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Sample records for amygdalin

  1. [Amygdalin - structure and clinical significance].

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    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Otlewska, Anna; Hackemer, Paweł; Otlewska, Agnieszka

    2015-05-01

    In this publication we described amygdalin. It was isolated for the first time in the 19th century. Amygdalin is called interchangeably vitamin B17 or laetrile. Since more than a hundred years, there has been reports about its unique anticancer properties. We tried to introduce the present knowledge about therapeutic efficacy of laetrile. Most of these studies has been made in the in vitro environment. The lack of appropriate studies forced scientists to examine the positive influence of amygdalin on many diseases like: bladder cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, colon cancer, promyelocytic leukemia, chronic kidney disease, psoriasis and other.

  2. AMYGDALIN AND ITS EFFECTS ON ANIMAL CELLS

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    Marek Halenár

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is a natural compound whose anticancer, anti-inflammatory activity and other medicinal benefits have been known for many years. It has been isolated in 1830 by the French chemists Robiquet and Boutron-Charlard from kernels of the bitter almond (Prunus amygdalus. It is a major component of the seeds of prunasin family plants, such as apricots, almonds, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one of benzaldehyde, which induces an analgesic action, and one of hydrocyanic acid, which is an anti-neoplastic compound. It has been used as a traditional drug because of its wide range of medicinal benefits. Amygdalin can be used in medicine for preventing and treating migraine, hypertension, chronic inflammation, and other reaction source diseases. This review is focused on the effects of amygdalin on the animal system.

  3. Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro.

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    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as well as tumor cell migration was examined. Effects of drug treatment on integrin α and β subtypes, on integrin-linked kinase (ILK and total and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK were also determined. Integrin knock-down was carried out to evaluate integrin influence on migration and adhesion. A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. TCCSUP adhesion was also reduced, but migration was elevated under amygdalin. Integrin subtype expression was significantly and specifically altered by amygdalin depending on the cell line. ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. Knock down of β1 integrin caused a significant decrease in both adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 cells, but a significant increase in TCCSUP adhesion. Knock down of β4 integrin caused a significant decrease in migration of RT112 cells. Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. The amygdalin induced increase in TCCSUP migratory behavior indicates that any anti-tumor benefits from amygdalin (seen with the other two cell lines may depend upon the cancer cell type.

  4. Amygdalin influences bladder cancer cell adhesion and invasion in vitro.

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    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Tsaur, Igor; Nelson, Karen; Pfitzenmaier, Jesco; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    The cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin, derived from Rosaceae kernels, is employed by many patients as an alternative anti-cancer treatment. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent is not clear. Metastasis blocking properties of amygdalin on bladder cancer cell lines was, therefore, investigated. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to UMUC-3, TCCSUP or RT112 bladder cancer cells for 24 h or for 2 weeks. Tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelium or to immobilized collagen as well as tumor cell migration was examined. Effects of drug treatment on integrin α and β subtypes, on integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and total and activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were also determined. Integrin knock-down was carried out to evaluate integrin influence on migration and adhesion. A 24 h or 2 week amygdalin application distinctly reduced tumor cell adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 and RT112 cells. TCCSUP adhesion was also reduced, but migration was elevated under amygdalin. Integrin subtype expression was significantly and specifically altered by amygdalin depending on the cell line. ILK was moderately, and activated FAK strongly, lost in all tumor cell lines in the presence of amygdalin. Knock down of β1 integrin caused a significant decrease in both adhesion and migration of UMUC-3 cells, but a significant increase in TCCSUP adhesion. Knock down of β4 integrin caused a significant decrease in migration of RT112 cells. Since the different actions of amygdalin on the different cell lines was mirrored by β1 or β4 knock down, it is postulated that amygdalin influences adhesion and migratory properties of bladder cancer cells by modulating β1 or β4 integrin expression. The amygdalin induced increase in TCCSUP migratory behavior indicates that any anti-tumor benefits from amygdalin (seen with the other two cell lines) may depend upon the cancer cell type.

  5. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin and optimum conditions for inhibition of racemization of amygdalin.

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    Hwang, Eun-Young; Lee, Je-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2002-10-01

    In boiling aqueous solution, D-amygdalin usually begins to convert into neoamygdalin in 3 min and more than 30% of the initial D-amygdalin is found as neoamygdalin after 30 min. In this report, we establish methods for simple HPLC analysis and the inhibition of D-amygdalin conversion. D-Amygdalin and its conversion product, neoamygdalin, were clearly separated on reverse-phase column chromatography by an optimized eluent of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.8) containing 6% acetonitrile. Linearity for analyzing D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin was observed in the range from 0.05 to 0.5 mM. The detection limits for D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin were ca. 5 microM per injected amount. We found that D-amygdalin conversion was completely inhibited by adding 0.05% citric acid to the aqueous solution before boiling. To prevent the loss of pharmaceutical potency of Tonin, we applied this method to measure the conversion rate of D-amygdalin. We confirmed that D-amygdalin conversion in Tonin is effectively inhibited by acidic boiling solution with 0.1% citric acid.

  6. Amygdalin Regulates Apoptosis and Adhesion in Hs578T Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hye Min; Moon, Aree

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside-6-β-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen ...

  7. Metabolites of amygdalin under simulated human digestive fluids.

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    Shim, Soon-Mi; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, degradation of amygdalin in the human digestive fluids and absorption of its metabolites by the human small intestine were evaluated by simulating a gastrointestinal digestion model combined with a human intestinal cell culture. Orally administered amygdalin was degraded into prunasin by digestive enzymes after passing through the salivary and gastrointestinal phases. Prunasin, the major metabolite of amygdalin in the digestive fluids, was incubated in a caco-2 cell culture system. Prunasin was degraded into the mandelonitrile by β-glucosidase and then hydroxylated across the small intestinal wall, producing hydroxymandelonitrile (149 Da). Results from this study suggest that risk assessment of amygdalin from food consumption can be done in a more accurate way by determining a pathway of amygdalin metabolism in the simulating human upper gastrointestinal tract.

  8. OVARIAN HORMONE PRODUCTION AFFECTED BY AMYGDALIN ADDITION IN VITRO

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    Marek Halenár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural substance, is a cyanogenic glycoside occurring in the seeds of apricots and bitter almonds. It is a controversial anti-tumor compound that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. Amygdalin is composed of two molecules of glucose, one of benzaldehyde, which induces an analgesic action, and one of hydrocyanic acid, which is an anti-neoplastic compound. This in vitro study was performed to evaluate the possible impact of amygdalin (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 μg/mL on the secretory activity of granulosa cells (GCs from porcine cyclic ovaries. The release of progesterone and estradiol-17β by GCs were evaluated by ELISA. In our study, the noticeable changes in estradiol-17β release by ovarian GCs were determined after the amygdalin addition. Amygdalin, at the highest dose (10 000 μg/mL, significantly (P≤0.05 stimulated the release of estradiol-17β by GCs, in comparison to the untreated control cells. On the contrary, no significant (P≥0.05 changes in the progesterone release by GCs caused by amygdalin addition were observed. In conclusion, obtained results showed that the amygdalin application (various doses to ovarian GCs caused a dose-dependent stimulation of the estradiol-17β release, but not progesterone, and its possible modulatory impact on the steroid production in porcine ovaries.

  9. Amygdalin inhibits renal fibrosis in chronic kidney disease.

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    Guo, Junqi; Wu, Weizheng; Sheng, Mingxiong; Yang, Shunliang; Tan, Jianming

    2013-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common outcome of chronic renal diseases. Amygdalin is one of a number of nitrilosides, the natural cyanide‑containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that are used to treat cancer and relieve pain. However, whether amygdalin inhibits the progression of renal fibrosis or not remains unknown. The present study aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of amygdalin by investigating its effect and potential mechanism on the activation of renal interstitial fibroblast cells and renal fibrosis in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Treatment of the cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts with amygdalin inhibited their proliferation and the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1. In the rat model of obstructive nephropathy, following ureteral obstruction, the administration of amygdalin immediately eliminated the extracellular matrix accumulation and alleviated the renal injury on the 21st day. Collectively, amygdalin attenuated kidney fibroblast (KFB) activation and rat renal interstitial fibrosis. These results indicate that amygdalin is a potent antifibrotic agent that may have therapeutic potential for patients with fibrotic kidney diseases.

  10. A sensitive enzyme immunoassay for amygdalin in food extracts using a recombinant antibody.

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    Cho, A-Yeon; Shin, Kum-Joo; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2008-10-01

    Amygdalin (laterile) is a cyanogenic glycoside commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. When amygdalin-containing seeds are crushed and moistened, free cyanide is formed. Pits and nuts containing unusually high levels of amygdalin can therefore cause cyanide poisoning, and detection of amygdalin in food extracts can be a life-saving measure. In this study, we generated recombinant antibodies against amygdalin from a phage display of a combinatorial rabbit/human chimeric antibody library and used it in a sensitive competition enzyme immunoassay system to detect amygdalin in extracts of pits and nuts. The detection limit was determined to be 1 x 10(-9) M.

  11. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin.

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    Song, Zuoqing; Xu, Xiaohong

    2014-08-01

    Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO). In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  12. [Determination of amygdalin in hawthorn by high performance liquid chromatography].

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    Lü, Weifeng; Ding, Mingyu

    2005-09-01

    A suitable method for extraction of amygdalin from hawthorn has been established. At first, the lipophilic components were removed with petroleum ether by ultrasonic extraction. The amygdalin was then extracted by methanol in a Soxhlet's apparatus. For quantitation, a high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed by using a reversed-phase C18 column, mobile phase of methanol-water (15:85, v/v) and a detection wavelengh of 215 nm. It can be concluded that the content of amygdalin is higher in the seeds than that in the hawthorn powder without the seeds and the yield of amygdalin is higher in the hawthorn pieces than that in the hawthorn powder.

  13. Advanced research on anti-tumor effects of amygdalin

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    Zuoqing Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors are the major disease that cause serious damage to human health, and have been listed as the premier diseases which seriously threatened human health by World Health Organization (WHO. In recent years the development of antitumor drugs has been gradually transformed from cytotoxic drugs to improving the selectivity of drugs, overcoming multidrug resistance, development of new targeted drugs and low toxicity with high specificity drugs. Amygdalin is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, less side effects, widely sourced and relatively low priced. All these features make the amygdalin a promising antitumor drugs, if combined with conditional chemotherapy drugs, which can produce synergistic effect. In this paper, we summarized the pharmacological activity, toxicity and antitumor activity of amygdalin, mainly focused on the advanced research of amygdalin on its antitumor effects in recent years, providing new insights for the development of new anticancer drugs, new targets searching and natural antitumor mechanism investigations.

  14. Detection of abnormally high amygdalin content in food by an enzyme immunoassay.

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    Cho, A-Yeon; Yi, Kye Sook; Rhim, Jung-Hyo; Kim, Kyu-Il; Park, Jae-Young; Keum, Eun-Hee; Chung, Junho; Oh, Sangsuk

    2006-04-30

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside compound which is commonly found in the pits of many fruits and raw nuts. Although amygdalin itself is not toxic, it can release cyanide (CN) after hydrolysis when the pits and nuts are crushed, moistened and incubated, possibly within the gastrointestinal tract. CN reversibly inhibits cellular oxidizing enzymes and cyanide poisoning generates a range of clinical symptoms. As some pits and nuts may contain unusually high levels of amygdalin such that there is a sufficient amount to induce critical CN poisoning in humans, the detection of abnormal content of amygdalin in those pits and nuts can be a life-saving measure. Although there are various methods to detect amygdalin in food extracts, an enzyme immunoassay has not been developed for this purpose. In this study we immunized New Zealand White rabbits with an amygdalin-KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) conjugate and succeeded in raising anti-sera reactive to amygdalin, proving that amygdalin can behave as a hapten in rabbits. Using this polyclonal antibody, we developed a competition enzyme immunoassay for determination of amygdalin concentration in aqueous solutions. This technique was able to effectively detect abnormally high amygdalin content in various seeds and nuts. In conclusion, we proved that enzyme immunoassay can be used to determine the amount of amygdalin in food extracts, which will allow automated analysis with high throughput.

  15. Amygdalin Regulates Apoptosis and Adhesion in Hs578T Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

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    Lee, Hye Min; Moon, Aree

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin, D-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside-6-β-glucoside, belongs to aromatic cyanogenic glycoside group derived from rosaceous plant seed. Mounting evidence has supported the anti-cancer effects of amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin indeed acts as an anti-tumor agent against breast cancer cells is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that amygdalin exerted cytotoxic activities on estrogen receptors (ER)-positive MCF7 cells, and MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Amygdalin induced apoptosis of Hs578T TNBC cells. Amygdalin downregulated B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), upregulated Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), activated of caspase-3 and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Amygdalin activated a pro-apoptotic signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) in Hs578T cells. Treatment of amygdalin significantly inhibited the adhesion of Hs578T cells, in which integrin α5 may be involved. Taken together, this study demonstrates that amygdalin induces apoptosis and inhibits adhesion of breast cancer cells. The results suggest a potential application of amygdalin as a chemopreventive agent to prevent or alleviate progression of breast cancer, especially TNBC.

  16. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

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    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers.

  17. Assessment of a potential preventive ability of amygdalin in mycotoxin-induced ovarian toxicity.

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    Halenar, Marek; Medvedova, Marina; Maruniakova, Nora; Kolesarova, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The possible effects of a natural substance amygdalin and its combination with the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on the steroid hormone secretion (progesterone and 17-β-estradiol) by porcine ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) were examined in this in vitro study. Ovarian GCs were incubated without (control group) and with amygdalin (1, 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 μg mL(1)), or its combination with DON (1 μg mL(1)) for 24 h. The release of steroid hormones was determined by ELISA. The progesterone secretion by porcine ovarian GCs was not affected by amygdalin in comparison to the control. However, the highest amygdalin dose (10,000 μg mL(1)) caused a significant stimulation of the 17-β-estradiol release. A combination of amygdalin with DON significantly (P amygdalin co-administered with DON was detected with respect to the 17-β-estradiol secretion at the highest dose (10,000 μg mL(1)) of amygdalin and 1 μg mL(1) of DON. Noticeable differences between the effects of amygdalin alone and its combination with DON on the progesterone release were detected. In contrast, no differences between the stimulatory effects of amygdalin and its combination with DON on the 17-β-estradiol synthesis by porcine GCs were observed. Findings from this in vitro study did not confirm the expected protective effect of amygdalin on mycotoxin induced reprotoxicity. Our results indicate that the stimulatory effect of amygdalin combined with DON on the progesterone release was clearly caused by the DON addition, not by the presence amygdalin per se. On the other hand, the stimulation of 17-β-estradiol production was solely caused by the presence of amygdalin addition. These findings suggest a possible involvement of both natural substances into the processes of steroidogenesis and appear to be endocrine modulators of porcine ovaries.

  18. Amygdalin analogs for the treatment of psoriasis.

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    Perez, Juan J

    2013-05-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most prevalent immune-mediated illness worldwide. The disease can still only be managed rather than cured, so treatments are aimed at clearing skin lesions and preventing their recurrence. Several treatments are available depending on the extent of the psoriatic lesion. Among the topical treatments corticostereoids, vitamin D3 analogs and retinoids are commonly used. However, these treatments may have adverse effects in the long term. Conversely, systemic conventional treatments include immunosuppresors such as cyclosporin or methotrexate associated with high toxicity levels. Biologicals are alternative therapeutical agents introduced in the last 10 years. These include fusion proteins or monoclonal antibodies designed to inhibit the action of specific cytokines or to prevent T-lymphocyte activation. However, due to recent knowledge on the etiology of the disease, diverse new small molecules have appeared as promising alternatives for the treatment of psoriasis. Among them, inhibitors of JAK3, inhibitors of PDE 4 and amygdalin analogs. The latter are promising small molecules presently in preclinical studies which are the object of the present report.

  19. Improvement of the extraction efficiency of D-amygdalin from Armeniacae Semen powder through inactivating emulsin and suppressing the epimerization of D-amygdalin.

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    Kwon, Ha-Jeong; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2010-01-01

    Armeniacae Semen contains not only amygdalin but also emulsin, which is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amygdalin. This hydrolysis reaction has been a major problem associated with the water extraction of Armeniacae Semen powder. In this study, the emulsin was inactivated by extracting Armeniacae Semen powder at a constant temperature of 90 degrees C. In addition, in order to suppress the epimerization of D-amygdalin, the extraction time was kept to less than 8 min. The use of a 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.3) containing 13.5% acetonitrile as a mobile phase in reversed-phase HPLC was effective in separating and analyzing the D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin. The linearity between the concentrations and detector responses was obtained in the range of 0.05 to 0.5 mM. The detection limits for D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin were approximately 5 microM per amount injected.

  20. NATURAL PLANT TOXICANT – CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE AMYGDALIN: CHARACTERISTIC, METABOLISM AND THE EFFECT ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Kolesár; Marek Halenár; Adriana Kolesárová; Peter Massányi

    2015-01-01

    The amount of cyanogenic glycosides, as natural plant toxicants, in plants varies with plant species and environmental effects. Cyanogenic glycoside as an amygdalin was detected in apricot kernels, bitter almonds and peach, plum, pear and apple seeds. Amygdalin itself is non-toxic, but its HCN production decomposed by some enzymes is toxic substance. Target of this review was to describe the characteristic, metabolism and possible effects of amygdalin on reproductive processes. Previous studi...

  1. Content of the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin in almond seeds related to the bitterness genotype

    OpenAIRE

    Arrázola, Guillermo; Sánchez P., Raquel; Dicenta, Federico; Grané, Nuria

    2012-01-01

    Almond kernels can be sweet, slightly bitter or bitter. Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and other Prunus species is related to the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. When an almond containing amygdalin is chopped, glucose, benzaldehyde (bitter flavor) and hydrogen cyanide (which is toxic) are released. This two-year-study with 29 different almond cultivars for bitterness was carried out in order to relate the concentration of amygdalin in the kernel with the phenotype...

  2. Amygdalin induces apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line HeLa cells.

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    Chen, Yu; Ma, Jinshu; Wang, Fang; Hu, Jie; Cui, Ai; Wei, Chengguo; Yang, Qing; Li, Fan

    2013-02-01

    Amygdalin, a naturally occurring substance, has been suggested to be efficacious as an anticancer substance. The effect of amygdalin on cervical cancer cells has never been studied. In this study, we found that the viability of human cervical cancer HeLa cell line was significantly inhibited by amygdalin. 4,6-Diamino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) staining showed that amygdalin-treated HeLa cells developed typical apoptotic changes. The development of apoptosis in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells were confirmed by double staining of amygdalin-treated HeLa cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) along with increase in caspase-3 activity in these cells. Further studies indicated that antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was downregulated whereas proapoptotic Bax protein was upregulated in the amygdalin-treated HeLa cells implying involvement of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. In vivo, amygdalin administration inhibited the growth of HeLa cell xenografts through a mechanism of apoptosis. The results in the present study suggest that amygdalin may offer a new therapeutic option for patients with cervical cancer.

  3. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography for the analysis of D-amygdalin and its epimer in apricot kernel.

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    Kang, S H; Jung, H; Kim, N; Shin, D H; Chung, D S

    2000-01-14

    We have developed a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the determination of D-amygdalin and its epimer by using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Separation of D-amygdalin was performed in a 20 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.5) containing 300 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate using a bare fused-silica capillary. The eluates were monitored by the absorbance at 210 nm. The applied electric field was 278 V/cm, and the time needed for the separation of D-amygdalin did not exceed 6 min. The calibration curve for D-amygdalin showed excellent linearity in the concentration range of 5-500 microg/ml. The migration time and the corrected peak area show relative standard deviations (n=6) of 0.86% and 1.48%, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) for D-amygdalin was 2 microg/ml. Under acidic and neutral conditions, amygdalin exists only as the D-form; however, under basic conditions, it shows both the D- and L-forms with a concentration ratio of 1:1.3 (D-amygdalin/L-amygdalin). Results of HPLC, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, and mass spectrometry reconfirmed the identification of D-amygdalin and its epimer. The number of theoretical plates of D-amygdalin is about 100,000 in MEKC, which is significantly higher than approximately 8,000 of HPLC. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of amygdalin epimers in various apricot kernel extracts and pharmaceutical products.

  4. Problems and Pitfalls in the Analysis of Amygdalin and Its Epimer.

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    Wahab, M Farooq; Breitbach, Zachary S; Armstrong, Daniel W; Strattan, Rick; Berthod, Alain

    2015-10-14

    α-[(6-O-β-d-Glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-(αR)-benzeneacetonitrile, or R-amygdalin, is the most common cyanogenic glycoside found in seeds and kernels of the Rosaceae family and other plant genera such as Passiflora. Many commercially important seeds are analyzed for amygdalin content. In "alternative medicine", amygdalin has been sold as a treatment for cancer for several decades without any rigorous scientific support for its efficacy. We have found that there are some inconsistencies and possible problems in the published analytical chemistry of amygdalin. It is shown that some analytical approaches do not account for the presence of the S-isomer; therefore, a fast reliable method was developed using a chiral stationary phase and HPLC. This approach allows "real-time" monitoring and complete and highly efficient separations. It is found that the S-amygdalin continuously forms in aqueous solutions. A striking result is that the conversion of amygdalin is glassware dependent. "Clean" vials from various vendors can show drastically different reaction rates of the conversion to the isomer (S-amygdalin, also called neo-amygdalin). The epimerization kinetics are dependent on the solvent, temperature, pH, and the nature of the container. For example, epimerization in water was complete in 1 h in specially cleaned glassware. Conversely, epimerization can be significantly delayed at high temperature if high-density polyethylene is used as the container. Hence, inert plastic containers are recommended for storage of aqueous amygdalin solutions. Commercial preparations of R-amygdalin actually contain greater quantities of S-amygdalin and ∼ 5% of other degradation products.

  5. Determination of the epimerization rate constant of amygdalin by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

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    Yu, Lishuang; Ye, Hongzhi; Zheng, Lili; Chen, Lidian; Chu, Kedan; Liu, Xianxiang; Xu, Xueqin; Chen, Guonan

    2011-01-01

    A new method for separation and determination of amygdalin and its epimer (neoamygdalin) in the epimerization of amygdalin by MEEKC is proposed. For the chiral separation of amygdalin and neoamygdalin, a running buffer composed of 80 mM sodium cholate, 5.0% v/v butan-1-ol, 0.5% v/v heptane and 94.5% v/v 30 mM Na(2) B(4) O(7) buffer (pH 9.00) is proposed. Under optimum conditions, the basic separation of amygdalin and neoamygdalin can be achieved within 7 min. The calibration curve for amygdalin showed excellent linearity in the concentration range of 20-1000 μg/mL with a detection limit of 5.0 μg/mL (S/N=3). The epimerization rate constant of amygdalin in basic microemulsion was first determined by monitoring the concentration changes of amygdalin, and the epimerization rate constant of amygdalin was found to be 2×10(-3) min(-1) at 25°C under the above optimum microemulsion conditions.

  6. NATURAL PLANT TOXICANT – CYANOGENIC GLYCOSIDE AMYGDALIN: CHARACTERISTIC, METABOLISM AND THE EFFECT ON ANIMAL REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Kolesár

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount of cyanogenic glycosides, as natural plant toxicants, in plants varies with plant species and environmental effects. Cyanogenic glycoside as an amygdalin was detected in apricot kernels, bitter almonds and peach, plum, pear and apple seeds. Amygdalin itself is non-toxic, but its HCN production decomposed by some enzymes is toxic substance. Target of this review was to describe the characteristic, metabolism and possible effects of amygdalin on reproductive processes. Previous studies describe the effects of natural compound amygdalin on female and male reproductive systems focused on process of steroidogenesis, spermatozoa motility and morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa. In accordance to the previous studies on amygdalin its benefit is controversial.

  7. Cyanide and amygdalin as indicators of the presence of bitter almonds in imported raw almonds.

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    Toomey, Valerie M; Nickum, Elisa A; Flurer, Cheryl L

    2012-09-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the submitted samples. Control bitter almonds were found to contain 1.4 mg cyanide/g and an estimated level of 20-25 mg amygdalin/g. The questioned samples contained between 14 and 42 μg cyanide/g and were positive for the presence of amygdalin. Sweet almonds were found to be negative for both compounds, at levels of detection of 4 μg cyanide/g and 200 μg amygdalin/g.

  8. Amygdalin-mediated inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liyu; Xie, Bo; Wang, Yaguo; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor claiming the highest fatality worldwide for a long period of time. Unfortunately, most of the current treatment methods are still based on the characteristics of cancer cells in the primary lesion and the prognosis is often much poorer in patients with metastatic cancers. Amygdalin, a natural product of glycosides and lots of evidence shows that amygdalin can inhibit the proliferation of some kinds of cancer cells. In this study, we first obtained the highly metastatic NSCLC cell lines H1299/M and PA/M and further treated these cells with amygdalin. We found that the in vitro proliferability of H1299/M and PA/M was inhibited, but such inhibition required higher concentration of amygdalin. When lower concentration of amygdalin was used for the experiments, we observed that the in vitro invasive and migration capacities of H1299/M and PA/M were significantly inhibited. These results strongly suggested that amygdalin was likely to have anti-metastatic NSCLC effect. This study offers information of the role of amygdalin that may be useful as a therapeutic target in lung tumors.

  9. Antinociceptive effect of amygdalin isolated from Prunus armeniaca on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Pil; Kim, Chang-Ju; Lee, Hye-Jung; Shim, Insop; Yin, Chang Shik; Yang, Young; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Amygdalin is a plant glucoside isolated from the stones of rosaceous fruits, such as apricots, peaches, almond, cherries, and plums. To investigate the pain-relieving activity of amygdalin, we induced pain in rats through intraplantar injection of formalin, and evaluated the antinociceptive effect of amygdalin at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/kg-body weight by observing nociceptive behavior such as licking, biting and shaking, the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the spinal cord, and the mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the plantar skin. The intramuscular injection of amygdalin significantly reduced the formalin-induced tonic pain in both early (the initial 10 min after formalin injection) and late phases (10-30 min following the initial formalin injection). During the late phase, amygdalin did reduce the formalin-induced pain in a dose-dependent manner in a dose range less than 1 mg/kg. Molecular analysis targeting c-Fos and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) also showed a significant effect of amygdalin, which matched the results of the behavioral pain analysis. These results suggest that amygdalin is effective at alleviating inflammatory pain and that it can be used as an analgesic with anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. Prevention of epimerization and quantitative determination of amygdalin in Armeniacae Semen with Schizandrae Fructus solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Woo-Sang; Jeong, Ji-Seon; Kim, Hyogeun; Lee, Yong-Moon; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2006-12-01

    Armeniacae Semen not only contains amygdalin, but emulsin also, which is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amygdalin. The extraction yield of amygdalin from Armeniacae Semen was low, due to the presence of emulsin, when extracted with water. When Schizandrae Fructus solution was used as the extractant; however, amygdalin was almost completely extracted, regardless of the cutting size, due to the absence of the influence of emulsin. In addition, when the crude powder or small piece forms were used with Schizandrae Fructus solution, on epimerization of the D-amygdalin into neoamygdalin occurred. D-amygdalin and its conversion product, neoamygdalin, were quantitatively analyzed by reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with an optimized eluent of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.3), containing 11.5% acetonitrile. The concentration and detector response were linearly correlated over the range 0.05 to 2 mM. The detection limits for both D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin were approximately 5 microM for the amount injected.

  11. Amygdalin inhibits the growth of renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Eva; Thomas, Anita; Rutz, Jochen; Makarevic, Jasmina; Tsaur, Igor; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-02-01

    Although amygdalin is used by many cancer patients as an antitumor agent, there is a lack of information on the efficacy and toxicity of this natural compound. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of amygdalin on the growth of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells was examined. Amygdalin (10 mg/ml) was applied to the RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, for 24 h or 2 weeks. Untreated cells served as controls. Tumor cell growth and proliferation were determined using MTT and BrdU tests, and cell cycle phases were evaluated. Expression of the cell cycle activating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1 and D3 as well as of the cell cycle inhibiting proteins p19 and p27 was examined by western blot analysis. Surface expression of the differentiation markers E- and N-cadherin was also investigated. Functional blockade by siRNA was used to determine the impact of several proteins on tumor cell growth. Amygdalin treatment caused a significant reduction in RCC cell growth and proliferation. This effect was correlated with a reduced percentage of G2/M-phase RCC cells and an increased percentage of cells in the G0/1-phase (Caki-1 and A498) or cell cycle arrest in the S-phase (KTC-26). Furthermore, amygdalin induced a marked decrease in cell cycle activating proteins, in particular cdk1 and cyclin B. Functional blocking of cdk1 and cyclin B resulted in significantly diminished tumor cell growth in all three RCC cell lines. Aside from its inhibitory effects on growth, amygdalin also modulated the differentiation markers, E- and N-cadherin. Hence, exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibited cell cycle progression and tumor cell growth by impairing cdk1 and cyclin B expression. Moreover, we noted that amygdalin affected differentiation markers. Thus, we suggest that amygdalin exerted RCC antitumor effects in vitro.

  12. Quantitative determination of amygdalin epimers by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoza, T; Matano, Y; Yamamoto, K; Kosaka, N; Tani, T

    2001-07-20

    A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the quantitative determination of the amygdalin epimers, amygdalin and neoamygdalin, which are biologically significant constituents in the crude drugs, namely Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen. The effects of surfactants, additives and other analytical parameters were studied. As a result, the resolution of two epimers was performed by cyclodextrin-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography with a buffer containing alpha-cyclodextrin and sodium deoxycholate. By the application of this method, a simple, fast and simultaneous quantitative determinations of amygdalin epimers in the crude drugs (Persicae Semen and Armeniacae Semen) and the Chinese herbal prescriptions (Keishi-bukuryo-gan and Mao-to) were achieved.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of diverse analogs of amygdalin as potential peptidomimetics of peptide T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Eyleen; Rodriguez, Alex; Rubio, Jaime; Spada, Alessandro; Joglar, Jesus; Llebaria, Amadeu; Lagunas, Carmen; Fernandez, Andres G; Spisani, Susanna; Perez, Juan J

    2005-03-01

    Peptide T (ASTTTNYT) is a promising molecule to prevent the neuropsychometric symptoms of patients suffering AIDS and for the treatment of psoriasis. In order to fully prove its therapeutic benefits, efforts were put forward to design peptidomimetics of the peptide. In this direction, in a recent computational study the natural product amygdalin was identified as a prospective peptidomimetic of the peptide and later proved to exhibit a similar chemotactic profile to the peptide. However, the cyanide moiety of amygdalin provides to the molecule a toxic profile. The present study reports the synthesis of a set of amygdalin analogs lacking the cyanide group with improved chemotactic profiles.

  14. Development of quantitative extraction method of amygdalin without enzymatic hydrolysis from tonin(Persicae Semen) by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2002-08-01

    Tonin(Persicae Semen) is the herb medicine that contains amygdalin as a major ingredient. Amygdalin in water is decomposed into benzaldehyde, HCN, and glucose by emulsin, a hydrolysis enzyme in tonin. A useful and practical method for the optimum extraction condition of amygdalin without enzymatic hydrolysis is required. The extraction yield of amygdalin of natural formula tonin was 0.1% from crude powders, 1.4% from small pieces, 3.5% from half pieces and 2.4% from whole pieces. The extraction yield of amygdalin of outer shell-eliminated tonin was 0.3% from crude powders, 1.4% from small pieces, and 3.5% from half pieces and whole pieces respectively. The extraction yield of amygdalin was most high when using the size larger than half.

  15. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low.

  16. Amygdalin-mediated inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Liyu; Xie, Bo; Wang, Yaguo; Qian, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor claiming the highest fatality worldwide for a long period of time. Unfortunately, most of the current treatment methods are still based on the characteristics of cancer cells in the primary lesion and the prognosis is often much poorer in patients with metastatic cancers. Amygdalin, a natural product of glycosides and lots of evidence shows that amygdalin can inhibit the proliferation of some kinds of cancer cells. In this study, we first obtained the h...

  17. Amygdalin blocks the in vitro adhesion and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells by an integrin-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengel, Eva; Afschar, Masud; Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Tsaur, Igor; Mani, Jens; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-03-01

    Information about the natural compound amygdalin, which is employed as an antitumor agent, is sparse and thus its efficacy remains controversial. In this study, to determine whether amygdalin exerts antitumor effects on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells, its impact on RCC metastatic activity was investigated. The RCC cell lines, Caki-1, KTC-26 and A498, were exposed to amygdalin from apricot kernels, and adhesion to human vascular endothelium, immobilized collagen or fibronectin was investigated. The influence of amygdalin on chemotactic and invasive activity was also determined, as was the influence of amygdalin on surface and total cellular α and β integrin expression, which are involved in metastasis. We noted that amygdalin caused significant reductions in chemotactic activity, invasion and adhesion to endothelium, collagen and fibronectin. Using FACScan analysis, we noted that amygdalin also induced reductions, particularly in integrins α5 and α6, in all three cell lines. Functional blocking of α5 resulted in significantly diminished adhesion of KTC-26 and A498 to collagen and also in decreased chemotactic behavior in all three cell lines. Blocking α6 integrin significantly reduced chemotactic activity in all three cell lines. Thus, we suggest that exposing RCC cells to amygdalin inhibits metastatic spread and is associated with downregulation of α5 and α6 integrins. Therefore, we posit that amygdalin exerts antitumor activity in vitro, and this may be linked to integrin regulation.

  18. Quantitative determination of amygdalin epimers from armeniacae semen by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ja-Yong; Hwang, Eun-Young; Cho, Sonhae; Lee, Je-Hyun; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2005-01-05

    D-amygdalin and its conversion product, neoamygdalin, were quantitatively analyzed on reverse-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography with an optimized eluent of 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) containing 8.5% acetonitrile. Linearity between concentrations and detector responses was obtained in the range from 0.05 to 0.5 mM. The detection limits for D-amygdalin and neoamygdalin were approximately 5 microM per injected amount. Armeniacae semen contains not only amygdalin but also emlusin, which is an enzyme that hydrolyzes amygdalin. When extracting amygdalin from a whole piece of armeniacae semen in boiling water, there was almost no influence of emulsin; which increased the extraction efficiency. However, conversion of d-amygdalin into neoamygdalin at high temperature was found. In this report, we solved this problem by using 4% citric acid as an extractant. This solution also prevented the extraction process from being affected by emulsin. In addition, the extraction efficiency remained the same as that when methanol was used as an extractant, regardless of the cutting size.

  19. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarević, Jasmina; Rutz, Jochen; Juengel, Eva; Kaulfuss, Silke; Reiter, Michael; Tsaur, Igor; Bartsch, Georg; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml) on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  20. Amygdalin blocks bladder cancer cell growth in vitro by diminishing cyclin A and cdk2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Makarević

    Full Text Available Amygdalin, a natural compound, has been used by many cancer patients as an alternative approach to treat their illness. However, whether or not this substance truly exerts an anti-tumor effect has never been settled. An in vitro study was initiated to investigate the influence of amygdalin (1.25-10 mg/ml on the growth of a panel of bladder cancer cell lines (UMUC-3, RT112 and TCCSUP. Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins cdk1, cdk2, cdk4, cyclin A, cyclin B, cyclin D1, p19, p27 as well as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR related signals phosphoAkt, phosphoRaptor and phosphoRictor were examined. Amygdalin dose-dependently reduced growth and proliferation in all three bladder cancer cell lines, reflected in a significant delay in cell cycle progression and G0/G1 arrest. Molecular evaluation revealed diminished phosphoAkt, phosphoRictor and loss of Cdk and cyclin components. Since the most outstanding effects of amygdalin were observed on the cdk2-cyclin A axis, siRNA knock down studies were carried out, revealing a positive correlation between cdk2/cyclin A expression level and tumor growth. Amygdalin, therefore, may block tumor growth by down-modulating cdk2 and cyclin A. In vivo investigation must follow to assess amygdalin's practical value as an anti-tumor drug.

  1. Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Zhang, Gong; Wood, Elizabeth; Rogel Castillo, Cristian; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2013-08-14

    Amygdalin is a cynaogenic diglucoside responsible for the bitterness of almonds. Almonds display three flavor phenotypes, nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter. Herein, the amygdalin content of 20 varieties of nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds from four primary growing regions of California was determined using solid-phase extraction and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI)QqQ MS/MS). The detection limit for this method is ≤ 0.1 ng/mL (3 times the signal-to-noise ratio) and the LOQ is 0.33 ng/mL (10 times the signal-to-noise ratio), allowing for the reliable quantitation of trace levels of amygdalin in nonbitter almonds (0.13 mg/kg almond). Results indicate that amygdalin concentrations for the three flavor phenotypes were significantly different (p amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds are 63.13 ± 57.54, 992.24 ± 513.04, and 40060.34 ± 7855.26 mg/kg, respectively. Levels of amygdalin ranged from 2.16 to 157.44 mg/kg in nonbitter, from 523.50 to 1772.75 mg/kg in semibitter, and from 33006.60 to 53998.30 mg/kg in bitter almonds. These results suggest that phenotype classification may be achieved on the basis of amygdalin levels. Growing region had a statistically significant effect on the amygdalin concentration in commercial varieties (p < 0.05).

  2. Separation and purification of amygdalin from thinned bayberry kernels by macroporous adsorption resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Shengmin; Xia, Qile; Fang, Zhongxiang; Johnson, Stuart

    2015-01-15

    To utilize the low-value thinned bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc) kernels (TBKs) waste, an efficient method using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) for separation and purification of amygdalin from TBKs crude extracts was developed. An aqueous crude sample was prepared from a methanol TBK extract, followed by resin separation. A series of MARs were initially screened for adsorption/desorption of amygdalin in the extract, and D101 was selected for characterization and method development. The static adsorption data of amygdalin on D101 was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The solute affinity toward D101 at 30 °C was described and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Through one cycle of dynamic adsorption/desorption, the purity of amygdalin in the extract, determined by HPLC, increased about 17-fold from 4.8% to 82.0%, with 77.9% recovery. The results suggested that D101 resin effectively separate amygdalin from TBKs.

  3. Amygdalin inhibits angiogenesis in the cultured endothelial cells of diabetic rats

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    Hossein Mirmiranpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Angiogenesis contributes to different physiological and pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the antiangiogenic effects of amygdalin on the cultured endothelial cells of diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were divided into two equal groups of control and amygdalin-treated animals. Eight weeks after the induction of diabetes, amygdalin was injected intraperitoneally (3 mg/kg to the rats of the treatment group. One day later, rats were sacrificed; the aortic arteries were excised and cut as 2 mm rings. Each aortic ring was incubated in a cell-culture well for 7 days. The process of angiogenesis was monitored by counting the number of microvessels and primary microtubules in each well. Results: Optic microscopy showed proliferation and migration of new endothelial cells to the fibrin gels. The endothelial cells produced primary microtubules which gradually made several branches and finally made a vascular matrix. The number of the primary microtubules and microvessels were significantly lower in the amygdalin-treated vs. control group (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Therefore, amygdalin exerts inhibitory effects on angiogenesis in aortic rings of diabetic rats and may pave a new way for treatment of unfavorable angiogenic conditions.

  4. Determination and pharmacokinetics of amygdalin in rats by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-bo; Liu, Chang-hui; Zhang, Rong; Huang, Xiao-tao; Li, Ying-yi; Han, Liang; Xu, Mei-li; Mi, Sui-qing; Wang, Ning-sheng

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) method was developed for the determination and pharmacokinetics of amygdalin in rats. Rat plasma pretreated by solid-phase extraction was analyzed by LC-MS-MS with negative electrospray ionization in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Amygdalin and geniposide [the internal standard (IS)] were separated on a C18 column eluted with a mobile phase of methanol and water (85:15; v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min in a run time of 3.0 min. The precursor to product ion transitions were monitored at m/z 457.2 → 279.1 for amygdalin and m/z 387.1 → 224.9 for the IS. The calibration curve of amygdalin showed good linearity over a concentration range of 10-2,000 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/mL. Intra-day and inter-day precisions and accuracy (percent relative standard deviation) were both within 10%. The method was fully validated for its selectivity, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery and stability. This accurate and specific assay produced a useful LC-MS-MS method, which was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic studies after the oral administration of amygdalin to rats.

  5. MicroHLPC determination of amygdalin in Semen pruni armeniacae and Semen pruni persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L Y; Li, B M

    1988-11-01

    The application of micro HPLC to the determination of amygdalin in Semen pruni armeniacae and Semen pruni persicae is described. Amygdalin is separated at ambient temperature on a reversed phase column of U-Finepak SIL C18(150 x 0.5 mm) with methanol + water (25:75 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 10 microL/min. The results are calculated by the internal standard method. The linear range is 1-7 micrograms. The CV and recovery of pure amygdalin are 1.47% (n = 10) and 98.13%, respectively. The results of analysis are lower than those obtained by TLC, but microHPLC is much simpler, faster, and more sensitive and reproducible than TLC.

  6. Identification of amygdalin and its major metabolites in rat urine by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, B Y; Chen, H X; Han, F M; Chen, Y

    2007-10-01

    Amygdalin and its metabolites in rat urine were identified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry. The purified rat urine sample was separated using a reversed-phase C18 column with 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) containing 30% methanol as the mobile phase, amygdalin and its metabolites were detected by on-line mass detector in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The identification of the metabolites and elucidation of their structure were performed by comparing the changes in molecular masses (DeltaM), retention times and MS(2) spectral patterns of metabolites with those of parent drug. At least seven metabolites and the parent drug were found in rat urine after i.v. injection of 100 mg/kg doses of amygdalin. Among them, six metabolites were reported for the first time.

  7. DOSE-RESPONSE OF PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELLS TO AMYGDALIN TREATMENT COMBINED WITH DEOXYNIVALENOL

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    Marek Halenár

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is one of many nitrilosides, which are natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of apricots, almond, peaches, apples, and other rosaceous plants. It is a controversial anti-tumor natural product that has been used as an alternative cancer drug for many years. On the other hand, one of the most widely distributed mycotoxin contaminating food and animal feed is deoxynivalenol (DON. Deoxynivalenol has adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses. The aim of the in vitro study was to investigated the effect of natural substance amygdalin at the selected doses (1, 10, 100, 1000, 10 000 µg/mL in combination with deoxynivalenol (1000 ng/mL on secretion of steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells (GCs from cyclic pigs. Our results showed that the releasing of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian granulosa cells was affected by amygdalin plus DON addition. The secretion of progesterone by ovarian GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 affected by administration of both compounds in all experimental groups. Similarly, estradiol releasing by GCs was significantly (P≤0.05 increased in experimental groups with amygdalin (10, 100 and 10 000 µg/mL plus DON (1000 ng/mL addition. Amygdalin treatment combined with DON caused increase of steroid hormones release by ovarian granulosa cells. Our findings suggest possible involvement of these natural substances (amygdalin and deoxynivalenol in the regulation process of steroidogenesis. In conclusion, results from this experiment contribute to knowledge about interaction between two different natural compounds and their positive or negative interferences with ovarian functions.

  8. Effect of Amygdalin on the Proliferation of Hyperoxia-exposed Type Ⅱ Alveolar Epithelial Cells Isolated from Premature Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝华平; 常立文; 李文斌; 刘汉楚

    2004-01-01

    Summary: The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in AEC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 μmol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 μmol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 μmol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  9. Effect of amygdalin on the proliferation of hyperoxia-exposed type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from premature rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huaping; Chang, Liwen; Li, Wenbin; Liu, Hanchu

    2004-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hyperoxia lung injury and the mechanism of amygdalin on type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) isolated from premature rat lungs in vitro were investigated. AEC2 were obtained by primary culture from 20-days fetal rat lung and hyperoxia-exposed cell model was established. Cell proliferating viability was examined by MTT assay after treatment of amygdalin at various concentrations. DNA content and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expression of AEC2 were measured by using flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry respectively after 24 h of hyperoxia exposure or amygdalin treatment. The results showed that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation and decreased PCNA protein expression in A-EC2 of premature rat in vitro. Amygdalin at the concentration range of 50-200 micromol/L stimulated the proliferation of AEC2 in a dose-dependent manner, however, 400 micromol/L amygdalin inhibited the proliferation of AEC2. Amygdalin at the concentration of 200 micromol/L played its best role in facilitating proliferation of AEC2s in vitro and could partially ameliorated the changes of proliferation in hyperoxia exposed AEC2 of premature rat. It has been suggested that hyperoxia inhibited the proliferation of AEC2s of premature rat, which may contribute to hyperoxia lung injury. Amygdalin may play partial protective role in hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

  10. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivan M; Nikolic, Vesna D; Savic-Gajic, Ivana M; Nikolic, Ljubisa B; Ibric, Svetlana R; Gajic, Dragoljub G

    2015-01-01

    The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD) and multilayer perceptron (MLP). The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio, and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v) ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v) and temperature of 34.4°C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g) at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract). Amygdalin (>90%) was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV, and MS methods.

  11. Optimization of technological procedure for amygdalin isolation from plum seeds (Pruni domesticae semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan M Savic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of amygdalin extraction from plum seeds was optimized using central composite design (CCD and multilayer perceptron (MLP. The effect of time, ethanol concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and temperature on the amygdalin content in the extracts was estimated using both mathematical models. The MLP 4-3-1 with exponential function in hidden layer and linear function in output layer was used for describing the extraction process. MLP model was more superior compared with CCD model due to better prediction ability. According to MLP model, the suggested optimal conditions are: time of 120 min, 100% (v/v ethanol, solid-to liquid ratio of 1:25 (m/v and temperature of 34.4 °C. The predicted value of amygdalin content in the dried extract (25.42 g per 100 g at these conditions was experimentally confirmed (25.30 g per 100 g of dried extract. Amygdalin (>90% was isolated from the complex extraction mixture and structurally characterized by FT-IR, UV and MS methods.

  12. Amygdalin inhibits genes related to cell cycle in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hae-Jeong Park; Sung-Vin Yim; Joo-Ho Chung; Seon-Pyo Hong; Seo-Hyun Yoon; Long-Shan Han; Long-Tai Zheng; Kyung-Hee Jung; Yoon-Kyung Uhm; Je-Hyun Lee; Ji-Seon Jeong; Woo-Sang Joo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The genes were divided into seven categories according to biological function; apoptosis-reiated, immune response-related, signal transduction-related, cell cyclerelated, cell growth-related, stress response-related and transcription-related genes.METHODS: We compared the gene expression profiles of SNU-C4 cells between amygdalin-treated (5 mg/mL,24 h) and non-treated groups using cDNA microarray analysis. We selected genes downregulated in cDNA microarray and investigated mRNA levels of the genes by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Microarray showed that amygdalin downregulated especially genes belonging to cell cycle category: exonuclease 1 (EXO1), ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F, member 2 (ABCF2), MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (MRE114), topoisomerase (DNA) I (TOP1), and FK506 binding protein 12-rapamycin-associated protein 1 (FRAP1). RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA levels of these genes were also decreased by amygdalin treatment in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that amygdalin have an anticancer effect via downregulation of cell cycle-related genes in SNU-C4 human colon cancer cells,and might be used for therapeutic anticancer drug.

  13. Study on pharmacokinetics of Amygdalin after oral administration of semen persicae extraction in rat plasma by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Ma, Chaoyi; Liu, Changxiao

    2011-01-01

    Semen Persicae was a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diseases such as inflammation and hyperlipemia. Amygdalin was one of the main active ingredients of this traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, pharmacokinetic study was conducted to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters of amygadalin after oral administration of Semen Persicae extraction in rat plasma. HPLC-UV was used to determine the concentration of amygdalin in rat plasma at different time points after administratio...

  14. [The synergistic effect of amygdalin and HSYA on the IL-1beta induced endplate chondrocytes of rat intervertebral discs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kai; Zhao, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Lei; Li, Chen-Guang; Wang, Yong-Jun; Zheng, Wei-Chao

    2014-08-01

    The effect of amygdalin joint hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on the endplate chondrocytes derived from intervertebral discs of rats induced by IL-1beta and the possible mechanism were studied and explored. Chondrocytes were obtained from endplate of one-month SD rat intervertebral discs and cultured primary endplate chondrocytes. After identification, they were divided into normal group, induced group, amygdalin group, HSYA group and combined group. CCK-8 kit was adopted to detect the proliferation of the endplate chondrocytes. FCM was measured to detect the apoptosis. Real-time PCR method was adopted to observe the mRNA expression of Aggrecan, Col 2 alpha1, Col 10 alpha1, MMP-13 and the inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta. The protein expression of Col II, Col X was tested through immunofluorescence. Compared with the normal group, the proliferation of the endplate chondrocytes decreased while the apoptosis increased (P amygdalin group, HSYA group, the combined group could inhibit the apoptosis and promote the proliferation (P amygdalin and HSYA. Amygdalin joint HSYA could inhibit the degeneration of the endplate chondrocytes derived from intervertebral discs of rats induced by IL-1beta and better than the single use of amygdalin or HSYA.

  15. Inhibitory effect of amygdalin on lipopolysaccharide-inducible TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA expression and carrageenan-induced rat arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye-Jeong; Lee, Hye-Jung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Shim, Insop; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2008-10-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glycoside plant compound found in the seeds of rosaceous stone fruits. We evaluated the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of amygdalin, using an in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cell line and a rat model with carrageenan-induced ankle arthritis. One mM amygdalin significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNAs in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells. Amygdalin (0.005, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) was intramuscularly injected immediately after the induction of carrageenan-induced arthritic pain in rats, and the anti-arthritic effect of amygdalin was assessed by measuring the weight distribution ratio of the bearing forces of both feet and the ankle circumference, and by analyzing the expression levels of three molecular markers of pain and inflammation (c-Fos, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta) in the spinal cord. The hyperalgesia of the arthritic ankle was alleviated most significantly by the injection of 0.005 mg/kg amygdalin. At this dosage, the expressions of c-Fos, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the spinal cord were significantly inhibited. However, at dosage greater than 0.005 mg/kg, the painrelieving effect of amygdalin was not observed. Thus, amygdalin treatment effectively alleviated responses to LPStreatment in RAW 264.7 cells and carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats, and may serve as an analgesic for relieving inflammatory pain.

  16. Application of a quantitative 1H-NMR method for the determination of amygdalin in Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie; Nitta, Akane; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure the amygdalin content of Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus, in each of which amygdalin constitutes a major component. The purity of amygdalin was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the amygdalin H-2 signal at δ 6.50 ppm in pyridine-d 5 to that of the hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The HMD concentration was corrected by the International System of Units (SI) traceability with certified reference material (CRM)-grade bisphenol A. qHNMR revealed the amygdalin contents to be 2.72 and 3.13% in 2 lots of Persicae semen, 3.62 and 5.19% in 2 lots of Armeniacae semen, and 0.23% in Mume fructus. Thus, we demonstrated the utility of this method for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs.

  17. Research Progress on Amygdalin%苦杏仁苷研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吾热娅提古丽・克维尔; 艾百拉・热合曼; 依米提・热合曼

    2015-01-01

    As a cyanoside ,amygdalin becomes an effective component of some medicines ,which can cure asthma , bronchitis ,emphysema ,constipation , leprosy and vitiligo . The article reviews the researches on the content of amygdalin in different plants ,pharmacological action ,toxicity ,metabolism ,detection method ,enzymatic hydrolysis , extraction method .In addition ,the article also proposes the future research of amygdalin .%指出了苦杏仁苷作为氰苷类化合物,成为某些药物的有效成分,可治疗哮喘、支气管炎、肺气肿、便秘、麻风病和白斑病等多种疾病。对苦杏仁苷在不同植物中的含量、药理作用、毒性、代谢、检测方法、酶解、提取方法等方面的研究报道进行了综述,并提出了对今后研究的展望。

  18. Proteomic identification of calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin as a potential mediator for the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of fruit-derived glycoside amygdalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Tse, Hung Fat; Rong, Jianhui

    2015-02-01

    Amygdalin is a fruit-derived glycoside with the potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to identify the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. We initially demonstrated that amygdalin enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis and attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. To define protein targets for amygdalin, we selected a total of 11 mostly regulated protein spots from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels for protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. We verified the effect of amygdalin on six representative proteins (i.e., calreticulin, Hsp90β, Grp94, 14-3-3η, 14-3-3ζ/δ and Rab GDI-α) for biological relevance to neuronal survival and differentiation. Calcium-binding chaperone calreticulin is of special interest for its activities to promote folding, oligomeric assembly and quality control of proteins that modulate cell survival and differentiation. We transiently knocked down calreticulin expression by specific siRNA and studied its effect on the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin. We found that amygdalin failed to enhance NGF-induced neuritogenesis in calreticulin-siRNA transfected cells. On the other hand, amygdalin rescued 6-OHDA-induced loss of calreticulin expression. We also found that amygdalin increased the intracellular calcium concentration possibly via inducing calreticulin. Collectively, our results demonstrated the role of calreticulin in mediating the neuroprotective and neuritogenic activities of amygdalin.

  19. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  20. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  1. Amygdalin induces apoptosis through regulation of Bax and Bcl-2 expressions in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Shin, Mal-Soon; Yang, Hye-Young; Lee, Jin-Woo; Kim, Young-Sick; Lee, Myoung-Hwa; Kim, Jullia; Kim, Khae-Hawn; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2006-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common non-skin cancers in men. Amygdalin is one of the nitrilosides, natural cyanide-containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that have been used to treat cancers and relieve pain. In particular, D-amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-D-gentiobioside) is known to exhibit selective killing effect on cancer cells. Apoptosis, programmed cell death, is an important mechanism in cancer treatment. In the present study, we prepared the aqueous extract of the amygdalin from Armeniacae semen and investigated whether this extract induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. In the present results, DU145 and LNCaP cells treated with amygdalin exhibited several morphological characteristics of apoptosis. Treatment with amygdalin increased expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein, decreased expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, and increased caspase-3 enzyme activity in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Here, we have shown that amygdalin induces apoptotic cell death in human DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by caspase-3 activation through down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax. The present study reveals that amygdalin may offer a valuable option for the treatment of prostate cancers.

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity following specific activation of amygdalin by beta-glucosidase conjugated to a bladder cancer-associated monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrigos, K N; Rowlinson-Busza, G; Epenetos, A A

    1998-12-09

    We describe a novel version of antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), with the use of amygdalin as prodrug. Amygdalin is a naturally occurring cyanogenic glycoside, which can be cleaved by sweet almond beta-glucosidase to yield free cyanide. If amygdalin could be activated specifically at the tumour site, then malignant cells would be killed without the systemic toxicity usually associated with chemotherapy. To this end, we have conjugated beta-glucosidase to a tumour-associated monoclonal antibody (MAb) (HMFG1) and the conjugate has been tested in vitro for specificity and cytotoxicity subsequent to activation of amygdalin. Amygdalin was cytotoxic to HT1376 bladder cancer cells only at high concentrations, whereas the combination of amygdalin with HMFG1-beta-glucosidase enhanced the cytotoxic effect of amygdalin by 36-fold. When 2 concentrations of HMFG1-beta-glucosidase were compared, the toxic effect was dose dependent. The cytotoxicity of amygdalin was also enhanced by the MAb-enzyme conjugate even when the unbound conjugate was removed from the medium prior to exposure to amygdalin and the cells were washed. In addition to the cytotoxic effect, we also demonstrated specificity, using a MAb-enzyme conjugate that does not recognise the HT1376 bladder cancer cells. Finally, we studied the cytotoxic effect of the conjugate in co-culture of HMFG1-positive and-negative cell lines (HT 1376 and U87MG cells). We demonstrated that the rate of surviving cells corresponds well to the percentage of U87MG (HMFG1-negative) cells in the flask. Our findings indicate that ADEPT is more effective than non-directed enzyme activation of a prodrug and can result in a non-toxic cancer therapy.

  3. Immunomodulatory effects of a set of amygdalin analogues on human keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, A; Paoletti, I; Greco, R; Satriano, R A; Ruocco, E; Tufano, M A; Perez, J J

    2005-11-01

    Peptide T (PT) is an octapeptide shown to resolve psoriatic lesions. Our previous investigations suggest that keratinocytes play an important role in conditioning the therapeutic effects of the PT in psoriasis. However, peptides are not good therapeutic agents, because they exhibit poor absorption, are easily metabolized and are immunogenic. Using computational methods, the natural product amygdalin was identified as peptidomimetic of PT. However, amygdalin exhibits a toxic profile due to its cyanide group. To overcome this deleterious effect, we synthesized analogues lacking the cyanide group. Human keratinocytes were treated with PT or with three different peptidomimetics of PT. To study its effects on the expression of HSP-70, TGF-beta, alpha-v integrin, ICAM-1 and cytokines, we analysed the protein levels by Western blot and ELISA. Our results show that the different peptidomimetics of PT tested exhibit a similar biological behaviour in regard to the overexpression of HSP-70, TGF-beta and alpha-v integrin than the native peptide. TNF-alpha is overexpressed by PT and SVT-03018; between the other two analogs, SVT-03016 do not produce any significant change in regard to the control, while SVT-03017 shows only a moderate increase in regard to control. SVT-03018 provokes a remarkable upregulation of IL-10, stronger than SVT-03016, SVT-03017 and PT. All the other three analogues reduce comparably to the PT, the expression of ICAM-1 and do not increase the release of proinflammatory cytokines. The results highlighted that the three analogues of amygdalin with the cyanide group removed exhibit the same biological effects of PT. Therefore, they can be considered peptidomimetics, suggesting their possible use in the treatment of psoriasis.

  4. Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. by HPLC with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei-Feng; Ding, Ming-Yu; Zheng, Rui

    2005-08-01

    Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. are traditional Chinese herb medicines that contain amygdalin as their major effective ingredient. In this report, three methods for the extraction of amygdalin from the medicinal materials are compared: ultrasonic extraction by methanol, Soxhlet extraction by methanol, and reflux extraction by water. The results show that reflux extraction water containing 0.1% citric acid is the best option. The optimal reflux is 2.5 h and water bath temperature is 60 degrees C. The solid-phase extraction method using C18 and multiwalled carbon nanotube as adsorbents is established the pretreatment of reflux extract, and the result shows that the two adsorbents have greater adsorptive capacity for amygdalin and good separation effect. In order to quantitate amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb., a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using methanol-water (15:85, for 30 min and pure methanol after 30 min) as mobile phase is developed and a good result is obtained.

  5. Enhancement of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase on HepG2 cells proliferation and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cunshan; Qian, Lichun; Ma, Haile; Yu, Xiaojie; Zhang, Youzuo; Qu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Xia, Wei

    2012-09-01

    The growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis brought by amygdalin and activated with β-D-glucosidase were tested for cytoactivity in HepG2 cells. The MTT viability assay showed that all samples had effects on HepG2 proliferation in dose and time response manners. IC50 of stand-alone amygdalin and activation with β-D-glucosidase on the proliferation of HepG2 cells for 48 h were 458.10 mg/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Moreover, apoptotic cells were determined by AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide) fluorescent staining method and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. With increasing of amygdalin concentration and the incubation time, the apoptotic rate was heightened. Compared with the control, there was significant difference (pamygdalin had no strong anti-HepG2 activity; however the ingredients of amygdalin activated with β-D-glucosidase had a higher and efficient anti-HepG2 activity. It was therefore suggested that this combination strategy may be applicable for treating tumors with a higher activity.

  6. Semi-industrial isolation of salicin and amygdalin from plant extracts using slow rotary counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qizhen; Jerz, Gerold; Ha, Yangchun; Li, Lei; Xu, Yuanjin; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Qunxiong; Winterhalter, Peterb; Ito, Yoichiro

    2005-05-13

    Salicin in the bark extract of Salix alba and amygdalin in the fruit extract of Semen armeniacae were each separated by slow rotary counter-current chromatography (SRCCC). The apparatus was equipped with a 40-L column made of 17 mm i.d. convoluted Teflon tubing. A 500g amount of crude extract containing salicin at 13.5% was separated yielding 63.5 g of salicin at 95.3% purity in 20h using methyl tert-butyl ether-l-butanol (1:3) saturated by methanol-water (1:5) as a stationary phase and methanol-water (1:5) saturated by methyl tert-butyl ether-1-butanol (1:3) as a mobile phase. A 400g amount of crude extract containing amygdalin at 55.3% was isolated to yield 221.2g of amygdalin at 94.1% purity in 19h using ethyl acetate-1-butanol (1:2) saturated by water as a stationary phase and water saturated by ethyl acetate-1-butanol (1:2) as a mobile phase. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 50 ml/min. The results show that industrial SRCCC separation of salicin and amygdalin is feasible using a larger column at a higher flow rate of the mobile phase.

  7. Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification of amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside, in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-07-09

    Amygdalin is a member of the cyanogenic glycoside group of plant secondary metabolites capable of generating hydrogen cyanide under certain conditions. As a consequence, the cyanogenic glycosides have been associated with incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning. Specific antibodies were raised against an amygdalin-bovine serum albumin immunogen synthesized using a novel approach. The antibodies were used in a microtitration plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantification, for the first time, of amygdalin in commercially available foods. Correlation of results with high-performance liquid chromatography was very high (r = 0.983). The limit of detection of the immunoassay was 200 ± 0.05 pg mL(-1), and the 50% inhibitory concentration of amygdalin was 50 ± 0.02 ng mL(-1), making the ELISA particularly sensitive.

  8. Chromatographic determination of cyanoglycosides prunasin and amygdalin in plant extracts using a porous graphitic carbon column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer-Navarro, V; Giner-Galván, R M; Grané-Teruel, N; Arrazola-Paternina, G

    2002-11-20

    The determination of cyanogenic compounds in plants is often performed by HPLC. However, in this analysis, interferences due to compounds in the matrix, such as tannins and other pigments, are encountered, especially in roots and leaves. A new method is proposed for determining the cyanogenic glycosides amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile beta-D-gentiobioside) and prunasin (D-mandelonitrile beta-D-glucoside) in almond tree tissues, using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) or active carbon as scavengers for extracting cyanogenic compounds from roots or leaves, respectively. A new chromatographic approach for conducting the analysis is also discussed herein. The advantages of a Hypercarb column for the analysis of prunasin in roots are shown. The correlation coefficient with a reference method is high (>0.99), and statistical tests prove that the two methods are equivalent. In addition, the results provide evidence that prunasin is the only cyanoglycoside present in almond tree roots.

  9. Determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and amygdalin in the flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Chen, Kunsong; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Qingjun; Zhang, Wangshu; Li, Xian

    2007-07-01

    Simple and accurate HPLC methods were developed for the determination of oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA) and amygdalin in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) flower, which is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases as a traditional Chinese medicine. HPLC assay was performed on a reversed-phase C(18) column and all three compounds were detected at 210 nm with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of methanol (A) and 0.03 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 2.8) (B) with a ratio of 88:12 (A:B, v/v) for simultaneous detection of OA and UA, and 25:75 (A:B, v/v) for detection of amygdalin. The established methods showed good precision and accuracy with overall intra-day and inter-day variation of 0.99-3.55 and 1.05-4.05%, respectively, and overall recoveries of 97.37-99.32% for the three compounds. Application of these methods to determine the OA, UA and amygdalin contents in loquat flower showed that cultivar had a minor effect on the contents of all three compounds, with average amounts of 0.38-0.51 mg OA/g dry weight (DW), 2.15-2.68 mg UA/g DW and 1.23-1.56 mg amygdalin/g DW among five loquat cultivars tested. However, developmental stages and flower tissues showed significant effect on the contents of all three bioactive components.

  10. Kinetic analysis of hexose transport to determine the mechanism of amygdalin and prunasin absorption in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brent; Galey, William R

    2003-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that glucose-conjugated compounds may be carried across the gut mucosa via the epithelial sodium-dependent monosaccharide transporter SGLT1. A modification of the everted intestinal sac technique was utilized to study the transport of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile beta-D-gentiobioside) and its metabolite D-mandelontrile beta-D-glucoside (prunasin). Everted sacs of rat jejunum and ileum were bathed in isotonic oxygenated sodium chloride-potassium phosphate buffer containing 2.8 microCi D-[(3)H]-mannose and 0.187 microCi D-[(14)C]-glucose. For treatment groups, buffers contained phloridzin, galactose, amygdalin or prunasin. The rate constant (k) for the transport process was calculated. Compared with the control (n = 33), phloridzin (n = 25) significantly reduced the rate constants of both D-[(14)C]-glucose and D-[(3)H]-mannose. Substitution of sodium with choline and incremental galactose treatments similarly reduced D-[(14)C]-glucose influx, indicating that a fraction of the transport is carrier-mediated. Treatment with amygdalin did not significantly affect the rate constants of D-[(14)C]-glucose or D-[(3)H]-mannose transport. However, treatment with 1 mM prunasin (n = 16) did reduce the influx of D-[(14)C]-glucose without affecting D-[(3)H]-mannose values. This is consistent with the reports finding that glycoside absorption may be mediated by SGLT1.

  11. [Determination of amygdalin content in Semen Armeniacae Amarum by high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao-hui; You, Wen-wei; He, Feng

    2005-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was employed for determination of amygdalin content in Semen Armeniacae Amarum. The detection was performed with the column of Hypersil-ODS (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) and column temperature of 25 degrees C. The mobile phase was methanol-water (70:30) with flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Evaporative light-scattering detector was used and the drift tube temperature was set at 98 degrees Celsius with the gas flow rate of 3.2 L/min. A standard curve was generated, which was linear in the range of 1.0-15.1 microg for amygdalin content (r=0.999 9). The average recovery of amygdalin was 99.0% with RSD of 2.9% (n=5). Besides simplicity and rapidness, the method yields accurate and reproducible results and can therefore be used in the quality control of Semen Armeniacae Amarum.

  12. Development of FIA-enzyme systems for on-line monitoring of starch, cellulose and amygdalin concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoh, E.

    1993-07-02

    Immobilized enzyme - FIA systems were developed for application in monitoring starch concentration during fermentation, cellulose concentration in hydrolysis process and amygdalin concentration in industrial effluents as an index of toxic potentiality of such effluents. The starch measuring system consisting of glucoamylase, glucose oxidase and mutarotase was employed to measure glucose and starch simultaneously. The system was used for on-line monitoring of starch concentration in a 24 hour Bacillus lichenifonnis fermentation and dextrin concentration in a 140 hour fermentation of Cephalosporium acremonium. The on-line measurements agree well with the concentrations determined off-line using both calorimetric and enzymatic methods. (orig.)

  13. Existing form of Amygdalin in Bitter Almond and Influence Factors%苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷的存在形式及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤庆发; 谢颖; 陈飞龙; 郭阳; 宋帅; 罗佳波

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷的存在形式及温度与酸碱对苦杏仁苷异构化的影响.方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定苦杏仁在不同煎煮温度下L-苦杏仁苷与D-苦杏仁苷的峰面积,同时用该法定性考察酸碱对苦杏仁苷单体异构化的影响.结果:苦杏仁中的苦杏仁苷在不同温度段内具有不同的异构化表现;苦杏仁苷单体在醋酸中未发生异构化,而在氨水、氢氧化钠的作用下均可发生异构化.结论:随着煎煮温度的上升,苦杏仁中L-苦杏仁苷与D-苦杏仁苷的峰面积比值逐渐增加;苦杏仁苷单体能在酸性环境中稳定存在,而碱是导致其发生异构化的因素之一.%Objective: To evaluate the existing form of amygdalin in bitter almond and the influence of temperature and acid-base on isomerization of amygdalin. Method: Use high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) to determine the peak area of Z)-amygdalin and L-amygdalin in different decocting temperature, and use this method qualitatively investigate the influence of acid-base on isomerization of amygdalin monomer. Result: Amygdalin in Semen Armeniacae Amarum in different temperatures have different isomerization performance; amygdalin monomer did not occur isomerization in acid environment, isomerization under the effect of ammonia, sodium hydroxide. Conclusion: With the rise of decocting temperature results in the peak area of D-amygdalin and L-amygdalin gradually increased. Amygdalin monomer is stable in the acidic environment, alkali lead one of the factors of isomerization.

  14. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of amygdalin and paeoniflorin in human plasma and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Shi, Fuguo; Gu, Pan; Liu, Lingye; He, Hua; Ding, Li

    2014-04-01

    A simple and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous determination of amygdalin (AD) and paeoniflorin (PF) in human plasma. For both analytes, the method exhibited high sensitivity (LLOQs of 0.6ng/mL) by selecting the ammonium adduct ions ([M+NH4](+)) as the precursor ions and good linearity over the concentration range of 0.6-2000ng/mL with the correlation coefficients>0.9972. The intra- and inter-day precision was lower than 10% in relation to relative standard deviation, while accuracy was within ±2.3% in terms of relative error for both analytes. The developed method was successfully applied to a pilot pharmacokinetic study of AD and PF in healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion administration of Huoxue-Tongluo lyophilized powder for injection.

  15. RP-HPLC测定橘红化痰丸中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Juhong Huatan Wan by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡桂萍; 司徒伟良; 宋粉云; 钟兆健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of amygdalin in Juhong Huatan Wan.MethodsA RP-HPLC method was established. The chromatographic column was Diamonsil C18. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol-0.1 % phosphoric acid (20:80,v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. The column temperature was 30℃. ResultsThe linear range of amygdalin was 5.5-44.0μg/mL (r=0.9991). The average recovery for amygdalin was 100.3 %,withRSD of 0.84 % (n=6).Conclusion This method can be used for quantitative determination of amygdalin in the preparation.%目的建立反相高效液相色谱法(RP-HPLC)测定橘红化痰丸中苦杏仁苷含量的方法。方法色谱柱为Diamonsil C18;流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸水溶液(20:80),流速1.0 mL/min;检测波长210 nm;柱温30℃。结果苦杏仁苷在5.5~44.0μg/mL范围内有良好的线性关系(r=0.9991),平均回收率为100.3%,RSD为0.84%(n=6)。结论该法可用于橘红化痰丸中苦杏仁苷的含量测定。

  16. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines. XXV. Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, D; Komatsu, K; Cui, Z; Kano, Y

    1999-02-01

    Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid were studied in rats using the method developed in our previous reports. Ephedrine significantly increased respiratory evaporative water loss and heat loss in response to a marked elevation of body temperature. There was a small but significant increase in body temperature when amygdalin was orally given rats at a dose of 46.32 mg/kg. Glycyrrhizin and gypsum were unable to affect body temperature. However, gypsum was able to prevent the increased action of ephedrine on body temperature, amygdalin exhibited a preventive tendency to it, and glycyrrhizin did not affect it. The results are in good agreement with classical claims of Makyo-kanseki-to and the related crude drugs in traditional medicine. Moreover, a combination of the four components reproduced the effects of Makyo-kanseki-to on body temperature and body fluid. This report suggests that the co-administration of ephedrine and gypsum is physiologically more desirable than ephedrine alone for dry-type asthmatic patients with a fever. Also, it experimentally supports the clinical efficacy of Makyo-kanseki-to.

  17. 黑曲霉粗酶液对苦杏仁苷的生物转化研究%Study on the Biotransformation of Amygdalin with the Crude Enzyme Extract from Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常军

    2012-01-01

    To screen some new and-tumor ingredients from metabolisms of amygdalin, amygdalin was treated with the crude enzyme extract from Aspgergillus niger. The HPLC results showed that amygdalin was metabolized into four products and their structures were identified with MS and NMR.%为筛选到新型具有抗肿瘤活性转化产物,采用酶催化转化的方法对苦杏仁苷进行了生物转化研究.HPLC分析表明,苦杏仁苷在黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger)全细胞酶的作用下生成了4个产物,并采用MS和NMR法对产物的结构进行了鉴定.

  18. UPLC-MS/MS determination of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid in Beagle plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Ma Huang Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tianhua; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Ma, Shiping

    2015-02-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of Ma Huang Tang (MHT) in Beagles. Beagle plasma samples were pretreated using liquid-liquid extraction, and chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using a linear gradient of water-formic acid mixture (0.1%). The pharmacokinetic parameters of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid from MHT in Beagles were quantitatively determined by UPLC with tandem mass detector. The qualitative detection of the four compounds was accomplished by selected ion monitoring in negative/positive ion modes electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Detection was based on multiple reaction monitoring with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 166.096-116.983 (ephedrine), m/z 179.034-146.087 (methylephedrine), m/z 456.351-323.074 (amygdalin), and m/z 821.606-351.062 (glycyrrhizic acid). The selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, ion suppression, and stability were within the acceptable ranges. The method described was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of ephedrine, methylephedrine, amygdalin, and glycyrrhizic acid after oral gavage of MHT in Beagles.

  19. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.

  20. Content Determination of Amygdalin in Loquat Cough Syrup by HPLC%HPLC法测定止咳枇杷糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱月月; 付静; 聂诗明

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To establish a method for determing amygdalin in loquat cough syrup by HPLC. Methods:HPLC with Welch Ultimate XB-C18(4.6x250mm,5μm)column was used methanol-water(20:80) was used as mobile phase .The flow rate was 1mL•min-1 .The detection wavelength was at 210nm.Re-sults:The liner range of amygdalin was 0.1922μg~3.0760μg(r=0.9981),an average recovery of sample was 95.1880%.Conlusion:This method is simple and seprated completely,and can be used as content determina-tion of amygdalein in loquat cough syrup.%目的:建立止咳枇杷糖浆中苦杏仁苷的 HPLC 测定方法。方法:采用 Welch(月旭)Ultimate XB-C18(4.6x250mm,5μm),以甲醇-水(20∶80)为流动相,流速1mL/min,检测波长210nm。结果:苦杏仁苷在9.61~153.8μg/mL 线性关系良好,线性回归方程Y=0.2716x-1.36466,r=0.9962,平均回收率95.18%。结论:该方法分离度、线性关系、重现性、稳定性、回收率均符合含量分析要求,适合于止咳枇杷糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量测定。

  1. HPLC法测定补脾益肠丸中苦杏仁苷含量%HPLC Determination of Amygdalin Content in Bupi Yichang Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左力

    2013-01-01

    目的:为了更好的控制补脾益肠丸质量,对补脾益肠丸中苦杏仁苷的含量进行测定.方法:采用Zorbax SB-C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(8:92);检测波长为210 nm;柱温35℃.结果:苦杏仁苷在10.25~512.5μg范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999,平均回收率98.91%,RSD=0.48%.结论:此方法操作简便、准确、重现性好,可有效的控制补脾益肠丸的质量.%Objective:In order to better control quality of Bupi Yichang pill,amygdalin content in Bupi Yichang pill was measured.Method:A Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μ m); mobile phase:acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid (8:92); detection wavelength was 210 nm ; column temperature of 35 ℃.Results:The amygdalin linear in the range of 10.25 ~ 512.5 μ g had good relationship (r=-0.9999),the average recovery rate was 98.91% (RSD=0.48%).Conclusion:This method is simple,accurate with good reproducibility,and can effectively control the quality of Bupi Yichang pill.

  2. Determination of Amygdalin in Maxing Cough Syrup by HPLC%HPLC法测定麻杏止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗培和; 朱其琼

    2014-01-01

    A HPLC method for determination of amygdalin in Maxing cougy syrup by HPLC was established.Applied KromasilC18 column(250mm×4.6mm,5μm), the mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution(8:92), the flow rate of 1.0mL·min-1, the detecting wavelength was at 207nm. The linear range of amygdalin was 0.0406~0.8112μg (r=0.9999),the average recovery was 99.0%, RSD was 0.25%.The method was simple,accurate and reproducible,it could be used for quality control of maxing cough syrup.%建立高效液相色谱法测定麻杏止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷含量的方法。采用KromasilC18柱,乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(8∶92)为流动相,流速1.0mL·min-1,检测波长207nm。苦杏仁苷在0.0406~0.812μg范围内有良好的线性关系, r=0.9999,平均回收率为99.0%,RSD为0.25%。本方法简便、准确、重现性好,可用于麻杏止咳糖浆的质量控制。

  3. HPLC法测定咳灵胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Keling Capsule by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for the determination of amygdalin in Keling Capsule by HPLC. Methods The Agilent C18 (250mmí4.6mm,5μm)column was used;The mobile phase was acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution ( 8:92)at a flow rate of 1.0 ml·min-1;the detection wavelength was 210nm and the column temperature was 30℃.Results The linear range of amygdalin was 0.2012~1.0060μg (r=0.9999,n=5),the average recovery was 99.32% with RSD of 1.08%(n=6). Conclusion The method is simple and rapid,it can be used to control the quality of Keling Capsule.%目的建立高效液相色谱法测定咳灵胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量。方法色谱柱为Agilent C18(250mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相院乙腈一0.1%磷酸溶液(8院92);流速院1.0 ml·min-1;检测波长院210nm;柱温院30℃。结果苦杏仁苷线性范围为0.2012~1.0060μg(r=0.9999,n=5),平均回收率为99.32豫,RSD为1.08豫(n=6)。结论该方法简便快捷,可用于咳灵胶囊的质量控制。

  4. HPLC 法测定加味桂枝茯苓汤中苦杏仁苷的含量%Content Determination of Amygdalin in Modified Guizhi Fuling Decoction with HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 许红玮

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establishan HPLC method for determination of amygdalin. Methods:Amygdalin was performed on an C18(ZOR-BAX SB-Aq 4. 6 × 250 mm,5 μm);the mobile phase consisted of water methanol and aoetonitrile in the volume ratiom of 93: 3: 4 with the flow rate of 1 mL·min - 1 for the determination of amygdalin,UV detection wavelength was at 210nm and column temperature was 30 ℃ . Results:Amygdalin had good linear in the range of 0. 044 ~ 0. 44 μg,(r = 0. 999 8),the average recoveries(n = 6)of amyg-dalin was 98. 2% ,with RSD of 1. 78%(n = 6). Conclusion:This method is accurate,reproducible,easy operation,suitable for quality control of modified Guizhi Fuling decoction.%目的:建立加味桂枝茯苓汤中苦杏仁苷的含量测定方法。方法:采用 HPLC 法,色谱柱为 C18柱(ZORBAX SB-Aq 4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm),流动相为水-甲醇-乙腈(93:3:4),流速为1 mL·min -1,检测波长210 nm,柱温30℃。结果:苦杏仁苷在0.044~0.440μg 范围内呈良好的线性关系,r =0.9998,平均回收率98.2%,RSD =1.78%(n =6)。结论:本方法准确,重现性好、操作简便,适用于加味桂枝茯苓汤的质量控制。

  5. Single factor experimental study on ultrasonic extraction of amygdalin from apricot kernel%超声波法提取山杏仁中苦杏仁苷的单因素试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢朝晖; 李鑫; 李文博; 王福梅; 赵安方

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the apricot kernel,which is produced in Lushan,was taken as a raw material,ultraviolet spectrophotometry was used to determine the yield of amygdalin,which is regarded as the index to select an optimum extraction method.The influence of solid-liquid ratio,ethanol concentration,extraction temperature,extraction time and ultrasonic power on the yield of amygdalin at different levels were studied.The optimum technological parameters of single factors on amygdalin extraction with ultrasonic extraction technique were solid-liquid ratio 1: 5,ethanol concentration 80%,extraction temperature 70 ℃,extraction time 40 min and ultrasonic power 64 w.The results indicated that the influence of solid-liquid ratio,ethanol concentration,extraction temperature,and ultrasonic power on the yield of amygdalin all showed a very significant level;while the influence of extraction time on the yield of amygdalin was not significant.The results of Fisher LSD multiple comparisons indicated that the influence of these factors between different levels were all different.%以产自平顶山市鲁山县的山杏仁为原料,采用紫外分光光度法,以苦杏仁苷的得率为指标,研究超声波提取法中固液比、乙醇浓度、提取温度、提取时间及超声功率对苦杏仁苷提取效果的影响。单因素试验结果表明,超声波法提取苦杏仁苷的最佳单因素工艺参数为固液比1∶5、乙醇浓度80%、提取温度70℃、提取时间40 min、超声功率64 W。单因素方差分析的结果表明,固液比、乙醇浓度、提取温度、超声功率四个因素对苦杏仁苷得率的影响都极其显著,而提取时间对苦杏仁苷得率的影响是不显著的。Fisher LSD多重比较结果显示,各因素不同水平之间对苦杏仁苷得率影响的差异显著性也有所不同。

  6. HPLC法测定麻杏口服液中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Maxing Oral Solution by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翔; 刘皈阳; 马建丽; 周亮

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of amygdalin in Maxing oral solution. Methods The Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18(4. 6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) was used. The mobile phase consisted of methanol-water(20: 80) at a the flow rate of 1.0 ml · min-1. The detection wavelength was at 210 nm, the column was at room temperature, and the volume of injection was 10 μl. Results A good linear correlation of amygdalin was observed within the range of 4. 344-217.2 μg·ml-1 (r =0.9999). The average recovery was 102. 08% with RSD of 1.75% (n =6). Conclusion This method is simple, accurate and quick, which can be used for determination and quality control of Maxing oral solution with good selectivity and repeatability.%目的 建立HPLC法测定麻杏口服液中苦杏仁苷的含量.方法 色谱柱:Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-水(20:80);流速:1.0 ml ·min-1;检测波长:210 nm;柱温:室温;进样量:10μ1.结果 苦杏仁苷在4.344~217.2μg·m1-1范围内与其峰面积线性关系良好(r=0.9999),平均回收率为102.08%,RSD为1.75%.结论 本方法简便准确、快速可靠,能够用于麻杏口服液的含量测定和质量控制.

  7. Laetrile/Amygdalin (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grants Management Legal Requirements NCI Grant Policies Grant Management Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at NCI ( ...

  8. β-葡萄糖苷酶激活苦杏仁苷诱导膀胱癌EJ细胞凋亡的实验研究%Bladder cancer cells apoptosis induced by amygdalin following specific activation by β-glucosidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂振; 周洁; 王启辉; 王光文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of amygdalin activated by β-glucosidase on the growth and apoptosis of bladder cancer EJ cells, and to discuss β-giucosidase/amygdalin enzyme prodrug system as a potential therapy for bladder cancer. Methods EJ cells were divided into two groups: the amygdalin group, and the β-glucosidase/amygdalin group. After the treatment, the cell growth curve was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). The inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope were used to detect the change of morphology of EJ cells. The apoptosis and cycle of EJ cells were tested by flow cytometry. Results The cell proliferation capability in the β-glucosidase/amygdalin group was significantly inhibited, and the inhibition rate was up to 8.19 times of that in the amygdalin group. The inverted microscope and transmission electron microscope showed a notable apoptosis in the β-glucosidase/amygdalin group. The flow cytometry showed that the β-glucosidase/amygdalin group had a higher apoptosis rate, and more S phase cells. With amygdalin concentration increased, these changes were more obvious. Conclusion Amygdalin activated by β-glucosidase can decrease the proliferation and promote the apoptosis capability of EJ cells, which may explain the reason why more cells were blocked in S phase. β-glucosidase/ amygdalin enzyme prodrug system may become a potential therapy for bladder cancer.%目的 观察β-葡萄糖苷酶激活苦杏仁苷对膀胱癌EJ细胞生长及凋亡的影响,探讨β-葡萄糖苷酶/苦杏仁苷酶解前药系统用于膀胱癌治疗的应用前景.方法 用不同浓度的苦杏仁苷与β-葡萄糖苷酶共同作用于膀胱癌EJ细胞株,用MTT法检测细胞的增殖活性,倒置显微镜和透射电镜观察细胞形态学改变,流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡率与凋亡周期.结果 与单纯用苦杏仁苷作用相比,加入β-葡萄糖苷酶后膀胱癌EJ细胞的增殖明显受限,增值

  9. Reversed-phase vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction: a new sample preparation method for the determination of amygdalin in oil and kernel samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Alimoradi, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid reversed-phase vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been introduced for the extraction, clean-up, and preconcentration of amygdalin in oil and kernel samples. In this technique, deionized water was used as the extracting solvent. Unlike the reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, dispersive solvent was eliminated in the proposed method. Various parameters that affected the extraction efficiency, such as extracting solvent volume and its pH, vortex, and centrifuging times were evaluated and optimized. The calibration curve shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9955) and precision (RSD < 5.2%) in the range of 0.07-20 μg/mL. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.02 and 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 96.0-102.0% with relative standard deviation values ranging from 4.0 to 5.1%. Unlike the conventional extraction methods for plant extracts, no evaporative and re-solubilizing operations were needed in the proposed technique.

  10. Determination of the content of amygdalin Baibu Zhike syrup by HPLC%HPLC法测定百部止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李月琴; 周九兰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of amygdalin Baibu Zhike syrup. Methods Using HPLC method, the column was KromasiC18 (5μm,4.6mm ×250mm),mobile phase of methanol -water (20∶80),the column temperature was 25℃,flow rate of 1.0ml/min.The detection wavelength was 215nm.Results The amygdalin in the range of 0.04~0.24mg/ml good linear relationship (r=0.9995 ),the average recovery was 99.65%. RSD 1.90%.Conclusion The method is accurate,fast,relia-ble,and can be used for content determination of amygdalin Baibu Zhike syrup.%目的:建立百部止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量测定方法。方法:应用HPLC检测法,色谱柱为Kromasi C18(5μm,4.6mm ×250mm),流动相为甲醇-水(20∶80),柱温25℃,流速1.0ml/min。检测波长215nm。结果:苦杏仁苷在0.04~0.24mg/ml范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9995),平均回收率99.65%。RSD为1.90%。结论:该方法准确、快速、可靠,可用于测定百部止咳糖浆中苦杏仁苷的含量。

  11. 反相高效液相色谱法测定九圣散中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Jiusheng Powder by RP - HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志浩; 李鹏; 凌宏斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for the determination of amygdalin in Jiusheng powder. Methods: The RP - HPLC system consisting the ZORBAX SB - C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column, the mobile phase consisted of Acetonitrile - 0.1% H3PO4(6:94), the flow rate was 0.8 mL/min,the column temperature was 30℃, The UV detector was set at 207 nm. Results: The linear response range was 6.0 - 120.0 μg/mL( r = 0.9998 ). The average recovery of amygdalin was 99.7%, RSD was 1.20%. Conclusion:The assay demonstrated that the method had adequate and selectivily to measure the concentrations of simple and accurate, repeatable,it can be applied in quantitative determination of amygdalin in Jiusheng powder.%目的:建立测定九圣散中苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法,色谱条件为ZORBAX SB-C18柱(4.6 mm×250mm,5 μm),流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(6:94),流速为0.8 mL/min,柱温:30℃,检测波长为207 nm.结果:苦杏仁苷在6.0-120.0 g/L(r=0.9998)浓度范围内有良好的线性关系,平均加样回收率为99.7%,RSD为1.20%.结论:反相高效液相色谱法简便,快速,准确,重复性好,可用于九圣散的质量控制.

  12. The Determination of Amygdalin and the Process of Removing the Bitterness in the Almond Skin%杏仁皮的苦杏仁苷含量测定及脱毒工艺探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘策; 曹清明; 屠焰; 刁其玉

    2015-01-01

    建立了杏仁皮中活性物质苦杏仁苷含量的测定方法,并对杏仁皮脱毒工艺进行了优化。用紫外光谱法测得:在219 nm处有最大吸收光谱;苦杏仁苷的甲醇溶液在一定的浓度范围内,其吸光度值与浓度呈良好的线性关系(r2=0.9992)。以苦杏仁苷标准品为对照,计算了样品中的苦杏仁苷含量。确定测定方法以后,对浸泡脱毒法进行单因素及正交优化,确定了0.1%柠檬酸浸泡8 h,浸泡温度70℃、料水比1∶15(g∶mL)为最佳脱毒条件。%This paper aimed to establish a method for measuring the concentration of amygdalin in almond skin. The optimization of detoxification also was finished. With Ultraviolet spectrometry , the maximum absorption wavelength determined at 219 nm , and the calibration curve was linear in a certain range(r2=0.999 2),and with the standard of amygdalin as reference, amygdalin contents in samples were measured. Based on this method, the single factors and orthogonal optimization were used for the detoxification of soaking. The result is as follows:0.1 %citric acid soaking reagent,8 hours for smoking,70℃soaking temperature,the rate of solid to liquid 1∶15(g/mL).

  13. Determination of Amygdalin in Amygdalus pedunculatus Pall Products by Reversed-phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography%反相高效液相色谱法测定长柄扁桃仁产品中苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇凯; 许宁侠; 申烨华

    2013-01-01

    A method of reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography(RP-HPLC) has been developed for the determination of amygdalin in amygdalus pedunculatus pall products.The sample of amygdalin in amygdalus pedunculatus pall was extracted in methanol.The separation was perfomed with a mobile phase of methanol and water and acetonitrile(2∶85∶ 13) and a detection wavelength of 220 nm.The average content of amygdalin in amygdalus pedunculatus pall detected by this method is 1.44 %.The linear range was from 50 to 300 μg/mL(r=0.9996).The limit of detection for amygdalin was 1.2 μg/mL,the average recovery was 98.9% (n=5).The method is accurate,reproducible and can be used for the quality control of amygdalin.%本文采用反相高效液相色谱建立了长柄扁桃仁系列产品中苦杏仁苷含量的测定方法.长柄扁桃仁系列产品中的苦杏仁苷经甲醇提取,以V(甲醇)∶V(水)∶V(乙腈)=2∶85∶13为流动相进行洗脱,在220 nm检测波长下,测得长柄扁桃仁中苦杏仁苷的平均质量分数为1.44%.方法线性范围为50~300 μg/mL,线性相关系数r=0.9996,检出限为1.2 μg/ml,平均回收率为98.97%(n=5).

  14. Prevention effects of amygdalin on rat fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine%苦杏仁苷对二甲基亚硝胺诱导的大鼠肝纤维化的防治作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 冯琴; 彭景华; 傅琪琳; 唐亚军; 赵瑜; 胡义扬

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevention effects of amygdalin on rat fibrosis induced by DMN. Methods: Fibrosis model in rats was duplicated with DMN. After being injected with DMN for 4 weeks, model rats were randomly divided into model group, amygdalin treated group and colchicine treated group. Samples were harvested at the end of 6th week after being given corresponding drugs for 2 weeks. The fallowings were detected: yi5The content of liver Hydroxyproline ( Hyp); ②The liver pathology (Sinus red staining and HE staining) ; ③The activity of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) , aspartate aminotrans-ferase (AST) , γ-glutamyltransferase (-y-GT) and the content of albumin (Alb) , total bilirubin (Tbil) in serum; ④The activity of liver superoxide dismutase ( SOD) , Glutathione (GSH) , glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px) and the content of liver ma-leic dialdehyde (MDA) . Results; ①The content of liver Hyp increased significantly in model group , but it significantly decreased in amygdalin treated group and colchicine treated group; ②There were serious fibrosis and inflammation in model group.Amygdalin and colchicine can obviously alleviate fibrosis and inflammation; ③Activity of serum ALT, AST , γ-GT and content of serum Tbil of the model group significantly increased compared with the normal group; ATL and AST decreased significantly in amygdalin treated group and colchicine treated group; ④There were significant increases in MDA and significantly decrease in SOD, GSH and GSH-Px. Amygdalin could obviously increase GSH. Colchicine could obviously increase GSH and GSH-Px. Conclusion; Amygdalin has good experimental prevention efficacy on rat fibrosis induced by DMN.%目的:探讨苦杏仁苷对二甲基亚硝胺(DMN)诱导的大鼠肝纤维化的防治作用.方法:采用Wistar雄性大鼠,以腹腔注射DMN诱导大鼠肝纤维化模型.在造模4周后,将造模大鼠按体重分层随机分为模型组、苦杏仁苷组及对照药秋水仙碱组,每组10

  15. Determination of Amygdalin Content in Zhike Dingchuan Pills by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定止咳定喘丸中苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慈海; 刘冬梅; 钟戈锐

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定止咳定喘丸中苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相色谱法。方法色谱柱为 Agela Venusil MP C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(20:80),流速为1.0 mL/min,检测波长为210 nm,柱温室温。结果苦杏仁苷进样量在0.0530~0.8480μg ( r=0.9999)范围内与峰面积积分值具有良好线性关系,平均加样回收率为98.64%,RSD为1.11%( n=6)。结论该法简便、灵敏、准确可靠,可用于止咳定喘丸中苦杏仁苷的含量测定。%Objective To establish a HPLC method for the determination of the amygdalin content in Zhike Dingchuan Pills. Methods The Agela Venusil MP C18 column ( 250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm ) was used with the mobile phase of methanol-water ( 20 :80 ) , the flow rate was 1. 0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 210 nm and the column temperature was the room temperature. Results The sam-ple size of amygdalin in the range of 0. 053 0-0. 848 0 μg ( r=0. 999 9 ) showed a good linear relationship with the peak area. The average recovery rate was 98. 64% with RSD=1. 10% ( n=6 ) . Conclusion This method is simple, sensitive and accurate, and can be used for the determination of the amygdalin content in Zhike Dingchuan Pills.

  16. HPLC法测定连花清瘟胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量%Content Determination of Amygdalin in the Lianhua Qingwen Capsule by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕丹; 陈育鹏; 王淑静; 王贵金; 赵倩; 魏峰

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To establish a method for the content determination of amygdalin in Lianhua qingwen capsule. METH-ODS:HPLC was performed on the column of Phenomenex Kinetex XB-C18 with mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.2%Phosphoric acid so-lution(6∶94,V/V)at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min,the detection wavelength was 207 nm,column temperature was 30℃,and the injec-tion volume was 10μl. RESULTS:The linear range of amygdalin was 43.16-215.80 µg/ml(r=0.999 7);the limit of detection was 0.431 6μg/ml,the limit of quantitation was 1.294 8μg/ml;RSDs of precision,stability and reproducibility tests no more than 0.69%;recovery was 95.16%-100.49%(RSD=1.67%,n=9). CONCLUSIONS:The method is simple and rapid with high accuracy and well reproducibility,and can be used for the content determination of amygdalin in Lianhua qingwen capsule.%目的:建立测定连花清瘟胶囊中苦杏仁苷含量的方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱法。色谱柱为Phenomenex Kinetex XB-C18,流动相为乙腈-0.2%磷酸溶液(6∶94,V/V),流速为1.0 ml/min,检测波长为207 nm,柱温为30℃,进样量为10μl。结果:苦杏仁苷检测质量浓度线性范围为43.16~215.80µg/ml(r=0.9997);检测限为0.4316µg/ml、定量限为1.2948µg/ml;精密度、稳定性、重复性试验的RSD≤0.69%;加样回收率为95.16%~100.49%(RSD=1.67%,n=9)。结论:该方法简便、快速、准确度高、重复性好,可用于测定连花清瘟胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量。

  17. Content determination of amygdalin in Xue Fu Zhu Yu oral liquid by HPLC-ELSD%HPLC-ELSD法测定血府逐瘀口服液中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙琦; 仲崇琳; 杨美林

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop a method for the content determination of amygdalin in Xue Fu Zhu Yu oral liquid.Methods:High performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light-scattering detector method was used.The chromatographic column was octadecylsilane chemically bonded silica as the filler,the moving phase was methanol-water(25:75),the flow velocity was 1ml one minute,the column temperature was 30℃.The drift tube temperature of evaporative light-scattering detector was 105℃,air or nitrogen was as the atomizing gas,its flow velocity was 3.0L one minute.Results:The incoming sample amount of amygdalin was 0.856~4.28 μ g,the natural logarithm of peak area and the natural logarithm of incoming sample amount had good linear relationship(r=0.9995),the average recovery was 99.06% ,RSD=1.39(n=6).Conclusion:This method is sensitive,accurate,can be used for the content determination of amygdalin in Xue Fu Zhu Yu oral liquid.%目的:建立测定血府逐瘀口服液中苦杏仁苷的含量的方法。方法:采用高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测器法。色谱柱为十八烷基硅烷键合硅胶为填充剂,流动相为甲醇-水(25:75),流速控制在1ml/分,柱温控制在30℃;蒸发光散射检测器的漂移管温度控制105℃,空气或氮气作为其中的雾化气体,其流速控制在3.0L/分。结果:苦杏仁苷的进样量0.856~4.28μg,其峰面积的自然对数与进样量的自然对数具有良好的线性关系(r=0.9995),平均回收率99.06%,RSD=1.39(n=6)。结论:该方法灵敏、准确,可用于血府逐瘀口服液中苦杏仁苷的含量测定。

  18. 高效液相色谱法测定止咳宁嗽胶囊中苦杏仁苷含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Zhikeningsou Capsule by HPLC Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓祖磊; 宋雅彤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish a HPLC method for the determination of amygdalin in Zhikeningsou Capsule.Methods The Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column(150mm×4.6mm,5μm) was used with methanol-water(20:80)as the mobile phase.The UV detection wavelength was at 218 mm and the flow rate was 1.0mL/min.Results The linear range of amygdalin was 7.16-71.6μg/mL(r=0.9995).The average recovery rate was 99.21% with RSD of 0.48%(n=6).Conclusion The method is highly specific,simple to operate,and can be used to control the quality of this product.%目的 建立测定止咳宁嗽胶囊中苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相色谱法.方法 用Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-水(20:80),检测波长为218 nm,流速为1.0 mL/min.结果 苦杏仁苷的质量浓度线性范围为7.16~71.6 μg/mL(r=0.999 5),平均回收率为99.21%,RSD为0.48%(n=6).结论 该方法专属性强、操作简便,可用于产品的质量控制.

  19. HPLC Determination of Amygdalin Content in Huoxuetongmai Capsules%活血通脉胶囊中苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相色谱测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟小军; 韩宝侠; 夏云; 曲虹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish HPLC method for the determination of amygdalin content in Huoxuetongmai Capsules.Methods The chromatographic column:C1 8 (250 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm).The mo-bile phase:methanol -0.1% phosphoric acid(25∶75 ).The flow velocity:1 mL·min-1 )and the detection wave length:21 0 nm.Results Amygdalin showed the good linear relationship in the range of 0.606~4.040μg,r=0.999 8,and the average recovery rate:98.09%,RSD=1 .20%.Conclusion The method is sim-ple,feasible,specific and reproducible,and can better control the quality of this preparation.%目的:建立活血通脉胶囊中苦杏仁苷的HPLC 含量测定法。方法采用C18柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱;流动相为甲醇-0.1%磷酸(25∶75);流速1.0 mL·min-1;检测波长210 nm。结果苦杏仁苷在0.606~4.040μg 线性范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9998,平均回收率为98.09%,RSD为1.20%。结论该方法简便可行、专属性强、重复性好,可较好地控制该制剂的质量。

  20. 高效液相色谱测定麻杏薏甘汤提取物中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Maxing Yigan Decoction by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章文红; 王彬辉; 张晓芬; 吴敏; 王石健

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱测定麻杏薏甘汤提取物中苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:色谱柱:Ultimate(R)C18(250mm ×4.6mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈-水(11∶89);流速:1.0mL· min-1;波长:210nm;柱温:25℃.结果:苦杏仁苷浓度在1.0~80.0μg·mL-1(r=1.0)范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率为101.89%(RSD=0.90%).结论:建立的方法简便、准确、可靠,为麻杏薏甘汤提取物质量评价提供依据.%Objective: To establish a HPLC method for determination of amygdalin in Maxing Yigan Decoction. Method:Chromatographic column: Ultimate? C,8 ( 250 mm ×4. 6mm, 5μm) mobile phase: Acetonitrile - water (11 : 89 ) ; flow rate;1.0mL · min~' jdetection wavelength:210nm;column temperature:25℃. Result:Amygdalin showed a good linear relationship at the range of 1. 0 ~ 80. Oμg · mL-1 ( r = 1. 0). The average recovery of puerarin was 101. 89% ( RSD = 0. 90% ). Conclusion: This method is simple, reliable and reproducible, and can be used for quality evaluation of Maxing Yigan Decoction.

  1. Amygdalin Used as the LC-ESI MS Internal Standard for Serum Multiple Constituents Quantitation After Drug Administration%苦杏仁苷可作为液相色谱质谱联用技术血清多成分含量的内标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马靖; 张伯礼; 梁乾德; 高月; 肖成荣; 马增春; 王宇光; 刘明; 谭洪玲; 陆倍倍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of amygdalin being used as an IX)-ESI MS internal standard for serum multiple constituents quantitation. Methods Serum samples spiked with amygdalin were mixed with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) for protein precipitation, separated by the gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile-wa-ter containing formic acid on Waters Acquity HSS T3 column, and detected in both the positive and negative mode after electrospray ionization (ESI). Results In both the positive and negative mode, good linear correlation was shown between the peak area and concentrationin serum amygdalin. When serum paeoniflorin and feruljc acid were determined in both the positive and negative mode with amygdalin as the internal standard (IS), good linear correlation was shown between the peak area ratio (test compound to IS) and the poncentration of the test compound. Conclusion Amygdalin can be used as the LC-ESI MS internal standard for serum multiple constituents quantitation after drug administration.%目的 考察苦杏仁苷作为液相色谱电喷雾电离质谱联用技术测定血清中多种成分含量的内标物使用的可行性.方法 血清样品加入苦杏仁苷,经三氯乙酸沉淀蛋白,以含甲酸的乙腈-水为流动相梯度洗脱,用Waters Acquity HSS T3色谱柱分离,电喷雾电离,正、负离子模式分别检测.结果 在正离子和负离子模式下,血清样品中苦杏仁苷本身的峰面积与浓度线性关系良好,苦杏仁苷作为内标物测定血清中的芍药苷和阿魏酸,待测物内标峰面积比值与待测物浓度线性关系良好.结论 苦杏仁苷可以作为液相色谱电喷雾电离质谱联用技术测定药后血清中多种成分含量的内标物使用.

  2. Detetmination of Amygdalin and Baicalin in Gongliuqing Tablets by HPLC%HPLC法测定宫瘤清片中苦杏仁苷、黄芩苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鼎峰; 胡冰

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish a method for Amygdalin and Baicalin in Gongliuqing Tablets by HPLC.METHODS The analysis method was established using AgiLent 1100 HPLC system,the analysis was car-ried out with an AgiLent HC-C18 column(4.6mm ×250mm,5μm),the flow rate was 1mL· min-1 and the column temperature maintained at 30℃.①Amygdalin:the mobile phase of methanol-water(20∶80),the detection wavelength was set at 210nm;②Baicalin:the mobile phase of methanol-0.2 phosphoric acid(47∶53),the detection wavelength was set at 280nm.RESULTS The linear ranges were 18~180μg· mL-1 for Amygdalin(r=0.9996),the average recoveries were 99.61%and the RSD were 1.02%( n=9);the linear ranges were 6.657~66.57μg· mL-1 for Ba-icalin(r=0.9997),the average recoveries were 101.49%and the RSD were 1.11%(n=9).CONCLUSION The method is simple ,accurate ,and reproducible.It can be used to control the quality of Gongliuqing Tablets.%目的:建立HPLC法测定宫瘤清片中苦杏仁苷、黄芩苷含量的方法。方法采用AgiLent 1100系列高效液相色谱仪,以AgiLent HC-C18色谱柱(4.6mm ×250mm,5μm)分离,体积流量1mL· min -1,柱温30℃。①苦杏仁苷:流动相为甲醇-水(20∶80),检测波长210nm;②黄芩苷:流动相为甲醇-0.2%磷酸溶液(47∶53),检测波长280nm。结果苦杏仁苷在18~180μg· mL -1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9996),平均回收率为99.61%,RSD=1.02%(n=9);黄芩苷在6.657~66.57μg· mL -1范围内线性关系良好(r=0.9997),平均回收率为101.49%,RSD=1.11%(n=9)。结论本方法操作简便,结果准确,重现性好,可作为宫瘤清片的质量控制方法。

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Amygdalin inKuxingren Formula Granules and Study on Characteristic Chromatogram%苦杏仁配方颗粒中苦杏仁苷的定量分析及特征图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎春; 麻景梅; 李斯; 李军山; 李振江; 牛丽颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立苦杏仁配方颗粒中苦杏仁苷的高效液相色谱分析方法及苦杏仁配方颗粒高效液相色谱特征图谱。方法采用反相高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Dionex C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(8∶92),检测波长为207 nm,流速为0.6 mL/min,进样量10μL,柱温为30℃,测定苦杏仁配方颗粒中苦杏仁苷的含量,并以苦杏仁苷峰为参照峰分析10批苦杏仁配方颗粒样品,采用《中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统(2004 A)》进行相似度评价。结果苦杏仁苷的线性方程为Y=6.176×10-7X-3.058×10-3,在0.1225~1.225μg范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9998),平均回收率为98.75%(RSD=1.30%)。苦杏仁配方颗粒的特征图谱由6个共有峰构成,10批样品的相似度≥0.981。结论该方法简便、准确、重复性良好,可用于苦杏仁配方颗粒的质量控制。%ObjectiveTo establish an HPLC analytic method for amygdalin inKuxingrenFormula Granules and HPLC characteristic chromatogram.MethodsRP-HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Dionex C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5μm) with acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution (8:92) at the flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The detection wavelength was set at 207 nm and sample size was 10μL. The column temperature was 30℃. The peak of amygdalin was set as refernce, and 10 batches of samples were analyzed. TCM Chromatogram Fingerprint Similarity Evaluation System (2004 A) was adopted to evaluate similatity.Results The linear equation of amygdalin wasY=6.176×10-7X−3.058×10-3, with a good linear relationship in the range of 0.122 5–1.225μg (r= 0.999 8). The average recovery rate was 98.75% (RSD=1.30%). There were 6 common peaks in the characteristic chromatogram ofKuxingrenFormula Granules, and the similarity of 10 batches of samples was higher than 0.981. ConclusionThe HPLC method is simple, accurate and

  4. Determination of Hesperidin and Amygdalin in Xingsu Zhike Mixture by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography%RRLC法测定杏苏止咳口服液中橙皮苷和苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 胡世强; 陈娟; 顾利红

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立高分离度快速液相色谱( RRLC)方法,同时测定杏苏止咳口服液中橙皮苷和苦杏仁苷的含量.方法 采用ZORBAX SB-C18色谱柱(4.6 mm× 150 mm,1.8μm);梯度洗脱,流动相为0.2%磷酸溶液-乙腈;检测波长为207 nm;流速为1.0 mL· min-1;柱温为25℃;进样体积2.0 μL.结果 橙皮苷和苦杏仁苷进样量分别在0.007568 ~ 0.15136μg和0.03238~ 0.6476 μg范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999、r=1).平均加样回收率(n=6)分别为100.40%、99.79%,RSD分别为0.95%、0.53%.结论 本方法简便可靠,在较短的时间内获得较高的分离度,溶剂消耗亦大幅减少,可用于杏苏止咳口服液的质量控制.%Objective To establish a rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) method for the determination of hesperidin and amygdalin in Xingsu Zhike Mixture. Methods The separation was performed on ZORBAX SB-C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 1.8μm) column. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2 % phosphoric acid- acetonitrile with gradient elution at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The detection wavelength was 207 nm, the column temperature was 25 ℃, and the injection volume was 2.0 μL. Results The linear ranges of hesperidin and amygdalin were 0.007568 ~ 0.15136 μg and 0.03238~0.6476 μg, respectively(r=0.9999, r=1). The average recoveries(n=6) of hesperidin and amygdalin were 100.40 %(RSD=0.95 %) and 99.79 %(RSD=0.53 %), respectively. Conclusion The developed RRLC is a simple, fast and effective analysis method, with less solvent consumption. It can be used to control the quality of Xingsu Zhike Mixture.

  5. 高效毛细管电泳法测定麻杏石甘汤中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Maxing Shigan Decoction by HPCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓雪华

    2013-01-01

    To establish an HPCE method for determining the Amygdalin in Maxing Shigan decoction. Method; Rutin was used as internal standard. An uncoated fused silica capillary(67cm x75μm,effective length of 60cm)was used. The electrolyte buffer composed of 12 mmol o L-1 borax -MeOH(90 :10) .applied voltage 25kV,detection wavelength was 215 nm. Results:Amygdalin was successfully separated within 20 min,the linear response range was 0.31 ~6.21 mg o mL-1 . The average recovery was 98.4%. Conclusions:The analytical results demonstrated the method was simple, rapid and well reproducible, and could be used as a reliable tool for the quantity control of Maxing Shigan decoction and its preparations.%目的:建立高效毛细管电泳法测定麻杏石甘汤中的有效成分苦杏仁苷的含量.方法:采用内标法,选取芦丁为内标,未涂层熔融石英毛细管柱(67 cm×75 μm,有效长度60 cm)为分离通道,以12 mmol·L-1硼砂-乙醇(90:10)为电泳介质,分离电压25 kV,检测波长215 nm.结果:在上述条件下,苦杏仁苷在20 min内得到很好的分离,在0.31 ~6.21 mg·mL-1与峰面积线性关系良好,平均加样回收率为98.4%.结论:方法简便快速、结果准确、重复性好,可用于麻杏石甘汤及其制剂的质量控制.

  6. Ultrasonic extraction process of amygdalin from bayberry thinning fruits kernels%超声波提取杨梅疏果核仁中苦杏仁苷工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 夏其乐; 陆胜民

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the extraction methods of amygdalin from bayberry thinning fruits kernels , the extraction process was studied using the bayberry ( Myrica rubra Sieb.et Zucc.var.Ding ao) fruits by ultrasonic technology . Based on the single-factor and 2-level extraction experiment , a three-factor and three-level experimental strategy was designed with the Design-Expert 8.0 software using the ethanol concentration , solid-liquid ratio and the extraction temperature as the experimental factors and the extraction yield as response value .The predictable model of quadratic regression equation was obtained . The optimum extraction conditions were concluded as follows: ethanol concentration 27%, solid-liquid ratio 1∶45 ( m/V ) , extraction time 20 min, extraction temperature 44℃, and ultrasonic power 250 W.In this condition , the predicted value of amygdalin extraction yield by the model was 94.03%, which was in good agreement with the experimental value of 93.80%.%为了明确杨梅疏果核仁中苦杏仁苷的提取方法,采用丁岙种杨梅的疏果为原料,以苦杏仁苷提取率为响应值,在超声波提取单因素试验和二水平试验的基础上,选择乙醇浓度、料液比、提取温度作为试验因子,利用Design-Expert 8.0软件进行三因素三水平的响应面试验设计,并建立二次回归方程的预测模型。试验确定了杨梅疏果核仁中苦杏仁苷的最佳提取工艺条件:乙醇浓度27%,料液比1∶45(m/V),提取时间20 min,提取温度44℃,超声功率250 W。在该条件下苦杏仁苷理论提取率为94.03%,实际提取率为93.80%,与模型预测值基本相符。

  7. The Effect of Amygdalin on the Graft Kidney in Rats%苦杏仁苷对肾脏移植大鼠存活情况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭君其; 王灵杰; 叶永峰; 谭建明; 吴卫真; 杨顺良

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究苦杏仁苷(amygdalin)是否能增加肾移植大鼠的存活时间,及评估苦杏仁苷与环孢素(cydosprin,CsA)联合用药时对大鼠肾移植的临床疗效.方法:20只肾移植大鼠随机分为4组:空白对照组、苦杏仁苷组、CsA组和苦杏仁苷+CsA组,观察其存活时间及移植肾病理变化.结果:空白对照组存活时间最短(5.44±0.51)d,其与苦杏仁苷组(6.29±0.74)d比较具有统计学差异(P<0.05);苦杏仁苷+环孢素组存活时间最长(11.84±0.76)d,其与环孢素组(9.26±0.74)d比较亦具有统计学差异(P<0.05),移植肾组织病理上各组均有不同程度的急性排斥反应,并具有各自的病理特点.结论:苦杏仁苷可在一定程度上延长肾移植大鼠的存活时间;苦杏仁苷和环孢素联合用药效果优于单用环孢素,其联合用药更能延长肾移植大鼠的存活时间.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride,D-pseudo-ephedrine and Amygdalin in Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid by RP-HPLC%RP-HPLC同时测定宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱及苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘睿; 王宁; 刘志辉

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:采用Hedera ODS-2色谱柱(4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm);以乙腈-0.2%磷酸水溶液为流动相梯度洗脱;紫外检测波长210nm,0~24 min流速为1.0 mL·min(-1),用于检测盐酸麻黄碱和盐酸伪麻黄碱;27~55 min流速为0.7 mL·min(-1),用于检测苦杏仁苷,柱温25℃.结果:盐酸伪麻黄碱、盐酸麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷分别在0.043 2~0.684 μg(r=0.999 9),0.048 8~0.976 μg(r =0.999 9),0.047 0~0.940 8 μg(r=0.999 8)线性关系良好;平均回收率(n=6)分别为96.15%,96.09%,95.74%,RSD分别为0.78%,1.18%,1.80%.结论:该法可以用于宣肺止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷的含量测定.%Objective: To establish an HPLC method for determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid. Method: The separation was performed on an Hedera ODS-2 (4.6 mm ×250 mm, 5 μm); the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.2% phosphoric acid (5: 95 ) with the flow rate of 1 mL· min- 1 for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and 0. 7 mL·min-1 for amygdalin, UV detection wavelength was at 210 nm and column temperature was 25 ℃. Result: ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin were linear in the range of 0. 043 2-0. 684 μg ( r = 0. 999 9), 0. 048 8-0. 976 μg ( r = 0. 999 9) and 0. 047 0-0. 940 8 μg ( r = 0. 999 8 ), the average recoveries (n =6) of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin were 96. 15% , 96. 09% and95. 74% with RSD of 0.78%, 1.18% and 1.80% respectively. Conclusion: This method is rapid and accurate for the simultaneous analysis of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin and can provide a reliable way for the quality control for Xuanfei Zhike Oral Liquid.

  9. Effects of Amygdalin on TNF-α and sICAM-1 of Rats with Type II Collagen-induced Arthritis%苦杏仁苷对Ⅱ型胶原诱导性关节炎大鼠肿瘤坏死因子-α和细胞间黏附分子-1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗德梅; 单志桂; 葛金莲; 刘青; 罗莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To discuss effects of anti-inflammatory mechanism of amygdalin on rats with type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Methods Wistar rats were randomized into normal group, model group, amygdalin group, and tripterygium group. Type II CIA rat models were established. From the 15th day after the modeling establishment, each administration group was given corresponding dose of medicine for continuous 28 days. Levels of TNF-αand sICAM-1 were detected by ELISA in serum of rats, and expression of TNF-α was detected by immuno-histochemical method. Results TNF-α positive expression in amygdalin group and tripterygium group was similar and significantly reduced compared with model group. Levels TNF-α and sICAM-1 in amygdalin group and tripterygium group significantly decreased compared with those in model group (P0.05). Conclusion Amygdalin can inhibit the expression of TNF-α and levels of TNF-α and sICAM-1, in order to treat rheumatoid arthritis.%目的:探讨苦杏仁苷对Ⅱ型胶原诱导性关节炎(CIA)大鼠的抗炎作用机制。方法 Wistar大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、苦杏仁苷组、雷公藤多苷组。采用Ⅱ型胶原诱导建立CIA大鼠模型,造模后第15日,各给药组予相应药物灌胃,连续28 d。ELISA检测大鼠血清肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)、细胞间黏附分子-1(sICAM-1)水平,免疫组化法检测大鼠关节滑膜TNF-α表达。结果苦杏仁苷组和雷公藤多苷组关节滑膜TNF-α阳性表达相似,较模型组明显减少,且苦杏仁苷组和雷公藤多苷组大鼠外周血中TNF-α、sICAM-1水平与模型组比较均明显下降(P<0.05),与正常组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论苦杏仁苷通过有效抑制TNF-α、sICAM-1水平及TNF-α表达,达到治疗类风湿关节炎的作用。

  10. Simultaneous determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in San'ao Pian by HPLC%高效液相色谱法同时测定三拗片中盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李沁璇; 杨芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in San'ao Pian. Methods Hypersil BDS C18 ( 250 mm× 4. 6 mm, 5 μm) column was used. The mobile phase was methanol-0. 3%phosphoric acid solution (20: 80). The detective wavelength was 217 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL · min-1, the column temperature was 30C, and external standard method was employed. Results The linear range of ephedrine hydrochloride was 0. 019 9-0. 398 μg, r=0. 999 8, and the average recovery was 97. 6% (n =9) (RSD=1. 2%). The linear range of amygdalin was 0. 104 2-2. 084 μg, r=0. 999 9, and the average recovery was 98. 2% (n=9) (RSD=1.0%). Conclusion The method is simple, accurate and reliable, which can be used for the content determination of ephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin of San'ao Pian.%目的 建立高效液相色谱同时测定三拗片中盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法 采用Hypersil BDSC18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-0.3 oA磷酸溶液(20:80),检测波长为217 nm,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,柱温为30℃,外标法计算含量.结果 盐酸麻黄碱在0.019 9~0.398 μg与峰面积有良好的线性关系,r=0.999 8,平均回收率为97.6 oA,RSD为1.2%(n=9);苦杏仁苷在0.104 2~2.084μg与峰面积有良好线性关系,r=0.999 9,平均回收率为98.2%,RSD为1.0%(n=9).结论 该方法简便、准确、重复性好,可同时测定三拗片中盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量.

  11. HPLC法同时测定麻杏二陈汤煮散剂中盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of the Contents of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Amygdalin in Maxingerchen Decoction Made from Powder by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 陈金月; 黄权芳; 莫小林

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for determining the contents of ephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in Maxingerchen decoction made from powder. Methods: HPLC was performed to detect the contents with Diamonsil C 18 col-umn(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5μm); the mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-0.1%phosphoric acid solution (10∶10∶80); the column temperature was room temperature; the UV detection wavelength was 207 nm. Results: The liner ranges of ephedrine hydrochlo-ride and amygdalin were 0.8-40.0μg·mL-1, r=0.9999, 4.04-202.00μg·mL-1, r=0.9999. The average recovery of ephedrine hy-drochloride was 100.53% (n=9) and RSD% was 1.20%; the average recovery of amygdalin was 100.34% (n=9) and RSD%was 1.42%. Conclusion: This method is simple, accurate and with good reproducibility. It can be used for quality control of Maxingerchen decoction made from powder.%  目的:建立同时测定麻杏二陈汤煮散剂中盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:采用HPLC法,色谱柱为Dia-monsil C18柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm),流动相为甲醇-乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(10∶10∶80),柱温为室温,检测波长为207 nm.结果:盐酸麻黄碱在0.8-40.0μg·mL-1的范围内有良好的线性关系,r=0.9999,平均加样回收率为100.53%,RSD%为1.20%(n=9);苦杏仁苷在4.04-202.00μg·mL-1的范围内有良好的线性关系,r=0.9999,平均加样回收率为100.34%,RSD%为1.42%(n=9).结论:本法可同时测定盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量,测定方法简便,准确,重复性好,可用于麻杏二陈汤煮散剂的质量控制.

  12. Dynamic Changes of Ephedrine Hydrochloride, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride, Amygdalin and Glycyrrhizic Acid in Different Compatibility of San-Ao Decoction%三拗汤不同配伍煎液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和甘草酸动态规律变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金花; 刘陶世; 程建明; 陈冬冬; 钱海峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究三拗汤在不同配伍煎液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和甘草酸的动态规律变化.方法:采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)同时测定三拗汤煎液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和甘草酸的转移率,选用Kromasil C18(4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以流动相甲醇-0.1%磷酸进行梯度洗脱,流速为1 mL·min-1,柱温30℃,进样量10μL.其中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷在208 nm波长下检测,甘草酸铵在250 nm波长下检测.结果:麻黄碱转移率在合煎液中大于分煎液,伪麻黄碱转移率在麻黄与苦杏仁配伍中最高,苦杏仁苷转移率在麻黄与苦杏仁配伍中最高,甘草酸转移率在合煎液中大于分煎液.结论:中药复方在煎煮过程中存在动态规律变化,应根据其变化有针对性提高药物的有效性和稳定性.%This paper was aimed to study the dynamic changes of San-Ao(SA) decoction in different compatibility of ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid.HPLC was used to simultaneously determinate the transfer rate of SA decoction of ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride,amygdalin and glycyrrhizic acid.Kromasil C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5μm) column was selected with methanol and 0.1% phosphoric acid as a mobile phase to gradient.The flow rate was 1 mL·min-1.The column temperature was 30℃.The injection volume was 10μL.Ephedrine hydrochloride,pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin were detected at the wavelength of 208 nm.The glycyrrhizic acid was detected at the wavelength of 250 nm.The results showed that the transfer rate of ephedrine hydrochloride in decoction was more than that of the single preparation.The transfer rate of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was the highest in the combination of ephedra and bitter almond.The transfer rate of amygdalin was the highest in the combination of ephedra and bitter almond.The transfer rate of

  13. 苦杏仁苷纯度标准物质研制和纯度标准值及不确定度分析方法研究%Research on Value Assignment and Uncertainty Evaluation of Purity Reference Material of Amygdalin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周政政; 郭永辉; 杨德智; 吕扬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop the purity certified reference material of amygdalin which has traceability, value transmission and high-accuracy quantity value, and to establish an accurate definite value analytical method. Methods The purity value of purity certified reference material of amygdalin was determined by combined value assignment of high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) area normalization method and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on the basis of Technical Norm of Primary Reference Material and related documents requirements. Results The developed purity certified reference material of amygdalin was in accordance with Technical Norm of Primary Reference Material requirements and the standard value and uncertainty was (99.3±0.4)% (k = 2, P = 0. 95). Conclusion The combined different principles analytical technology method could overcome the defects of one method and guarantee for the accurate value assignment results of the purity reference material of amygdalin in this study and it was an internationally accepted National Certified Reference Material which could provide reference material, material standard and scientific foundation of standard method for the international competition of related medicines.%目的 研制具有溯源性、具备量值传递功能、高准确度量值的苦杏仁苷高纯度国家级有证标准物质,建立准确定量的定值分析方法.方法 根据我国一级标准物质研制技术规范和国家计量相关法规要求,建立基于高效液相色谱(HPLC)面积归一化法和差示扫描量热法(DSC)的两种不同原理技术的苦杏仁苷纯度标准物质的标准值及不确定度评估联合定值方法.结果 研制的苦杏仁苷纯度标准物质符合国家一级有证标准物质技术要求,其标准值及不确定度值为(99.3 ±0.4)%(k=2,P=0.95).结论 采用不同原理技术方法定值可有效克服一种技术的缺陷影响,保证苦杏仁苷纯度标准物质定值结果准确,

  14. 苦杏仁苷对醋酸铅所致雄性小鼠生精障碍的影响%Effect of amygdalin on the spermatogenesis disturbance induced by lead acetate in male mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范红艳; 李小龙; 张小洁; 杨明会; 林有斌; 王艳春; 任旷

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究苦杏仁苷(amygdalin)对醋酸铅所致雄性小鼠生精障碍的影响,并探讨其作用机制.方法 采用腹腔注射醋酸铅(20 mg/kg)连续7d建立雄性小鼠生精障碍模型,造模第2天始,苦杏仁苷低、中、高剂量组分别腹腔注射苦杏仁苷(15、30和60 mg/kg),连续42 d.观察雄性小鼠的精子密度、精子畸变率变化,检测血清中睾酮(testosterone,T)的含量及睾丸组织匀浆的乳酸脱氢酶(lactic dehydrogenase,LDH)、山梨醇脱氢酶(sorbitol dehydrogenase,SDH)、Na+-K+-ATP酶、Mg2-ATP酶、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、一氧化氮(nitric oxide,NO)、肿瘤坏死因子α(tumor necrosis factor α,TNF-α)水平的变化,并观察睾丸组织的病理改变.结果 与模型组比较,苦杏仁苷各剂量组的精子密度增高、精子畸变率降低,苦杏仁苷各剂量组睾丸组织中LDH、SDH、Mg2-ATP酶的活性增高,苦杏仁苷中、高剂量组睾丸组织中Na+-K+-ATP酶、SOD活性增强、NO及TNF-α含量降低、血清中T含量增高,同模型组比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05或P<0.01).模型组睾丸组织生精上皮明显变薄,生精细胞层次和数量减少,多数生精小管腔见少量精子形成,而苦杏仁苷中、高剂量可改善醋酸铅所致的睾丸组织损伤.结论 苦杏仁苷对醋酸铅所致小鼠生精障碍的有一定改善作用,机制可能是通过抗氧化、降低NO水平,从而能稳定细胞膜、增强精子生成中能量代谢酶活性及抑制炎症介质.

  15. Effect of amygdalin on end-plate chondrocytes apoptosis induced by IL-1βderived from rat intervertebral discs%苦杏仁苷对 IL-1β诱导后大鼠椎间盘软骨终板细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑为超; 牛凯; 赵永见; 张雷; 王拥军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同浓度的苦杏仁苷对 IL-1β诱导的大鼠椎间盘软骨终板细胞凋亡的影响,并进一步探讨其作用的可能机制。方法从1月龄 SD 大鼠椎间盘中分离软骨终板并培养,经鉴定后,随机分为正常组、诱导组、苦杏仁苷10-2、10-3、10-4、10-5 mol·L -1给药组,采用流式细胞仪检测大鼠椎间盘软骨终板细胞的凋亡,Real-time PCR (RT-PCR)检测凋亡相关基因的表达情况,Western blot 检测细胞内 Bax、Bcl-2蛋白的表达。结果不同浓度的苦杏仁苷能够拮抗 IL-1β诱导的大鼠椎间盘软骨终板细胞凋亡。流式分析显示各浓度的苦杏仁苷可以降低 IL-1β诱导的大鼠椎间盘软骨终板细胞的凋亡比例;RT-PCR 结果提示苦杏仁苷各浓度组可拮抗 IL-1β上调 Bax mRNA 的表达,下调 Bcl-2 mRNA 的表达,各组与诱导组相比较,其差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05);Western blot 检测结果显示苦杏仁苷10-4 mol·L -1给药组能够拮抗 IL-1β上调 Bax 蛋白的表达,下调 Bcl-2蛋白的表达。结论苦杏仁苷能够拮抗 IL-1β诱导大鼠椎间盘软骨终板细胞的凋亡,起到延缓椎间盘退变的作用。%Aim To observe the anti-apoptotic effect of different concentrations of amygdalin on the endplate chondrocytes induced by IL-1 βderived from rat inter-vertebral discs and explore the possible mechanism fur-ther.Methods Chondrocytes were obtained from endplate of one-month SD rat intervertebral discs and cultured primary chondrocytes.After identifying,they were divided into normal group,induced group and A-mygdalin 1 0 -2 mol·L -1 ,1 0 -3 mol·L -1 ,1 0 -4 mol· L -1 ,1 0 -5 mol · L -1 administration group.Then the apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry (FCM).Re-al-Time PCR was adopted to detect the mRNA expres-sion of Bax and Bcl-2.The protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was detected by Western blot.Results The apoptosis of the endplate

  16. Determination of amygdalin and hyperoside in branches, leaves and fruits of Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.by HPLC-MS%高效液相色谱-质谱法同时测定天山花楸枝叶及果实中苦杏仁苷和金丝桃苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常军民; 向阳; 孟磊; 张倩; 何家伟; 王岩

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for determination of amygdalin and hyperoside in the branches,leaves and fruits of Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.Methods:After being degreased by refluxing process with diethyl ether and extracted with methanol,the sample solutions were separated on a Hypersil BDS C18 column(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5 μm)eluted with mobile phase of acetonitrile-water containing 0.1% foemic acid at a flow rate of 0.8 mL· min-1,then the separated components were detected by MS detector with electrospray ionization(ESI),negative scan mode and selected ion monitoring(SIM) mode.Results:The calibration curves showed good linearity within concentrations of 1.26 ~ 37.8 μg· mL-1 for amygdalin and 1.216 ~36.48 μg· mL-1 for hyperoside,the correlation coefficients were 0.999 6 and 0.999 8,respectively;the detection limits were 0.01 and 0.004 μg· mL-1,the limits of quantization were 0.033 and 0.015 μg·mL-1,and the average recoveries were 98.0% ~ 102.8% and 98.9% ~ 102.0%,respectively.The RSD values were less than 2%.Conclusion:The method is sensitive,rapid and selective,and can be used for the determination of amygdalin and hyperoside in Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.%目的:建立同时测定天山花楸枝叶及果实中苦杏仁苷和金丝桃苷含量的高效液相色谱-质谱分析方法.方法:样品经乙醚回流脱脂、甲醇回流提取后,经Hypersil BDS C18(150mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈-0.1%甲酸为流动相,在流速为0.8 mL·min-条件下分离,采用电喷雾离子源(ESI),负离子扫描,选择性离子(SIM)检测.结果:苦杏仁苷在1.26~ 37.8 μg·mL-,金丝桃苷在1.216~36.48 μg·mL-1范围内具有良好的线性关系,相关系数分别为0.999 6和0.999 8;苦杏仁苷和金丝桃苷的检出限分别为0.01和0.004 μg· mL-,定量限分别为0.033和0.015 μg·mL-1;回收率分别为98.0%~102.8%和98.9% ~102.0%;

  17. Effects of amygdalin on serum SOD,MDA and NO levels in elderly patients with erosive gastritis%苦杏仁苷对老年糜烂性胃炎患者血清SOD、MDA和NO浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明芳; 王蓉; 王晓君; 王育斌

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of amygdalin on serum SOD ,MDA and NO levels in elderly e‐rosive gastritis patients .Methods 120 elderly patients with erosive gastritis were selected and randomly divided into the control group and the experimental group ,60 cases in each group .The control group was given the routine treat‐ment of omeprazole and colloidal bismuth pectin ,while on this basis the experimental group was given oral amygdalin 0 .5 g ,once daily .The clinical effects ,endoscopic erosion healing degree and changes of serum SOD ,MDA and NO levels were compared between the two groups .Results The clinical efficacy after treatment in the experimental group was significantly superior to that in the control group ,the difference was statistically significant(P< 0 .05) ;the gastroscopic erosive healing level in the experimental group was significantly better than that in the control group ,the difference was statistically significant (P < 0 .05) ;serum SOD level after treatment in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group ,while serum MDA and NO levels were lower than those in the control group , the differences were statistically significant (P < 0 .05) .Conclusion Amygdalin can improve the clinical efficacy in elderly patients with erosive gastritis and accelerates the erosion healing ,its mechanism may be related with serum SOD ,MDA and NO .%目的:探讨苦杏仁苷对老年糜烂性胃炎患者血清超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)和一氧化氮(NO)浓度的影响。方法选取老年糜烂性胃炎患者120例,随机分为对照组和实验组,每组60例,其中对照组给予奥美拉唑和胶体果胶铋常规治疗,实验组在对照组的基础上,给予口服苦杏仁苷0.5 g ,1次/日。比较两组患者的临床疗效,内镜下糜烂愈合程度,血清 SOD 、MDA 及 NO 浓度变化。结果治疗后,实验组疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.05);实验组内

  18. Simultaneous determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xiao'er Pingchuan Qutan granule by HPLC%HPLC法同时测定小儿平喘祛痰颗粒中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德斌; 仝燕; 马振山; 王琳; 董美虹; 李艳玲; 王锦玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride,D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xiao'er Pingchuan Qutan granule.Method:Pheny ether chromatographic column (4.6 mm ×250 mm,5 μm) was adopted,with acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid (containing 0.1% three ethylamine) (3:97) as the mobile phase.The UV detection wavelength was at 210 nm,with the flow rate of 1 mL · min-1,and column temperature was at 35 C.Result:The linearity of ephedrine hydrochloride,D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin ranged between 0.078 60-3.144 μg (r =1.000 0),0.103 4-2.068 μg (r =0.999 7) and 0.430 5-3.157 μg (r =0.999 8),respectively.Their average recoveries were 98.46% (RSD 1.1%),103.0% (RSD 1.5%) and 97.15% (RSD 2.1%),respectively.Conclusion:The method is simple,stable and reliable that it can be used to determine the content of ephedrine hydrochloride,D-pseudo-ephedrine and amygdalin in Xiao'er Pingchuan Qutan granule.%目的:建立同时测定小儿平喘祛痰颗粒中3种成分含量的高效液相色谱法.方法:采用Phenyl Ether色谱柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm),流动相乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(含0.1%的三乙胺)(3∶97),紫外检测波长210 nm,流速1.0 mL·min-,柱温35℃.结果:盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷的线性范围分别为0.078 60 ~3.144 μg(r=1.000 0),0.103 4~2.068 μg(r =0.999 7),0.430 5~3.157 μg(r =0.999 8);平均回收率分别为98.46% (RSD 1.1%),103.0% (RSD1.5%),97.15% (RSD2 1%).结论:该法简便、稳定、可靠,可以用于小儿平喘祛痰颗粒中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷的含量测定.

  19. RP-HPLC法测定天山花楸果实中苦杏仁苷、芦丁、金丝桃苷和橙皮苷的含量%RP-HPLC determination of amygdalin,rutin,hyperoside and hesperidin in fruit of Sorbus tianschanica Rupr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 常军民; 沈美英; 朱美玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To develop an RP - HPLC method for the determination of amygdalin, rutin , hyperoside and hesperidin in fruit of Sorbus tianschanica Rupr. Methods: The analysis was carried out on a Shim - pack VP - ODS (250 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm) column. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile ( A) and water containing 0. 05 % phosphoric acid ( B) ( adjusted to pH 3. 0 with triethylamine) with gradient elution ( 0 - 5 min , 9% A→10%A;5 - 30 min , 10% A→ 15% A;30 - 35 min, 15% A→17% A ; 35 - 50 min,17% A→21% A;50 - 60 min,21 % A)and the flow rate was 1.0 mL · min-1. The detection wavelength was 215 nm and the column temperature was 25 ℃ . Results :The linear ranges of amygdalin, rutin, hyperoside and hesperidin were 0. 44 - 4. 40 , 0. 05 - 0. 48 ,0. 13 - 1. 26 , 0. 04 - 0. 42 μg respectively ( r > 0. 9995 , n = 7 ) . The average recoveries ( n = 9 ) were 99. 5% ,99. 3% , 100. 1% and 99. 2% respectively. Conclusion : The method is simple , accurate , and repeatable for simultaneous determination of amygdalin , rutin,hyperoside and hesperidin in fruit of Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.%目的:建立同时测定维吾尔药材天山花楸果实中苦杏仁苷、芦丁、金丝桃苷和橙皮苷含量的RP-HPLC分析方法.方法:采用Shim-pack VP-ODS(250mmx4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱,以乙腈(A)-0.05%磷酸水溶液(B)(三乙胺调pH3.0)为流动相进行梯度洗脱(0-5 min,9% A→10%A;5-30min,10%A→15%A;30-35min,15%A→17%A;35-50min,17%A→21%A;50-60min,21%A),流速1.0mL·min-1,检测波长215nm,柱温25℃.结果:苦杏仁苷、芦丁、金丝桃苷和橙皮苷进样量分别在0.44-4.40,0.05-0.48,0.13-1.26,0.04-0.42μg范围内,与色谱峰面积呈良好线性关系(r>0.9995,n=7);平均回收率(n=9)分别为99.5%,99.3%,100.1%,99.2%.结论:本法简便、准确,重复性好,可用于天山花楸药材的质量控制.

  20. Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride and Amygdalin in Xiaoer Qingfei Huatan Granula by HPCE%高效毛细管电泳法测定小儿清肺化痰颗粒中盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊秋菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish an HPCE method for determining the Ephedrine hydrochloride and Amygdalin in Xi-aoer Qingfei Huatan granula. Method: An uncoated fused silica capillary (57cm ?7 祄, effective length of 50cm) was used. The electrolyte buffer composed of 20mmol ?L-1 borax - MeOH(95 : 5) , applied voltage 25kV, detection wavelength was 207 nm. Results: Ephedrine hydrochloride and Amygdalin were successfully separated within 20 min, the linear response range were 0.0410 -0.8200 mg ?mL-1 ,and 0. 1070 ~2. 1400 mg ?mL-1 ,respectively. The average recovery was 98. 6%. Conclusions:The analytical results demonstrated the method was simple,rapid and well reproducible,and could be used as a reliable tool for the quantity control of Xiaoer Qingfei Huatan granula.%目的:建立高效毛细管电泳法测定小儿清肺化痰颗粒中的有效成分盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量.方法:采用未涂层熔融石英毛细管柱(57 cm ×75 μm,有效长度50 cm)为分离通道,以20 mmol·L-1硼砂-甲醇(95∶5)为电泳介质,分离电压25 kV,检测波长207 nm.结果:在上述条件下,盐酸麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷在20 min内得到很好的分离,分别在0.0410 ~0.8200 mg·mL-1、0.1070 ~2.1400 mg·mL-1与峰面积线性关系良好,平均加样回收率为98.6%.结论:方法简便快速、结果准确、重复性好,可用于小儿清肺化痰颗粒的质量控制.

  1. HPLC法测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷的含量%Content Determination of Ephedrine Hydrochloride, Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride and Amygdalin in Xiao'er Qingre Zhike Oral Solution by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佩; 翟字; 王曼泽

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时测定小儿清热止咳口服液中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱和苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:采用高效液相色谱法.色谱柱为Platisil ODS柱,流动相为乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(含0.1%三乙胺)=5:95,流速为1.0 mL·min-1,检测波长为215nm,进样量为10 μL,柱温为30℃.结果:盐酸麻黄碱进样量在0.146~4.85 μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为99.4%,RSD=1.0%;盐酸伪麻黄碱进样量在0.157~5.23 μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好的线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均加样回收率为99.6%,RSD=1.7%;苦杏仁苷进样量在0.297~9.90μg范围内与峰面积积分值呈良好线性关系(r=0.9999),平均加样回收率为98.9%,RSD=0.7%.结论:该方法简便、灵敏、准确,可用于小儿清热止咳口服液的质量控制.%OBJECTIVE: To establish the method for the content determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in Xiao'er qingre zhike oral solution. METHODS: HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Platisil ODS column with mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% phosphoric acid solution (containing 0.1% triethylamine, 5:95) at the flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The detection wavelength was set at 215 nm and injection volume was 10 μL. The column temperature was 30 ℃ RESULTS: The linear range of ephedrine hydrochloride was 0.146~4.85 μg (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 99.4% (RSD=1.0%). The linear range of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride was 0.157~5.23 ug (r= 0.999 9) with an average recovery of 99.6% (RSD=1.7%). The linear range of amygdalin was 0.297~9.90 μg (r=0.999 9) with an average recovery of 98.9% (RSD=0.7% ) . CONCLUSION: The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, which can be used for the quality control of Xiao'er qingre zhike oral solution.

  2. 顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法测定苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量%GC-MS Determination of Amygdalins in Bitter Almond with Sample Treatment by Head-space Solid Phase Micro-extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩素芳; 丁明; 刘亚群; 陈顺伟

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱-质谱法对苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷进行了测定。0.1g苦杏仁样品及4mol·L^-1硫酸4mL置于25mL顶空瓶中,于沸水浴水解15min。PDMS/DVB萃取头顶空萃取20min,萃取头于气相色谱进样口解析1min。采用HP-5MS色谱柱在程序升温条件下进行分离。用氦气为载气,流量为1.0mL·min^-1,质谱分析中采用电子轰击电离源(230℃,70eV),并在40-600amu质量数范围内进行全扫描。结果表明:方法在100μg·g^-1以内呈线性。采用此法对市售苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量测定结果为60.43μg·g^-1,与分光光度法结果相符。样品5次测定结果相对标准偏差为1.8%;60μg·g^-1。及20μg·g^-1两个水平添加回收率均在90%以上。%The sample of bitter almond (0. 1 g) was hydrolyzed with 4 mol · L^-1 H2SO4 in a 25 mL headspace bottle heated in a boiling water bath for 15 min, and then extracted by SPME with the PDMS/DVB extractor for 20 min. The extractor was desorbed for 1 min at the inlet of the gas chromatograph, and separation of amygdalin was carried out on the HP-5MS chromatographic column with programmed temperature elevation. Helium with flow-rate of 1.0 mL · min ^-1 was used as carrier gas. Electron bombardment ionization (230 ℃, 70 eV) and whole scanning in the mass range of 40-600 ainu were adopted in MS analysis. Linearity was obtained in the range within 100μg · g^-1 . A sample of bitter almond was analyzed by this method, value of amygdalin content of 60. 43μg · g^-1 was found, which is in consistency with the value determined by spectrophotometry. Value of RSD (n=5) found by analyzing the same sample was 1. 8%. Values of recovery over 90% were obtained in the recovery tests at 2 concentration levels of 60μg · g^-1 and 20 μg · g^-1 .

  3. 胶束毛细管电泳法测定天山花楸果实中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of the content of amygdalin in Sorbus tianschanica Rupr.fruit by micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 马晓丽; 常军民; 王岩; 孟磊

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立了一种简单、快速分析天山花楸果实中苦杏仁苷含量测定的胶束毛细管电泳法(MEKC).方法 采用熔融石英毛细管(58.5 cm×75 μm,有效长度为48.5 cm),缓冲体系为70 mmol·L-1的硼砂-200 mmol·L-1的十二烷基硫酸钠(pH 9.50);分离电压 10 kV(+)→(-);电泳时间40 min;电泳温度25 ℃;压力进样 0.5 psi×10 s;柱上检测 UV 215 nm(二极管阵列检测器).结果 苦杏仁苷在20 min内得到较好分离,在25~225 μg·mL-1范围内与峰面积线性关系良好,线性方程为:Y=776.66 X-6 637.9 (r= 0.999 7),样品平均回收率为100.8%,RSD值为2.8%.结论 该方法简单、快速,结果准确可靠,可用于天山花楸中氰苷类成分测定及质量控制.%Objective To establish a simple and rapid micellar electrokinetic chromatography method ( MEKC) which can determine the content of amygdalin in Sorbus tianschanica Rupr. fruit. Methods Bare fused-silica capillary ( 58. 5 cm × 75 μm, effective length of 48. 5 cm) was used;the buffer was composed of 70 mmol · L-1 sodium borate-200 mmol · L-1 SDS (pH9. 50) ; running voltage at 10 kV; polarity from anode ( inlet) to cathode ( outlet) ; separation time 40 min ; temperature 25 ℃ ; sampling 0. 5 psi× 10s ; on line detection at 215 nm ( PDA) . Results The linear range of amygdalin was from 25-225 μ/g · mL-1 , with linear regression equation was Y = 776. 66 X - 6 637. 9 (r =0. 999 7) , and the average recovery was 100. 8% , with RSD 2. 8%. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid,accurate and rcliable,and can be applied for the quality control of cyanogenic glycosides.

  4. Determination of amygdalin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B, and tanshinoneⅡA in Naoxueshuan Tablets by HPLC-DAD%HPLC-DAD法测定脑血栓片中苦杏仁苷、羟基红花黄色素A、芍药苷、阿魏酸、丹酚酸B和丹参酮ⅡA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军; 张蕾; 王杰

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an HPLC-DAD method for determination of amygdalin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B, and tanshinoneⅡA in Naoxueshuan Tablets. Methods HPLC-DAD chromatography was used. The analysis was carried out on an Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18 column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7μm) with methanol - 0.2%phosphoric acid as mobile phases at the flow rate of 0.7 mL/min for gradient elution. Detection with variable wavelength were used, and set at 210 nm for amygdalin, 403 nm for hydroxysafflor yellow A, 230 nm for paeoniflorin, 321 nm for ferulic acid, 278 nm for salvianolic acid, and 270 nm for tanshinoneⅡA. The column temperature was 30℃ with injection volume of 3 —5 μL. Results The linear ranges of six components were 11.90—1158.90, 9.14—91.39, 11.70—1 173.50, 4.04—1 011.00, 3.97—992.20, 4.40—551.00 ng, respectively. The average recoveries were 96.47%, 96.92%, 99.96%, 97.20%, 97.57%, and 96.50%with RSD1.3%, 1.6%, 1.3%, 1.7%, 1.9%, and 0.7%, respectively. Conclusion This method can be used to simultaneously determine amygdalin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, salvianolic acid B, and tanshinoneⅡA in Naoxueshuan Tablets.%目的:建立测定脑血栓片中苦杏仁苷、羟基红花黄色素A、芍药苷、阿魏酸、丹酚酸B和丹参酮ⅡA的HPLC-DAD法。方法采用HPLC-DAD法,Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18色谱柱(100 mm×4.6 mm,2.7μm);流动相:甲醇–0.2%磷酸溶液,梯度洗脱;检测波长分别为210 nm(苦杏仁苷)、403 nm(羟基红花黄色素A)、230 nm(芍药苷)、321 nm(阿魏酸)、286 nm(丹酚酸B)、270 nm(丹参酮ⅡA);体积流量:0.7 mL/min;柱温:30℃;进样量3~5μL。结果苦杏仁苷、羟基红花黄色素A、芍药苷、阿魏酸、丹酚酸B和丹参酮ⅡA 6个成分的线性范围分别为11.90~1158.90、9.14~91.39、11.70~1173.50、4.04~1011.00、3.97~992.20、4.40~551.00 ng

  5. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using H-1-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-ba

  6. Amygdalin analogues inhibit IFN-γ signalling and reduce the inflammatory response in human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, Iole; De Gregorio, Vincenza; Baroni, Adone; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Perez, Juan Jesus

    2013-12-01

    Peptide T (PT), an octapeptide fragment located in the V2 region of the HIV-1 gp120-coating protein, appears to be beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis. Our previous investigations suggest that keratinocytes play a key role in conditioning the therapeutic effects of PT in psoriasis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of PT and the peptidomimetic natural products, Dhurrin and Prunasin, on the expression of the IL-6, IL-8, IL-23, HSP70 and ICAM-1 on IFN-γ and TNF-α-NHEK activated cells. Moreover, we analysed the interference of PT and its analogues through STAT-3 activation. Our results show that the analogues tested exhibit the beneficial biological effects of PT, suggesting the primary role of keratinocytes upon which PT and the peptidomimetics act directly, by reducing proinflammatory responses. Its reduction appears to be important for therapeutic approach in psoriasis pathogenesis.

  7. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine semen persicae extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanbin Yang; Jia Zhao; Yuanyuan Cheng; Xuechen Li; Jianhui Rong

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae...

  8. Enzyme catalysis: tool to make and break amygdalin hydrogelators from renewable resources: a delivery model for hydrophobic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Li, Jun; John, George

    2006-07-12

    We report a novel approach for the controlled delivery of an antiinflammatory, chemopreventive drug by an enzyme-triggered drug release mechanism via the degradation of encapsulated hydrogels. The hydro- and organogelators are synthesized in high yields from renewable resources by using regioselective enzyme catalysis, and a known chemopreventive and antiinflammatory drug, i.e., curcumin, is used for the model study. The release of the drug occurred at physiological temperature, and control of the drug release rate is achieved by manipulating the enzyme concentration and/or temperature. The byproducts formed after the gel degradation were characterized and clearly demonstrated the site specificity of degradation of the gelator by enzyme catalysis. The present approach could have applications in developing cost-effective controlled drug delivery vehicles from renewable resources, with a potential impact on pharmaceutical research and molecular design and delivery strategies.

  9. The Microbial Degradation of TCE (Trichloroethylene).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Production Voges-Proskaver Test Gelatin Hydrolysis Utilization of: Citratea Glucose + Mannitol + Sorbitol + Rhamnose + Amygdalin + Arabinose + a. Strain was...Methanol Glucose + Citrate + 1,2-Dichloroethane 1,2-Dibromoethane Mannitol + Inositol Sorbitol + Rhamnose + Sucrose Melibiose + Amygdalin + Arabinose

  10. Environ: E00139 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00139 Peach kernel (JP16) Crude drug Amygdalin [CPD:C08325], 24-Methylenecycloarta...s persica [TAX:3760] Same as: D06769 Rosaceae (rose family) Peach kernel Major component: Amygdalin [CPD:C08325] ...

  11. 75 FR 1623 - Jason Vale; Denial of Hearing; Final Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... or other products, containing or purporting to contain, Laetrile, ``Vitamin B-17,'' amygdalin, or... the two injunctions, he continued to promote and sell amygdalin-based products and apricot seeds under... continuing to market amygdalin-based products and apricot seeds, Mr. Vale ignored two injunctions, which...

  12. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and ben...

  13. Amygdalin isolated from Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) extracts induces the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chuanbin; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Background The Chinese medicine formulation ISF-1 (also known as Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang) for post-stroke rehabilitation could increase the expression of growth-regulating protein follistatin by approximately 4-fold. This study aims to identify the active compounds of ISF-1 for the induction of follistatin expression. Methods Active compounds in ISF-1 responsible for induction of follistatin were identified by a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction, HPLC ...

  14. Production, characterization and purification of fungal beta-glucosidases and their action in the hydrolys of amygdalin, cellobiose and p-nitrophenyl-beta-glucopiranoside

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Casagrande Bedani

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: As ß-glicosidases (ß-D-glucosídeo glucohidrolase, EC 3.2.1.21) catalisam a hidrólise de dissacarídeos e glicosídeos conjugados a partir da extremidade não redutora. A enzima ß-glicosidase apresenta inúmeras aplicações na indústria de alimentos e farmacêutica, atuando na hidrólise da celobiose em glicose, no processo de conversão da celulose em glicose em combinação com outras enzimas celulolíticas; na liberação de compostos de aroma em sucos de frutas e vinho; na hidrólise de composto...

  15. HPLC法测定桃仁中苦杏仁苷的含量%Content Determination of Amygdalin in Semen Persicae by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友兰; 李红兵; 华玉琴

    2002-01-01

    目的:定量测定桃仁中苦杏仁苷的含量.方法:色谱柱Irregular HC18(4.6 mm×250 nm,10μm),流动相为磷酸盐缓冲液(pH 5.0)-甲醇(800:200).结果:苦杏仁苷在0.25~5μg成线性,r=0.999 9,平均回收率100.7%,RSD=1.3%.结论:本方法分离效果好,重现性高,操作简单,可用于制定质量标准.

  16. Studies on the Annual Variation of Amygdalin Content in Branches of Apricot%杏树体内苦杏仁甙含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇瑛; 程丽琴

    2006-01-01

    研究结果表明:杏树叶片中苦杏仁甙(Am)含量的变化趋势呈单峰曲线;在休眠期,1年生枝条韧皮部Am含量较高,而木质部Am含量较低;在旺盛生长期,韧皮部Am含量较低,而木质部Am含量较高;果肉及种仁的Am含量变化趋势基本相似,都呈上升趋势,5月中旬前果肉中Am含量高于种仁;之后,种仁Am含量大于果肉.

  17. 杏贝止咳颗粒中苦杏仁苷的HPLC测定%Determination of amygdalin in Xingbei Zhike granules by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井山林; 袁铸人; 彭国平

    2004-01-01

    建立了杏贝止咳颗粒中苦杏仁苷的HPLC测定法.色谱柱Kromasil Ci8柱,以甲醇-水(24:76)为流动相,流速1.0ml/min,检测波长218nm.在13.32~428μg/ml浓度范围内,线性关系良好(r=0.9997),平均回收率98.8%,RSD为1.36%.

  18. 大孔吸附树脂分离纯化苦杏仁苷的研究%Separation of amygdalin by macropore resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔国庭; 田呈瑞

    2005-01-01

    研究了以苦杏仁为原料,用大孔吸附树脂分离纯化苦杏仁苷的工艺.实验结果表明,大孔树脂LSA-30比较适合吸附和分离苦杏仁苷,其交换容量为55.5mg/mL的湿树脂,在室温条件下,pH在6~9时,吸附能力较强;被吸附的苦杏仁苷用pH6或pH8的60%乙醇在40℃条件下,以流速1~2mL/min洗脱,得到的产品为白色晶体,纯度为93.6%.

  19. Content determination and Extraction methods of Amygdalin in Almond%杏仁中苦杏仁苷的提取及含量测定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠秋沙

    2011-01-01

    杏仁为常用中药,具有降气止咳平喘,润肠通便之功效.苦杏仁苷是止咳平喘的主要有效成分,现总结了近年来研究应用比较多的提取方法及其含量测定方法.

  20. Study on the extraction of amygdalin from walnut%核桃仁中苦杏仁苷提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志红; 王莉平; 李敏

    2010-01-01

    核桃仁经灭酶、脱脂、萃取、结晶,制得纯度较高的苦杏仁苷.研究比较了乙醇用量、浓度、提取温度和时间对产率影响.所得优化工艺条件为:乙醇体积用量为120 mL,浓度为95%,提取温度为60 ℃,提取时间为 30 min.重复提取4次,抽滤,所得滤液蒸馏,在水浴中冷却,过滤干燥.用分光光度法测定产品吸光度,计算出苦杏仁苷的最终产率为0.984%.

  1. Studies on Extraction Technology of Amygdalin in Loquat kernel by Ethanol%枇杷仁中苦杏仁苷乙醇提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏金婷; 叶舟

    2007-01-01

    研究了优选枇杷仁苦杏仁苷提取工艺.在初试的基础上,采用正交试验法对影响苦杏仁苷提取工艺的因素进行了研究.结果表明,提取次数时枇杷仁苦杏仁苷提取率的影响最显著.通过正交实验,优选枇杷仁苦杏仁苷的提取工艺为:加入6倍量体积的60%乙醇,90℃条件下加热回流提取3次,每次提取1h.

  2. Optimal Extraction of Amygdalin by Orthogonal Test%正交试验法优选苦杏仁苷的提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志军

    2015-01-01

    目的:优选苦杏仁中有效成分苦杏仁苷的最佳提取方法.方法:采用正交实验法,以苦杏仁苷的含量为指标优选得到最佳提取工艺.结果:提取次数和提取时间对苦杏仁苷的提取率有较大的影响.正交试验优选最佳工艺:加水量为10倍量,提取2次,每次1.5 h.结论:苦杏仁煎煮入药时宜后下.

  3. HPLC法测银拗合剂中苦杏仁苷的含量%The HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of amygdalin in yinao granule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏广珠; 路向阳

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立银拗合剂中苦杏仁苷的含量测定方法.方法 采用HPLC法,色谱柱为C18柱,流动相为甲醇-乙腈-水(25:5:70),流速为0.50 ml/min,检测波长225 nm.结果 苦杏仁苷在0.10~2.00μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999 4;平均回收率为97.1%、RSD=3.05%.结论 本方法准确、重现性好、操作简便,适用于该药物的质量控制.

  4. HPLC法测定哮喘颗粒中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of amygdalin in asthma granules by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟小军; 黄强

    2014-01-01

    目的 建立HPLC法测定哮喘颗粒中苦杏仁苷的含量.方法 采用Agilent c18(250 mm×4.6mm,5μm)色谱柱;流动相为甲醇-1%磷酸水(21∶79);流速:1.0 mL/min;检测波长:210 nm.结果 苦杏仁苷的线性范围为0.161 4 ~3.228 μg,r =0.999 8,平均回收率为99.02%,RSD =0.81%.结论 该方法简便、准确,可作为该制剂的质量控制方法.

  5. Determination of Amygdalin in Qingyan Zhike Gao by HILC%HPLC 法测定清咽止咳膏中苦杏仁苷的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 秦明珠

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立高效液相色谱法测定清咽止咳膏中苦杏仁含量的方法 .方法 选用C18色谱柱(汉邦),甲醇-0.2%磷酸(24:76)为流动相,流速:0.8 mL·min-1,检测波长为210nm.结果在25~400 μg·mL-1范围内有良好的线性关系,平均回收率为99.6%(n=5),RSD=1.4%.结论 本方法 简便、准确、重现性好,可以作为清咽止咳膏的质量控制方法 .

  6. HPLC测定益肺胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdalin in Yifei Capsules by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何世新; 解丹平; 封海霞

    2007-01-01

    建立益肺胶囊中苦杏仁苷的含量测定方法.采用HPLC法,DiamonsilTM C18色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液(10∶8∶82);流速为0.8mL·min-1;检测波长为210nm.进样量在0.43~4.26μg范围内苦杏仁苷与峰面积响应值呈良好的线性关系,r=0.9999;平均回收率为99.6%,RSD为1.0%(n=6).本方法操作简便,结果准确,灵敏度高,重现性好,能有效控制益肺胶囊的质量.

  7. HPLC法测定枇杷核中苦杏仁苷含量%Content determination of amygdalin in eriobotrya japonia nut by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林国荣; 沈高杨; 陈剑锋

    2007-01-01

    目的 建立常用中药枇杷核中苦杏仁苷含量的测定方法.方法 色谱柱Hypersil ODS C18(4.0mm× 250mm,5μm),流动相:甲醇-水(20∶80),检测波长215nm.结果 苦杏仁苷在7.0μg~70.0μg·mL-1成良好线性关系,回归方程为Y=132.38X-102.37,r=0.9995,平均回收率为100.17%.结论 本方法分离效果好,重现性好,操作简便,可用于制定枇杷核的质量标准.

  8. Extraction of Amygdalin from Semen persicae and Its Antibacterial Activity%桃仁苦杏仁苷的提取及其抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马杰

    2015-01-01

    以桃仁为原料,研究桃仁苦杏仁苷的提取工艺及其抗菌作用.研究结果表明:桃仁苦杏仁苷提取最佳工艺条件为超声功率为320 W,乙醇体积分数为85%,超声提取时间为40 min,液料比值为18.5 (mL/g).桃仁苦杏仁苷对细菌、霉菌和酿酒酵母都有很强的抑制效果,其抗菌谱较宽.桃仁苦杏仁苷对金黄色葡萄球菌和枯草芽孢杆菌的MIC为6.25%,对大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌的MIC为12.5%,对根霉、黑曲霉和酿酒酵母的MIC为25%.

  9. RP - HPLC determination of amygdalin in Semen Pruni%RP-HPLC法测定郁李仁中苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍琳; 陈晓辉; 王鹏; 毕开顺

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立RP-HPLC法测定不同产地、不同种属郁李仁苦杏仁苷含量.方法:采用Kmmasil C_(18)柱(5μm,250×4.6mm);以乙腈-水(12:88)为流动相,流速1.0 mL·min~(-1);检测波长210 nm;柱温35℃.结果:苦杏仁苷的线性范围为5.040~80.6μg.mL~(-1)(r-0.9999);平均回收率(n-9)为99.8%.结论:本法简便,结果准确,重复性好,可作为测定不同种属郁李仁药材中苦杏仁苷含量的方法.

  10. Determination of amygdalin in Anshen Wan by HPLC%HPLC法测定安肾丸中苦杏仁苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏; 马玉梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 为了更好地控制安肾丸质量,对安肾丸中苦杏仁苷的含量进行测定.方法 采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC)测定安肾丸中苦杏仁苷的含量.结果 苦杏仁苷在10.25 ~512.5 μg范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9999,平均回收率98.91%,RSD =0.48%.结论 实验方法专属性强、重复性好,准确简便,可有效地控制安肾丸的质量.

  11. 苦杏仁苷对佐剂性炎症影响的实验研究%Experimental study of effects of amygdalin on adjuvant inflammatory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方伟蓉; 李运曼; 钟林霖

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察苦杏仁苷对大鼠佐剂性炎症(机体异常免疫)和小鼠碳粒廓清(机体正常免疫)的影响,以揭示其免疫调节作用.方法:采用皮下注射Freund's完全佐剂抗原,形成大鼠慢性免疫萎缩性胃炎模型,测定胃液游离酸度、总酸度及胃蛋白酶活性;大鼠足跖皮内注射Freund's完全佐剂形成佐剂性关节炎,测定佐剂性关节炎原发病变的足跖肿胀度、继发病变的肿胀率及炎症抑制率;小鼠碳粒廓清实验测定廓清指数(K)及吞噬指数(α).结果:苦杏仁苷高剂量组可极显著降低大鼠胃蛋白酶活性,抑制佐剂性关节炎原发病变的足跖肿胀度,减轻继发病变的肿胀率,提高小鼠的廓清指数和吞噬指数(P<0.01);苦杏仁苷中剂量组可显著降低大鼠胃蛋白酶活性,提高小鼠廓清指数(P0.05).结论:苦杏仁苷能抑制佐剂性炎症,增强巨噬细胞的吞噬功能,具有调节免疫功能的作用.

  12. The Preliminary Detection of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatchai NGAMRIABSAKUL

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume are normally fermented and eaten by local villagers in Southern Thailand, especially in Nakhon Si Thammarat province. It is well known that fresh seeds can make the person who eats them even in small amounts feel dizzy. The amounts and types of cyanogenic glycosides in the seeds and the effect of heat and fermentation on the amount of the substances have never been reported before. Amygdalin, a type of cyanogenic glycoside, was detected in this preliminary study. It was found that fresh leaves contained 30 ppm of amygdalin, while fresh seeds contained much more amygdalin; 660 ppm, equivalent to a small amount of HCN, 0.005 ppm. Cooked and later fermented seeds had considerably less amygdalin than the fresh ones, 100 ppm and 25 ppm, respectively. It is clearly shown that heat (boiling and fermentation can reduce the amount of amygdalin in the seeds.

  13. Study on the effect of decocting condition of Semen Persicae on Amygdalin content%煎煮条件对桃仁中苦杏仁苷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨桃仁的最佳煎煮条件.方法 采用HPLC法,以苦杏仁苷含量为考察指标,对桃仁药材的煎煮时间进行优选.结果 煎煮时间的长短对苦杏仁苷的含量有很大影响,是否去除种皮对苦杏仁苷的提取率影响不大.结论 桃仁的煎煮时间应控制在1h以内,最好在15-30min.实验同时提示桃仁在与其他药材共煎时宜后下.

  14. Comparing the Content of Amygdalin in Bitter Almonds Processed in Different Ways after Storage for Half a Year%苦杏仁不同炮制品中苦杏仁苷含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛家峰; 谢彩玲

    2005-01-01

    苦杏仁中止咳平喘的有效成分苦杏仁苷具不稳定性,在贮存过程中易被苦杏仁酶等分解,含量降低,造成药效下降.苦杏仁炮制的主要目的是破坏苦杏仁酶,使苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量稳定.本实验通过对不同方法和条件炮制的苦杏仁样品贮存前后苦杏仁苷含量测定,以比较出稳定苦杏仁苷含量最合理的炮制方法。

  15. Determination of the Amygdalin Contents of Prunus persical (L.) Batsch. From the Three Different Areas%3种不同产地桃仁中苦杏仁甙含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易骏

    2000-01-01

    采用二阶导数光谱法直接测定三种不同产地(福建、安徽、新疆)桃仁中苦杏仁甙的含量.结果表明,福建产的桃仁苦杏仁甙含量为2.37%,安徽产为1.38%,新疆产为2.06%;二阶导数光谱法测定桃仁中苦杏仁甙的含量,其样品不经分离即可消除背景干扰.方法简便快速准确可靠.

  16. 蔷薇科植物种仁中苦杏仁甙含量测定与比较%Determination and Comparation of Amygdalin Content in Rosaceae Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田士林; 李莉

    2006-01-01

    通过对市售杏、桃、枇杷、山楂4种蔷薇科植物种仁中苦杏仁甙含量的测定,发现苦杏仁甙含量大约在2%~4%,其中枇杷中含量最高,平均为3.61%;桃仁含量次之,平均为2.87%;杏仁中含量平均为1.63%;山楂籽中苦杏仁甙含量最低,平均为1.15%.最高和最低值之间相差2.59%.

  17. 配伍对三拗汤煎液中苦杏仁苷煎出量的影响%Effect of compatibility on content of amygdalin in Sanao Decoction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 廖茂梁; 刘昌孝; 郝子博; 张铁军

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立HPLC测定三拗汤(麻黄、苦杏仁、甘草)中苦杏仁苷含量的分析方法,并观察麻黄和甘草对汤剂中苦杏仁苷煎出量的影响.方法:以HPLC法测定不同配伍(三拗汤、麻黄+苦杏仁、苦杏仁+甘草、苦杏仁组)的三拗汤水煎液中苦杏仁苷含量.结果:乙腈-磷酸盐缓冲液可使苦杏仁苷和L-苦杏仁苷完全分离,L-苦杏仁苷峰面积随pH值升高而增加.结论:麻黄比甘草更能增加了三拗汤中苦杏仁苷的含量.

  18. 高效液相色谱法测定半夏杏仁汤中苦杏仁苷含量%Determination of Amygdalin Content in Pinellia Almond Soup by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法测定半夏杏仁汤中苦杏仁苷的含量.方法:采用Thermo-C18柱(4.6mm×250mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇—乙腈—水(10∶10∶80);流速:1.0mL·min-1;波长:210nm;柱温:25℃,进样量20μL.结果:苦杏仁苷在0.150 4~2.256 0μg内具有良好线性关系(r=0.999 9),平均回收率为98.06%,RSD为1.12%(n=6).结论:该方法简便、重现性好,可用于半夏杏仁汤及其制剂的质量控制.

  19. Determination thd Content of Amygdalin in Xiaoer Qingfei Zhike Effervescent Tablet by HPLC%HPLC测定小儿清肺止咳泡腾片中苦杏仁苷的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常忆凌; 刘本

    2007-01-01

    目的:建立用高效液相色谱法测定小儿清肺止咳泡腾片中苦杏仁苷含量的方法.方法:色谱柱为Diamonsil C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:甲醇-水(75∶25);检测波长:218 nm;流速1.0 ml·min-1.结果:苦杏仁苷在0.27~2.73 μg的范围内成线性,r=0.999 8,平均回收率为98.1%,RSD为2.36%.结论:该方法简便,可用于该药的质量控制.

  20. The comparison of the extracted rate of amygdalin in Bitter Almond used three extraction processes%苦杏仁3种提取工艺中苦杏仁苷提取率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守平; 刘瑛丽; 曹洪锦

    2010-01-01

    目的 比较3种杏仁提取工艺中苦杏仁苷提取率.方法 以硝酸银滴定法测量3种苦杏仁提取工艺中苦杏仁苷的含量并计算提取率.结果 3种提取方法提取率,分别为95.77%、64.88%、55.61%,其中蒸馏苦杏仁水法最高,醇提苦杏仁苷法次之.结论 三种提取方法均可得到较高的提取率.

  1. HPLC法测定苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量的方法研究%Study of the Determination Method of Amygdalin in Bitter Almond by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹小娟; 谢和兵; 钱芳; 刘志辉

    2009-01-01

    目的 建立苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷的HPLC测定方法.方法 通过单因素考察确定样品处理方法,建立HPLC测定方法并进行方法学考察,与药典法进行比较试验.结果 用HPLC法测定苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量高于药典的滴定法,方法学考察各项指标均符合要求.结论用HPLC法测定苦杏仁中苦杏仁苷含量灵敏度高、重复性好,样品处理方法简便可行,可代替滴定法.

  2. Synthesis of a Novel Biotin-labeled Amygdalin Probe%新型生物素标记的苦杏仁苷活性探针的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜; 胡爱国

    2015-01-01

    以苦杏仁苷结构中的糖羟基作为反应位点进行生物素化修饰,经酯化、缩醛化、Sonogashira偶联等反应合成了一个新型的生物素标记的苦杏仁苷活性探针,其结构经1H NMR,13C NMR,IR和HR-ESI-MS表征.

  3. Apoptosis induction of Persicae Semen extract in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee-Young; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Hahn, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2003-02-01

    The major ingredient of Persicae Semen is a cynogenic compound, amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-gentiobioside). Controversial results on the anticancer activity of amygdalin were reported due to its conversion to its inactive isomer, neoamygdalin. In order to inhibit the epimerization of amygdalin, we used newly developed simple acid boiling method in preparation of Persicae Semen extract. HPLC analysis revealed most of amygdalin in Persicae Semen extract was active D-form. Persicae Semen extract was used to analyze its effect on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Persicae Semen extract was cytotoxic to HL-60 cells with IC50 of 6.4 mg/mL in the presence of 250 nM of beta-glucosidase. The antiproliferative effects of Persicae Semen extract appear to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death, as Persicae Semen extract induced nuclear morphology changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... Vitamin C Hydrazine Sulfate Laetrile/Amygdalin Medicinal Mushrooms Milk Thistle Mistletoe Extracts Newcastle Disease Virus PC-SPES ...

  5. Chemical composition and biological activity of the plum seed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Ivan M.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Savić-Gajić, Ivana M.; Kundaković, Tatjana D.; Stanojković, Tatjana P.; Najman, Stevo J.; id_orcid 0000-0002-2411-9802

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the biological activity of the plum seed extract and to define the chemical composition by using the ESI-MS method. During the investigation of the antioxidant activity, the extract showed a better ability to inhibit DPPH radicals compared with amygdalin standard. The results of the antimicrobial study indicate that the extract has a greater effect on Gram-negative bacteria compared with amygdalin. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi remained resistant in bo...

  6. Safely Using TCM Herbs: Adverse Reaction and Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楷; AngelaBerscheid

    2004-01-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity: Amygdalin is the main toxic constituent, which can be decomposed to hydrocyanic acid. Toxicity is dose related; 55--60 pieces of Xing ren, containing approximately 1.8 g of amygdalin, is often the fatal dose in adults. Two hours after administration, the first symptoms often appear, such as a bitter taste in mouth accompanied with oversalivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, palpitations, dyspnea, cyanosis, which may lead to coma and death due to respiratory arrest .

  7. Determination of Amygdalin, Liquiritin and Glycyrrhizic Acid of Chuanbei Qingfei Syrup by UPLC with Double-wavelength%川贝清肺糖浆中苦杏仁苷、甘草苷和甘草酸的双波长UPLC法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建琴

    2015-01-01

    建立了超高效液相色谱法同时测定川贝清肺糖浆中的苦杏仁苷、甘草苷和甘草酸.采用Agilent Eclipse Plus C18色谱柱,以乙腈:0.1%磷酸为流动相,梯度洗脱,双波长切换检测(0~7 min,210 nm测定苦杏仁苷、甘草苷;8~14 min,250 nm测定甘草酸).苦杏仁苷、甘草苷和甘草酸分别在0.9~8.3.0.2~1.7和0.4~3.4μg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好.平均回收率分别为100.7%、100.8%和99.5%,RSD分别为0.42%、0.56%和0.71%.

  8. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanogenic glucosides in plants: development of a Flow Injection Surface-Enhanced Raman Scatter (FI-SERS) method for determination of cyanide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Møller, Birger Lindberg;

    2004-01-01

    Cyanogenic glucosides were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Spectra of the crystal forms of linamarin, linustatin, neolinustatin, amygdalin, sambunigrin, and dhurrin were obtained using a Raman spectrograph microscope equipped with a 532 nm laser. The position of the signal from the CdropN triple...

  9. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  10. Aerococcus urinae: polyphasic characterization of the species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JJ; Kilian, Mogens; Fussing, V;

    2005-01-01

    that could be distinguished in tests for hydrolysis of aesculin, and acid production from amygdalin and salicin. Strains were either negative (n=19) or positive (n=6) in these tests. One strain had a deviating pattern. Heterogeneity within the 19 pattern I strains was demonstrated especially by phenotypic...

  11. Beta-glycosidase (amygdalase and linamarase) from Endomyces fibuliger (LU677): formation and crude enzymes properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brimer, L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Tuncel, G.

    1998-01-01

    In our previous studies, the yeast Endomyces fibuliger LU677 was found to degrade amygdalin in bitter apricot seeds. The present investigation shows that E. fibuliger LU677 produces extracellular beta-glycosidase activity when grown in malt extract broth (MEB). Growth was very good at 25 degrees C a

  12. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples.

  13. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these glycoside

  14. Conventional taxonomy of lactobacilli surviving radurization of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, J W; Holzapfel, W H

    1987-03-01

    All of the 113 catalase-negative, Gram-positive, rod-shaped strains isolated from radurized minced beef (5 kGy) were homofermentative, non-thermophilic, and belonged to the sub-genus Streptobacterium. The majority of the strains (100) were identified as Lactobacillus sake. These were divided into four sub-groups based on their sugar fermentation pattern: group IA1 (melibiose (+), maltose (-), amygdalin (-), 76 strains); group IA2 (melibiose (+), maltose (-), amygdalin (+), 14 strains); group IB1 (melibiose (+), maltose (+), amygdalin (+), four strains); group IB2 (melibiose (+), maltose (+), amygdalin (-), six strains). Of the remaining strains, two produced L(+)-lactic acid and were identified as L. farciminis, three were identified as L. curvatus and eight showed characteristics of both L. sake and L. curvatus and were designated 'L. sake/curvatus.' With one exception, all strains were aciduric and relatively insensitive to the chemical preservatives tested. Most L. sake strains produced significant amounts of H2O2. Electron microscopy confirmed a possible relationship between the thickness of the cells and radiation resistance. The problems and limitations of this type of taxonomic study and possible reasons for the predominance of L. sake species in radurized meat are discussed.

  15. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    , and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...

  16. Bitterness in almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Olsen, Carl Erik; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-03-01

    Bitterness in almond (Prunus dulcis) is determined by the content of the cyanogenic diglucoside amygdalin. The ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin in the almond kernel was studied throughout the growth season using four different genotypes for bitterness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed a specific developmentally dependent accumulation of prunasin in the tegument of the bitter genotype. The prunasin level decreased concomitant with the initiation of amygdalin accumulation in the cotyledons of the bitter genotype. By administration of radiolabeled phenylalanine, the tegument was identified as a specific site of synthesis of prunasin in all four genotypes. A major difference between sweet and bitter genotypes was observed upon staining of thin sections of teguments and cotyledons for beta-glucosidase activity using Fast Blue BB salt. In the sweet genotype, the inner epidermis in the tegument facing the nucellus was rich in cytoplasmic and vacuolar localized beta-glucosidase activity, whereas in the bitter cultivar, the beta-glucosidase activity in this cell layer was low. These combined data show that in the bitter genotype, prunasin synthesized in the tegument is transported into the cotyledon via the transfer cells and converted into amygdalin in the developing almond seed, whereas in the sweet genotype, amygdalin formation is prevented because the prunasin is degraded upon passage of the beta-glucosidase-rich cell layer in the inner epidermis of the tegument. The prunasin turnover may offer a buffer supply of ammonia, aspartic acid, and asparagine enabling the plants to balance the supply of nitrogen to the developing cotyledons.

  17. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  18. Small intestinal hydrolysis of plant glucosides: higher glucohydrolase activities in rodents than passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessner, Krista M; Dearing, M Denise; Izhaki, Ido; Samuni-Blank, Michal; Arad, Zeev; Karasov, William H

    2015-09-01

    Glycosides are a major group of plant secondary compounds characterized by one or more sugars conjugated to a lipophilic, possibly toxic aglycone, which is released upon hydrolysis. We compared small intestinal homogenate hydrolysis activity of three rodent and two avian species against four substrates: amygdalin and sinigrin, two plant-derived glucosides, the sugar lactose, whose hydrolysis models some activity against flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides, and the disaccharide sugar maltose (from starch), used as a comparator. Three new findings extend our understanding of physiological processing of plant glucosides: (1) the capacity of passerine birds to hydrolyze plant glucosides seems relatively low, compared with rodents; (2) in this first test of vertebrates' enzymic capacity to hydrolyze glucosinolates, sinigrin hydrolytic capacity seems low; (3) in laboratory mice, hydrolytic activity against lactose resides on the enterocytes' apical membrane facing the intestinal lumen, but activity against amygdalin seems to reside inside enterocytes.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Hapten-Protein Conjugates for Antibody Production against Cyanogenic Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat Folashade

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cyanogenic plants can cause serious health problems for humans. The ability to detect and quantify cyanogenic glycosides, capable of generating cyanide, could contribute to prevention of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of improperly processed cyanogenic plants. Hapten-protein conjugates were synthesized with amygdalin and linamarin by using a novel approach. Polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing four New Zealand White rabbits with synthesized amygdalin-bovine serum albumin and linamarin-bovine serum albumin immunogen. This is the first time an antibody was produced against linamarin. Antibody titer curves were obtained from all the four rabbits by using a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High antibody titer was obtained at dilutions greater than 1:50,000 from both immunogens. This new method is an important step forward in preventing ingestion of toxic cyanogenic glycosides.

  20. The determination of furaldehyde and benzaldehyde in plum brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Among all alcohol liqueurs, brandies from drupaceous plants are characterized with the highest level of hydro cyanic acid, benzaldehyde and ethylcarbamate. In fruit brandies ethylcarbamate mainly originates from hydro cyanic acid during the processes of alcohol fermentation of crushed fruit and its preservation, distillation and ripening of the brandy. Hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde arise from the hydrolysis of amygdaline that is found exist in the heart of fruit stones and seeds, as well as from the hydrolysis of prunasine from the skin and flesh of drupaceous plants. The content of amygdaline and prunazine depends on the type of fruit, which corresponds to the potential content of hydro cyanic acid and benzaldehyde in the brandy that corresponds the stoichiometric ratio 1:3.94. The content of the aldehydes: furfural and benzaldehyde in plum brandy, strong plum brandy, young brandy, of domestic production in the various regions of Serbia were analyzed in this paper.

  1. Ratiometric and colorimetric near-infrared sensors for multi-channel detection of cyanide ion and their application to measure β-glucosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Panfei; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Liu, Shuhui; Lu, Aiping; Sun, Shiguo

    2015-11-01

    A near-infrared sensor for cyanide ion (CN-) was developed via internal charge transfer (ICT). This sensor can selectively detect CN- either through dual-ratiometric fluorescence (logarithm of I414/I564 and I803/I564) or under various absorption (356 and 440 nm) and emission (414, 564 and 803 nm) channels. Especially, the proposed method can be employed to measure β-glucosidase by detecting CN- traces in commercial amygdalin samples.

  2. Scientific opinion : Acute health risks related to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides in raw apricot kernels and products derived from raw apricot kernels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Amygdalin is the major cyanogenic glycoside present in apricot kernels and is degraded to cyanide by chewing or grinding. Cyanide is of high acute toxicity in humans. The lethal dose is reported to be 0.5–3.5 mg/kg body weight (bw). An acute reference dose (ARfD) of 20 μg/kg bw was derived from an e

  3. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage.

  4. Concurrent quantification and comparative pharmacokinetic analysis of bioactive compounds in the Herba Ephedrae-Semen Armeniacae Amarum herb pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuai; Chen, Feilong; Xing, Xuefeng; Ren, Mengyue; Ma, Qinhai; Xie, Ying; Tang, Qingfa; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-05-10

    The Mahuang-Xingren herb-pair (MX), the combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Semen Armeniacae Amarum (Xingren in Chinese), is a classical combination used in traditional Chinese Medicine to treat asthma and bronchitis. A simple and reliable ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to simultaneously quantify and compare the pharmacokinetics of 5 ephedra alkaloids and epimers of amygdalin and prunasin in rat plasma after oral administration of Mahuang, Xingren, and MX aqueous extracts. Samples were pretreated by a single-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile, and diphenhydramine hydrochloride and puerarin were used as internal standards. Pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated using DAS 3.2.2 (Mathematical Pharmacology Professional Committee of China, Shanghai, China). The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity, and process efficiency for the bioanalysis of 8 compounds, including 3 pairs of epimers. MX administration improved the bioavailability of amygdalin and prunasin. Furthermore, MX facilitated intake of lower doses of ephedra alkaloids and increased elimination rates in comparison with Mahuang alone. These results illustrate the rationale behind the preferred use of the combination of Mahuang and Xingren. To our knowledge, this is the first report of stereo-selective metabolism of amygdalin. Further, the metabolic mechanism underlying this phenomenon merits future research attention.

  5. 血府逐瘀丸质量标准的建立%Study on Quality Standard for Xuefu Zhuyu Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞芬

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立血府逐瘀丸的质量标准.方法:采用薄层色谱法对血府逐瘀丸中当归、川芎、地黄、红花进行了定性鉴别:采用高效液相色谱法对桃仁中苦杏仁苷的含量进行了测定.结果:薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰.苦杏仁苷进样量在0.348~3.482μg 范围内线性关系良好(r=0.999 9).平均加样回收率为98.9%,RSD=0.9%(n=6).结论:该法准确,灵敏,重复性好,可有效控制该制剂的质量.%Objective: To establish the quality standard for Xuefu Zhuyu pills. Method: Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix and Carthami Flos were identified by TLC. The content of amygdalin in Xuefu Zhuyu pills was determined by HPLC. Result: The spots on TLC plates were clear without interference. The linear range of amygdalin was 0. 348-3.482 μg, r =0. 999 9. The average recovery of amygdalin was 98. 9% ( n = 6 ) with RSD of 0. 9%. Conclusion: The method is accurate with good reproducibility and specificity. It is suitable for the quality control of Xuefu Zhuyu pills.

  6. HPLC法测定不同产地桃仁中苦杏仁苷的含量%Determination of Amygdal in Prunus persical (L.) Batsch Produced in Different Areas by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晶晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the content of amygdalin in Prunus persical form three different areas (Yunnan, Shanxi,Shandong).Method: Chromatograp column Hypersil BDS C18 (2.50mm ×4.6mm, 5μm) was used,mobile phase was Acetonitrile∶water( 17∶83).Result: The linear range of amygdalin was 4.94 - 80μg/mL, r =0.9996.The average recovery of sample was 99.87%, RSD = 1.01%.The contents of Amygdalin were different obviously in samples from different areas.Conclusion: This method is simple, separated completely and reproducibility, and can be used as quantity control standard.%目的:建立不同产地桃仁中苦杏仁苷含量的高效液相测定方法,测定不同产地桃仁药材中苦杏仁苷的含量.方法:色谱柱HypersilBDS C18(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),流动相为乙腈-水(17:83).结果:苦杏仁苷在4.94~80μg/mL范围内线性关系良好,r=0.9996,平均回收率为99.87%,RSD=1.01%.含量测定结果表明,不同产地桃仁药材中苦杏仁苷含量存在差异.结论:该方法简便快捷,准确灵敏,重复性好,可用于桃仁药材的质量控制.

  7. [Internal jugular thrombophlebitis: complications of the cervical oncological surgery. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Marcos, C A; Noval Menéndez, J; Alfonso Megido, J; Domínguez Iglesias, F; Hevia Llama, R; Ramos Barriga, M A

    1995-01-01

    Internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis is an infrequent complications, associated in the past to pharyngeal and amygdaline infections but related today to the use of catheters and intravenous drugs. The present paper reports the case of a patient who underwent total laryngectomy and functional neck dissection, developing recurrent neumonias and sepsis in the postoperative period which were secondary to an homolateral jugular thrombophlebitis. A physical exploration with no findings and the poor resolution of CT scan and ultrasound due to postsurgical alterations, lead to a late diagnosis and fatal evolution, in spite of the medical and surgical treatment.

  8. Determination of cyanide in microsamples by means of capillary flow injection analysis with amperometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backofen, U. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Sektion 8 - Chemie; Matysik, F.-M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra (Portugal); Werner, G. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Sektion 8 - Chemie

    1996-10-01

    A new approach for determining cyanide in microsamples is described. The method is based on capillary flow injection analysis (CFIA) with amperometric detection. The sensing electrode is a silver-plated microdisk electrode, where cyanide can react under formation of a dicyanoargentate complex. A remarkably low mass detection limit of 231 fmol cyanide is obtained for an injection volume of 60 nl. The sample throughput of the CFIA-arrangement is comparable with a conventional sized FIA-system. A practical application is given by analyzing the cyanide (amygdalin) concentration in apple kernels. (orig.). With 5 figs.

  9. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  10. Cyanogenic glucoside patterns in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2009-01-01

    their ability to synthesize and degrade prunasin and amygdalin. The analyses were carried out during the entire growth season, from almond tree flowering to kernel ripening using the following tissues: leaves, petioles, and the fruit (endosperm and cotyledon). Four different genotypes were investigated......-mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase activity was detected in the vegetative part of the tree (leaves), and in fruit tissues (endosperm and in the cotyledon) of the homozygous genotypes. UDPG-prunasin glucosyltransferase activity was detected in all four genotypes and the activity was restricted to the cotyledons. The similar...

  11. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  12. Key technology of multipurpose use of Cerasus humilis kernel%欧李仁综合利用关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田金强; 兰彦平; 朱克瑞; 宋惠月; 马士荃

    2012-01-01

    研究了欧李仁综合利用的技术路线,通过非热方法控制欧李仁油、苦杏仁苷和欧李仁蛋白3种成分分离提取过程中苦杏仁苷酶的催化活性来实现三者的全利用.结果表明:在欧李仁破碎和欧李仁油提取时,通过控制水分活度抑制其催化活性,适宜的水分活度为0.67;继而在苦杏仁苷和欧李仁浓缩蛋白分离提取时,通过控制乙醇体积分数和温度抑制其催化活性并防止欧李仁蛋白过度变性,乙醇体积分数和温度以75%、45℃为最佳;采用以上条件对欧李仁油、苦杏仁苷和欧李仁浓缩蛋白进行分离提取,提取率分别达到96.98%、73.04%和90.29%,其中浓缩蛋白的氮溶解指数为69.86%;供制备苦杏仁苷的欧李仁原料储藏时水分活度应控制在0.67,以防止苦杏仁苷在内源酶催化下发生水解.%The multipurpose use of Cerasus humilis kernel was studied to obtain the oil, amygdalin and protein. In order to obtain the three products,it was essential to inhibit the catalytic activity of amygdalase using non - thermal processing technology. In the process of crashing the kernel and extracting the oil, the catalytic activity was inhibited by controlling the water activity at 0. 67. In the process of extracting the amygdalin and protein,the catalytic activity was inhibited and the protein denaturation was prevented by controlling the volume fraction and temperature of ethanol at 75% and 45℃.respectively. Under the optimal conditions the extraction rate of the oil, amygdalin and protein concentrate was 96. 98% ,73. 04% and 90. 29% , respectively, and the NSI of the protein was 69. 86%. The amygdalin of the kernel could be hydrolyzed by the endogenous amygdalase, so the Cerasus humilis kernel, used as raw materials to produce amygdalin, should be stored at 0.67 of the water activity to prevent the hydrolysis.

  13. 超高效液相色谱-串联四极杆飞行时间质谱和超高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱用于血浆中苦杏仁苷及其代谢产物野黑樱苷的定性和定量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萌; 王跃生; 魏惠珍; 欧阳辉; 何明珍; 曾恋情; 申峰云; 郭强; 饶毅

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite pru-nasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chroma-tography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS Ⅲ HPLC column( 75 mm × 2. 0 mm,1. 6 μm ),using acetonitrile-0. 1%( v / v)formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadru-pole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C 18 HPLC column(50 mm ×2. 1 mm,1. 7 μm),using acetonitrile-0. 1%(v / v)formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization( ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM)mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite pruna-sin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1. 05 - 4 200 ng / mL with the correlation coefficient of 0. 999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1. 25-2 490 ng / mL with the correlation coefficient of 0. 997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations( RSDs)lower than 9. 20%and the overall recoveries varied from 82. 33% to 95. 25% . The limits of detection( LODs)of amygdalin and prunasin were 0. 50 ng / mL. With good reproducibility,the method is simple,fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plas-ma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing

  14. Study of Rapid TLC Identification and Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Three Components in Jinmaxing Zhike Tablets%金麻杏止咳片快速薄层色谱鉴别与3成分同时定量测定研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩桂茹; 张文臣; 安丽娜; 申玉龙; 张鹏

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立简便、快捷的金麻杏止咳片质量控制方法.方法 在5块薄层板上鉴别前胡、黄芩、麻黄、枇杷叶、金银花、苦杏仁和桔梗.采用高效液相色谱法,以乙腈-甲醇-0.1%磷酸(4.5:9:86.5)为流动相,测定样品中盐酸麻黄碱、盐酸伪麻黄碱与苦杏仁苷的含量.结果 通过方法学考察,盐酸麻黄碱进样量在0.0505~0.505 μg(r=0.999997),苦杏仁苷进样量在0.1488~1.488μg(r=0.99996)范围内分别与峰面积呈良好的线性关系.盐酸麻黄碱回收率为100.14%,RSD为1.98%(n=9);苦杏仁苷回收率为97.88%,RSD为1.64%(n=9).结论 所用方法简便、快捷、实用,可用于金麻杏止咳片的质量控制.%Objective To establish a simple and rapid method for the quality control of Jinmaxing Zhike Tablets. Methods Peucedani radix, Scutellariae Radix, Ephedrae Eriobotryae Herba, Eriobotryae Folium, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Armeniacae Semen Amarum and Platycodonis Radix were identified by TLC at 5 thin — layer chromatographic plates. The content of ephedrine hydrochloride, pseu-doephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin in the sample was determined using a mixture of acetonitrile — methanol — 0.1% phosphoric acid (4. 5 : 9 : 86. 5 ) as the mobile phase by HPLC. Results The methodological study showed that a good linear correlation existed in the range 0. 050 5 -0. 50 5 μg( r =0. 999 997 )of ephedrine hydrochloride and 0. 148 8-1. 488 μg( r = 0. 999 96 )of amygdalin. The average recovery of ephedrine hydrochloride and amygdalin was 100.14% and 97.88% respectively; RSD was 1. 98%( n = 9) and 1.64% ( n = 9 ) respectively. The negative sample had no interference on TLC identification. Conclusion The method is simple, rapid and usable, which can be used for the rapid quality control of Jinmaxing Zhike Tablets.

  15. Anti-tumor promoting effect of glycosides from Prunus persica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshiyuki; Ito, Hideyuki; Mukainaka, Teruo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nishino, Hoyoku; Yoshida, Takashi

    2003-02-01

    Four minor components, along with the major cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, were isolated from Prunus persica seeds (Persicae Semen; Tounin), and characterized as mandelic acid glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside) and benzyl alcohol glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside). The anti-tumor promoting activity of these compounds was examined in both in vitro and in vivo assays. All of the compounds significantly inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation induced by tumor promoter. In addition, they produced a delay of two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin that was comparable in potency to (-)-epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Structure-activity relationships indicated that a substituent at the benzylic position with glycosidic linkage affected the in vitro and in vivo activities with an order of enhancing potency, CN

  16. Development of an enzyme membrane reactor for treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters from the food industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basheer, S.; Kut, O.M.; Prenosil, J.E.; Bourne, J.R. (Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland))

    1993-02-20

    Cyanidase, an immobilized enzyme preparation for hydrolyzing cyanide to ammonia and formate, was applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing waste-waters from the food industry. Apricot seed extract was chosen as a model effluent. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pure amygdalin, the main cyanogenic glycoside in the extract, and the degradation of the cyanide formed was investigated and compared with the behavior of the real extract in a batch slurry reactor. A diffusional-type, flat-membrane reactor with immobilized cyanidase was developed, where the enzyme is effectively protected from adverse effects of high molecular components contained in the extract. For monitoring continuous-membrane reactor operation, a new unsegmented ammonia measurement system was developed and applied. In continuous operation the cyanidase retained its original activity for more than 400 hours on stream.

  17. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme system of Aspergillus japonicus: Pt. 2. Purification and characterization of an inducible extracellular. beta. -glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Arunik; Kundu, R.K.; Dube, S.; Dube, D.K.

    1988-02-01

    A high molecular weight ..beta..-glucosidase (mol. wt. > 240 000 daltons) was isolated from the culture filtrate of Aspergillus japonicus and was finally purified to 86-fold by alcohol precipitation, gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography on Whatman DE-52. An apparently homogeneous form of the enzyme appeared in the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It is capable of utilizing cellobiose, salicin, o-nitrophenyl-..beta..-D-glucoside (ONPG), methyl-..beta..-D-glucoside and amygdalin effectively as substrates but not arbutin, esculin hydrate and phloridzin. No metal ion is required for its catalytic activity. Hg/sup ++/ and p-chloromercuricbenzoate (PCMB) are strong inhibitors for the enzyme. Nojirimycin and glucono-delta-lactone are two competitive inhibitors of the same enzyme, and nojirimycin is the more potent of the two.

  18. Study on the Chemical Cconstituents from the Water-soluble Part of Taohong Siwu Decoction%桃红四物汤水溶性部位的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 李祥; 陈建伟

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究桃红四物汤水溶性部位的化学成分.方法 通过大孔吸附树脂和硅胶柱色谱等技术对桃红四物汤的水提液进行分离,根据理化常数和波谱学分析鉴定其结构.结果 从桃红四物汤水溶性部位中分离并鉴定了三个化合物:苯甲酸(benzoyl acid,Ⅰ)、苦杏仁苷(amygdalin,Ⅱ)、白芍苷R1(albiflorinR1,Ⅲ)、阿魏酸(ferulic acid,Ⅳ).结论 上述四个化合物均为该复方中首次发现.

  19. Vibrational microspectroscopy of food. Raman vs. FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Løkke, Mette Marie; Micklander, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy are complementary techniques for the study of molecular vibrations and structure. The combination with a microscope results in an analytical method that allows spatially resolved investigation of the chemical composition of heterogeneous foods and food ingredients...... to different heterogeneous food systems. FT-IR and Raman microspectroscopy were applied to a number of different problems related to food analysis: (1) in situ determination of starch and pectin in the potato cell, (2) in situ determination of the distribution of amygdalin in bitter almonds, (3......) the composition of blisters found on the surface of bread, (4) the microstructure of high-lysine barley and (5) the composition of white spots in the shell of frozen shrimps. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  20. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  1. 杏苏止咳糖浆的质量控制研究%Preliminary pharmacodynamic study of Xingsu Zhike Syrup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张士勇; 彭代银; 高家荣; 程军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the quality standard of xingsu zhike syrup. Methods The thin-layer chromatography( TLC ) technique was used to identify ephedra, baical skullcap root, thunberg fritillary bulb, platycodon grandiflorum, purple perilla, amygda. High efficiency liquid chromatography ( HPLC )was used to measure the content of amygdalin. Results The methods of the chromatographic condition were reproducible. Amygdalin was linear in the range of 16. 15 ~ 80. 75 μg( r =0. 999 )and the linear relationship was accurate. The average recovery rate was 101. 71% , RSD of precision was 2. 88% and RSD of reproducibility was 4. 22%. Conclusion This standard is convenient, effective and accurate for the quality control of compound xingsu zhike syrup.%目的 建立杏苏止咳糖浆的质量标准.方法 采用薄层色谱法对杏苏止咳糖浆中的麻黄、黄芩、浙贝母、桔梗、紫苏叶进行定性鉴别;采用高效液相色谱法测定苦杏仁苷的含量.结果 薄层鉴别重现性好,苦杏苷在16.15~80.75 μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,r=0.999,平均回收率为101.71%,精密度RSD为2.88%,重现性RSD为4.22%.结论 该方法简便、可靠、准确,可用于该制剂的质量控制.

  2. 多指标正交优选双龙颗粒水提工艺%Studies multi-indexes on water-extraction techniques of Sl particle by orthogonal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪巧瑜; 张建军; 王克荣; 王林元; 李伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To optimize water-extraction technology of Sl Particle. Methods The optimized extracting condition of Sl Particle were investigated by determining the dried extract,the content of ephedrine chloride and the content of amygdalin with orthogonal design method.Three factors,water volume,decocting time and extracting times,were considered to effect the extracting efficiency of active component. Results The reasonable extracting conditions were to decoct for three times with water for 1 hour each time, and the total water volume were 20 times corresponding to the herbal weight.The quantitative method of ephedrine chloride and amygdalin was used by HPLC method. Conclusion This optimized water-extraction technology was scientific,reasonable,stable and feasible.%目的:优选双龙颗粒的水提提取工艺。方法采用正交设计法,以提取干膏量,盐酸麻黄碱含量,苦杏仁苷含量为考察指标,对双龙颗粒水提部分的加水量、水煮时间、提取次数三因素进行优选研究。结果确定了合理可行的工艺条件,即加水量为20倍量(8、6、6),煎煮三次,每次1h。含量测定方法为HPLC法。结论优选的水提取工艺科学合理、稳定可行。

  3. 麻黄-杏仁药对有效成分在大鼠体内组织分布的定量分析%Quantitative Analysis of Tissue Distribution of Bioactive Compounds in Rats After Oral Administration of Ephedrae Herba-Amygdalus Communis Vas Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋帅; 梁德东; 任孟月; 侯玮婷; 罗佳波

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To develop a simple UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of norephedrine,norpseudoephedrine,ephedrine,pseudoephedrine,methylephedrine,amygdalin and prunasin in rat tissues and to analysis tissue distribution of these compounds in rats after oral administration of Ephedrae HerbaAmygdalus Communis Vas extract.Method:The current method was validated according to the FDA guidelines for the validation of biological sample analysis method.Diphenhydramine hydrochloride and puerarin were selected for quantitative analysis of alkaloids in Ephedrae Herba,amygdalin and prunasin,respectively.Result:Nine active compounds,including 3 pairs of epimers,were separated and quantified within 18 min by a sensitive and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method.Alkaloids in Ephedrae Herba were widely distributed in major tissues.Poor tissue distribution of amygdalin was observed,and prunasin (metabolite of amygdalin) can be detected in tissues except the brain.Contrary to D-amygdalin in vivo,D-prunasin had lower concentration (its concentrations in heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney were 170.5,112.8,98.4,152.3,381.7 ng·g-1) in tissues by comparing with L-prunasin (its concentrations in heart,liver,spleen,lung,kidney were 906.4,652.3,177.4,500.9,2 060.4 ng· g-1).Conclusion:The method is successfully applied to tissue distribution study in rats after intragastric administration of Ephedrae Herba-Amygdalus Communis Vas extract.Reduction of D-prunasin in tissues may be the reason of toxicity antagonism in vivo.High concentration of alkaloids in Ephedrae Herba,amygdalin and prunasin are found in lung,which may be correlated with its synergistic anti-asthmatic effects.%目的:建立并验证同时测定大鼠组织中去甲基麻黄碱、去甲基伪麻黄碱、麻黄碱、伪麻黄碱、甲基麻黄碱、苦杏仁苷和野樱苷的UPLC-MS/MS,分析大鼠口服麻黄-杏仁药对水提物后有效成分在主要脏器组织中的分布情况.方法:参照FDA生物样本分析方法的

  4. Determination of five components in Fuzheng Pingxiao Capsula by HPLC-MS%HPLC-MS法测定扶正平消胶囊中5种成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田文君; 吕磊; 赵亮; 张海; 柴逸峰; 张国庆

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立扶正平消胶囊中苦杏仁苷、芍药苷、贝母素甲、黄芪甲苷和吴茱萸次碱5种成分的HPLC-MS测定方法.方法:色谱条件:色谱柱为AgilentEclipseplusC18柱(250mm×4.6mm,5μm),乙腈-0.1%甲酸水为流动相,梯度洗脱;质谱条件:采用电喷雾离子源(ESI),正离子检测,SIM模式.结果:苦杏仁苷、芍药苷、贝母素甲、黄芪甲苷和吴茱萸次碱的定量限分别为12.9、32.2、1.00、1.21、0.40ng/mL,检测限分别为6.46、6.44、0.25、0.61、0.16ng/mL;在相应的线性范围内r>0.9990;峰面积之比的日内精密度(RSD)和日间精密度(RSD)均小于2%,平均回收率均在98%~102%.结论:本方法可同时测定扶正平消胶囊中苦杏仁苷、芍药苷、贝母素甲、黄芪甲苷和吴茱萸次碱的量,快速简便,实用性强.%Objective To simultaneously determine the contents of five components (amygdalin, paeoniflorin, peimine, astragaloside IV and rutaecarpine) in Fuzheng Pingxiao Capsula by LC-MS. Methods Chromatographic separation was achieved with gradient elution by Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 urn) and an Agilent 1100 Mass Spectrometer system was operated under the SIM mode with electrospray positive ionization (ESI). The mobile phase is acetonitrile-0.1% methanoic acid. Results The LOQ of amygdalin, paeoniflorin, peimine, astragaloside IV, and rutaecarpine in Fuzheng Pingxiao Capsula were 12.9,32.2,1.00,1.21, and 0.40 ng/mL, and the LOD were 6.46, 6.44, 0.25, 0.61, and 0.16 ng/mL, respectively. Within the linear range, r > 0.999 0. Both intra-day and inter-day precision with RSD was less than 2%. The average recovery rates of the five components were in the range of 98%-102%. Conclusion This method is fast, sensitive, and reproducible. It could be used to determine amygdalin, paeoniflorin, peimine, astragaloside IV, and rutaecarpine in Fuzheng Pingxiao Capsula under the same chromatogram condition.

  5. Crops: a green approach toward self-assembled soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen Kumar; John, George

    2008-06-01

    To date, a wide range of industrial materials such as solvents, fuels, synthetic fibers, and chemical products are being manufactured from petroleum resources. However, rapid depletion of fossil and petroleum resources is encouraging current and future chemists to orient their research toward designing safer chemicals, products, and processes from renewable feedstock with an increased awareness of environmental and industrial impact. Advances in genetics, biotechnology, process chemistry, and engineering are leading to a new manufacturing concept for converting renewable biomass to valuable fuels and products, generally known as the biorefinery concept. The swift integration of crop-based materials synthesis and biorefinery manufacturing technologies offers the potential for new advances in sustainable energy alternatives and biomaterials that will lead to a new manufacturing paradigm. This Account presents a novel and emerging concept of generating various forms of soft materials from crops (an alternate feedstock). In future research, developing biobased soft materials will be a fascinating yet demanding practice, which will have direct impact on industrial applications as an economically viable alternative. Here we discuss some remarkable examples of glycolipids generated from industrial byproducts such as cashew nut shell liquid, which upon self-assembly produced soft nanoarchitectures including lipid nanotubes, twisted/helical nanofibers, low-molecular-weight gels, and liquid crystals. Synthetic methods applied to a "chiral pool" of carbohydrates using the selectivity of enzyme catalysis yield amphiphilic products derived from biobased feedstock including amygdalin, trehalose, and vitamin C. This has been achieved with a lipase-mediated regioselective synthetic procedure to obtain such amphiphiles in quantitative yields. Amygdalin amphiphiles showed unique gelation behavior in a broad range of solvents such as nonpolar hexanes to polar aqueous solutions

  6. Study on Processing Technology of Prunus humilis Leave Tea%欧李绿茶的加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高婧; 杨鹏; 任玉婷; 王晓闻

    2012-01-01

    欧李叶具有很高的营养价值,是一类值得开发的食用资源。以传统绿茶加工工艺为参考将欧李叶制成绿茶成品,研究了漂烫及其时间,杀青时间对成品品质的影响。根据成品评分标准确定较佳漂烫时间为1min.每次锅炒时间为3min,并根据高效液相色谱测定炒制过程中欧李中苦杏仁苷的含量变化,确定较佳的炒制次数为5次,为欧李绿茶开发生产提供参考。%Prunus humilis leaf is an edible resource with abundant nutritions. It was worth to be developed. The Prunus humilis leaves were made into green tea according to the traditional processing. The effects of blanching or out of blanching, the blanching time, and the fixing time on the product quality were studied. The optimal blanching time (1 min) and each fixing time (3 min) were judged by the product sensory evaluation standards. The variation of amygdalin content was determined by HPLC to confirm the optimal pan removing times (5 times).

  7. β2-Adrenoceptor affinity chromatography and its application in the screening of the active compounds from Semen Armeniacae Amarum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XiaoHui; ZHAO XinFeng; YANG Rong; WANG ShiXiang; WEI YinMao; ZHENG JianBin

    2008-01-01

    β2-Adrenoceptor (β2-AR) was purified from the rabbit lung tissue by sepharose-salbutamol affinity chromatographic column. To prepare the β2-AR stationary phase, β2-AR was evenly immobilized on the surface of macro-pore silica with a mild chemical coupling method through covalent bond. The reten-tion properties of β2-AR stationary phase were characterized by four ligands, salbutamol sulfate, noradrenaline bitartrate, adrenaline hydrochloride and propranolol hydrochloride, to establish the β2-AR affinity chromatography. Then, the method was used to screen the active compounds from the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. The results showed that β2-AR on the surface of the sta-tionary phase could keep its original bioactivity and selectivity. Amygdalin retained in the chroma-tographic column was proved to be the active compound of the total extracts of Semen Armeniacae Amarum. Compared with the existing chromatographic screening approaches, this method showed a good stability and high selectivity. The active compounds which could interact with β2-AR in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) could be screened efficiently by this method, providing a new way to screen the active compounds in complicated samples such as TCM.

  8. Breast rhagades in nursing and non lactating women: A gordian knot to loose by the aid of a phytocosmetical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Martini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We have tried to solve an everlasting problem inherent the treatment of breast rhagades in woman, since mammary gland proposes several troubles: 1 drug penetration through the mammal areola epidermis is the quickest, after the one through eye conjunctive and so whichever chemical or natural substance (for instance triterpenes or cyanhydrin or amygdalin present in sweet almond oil may be retrieved in human milk and blood after few minutes 2 Milk is suckled by the bébé and it is supposed that whichever remedy against breast rhagades should be applied topically before and after each feeding and thus most of the substances included in the remedy passes into human milk. 3 Mammary gland is victim of the aggression of manifold germs and bacteria from the bébés’ mouth. There is an avalanche of cosmetic and pharmaceutical commodities that always fail in some of the aforesaid corollaries. Our gélée tends to comply all the prerequisites and we have demonstrated this hypothesis.

  9. 正交试验法优选止咳颗粒提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈静; 郭立玮; 潘林梅; 文红梅

    2005-01-01

    止咳颗粒由苦杏仁、半夏等数味中药组方而成,具有宣肺止咳、化痰平喘的功效,临床主要用于治疗咳嗽气喘、胸闷痰多,疗效显著。苦杏仁为本方君药,具有降气止咳平喘、润肠通便的功效,主要含有苦杏仁苷、脂肪油、蛋白质和各种游离氨基酸,其中苦杏仁苷(amygdalin)为其镇咳、平喘的主要有效成分。为优化止咳颗粒的制备工艺,本文采用正交试验法,以苦杏仁苷的转移率为考察指标,对止咳颗粒的提取工艺进行了研究。

  10. Separation, Characterization and Dose-Effect Relationship of the PPARγ-Activating Bio-Active Constituents in the Chinese Herb Formulation ‘San-Ao Decoction’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Mei Liu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available San-ao decoction (SAD, comprising Herba Ephedrae, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and Seneb Armeniacae Amarum, is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formulae for asthma. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs areey regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism and have become important therapeutic targets for various deseases, PPARγ activation might exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in different chronic inflammatory processes. The EtOAc fraction of SAD showed a significant effect on PPARγ activation. A simple and rapid method has been established for separation and characterization of the main compounds in the PPARγ-activating fraction of SAD by ultra-fast HPLC coupled with quadropole time-of-flight mass pectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. A total of 10 compounds were identified in the activating fraction of SAD, including amygdalin (1, liquiritin (2, 6′-acetyliquiritin (3, liquiritigenin (4, isoliquiritigenin (5, formononetin (6, licoisoflavanone (7, glycycoumarin (8, glycyrol (9 and uercetin (10. The results also characterized formononetin as a predominant component in this fraction. The dose-effect relationship comparison study of formononetin and the EtOAc fraction of SAD by adding formononetin was performed, the results suggested that formononetin was the major component of the EtOAc fraction of SAD responsible for activating PPARγ, and the method will possibly be applied to study the complex biological active constituents of other TCMs.

  11. Comparative pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats after oral administration of Fuzheng Huayu recipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Shan; Wang, Chang-Hong; Tao, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Hua; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2015-10-10

    Fuzheng Huayu recipe (FZHY) is a herbal product for the treatment of liver fibrosis approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), but its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution had not been investigated. In this study, the liver fibrotic model was induced with intraperitoneal injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), and FZHY was given orally to the model and normal rats. The plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of four major bioactive components from FZHY were analyzed in the normal and fibrotic rat groups using an ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method. Results revealed that the bioavailabilities of danshensu (DSS), salvianolic acid B (SAB) and rosmarinic acid (ROS) in liver fibrotic rats increased 1.49, 3.31 and 2.37-fold, respectively, compared to normal rats. There was no obvious difference in the pharmacokinetics of amygdalin (AMY) between the normal and fibrotic rats. The tissue distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY trended to be mostly in the kidney and lung. The distribution of DSS, SAB, and AMY in liver tissue of the model rats was significantly decreased compared to the normal rats. Significant differences in the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profiles of DSS, ROS, SAB and AMY were observed in rats with hepatic fibrosis after oral administration of FZHY. These results provide a meaningful basis for developing a clinical dosage regimen in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis by FZHY.

  12. UPLC-QTOF-MS with chemical profiling approach for rapidly evaluating chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Erxin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study, chemical consistency between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction was rapidly evaluated by UPLC-QTOF-MS coupled with the MarkerLynx software. Two different kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction: water extract of mixed six constituent herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and dispensing granules decoction: mixed water extract of each individual herbs of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, were prepared. Results Chemical difference was found between traditional and dispensing granule decoctions, and albiflorin, paeoniflorin, gallic acid, amygdalin, and hydroxysafflor yellow A were identified as the significantly changed components during decocting Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction. All the peaks of mass spectrum from Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction and each herb were extracted and integration by using QuanLynx™. And the optimized data was used for linear regression analysis. The contribution of each herb in Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction, and the optimal compatibility proportion of dispensing granule decoction were derived from the linear regression equation. Conclusions The optimal dosage proportionality of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu dispensing granule decoction was obtained as 2.5:0.2:1:0.5:0.6:0.1 (DG : CX : BS : SD : TR : HH, which guided better clinic application of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction as dispensing granule decoctions usage, and it also provided some experimental data to reveal the compatibility rule of the relative TCM formulae.

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Major Constituents in Chinese Medical Preparation Lianhua-Qingwen Capsule by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lianhua-Qingwen capsule (LQC is a commonly used Chinese medical preparation to treat viral influenza and especially played a very important role in the fight against severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS in 2002-2003 in China. In this paper, a rapid ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detector and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS method was established for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of LQC. A total of 61 compounds including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, anthraquinones, triterpenoids, iridoids, and other types of compounds were unambiguously or tentatively identified by comparing the retention times and accurate mass measurement with reference compounds or literature data. Among them, twelve representative compounds were further quantified as chemical markers in quantitative analysis, including salidroside, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside E, cryptochlorogenic acid, amygdalin, sweroside, hyperin, rutin, forsythoside A, phillyrin, rhein, and glycyrrhizic acid. The UPLC-DAD method was evaluated with linearity, limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantification (LOQ, precision, stability, repeatability, and recovery tests. The results showed that the developed quantitative method was linear, sensitive, and precise for the quality control of LQC.

  14. Purification and characterization of vanilla bean (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) beta-D-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoux, Eric; Chauwin, Audrey; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2003-05-01

    Vanilla bean beta-D-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by successive anion exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography. The enzyme is a tetramer (201 kDa) made up of four identical subunits (50 kDa). The optimum pH was 6.5, and the optimum temperature was 40 degrees C at pH 7.0. K(m) values for p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside and glucovanillin were 1.1 and 20.0 mM, respectively; V(max) values were 4.5 and 5.0 microkat.mg(-1). The beta-D-glucosidase was competitively inhibited by glucono-delta-lactone and 1-deoxynojirimycin, with respective K(i) values of 670 and 152 microM, and not inhibited by 2 M glucose. The beta-D-glucosidase was not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide and DTNB and fully inhibited by 1.5-2 M 2-mercaptoethanol and 1,4-dithiothreitol. The enzyme showed decreasing activity on p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-fucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, and p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside. The enzyme was also active on prunasin, esculin, and salicin and inactive on cellobiose, gentiobiose, amygdalin, phloridzin, indoxyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-3-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  15. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  16. Analysis of nut qualities of almond varieties in Xinjiang%新疆地区扁桃坚果品质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷继英; 张强; 田嘉; 李鹏; 李疆

    2015-01-01

    In order to select out almond cultivars with development potential, the nuts of 38 varieties of almond in Xinjiang area were chosen as research objects to determine the shell thickness, kernel percentage, kernel mass, crude fat content, crude protein content and amygdalin content according to the national standard method, and to comprehensively evaluate the nuts quality of almond in Xinjiang by using the subordinate function method. The results showed: the average kernel mass of ‘Kexi’ was the highest, reaching 1.40 g; ‘Nonpareil’ had the greatest kernel percentage (72.23%); the shell thickness of ‘Kubadan’ was the smallest, only 0.40 mm; ‘Amannisha’ had the highest content of crude fat (60.95%); the crude protein content in ‘Mission’ was the lowest (30.09%); ‘Tianrentaobadan’ had the lowest content of amygdalin, while ‘Xiaotaobadan’ had the highest content. Based on the results of comprehensive evaluation with the method of subordinate function, the comprehensive qualities of ‘Zhipi’, ‘Butte’, ‘Thompson’, ‘Sonora’, ‘Nonpareil’, ‘Ye’erqiang’ and ‘Badanwang’ were thought to be the highest and these almond cultivars had the greater development potential.%为了筛选出具有开发潜力的品种,以新疆地区扁桃坚果为研究对象,按照国家标准方法测定38个扁桃品种的壳厚度、出仁率、种仁质量、粗脂肪含量、粗蛋白含量和苦杏仁苷含量,利用隶属函数法综合评价新疆地区扁桃的坚果品质。结果表明:‘克西’的平均种仁质量最大,为1.40 g;‘Nonpareil’的出仁率最高,为72.23%;‘苦巴旦’的壳厚度最小,仅为0.40 mm;‘阿曼尼沙’的粗脂肪含量最高,为60.95%;‘Mission’的粗蛋白含量最高,为30.09%;‘甜仁桃巴旦’苦杏仁苷含量最低,‘小桃巴旦’含量最高。经隶属函数法综合评价,认为扁桃品种‘纸皮’、‘Butte’、‘Thompson’、

  17. 当归-桃仁药对配伍特点及其效应物质基础研究%Study on the correlation of chemical constituents and activities of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立; 段金廒; 唐于平; 钱大玮; 史旭芹; 宿树兰; 胡莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Study on the correlation of chemical constituents and activities in different proportions of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. Methods: Data mining technology was applied on prescription to screening the proportions of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. HPLC determined the changes of the contents of amygdalin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid in the single and mixed decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. The experiments of thrombin time, anti-platelet aggregation and scavenging DPPH were evaluated the activities. Results: The top 10 proportions of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae were screening. The contents of amygdalin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were higher than the single decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. Thrombin time was prolonged, anti-platelet aggregation was increased and the activity of scavenging DPPH was enhanced when compared to the same drug dosage of the single decoction of Semen Persicae. The activity of anti-platelet aggregation was also increased when compared to the same drug dosage of the single decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Conclusion: Mixed decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae was rationality. The change of chemical constituents and activities has some correlation, but different proportions have no conspicuous variability.%目的:探讨当归-桃仁药对不同配比的应用特点及其效应物质基础.方法:基于自建的中医方剂数据库,采用关联规则分析方法,挖掘归纳出当归-桃仁药对在方剂中的配伍特点;采用HPLC法分析当归-桃仁药对共煎液与单煎液不同配比中苦杏仁苷、绿原酸、咖啡酸、阿魏酸的含量变化;采用凝血时间、抑制血小板聚集和清除DPPH自由基实验评价配伍效应及其作用特点.结果:挖掘归纳出当归-桃仁药对在方剂中的配伍特点及其出现频度;实验结果表明当

  18. Extraction, partial characterization, and storage stability of β-glucosidase from propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ping; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Hu, Fu-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Extraction and assay conditions for β-glucosidase from propolis were optimized. Highest enzyme activity was obtained in a citric acid-disodium hydrogen phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 with 2.5% insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone at incubation temperature of 57 °C. β-Glucosidase activities were found in all freshly harvested propolis while β-glucosidase activities were scarcely present in the randomly bought propolis. Propolis was stored at -20 °C and 4 °C for 3 mo with almost no loss of β-glucosidase activity, but at room temperature the activity decreased exponentially with the increase of storage time. These results indicated that the activity of β-glucosidase could be a candidate for propolis-freshness index. β-Glucosidase from propolis was capable of hydrolyzing p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucoside and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside, but lacked activity toward p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucuronide, p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside, amygdalin, cellobiose, and gentiobiose. These results were consistent with the hypothesis that flavonoid glucosides were hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase during propolis collection and processing and provided a possible explanation for why some flavonoid biosides (that is, rutin and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside) exist in propolis. Practical Application: β-Glucosidase activity was detected and partial characterization of the enzyme was determined in propolis. The enzyme activity decreased exponentially with the increase of storage time at room temperature, which suggested that the activity of β-glucosidase could be regarded as a freshness index of propolis. The research will be useful for studying the chemical constituents of propolis.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Main Bioactive Components of San-ao Decoction and Its Series of Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwei Ding

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with diode array detection (DAD was established for simultaneous determination of seven main bioactive components in San-ao decoction and its series of formulae (San-ao decoction, Wu-ao decoction, Qi-ao decoction and Jia-wei San-ao decoction. Seven compounds were analyzed simultaneously with a XTerra C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm using a linear gradient elution of a mobile phase containing acetonitrile (A and a buffer solution (0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate and adjusted to pH 3 using phosphoric acid (B; the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was detected with DAD at 210, 254 and 360 nm and the column was maintained at 30 °C. All the compounds showed good linearity (r2 > 0.9984 in the tested concentration range. The precisions were evaluated by intra-day and inter-day tests, and relative standard deviation (R.S.D. values within the range of 0.83%–2.53% and 0.64%–2.77% were reported, respectively. The recoveries of the quantified compounds were observed to cover a range from 95.34% and 104.82% with R.S.D. values less than 2.72%. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of seven main bioactive components including ephedrine (1, amygdalin (2, liquiritin (3, benzoic acid (4, isoliquiritin (5, formononetin (6 and glycyrrhizic acid (7 in San-ao decoction and its series of formulae. The results also showed a wide variation in the content of the identified active compounds in these samples, which could also be helpful to illustrate the drug interactions after some herbs combined in different formulations.

  20. Comparative analysis of the main bioactive components of San-ao decoction and its series of formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiaoyun; Tang, Yuping; Jiang, Chenxue; Shang, Erxing; Fan, Xinshen; Ding, Anwei

    2012-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) was established for simultaneous determination of seven main bioactive components in San-ao decoction and its series of formulae (San-ao decoction, Wu-ao decoction, Qi-ao decoction and Jia-wei San-ao decoction). Seven compounds were analyzed simultaneously with a XTerra C(18) column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm) using a linear gradient elution of a mobile phase containing acetonitrile (A) and a buffer solution (0.02 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate and adjusted to pH 3 using phosphoric acid) (B); the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The sample was detected with DAD at 210, 254 and 360 nm and the column was maintained at 30 °C. All the compounds showed good linearity (r2 > 0.9984) in the tested concentration range. The precisions were evaluated by intra-day and inter-day tests, and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values within the range of 0.83%–2.53% and 0.64%–2.77% were reported, respectively. The recoveries of the quantified compounds were observed to cover a range from 95.34% and 104.82% with R.S.D. values less than 2.72%. The validated method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of seven main bioactive components including ephedrine (1), amygdalin (2), liquiritin (3), benzoic acid (4), isoliquiritin (5), formononetin (6) and glycyrrhizic acid (7) in San-ao decoction and its series of formulae. The results also showed a wide variation in the content of the identified active compounds in these samples, which could also be helpful to illustrate the drug interactions after some herbs combined in different formulations.

  1. Functional characterization, homology modeling and docking studies of β-glucosidase responsible for bioactivation of cyanogenic hydroxynitrile glucosides from Leucaena leucocephala (subabul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Noor M; Misra, Anurag; Singh, Somesh; Fatangare, Amol B; Ramakumar, Suryanarayanarao; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidases are important enzymes that serve many diverse functions in plants including defense, whereby hydrolyzing the defensive compounds such as hydroxynitrile glucosides. A hydroxynitrile glucoside cleaving β-glucosidase gene (Llbglu1) was isolated from Leucaena leucocephala, cloned into pET-28a (+) and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. The recombinant enzyme was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The optimal temperature and pH for this β-glucosidase were found to be 45 °C and 4.8, respectively. The purified Llbglu1 enzyme hydrolyzed the synthetic glycosides, pNPGlucoside (pNPGlc) and pNPGalactoside (pNPGal). Also, the enzyme hydrolyzed amygdalin, a hydroxynitrile glycoside and a few of the tested flavonoid and isoflavonoid glucosides. The kinetic parameters K (m) and V (max) were found to be 38.59 μM and 0.8237 μM/mg/min for pNPGlc, whereas for pNPGal the values were observed as 1845 μM and 0.1037 μM/mg/min. In the present study, a three dimensional (3D) model of the Llbglu1 was built by MODELLER software to find out the substrate binding sites and the quality of the model was examined using the program PROCHEK. Docking studies indicated that conserved active site residues are Glu 199, Glu 413, His 153, Asn 198, Val 270, Asn 340, and Trp 462. Docking of rhodiocyanoside A with the modeled Llbglu1 resulted in a binding with free energy change (ΔG) of -5.52 kcal/mol on which basis rhodiocyanoside A could be considered as a potential substrate.

  2. High content cell-based assay for the inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-07-01

    Cellular inflammation is a non-specific immune response to tissue injury that takes place via cytokine network orchestration to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. However chronic inflammation that lasts for a longer period, plays the key role in human diseases like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways may be effective in targeting and modulating their outcome. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that effectively combines the pro-inflammatory features with the pro-apoptotic potential. Increased levels of TNF-α observed during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions are believed to induce adverse phenotypes like glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profile. Natural products e. g., amygdalin, cinnamic acid, jasmonic acid and aspirin have proven efficacy in minimizing the TNF-α induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Cell lysis-free quantum dot (QDot) imaging is an emerging technique to identify the cellular mediators of a signaling cascade with a single assay in one run. In comparison to organic fluorophores, the inorganic QDots are bright, resistant to photobleaching and possess tunable optical properties that make them suitable for long term and multicolor imaging of various components in a cellular crosstalk. Hence we tested some components of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during TNF-α induced inflammation and the effects of aspirin in HepG2 cells by QDot multicolor imaging technique. Results demonstrated that aspirin showed significant protective effects against TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. The developed cell based assay paves the platform for the analysis of cellular components in a smooth and reliable way.

  3. Traditional Persian topical medications for gastrointestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Dehghani Tafti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.

  4. Induction of rat hepatic cytochromes P450 by toxic ingredients in plants: lack of correlation between toxicity and inductive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Nakamura, T; Oguri, K

    1998-12-01

    "Animal-Plant Warfare" is one of the hypotheses for the evolution of drug-metabolizing P450s. To address the validity of this hypothesis, we examined the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s by 12 plant toxins in rats, using hepatic activity for testosterone metabolism as the index. The compounds tested were aconitine, morphine, tubocurarine, physostigmine, pilocarpine, muscarine, cocaine, atropine, amygdalin, digitonin, nicotine and solanine. Drinking water containing a test compound was given to rats for 4 days, and the hepatic activity of testosterone metabolism was determined together with monitoring body weight gain and liver weight as the indices of toxicity. The results showed that while cocaine and nicotine have a minor ability to increase testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylase activity, a marker activity for the CYP2B1 and 2, all other compounds did not have any such effect. No correlation was observed between a change in 16 beta-hydroxylase and toxicity caused by toxins. Therefore, these results did not support the idea that the inducibility of the CYP2B subfamily in animals is acquired through "Animal-Plant Warfare". Several compounds examined here increased or decreased hepatic activities of testosterone 2 alpha-, 6 beta-, 7 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylation and 17-oxidation, indicating a possible effect on the CYP2A, 2C and 3A subfamily. Of these effects, a moderate correlation (r toxicity. It is therefore suggested that inhibition or suppression of the expression of CYP2C11 is one of the mechanisms in the toxicity of plant toxins for rats, although it comes from an examination using limited numbers of compounds.

  5. Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., a species related to Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Chen, Meng; Horvath, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Strain TCF032-E4 was isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented radish. It shares >99% 16S rRNA sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus and L. paraplantarum. This strain can ferment ribose, galactose, glucose, fructose, mannose, mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, arbutin, salicin, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, melibiose, trehalose and gentiobiose. It cannot ferment sucrose, which can be used by L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis, as well as most of the L. plantarum strains (88.7%). TCF032-E4 cannot grow at temperature above 32 °C. This strain shares 78.2-83.6% pheS (phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase alpha subunit) and 89.5-94.9% rpoA (RNA polymerase alpha subunit) sequence identity with L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum, L. fabifermentans, L. xiangfangensis and L. mudanjiangensis. These results indicate that TCF032-E4 represents a distinct species. This hypothesis was further confirmed by whole-genome sequencing and comparison with available genomes of related species. The draft genome size of TCF032-E4 is approximately 2.9 Mb, with a DNA G+C content of 43.5 mol%. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) between TCF032-E4 and related species ranges from 79.0 to 81.1%, the highest ANI value being observed with L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ATCC 14917T. A novel species, Lactobacillus herbarum sp. nov., is proposed with TCF032-E4T ( = CCTCC AB2015090T = DSM 100358T) as the type strain.

  6. Feasibility Study on Replacement Drug of Semen Armeniacae Amarum Reference%苦杏仁对照提取物替代苦杏仁对照药材的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁少雄; 李向日

    2015-01-01

    目的:以对照药材技术要求为基础,以等量同质为原则,利用现代的提取制备技术,制备成质量稳定、均匀性好的苦杏仁对照提取物。通过考察不同的薄层系统,建立薄层鉴别用对照提取物的质量标准,供中药标准中薄层鉴别使用。并对其主要药效成分进行方法学考察,确保今后制备的对照提取物的一致性。方法:采用不同薄层色谱系统对苦杏仁对照提取物可替代对照药材进行定性研究;并用高效液相色谱法测定苦杏仁对照提取物中苦杏仁苷的含量。结果:在苦杏仁对照提取物薄层色谱中,展开剂:为甲苯-甲酸乙酯-甲醇-甲酸-水(6∶2∶0.4∶0.1∶0.1),在与对照药材色谱相应位置上,显相同颜色的斑点。HPLC测定苦杏仁对照提取物中苦杏仁苷含量,苦杏仁苷线性范围461.7~15.39 mg/L(r=0.9995),平均回收率为101.1%(RSD=2.15%),该方法准确、可靠、专属性强,重复性好。结论:苦杏仁对照提取可替代对照药材进行定性鉴别。%Objective:On the basis of the control reference drug technical requirements and the principle of equivalent homogenei-ty,using modern extraction and preparation technology to prepare a stable quality and good uniformity of Semen Armeniacae Ama-rum reference substance.By investigating the thin layer of different system,to establish the quality standards of thin layer identifica-tion with reference extract,for the use of thin layer identification in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)standard.To investigate methodology and its main efficacy components to ensure the consistency.Methods:Different thin layer chromatographic system for Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference substance qualitative alternative was used to the reference drug research.An HPLC method for content determination of amygdalin in Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference substance was established.Results:In Semen Ar

  7. Feasibility Study on Replacement Drug of Semen Armeniacae Amarum Reference%苦杏仁对照提取物替代苦杏仁对照药材的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁少雄; 李向日

    2015-01-01

    Objective:On the basis of the control reference drug technical requirements and the principle of equivalent homogenei-ty,using modern extraction and preparation technology to prepare a stable quality and good uniformity of Semen Armeniacae Ama-rum reference substance.By investigating the thin layer of different system,to establish the quality standards of thin layer identifica-tion with reference extract,for the use of thin layer identification in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)standard.To investigate methodology and its main efficacy components to ensure the consistency.Methods:Different thin layer chromatographic system for Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference substance qualitative alternative was used to the reference drug research.An HPLC method for content determination of amygdalin in Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference substance was established.Results:In Semen Ar-meniacae Amarum reference substance in thin layer chromatography,the mobile phase was consisted of toluene- ethyl formate-methanol-formic acid and water (6∶2∶0. 4∶0.1-0.1 ),and chromatographic corresponding to the position,the same color spots.To establish an HPLC method for content determination of amygdalin in Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference substance,the linear range of amygdalin was from 461 .7 to 1 5.39 mg/L (r =0.999 5),and the average recovery was 1 01 .1% (RSD =2.1 5%), The method was accurate,reliable,strong specialization and good repeatability.Conclusion:Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference substance can replace Semen Armeniacae Amarum reference drug for qualitative identification.%目的:以对照药材技术要求为基础,以等量同质为原则,利用现代的提取制备技术,制备成质量稳定、均匀性好的苦杏仁对照提取物。通过考察不同的薄层系统,建立薄层鉴别用对照提取物的质量标准,供中药标准中薄层鉴别使用。并对其主要药效成分进行方法学考察,确保今后制备的对照提取物的一致性。

  8. Murimonas intestini gen. nov., sp. nov., an acetate-producing bacterium of the family Lachnospiraceae isolated from the mouse gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläring, Karoline; Just, Sarah; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Hanske, Laura; Haller, Dirk; Blaut, Michael; Wenning, Mareike; Clavel, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Three strains of an anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive coccobacillus were isolated from the intestines of mice. These strains shared 100 % similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, but were distantly related to any described members of the family Lachnospiraceae (<94 %). The most closely related species with names that have standing in nomenclature were Robinsoniella peoriensis, Ruminococcus gnavus, Blautia producta and Clostridium xylanolyticum. Phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis were confirmed by partial sequencing of hsp60 genes. The use of an in-house database search pipeline revealed that the new isolates are most prevalent in bovine gut samples when compared with human and mouse samples for Ruminococcus gnavus and B. producta. All three isolated strains shared similar cellular fatty acid patterns dominated by C16 : 0 methyl ester. Differences in the proportions of C12 : 0 methyl ester, C14 : 0 methyl ester and C18 : 1 cis-11 dimethyl acetal were observed when compared with phylogenetically neighbouring species. The major short-chain fatty acid produced by strain SRB-530-5-H(T) was acetic acid. This strain tested positive for utilization of d-fructose, d-galacturonic acid, d-malic acid, l-alanyl l-threonine and l-glutamic acid but was negative for utilization of amygdalin, arbutin, α-d-glucose, 3-methyl d-glucose and salicin, in contrast to the type strain of the closest related species Robinsoniella peoriensis. The isolates were not able to use mannitol for growth. Based on genotypic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, we propose to create the new genus and species Murimonas intestini gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate the three strains SRB-530-5-H(T) ( = DSM 26524(T) = CCUG 63391(T)) (the type strain of Murimonas intestini), SRB-509-4-S-H ( = DSM 27577 = CCUG 64595) and SRB-524-4-S-H ( = DSM 27578 = CCUG 64594).

  9. Clinical diagnosis and therapy of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome%眼球阵挛-肌阵挛综合征的临床诊治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊晖; 彭镜; 张月华; 包新华; 姜玉武; 秦炯

    2008-01-01

    Objective Clinical manifestations of opsoclonus-myoclonns syndrome(OMS) in children were snummarized and analyzed and the clinical features and therapeutic approaches to OMS were investigated in order to improve its diagnosis and management.Methods Clinical information on features and management of 6 cases with OMS inpatients being followed up from 2006 to 2007 were collected and analyzed.Results Among the 6 cases,one was male and the other five were female.The age at the onset ranged from 12 to 26 months (average 21.0 months). Four of them had history of prior infection.The symptoms were opsoclonus,myoclonns,ataxia,sleep disturbances and behavioural problems in the 6 cases.Urinary DL-3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-acid amygdalin (VMA) was positive in 1 case. Abdominal B-mode ultrasound showed a mild hepatomegaly in 4 cases.The EEG showed abnormal findings such as slow background activity in 3 cases.Epileptiform discharges were found in none of the patients.MRI showed a high signal in medial longtitudinal fasciculus and tectospinal tract on T2-weighted image in 1 case.Computerized tomagraphy found L3-4 arachnoid cysts in 1 case and was normal in the others.Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was given to all these patients and was effective in all during acute stage.In 2 cases the disease relapsed during follow-up stage.Conclusion OMS is a rare neurological condition with opsoclonus,myoclonus,ataxia,sleep disturbances and behavioral problems,which might relapse easily and is associated with adverse neurological outcome.ACTH therapy is effective in management of OMS.%目的 总结眼球阵挛.肌阵挛综合征(OMS)的临床特征及治疗经验,以提高诊疗水平.方法 对北京大学第一医院儿科2006至2007年收治的6例OMS患儿的临床、实验室资料及治疗情况进行分析.结果 6例中男1例,女5例,发病年龄12~26个月(平均21个月),其中4例病前有前驱感染史.就诊时主要症状为眼球阵挛、肌阵挛、共济失调

  10. HPLC 法同时测定柴银口服液中5种成分的含量%Simultaneous determination of five components in Chaiyin Oral Liquid by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱日然

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立高效液相色谱法同时测定柴银口服液中5种成分的含量。方法用 Zorbaxsb - C18色谱柱(4.6 mm ×250 mm,5μm)分离,乙腈-0.1%磷酸溶液为流动相梯度洗脱,流速为1.0 mL·min -1,检测波长为210 nm。结果绿原酸、苦杏仁苷、葛根素、黄芩苷、连翘苷的线性范围分别为0.388~9.70μg(r =0.9999)、0.736~18.40μg(r =0.9998)、0.21~5.25μg(r =0.9998)、0.242~10.6μg(r =0.9999)、0.868~21.7μg(r =0.9999),平均加样回收率分别为96.80%(RSD =0.29%)、103.50%(RSD =1.29%)、103.60%(RSD =1.12%)、102.90%(RSD =0.88%)、100.90%(RSD =0.90%)。结论该方法简便、准确,重复性好,可用于柴银口服液的质量控制。%Objective To establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of five components in Chaiyin Oral Liquid. Methods Using Zorbax SB - C18 column(4. 6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm),acetonitrile - 0. 1% phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1 mL·min - 1 ,the detection wavelength was at 210 nm. Results The linear ranges of chlorogenic acid,amygdalin,puerarin,baicalinand,phillyrin were 0. 388 ~ 9. 70 μg(r = 0. 999 9),0. 736 ~ 18. 40μg(r = 0. 999 8),0. 21 ~ 5. 25 μg(r = 0. 999 8),0. 242 ~ 10. 6 μg(r = 0. 999 9),0. 868 ~ 21. 7 μg(r = 0. 999 9),respec-tively. The average recoveries( n = 6)were 96. 80%( RSD = 0. 29% ),103. 50%( RSD = 1. 29% ),103. 60%( RSD =1. 12% ),102. 90%(RSD = 0. 88% ),100. 90%(RSD = 0. 90% ),respectively. Conclusion The results indicated that the method was simple,accurate,highly selective and reproducible,thus it can be used as quality control for Chaiyin Oral Liquid.

  11. Relación del efecto analgésico de fentanilo agudo con la regulación a la alta de los receptores 5-HT1A cerebrales en la rata Relationship between the analgesic effect of acute fentanyl and upregulation of brain 5-HT1A receptors in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bellido

    2004-07-01

    inhibición de la actividad neuronal en todas estas áreas terminales impidiendo la transmisión del estímulo nociceptivo. Esto explicaría la disminución del efecto analgésico de los agonistas opiáceos µ que originan los antagonistas selectivos 5-HT1A y el mayor efecto analgésico observado al coadministrar agonistas m y fármacos capaces de incrementar los niveles de 5-HT como los ISRS. Se necesitan estudios posteriores que determinen con exactitud el mecanismo por el que el estímulo de los receptores µ origina la regulación a la alta de los receptores 5-HT1A postsinápticos y el papel de cada una de las áreas cerebrales en la percepción del estímulo nociceptivo.5-HT1A agonists have analgesic effects. The analgesic effect of µ agonists can be blocked by selective 5-HT1A antagonists. In order to determine the mechanism that produces the synergies observed between µ and serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors in terms of their antinociceptive effect, we determined the analgesic effect of fentanyl after ap-plying a painful thermal and mechanical stimulus in the rat, and related it with the affinity and the maximum density of 5-HT1A receptors in thirteen brain areas using autoradiographic techniques. Fentanyl showed a dose- and time-dependant analgesic effect with the two nociceptive stimuli. In addition to its analgesic effect, fentanyl caused an up-regulation of 5-HT1A receptors, since we found a dose-dependant increase of their density, but the same affinity. The highest dose of fentanyl (12.8 µg.kg-1 caused a statistically significant increase of the density of 5-HT1A receptors that was positively associated with its analgesic effect on the terminal cortical external (+64%, internal (+69% and piriform (+113% frontoparietal areas, the CA1 (+111% and DGm (+60% regions of the hippocampus, the amygdalin nuclei PMCo (+101% and AHiAL (+91% and the hypo-thalamus (+127%. The analgesic effect of acute fentanyl would be explained, at least, by two mechanisms: its stimulation