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Sample records for amygdalin

  1. Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used either Mexican laetrile/amygdalin or Laetrile. The generic term laetrile will be used throughout this summary ... of the materials and develops follow-up research strategies for approaches deemed to warrant NCI-initiated research. ...

  2. Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and use of laetrile as a complementary or alternative treatment for cancer? Amygdalin was first isolated in 1830 and was ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  3. [Amygdalin - structure and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Otlewska, Anna; Hackemer, Paweł; Otlewska, Agnieszka

    2015-05-01

    In this publication we described amygdalin. It was isolated for the first time in the 19th century. Amygdalin is called interchangeably vitamin B17 or laetrile. Since more than a hundred years, there has been reports about its unique anticancer properties. We tried to introduce the present knowledge about therapeutic efficacy of laetrile. Most of these studies has been made in the in vitro environment. The lack of appropriate studies forced scientists to examine the positive influence of amygdalin on many diseases like: bladder cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, promyelocytic leukemia, chronic kidney disease, psoriasis and other.

  4. Amygdalin Influences Bladder Cancer Cell Adhesion and Invasion In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Igor Tsaur; Karen Nelson; Jesco Pfitzenmaier; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as...

  5. Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro.

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    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as well as tumor cell migration was examined. Effects of drug treatment on integrin α and β subtypes, on integrin-linked kinase (ILK and total and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK were also determined. Integrin knock-down was carried out to evaluate integrin influence on migration and adhesion. A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. TCCSUP adhesion was also reduced, but migration was elevated under amygdalin. Integrin subtype expression was significantly and specifically altered by amygdalin depending on the cell line. ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. Knock down of β1 integrin caused a significant decrease in both adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 cells, but a significant increase in TCCSUP adhesion. Knock down of β4 integrin caused a significant decrease in migration of RT112 cells. Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. The amygdalin induced increase in TCCSUP migratory behavior indicates that any anti-tumor benefits from amygdalin (seen with the other two cell lines may depend upon the cancer cell type.

  6. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

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    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  7. Amygdalin Blocks Bladder Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro by Diminishing Cyclin A and cdk2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Reiter, Michael; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25–10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug. PMID:25136960

  8. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP. Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  9. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

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    Marek Halenár

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON. Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigated the effect of natural substance amygdalin at the selected doses (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 µg/mL in combination with deoxynivalenol (1000 ng/mL on secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs from cyclic pigs. Our results showed that the releasing of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells was affected by amygdalin plus DON addition. The secretion of progesterone by ovarian GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by administration of both compounds in all experimental groups. Similarly, estradiol releasing by GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 increased in experimental groups with amygdalin (10, 100 and 10 000 µg/mL plus DON (1000 ng/mL addition. Amygdalin treatment combined with DON caused increase of steroid hormones release by ovarian granulosa cells. Our findings suggest possible involvement of these natural substances (amygdalin and deoxynivalenol in the regulation process of steroidogenesis. In conclusion, results from this experiment contribute to knowledge about interaction between two different natural compounds and their positive or negative interferences with ovarian functions.

  10. Amygdalin Blocks Bladder Cancer Cell Growth In Vitro by Diminishing Cyclin A and cdk2

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Makarević; Jochen Rutz; Eva Juengel; Silke Kaulfuss; Michael Reiter; Igor Tsaur; Georg Bartsch; Axel Haferkamp; Blaheta, Roman A.

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regu...

  11. Effect of Amygdalin on the Proliferation of Hyperoxia-exposed Type Ⅱ Alveolar Epithelial Cells Isolated from Premature Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝华平; 常立文; 李文斌; 刘汉楚

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in AEC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 μmol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 μmol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 μmol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  12. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen

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    Ivan M Savic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD and multilayer perceptron (MLP. The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v and temperature of 34.4 °C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract. Amygdalin (>90% was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV and MS methods.

  13. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivan M.; Nikolic, Vesna D.; Savic-Gajic, Ivana M.; Nikolic, Ljubisa B.; Ibric, Svetlana R.; Gajic, Dragoljub G.

    2015-01-01

    The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v) ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v) and temperature of 34.4°C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g) at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract). Amygdalin (>90%) was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV, and MS methods. PMID:25972881

  14. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Halenár; Marína Medveďová; Nora Maruniaková; Dagmara Packová; Adriana Kolesárová

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON). Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illn...

  15. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

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    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  16. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.

  17. Determination of Amygdalin in Maxing Cough Syrup by HPLC%HPLC法测定麻杏止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗培和; 朱其琼

    2014-01-01

    A HPLC method for determination of amygdalin in Maxing cougy syrup by HPLC was established.Applied KromasilC18 column(250mm×4.6mm,5μm), the mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution(8:92), the flow rate of 1.0mL·min-1, the detecting wavelength was at 207nm. The linear range of amygdalin was 0.0406~0.8112μg (r=0.9999),the average recovery was 99.0%, RSD was 0.25%.The method was simple,accurate and reproducible,it could be used for quality control of maxing cough syrup.%建立高效液相色谱法测定麻杏止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷含量的方法。采用KromasilC18柱,乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(8∶92)为流动相,流速1.0mL·min-1,检测波长207nm。苦杏仁苷在0.0406~0.812μg范围内有良好的线性关系, r=0.9999,平均回收率为99.0%,RSD为0.25%。本方法简便、准确、重现性好,可用于麻杏止咳糖浆的质量控制。

  18. Content Determination of Amygdalin in Loquat Cough Syrup by HPLC%HPLC法测定止咳枇杷糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱月月; 付静; 聂诗明

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for determing amygdalin in loquat cough syrup by HPLC. Methods:HPLC with Welch Ultimate XB-C18(4.6x250mm,5μm)column was used methanol-water(20:80) was used as mobile phase .The flow rate was 1mL•min-1 .The detection wavelength was at 210nm.Re-sults:The liner range of amygdalin was 0.1922μg~3.0760μg(r=0.9981),an average recovery of sample was 95.1880%.Conlusion:This method is simple and seprated completely,and can be used as content determina-tion of amygdalein in loquat cough syrup.%目的:建立止咳枇杷糖浆中苦杏仁苷的 HPLC 测定方法。方法:采用 Welch(月旭)Ultimate XB-C18(4.6x250mm,5μm),以甲醇-水(20∶80)为流动相,流速1mL/min,检测波长210nm。结果:苦杏仁苷在9.61~153.8μg/mL 线性关系良好,线性回归方程Y=0.2716x-1.36466,r=0.9962,平均回收率95.18%。结论:该方法分离度、线性关系、重现性、稳定性、回收率均符合含量分析要求,适合于止咳枇杷糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量测定。

  19. HPLC法测定咳灵胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Keling Capsule by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of amygdalin in Keling Capsule by HPLC. Methods The Agilent C18 (250mmí4.6mm,5μm)column was used;The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution ( 8:92)at a flow rate of 1.0 ml·min-1;the detection wavelength was 210nm and the column temperature was 30℃.Results The linear range of amygdalin was 0.2012~1.0060μg (r=0.9999,n=5),the average recovery was 99.32% with RSD of 1.08%(n=6). Conclusion The method is simple and rapid,it can be used to control the quality of Keling Capsule.%目的建立高效液相色谱法测定咳灵胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量。方法色谱柱为Agilent C18(250mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相院乙腈一0.1%磷酸溶液(8院92);流速院1.0 ml·min-1;检测波长院210nm;柱温院30℃。结果苦杏仁苷线性范围为0.2012~1.0060μg(r=0.9999,n=5),平均回收率为99.32豫,RSD为1.08豫(n=6)。结论该方法简便快捷,可用于咳灵胶囊的质量控制。

  20. Detetmination of Amygdalin and Baicalin in Gongliuqing Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定宫瘤清片中苦杏仁苷、黄芩苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鼎峰; 胡冰

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a method for Amygdalin and Baicalin in Gongliuqing Tablets by HPLC.METHODS The analysis method was established using AgiLent 1100 HPLC system,the analysis was car-ried out with an AgiLent HC-C18 column(4.6mm ×250mm,5μm),the flow rate was 1mL· min-1 and the column temperature maintained at 30℃.①Amygdalin:the mobile phase of methanol-water(20∶80),the detection wavelength was set at 210nm;②Baicalin:the mobile phase of methanol-0.2 phosphoric acid(47∶53),the detection wavelength was set at 280nm.RESULTS The linear ranges were 18~180μg· mL-1 for Amygdalin(r=0.9996),the average recoveries were 99.61%and the RSD were 1.02%( n=9);the linear ranges were 6.657~66.57μg· mL-1 for Ba-icalin(r=0.9997),the average recoveries were 101.49%and the RSD were 1.11%(n=9).CONCLUSION The method is simple ,accurate ,and reproducible.It can be used to control the quality of Gongliuqing Tablets.%目的:建立HPLC法测定宫瘤清片中苦杏仁苷、黄芩苷含量的方法。方法采用AgiLent 1100系列高效液相色谱仪,以AgiLent HC-C18色谱柱(4.6mm ×250mm,5μm)分离,体积流量1mL· min -1,柱温30℃。①苦杏仁苷:流动相为甲醇-水(20∶80),检测波长210nm;②黄芩苷:流动相为甲醇-0.2%磷酸溶液(47∶53),检测波长280nm。结果苦杏仁苷在18~180μg· mL -1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9996),平均回收率为99.61%,RSD=1.02%(n=9);黄芩苷在6.657~66.57μg· mL -1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9997),平均回收率为101.49%,RSD=1.11%(n=9)。结论本方法操作简便,结果准确,重现性好,可作为宫瘤清片的质量控制方法。

  1. Simultaneous Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride,D-pseudo-ephedrine and Amygdalin in Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid by RP-HPLC%RP-HPLC同时测定宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱及苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 王宁; 刘志辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:采用Hedera ODS-2色谱柱(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm);以乙腈-0.2%磷酸水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;紫外检测波长210nm,0~24 min流速为1.0 mL·min(-1),用于检测盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱;27~55 min流速为0.7 mL·min(-1),用于检测苦杏仁苷,柱温25℃.结果:盐酸伪麻黄碱、盐酸麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷分别在0.043 2~0.684 μg(r=0.999 9),0.048 8~0.976 μg(r =0.999 9),0.047 0~0.940 8 μg(r=0.999 8)线性关系良好;平均回收率(n=6)分别为96.15%,96.09%,95.74%,RSD分别为0.78%,1.18%,1.80%.结论:该法可以用于宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷的含量测定.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method for determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid. Method: The separation was performed on an Hedera ODS-2 (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid (5: 95 ) with the flow rate of 1 mL· min- 1 for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and 0. 7 mL·min-1 for amygdalin, UV detection wavelength was at 210 nm and column temperature was 25 ℃. Result: ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin were linear in the range of 0. 043 2-0. 684 μg ( r = 0. 999 9), 0. 048 8-0. 976 μg ( r = 0. 999 9) and 0. 047 0-0. 940 8 μg ( r = 0. 999 8 ), the average recoveries (n =6) of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin were 96. 15% , 96. 09% and95. 74% with RSD of 0.78%, 1.18% and 1.80% respectively. Conclusion: This method is rapid and accurate for the simultaneous analysis of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin and can provide a reliable way for the quality control for Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid.

  2. Dynamic Changes of Ephedrine Hydrochloride, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride, Amygdalin and Glycyrrhizic Acid in Different Compatibility of San-Ao Decoction%三拗汤不同配伍煎液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和甘草酸动态规律变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金花; 刘陶世; 程建明; 陈冬冬; 钱海峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究三拗汤在不同配伍煎液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和甘草酸的动态规律变化.方法:采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)同时测定三拗汤煎液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和甘草酸的转移率,选用Kromasil C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以流动相甲醇-0.1%磷酸进行梯度洗脱,流速为1 mL·min-1,柱温30℃,进样量10μL.其中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷在208 nm波长下检测,甘草酸铵在250 nm波长下检测.结果:麻黄碱转移率在合煎液中大于分煎液,伪麻黄碱转移率在麻黄与苦杏仁配伍中最高,苦杏仁苷转移率在麻黄与苦杏仁配伍中最高,甘草酸转移率在合煎液中大于分煎液.结论:中药复方在煎煮过程中存在动态规律变化,应根据其变化有针对性提高药物的有效性和稳定性.%This paper was aimed to study the dynamic changes of San-Ao(SA) decoction in different compatibility of ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid.HPLC was used to simultaneously determinate the transfer rate of SA decoction of ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid.Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm) column was selected with methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid as a mobile phase to gradient.The flow rate was 1 mL·min-1.The column temperature was 30℃.The injection volume was 10μL.Ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin were detected at the wavelength of 208 nm.The glycyrrhizic acid was detected at the wavelength of 250 nm.The results showed that the transfer rate of ephedrine hydrochloride in decoction was more than that of the single preparation.The transfer rate of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was the highest in the combination of ephedra and bitter almond.The transfer rate of amygdalin was the highest in the combination of ephedra and bitter almond.The transfer rate of

  3. HPLC法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量%Content Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Amygdalin in Xiao'er Qingre Zhike Oral Solution by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩; 翟字; 王曼泽

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法.色谱柱为Platisil ODS柱,流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(含0.1%三乙胺)=5:95,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为215nm,进样量为10 μL,柱温为30℃.结果:盐酸麻黄碱进样量在0.146~4.85 μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为99.4%,RSD=1.0%;盐酸伪麻黄碱进样量在0.157~5.23 μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为99.6%,RSD=1.7%;苦杏仁苷进样量在0.297~9.90μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系(r=0.9999),平均加样回收率为98.9%,RSD=0.7%.结论:该方法简便、灵敏、准确,可用于小儿清热止咳口服液的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for the content determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in Xiao'er qingre zhike oral solution. METHODS: HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Platisil ODS column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine, 5:95) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 215 nm and injection volume was 10 μL. The column temperature was 30 ℃ RESULTS: The linear range of ephedrine hydrochloride was 0.146~4.85 μg (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 99.4% (RSD=1.0%). The linear range of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was 0.157~5.23 ug (r= 0.999 9) with an average recovery of 99.6% (RSD=1.7%). The linear range of amygdalin was 0.297~9.90 μg (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 98.9% (RSD=0.7% ) . CONCLUSION: The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, which can be used for the quality control of Xiao'er qingre zhike oral solution.

  4. Environ: E00139 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00139 Peach kernel (JP16) Crude drug Amygdalin [CPD:C08325], 24-Methylenecycloarta...s persica [TAX:3760] Same as: D06769 Rosaceae (rose family) Peach kernel Major component: Amygdalin [CPD:C08325] ...

  5. 苦杏仁苷对佐剂性炎症影响的实验研究%Experimental study of effects of amygdalin on adjuvant inflammatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟蓉; 李运曼; 钟林霖

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察苦杏仁苷对大鼠佐剂性炎症(机体异常免疫)和小鼠碳粒廓清(机体正常免疫)的影响,以揭示其免疫调节作用.方法:采用皮下注射Freund's完全佐剂抗原,形成大鼠慢性免疫萎缩性胃炎模型,测定胃液游离酸度、总酸度及胃蛋白酶活性;大鼠足跖皮内注射Freund's完全佐剂形成佐剂性关节炎,测定佐剂性关节炎原发病变的足跖肿胀度、继发病变的肿胀率及炎症抑制率;小鼠碳粒廓清实验测定廓清指数(K)及吞噬指数(α).结果:苦杏仁苷高剂量组可极显著降低大鼠胃蛋白酶活性,抑制佐剂性关节炎原发病变的足跖肿胀度,减轻继发病变的肿胀率,提高小鼠的廓清指数和吞噬指数(P<0.01);苦杏仁苷中剂量组可显著降低大鼠胃蛋白酶活性,提高小鼠廓清指数(P0.05).结论:苦杏仁苷能抑制佐剂性炎症,增强巨噬细胞的吞噬功能,具有调节免疫功能的作用.

  6. Safely Using TCM Herbs: Adverse Reaction and Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楷; AngelaBerscheid

    2004-01-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity: Amygdalin is the main toxic constituent, which can be decomposed to hydrocyanic acid. Toxicity is dose related; 55--60 pieces of Xing ren, containing approximately 1.8 g of amygdalin, is often the fatal dose in adults. Two hours after administration, the first symptoms often appear, such as a bitter taste in mouth accompanied with oversalivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, palpitations, dyspnea, cyanosis, which may lead to coma and death due to respiratory arrest .

  7. Changes in the electrophoretic pattern of glucosidases during apple seeds stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podstolski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The technique of localization of glucosidases on disc electropherograms, based on reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride by enzymatically liberated sugar is described. The changes in electrophoretic patterns of amygdaline, phloridzin and p-nitrophenyl-β-glucoside hydrolysing glucosidases during apple seed stratification were studied. The changes were correlated with earlier described changes in endogenous apple seed amygdaline and phloridzin contents.

  8. Protective effects of amygdalin on hyperoxia-exposed type Ⅱ alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro%苦杏仁甙对高氧暴露早产鼠肺泡Ⅱ型细胞的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常立文; 祝华平; 李文斌; 刘汉楚; 张谦慎; 陈红兵

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨苦杏仁甙对体外高氧暴露早产鼠肺泡Ⅱ型细胞( type 2 alveolar epithelial cell,AECⅡ)的保护作用机制.方法原代培养早产鼠AECⅡ,建立高氧细胞模型,采用MTT比色法、流式细胞术、免疫印迹(Western blot)、逆转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)等方法,观察苦杏仁甙对高氧暴露早产鼠AECⅡ增殖及表面活性物质蛋白(surfactant associated protein, SP)mRNA表达的影响.结果高氧暴露导致早产鼠AECⅡ增殖抑制,AECⅡSPs mRNA表达降低.MTT试验显示,苦杏仁甙50~200μmol/L时呈剂量依赖方式促进早产鼠AECⅡ细胞增殖,200 μmol/L浓度时,其作用最强,400 μmol/L浓度时反而呈抑制作用.200 μmol/L苦杏仁甙可显著促进体外高氧暴露AECⅡ增殖,提高其SP mRNA表达水平.结论高氧暴露导致早产鼠AECⅡ增殖抑制及SP mRNA表达降低,200 μmol/L苦杏仁甙对体外高氧暴露的早产鼠AECⅡ有一定保护作用.

  9. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2009-01-01

    When an almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb) kernel containing cyanogenic glucosides (prunasin or amygdalin) is disintegrated, the glucosides will typically be hydrolyzed by amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase with concomitant release of glucose, benzaldehyde......, and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Benzaldehyde and HCN, in low amounts, provide the characteristic almond taste and flavour. Because of the toxicity of HCN, low cyanogenic glucoside content in the kernel is a prime breeding target. Biochemical analyses of different almond tissues were carried out to investigate...

  10. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

  11. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    , and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Hapten-Protein Conjugates for Antibody Production against Cyanogenic Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat Folashade

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cyanogenic plants can cause serious health problems for humans. The ability to detect and quantify cyanogenic glycosides, capable of generating cyanide, could contribute to prevention of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of improperly processed cyanogenic plants. Hapten-protein conjugates were synthesized with amygdalin and linamarin by using a novel approach. Polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing four New Zealand White rabbits with synthesized amygdalin-bovine serum albumin and linamarin-bovine serum albumin immunogen. This is the first time an antibody was produced against linamarin. Antibody titer curves were obtained from all the four rabbits by using a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High antibody titer was obtained at dilutions greater than 1:50,000 from both immunogens. This new method is an important step forward in preventing ingestion of toxic cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26197297

  13. The determination of furaldehyde and benzaldehyde in plum brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all alcohol liqueurs, brandies from drupaceous plants are characterized with the highest level of hydro cyanic acid, benzaldehyde and ethylcarbamate. In fruit brandies ethylcarbamate mainly originates from hydro cyanic acid during the processes of alcohol fermentation of crushed fruit and its preservation, distillation and ripening of the brandy. Hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde arise from the hydrolysis of amygdaline that is found exist in the heart of fruit stones and seeds, as well as from the hydrolysis of prunasine from the skin and flesh of drupaceous plants. The content of amygdaline and prunazine depends on the type of fruit, which corresponds to the potential content of hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde in the brandy that corresponds the stoichiometric ratio 1:3.94. The content of the aldehydes: furfural and benzaldehyde in plum brandy, strong plum brandy, young brandy, of domestic production in the various regions of Serbia were analyzed in this paper.

  14. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage.

  15. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage. PMID:27119432

  16. Breast rhagades in nursing and non lactating women: A gordian knot to loose by the aid of a phytocosmetical formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Martini

    2016-01-01

    We have tried to solve an everlasting problem inherent the treatment of breast rhagades in woman, since mammary gland proposes several troubles: 1) drug penetration through the mammal areola epidermis is the quickest, after the one through eye conjunctive and so whichever chemical or natural substance (for instance triterpenes or cyanhydrin or amygdalin present in sweet almond oil) may be retrieved in human milk and blood after few minutes) 2) Milk is suckled by the bébé and it is supposed th...

  17. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  18. Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats via inhibiting MMP2/9, TIMP1/2 and the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-mei; Peng, Jing-hua; Sun, Zhao-lin; Tian, Hua-jie; Duan, Xiao-hua; Liu, Lin; Ma, Xin; Feng, Qin; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yi-yang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Chinese medicine CGA formula consists of polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis mycelia (CS-PS), gypenosides and amygdalin, which is derived from Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) capsule for treating liver fibrosis. In this study we attempted to confirm the therapeutic effects of CGA formula in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and to identify the mechanisms of anti-fibrotic actions. Methods: Rats were injected with DMN (10 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 3 consecutive days per week over a 4-week period. The rats then were orally administered with CGA formula (CS-PS 60 mg·kg−1·d−1, gypenosides 50 mg·kg−1·d−1 and amygdalin 80 mg·kg−1·d−1) daily in the next 2 weeks. CS-PS, gypenosides or amygdalin alone were administered as individual component controls, whereas colchicine and FZHY were used as positive controls. Serum biomarkers were measured. Hepatic injury, collagen deposition and stellate cell activation were examined. The MMP activities, expression of TIMP protein and proteins involved in the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathways in liver tissues were assayed. Results: In DMN-treated rats, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased serum ALT, AST and total bilirubin and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, increased serum albumin level, and attenuated liver fibrosis as shown by histological examination. Furthermore, these effects were comparable to those caused by administration of FZHY, and superior to those caused by administration of colchicine or the individual components of CGA formula. Moreover, administration of CGA formula significantly decreased the protein levels of α-SMA, TGF-β1, TGF-β1 receptor (TβR-I), p-TβR-I, p-TβR-II, p-Smad2, p-Smad3, TIMP1 and TIMP2, as well as MMP2 and MMP9 activities in liver tissues of DMN-treated rats. Conclusion: Chinese medicine CGA formula ameliorates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and this effect was likely associated with the down-regulation of MMP2/9 activities, TIMP1/2 protein

  19. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  20. Biorefinery: a design tool for molecular gelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, George; Shankar, Balachandran Vijai; Jadhav, Swapnil R; Vemula, Praveen Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Molecular gels, the macroscopic products of a nanoscale bottom-up strategy, have emerged as a promising functional soft material. The prospects of tailoring the architecture of gelator molecules have led to the formation of unique, highly tunable gels for a wide spectrum of applications from medicine to electronics. Biorefinery is a concept that integrates the processes of converting biomass/renewable feedstock and the associated infrastructure used to produce chemicals and materials, which is analogous to petroleum-based refinery. The current review assimilates the successful efforts to demonstrate the prospects of the biorefinery concept for developing new amphiphiles as molecular gelators. Amphiphiles based on naturally available raw materials such as amygdalin, vitamin C, cardanol, arjunolic acid, and trehalose that possess specific functionality were synthesized using biocatalysis and/or chemical synthesis. The hydrogels and organogels obtained from such amphiphiles were conceptually demonstrated for diverse applications including drug-delivery systems and the templated synthesis of hybrid materials. PMID:20465204

  1. Vibrational microspectroscopy of food. Raman vs. FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Løkke, Mette Marie; Micklander, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy are complementary techniques for the study of molecular vibrations and structure. The combination with a microscope results in an analytical method that allows spatially resolved investigation of the chemical composition of heterogeneous foods and food ingredients. The...... high spatial resolution makes it possible to study areas down to approximately 10x10 mum with FT-IR microspectroscopy and approximately 1 x 1 mum with Raman microspectroscopy. This presentation highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the two microspectroscopic techniques when applied to...... different heterogeneous food systems. FT-IR and Raman microspectroscopy were applied to a number of different problems related to food analysis: (1) in situ determination of starch and pectin in the potato cell, (2) in situ determination of the distribution of amygdalin in bitter almonds, (3) the...

  2. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants: development of a Flow Injection Surface-Enhanced Raman Scatter (FI-SERS) method for determination of cyanide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Møller, Birger Lindberg;

    2004-01-01

    /lotaustralin in leaves and roots from a medium cyanogenic cassava variety were obtained in situ using a Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) Raman interferometer with a 1064 nm laser, but the signal was very weak and difficult to obtain. A spectrum containing a signal from the CN bond of dhurrin in a freeze......Cyanogenic glucosides were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of the crystal forms of linamarin, linustatin, neolinustatin, amygdalin, sambunigrin, and dhurrin were obtained using a Raman spectrograph microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser. The position of the signal from the CdropN triple...... bond of the cyanohydrin group was influenced by the nature of the side group and was above 2240 cm(-1) for the three cyanogenic glucosides that contain a neigh- boring aromatic ring, and below or partially below 2240 cm-1 for the non-aromatic cyanoglucosides. Signals from the CN bond of linamarin...

  3. Simultaneous determination of seven bioactive components in Guizhi Fuling capsule by microwave-assisted extraction combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yang; Zhao, Long-Shan; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Zhao, Yu-Tong; Xiao, Wei; Xiong, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid and reliable microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of the seven bioactive constituents in Guizhi Fuling capsule (GFC), namely gallic acid, amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, paeonol, cinnamic acid and pachymic acid, respectively. The operation of MAE optimised through orthogonal array design experiment was performed at 80°C for 10 min with methanol-water (70:30, v/v) as the extracting solvent. The method was validated including intra- and inter-day precision, repeatability and stability, with relative standard deviation less than 3.9%, 3.3%, 4.4% and 3.1%, respectively. All analytes showed the good linearity (r >0.999), and their average recoveries varied between 98.2% and 101.2%. The results indicated that this method was simple, effective and suitable for the quality control of GFC. PMID:26189716

  4. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme system of Aspergillus japonicus: Pt. 2. Purification and characterization of an inducible extracellular. beta. -glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Arunik; Kundu, R.K.; Dube, S.; Dube, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    A high molecular weight ..beta..-glucosidase (mol. wt. > 240 000 daltons) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus japonicus and was finally purified to 86-fold by alcohol precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography on Whatman DE-52. An apparently homogeneous form of the enzyme appeared in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is capable of utilizing cellobiose, salicin, o-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside (ONPG), methyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and amygdalin effectively as substrates but not arbutin, esculin hydrate and phloridzin. No metal ion is required for its catalytic activity. Hg/sup ++/ and p-chloromercuricbenzoate (PCMB) are strong inhibitors for the enzyme. Nojirimycin and glucono-delta-lactone are two competitive inhibitors of the same enzyme, and nojirimycin is the more potent of the two.

  5. 杏苏止咳糖浆的质量控制研究%Preliminary pharmacodynamic study of Xingsu Zhike Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士勇; 彭代银; 高家荣; 程军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the quality standard of xingsu zhike syrup. Methods The thin-layer chromatography( TLC ) technique was used to identify ephedra, baical skullcap root, thunberg fritillary bulb, platycodon grandiflorum, purple perilla, amygda. High efficiency liquid chromatography ( HPLC )was used to measure the content of amygdalin. Results The methods of the chromatographic condition were reproducible. Amygdalin was linear in the range of 16. 15 ~ 80. 75 μg( r =0. 999 )and the linear relationship was accurate. The average recovery rate was 101. 71% , RSD of precision was 2. 88% and RSD of reproducibility was 4. 22%. Conclusion This standard is convenient, effective and accurate for the quality control of compound xingsu zhike syrup.%目的 建立杏苏止咳糖浆的质量标准.方法 采用薄层色谱法对杏苏止咳糖浆中的麻黄、黄芩、浙贝母、桔梗、紫苏叶进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定苦杏仁苷的含量.结果 薄层鉴别重现性好,苦杏苷在16.15~80.75 μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999,平均回收率为101.71%,精密度RSD为2.88%,重现性RSD为4.22%.结论 该方法简便、可靠、准确,可用于该制剂的质量控制.

  6. Determination the active compounds of herbal preparation by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application on the preclinical pharmacokinetics of pure ephedrine, single herbal extract of Ephedra, and a multiple herbal preparation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ju-Wen; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Lu, Chia-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-07-15

    The herbal preparation Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang (MXGST) is a popular traditional Chinese formulation that has been used for the treatment of coughs and fevers. The potential active components of MXGST are ephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid. The aim of this study was to develop a validated analytical method to measure these analytes in the herbal preparation MXGST using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to monitor m/z 166.1→148.1 for ephedrine ([M+H](+)), 475.2→163.0 for amygdalin ([M+NH4](+)), and 840.6→453.3 ([M+NH4](+)) for glycyrrhizic acid. The analytes were separated by a reverse phase C18 column (100×2.1mm, 2.6μm). The mobile phase consisted of 5mM ammonium acetate (0.1% formic acid) and 100% methanol (0.1% formic acid) with a linear gradient elution. Five brands of commercial pharmaceutical herbal products and a laboratory extract of MXGST were analyzed. Moreover, the modified UHPLC-MS/MS method was applied to the comparative pharmacokinetics of ephedrine in rats from the following three sources: (1) pure ephedrine, (2) an herbal extract of Ephedra, and (3) an herbal preparation of MXGST. Plasma samples from rats were prepared by protein precipitation, evaporation and reconstitution. The pharmacokinetic data showed that pure ephedrine was absorbed significantly faster than ephedrine of the Ephedra extract or the MXGST herbal preparation. However, the elimination half-life of ephedrine administered as the pure compound was 93.9±8.07min, but for ephedrine from the Ephedra extract and the MXGST, the half-lives were 133±17 and 247±57.6min, respectively. The area under the concentration curves (AUC) did not show significant differences among the three groups. These data suggest that the rest of the herbal ingredients in the Ephedra extract and the MXGST may provide a compensation effect that reduces the peak concentration of ephedrine and prolongs the

  7. Simultaneous determination of ten compounds in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS: Application in the pharmacokinetic study of Ma-Zi-Ren-Wan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dong-Dong; Han, Quan-Bin; Zhong, Linda Li-Dan; Li, Yan-Hong; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Ho, Hing-Man; Zhang, Man; Lin, Shu-Hai; Zhao, Ling; Huang, Tao; Mi, Hong; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Ma-Zi-Ren-Wan (MZRW) is a classic Chinese formula which has been used to treat human constipation in China for over 2000 years. In order to make good and rational use of this formula in the future, this paper presents the first attempt to track the pharmacokinetic features of MZRW in rat using rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Ten chemical components of MZRW, namely, rhein, emodin, aloe emodin, hesperidin, naringin, amygdalin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, magnolol and honokiol, were simultaneously determined in rat plasma after a single oral administration (10g/kg body weight) of MZRW to rats. Geniposide and liquiritin were used as internal standards. The separation was performed on a Waters ACQUITY BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm). The detection was conducted by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) in negative ionization mode. Two highest abundant MRM transitions without interference were optimized for each analyte. This method was well validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability. All calibration curves had good linearity (r(2)>0.995) over the concentration range from 3.9 to 125.0ng/mL for emodin, 3.9-500.0ng/mL for amygdalin, 2.0-4000.0ng/mL for naringin and hesperidin, 3.9-2000.0ng/mL for magnolol, 7.8-2000.0ng/mL for rhein and 3.9-4000.0ng/mL for albiflorin, paeoniflorin, aloe emodin and honokiol. The intra-day and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) was within 15%, the accuracy (relative error) ranged from -13.6% to 15.1%, and the lower limit of quantification in plasma ranged between 2.0ng/mL and 7.8ng/mL. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were satisfactory. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of these ten compounds after oral administration of MZRW to rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters of each compound can facilitate clinical studies in the future. PMID:26231677

  8. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC.

  10. Purification and characterization of vanilla bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beta-D-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoux, Eric; Chauwin, Audrey; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2003-05-01

    Vanilla bean beta-D-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by successive anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer (201 kDa) made up of four identical subunits (50 kDa). The optimum pH was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C at pH 7.0. K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and glucovanillin were 1.1 and 20.0 mM, respectively; V(max) values were 4.5 and 5.0 microkat.mg(-1). The beta-D-glucosidase was competitively inhibited by glucono-delta-lactone and 1-deoxynojirimycin, with respective K(i) values of 670 and 152 microM, and not inhibited by 2 M glucose. The beta-D-glucosidase was not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and DTNB and fully inhibited by 1.5-2 M 2-mercaptoethanol and 1,4-dithiothreitol. The enzyme showed decreasing activity on p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. The enzyme was also active on prunasin, esculin, and salicin and inactive on cellobiose, gentiobiose, amygdalin, phloridzin, indoxyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  11. Breast rhagades in nursing and non lactating women: A gordian knot to loose by the aid of a phytocosmetical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to solve an everlasting problem inherent the treatment of breast rhagades in woman, since mammary gland proposes several troubles: 1 drug penetration through the mammal areola epidermis is the quickest, after the one through eye conjunctive and so whichever chemical or natural substance (for instance triterpenes or cyanhydrin or amygdalin present in sweet almond oil may be retrieved in human milk and blood after few minutes 2 Milk is suckled by the bébé and it is supposed that whichever remedy against breast rhagades should be applied topically before and after each feeding and thus most of the substances included in the remedy passes into human milk. 3 Mammary gland is victim of the aggression of manifold germs and bacteria from the bébés’ mouth. There is an avalanche of cosmetic and pharmaceutical commodities that always fail in some of the aforesaid corollaries. Our gélée tends to comply all the prerequisites and we have demonstrated this hypothesis.

  12. Pantoea allii sp. nov., isolated from onion plants and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Goszczynska, Teresa; Venter, Stephanus N; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Vos, Paul; Gitaitis, Ronald D; Coutinho, Teresa A

    2011-04-01

    Eight yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria were isolated from onion seed in South Africa and from an onion plant exhibiting centre rot symptoms in the USA. The isolates were assigned to the genus Pantoea on the basis of phenotypic and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), based on gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD sequences, confirmed the allocation of the isolates to the genus Pantoea. MLSA further indicated that the isolates represented a novel species, which was phylogenetically most closely related to Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis also placed the isolates into a cluster separate from P. ananatis and P. stewartii. Compared with type strains of species of the genus Pantoea that showed >97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain BD 390(T), the isolates exhibited 11-55 % whole-genome DNA-DNA relatedness, which confirmed the classification of the isolates in a novel species. The most useful phenotypic characteristics for the differentiation of the isolates from their closest phylogenetic neighbours are production of acid from amygdalin and utilization of adonitol and sorbitol. A novel species, Pantoea allii sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain BD 390(T) ( = LMG 24248(T)). PMID:20495023

  13. Study on Processing Technology of Prunus humilis Leave Tea%欧李绿茶的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婧; 杨鹏; 任玉婷; 王晓闻

    2012-01-01

    欧李叶具有很高的营养价值,是一类值得开发的食用资源。以传统绿茶加工工艺为参考将欧李叶制成绿茶成品,研究了漂烫及其时间,杀青时间对成品品质的影响。根据成品评分标准确定较佳漂烫时间为1min.每次锅炒时间为3min,并根据高效液相色谱测定炒制过程中欧李中苦杏仁苷的含量变化,确定较佳的炒制次数为5次,为欧李绿茶开发生产提供参考。%Prunus humilis leaf is an edible resource with abundant nutritions. It was worth to be developed. The Prunus humilis leaves were made into green tea according to the traditional processing. The effects of blanching or out of blanching, the blanching time, and the fixing time on the product quality were studied. The optimal blanching time (1 min) and each fixing time (3 min) were judged by the product sensory evaluation standards. The variation of amygdalin content was determined by HPLC to confirm the optimal pan removing times (5 times).

  14. Scientific opinion on the acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    an exposure of 0.105 mg/kg bw associated with a non-toxic blood cyanide level of 20 micro mol (µM), and applying an uncertainty factor of 1.5 to account for toxicokinetic and of 3.16 to account for toxicodynamic inter-individual differences. In the absence of consumption data and thus using highest intakes......Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot kernels and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. Cyanide is of high acute toxicity in humans. The lethal dose is reported to be 0.5–3.5 mg/kg body weight (bw). An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg bw was derived from...... the ARfD is 0.06 and 0.37 g in toddlers and adults, respectively. Thus the ARfD would be exceeded already by consumption of one small kernel in toddlers, while adults could consume three small kernels. However, consumption of less than half of a large kernel could already exceed the ARfD in adults....

  15. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  16. β2-Adrenoceptor affinity chromatography and its application in the screening of the active compounds from Semen Armeniacae Amarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XiaoHui; ZHAO XinFeng; YANG Rong; WANG ShiXiang; WEI YinMao; ZHENG JianBin

    2008-01-01

    β2-Adrenoceptor (β2-AR) was purified from the rabbit lung tissue by sepharose-salbutamol affinity chromatographic column. To prepare the β2-AR stationary phase, β2-AR was evenly immobilized on the surface of macro-pore silica with a mild chemical coupling method through covalent bond. The reten-tion properties of β2-AR stationary phase were characterized by four ligands, salbutamol sulfate, noradrenaline bitartrate, adrenaline hydrochloride and propranolol hydrochloride, to establish the β2-AR affinity chromatography. Then, the method was used to screen the active compounds from the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. The results showed that β2-AR on the surface of the sta-tionary phase could keep its original bioactivity and selectivity. Amygdalin retained in the chroma-tographic column was proved to be the active compound of the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. Compared with the existing chromatographic screening approaches, this method showed a good stability and high selectivity. The active compounds which could interact with β2-AR in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be screened efficiently by this method, providing a new way to screen the active compounds in complicated samples such as TCM.

  17. Analysis of nut qualities of almond varieties in Xinjiang%新疆地区扁桃坚果品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷继英; 张强; 田嘉; 李鹏; 李疆

    2015-01-01

    In order to select out almond cultivars with development potential, the nuts of 38 varieties of almond in Xinjiang area were chosen as research objects to determine the shell thickness, kernel percentage, kernel mass, crude fat content, crude protein content and amygdalin content according to the national standard method, and to comprehensively evaluate the nuts quality of almond in Xinjiang by using the subordinate function method. The results showed: the average kernel mass of ‘Kexi’ was the highest, reaching 1.40 g; ‘Nonpareil’ had the greatest kernel percentage (72.23%); the shell thickness of ‘Kubadan’ was the smallest, only 0.40 mm; ‘Amannisha’ had the highest content of crude fat (60.95%); the crude protein content in ‘Mission’ was the lowest (30.09%); ‘Tianrentaobadan’ had the lowest content of amygdalin, while ‘Xiaotaobadan’ had the highest content. Based on the results of comprehensive evaluation with the method of subordinate function, the comprehensive qualities of ‘Zhipi’, ‘Butte’, ‘Thompson’, ‘Sonora’, ‘Nonpareil’, ‘Ye’erqiang’ and ‘Badanwang’ were thought to be the highest and these almond cultivars had the greater development potential.%为了筛选出具有开发潜力的品种,以新疆地区扁桃坚果为研究对象,按照国家标准方法测定38个扁桃品种的壳厚度、出仁率、种仁质量、粗脂肪含量、粗蛋白含量和苦杏仁苷含量,利用隶属函数法综合评价新疆地区扁桃的坚果品质。结果表明:‘克西’的平均种仁质量最大,为1.40 g;‘Nonpareil’的出仁率最高,为72.23%;‘苦巴旦’的壳厚度最小,仅为0.40 mm;‘阿曼尼沙’的粗脂肪含量最高,为60.95%;‘Mission’的粗蛋白含量最高,为30.09%;‘甜仁桃巴旦’苦杏仁苷含量最低,‘小桃巴旦’含量最高。经隶属函数法综合评价,认为扁桃品种‘纸皮’、‘Butte’、‘Thompson’、

  18. Characterization of plant-derived lactococci on the basis of their volatile compounds profile when grown in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Debebe; Hannon, John A; McAuliffe, Olivia; Ross, R Paul

    2014-02-17

    A total of twelve strains of lactococci were isolated from grass and vegetables (baby corn and fresh green peas). Ten of the isolates were classified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and two as Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Most of the plant-derived strains were capable of metabolising a wide range of carbohydrates in that they fermented D-mannitol, amygdalin, potassium gluconate, l-arabinose, d-xylose, sucrose and gentibiose. None of the dairy control strains (i.e. L. lactis subsp. cremoris HP, L. lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 and Lactococcus lactis 303) were able to utilize any of these carbohydrates. The technological potential of the isolates as flavour-producing lactococci was evaluated by analysing their growth in milk and their ability to produce volatile compounds using solid phase micro-extraction of the headspace coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the volatile compounds clearly separated the dairy strains from the plant derived strains, with higher levels of most flavour rich compounds. The flavour compounds produced by the plant isolates among others included; fatty acids such as 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acids, and hexanoic acid, several esters (e.g. butyl acetate and ethyl butanoate) and ketones (e.g. acetoin, diacetyl and 2-heptanone), all of which have been associated with desirable and more mature flavours in cheese. As such the production of a larger number of volatile compounds is a distinguishing feature of plant-derived lactococci and might be a desirable trait for the production of dairy products with enhanced flavour and/or aroma. PMID:24361833

  19. Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from an activated sludge system treating coke plant effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felföldi, Tamás; Vengring, Anita; Kéki, Zsuzsa; Márialigeti, Károly; Schumann, Peter; Tóth, Erika M

    2014-06-01

    A novel bacterium, PB3-7B(T), was isolated on phenol-supplemented inorganic growth medium from a laboratory-scale wastewater purification system that treated coke plant effluent. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain PB3-7B(T) belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae and showed the highest pairwise sequence similarity to Parapusillimonas granuli Ch07(T) (97.5%), Candidimonas bauzanensis BZ59(T) (97.3%) and Pusillimonas noertemannii BN9(T) (97.2%). Strain PB3-7B(T) was rod-shaped, motile and oxidase- and catalase-positive. The predominant fatty acids were C(16 : 0), C(17 : 0) cyclo, C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c and C(14 : 0) 3-OH, and the major respiratory quinone was Q-8. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain PB3-7B(T) was 59.7 mol%. The novel bacterium can be distinguished from closely related type strains based on its urease activity and the capacity for assimilation of glycerol and amygdalin. On the basis of the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular data, strain PB3-7B(T) is considered to represent a new genus and species, for which the name Eoetvoesia caeni gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Eoetvoesia caeni is PB3-7B(T) ( = DSM 25520(T) = NCAIM B 02512(T)). PMID:24585374

  20. High content cell-based assay for the inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-07-01

    Cellular inflammation is a non-specific immune response to tissue injury that takes place via cytokine network orchestration to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. However chronic inflammation that lasts for a longer period, plays the key role in human diseases like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways may be effective in targeting and modulating their outcome. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that effectively combines the pro-inflammatory features with the pro-apoptotic potential. Increased levels of TNF-α observed during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions are believed to induce adverse phenotypes like glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profile. Natural products e. g., amygdalin, cinnamic acid, jasmonic acid and aspirin have proven efficacy in minimizing the TNF-α induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Cell lysis-free quantum dot (QDot) imaging is an emerging technique to identify the cellular mediators of a signaling cascade with a single assay in one run. In comparison to organic fluorophores, the inorganic QDots are bright, resistant to photobleaching and possess tunable optical properties that make them suitable for long term and multicolor imaging of various components in a cellular crosstalk. Hence we tested some components of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during TNF-α induced inflammation and the effects of aspirin in HepG2 cells by QDot multicolor imaging technique. Results demonstrated that aspirin showed significant protective effects against TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. The developed cell based assay paves the platform for the analysis of cellular components in a smooth and reliable way.

  1. Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., a species related to Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Strain TCF032-E4 was isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented radish. It shares >99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus and L. paraplantarum. This strain can ferment ribose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, trehalose and gentiobiose. It cannot ferment sucrose, which can be used by L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis, as well as most of the L. plantarum strains (88.7%). TCF032-E4 cannot grow at temperature above 32 °C. This strain shares 78.2-83.6% pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit) and 89.5-94.9% rpoA (RNA polymerase alpha subunit) sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis. These results indicate that TCF032-E4 represents a distinct species. This hypothesis was further confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and comparison with available genomes of related species. The draft genome size of TCF032-E4 is approximately 2.9 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 43.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between TCF032-E4 and related species ranges from 79.0 to 81.1%, the highest ANI value being observed with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T. A novel species, Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., is proposed with TCF032-E4T ( = CCTCC AB2015090T = DSM 100358T) as the type strain. PMID:26410554

  2. Patient perspectives: Tijuana cancer clinics in the post-NAFTA era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ralph W

    2005-03-01

    This article contains observations and historical considerations on cancer and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the Tijuana, Mexico, area. There are approximately 2 dozen such clinics in Tijuana, some of which have been treating international cancer patients since 1963. Among the first clinics to be established were the Bio-Medical Center (Hoxsey therapy), Oasis of Hope (a Laetrile-oriented clinic), and a series of clinics affiliated with the Gerson diet therapy. These original clinics were established mainly by American citizens in response to increased regulation of nonstandard therapies in the United States, particularly after passage of the Kefauver-Harris Amendments to the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act in 1962. In the 1970s, the Tijuana clinics proliferated with the upsurge of interest in Laetrile (amygdalin). By 1978, 70,000 US cancer patients had taken Laetrile for cancer treatment, and many of those had gone to Tijuana to receive it. The popularity of the Tijuana clinics peaked in the mid-1980s. Although many new clinics opened after then, a dozen have folded in the past 10 years alone. The turning point for the clinics came with passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which facilitated greater cooperation among the antifraud authorities of Canada, the United States, and Mexico. In 1994, the tripartite members of NAFTA formed the Mexico-United States-Canada Health Fraud Work Group, or MUCH, whose brief is to strengthen the 3 countries' ability to prevent cross-border health fraud. Under the auspices of MUCH and its members, regulatory crackdowns began in earnest early in 2001. The clinics were also badly affected by the general downturn in travel after 9/11. If these trends continue, many Tijuana clinics are unlikely to survive. Some suggestions are made for how the Tijuana clinics could be reorganized and reformed to minimize the likelihood of governmental actions and to maximize public support. Such reforms center on 5

  3. HPLC 法同时测定柴银口服液中5种成分的含量%Simultaneous determination of five components in Chaiyin Oral Liquid by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱日然

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法同时测定柴银口服液中5种成分的含量。方法用 Zorbaxsb - C18色谱柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm)分离,乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液为流动相梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL·min -1,检测波长为210 nm。结果绿原酸、苦杏仁苷、葛根素、黄芩苷、连翘苷的线性范围分别为0.388~9.70μg(r =0.9999)、0.736~18.40μg(r =0.9998)、0.21~5.25μg(r =0.9998)、0.242~10.6μg(r =0.9999)、0.868~21.7μg(r =0.9999),平均加样回收率分别为96.80%(RSD =0.29%)、103.50%(RSD =1.29%)、103.60%(RSD =1.12%)、102.90%(RSD =0.88%)、100.90%(RSD =0.90%)。结论该方法简便、准确,重复性好,可用于柴银口服液的质量控制。%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five components in Chaiyin Oral Liquid. Methods Using Zorbax SB - C18 column(4. 6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm),acetonitrile - 0. 1% phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL·min - 1 ,the detection wavelength was at 210 nm. Results The linear ranges of chlorogenic acid,amygdalin,puerarin,baicalinand,phillyrin were 0. 388 ~ 9. 70 μg(r = 0. 999 9),0. 736 ~ 18. 40μg(r = 0. 999 8),0. 21 ~ 5. 25 μg(r = 0. 999 8),0. 242 ~ 10. 6 μg(r = 0. 999 9),0. 868 ~ 21. 7 μg(r = 0. 999 9),respec-tively. The average recoveries( n = 6)were 96. 80%( RSD = 0. 29% ),103. 50%( RSD = 1. 29% ),103. 60%( RSD =1. 12% ),102. 90%(RSD = 0. 88% ),100. 90%(RSD = 0. 90% ),respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that the method was simple,accurate,highly selective and reproducible,thus it can be used as quality control for Chaiyin Oral Liquid.

  4. 定喘缓释片的制备及其体外多成分释药规律研究%Study on preparation and releasing mechanism in vitro of the Dingchuan sustained-release tablet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘陶世; 程建明; 赵新慧; 毕肖林; 蔡宝昌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study preparation method and releasing mechanism in vitro of the dingchuan sustained-release tablet. Methods The preparation parameters for the dingchuan sustained-release tablet were investigated by the single factor design method, The releasing rate of ephedrine, glycyrrhizic acid, baicalin, amygdalin from the dingchuan sustained-release tablet in vitro were measured by using Chinese Pharmacopeia (CP) 2010. Dissolution Testing Apparatus 1 (basket method). The similarity factor was used to compare cumulative release curves. The cumulative curve of drug release data were fitted to zero order, first-order and Higuchi models to ascertain the kinetic modeling of drug release. Release mechanism was ascertained using Peppas equation. Results The optimal formulation was that the extraction is 64%, HPMC 30%, lactose 5%, and magnesium stearate 1%. The similarity factors of the cumulative release curve of four ingredients mutually compared were all more than 80, indicating that the release of four ingredients were similar. The cumulative release rate of four ingredients all fitted Higuchi models. The value of slopes of Peppas models of four ingredients were all more than 0.45, indicating that drug released by concurrent action of diffusion and matrix erode(non-fickian diffusion). Conclusion This preparation technology of the dingchuan sustained-release tablet is workable and scientific.%目的:研究定喘缓释片的制备方法及其体外释药规律。方法采用单因素试验法优选制剂成型工艺参数;采用体外释放度测定法,以相似因子比较法、释放模型拟合法以及Peppas方程研究定喘缓释片中麻黄碱等4种代表性成分的释放规律与机制。结果优选的制剂处方为药物64%,HPMC 30%,乳糖5%和硬脂酸镁1%,采用湿颗粒压片法。定喘缓释片中的麻黄碱、甘草酸、黄芩苷和苦杏仁苷的体外释放曲线相互之间的相似因子均大于80%,均以Higuchi释

  5. 低温液氮粉碎对绿茶粉品质影响%Effects of low temperature liquid nitrogen on quality of green tea grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜冰; 焦艳丽; 江东文; 范媛媛; 刘江涛; 杨公明

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the loss of thermal sensitive materials, a new method to grind green tea with low temperature liquid nitrogen was studied. Liquid nitrogen was added in the pulverizing green tea which as the research object in this study. The qualities of green tea pulverized by the liquid nitrogen pulverizing and conventional crushing method were compared. The results showed that, compared with the traditional crushing, the rate of powder pulverized with liquid nitrogen was higher and the qualities of color, taste and sense of the tea were higher. The hydrosoluble materials including the tea polyphenol, caffeine, the free amino acids, soluble protein, soluble sugar contents were respectively improved by 25.12%, 10.12%, 9.50%, 6.75%, 12.63%, 9.05% after liquid nitrogen pulverizing. GC-MS analysis showed that the most aroma compositions of tea powder processed by the two kinds of crashing method were almost the same, but the contents of farnesene, nerolidol, lH-indole, hexanoicacid-3-hexene ester, 2,2,4,4,6-Pentamethyl heptanes, amygdalin and 3-methyl butyric acid/2-methyl propyl ester were higher by 10.88%, 13.70%, 14.06%, 5.61%, 2.08%, 24.39%, 5.68% respectively for the liquid nitrogen pulverizing. This study results indicate that grinding with liquid nitrogen can maintain good quality of tea, and can provide a reference for green tea processing with liquid nitrogen pulverizing.%为减少茶叶粉碎过程中热敏性物质损失,提出茶叶低温液氮粉碎的新方法.该论文以绿茶为原料,在粉碎过程中添加液氮,比较常规粉碎与低温液氮粉碎方法处理对绿茶粉品质的影响.结果表明,与常规粉碎法相比,液氮粉碎法的出粉率高,所得的茶粉泡制成的茶汤在色泽、滋味和品质评分上明显占优,其水浸出物中茶多酚、咖啡碱、游离氨基酸、可溶性蛋白、可溶性糖等功效成分的质量分数分别高出25.12%、10.12%、9.50%、6.75%、12.63%、9.05%;2种茶粉的香

  6. Relación del efecto analgésico de fentanilo agudo con la regulación a la alta de los receptores 5-HT1A cerebrales en la rata Relationship between the analgesic effect of acute fentanyl and upregulation of brain 5-HT1A receptors in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bellido

    2004-07-01

    inhibición de la actividad neuronal en todas estas áreas terminales impidiendo la transmisión del estímulo nociceptivo. Esto explicaría la disminución del efecto analgésico de los agonistas opiáceos µ que originan los antagonistas selectivos 5-HT1A y el mayor efecto analgésico observado al coadministrar agonistas m y fármacos capaces de incrementar los niveles de 5-HT como los ISRS. Se necesitan estudios posteriores que determinen con exactitud el mecanismo por el que el estímulo de los receptores µ origina la regulación a la alta de los receptores 5-HT1A postsinápticos y el papel de cada una de las áreas cerebrales en la percepción del estímulo nociceptivo.5-HT1A agonists have analgesic effects. The analgesic effect of µ agonists can be blocked by selective 5-HT1A antagonists. In order to determine the mechanism that produces the synergies observed between µ and serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors in terms of their antinociceptive effect, we determined the analgesic effect of fentanyl after ap-plying a painful thermal and mechanical stimulus in the rat, and related it with the affinity and the maximum density of 5-HT1A receptors in thirteen brain areas using autoradiographic techniques. Fentanyl showed a dose- and time-dependant analgesic effect with the two nociceptive stimuli. In addition to its analgesic effect, fentanyl caused an up-regulation of 5-HT1A receptors, since we found a dose-dependant increase of their density, but the same affinity. The highest dose of fentanyl (12.8 µg.kg-1 caused a statistically significant increase of the density of 5-HT1A receptors that was positively associated with its analgesic effect on the terminal cortical external (+64%, internal (+69% and piriform (+113% frontoparietal areas, the CA1 (+111% and DGm (+60% regions of the hippocampus, the amygdalin nuclei PMCo (+101% and AHiAL (+91% and the hypo-thalamus (+127%. The analgesic effect of acute fentanyl would be explained, at least, by two mechanisms: its stimulation