 0.1% musk xylol (2), 1% citral (2), and 1...

  11. The effect of enhanced acetate influx on Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Kati; Vuorio, Eerika; Aro, Eva-Mari; Kallio, Pauli Tapio

    2017-02-02

    Acetate is a common microbial fermentative end-product, which can potentially be used as a supplementary carbon source to enhance the output of biotechnological production systems. This study focuses on the acetate metabolism of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 which is unable to grow on acetate as a sole carbon source but still can assimilate it via acetyl-CoA-derived metabolic intermediates. In order to gain insight into the acetate uptake, associated limitations and metabolic effects, a heterologous acetate transporter ActP from Escherichia coli was introduced into Synechocystis to facilitate the transport of supplemented acetate from the medium into the cell. The results show that enhanced acetate intake can efficiently promote the growth of the cyanobacterial host. The effect is apparent specifically under low-light conditions when the photosynthetic activity is low, and expected to result from increased availability of acetyl-CoA precursors, accompanied by changes induced in cellular glycogen metabolism which may include allocation of resources towards enhanced growth instead of glycogen accumulation. Despite the stimulated growth of the mutant, acetate is shown to suppress the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, further emphasizing the contribution of glycolytic metabolism in the acetate-induced effect. The use of acetate by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is at least partially restricted by the import into the cell. This can be improved by the introduction of a heterologous acetate transporter into the system, thereby providing a potential advantage by expanding the scope of acetate utilization for various biosynthetic processes.

  12. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  13. THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS OF ACETIC ACID BETWEEN WATER AND SOLVENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution coefficients of acetic acid between aqueous phase and solvents (water-C6-C10 alcohols, butyl acetate, ether and benzene were studied. Synergetic effect was obtained for alcohol and ester systems. A slightly positive deviation was obtained for benzene–ester mixtures. The best distribution coefficient was obtained for hexanol-butyl acetate systems. The coefficients of Redlisch-Kister equation were obtained for the deviations.

  14. New Frames for Old Masters. An overview of the British Library's Acetate Transfer programme

    OpenAIRE

    Sandy Ryan

    2005-01-01

    After the second International Round Table on acetate microfilm, the British Library decided to top slice from its annual preservation budget, £200k every year for five years to address its cellulose acetate problem. We did this by instigating a programme of base transfer, transferring the frames from the old acetate masters onto new polyester stock. It proved to be quite a challenge and this paper reproduces largely the presentation given at CAMF, which was an overview of the background to t...

  15. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O 2 , and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with 14 C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA

  16. Non-isothermal crystallization and melting of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers with different vinyl acetate contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-isothermal crystallization and subsequent melting of three grades of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique. The DSC crystallization curves show that vinyl acetate (VAc content has the same effect on the onset, peak and final crystallization temperatures, and these copolymers have almost the same spacing of thermal windows under identical crystallization condition. Subsequent melting DSC results suggest that EVA14 (14 wt% VAc has the narrowest distribution of lamellar thickness and the most perfect crystals. Though the instantaneous nucleation was preferred, non-isothermal crystallization kinetics shows that EVA14 could form tridimensional crystallites, whereas EVA18 (18 wt% VAc and EVA28 (28 wt% VAc are prone to crystallize two-dimensionally, as a result of more noncrystallizable VAc co-monomers introduced in the crystallizable ethylene segments. The growth rate falls on the following sequence: EVA14>EVA18>EVA28. Moreover, the kinetic crystallizability G also well characterizes the variation of the non-isothermal crystallization of these EVA materials, in the view of structural impediment caused by the VAc content.

  17. Lead Acetate Induces Epithelium-Dependent Contraction of Airway Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadan B. Sopi; , Kemajl Bislimi; , Fetah Halili; , Mentor Sopjani; , Burim Neziri; , Muharrem Jakupi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lead acetate on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) of dog pups was investigated in this study. In addition we studied the role of epithelium and involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in counteracting the effects of lead acetate on TSM as well as the modifying effects of lead acetate on contractile responses of TSM to acetylcholine (ACh) . Tracheal rings were excised and placed in in vitro organ baths. In vitro administration of lead acetate in increasing concentrations(10-7–10-3 M) induced...

  18. Unexpected competitiveness of Methanosaeta populations at elevated acetate concentrations in methanogenic treatment of animal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Cheng, Huicai; Liu, Jiang; Hazen, Terry C; Huang, Vicki; He, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Acetoclastic methanogenesis is a key metabolic process in anaerobic digestion, a technology with broad applications in biogas production and waste treatment. Acetoclastic methanogenesis is known to be performed by two archaeal genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina. The conventional model posits that Methanosaeta populations are more competitive at low acetate levels (<1 mM) than Methanosarcina and vice versa at higher acetate concentrations. While this model is supported by an extensive body of studies, reports of inconsistency have grown that Methanosaeta were observed to outnumber Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. In this study, monitoring of anaerobic digesters treating animal wastewater unexpectedly identified Methanosaeta as the dominant acetoclastic methanogen population at both low and high acetate levels during organic overloading. The surprising competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate was further supported by the enrichment of Methanosaeta with high concentrations of acetate (20 mM). The dominance of Methanosaeta in the methanogen community could be reproduced in anaerobic digesters with the direct addition of acetate to above 20 mM, again supporting the competitiveness of Methanosaeta over Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. This study for the first time systematically demonstrated that the dominance of Methanosaeta populations in anaerobic digestion could be linked to the competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate concentrations. Given the importance of acetoclastic methanogenesis in biological methane production, findings from this study could have major implications for developing strategies for more effective control of methanogenic treatment processes.

  19. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  20. Computer simulations of alkali-acetate solutions: Accuracy of the forcefields in difference concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Emma; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Friedman, Ran

    2017-11-01

    When proteins are solvated in electrolyte solutions that contain alkali ions, the ions interact mostly with carboxylates on the protein surface. Correctly accounting for alkali-carboxylate interactions is thus important for realistic simulations of proteins. Acetates are the simplest carboxylates that are amphipathic, and experimental data for alkali acetate solutions are available and can be compared with observables obtained from simulations. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of alkali acetate solutions using polarizable and non-polarizable forcefields and examined the ion-acetate interactions. In particular, activity coefficients and association constants were studied in a range of concentrations (0.03, 0.1, and 1M). In addition, quantum-mechanics (QM) based energy decomposition analysis was performed in order to estimate the contribution of polarization, electrostatics, dispersion, and QM (non-classical) effects on the cation-acetate and cation-water interactions. Simulations of Li-acetate solutions in general overestimated the binding of Li+ and acetates. In lower concentrations, the activity coefficients of alkali-acetate solutions were too high, which is suggested to be due to the simulation protocol and not the forcefields. Energy decomposition analysis suggested that improvement of the forcefield parameters to enable accurate simulations of Li-acetate solutions can be achieved but may require the use of a polarizable forcefield. Importantly, simulations with some ion parameters could not reproduce the correct ion-oxygen distances, which calls for caution in the choice of ion parameters when protein simulations are performed in electrolyte solutions.

  1. STABILITY OF ETHYL ACETATE IN WHOLE BLOOD DURING STORAGE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kanako; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Suzuki, Kanako

    2000-01-01

    Various conditions of storage have been tested for stability of ethyl acetate in whole blood. Ethyl acetate (5μg/ml) was spiked to whole blood, and kept at room temperature or at 4℃ for various intervals in the presence or absence of sodium fluoride. Ethyl acetate and ethanol were simultaneously measured by our cryogenic oven trapping gas chromatography. Ethyl acetate was found stable at room temperature for 3 days in the presence of 10 mg sodium azide and 50 mg sodium fluoride in 1 ml whole ...

  2. Mixture effects during the oxidation of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol over a cryptomelane catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V P; Pereira, M F R; Órfão, J J M; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-01-30

    The catalytic oxidation of two-component VOC mixtures (ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene) was studied over cryptomelane. Remarkable mixture effects were observed on the activity and the selectivity. Toluene inhibits both ethyl acetate and ethanol oxidation, this effect being more evident in the case of ethyl acetate. For instance, the temperature for 100% conversion is about 210 °C when ethyl acetate is oxidised alone, and 250 °C or higher, when it is oxidised in mixtures with toluene. On the contrary, toluene oxidation is only slightly inhibited by the presence of ethyl acetate, while the presence of ethanol has a promoting effect. Concerning the mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol, both compounds have a mutual inhibitory effect, which is more evident in the case of ethyl acetate (the temperature for 100% conversion of ethyl acetate is about 45 °C higher when ethyl acetate is oxidised in mixtures with ethanol, while in the case of ethanol the corresponding increase is only 10 °C). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Acetate-induced apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin D release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, C; Oliveira, C S F; Alves, S; Chaves, S R; Coutinho, O P; Côrte-Real, M; Preto, A

    2013-02-21

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related mortality. Short-chain fatty acids secreted by dietary propionibacteria from the intestine, such as acetate, induce apoptosis in CRC cells and may therefore be relevant in CRC prevention and therapy. We previously reported that acetic acid-induced apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells involves partial vacuole permeabilization and release of Pep4p, the yeast cathepsin D (CatD), which has a protective role in this process. In cancer cells, lysosomes have emerged as key players in apoptosis through selective lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and release of cathepsins. However, the role of CatD in CRC survival is controversial and has not been assessed in response to acetate. We aimed to ascertain whether LMP and CatD are involved in acetate-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. We showed that acetate per se inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. More importantly, we uncovered that acetate triggers LMP and CatD release to the cytosol. Pepstatin A (a CatD inhibitor) but not E64d (a cathepsin B and L inhibitor) increased acetate-induced apoptosis of CRC cells, suggesting that CatD has a protective role in this process. Our data indicate that acetate induces LMP and subsequent release of CatD in CRC cells undergoing apoptosis, and suggest exploiting novel strategies using acetate as a prevention/therapeutic agent in CRC, through simultaneous treatment with CatD inhibitors.

  4. 40 CFR Table 2a to Subpart E of... - Reactivity Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2.10 Isobutyl Acetate 110-19-0 0.67 Methyl Amyl Ketone 110-43-0 2.80 Hexane 110-54-3 1.45 n-Propyl...-Butyl Ether 628-28-4 3.66 Amyl Acetate (Pentyl Ethanoate, Pentyl Acetate) 628-63-7 0.96 Ethyl n-Butyl... (Butanol) 71-36-3 3.34 n-Pentanol (Amyl Alcohol) 71-41-0 3.35 Benzene 71-43-2 0.81 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71...

  5. Polyphenolic acetates : A newer anti-Mycobacterial therapeutic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research project was screening of various highly specific substrates of Acetoxy Drug: Protein Transacytylase (M.TAase for antimycobacterial activity. Mycobacterial culture was done in Middlebrook’s 7H9 media. Protein purification (Mycobacterial Tranacetylase, M.TAase was done by ion exchange chromatography and its demonstration was done on SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blot. Middlebrook’s 7H9 broth was procured from Becton Dickinson. CM-Sepharose, DEAE-Sepharose and Q-Sephharose were purchased from Amersham Pharmacia. Anti acetyl lysine polyclonal antibody was purchased from Cell Signaling. The Middlebrook 7H9 medium was used for M. smegmatis culture. The media was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The various Polyphenol acetate compounds were tested for their antimycobacterial activities. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were calculated by Alamar blue dye assay method. The GST protein was used as a receptor protein and purified Mycobacterial Glutamine Synthetase (GS as TAase for acetylation by DAMC. To demonstrate the TAase catalyzed acetylation of GST by DAMC, purified M.TAase (GS was preincubated with GST and DAMC followed by western blot using anti acetyl lysine antibody, which avidly react with the acetylated proteins. The growth pattern of M. smegmatis was diminished under the influence of various polyphenolic acetates (PA tested for their anti-mycobacterial activity. DAMC and DAMC-5-carboxylic acid was found to have MIC of 40μg/ml whereas DAMC-6-carboxylic acid was reported to have MIC value of 35μg/ml and for ellagic acid tetra acetate (EATA it was 60μg/ml. Previous work in our lab has led to discovery of a novel enzyme acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase, catalyzing transfer of acetyl group from various polyphenolic peracetate (PA to certain receptor proteins such as cytochromes P-450, NADPH cytochrome reductase, nitric oxide synthase (NOS

  6. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  7. Magnetic avalanches in manganese-acetate, "magnetic deflagration"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoko

    Mn12-acetate, first synthesized in 1980 by Lis, is one example of a class of many molecules called single molecule magnets (SMMs) or molecular nanomagnets. These molecules have several atomic spins strongly coupled together within each molecule. They exhibit interesting quantum mechanical phenomena at low temperatures such as quantum tunneling of magnetization, which was first found with Mn12-acetate in 1996 by Friedman, et al. , and Berry phase oscillations which were measured in Fe8 (another SMM) in 1999 by Wernsdorfer, et al. In addition to possible application as memory storage and qubits for quantum computers, these systems provide the means for studies of mesoscopic physics as well as the interactions of the molecules with their environment, such as phonon, photon, nuclear spin, intermolecular dipole, and exchange interactions. Mn12-acetate has twelve Mn ions magnetically coupled in the center of the molecule yielding a giant spin of S = 10 at low temperature. It also has a large uniaxial anisotropy of 65 K. Below 3 K, magnetization curves show strong hysteresis due to the anisotropy barrier. At thesis temperatures, the spin relaxes through the barrier by quantum tunneling of magnetization, which produces regularly-spaced multiple resonant steps in the hysteresis curve. Magnetic avalanches, first detected by Paulsen et al., also occur for some samples only at low temperature, leading to a very fast single-step reversal of the full magnetization, which clearly differs from relaxation by tunneling. In this thesis, I present the results of detailed experimental studies of two aspects of magnetic avalanche phenomenon: "conditions for the triggering of avalanches" and "propagation of the avalanche front". In the first study, we find the magnetic fields at which avalanches occur are stochastically distributed in a particular range of fields. For the second study, we conducted local time-resolved measurements. The results indicate the magnetization avalanches spread

  8. Diffusion relaxation of photoinduced gratings in polyvinyl acetate latex films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veniaminov, A. V.; Bartsch, E.

    2011-03-01

    The features of the postexposure relaxation of holographic gratings recorded in inhomogeneous polyvinyl acetate latex films with photosensitive agents (photochromic molecules of fulgide dyes and phenanthrenequinone) have been considered. The diffusion coefficients and rms displacements of izomerized probe in polymer latex particles and aqueous environment are determined within the model of two diffusion states. The effective diffusion coefficient of the molecular probe, which is responsible for the relaxation of gratings, increases with an increase in their period in wet films, whereas in dry films, this parameter is independent of the grating period. In the films subjected to high-temperature treatment the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with an increase in the grating period. The successive stages of grating relaxation in latex films with phenanthrenequinone are related to the diffusion of free molecules, radicals, and polymer chains, as well as to the local displacement of macromolecular segments at distances of 5-25 nm.

  9. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens...... to ammonia inhibition effect are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine the ammonia toxicity levels of various pure strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Moreover, ammonia toxicity on the syntrophic cultivated strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens was tested. Thus......, four hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis, Methanobacterium congolense, Methanoculleus thermophilus and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus), two SAOB (i.e. Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) and their syntrophic cultivation, were assessed under 0...

  10. Cellulose acetate propionate coated titanium: characterization and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Silva Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of pure titanium and Ti coated with cellulose acetate propionate (CAP have been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy X ray coupled with elemental microanalysis (SEM-EDS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and contact angle measurements. Coating Ti surfaces with CAP ultrathin films reduced original surface roughness. Surface energy and wettability of CAP covered Ti surfaces pure Ti surfaces were similar. The adsorption of lysozyme (LYZ, an antibacterial protein, onto Ti and CAP-coated Ti surfaces has been studied by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The adsorption of LYZ was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction between protein hydrophobic residues and CAP propyl groups. Pure Ti and CAP coated Ti surfaces presented no cytotoxicity effect and proved to be adequate substrates for cell adhesion. The biocompatibility of CAP coated Ti surfaces was attributed to the surface enrichment in glucopyranosyl residues and short alkyl side groups.

  11. Enzymatic kinetic resolution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Juma, WP

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . of Pages 2, Model 5G 14 August 2017Wanyama P. Juma, Varsha Chhiba, Dean Brady, Moira L. Bode * OH CN C12H13NO(S)-3-Hydroxy-2-methylene-5-phenylpentanenitrile Wanyama P. Juma, Varsha Chhiba, Dean Brady, Moira L. Bode * OAc CN C12H11NO2 (R)-2-Cyano-1... * OAc CN C14H13NO2 (R,E)-4-Cyano-1-phenylpenta-1,4-dien-3-yl acetate [a]D = �58.8 (c 0.5, MeOH) ee = 92% TETASY 59670 No. of Pages 2, Model 5G 14 August 2017iiAbsolute configuration: (R) a- a, Priv 10 Hill e, ydr ic )-a s- e co o and e d. 30 - d - s, n n...

  12. Gastroresistant gelatin films prepared by addition of cellulose acetate phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, B; Weitschies, W; Schneider, F; Sznitowska, M

    2017-06-01

    Gastroresistant capsules are obtained mostly by using modified-release fill in hard capsules, or by coating the gelatin shell with acid-resistant polymers. Modification of the material used at the stage when the capsule shell is produced would reduce the complexity and cost of introducing new products to the market. Gastroresistant gelatin films were obtained by using commercial cellulose acetate phthalate (aqueous dispersion Aquacoat® CPD). Only films casted from non-alkalized mixtures showed no visible disintegration at pH from 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) to 4.5 (phosphate buffer). Elasticity of the dry films was comparable with the one determined for non-modified gelatin films, however tear resistance was 2-fold smaller, but still acceptable for practical application.

  13. A study of butyl acetate synthesis. 4-reaction kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at studying liquid-phase acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm =0.76 Bar,using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431 as catalyst. The effect of the absence of internal and external mass transport on catalyst particles was established in the research conditions used here. A set of assays to determine the effect of catalyst load (0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w temperature (73°C, 80°C, 87°C and molar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 acid/alcohol on reaction rate was carried out and both LHHW and pseudo-homogeneous kinetic expressions were obtained, these being in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  15. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects

  16. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  17. Engineered Humicola insolens cutinase for efficient cellulose acetate deacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirke, Abhijit N; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Saikia, Rakhi; Basu, Aditya; de Maria, Leonardo; Svendsen, Allan; Gross, Richard A

    2017-08-01

    Cutinases comprise a family of esterases with broad hydrolytic activity for chain and pendant ester groups. This work aimed to identify and improve an efficient cutinase for cellulose acetate (CA) deacetylation. The development of a mild method for CA fiber surface deacetylation will result in improved surface hydrophilicity and reactivity while, when combined with cellulases, a route to the full recycling of CA to acetate and glucose. In this study, the comparative CA deacetylation activity of four homologous wild-type (wt) fungal cutinases from Aspergillus oryzae (AoC), Thiellavia terrestris (TtC), Fusarium solani (FsC), and Humicola insolens (HiC) was determined by analysis of CA deacetylation kinetics. wt-HiC had the highest catalytic efficiency (≈32 [cm 2 L -1 ] -1 h -1 ). Comparison of wt-cutinase catalytic constants revealed that differences in catalytic efficiency are primarily due to corresponding variations in corresponding substrate binding constants. Docking studies with model tetrameric substrates also revealed structural origins for differential substrate binding amongst these cutinases. Comparative docking studies of HiC point mutations led to the identification of two important rationales for engineering cutinases for CA deacetylation: (i) create a tight but not too closed binding groove, (ii) allow for hydrogen bonding in the extended region around the active site. Rationally designed HiC with amino acid substitutions I36S, predicted to hydrogen bond to CA, combined with F70A, predicted to remove steric constraints, showed a two-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency. Continued cutinase optimization guided by a detailed understanding of structure-activity relationships, as demonstrated here, will be an important tool to developing practical cutinases for commercial green chemistry technologies. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Sphagnum's coup de grace: Carbon flow to acetate in northern peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; House, C.; Freean, K.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic estimates of the microbial pathway of methane formation in acidic northern peatlands conclude that methane is derived from the pathway of CO2 reduction, whereas, microbial incubation and genomic studies have identified an important role played by acetoclastic methanogens in similar acidic systems. We believe our first ever intramolecular acetate isotopic analyses from an acidic wetland in central Pennsylvania resolve the apparent conflicting pathway estimates by indicating that the isotopic and microbial incubation studies are consistent with each other and with a pathway of methane formation through acetate from an isotopically depleted autotrophic acetate source. Intramolecular acetate isotopic measurements allow us to estimate that as much as 1/3 of the acetate in acidic wetlands is derived from autotrophy. Given a simple case of glucose fermentation to acetate, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, our acetate production pathway estimate requires that nearly all of the carbon products from fermentation must flow through the acetate pool. Our work confirms the prior hypothesis and prior observations that acetate is an important metabolic end product in northern acidic wetlands. Further, we hypothesize an alternative fate of acetate in peat porewaters that alludes to an ecological role of autotorophic acetogens and acetate oxidizers in creating the impermeable humified peat catotelm unique to sphagnum dominated systems. The diversion of carbon flow to from methane to acetate increases the organic acid production and we hypothesize that the net transport of dissolved fulvic acids into the catotelm allows coupled acetate oxidation and fulvic acid reduction. This process of acetate consumption would create a net addition of hydrophobic, amorphous, and therefore more impermeable organic carbon. We conclude that an ecological strategy of the sphagnum mosses may not simply be to decrease the pH of the environment to slow metabolism, but rather to force the microbial

  19. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M.; Mora, Diego

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis. We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. IMPORTANCE This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. PMID:27235432

  20. Insights into the mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minhua; Yao, Rui; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Yifei, E-mail: yfchen@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The scission of C–OH bond of acetic acid is the rate-determined step in acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111). • Acetic acid adsorption and reaction barrier of C–OH scission of acetic acid are factors related to acetic acid conversion. • Acetaldehyde adsorption and reaction barriers of O–H formation of C{sub 2}–oxygenates are factors related to ethanol selectivity. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to theoretically explain the reaction mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu catalyst. The activation barriers of key elementary steps and the adsorption configurations of key intermediates involved in acetic acid hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface were investigated. The results indicated that the direct dissociation of acetic acid to acetyl (CH{sub 3}COOH → CH{sub 3}CO + OH) is the rate-determined step. The activation barrier of acetic acid scission to acetyl and the adsorption energy of acetic acid are two descriptors which could determine the conversion of acetic acid. The descriptors might have effects on the ethanol selectivity including: the adsorption energy of acetaldehyde and the activation barriers for O−H bond formation of C{sub 2}-oxygenates (CH{sub 3}CO + H → CH{sub 3}COH, CH{sub 3}CHO + H → CH{sub 3}CHOH and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O + H → CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH). These proposed descriptors could be used as references to design new Cu-based catalysts that have excellent catalytic performance.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  2. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  3. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  4. Diaterebic acid acetate and diaterpenylic acid acetate: atmospheric tracers for secondary organic aerosol formation from 1,8-cineole oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Böge, Olaf; Keywood, Melita; Gnauk, Thomas; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2009-01-15

    Detailed organic speciation of summer time PM10 collected in Melbourne, Australia, indicated the presence of numerous monoterpene oxidation products that have previously been reported in the literature. In addition, two highly oxygenated compounds with molecular formulas C9H14O6 (MW 218) and C10H16O6 (MW 232), previously unreported, were detected during a period associated with high temperatures and bushfire smoke. These two compounds were also present in laboratory-produced secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through the reaction of OH radicals with 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol), which is emitted by Eucalyptus trees. The retention times and mass spectral behavior of the highly oxygenated compounds in high-performance liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) in parallel to ion trap MS of agree perfectly between the ambient samples and the laboratory-produced SOA samples, suggesting that 1,8-cineole is the precursor of the highly oxygenated compounds. The proposed structure of the compound with molecular formula C10H16O6 was confirmed by synthesis of a reference compound. The two novel compounds were identified as diaterebic acid acetate (2-[1-(acetyloxy)-1-methylethyl]succinic acid, C9H14O6) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (3-[1-(acetyloxy)-1-methylethyl]glutaric acid, C10H16O6) based on the consideration of reaction mechanisms, the structure of a reference compound, and the interpretation of mass spectral data. Depending on the experimental conditions, the SOA yields determined in chamber experiments ranged between 16 and 20% for approximately 25 ppb of hydrocarbon consumed. The concentrations of these compounds were as high as 50 ng m(-3) during the summertime in Melbourne. This study demonstrates the importance and influence of local vegetation patterns on SOA chemical composition.

  5. Evaluating the ethyl-acetate fraction of crude methanol leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was subsequently shaken with ethyl acetate and to obtain the ethyl acetate fraction, which was later dried and used in two different concentrations ( 1% w/w and 2 % w/w to formulate simple ointments. The ointments were evaluated for wound healing properties using male albino rats (65 – 180 g) aged 3 – 4 months.

  6. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  7. Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Evidence for a role of acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, J.G.; Fox, I.H.

    1984-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with [8-14C] adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake

  8. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    experimentally investigated by a simple heat loss method. The aim was to find compositions of maximum heat released from the crystallization of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate samples at ambient temperature. It was found that samples of sodium acetate trihydrate with 0.5–2% (wt.%) Carboxy-Methyl Cellulose...

  9. Acetalization of 2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde mechanism using halogen acid catalysts based on ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Roza, Destria; Nasution, Ahmad Kamil

    2017-11-01

    The computational calculation was performed on the acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde by using ab initio method. Ab initio method is derived directly from theoretical principles with no inclusion of experimental data and this is an approximate quantum mechanical calculation. The aim of this research was to studies the acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde mechanism using halogen acid catalysts. Computational calculation which was applied on the acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde using halogen acid catalysts provided possible reaction steps. The first step was formation of a labile hemiacetal because it is essentially tetrahedral intermediates containing a leaving group. The second step was formation of a stable acetal. The results of computational calculation of acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde provided possible energy change in the each step of the reaction process. A labile hemiacetal showed higher energy (481.04 kJ/mol) than 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (65.32 kJ/mol) and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0 kJ/mol) due to its instability. In general, acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde reaction is a reversible reaction. The effect of Lewis acidity on halogen acid catalysts was also studied in this research. Based on the Mulliken charge on the H atom, it is found that HF has the highest Lewis acidity compared to other halogen acids with order HF> HCl> HBr> HI. As a result, HF was the efficient catalysts for acetalization of 2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  10. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  11. Recovery of arabinan in acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Hedegaard, Mette Christina; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2009-01-01

    Acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment was done on corn stover under 195 °C, 15 min with the acetic acid ranging from 5 × 10−3 to 0.2 g g−1 corn stover. After pretreatment, the water-insoluble solids (WISs) and liquors were collected respectively. Arabinan recoveries from both WIS...

  12. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately and tes...

  13. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  14. Isolation and characterization of acetate-utilizing anaerobes from a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was

  15. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Usha; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, Pramod; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for

  16. Acetic acid vapor: 2. A statistical mechanical critique of vapor density experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togeas, James B

    2005-06-23

    A statistical mechanical model is used to critique vapor density experiments on acetic acid. The model suggests that the differences in the standard enthalpy of dissociation of acetic acid dimer reported in the literature lie mainly in the interpretation of the data and not in the data itself. If a uniform and plausible interpretative framework is adopted, the discrepancies largely disappear.

  17. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  18. Antiplasmodial studies on the ethyl acetate fraction of the stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    of the ethyl acetate fraction in mice study showed that the ethyl acetate fra activity. Key words: Acute toxicity, Antiplasmodial,. INTRODUCTION. Malaria is an infectious disease that has contin cause mortality and morbidity in the tropics an tropics (Igweet al., 2012).Malaria is transmit people through the bites of infected female ...

  19. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, K.; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been investigated. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid, and give a hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers which block the active sites. The

  20. Steam reforming of acetic acid - A major component in the volatiles formed during gasification of humin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Thi Minh Chau; Geerdink, Bert; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid and phenols are the major components of the condensable by-products in the low temperature de-volatilisation stage of humin during gasification. Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid using supported Ni on ceria-zirconia mixed oxide prepared via the hydrothermal route is discussed. The

  1. Cervical Pattern on Visual Inspection With Aceto Acetic Acid in A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: One of the commonest alternatives to Pap's smear is direct visualization of the cervix using Acetic acid. The investigators set out to evaluate cervical cancer screening using Visual inspection with Acetic acid in a Faith based organizational setting. Methods: The study was carried out at the premises of the headquarters ...

  2. Oxygen-dependent catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egebo, L A; Nielsen, S V; Jochimsen, B U

    1991-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Examination of this catabolism in strain 110 by in vivo experiments has revealed an enzymatic activity catalyzing the degradation of IAA and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid. The activity requires...

  3. Enhanced expression of aconitase raises acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-06-15

    Acetobacter spp. are used for industrial vinegar production because of their high ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and high resistance to acetic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of a soluble fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins whose production was enhanced, to various extents, in response to acetic acid in the medium. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa was significantly enhanced in amount by acetic acid and identified to be aconitase by NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and subsequent gene cloning. Amplification of the aconitase gene by use of a multicopy plasmid in A. aceti enhanced the enzymatic activity and acetic acid resistance. These results showed that aconitase is concerned with acetic acid resistance. Enhancement of the aconitase activity turned out to be practically useful for acetic acid fermentation, because the A. aceti transformant harboring multiple copies of the aconitase gene produced a higher concentration of acetic acid with a reduced growth lag-time.

  4. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  5. Impact of visual inspection with acetic acid plus cryotherapy “see ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-18

    May 18, 2016 ... Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the impact of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) plus immediate cryotherapy on the ... Key words: Cervical cancer, cryotherapy, impact, see and treat, visual inspection with acetic acid. Date of ..... supports the use of VIA‑based see and treat cervical.

  6. 78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes... tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed: Agenda items include the following topics: (1) ACET Chair's report to...

  7. Excited-state proton transfer from pyranine to acetate in methanol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    -trisulphonate,. HPTS) to acetate in methanol has been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectros- copy. The rate constant of direct proton transfer from pyranine to acetate (k1) is calculated to be. ~1 × 10. 9. M. –1 s. –1.

  8. Excited-state proton transfer from pyranine to acetate in methanol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trisulphonate, HPTS) to acetate in methanol has been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate constant of direct proton transfer from pyranine to acetate (1) is calculated to be ∼ 1 × 109 M-1 s-1. This is slower by ...

  9. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    , such as acetic acid in fermentations [2, 3]. Thus, from a biotechnological perspective, it is highly interesting to research on the system CO2—H2O with different concentrations of acetic acid (HAc). Based on previous studies [4, 5], this project aims to investigate the vapour/liquid equilibria (VLE...

  10. Efficacy of Acetic Acid againstListeria monocytogenesAttached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fandos, Elena; Herrera, Barbara

    2014-09-11

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L . monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L . monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0), L . monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant ( p acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L . monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L . monocytogenes .

  11. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (pacid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; pacid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH.

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of α-Acetal-β'-Amino Ketone Derivatives by Rhodium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis, Quentin; Guillamot, Gérard; Phansavath, Phannarath; Ratovelomanana-Vidal, Virginie

    2017-12-01

    A range of β-keto-γ-acetal enamides has been synthesized and transformed into the corresponding enantioenriched α-acetal-β'-amino ketones with enantioinductions of up to 99% by using rhodium/QuinoxP*-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation under mild conditions. This method also proved to be highly chemoselective toward the reduction of the C-C double bond.

  13. Distribution of planktonic decapods with special reference to Acetes from nearshore waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    , they were more off Versova (av. 1766/100 m3) than Mahim (av. 970/100 m3). Acetes spp. were common along both the transects. They were represented by Acetes indicus. A. siibogae and A. erythraeus. The effect of physico-chemical parameters in the occurrence...

  14. Cinnamyl acetate synthesis by lipase-catalyzed transesterification in a solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Wang, Mengfan; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl acetate was synthesized using immobilized lipase through transesterification between ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol. In the solvent-free system, ethyl acetate acted as not only the acyl donor but also as the solvent of cinnamyl alcohol. Conversion (90.06%) was achieved after 3 H when transesterification was carried out at ethyl acetate/cinnamyl alcohol 15:1, 2.67 g L of lipase (Novozym 435) loading, and 40°C. Excellent stability and reusability of the enzyme resulted from the moderate reaction system. Kinetic studies showed that the Michaelis constants for ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol and the inhibition constant of cinnamyl alcohol were 2.241, 206.82, and 0.461 mmol L⁻¹, respectively, which indicated that the reaction complied with the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism, with the inhibition of cinnamyl alcohol on lipase. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...

  16. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counce, Robert M.; Watson, Jack S.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstream steps can be avoided. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid

  17. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  18. Positron emission tomography with [11C]-acetate for evaluation of myocardial oxidative metabolism. Clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinova, I.S.; Litvinov, M.M.; Rozhkova, G.G.; Leont'eva, I.V.; Sebeleva, I.A.; Tumanyan, M.R.; Koledinskij, D.G.; Sukhorukov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    The diagnostic potentials of positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 11 C]-acetate as applied to mitochondrial disorders in children with cardiomyopathies (CMP) are evaluated. PET examinations are performed in 17 patients of the mean age of 7.5 ± 3.1 years with CMP. A dynamic study with [ 11 C]-acetate is conducted to evaluate the Krebs cycle activity. The experiments have indicated to a fewer accumulation of [ 11 C]-acetate and to its slower clearance in the ischemic zone as compared with the normal myocardium. The Krebs cycle activity has been reduced. By means of PET with [ 11 C]-acetate the oxidation rate constant of the Krebs cycle and the [ 11 C]-acetate-activity clearance half-time can be quantified. This makes possible to assess the extent of oxidative metabolism malfunction, including the case of perfusion reduction [ru

  19. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  20. Deletion of JJJ1 improves acetic acid tolerance and bioethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuechang; Zhang, Lijie; Jin, Xinna; Fang, Yahong; Zhang, Ke; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2016-07-01

    To improve tolerance to acetic acid that is present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and affects bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved tolerance to acetic acid were obtained through deletion of the JJJ1 gene. The lag phase of the JJJ1 deletion mutant BYΔJJJ1 was ~16 h shorter than that of the parent strain, BY4741, when the fermentation medium contained 4.5 g acetic acid/l. Additionally, the specific ethanol production rate of BYΔJJJ1 was increased (0.057 g/g h) compared to that of the parent strain (0.051 g/g h). Comparative transcription and physiological analyses revealed higher long chain fatty acid, trehalose, and catalase contents might be critical factors responsible for the acetic acid resistance of JJJ1 knockout strains. JJJ1 deletion improves acetic acid tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae.

  1. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production with high butyrate/acetate ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yukai; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Fu, Hongxin; Wang, Jufang

    2018-04-07

    Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration. Fed-batch fermentation of ATCC 25755/cat1 + crt resulted in increased butyrate/acetate ratio of 15.76 g/g, which was 2.24-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, in order to simultaneously increase the butyrate/acetate ratio, butyric acid concentration and productivity, the recombinant strain ATCC 25755/ppcc (co-expression of 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) gene, pyruvate kinase (pykA) gene, cat1, and crt) was constructed. Consequently, ATCC 25755/ppcc produced more butyric acid (46.8 vs. 35.0 g/L) with a higher productivity (0.83 vs. 0.49 g/L·h) and butyrate/acetate ratio (13.22 vs. 7.22 g/g) as compared with the wild-type strain in batch fermentation using high glucose concentration (120 g/L). This study demonstrates that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux is an effective way to reduce acetic acid production and increase butyrate/acetate ratio.

  2. Cellulose acetate nanocomposite with nanocellulose obtained from bagasse of sugarcane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Frirllei Cardozo dos

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for the extraction of nanocellulose of sugarcane bagasse for use in nanocomposites with cellulose acetate (CA). The bagasse sugarcane was treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) to remove lignin, hemicellulose, pectin and impurities. For removal of the amorphous region of cellulose microfibrils obtained from alkali treatments were submitted to acid hydrolysis with sulfuric acid under different temperature conditions. The nanocellulose obtained through acid hydrolysis heated at 45 ° C was used for the formulation of nanocomposites by smaller dimensions presented. The films were formulated at different concentrations (1, 2, 4 and 6 wt%) by the casting technique at room temperature. Each alkaline treatment was accompanied by spectrophotometry by infrared and fluorescence analysis to confirm the removal of the amorphous fraction, micrographs carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to display the fiber defibration. The efficiency of acid hydrolysis was confirmed by micrographs obtained by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The crystallinity index (CI) of the nanocrystals was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The surface of the obtained films were characterized by SEM and AFM microscopy of. The results showed that the sugarcane bagasse is an excellent source for nanocellulose extraction, the amorphous fraction of the fiber can be removed with the suggested alkaline treatments, and hydrolysis with H 2 SO 4 was efficient both in the removal of amorphous cellulose as in reducing cellulose nanoscale with a length around 250 nm and a diameter of about 10 nm. The use of heated nanocellulose obtained through hydrolysis was selected after analysis of XRD, it was confirmed that this material had higher when compared to IC hydrolysis at room temperature. The nanocomposites showed high rigidity and brittleness with high crystallinity when compared to the pure polymer film was observed by AFM and SEM

  3. Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Garcia, Vicente; López-Briz, Eduardo; Carbonell Sanchis, Rafael; Gonzalvez Perales, Jose Luis; Bort-Marti, Sylvia

    2013-03-28

    This is an updated version of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (2005, Issue 2) on 'Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome'. Megestrol acetate (MA) is currently used to improve appetite and to increase weight in cancer-associated anorexia. In 1993, MA was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The mechanism by which MA increases appetite is unknown and its effectiveness for anorexia and cachexia in neoplastic and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of MA in palliating anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with cancer, AIDS and other underlying pathologies. We sought studies through an extensive search of electronic databases, journals, reference lists, contact with investigators and other search strategies outlined in the methods. The most recent search for this update was carried out in May 2012. Studies were included in the review if they assessed MA compared to placebo or other drug treatments in randomised controlled trials of patients with a clinical diagnosis of anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to cancer, AIDS or any other underlying pathology. Two independent review authors conducted data extraction and evaluated methodological quality. We performed quantitative analyses using appetite and quality of life as a dichotomous variable, and analysed weight gain as continuous and dichotomous variables. We included 35 trials in this update, the same number but not the same trials as in the previous version of the review. The trials comprised 3963 patients for effectiveness and 3180 for safety. Sixteen trials compared MA at different doses with placebo, seven trials compared different doses of MA with other drug treatments and 10 trials compared different doses of MA. Meta-analysis showed a benefit of MA compared with placebo

  4. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  5. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá-Correia Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5. Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to

  6. Spasticity in multiple sclerosis and role of glatiramer acetate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meca-Lallana, Jose Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2015-09-01

    Spasticity is one of the most disabling and difficult-to-treat symptoms shown by patients with multiple sclerosis, who often show a suboptimal and unsatisfactory response to classic treatment and new available nonpharmacological alternatives. Due to the progressive nature of this condition, the early management should be essential to improve long-term outcomes. We performed a narrative literature review of the contribution of spasticity to the burden of multiple sclerosis and the potential role of classic disease-modifying drugs. Added to the underlying pathophysiology of spasticity, certain external factors and drugs such as interferon may exacerbate the existing condition, hence their awareness is crucial as part of an effective management of spasticity. Furthermore, the evidence for the effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in preventing spasticity in naïve patients and in those switching from interferon should not be ignored. This literature review proposes the examination of spasticity and the influence of classic disease-modifying agents on the level of existing condition among the variables to be considered when deciding on therapy for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice.

  7. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  8. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  10. Interaction of lead acetate with atrial natriuretic factor in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giridhar, J.; Isom, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Lead exposure alters cardiovascular function and has been implicated in the etiology of hypertension. Therefore it was of interest to study the short term effect of lead treatment on atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups containing 4 animals each and injected intraperitoneally with normal saline (control), 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg of body weight with lead acetate solution twice a day for 7 days, and then maintained for a period of 30 days. During this period water consumption and urine volume were measured daily. At the end of the 30 day period, immunoreactive levels of ANF in hypothalamus, atria and plasma were measured by radioimmunoassay. Lead treatment did not alter water consumption, but significantly decreased urine output. At all doses, lead produced a decrease in hypothalamic content of ANF and slightly increased atrial levels. The content of ANF in plasma was decreased. The changes in ANF content indicate that lead interacts with the hormonal regulation of the cardiovascular system and these observations may relate to the cardiovascular toxicity of this heavy metal

  11. Hemodynamic effects of methylprednisolone acetate administration in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ployngam, Trasida; Tobias, Anthony H; Smith, Stephanie A; Torres, Sheila M F; Ross, Sheri J

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the mechanisms by which corticosteroid administration may predispose cats to congestive heart failure (CHF). 12 cats receiving methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) for the treatment of dermatologic disorders. The study was conducted as a repeated-measures design. Various baseline variables were measured, after which MPA (5 mg/kg, IM) was administered. The same variables were then measured at 3 to 6 days and at 16 to 24 days after MPA administration. Evaluations included physical examination, systolic blood pressure measurement, hematologic analysis, serum biochemical analysis, thoracic radiography, echocardiography, and total body water and plasma volume determination. MPA resulted in a substantial increase in serum glucose concentration at 3 to 6 days after administration. Concurrently, RBC count, Hct, and hemoglobin concentration as well as serum concentrations of the major extracellular electrolytes, sodium and chloride, decreased. Plasma volume increased by 13.4% (> 40% in 3 cats), whereas total body water and body weight slightly decreased. All variables returned to baseline by 16 to 24 days after MPA administration. These data suggest that MPA administration in cats causes plasma volume expansion as a result of an intra to extracellular fluid shift secondary to glucocorticoid-mediated extracellular hyperglycemia. This mechanism is analogous to the plasma volume expansion that accompanies uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in humans. Any cardiovascular disorders that impair the normal compensatory mechanisms for increased plasma volume may predispose cats to CHF following MPA administration.

  12. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia De Riccardis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4+, the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4+ T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4+ T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4+ T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  13. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riccardis, Lidia; Ferramosca, Alessandra; Danieli, Antonio; Trianni, Giorgio; Zara, Vincenzo; De Robertis, Francesca; Maffia, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone) is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4 + , the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4 + T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs) and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4 + T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4 + T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  14. Neptunium salts with certain acetic acid derivatives, synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charushnikova, I.A.; Afonas'eva, T.V.; Krot, N.N.

    1995-01-01

    A study was performed to develop preparation of neptunium (V) salts with aminoacetic, glycolic, and trichloroacetic acids. Crystalline NpO 2 (CH 2 OHCOO). H 2 O (I) and NpO 2 (CC1 3 COO).H 2 O (II) were synthesized. Their lattice parameters [I: rhombic, a = 13.440(2), b = 8.755(2), c = 5.711(1) Angstrom; II; monoclinic, a - 12.836(4), b = 11.308(3), c = 5.875(1) Angstrom,β - 99.83(4)degrees] were determined, and IR and electronic absorption spectra were measured. The main band of NpO + 2 ion (980 nm) is electronic absorption spectra of I and II is shifted toward longer waves by 16 and 21 nm, indicating cation-cation interactions in the lattice. Behavior of the compounds at heating in air was studied. Compound I loses water in the 200-350 degrees C range with simultaneous decomposition to NpO 2 . At 210 degrees C, compound II is converted into intermediate NpOC1 2 , which then decomposes to NpO 2 . Main physiochemical properties of I and II were compared with properties of Np(V) acetate

  15. Antipain and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    1980-01-01

    Antipain (AP) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbooe-13-acetate (TPA) were tested in V79 Chinese hamster cells for cytotoxicity and effects on survival and 6-thioguanine-resistant (6TGsup(r)) mutation after UV-irradiation. AP and/or TPA were relatively non-cytotoxic and had no significant effects on UV survival. Despite their non-mutagenicity, the recovery of UV-induced 6TGsup(r) colonies was significantly enhanced by the pretreatment with either AP (0,5-2 mM) or TPA (0.1-1 μg/ml) only during the expression period before the 6TG selection at a low density of cells in the absence of AP or TPA. Such enhancing effects were maximal when AP or TPA was present during the late expression period after the mutation fixation and extensive dilution of DNA lesions. Reconstruction experiments revelaed the antgonisitc actions that TPA and AP tended to eliminate and increase, respectively, the metabolic co-operation. In the TPA-plus-AP treatment, AP abolished the TPA-enhanced recovery of induced mutants. Thus, it seems that TPA increases the mutant recovery langely through decreased metabolic co-operation and AP could modulate the mutation expression. Further, an error-prone inducible repair may not exist or, if it exists, AP may not inhibit it in V79 Chinese hamster cells. (orig.)

  16. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monleón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  17. Acetic acid denaturing pulsed field capillary electrophoresis for RNA separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenqing; Dou, Xiaoming; Ni, Yi; Sumitomo, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2010-10-01

    Based on our previous work of in-capillary denaturing polymer electrophoresis, we present a study of RNA molecular separation up to 6.0 kilo nucleotide by pulsed field CE. This is the first systematic investigation of electrophoresis of a larger molecular mass RNA in linear hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) under pulsed field conditions. The parameters that may influence the separation performance, e.g. gel polymer concentration, modulation depth and pulse frequency, are analyzed in terms of resolution and mobility. For denaturing and separating RNA in the capillary simultaneously, 2 M acetic acid was added into the HEC polymer to serve as separation buffer. Result shows that (i) in pulsed field conditions, RNA separation can be achieved in a wide range of concentration of HEC polymer, and RNA fragments between 0.3 and 0.6 kilo nucleotide are sensitive to the polymer concentration; (ii) under certain pulsed field conditions, RNA fragments move linearly as the modulation depth increases; (iii) 12.5 Hz is the resonance frequency for RNA reorientation time and applied frequency.

  18. 78 FR 14095 - Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Determination That GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.5 Milligrams Base/Vial and 1.0 Milligrams Base/Vial, and GEREF (Sermorelin Acetate) Injection, 0.05 Milligrams Base/Amp, Were Not Withdrawn From Sale for...

  19. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanping [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dong, Xiuqin [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Yu, Yingzhe, E-mail: yzhyu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Minhua, E-mail: mhzhangtj@163.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • All dehydrogenation reactions in vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) were studied. • The energy barriers of the transition state of the three reactions were calculated. • The influence of surface Os and OHs on all dehydrogenation actions was discussed. - Abstract: On the basis of a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  20. Protective effects of piperine on lead acetate induced-nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we investigated the protective effects of piperine on lead acetate-induced renal damage in rat kidney tissue. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given aquadest daily, positive control (rats were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 60 days, and the treatment group (rats were given piperine 50 mg; 100 mg and 200 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 65 days, and on 5th day, were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW one hr after piperine administration for 60 days. On day 65 levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx were measured. Also, kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. Results: The results revealed that lead acetate toxicity induced a significant increase in the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA; moreover, a significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Lead acetate also altered kidney histopathology (kidney damage, necrosis of tubules compared to the negative control. However, administration of piperine significantly improved the kidney histopathology, decreased the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA, and also significantly increased the SOD and GPx in the kidney of lead acetate-treated rats. Conclusion: From the results of this study it was concluded that piperine could be a potent natural herbal product exhibiting nephroprotective effect against lead acetate induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  1. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  2. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid.

  3. Kelp waste extracts combined with acetate enhances the biofuel characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Sui, Yangsui; Gebreluel, Temesgen; Zou, Shanmei; Kemuma, Nyabuto Dorothy; Wang, Changhai

    2017-02-01

    To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL -1 acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3.0gL -1 acetate treatment, which increased by 16.32% and 129.03% compared with 3.0gL -1 acetate, and 253.35% and 70.74% compared with KWE treatment. Meanwhile, C18:3n3 and C18:2n6c contents were reduced to 4.90% and 11.88%, whereas C16:0 and C18:1n9c were improved to 28.71% and 37.76%. Hence, supplementing appropriate acetate in KWE cultures is supposed to be a great potential method for large-scale cultivation of C. sorokiniana to generate biofuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The anti-inflammatory effects of Caragana tangutica ethyl acetate extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yongmei; Li, Weifeng; Hu, Hua; Yao, Huan; Li, Huani; Mu, Qingli

    2014-02-27

    Caragana tangutica KOM has been used to treat arthritis, wounds, fever and other disease conditions in traditional Chinese medicine (TMC). To support the application of the plant in traditional Chinese medicine by investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Caragana tangutica. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by animal models including xylene-induced ear edema in mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The anti-inflammatory mechanism was evaluated by detecting prostaglandin E2 and immunohistochemistry expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) using an EIA assay kit and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed that the xylene-induced ear edema in mice was significantly reduced by the ethyl acetate extract at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was monitored to be reduced by the ethyl acetate extract 3h after carrageenan injection. The ethyl acetate extract was also found to reduce the inflammation pain of acetic acid-induced writhing model in a dose-dependent manner and cause reduction of the ALI in mice through the inhibition of the release of PGE2 and the LPS-induced COX-2 expression in the lung. Our study demonstrates that the ethyl acetate extract of the plant can help to reduce inflammations by inhibiting the expression of COX-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-07-01

    Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure.

  6. Acetic Acid Influences BRL-3A Cell Lipid Metabolism via the AMPK Signalling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; He, Meilin; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid (AcOH), a short-chain fatty acid, is reported to have some beneficial effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory mechanism of acetic acid on hepatic lipid metabolism in BRL-3A cells. We cultured and treated BRL-3A cells with different concentrations of sodium acetate (neutralized acetic acid) and BML-275 (an AMPKα inhibitor). The total lipid droplet area was measured by oil red O staining, and the triglyceride content was determined by a triglyceride detection kit. We detected mRNA and protein levels of lipid metabolism-related signalling molecules by RT-PCR and Western blot. Acetic acid treatment increased AMPKα phosphorylation, which subsequently increased the expression and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and upregulated the expression of lipid oxidation genes. These changes ultimate led to increasing levels of lipid oxidation in BRL-3A cells. Furthermore, elevated AMPKα phosphorylation reduced the expression and transcriptional activity of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, which reduced the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis in BRL-3A cells. Consequently, triglyceride content in acetate-treated BRL-3A cells was significantly decreased. These results indicate that acetic acid activates the AMPKα signalling pathway, leading to increased lipid oxidation and decreased lipid synthesis in BRL-3A cells, thereby reducing liver fat accumulation in vitro. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Osmoadaptation of wine yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Icewine fermentation leads to high levels of acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, C; Martin, S J; Yang, F; Inglis, D L

    2018-02-14

    Volatile acidity (VA) production along with gene expression patterns, encoding enzymes involved in both acetic acid production and utilization, were investigated to relate gene expression patterns to the production of undesired VA during Icewine fermentation. Icewine juice and diluted Icewine juice were fermented using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast K1-V1116. Acetic acid production increased sixfold during the Icewine fermentation vs the diluted juice condition, while ethyl acetate production increased 2·4-fold in the diluted fermentation relative to the Icewine. Microarray analysis profiled the transcriptional response of K1-V1116 under both conditions. ACS1 and ACS2 were downregulated 19·0-fold and 11·2-fold, respectively, in cells fermenting Icewine juice compared to diluted juice. ALD3 expression was upregulated 14·6-fold, and gene expressions involved in lipid and ergosterol synthesis decreased during Icewine fermentation. Decreased expression of ACS1 and ACS2 together with increased ALD3 expression contributes to the higher acetic acid and lower ethyl acetate levels generated by K1-V1116 fermenting under hyperosmotic stress. This work represents a more comprehensive understanding of how and why commercial wine yeast respond at the transcriptional and metabolic level during fermentation of Icewine juice, and how these responses contribute to increased acetic acid and decreased ethyl acetate production. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  9. Comparison of acetic acid and ethanol sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: clinical experience with 86 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and treatment session numbers of acetic acid to that of ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Between February 2004 and June 2013, 86 patients with simple renal cysts underwent percutaneous aspiration and injection of 50 %-acetic-acid (42 cysts) and 95 %-ethanol (44 cysts). The patient demographics, volume reduction rate, number of treatment sessions, and complications were then analyzed. The volume reduction rate was 94.1 ± 7.6 % in the 50 %-acetic acid group and 94.7 ± 11.7 % in the 95 %-ethanol group, and without a statistical difference. The rates of complete remission, partial remission, and no response were 57.1, 42.9 and 0 %, respectively, for the acetic acid group, and 70.5, 25.0, and 4.5 %, respectively, for the ethanol group. No statistical difference was observed between the two groups. Compared to the acetic acid group, the ethanol group had a higher number of treatment sessions, i.e. 1.10 ± 0.30 in the acetic acid group and 1.80 ± 0.79 in the ethanol group. Mild flank pain was a minor complication that occurred in both groups. Acetic acid seems to have equivalent sclerosing effects on simple renal cysts compared with those of ethanol despites of fewer treatment sessions.

  10. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  12. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. PMID:26060272

  13. Influence of acetate ions on aluminium, gallium and indium complexing with lumogallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatnitskij, I.V.; Boryak, A.K.; Kolomiets, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The comparative investigation of Al, Ga and In complexing with lumogallion (LG) in the absence and in the presence of acetate ions is performed. The influence of acetate ion concentration of optical density of solutions of formed complexes as well as the pH value effect on their light absorption is studied. It has been found that in the absence of acetate ions stability of the metal complexes with LG is decreased in the Ga>In-Al series, whereas the introduction of acetate ions leads to inversion (Ga>Al>In) in the above series. The latter is explained by In binding into colorless acetate complex at pH<5. In the region of higher pH value the LG competitive ness increases due to concentration increase of coordinating dye anions and in these conditions the In coloured complex with lumogallion is formed also in the presence of acetate ions. The composition of formed complexes is established depending on pH value and acetate ion concentration. Electron absorption spectra of coloured complexes are presented

  14. The acetate switch of an intestinal pathogen disrupts host insulin signaling and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Saiyu; Purdy, Alexandra E; Robins, William P; Wang, Zhipeng; Mandal, Manabendra; Chang, Sarah; Mekalanos, John J; Watnick, Paula I

    2014-11-12

    Vibrio cholerae is lethal to the model host Drosophila melanogaster through mechanisms not solely attributable to cholera toxin. To examine additional virulence determinants, we performed a genetic screen in V. cholerae-infected Drosophila and identified the two-component system CrbRS. CrbRS controls transcriptional activation of acetyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS-1) and thus regulates the acetate switch, in which bacteria transition from excretion to assimilation of environmental acetate. The resultant loss of intestinal acetate leads to deactivation of host insulin signaling and lipid accumulation in enterocytes, resulting in host lethality. These metabolic effects are not observed upon infection with ΔcrbS or Δacs1 V. cholerae mutants. Additionally, uninfected flies lacking intestinal commensals, which supply short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, also exhibit altered insulin signaling and intestinal steatosis, which is reversed upon acetate supplementation. Thus, acetate consumption by V. cholerae alters host metabolism, and dietary acetate supplementation may ameliorate some sequelae of cholera. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, Hazardous Materials Disposal Sites, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    SANDIA LABS HAZARDOUS WASTE SUMMARY Acetic Acid Alumium Trichloride Ammonium Bifluoride Amyl Nitrate Beryllium Chloride Chromate Compounds Chromium...Kirtland Air Force Base- j Aluminum phosphide - fumigant Bromacil - herbicide Carbaryl (Sevin) - insecticide Chlordane - insecticide Chlorpyrifos (Dursban

  16. Redox substoichiometric determination of thallium [Paper No. RA-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Rao, K.; Rao, A.A.P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the redox substoichiometric determination of thallium employing chlorate as oxident for thallium(I) has been developed. The substoichiometric amount of Tl(III) formed was isolated by extraction with iso-amyl acetate. (author)

  17. Comparison of Time-Averaged Concentrations Measured at Fixed Locations and Painters' Breathing Zones During Aircraft Spray Painting in Conditions of Straight-Through and Recirculating Ventilation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wander, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ... relative to the two sets measured in staright-through conditions. Toxicants measured were butyl acetate, diisobutyl ketone, ethylbenzene, methyl amyl ketone, methyl propyl ketone, xylene, hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDl), toluene 2,4-diisocyanate (TDl), and strontium chromate.

  18. Putative ABC transporter responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of the membrane fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins that were produced in response to acetic acid. A 60-kDa protein, named AatA, which was mostly induced by acetic acid, was prepared; aatA was cloned on the basis of its NH2-terminal amino acid sequence. AatA, consisting of 591 amino acids and containing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sequences and ABC signature sequences, belonged to the ABC transporter superfamily. The aatA mutation with an insertion of the neomycin resistance gene within the aatA coding region showed reduced resistance to acetic acid, formic acid, propionic acid, and lactic acid, whereas the aatA mutation exerted no effects on resistance to various drugs, growth at low pH (adjusted with HCl), assimilation of acetic acid, or resistance to citric acid. Introduction of plasmid pABC101 containing aatA under the control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter into the aatA mutant restored the defect in acetic acid resistance. In addition, pABC101 conferred acetic acid resistance on E. coli. These findings showed that AatA was a putative ABC transporter conferring acetic acid resistance on the host cell. Southern blot analysis and subsequent nucleotide sequencing predicted the presence of aatA orthologues in a variety of acetic acid bacteria belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The fermentation with A. aceti containing aatA on a multicopy plasmid resulted in an increase in the final yield of acetic acid.

  19. Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of HCO₃⁻ in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved. The effects of basolateral variation in HCO₃⁻ concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14)C-labelled substrates. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side. Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO₃⁻-independent and -dependent parts. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO₃⁻ concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO₃⁻, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO₃⁻ to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate. Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO₃⁻ exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis for elevated acetate production: Experimental and mathematical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Liu, He; Nie, Yan-Qiu; Zeng, Raymond J; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Homoacetogenesis is an important potential hydrogen sink in acetogenesis, in which hydrogen is used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate. So far the acetate production from homoacetogenesis, especially its kinetics, has not been given sufficient attention. In this work, enhanced production of acetate from anaerobic conversion of glucose through coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis is investigated with both experimental and mathematical approaches. Experiments are conducted to explore elevated acetate production in a coupled anaerobic system. Acetate production could be achieved by homoacetogenesis with a relative high acetate yield under mixed fermentation conditions. With the experimental observations, a kinetic model is formulated to describe such a homoacetogenic process. The maximum homoacetogenic rate (k(m,homo)) is estimated to be 28.5 ± 1.7 kg COD kg⁻¹ COD day⁻¹ with an uptake affinity constant of 3.7 × 10⁻⁵± 3.1 × 10⁻⁶kg COD m⁻³. The improved calculation of homoacetogenic kinetics by our approach could correct the underestimation of homoacetogenesis in anaerobic fermentation processes, as it often occurs in these systems supported by literature analysis. The model predictions match the experimental results in different cases well and provide insights into the dynamics of anaerobic glucose conversion and acetate production. Furthermore, acetate production via homoacetogenesis increases by about 40% through utilizing the fed-batch coupling system, attributed to a balance between the hydrogen production in the acetogenesis phase and the hydrogen consumption in the homoacetogenesis phase. This work provides an effective way for increased anaerobic acetate production, and gives us a better understanding about the homoacetogenic kinetics in the anaerobic fermentation process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Polygenic analysis and targeted improvement of the complex trait of high acetic acid tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; Randazzo, Paola; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; van den Brink, Joost; Vandecruys, Paul; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Dumortier, Françoise; Zalar, Polona; Boekhout, Teun; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Kokošar, Janez; Štajdohar, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Petrovič, Uroš; Thevelein, Johan M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates used for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Although several genes have been identified in laboratory yeast strains that are required for tolerance to acetic acid, the genetic basis of the high acetic

  2. 36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks, Forests... and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a substance akin to gun cotton, is... picture film and X-ray film—nitrocellulose base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate film...

  3. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  4. Acetic acid-water complex: The first observation of structures containing the higher-energy acetic acid conformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susy; Fausto, Rui; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2016-02-01

    Non-covalent interaction of acetic acid (AA) and water is studied experimentally by IR spectroscopy in a nitrogen matrix and theoretically at the MP2 and coupled-cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]/6-311++G(2d,2p) levels of theory. This work is focused on the first preparation and characterization of complexes of higher-energy (cis) conformer of AA with water. The calculations show three 1:1 structures for the trans-AA⋯H2O complexes and three 1:1 structures for the cis-AA⋯H2O complexes. Two trans-AA⋯H2O and two cis-AA⋯H2O complexes are found and structurally assigned in the experiments. The two cis-AA⋯ ṡ H2O complexes are obtained by annealing of a matrix containing water and cis-AA molecules prepared by selective vibrational excitation of the ground-state trans form. The less stable trans-AA⋯H2O complex is obtained by vibrational excitation of the less stable cis-AA⋯H2O complex. In addition, the 1:2 complexes of trans-AA and cis-AA with water molecules are studied computationally and the most stable forms of the 1:2 complexes are experimentally identified.

  5. Biotransformation of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate using the plant parasitic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, M; Akazawa, S i; Sakai, H; Nankai, H

    2000-10-01

    The microbial transformation of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate was investigated using the plant parasitic fungus Glomerella cingulata. As a result, (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate was converted to dihydromyrcenol, 3,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene-7-carboxylate, 3,7-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethyl-1-octene, 3,7-dimethyloctane-1,2, 7-triol-7-carboxylate, and 3,7-dimethyloctane-1,2,7-triol. In addition, microbial transformation of dihydromyrcenol by G. cingulata was carried out. The metabolic pathway of (-)-dihydromyrcenyl acetate is discussed.

  6. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes....... The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0...

  7. Hormone and glucose metabolic effects of compound cyproterone acetate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba Ya; Zhao Jinping; Halike, A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of compound cyproterone acetate(CPY) in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome(PCOS) and study hormone and glucose metabolic effects, thirty-five PCOS patients were treated by compound cyproterone acetate for 3 cycles. The serum LH, FSH and T levels, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were determined before and after 3 cycle's treatment. The results showed that 34 patients had regular menses during CPY therapy. The hirsute and acne score decreased significantly(P 0.05). The results indicate that the compound cyproterone acetate had anti-androgenic effects on PCOS patients and improved their endocrine function and clinical syndrome. (authors)

  8. Lewis Base Activation of Silyl Acetals: Iridium-Catalyzed Reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Olefination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakarapu, Udaya Sree; Bokka, Apparao; Asgari, Parham; Trog, Gabriela; Hua, Yuanda; Nguyen, Hiep H; Rahman, Nawal; Jeon, Junha

    2015-12-04

    A Lewis base promoted deprotonative pronucleophile addition to silyl acetals has been developed and applied to the iridium-catalyzed reductive Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) olefination of esters and the chemoselective reduction of the resulting enoates. Lewis base activation of silyl acetals generates putative pentacoordinate silicate acetals, which fragment into aldehydes, silanes, and alkoxides in situ. Subsequent deprotonative metalation of phosphonate esters followed by HWE with aldehydes furnishes enoates. This operationally convenient, mechanistically unique protocol converts the traditionally challenging aryl, alkenyl, and alkynyl esters to homologated enoates at room temperature within a single vessel.

  9. Amperometric titration of thorium and some lanthanoids in acetic-acid medium using two indicator electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadeev, V.A.; Gevorgyan, A.M.; Talipov, Sh.T.; Kostylev, V.S.

    1979-01-01

    The votammetric behaviour of nitriletrimethylphosphonic acid (NTMP) in the medium of anhydrous acetic acid with different backgrounds in the anode region of polarization of a platinum microdisk electrode, is studied. The optimal conditions are found for the amperometric titration with two indicator electrodes of thorium and same lanthanides by a NTMP solution in anhydrous acetic medium. The influence of foreign anions and cations on the results of titration by the NTPM solution in anhydrous acetic acid is studied. The selectivity of titration in anhydrous medium is higher than in aqueous

  10. Free and proteic aminoacids from acetate 14C metabolism in detached leaves of coffee plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, O.G.; Crocomo, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The acetate 14 C was studied as the forerunner of proteic and free aminoacids in detached leaves of coffee (coffea arabica L.cv. Mundo Novo). The detached leaves were incubated with acetate -1- 14 C and -2- 14 C during several times (15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes), out of luminosity. The ethanol 80% soluble fraction gave origin to free aminoacid after ion - exchange chromatography. The insoluble fraction through acid hydrolisis furnished proteic aminoacids. The data showed that the acetate molecules contributed for the aminoacids molecules structure, methylic carbon being more incorporated than the carboxylic carbon. (Author) [pt

  11. Experimental Determination of Densities and Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate with Alcohols (C3 and C4) at 0.3 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susial, Pedro; Estupiñan, Esteban J.; Castillo, Victor D.; Rodríguez-Henríquez, José J.; Apolinario, José C.

    2013-10-01

    The densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for the methyl acetate + 1-propanol, methyl acetate + 1-butanol, and ethyl acetate + 1-butanol mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibria data at 0.3 MPa for these binary systems were obtained using a stainless steel equilibrium still. The activity coefficients were obtained from the experimental data using the Hayden and O’Connell method and the Yen and Woods equation. The binary systems in this study showed positive deviations from ideality. The experimental VLE data were verified with the point-to-point test of van Ness using the Barker routine and the Fredenslund criterion. The different versions of the UNIFAC and the ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  12. STUDY OF DOUBLE PROTONS MIGRATION MECHANISM IN SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES OF ACETIC ACID-WATER AND ACETIC ACID-AMMONIA BY AB INITIO METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Wijaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical study of double protons migration mechanism on acetic acid-water and acetic acid-ammonia associations has been carried out. The research covered determinations the reactant, transition state and product structures. To gain the goal, the research was conducted in three steps, i.e. (i designing the reactant, transition state and product models, (ii optimizing of structures, and (iii calculating of their uncorrected total energy and frequencies with ab initio methods (basis set 6-31G**. All calculations were performed using Hyperchem ver 5.0 for Windows and Gaussian 94W package program. The computational study result showed that the calculated structures were in good agreement with the hypothetical structures.   Keywords: double protons migration, acetic acid, water, ammonia, molecular mechanics and ab-initio

  13. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  14. Spontaneous Interfacial Dipole Orientation Effect of Acetic Acid Solubilized PFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Luo, Yinqi; Zheng, Jieming; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Huang, Fei; Yang, Bing; Ma, Yuguang

    2018-03-28

    Poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)- alt-(9,9-bis(3'-( N, N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] (PFN) is a very important interfacial modifier in organic photovoltaic and organic light-emitting diodes to improve device performance, where their molecular dipole has been regarded to play a key role. In this work, we have reported a spontaneous interfacial dipole orientation effect in acetic acid dissolved PFN, which is strongly related to the interfacial dipole and the corresponding device performance. In direct spin-coating, the interfacial dipole is 1.08 Debye with interfacial contact angle 84.8°, whereas after self-assembly of 10 min, the interfacial dipole is balanced at 4.21 Debye, with the interfacial contact angle decreasing to 76.8°. Without strong interaction with the substrate, the energy of upward amine groups is much lower than that of downward ones in theoretical simulation, which would be the driving force of this spontaneous process. The preferred conformations of PFN molecules on hydroxylated substrates have over 99% amine groups outward, and the theoretical average dipole calculated from the weight of these conformations is 4.48 Debye, which is close to the experimental result and indicates a high ratio of upward amine groups in self-assembled films. This effect obviously changes the device performance, such as an obvious positive threshold voltage shift in transistors and a distinct increase of the short-circuit current/open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells. This effect provides a deeper understanding of the PFN interlayer mechanism and has potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  15. Water soluble cellulose acetate: a versatile polymer for film coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the use of water soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) as a film coating material for tablets. Aspirin (ASA) tablets were prepared by direct compression and coated with either WSCA or HPMC (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) dispersions. Coatings of 1-3%, depending on the intended application, were applied to the model drug (ASA) tablets employing a side-vented coating pan. Free films of WSCA, prepared by cast method, are crystal clear and, depending on the viscosity grade, are flexible, strong and durable. WSCA has the capability of forming free films without plasticizers and the films dry at room temperature. Glass transition temperature, Tg, was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The Tg of WSCA is significantly higher relative to HPMC. Inclusion of plasticizer lowers the Tg of WSCA and effective plasticizers were PEG 400 and glycerin. Low viscosity WSCA was more soluble in water (25-30%) relative to medium viscosity WSCA (10-15%). WSCA solutions exhibited no increase in viscosity with an increase in temperature. Samples of coated (WSCA and HPMC) tablets and uncoated ASA cores were packaged for stability studies at room and elevated temperature storage. Physical stability of ASA tablets coated with 2:1 LV: MV (low viscosity: medium viscosity) WSCA formulations was better when compared to tablets coated with HPMC. Dissolution stability of WSCA coated ASA was similar to the physical stability results. After three months at elevated temperature (35 and 45 degrees C), the WSCA coated tablets complied with USP dissolution requirements for ASA, while the HPMC coated tablets did not. There was no difference in moisture (weight) gain of ASA tablets coated with either WSCA or HPMC. The WSCA coated tablets were not sticky or tacky, while the HPMC coated tablets were tacky and stuck together.

  16. Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained from all consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesterone-dominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25% and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15% (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87. Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.

  17. Gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: analysis of methanol, ethanol and acetic acid by direct injection of aqueous alcoholic and acetic acid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guomin; Sun, Tong; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2014-08-15

    Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid are not easily extracted from aqueous samples and are susceptible to isotope fractionation in gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) analysis. Developing a direct dilution GC/IRMS method for aqueous samples, by adjusting the sample concentrations in common solvents to be similar to each other and using a fixed GC split ratio, is very convenient and important because any linearity effects caused by amount-dependent isotope fractionation can be avoided. The suitability of acetonitrile and acetone solvents for the GC/IRMS analysis of pure methanol, ethanol and acetic acid, and commercial liquor and vinegar samples was evaluated using n-hexane and water as control solvents. All the solvents including water were separated from the analyte on a HP-INNOWAX column and were diverted away from the combustion interface. The influence of liquor matrix on the ethanol GC/IRMS analyses was evaluated by adding pure ethanol to liquor samples. Acetonitrile and acetone gave similar δ(13) C values for pure ethanol and pure acetic acid to those obtained in water and n-hexane, and also gave similar δ(13) C values of ethanol in liquor and acetic acid in white vinegar to that obtained in water. For methanol analysis, acetonitrile and refined acetone gave similar δ(13) C values to that obtained in water, but n-hexane was not a suitable solvent. In addition, isotopic fractionation caused by solvent and solute interactions was observed. We recommend using acetonitrile for the GC/IRMS analysis of aqueous alcoholic samples, and acetone for the analysis of aqueous acetic acid samples. This direct dilution method can provide high accurate and precise GC/IRMS analysis of the relative changes in δ(13) C values of methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. DRES Chemical Agent Detection System II and Minitube Air Sampling System Deployment and Performance in Support of UNSCOM 29 Chemical Destruction I, Khamisiyah, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    mask seal in the field, and it is recommended that amyl acetate, or a suitable alternative such as methyl salicylate , in a miniature aerosol dispenser or...that amyl acetate (or suitable alternative such as UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 14 methyl salicylate ) in a miniature aerosol dispenser (or pump) be...comprehensive photographic record of CD1 is essential. Both video and colour transparency cover is required. A log is to be kept. 34. UNSCOM to provide on

  19. Biodegradable polymers by reactive blending trans-esterification of thermoplastic starch with poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available (vinyl alcohol- co-acetate) is expected. The internally plasticized PVAC, i.e. poly(vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate), would serve to decrease the glass transition temperature range of the resulting blend. Both polymers are sold as biodegradable by the supplier... stream_source_info vargha_2005.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 37663 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name vargha_2005.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Biodegradable polymers...

  20. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellite markers for the northern mauxia shrimp, Acetes chinensis, using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kang, Hyun-Sook; Noh, Eun-Soo; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min

    2014-12-01

    Among the 14 species in the Acetes genus, Acetes japonicus and Acetes chinensis, are the only and also abundant two species around the Korean Peninsula, and are used in traditional recipes. These species are of great economic importance, but little is known about their population genetics, despite the fact that information of this kind is important for stock assessment, fisheries management and identification of origin. A total of 9 microsatellite (MS) markers for A. chinensis were developed using pyrosequencing techniques. Polymorphisms of these markers were evaluated in 96 wild individuals collected from the Yellow Sea off the coast of Korea. A total of 133 alleles were detected at nine loci, with a cross-species transferability of 56% with A. japonicus. These markers will facilitate assessment of population genetic diversity in the genus Acetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... has a fundamental role in cellular metabolism, particularly in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, also... as antibiotics, antibacterials and antimicrobials. Acetic acid is also the main acid in vinegars, and...

  2. Detoxification of ammonium to Nannochloropsis oculata and enhancement of lipid production by mixotrophic growth with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weitie; Li, Pengfei; Liao, Zipeng; Luo, Jianfei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the toxicity of ammonium was removed in the microalga Nannochloropsis oculata by using acetate as a carbon source. Algal biomass and lipid production were significantly enhanced when N. oculata was grew on 0.5-50mM of ammonium and 16-64mM of acetate in mixotrophic conditions. When grown mixotrophically on 1mM of ammonium and 32mM of acetate, the biomass and lipid production reached 543mg/L and 279mg/L respectively, which were 1.5 and 9.4times higher than the levels generated when grown autotrophically on nitrate. This suggests that mixotrophic growth with acetate can be a useful method to enhance microalgal lipid production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Conductivity of Cellulose Acetate Membranes from Pandan Duri Leaves (Pandanus tectorius for Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksono Endang W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the influence of lithium chloride composition on membrane conductivity. Cellulose was extracted from pandan duri leaves (P. tectorius by dilute alkaline and bleaching with 0.5% NaOCl followed by synthesis of cellulose acetate using acetic anhydride as acetylating agent, acetic acid as solvent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The membranes were prepared by casting polymer solution method and the composition of CA/LiCl were 60/40, 65/35, 70/30, 75/25, 80/20 and 100/0. Structural analysis was carried out by FTIR and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity was measured using Elkahfi 100. The highest conductivity of cellulose acetate membrane was 2.20 × 10-4 S cm-1 that measured at room temperature for 65/35 composition

  4. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    H, and temperature. In our study, the effect of acetate and ammonia concentration on the methanogenic pathway from acetate and on the methanogenic communities was elucidated in two experiments: one where inocula were gradually exposed to increasing concentrations of acetate or ammonia, and another with direct...... exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization......, acclimatization process resulted in no pathway shift with the mesophilic acclimatized culture. When nonacclimatized thermophilic culture was exposed to high ammonia levels (7 g NH4 +-N L(-1) ), aceticlastic Methanosarcinaceae spp. was found to be the dominant methanogen....

  5. Modification of the properties of acetate fibers by radiation grafting of sorbed acrylonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuldashev, A.; Sadykov, M.U.; Temirov, A.D.; Yunusov, M.Yu.; Abdullaeva, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the possibility of modifying the properties of acetate fibers (AF) by grafting small amounts (1-3.5%) of polyacrylonitrile from the sorption layer. It should be noted that in the authors' opinion, this method of conducting graft polymerization on the surface of fibers is the most suitable, as acetate fibers relatively rapidly dissolve in liquid acrylonitrile and the shape of the article is lost. In studying radiation graft polymerization of acrylonitrile sorbed on acetate fibers, an increase in the conversion of the monomer and radiochemical yield was found with an increase in the sorption of the acrylonitrile. The possibility of significantly improving the operating properties of acetate and triacetate fibers by grafting of small amounts of acrylonitrile from the sorbed state was demonstrated

  6. Single-cell level based approach to investigate acetate metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.

    accumulation causes the decrease of productivity as it represents a waste of carbon source that would otherwise be converted to biomass and product. As the acetate accumulation problem is of the utmost importance in batch fermentation processes, various strategies have been developed to explain, understand...... during glucose fermentation. Batch fermentations were performed in order to examine consecutive stages of acetate metabolism during the fermentation process (production, co-consumption with glucose, consumption as single substrate). Uptake of glucose and acetate at single-cell level was observed...... and control the overflow metabolism phenomenon in E. coli. Even though acetate formation by E. coli have been studied for more than three decades, the literature published presents the results based on the average measurement of the whole population. The averaged data can mask the distribution of the activity...

  7. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites: Transformation product formation and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbo...

  8. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  9. Potential for Methanosarcina to contribute to uranium reduction during acetate-promoted groundwater bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Orellana, Roberto; Giloteaux, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of acetate-promoted bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers focused on Geobacter because no other microorganisms that can couple the oxidation of acetate with U(VI) reduction had been detected in situ. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit A (mcrA) transcr......Previous studies of acetate-promoted bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers focused on Geobacter because no other microorganisms that can couple the oxidation of acetate with U(VI) reduction had been detected in situ. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit A (mcr......(VI) reduction was observed in inactive controls. These results demonstrate that Methanosarcina species could play an important role in the long-term bioremediation of uranium-contaminated aquifers after depletion of Fe(III) oxides limits the growth of Geobacter species. The results also suggest...... that Methanosarcina have the potential to influence uranium geochemistry in a diversity of anaerobic sedimentary environments....

  10. Determinants of the acetate recovery factor: implications for estimation of 13C substrate oxidation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Schrauwen; E.E. Blaak; A.J.M. Wagenmakers; dr. Lars B. Borghouts; D.P.C. van Aggel-Leijssen

    2000-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that the acetate recovery factor, used in stable isotope research, needs to be deteremined in every subject, under similar conditions as used for the tracer-derived determination of substrate oxidation.

  11. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory production by macrophages. Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in solvent either alone or with 2 ìg/ml lipopolysaccaride (LPS) with/without different doses of ethyl acetate extract of S. striata. Production of ...

  13. The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function in the Guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.; Galbraith, H.

    1992-01-01

    The action of trenbolone acetate, a synthetic anabolic steroid, on ovarian function was investigated in the Guinea pig. Certain comparisons were made with testosterone, the naturally occurring androgen, administered as the phenylpropionate ester. Progesterone was analysed using radioimmunoassay. two milligrams trenbolone acetate per Kg given subcutaneously on alternate days for 20 days blocked oestrous cyclicity and ovulation in 9 of 10 animals. A similar effect was shown by 2.2 mg of testosterone phenylpropionate. Treatment of trenbolone acetate-treated animals with exogenous gonadotropins suggested that the production of follicle stimulating hormone had been suppressed. Signs of abnormality were seen in the livers of animals receiving 2 mg trenbolone acetate and 2.2 mg testosterone phenylpropionate. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Pretreatment and fermentation strategies to overcome the toxicity of acetic acid in hemicellulosic hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    Acetic acid is one of the most important toxic compounds present in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In order to overcome this problem, several strategies were studied for both biomass pretreatment and fermentation steps. Biomass deacetylation by mild alkaline pretreatment or using high pressure CO2...... were considered interesting strategies to selectively remove acetic acid from biomass structure. In addition, the selective removal of acetic acid from biomass as a first step in the whole biomass conversion chain, contribute for the development and implementation of competitive biorefinery platforms...... where acetic acid can also be integrated as a valuable final product. For the fermentation step, it is well known that hemicellulosic hydrolysates usually need to be detoxified prior use as fermentation medium in order to improve the performance of the microorganism to convert sugars in the product...

  15. Inhibitory effect of ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Wan, Wei; Wang, Jianlong [Laboratory of Environmental Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The inhibitory effect of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production by mixed cultures was investigated in batch tests using glucose as substrate. The experimental results showed that, at 35 C and initial pH 7.0, during the fermentative hydrogen production, the substrate degradation efficiency, hydrogen production potential, hydrogen yield and hydrogen production rate all trended to decrease with increasing added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid concentration from 0 to 300 mmol/L. The inhibitory effect of added ethanol on fermentative hydrogen production was smaller than those of added acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid. The modified Han-Levenspiel model could describe the inhibitory effects of added ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid on fermentative hydrogen production rate in this study successfully. The modified Logistic model could describe the progress of cumulative hydrogen production. (author)

  16. Fed-batch fermentation of nipa sap to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (f. Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dung Van

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient process for conversion of nipa sap to acetic acid was developed. Nipa sap was hydrolyzed with invertase and provided glucose as well as fructose as main sugars. Batch fermentation of glucose and fructose was inadequate with increased substrate concentration. By contrast, fed-batch technique on hydrolyzed nipa sap with high feeding rate drastically increased acetic acid concentration and productivity to be 42.6 g/L and 0.18 g/(L/h, respectively. All the sugars in hydrolyzed nipa sap were consumed, with acetic acid yield of 0.87 g/g sugar. Overall, nipa sap as hydrolyzed with invertase was efficiently fermented to acetic acid, which is a valuable chemical and a potential biorefinery intermediate.

  17. Producing Acetic Acid of Acetobacter pasteurianus by Fermentation Characteristics and Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuefeng; Yao, Hongli; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Zhi; Cao, Lili; Mu, Dongdong; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Shaotong; Li, Xingjiang

    2018-03-19

    The acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus plays an important role in acetic acid fermentation, which involves oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid through the ethanol respiratory chain under specific conditions. In order to obtain more suitable bacteria for the acetic acid industry, A. pasteurianus JST-S screened in this laboratory was compared with A. pasteurianus CICC 20001, a current industrial strain in China, to determine optimal fermentation parameters under different environmental stresses. The maximum total acid content of A. pasteurianus JST-S was 57.14 ± 1.09 g/L, whereas that of A. pasteurianus CICC 20001 reached 48.24 ± 1.15 g/L in a 15-L stir stank. Metabolic flux analysis was also performed to compare the reaction byproducts. Our findings revealed the potential value of the strain in improvement of industrial vinegar fermentation.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL AGE AND ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON PIGSKIN GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pranoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the influence of animal age and concentration of the acetic acid solution on physical and chemical properties of pigskin gelatin. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors. The first factor was animal age consisted of 3 levels (5, 7 and 9 months. The second factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisted of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 percents. The result showed that animal age had significant effect (P0.05 on the yields, gel strength, viscosity, protein content and pH value. It was concluded that pigskin gelatin from ages of 5, 7 and 9 months and acetic acid concentration of 2, 4 and 6% had similar characteristics to the commercial gelatin, but the optimum production of gelatin was combination of pigskin gelatin from 7 months and of 2% acetic acid.

  19. Biosynthetic studies on linalool and linalyl acetate in Ocimum canum Sims and Mentha citrate Ehrh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, P.G.; Zutshi, Usha; Pushpangadan, P.; Sobti, S.N.; Atal, C.K.

    1979-01-01

    Labelled valine, leucine, acetate and glucose were fed to O. Canum and M. citrata to study the biosynthesis of linalool and linalyl acetate. The precursors were fed to intact plants as well as to fresh stem cuttings for different periods of time. Valine was found to be the best precursor for the biosynthesis of linalool and lanalyl acetate in both the experimental plants. Maximum incorporation of valine was, however, observed when it was fed alongwith non-radioactive glucose. It is suggested that valine is possibly involved in the synthesis of dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate through nonmevalonoid pathway. The labelled precursors L-U- 14 C-valine, U- 14 C-glucose, 14 U-C-acetate and DL-1- 14 C-valine were used in the study. (auth.)

  20. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  1. Abiraterone Acetate: A Review in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostrate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2017-09-01

    Oral abiraterone acetate (Zytiga ® ) is a selective inhibitor of CYP17 and thereby inhibits androgen biosynthesis, with androgen signalling crucial in the progression from primary to metastatic prostate cancer (PC) and subsequently, in the development of metastatic castration-resistant PC (mCRPC). In large phase 3 trials and in the clinical practice setting, oral abiraterone acetate in combination with prednisone was an effective treatment and had an acceptable, manageable tolerability and safety profile in chemotherapy-naive and docetaxel-experienced men with mCRPC. In the pivotal global phase 3 trials, relative to placebo (+prednisone), abiraterone acetate (+prednisone) prolonged overall survival (OS) at data maturity (final analysis) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) at all assessed timepoints. Given its efficacy in prolonging OS and its convenient once-daily oral regimen, in combination with prednisone, abiraterone acetate is an important first-line option for the treatment of mCRPC.

  2. A Complication after Intralesional Methylprednisolone Acetate Application to Oral Mucosa: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borahan Mehmet Oguz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to evaluate an abscess formation due to intralesional methylprednisolone acetate application to a patient with erosive oral lichen planus.

  3. Exhaled breath concentrations of acetic acid vapour in gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Pospíšilová, Veronika; Sovová, Kristýna; Shestivska, Violetta; Kubišta, Jiří; Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Pehal, F.; Turzíková, J.; Votruba, J.; Španěl, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), 037109 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : SIFT-MS * gastro-esophageal reflux * acetic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  4. Isolation and Characterization Compounds From Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Peperomia pellucida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia pellucida was used traditionally in Indonesia for health treatment: wounds, boils, pimples, abscesses, abdominal pain, colic, gout, kidney, rheumatic pain, fatigue headache, furuncles, conjunctivitis and anti dermatogenic and also for dengue treatment. The isolation compounds from hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of Peperomia pellucida L. are conducted by maceration of the dry herbs sample with methanol and partition with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were fractionated by gravitation column chromatography and eluted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol by the gradient. The structure was elucidated base on spectroscopy data of NMR proton and carbon for one and two dimension, LCMS and FT-IR. The isolation founded three compounds are stigmasterol, analogue of pheophytin and β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside.

  5. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30 to December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J E; Wise, D L

    1978-03-10

    Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicates that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ have been observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate.

  6. Laboratory Test of a Cylindrical Heat Storage Module with Water and Sodium Acetate Trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    of the module. For the tests with the phase change materials, the focus was furthermore on the stability of supercooling and cycling stability. Testing the module with sodium acetate trihydrate and 6.4% extra water showed that phase separation increased and the heat released after solidification of supercooled...... phase change material was reduced over 17 test cycles. The heat released after solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with thickening agent and graphite was stable over the test cycles. Stable supercooling was obtained in 7 out of 17 test cycles with the module with sodium acetate......Cylindrical heat storage modules with internal heat exchangers have been tested in a laboratory. The modules were filled with water and sodium acetate trihydrate with additives. The testing focused on the heat content of the storage material and the heat exchange capacity rate during charge...

  7. Nanocomposite photoactuators based on an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer filled with carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czaniková, K.; Torras, N.; Esteve, J.; Krupa, I.; Kasák, P.; Pavlova, Ewa; Račko, D.; Chodák, I.; Omastová, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 186, September (2013), s. 701-710 ISSN 0925-4005 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : actuator * carbon nanotubes * ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2013

  8. Potential for Methanosarcina to contribute to uranium reduction during acetate-promoted groundwater bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Orellana, Roberto; Giloteaux, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    A (mcrA) transcripts during an acetate-injection field experiment demonstrated that acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosarcina were enriched after 40 days of acetate amendment. The increased abundance of Methanosarcina corresponded with an accumulation of methane in the groundwater....... An enrichment culture dominated by a Methanosarcina species with the same Methanosarcina mcrA sequence that predominated in the field experiment could effectively convert acetate to methane. In order to determine whether Methanosarcina species could be participating in U(VI) reduction in the subsurface, cell......Previous studies of in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater with acetate injections have focused on the role of Geobacter species in U(VI) reduction because of a lack of other abundant known U(VI)-reducing microorganisms. Monitoring the levels of methyl CoM reductase subunit...

  9. Effect of astrocytic energy metabolism depressant on 14C-acetate uptake in intact rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Rie; Okada, Maki; Hatazawa, Jun; Gee, Antony; Inoue, Osamu

    2004-02-01

    Fluorocitrate, a selective astrocytic toxin, was microinjected into the right striatum of rat brain, and the regional distribution of 14C-acetate was measured using autoradiography. A significant reduction (more than 80%) in 14C-acetate uptake over a 5-minute period was observed in the right striatum, compared with that in the left striatum (saline infused), 4 hours after fluorocitrate (1 nmol/microL) infusion. This effect was transient, and 14C-acetate uptake had almost returned to normal at 24 hours after the fluorocitrate infusion. In contrast, the regional blood flow in the striatum, as determined using 14C-iodoamphetamine, was significantly increased by the fluorocitrate infusion. The present observations indicate that 14C-acetate uptake might be a useful characteristic for examining astrocytic energy metabolism in the intact brain.

  10. Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella L. Morgado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS 0.8–2.9 mixed with linter cellulose (5, 10 and 15 wt %. Detailed characterization of the films revealed the following: (i they exhibited fibrous structures on their surfaces. The strong tendency of the linter cellulose chains to aggregate in LiCl/DMAc suggests that these fibrous elements consist of cellulose chains, as can be deduced from SEM images of the film of cellulose proper; (ii the cellulose acetate films obtained from samples with DS 2.1 and 2.9 exhibited microspheres on the surface, whose formation seems to be favored for acetates with higher DS; (iii AFM analysis showed that, in general, the presence of cellulose increased both the asperity thickness and the surface roughness of the analyzed films, indicating that cellulose chains are at least partially organized in domains and not molecularly dispersed between acetate chains; and (iv the films prepared from cellulose and acetates exhibited lower hygroscopicity than the acetate films, also suggesting that the cellulose chains are organized into domains, probably due to strong intermolecular interactions. The linter and sisal acetates (the latter from a prior study, and their respective films, were prepared using the same processes; however, the two sets of films presented more differences (as in humidity absorption, optical, and tensile properties than similarities (as in some morphological aspects, most likely due to the different properties of the starting materials. Potential applications of the films prepared in tissue engineering scaffold coatings and/or drug delivery are mentioned.

  11. Bio-based Films from Linter Cellulose and Its Acetates: Formation and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Daniella L; Rodrigues, Bruno V M; Almeida, Erika V R; Seoud, Omar A El; Frollini, Elisabete

    2013-06-14

    This paper describes the results obtained on the preparation of films composed of linter cellulose and the corresponding acetates. The acetylation was carried out in the LiCl/DMAc solvent system. Films were prepared from a LiCl/DMAc solution of cellulose acetates (degree of substitution, DS 0.8-2.9) mixed with linter cellulose (5, 10 and 15 wt %). Detailed characterization of the films revealed the following: (i) they exhibited fibrous structures on their surfaces. The strong tendency of the linter cellulose chains to aggregate in LiCl/DMAc suggests that these fibrous elements consist of cellulose chains, as can be deduced from SEM images of the film of cellulose proper; (ii) the cellulose acetate films obtained from samples with DS 2.1 and 2.9 exhibited microspheres on the surface, whose formation seems to be favored for acetates with higher DS; (iii) AFM analysis showed that, in general, the presence of cellulose increased both the asperity thickness and the surface roughness of the analyzed films, indicating that cellulose chains are at least partially organized in domains and not molecularly dispersed between acetate chains; and (iv) the films prepared from cellulose and acetates exhibited lower hygroscopicity than the acetate films, also suggesting that the cellulose chains are organized into domains, probably due to strong intermolecular interactions. The linter and sisal acetates (the latter from a prior study), and their respective films, were prepared using the same processes; however, the two sets of films presented more differences (as in humidity absorption, optical, and tensile properties) than similarities (as in some morphological aspects), most likely due to the different properties of the starting materials. Potential applications of the films prepared in tissue engineering scaffold coatings and/or drug delivery are mentioned.

  12. Acetate as Sole Carbon and Energy Source for Growth of Methanosarcina Strain 227

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael R.; Mah, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Methanosarcina strain 227 grew rapidly and produced methane on a mineral medium containing acetate as the sole added organic substrate. Cell yields but not doubling times were affected by the presence or absence of yeast extract. Greater cell yields occurred in yeast extract medium than in mineral medium. Radioactive labeling studies showed that acetate was decarboxylated in mineral medium, as was shown previously in complex medium. The specific radioactivity of methane produced per specific ...

  13. Asaia lannaensis sp. nov., a new acetic acid bacterium in the Alphaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malimas, Taweesak; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Takahashi, Mai; Kaneyasu, Mika; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Yamada, Yuzo

    2008-03-01

    Asaia lannaensis sp. nov. was described for two strains isolated from flowers of the spider lily collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The isolates produced acetic acid from ethanol on ethanol/calcium carbonate agar, differing from the type strains of Asaia bogorensis, Asaia siamensis, and Asaia krungthepensis, but did not grow in the presence of 0.35% acetic acid (v/v). The new species is the fourth of the genus Asaia, the family Acetobacteraceae.

  14. Working draft genome sequence of the mesophilic acetate oxidizing bacterium Syntrophaceticus schinkii strain Sp3

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor, Shahid; M?ller, Bettina; Niazi, Adnan; Schn?rer, Anna; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Syntrophaceticus schinkii strain Sp3 is a mesophilic syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacterium, belonging to the Clostridia class within the phylum Firmicutes, originally isolated from a mesophilic methanogenic digester. It has been shown to oxidize acetate in co-cultivation with hydrogenotrophic methanogens forming methane. The draft genome shows a total size of 3,196,921?bp, encoding 3,688 open reading frames, which includes 3,445 predicted protein-encoding genes and 55 RNA genes. Here, we are...

  15. The effect of immersion cleansers on gloss, colour and sorption of acetal denture base material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Gregory; Niarchou, Artemis; Ntala, Polyxeni; Pantopoulos, Antonis; Frangou, Mary

    2013-06-01

    To study the effect of peroxide and hypochlorite cleansers on gloss, colour and sorption of acetal denture resins. Pink acetal and thermoplastic acrylic resins were evaluated. Thirty-five specimens 39 × 39× 1.8 mm of each resin were prepared. Each group of specimens (n = 7) was then immersed into cleansers for 100 days. Group I immersed in tap water, Group II in Corega Extradent for 5 min, Group III in Corega Extradent for 8 h, Group IV in NitrAdine™ Seniors for 15 min and Group V in NaOCl 5.25%. Gloss, colour and weight measurements were taken initially and after 100 days. Data subjected to two-way anova and Tukey's test at α = 0.05. Acrylic resin showed reductions of glossiness from -5 to -15 and acetal from -0.2 to -6. Colour changes (ΔΕ*) ranged from 2.64 to 7.64 for acrylic and 2.77 to 26.54 for acetal resin. Sorption for acrylic ranged from 11.64 to 17.06 μg/mm(3) and 9.18 to 24.79 μg/mm(3) for acetal resin. The results of (ΔΕ*) and sorption showed an interaction between denture resins and cleansers. The gloss of acetal resin was less affected by water, peroxides and NaOCl 5.25% compared with acrylic resin. Acetal resin showed clinically acceptable (ΔΕ*) whereas acrylic resin unacceptable ones for water and peroxide solutions. The immersion of acetal resin in NaOCl 5.25% showed clinically unacceptable (ΔΕ*) and higher sorption and should be avoided or should be managed with care. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TECOMARIA CAPENSIS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tamil Jothi; G. Vimala Devi; Ch. Vamsi Anil Krishna; V. Suba

    2013-01-01

    In the present study ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of leaves of Tecomaria capensis was screened for cytotoxic activity. The cytotoxic activity was performed by two models. One was short term cytotoxicity and another was long term cytotoxicity. In short term cytotoxicity assay Dalton’s lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines were used and for long term L929 cell lines (Lungs fibroblast) were used. In both methods ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed prot...

  17. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  18. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  19. Isolation and Characterization Compounds From Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Peperomia Pellucida L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartati, Sri; Angelina, Marissa; Dewiyanti, Indah; Meilawati, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Peperomia pellucida was used traditionally in Indonesia for health treatment: wounds, boils, pimples, abscesses, abdominal pain, colic, gout, kidney, rheumatic pain, fatigue headache, furuncles, conjunctivitis and anti dermatogenic and also for dengue treatment. The isolation compounds from hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of Peperomia pellucida L. are conducted by maceration of the dry herbs sample with methanol and partition with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water.The hexane and et...

  20. Production of alcohol and acetic acid from pineapple wastes in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muttamara, S.; Nirmala, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pineapple cannery wastes were supplemented with (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ and fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce ethanol. The liquid portion of the fermentation broth was inoculated with Acetobacter aceti to produce acetic acid. Maximum yields of ethanol and acetic acid were 5.8% and 1.9%, respectively. The solid residue had feed value.

  1. Evolution of Acetic Acid Bacteria During Fermentation and Storage of Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Joyeux, A.; Lafon-Lafourcade, S.; Ribéreau-Gayon, P.

    1984-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria were present at all stages of wine making, from the mature grape through vinification to conservation. A succession of Gluconobacter oxydans, Acetobacter pasteurianus, and Acetobacter aceti during the course of these stages was noted. Low levels of A. aceti remained in the wine; they exhibited rapid proliferation on short exposure of the wine to air and caused significant increases in the concentration of acetic acid. Higher temperature of wine storage and higher wine pH ...

  2. Molecular mechanisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae stress adaptation and programmed cell death in response to acetic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Giannattasio, Sergio; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; ?dralevi?, Ma?a; Marra, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Beyond its classical biotechnological applications such as food and beverage production or as a cell factory, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a valuable model organism to study fundamental mechanisms of cell response to stressful environmental changes. Acetic acid is a physiological product of yeast fermentation and it is a well-known food preservative due to its antimicrobial action. Acetic acid has recently been shown to cause yeast cell death and aging. Here we shall focus on the mol...

  3. Acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid in the presence of complex oxide catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Nebesnyi, Roman; Pikh, Zorian; Shpyrka, Iryna; Ivasiv, Volodymyr; Nebesna, Yulia; Fuch, Uliana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to research process of single-stage acrylic acid obtaining from methanol and acetic acid, namely: to develop effective catalysts for the process of methanol oxidation to formaldehyde with its further aldol condensation with acetic acid to acrylic acid, and to determine optimum conditions for the process. Complex oxide catalysts consisting of oxides of boron, phosphorus, tungsten and vanadium supported on the silica gel have been investigated. The effect of vanadium...

  4. Ameliorative effects of l-carnitine on rats raised on a diet supplemented with lead acetate

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherbini, El-Said; El-Sayed, Gehad; El Shotory, Rehab; Gheith, Nervana; Abou-Alsoud, Mohamed; Harakeh, Steve Mustapha; Karrouf, Gamal I.

    2016-01-01

    Lead intoxication has been a major health hazard in humans. It affects people at all ages. Its toxicity is associated with various organs of the body and affects different metabolic pathways. Based on histological data, l-carnitine reduced the severity of tissue damage produced as a result of exposure of rats to lead acetate. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying mechanism of protection offered by l-carnitine against lead acetate intoxication using male Sprague–Dawle...

  5. An investigation of misalignment effects on the performance of acetal gears

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zedong; Mao, Ken

    2017-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the effects of misalignment on meshing behaviour of acetal gears as hardly any misalignment investigations on polymer gears in the existing literatures. The experimental results show that the wear of acetal gears is insensitive to radial and axial misalignments but sensitive to yaw and pitch misalignments which degrade the conjugate contact action. Yaw misalignment leads to ‘scoop’ wear marks near tooth pitch points. Pitch misalignment causes ‘superimposed palisade’...

  6. Water promoted allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3 diphenylallyl acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorpade, Seema Arun

    2017-11-30

    Transition metal free, water based, greener protocol for allylic alkylation, allylic amination, O-allylation of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate is described. The developed methodology is applicable for a wide range of nucleophiles furnishing excellent yields of corresponding products up to 87% under mild reaction conditions. A Distinct effect of water and base is explored for allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate.

  7. Extraction of left ventricular myocardial mass from dynamic 11C-acetate PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Hansson, Nils Henrik

    11C-acetate 27-min PET scan on a GE Discovery ST PET/CT scanner. Parametric images of uptake rate K1 and both arterial (VA) and venous (VV) spillover fractions were generated using a basis function implementation of the standard single tissue compartment model using non-gated dynamic data. The LV......-gated dynamic 11C-acetate scan. This greatly simplifies both the scanning protocol and data analysis required for calculation of LV myocardial external efficiency....

  8. Antibacterial activity of acetic and lactic acid against Listeria monocytogenes and their effect on the intracellular constituent release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoleikha Shiravani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organic acids (e.g. acetic and lactic acid have been used in foods as natural preservatives. Acetic acid and its salts are used in foods as antimicrobial and acidulant agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of acetic and lactic acids against the Listeria monocytogenes. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted at the Department of Food Hygiene (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University during autumn 2015. The antibacterial effects of acetic and lactic acid against Listeria monocytogenes were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC and cell constituents release methods. The concentration ranges of acetic and lactic acid (0.0195-10 and 0.043-22.2 μl/ml, respectively were used to determine the MIC of acids. Results: Based on the results, acetic and lactic acid inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and acetic acid had stronger effect against the the bacterium. The MIC values for acetic acid and lactic acid were 2.5 and 5 μl/ml, respectively. Cell constituents release showed that acetic and lactic acids are able to lyze the bacterial cell. Conclusion: Acetic and lactic acids were effective in inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and the antibacterial effect of acetic acid was stronger than that lactic acid. These acids can be used in foods in combination with other preservatives to inhibit the food borne pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms.

  9. Degradation of acetic acid with sulfate radical generated by persulfate ions photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Leitner, Nathalie Karpel Vel

    2009-09-01

    The photolysis of S(2)O(8)(2-) was studied for the removal of acetic acid in aqueous solution and compared with the H(2)O(2)/UV system. The SO(4)(-) radicals generated from the UV irradiation of S(2)O(8)(2-) ions yield a greater mineralization of acetic acid than the ()OH radicals. Acetic acid is oxidized by SO(4)(-) radicals without significant formation of intermediate by-products. Increasing system pH results in the formation of ()OH radicals from SO(4)(-) radicals. Maximum acetic acid degradation occurred at pH 5. The results suggest that above this pH, competitive reactions with the carbon mineralized inhibit the reaction of the solute with SO(4)(-) and also ()OH radicals. Scavenging effects of two naturally occurring ions were tested; in contrast to HCO(3)(-) ions, the presence of Cl(-) ions enhances the efficiency of the S(2)O(8)(2-)/UV process towards the acetate removal. It is attributed to the formation of the Cl() radical and its great reactivity towards acetate.

  10. Comparison of dienogest versus triptorelin acetate in premenopausal women with adenomyosis: a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Muhammad; Mesbah, Yasser

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of the oral dienogest versus triptorelin acetate injection for treatment of premenopausal menorrhagia and pelvic pains in women with uterine adenomyosis. A total of 41 patients with adenomyosis suffering from pelvic pains and menorrhagia were recruited. First group was managed with oral dienogest (2 mg/day, orally) while the second group received triptorelin acetate (3.75 mg/4 weeks, subcutaneous injection) for 16 weeks. Outpatient follow-up was undertaken after 8 weeks but mean values were calculated at baseline and after 16 weeks (end of treatment). A total of 41 women were allocated to treatment with dienogest (n = 22) or triptorelin acetate (n = 19); 19 (86.4 %) and 18 (94.7 %) % of the respective groups completed the trial. Significant reductions in pelvic pains after 16 weeks treatment were obtained in both groups demonstrating the equivalence of dienogest relative to triptorelin acetate. Triptorelin acetate was more effective in controlling of menorrhagia and reduction of uterine volume. Dienogest may be a valuable alternative to depot triptorelin acetate for treatment of premenopausal pelvic pains in women with uterine adenomyosis.

  11. Clomazone selectivity in cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pre-emergence applications the herbicide clomazone cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate. The 4 x 2 factorial arrangement was adopted (4 seed treatment methods and 2 clomazone dosages, distributed in a randomized block design with 4 repetitions. In treatments where dietholate and zinc acetate were applied, rates of 0.4 kg ha-1 and 8 ml per kg of seeds were used respectively. The clomazone rates used refer to 0.8 and 1.0 kg ha- 1. The cotton cultivar used was the Fiber Max 966 LL. Independent of treatment, all seeds were treated with tiametoxam insecticide and fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M fungicide at rates of 2.24 and 0.08 + 0.03 g per kg of seed, respectively, to control pests early and limit losses caused by pathogens in germination and seedling emergence. Dietholate and zinc acetate treatment had greater initial effect on cotton plants at 21, 30 and 45 days after application. In phytointoxication symptoms were observed for treatment with dietholate and zinc acetate during the evaluation periods. Seeds treated with dietholate, dietholate and zinc acetate or zinc acetate alone provided a higher number of bolls and seed cotton production compared to the control.

  12. Photorespiration participates in the assimilation of acetate in Chlorella sorokiniana under high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; Gu, Wenhui; Zang, Zhengrong; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2016-02-01

    The development of microalgae on an industrial scale largely depends on the economic feasibility of mass production. High light induces productive suspensions during cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. Herein, we report that high light, which inhibited the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic conditions, enhanced the growth of this alga in the presence of acetate. We compared pigments, proteomics and the metabolic flux ratio in C. sorokiniana cultivated under high light (HL) and under low light (LL) in the presence of acetate. Our results showed that high light induced the synthesis of xanthophyll and suppressed the synthesis of chlorophylls. Acetate in the medium was exhausted much more rapidly in HL than in LL. The data obtained from LC-MS/MS indicated that high light enhanced photorespiration, the Calvin cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of mixotrophic C. sorokiniana. The results of metabolic flux ratio analysis showed that the majority of the assimilated carbon derived from supplemented acetate, and photorespiratory glyoxylate could enter the glyoxylate cycle. Based on these data, we conclude that photorespiration provides glyoxylate to speed up the glyoxylate cycle, and releases acetate-derived CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Thus, photorespiration connects the glyoxylate cycle and the Calvin cycle, and participates in the assimilation of supplemented acetate in C. sorokiniana under high light. © 2015 Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS). New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Simulation of Pressure-swing Distillation for Separation of Ethyl Acetate-Ethanol-Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Menglin; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the light of the azeotrope of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water, a process of pressure-swing distillation is proposed. The separation process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the effects of theoretical stage number, reflux ratio and feed stage about the pressure-swing distillation are optimized. Some better process parameters are as follows: for ethyl acetate refining tower, the pressure is 500.0 kPa, theoretical stage number is 16, reflux ratio is 0.6, feed stage is 5; for crude ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 15, reflux ratio is 0.3, feed stage is 4; for ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 25, reflux ratio is 1.2, feed stage is 10. The mass fraction of ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethyl acetate refining tower reaches 0.9990, the mass fraction of ethanol in the top of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9017, the mass fraction of water in the bottom of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9622, and there is also no ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethanol tower. With laboratory tests, experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which indicates that the separation of ethyl acetate ethanol water can be realized by the pressure-swing distillation separation process. Moreover, it has certain practical significance to industrial practice.

  14. Solubility measurement and thermodynamic functions of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in different solvents at evaluated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chao; Cong, Yang; Meng, Long; Wang, Jian; Yao, GanBing; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility were determined for dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in nine solvents. • Solubility were correlated with four thermodynamic models. • Apparent standard enthalpy and excess enthalpy of solutions were evaluated. - Abstract: The solubility was measured for dehydroepiandrosterone acetate in cyclohexane, acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, methanol, 1-butanol, ethanol and isopropanol by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis under the pressure of 101.3 kPa. The temperature of the determination varied from (273.15 K to 318.15) K. The dehydroepiandrosterone acetate solubility increased with the increase in temperature, and obeyed the following order from high to low: ethyl acetate > acetone > 1-butanol > acetonitrile > (cyclohexane, isopropanol) > ethanol > methanol. They were correlated with four models, viz. the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model. The largest average standard deviation is 5.93 × 10 −4 , and the largest relative average deviation is 1.18% for each set of solubility values. The calculated solubility was in good agreement with the experimental values for the four models. Moreover, the thermodynamic properties of the solution process, including the apparent standard dissolution enthalpy and excess enthalpy were calculated. The experimental solubility, thermodynamic models and thermodynamic properties are very important in the purification process of dehydroepiandrosterone acetate.

  15. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey: studies of the ester stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urit, Thanet; Löser, Christian; Wunderlich, Martin; Bley, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of converting lactose into ethyl acetate offering a chance for an economical reuse of whey. The microbial formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product calls for an aerobic process and, thus, the highly volatile ethyl acetate is discharged from the aerated bioreactor. This stripping process was modeled and investigated experimentally. The stripping rate was proportional to the gas flow and nearly independent of the stirring rate since the stripping was governed by the absorption capacity of the exhaust gas rather than the phase transfer. Cooling the exhaust gas did not noticeably influence the stripping. One batch experiment is presented in detail to demonstrate the formation of ethyl acetate by K. maxianus DSM 5422 on whey. Further batch experiments showed that a substantial formation of ethyl acetate only occurred when the yeast growth was limited by a lack of trace elements. The highest product yield observed was 0.25 g ethyl acetate per g lactose which is nearly 50% of the theoretical maximum.

  16. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  17. Tolerance response and metabolism of acetic acid by biodetoxification fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaochuang; Gao, Qiuqiang; Bao, Jie

    2018-03-27

    Removal of acetic acid from pretreated lignocellulose biomass is an important step for the consequent fermentation on production of cellulosic ethanol and biobased chemicals. This study elucidates the biological metabolism and tolerance response of acetic acid by a widely used biodetoxification fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1. Acetic acid is consumed as a prior substrate to glucose and xylose by A. resinae ZN1, and the consumption is highly accelerated by solid state culture. Acetic acid is metabolized through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle when glucose exists in the medium, while through the two cycles of both the TCA cycle and glyoxylate cycle when there is no sugar in the medium. The tolerance response of A. resinae ZN1 to acetic acid includes various biological processes such as activation of ions transport, increase in amino acids uptake and biosynthesis, as well as induction of ergosterol biosynthesis and ATP generation. The study provided important basis for the future biodetoxification strain modification for enhanced acetic acid removal. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Insights into the mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Yao, Rui; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Chen, Yifei

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to theoretically explain the reaction mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu catalyst. The activation barriers of key elementary steps and the adsorption configurations of key intermediates involved in acetic acid hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface were investigated. The results indicated that the direct dissociation of acetic acid to acetyl (CH3COOH → CH3CO + OH) is the rate-determined step. The activation barrier of acetic acid scission to acetyl and the adsorption energy of acetic acid are two descriptors which could determine the conversion of acetic acid. The descriptors might have effects on the ethanol selectivity including: the adsorption energy of acetaldehyde and the activation barriers for Osbnd H bond formation of C2-oxygenates (CH3CO + H → CH3COH, CH3CHO + H → CH3CHOH and CH3CH2O + H → CH3CH2OH). These proposed descriptors could be used as references to design new Cu-based catalysts that have excellent catalytic performance.

  19. Role of the glyoxylate pathway in acetic acid production by Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kenta; Yamazaki, Shoko; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Wild-type Acetobacter aceti NBRC 14818 possesses genes encoding isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (glcB), which constitute the glyoxylate pathway. In contrast, several acetic acid bacteria that are utilized for vinegar production lack these genes. Here, an aceA-glcB knockout mutant of NBRC 14818 was constructed and used for investigating the role of the glyoxylate pathway in acetate productivity. In medium containing ethanol as a carbon source, the mutant grew normally during ethanol oxidation to acetate, but exhibited slower growth than that of the wild-type strain as the accumulated acetate was oxidized. The mutant grew similarly to that of the wild-type strain in medium containing glucose as a carbon source, indicating that the glyoxylate pathway was not necessary for glucose utilization. However, in medium containing both ethanol and glucose, the mutant exhibited significantly poorer growth and lower glucose consumption compared to the wild-type strain. Notably, the mutant oxidized ethanol nearly stoichiometrically to acetate, which was retained in the medium for a longer period of time than the acetate produced by wild-type strain. The features of the aceA-glcB knockout mutant revealed here indicate that the lack of the glyoxylate pathway is advantageous for industrial vinegar production by A. aceti. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Proteins induced during adaptation of Acetobacter aceti to high acetate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, P; Sauer, U

    2001-12-01

    As a typical product of microbial metabolism, the weak acid acetate is well known for its cytotoxic effects. In contrast to most other microbes, the so-called acetic acid bacteria can acquire significant resistance to high acetate concentrations when properly adapted to such hostile conditions. To characterize the molecular events that are associated with this adaptation, we analyzed global protein expression levels during adaptation of Acetobacter aceti by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Adaptation was achieved by using serial batch and continuous cultivations with increasing acetate supplementation. Computer-aided analysis revealed a complex proteome response with at least 50 proteins that are specifically induced by adaptation to acetate but not by other stress conditions, such as heat or oxidative or osmotic stress. Of these proteins, 19 were significantly induced in serial batch and continuous cultures and were thus noted as acetate adaptation proteins (Aaps). Here we present first microsequence information on such Aaps from A. aceti. Membrane-associated processes appear to be of major importance for adaptation, because some of the Aap bear N-terminal sequence homology to membrane proteins and 11 of about 40 resolved proteins from membrane protein-enriched fractions are significantly induced.