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Sample records for amv cucumber mosaic

  1. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  2. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  3. Biological and Molecular Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Isolate Causing Severe Mosaic in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Singh, Lakhmir; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a wide host range causing severe damage in many important agricultural and ornamental crops. Earlier reports showed the prevalence of CMV subgroup I isolates in India. However, some recent reports point towards increasing incidence of subgroup II isolates in the country. The complete genome of a CMV isolate causing severe mosaic in cucumber was characterized and its phylogenetic analysis with other 21 CMV isolates reported worldwide clustered it with subgroup II strains. The genome comprised of RNA 1 (3,379 nucleotides), RNA 2 (3,038 nucleotides) and RNA 3 (2,206 nucleotides). The isolate showed highest homology with subgroup II isolates: 95.1-98.7, 87.7-98.0, and 85.4-97.1 % within RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, respectively. RNA1 and RNA2 were closely related to the Japanese isolate while RNA3 clustered with an American isolate. Host range studies revealed that isolate showed severe mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana spp. and Cucumis spp. The isolate induced leaf deformation and mild filiform type symptoms in tomato. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CMV subgroup II isolate from India.

  4. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.

  5. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from Lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.; Goldbach, R.; Prins, M.

    2001-01-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV i

  6. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted.

  7. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  8. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  9. Analysis of the systemic colonization of cucumber plants by Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, I M; Thompson, J R; García-Arenal, F

    2004-03-01

    Systemic movement of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in cucumber plants was shown to be from photoassimilate source to sink, thus indicating phloem transport. Nevertheless, CGMMV was not detected by immunocytochemical procedures in the intermediary cell-sieve element complex in inoculated cotyledons, where photoassimilate loading occurs. In stem internodes, CGMMV was first localized in the companion cells of the external phloem and subsequently in all tissues except the medulla, therefore suggesting leakage of the virus from, and reloading into, the transport phloem during systemic movement. In systemically infected sink leaves, CGMMV was simultaneously detected in the xylem and phloem. Interestingly, CGMMV accumulated to high levels in the differentiating tracheids of young leaves implying that the xylem could be involved in the systemic movement of CGMMV. This possibility was tested using plants in which cell death was induced in a portion of the stem by steam treatment. At 24 degrees C, steam treatment effectively prevented the systemic movement of CGMMV, even though viral RNA was detected in washes of the xylem above the steamed internode suggesting that xylem circulation occurred. At 29 degrees C, CGMMV systemically infected steam-treated cucumber plants, indicating that CGMMV can move systemically via the xylem. Xylem transport of CGMMV was, however, less efficient than phloem transport in terms of the time required for systemic infection and the percentage of plants infected.

  10. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  11. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  12. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  13. Ozone response of tomato plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus and/or tobacco mosaic virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormrod, D.P.; Kemp, W.G.

    1979-10-01

    The sensitivity of three tomato cultivars to several concentrations of ozone was evaluated after prior sequential inoculations with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and/or cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Ozone injury in inoculated and uninoculated tomatoes varied from slight to severe depending on the virus, cultivar, ozone concentration and virus incubation period. The frequency of increased ozone injury was about twice as great as that of suppressed injury on infected plants. Ozone injury occurred more frequently in TMV-inoculated plants than in those inoculated with CMV. There were more increases than decreases in ozone injury after 7 or 14 days of virus infection, but mainly decreases in injury after 21 days infection. Growth was significantly reduced in plants exposed to ozone after a 21-day virus incubation period, particularly when they were inoculated with both viruses.

  14. THE IMPACT OF SILICON ON TRANSCRIPTS RELATED TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS INFECTION IN CUCUMBER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, S; Kube, M; Bartoszewski, G; Büttner, C

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble silicon (Si) in alleviating viral plant infections is largely unknown. In order to analyse this gap in knowledge, this study provides insights into the relative gene expression data obtained from 1) control, 2) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected and 3) sodium silica-treated, CMV-infected Cucumis sativus line B10 tissue cultures regenerated plants. The absence or presence of CMV was determined through RT-PCR, six days' post-inoculation. qRT-PCR was performed on five selected host genes related to CMV-defence (argonaute protein, WRKY transcription factor) and replication (chaperone, heat shock cognate protein, aquaporin). Relative gene expressions from Si-treated, CMV-infected clones were not significantly different from CMV-infected clones, but they were significantly different from the control plants. The upregulation of the chaperone, and heat shock cognate genes in Si-treated clones, is associated with enhanced virus replication, while the gene expression of the transcription factor increases and is related to defence, in contrast to decreased expression in CMV-infected clones. Aquaporin gene expression was downregulated and the argonaute expression was unaffected in both Si-treated, CMV-infected as well as CMV-infected clones. Since both alleviating and supportive gene shifts are observed in Si-treated plantlets for key genes related to the virus infection examined herein, sodium silica is suggested to have a neutral and limited impact on CMV infection in cucumber cultures.

  15. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  16. Characterization of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Originating from Cucurbits in Serbia

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    Ana Vučurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is considered one of the most economically importantplant viruses and has a worldwide distribution and a very wide host range including plantsfrom family Cucurbitaceae. In Serbia, on cucurbits CMV was detected in single and mixedinfections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV. Viruses,including CMV, are constantly present in cucurbit crops, but their frequency changesby year and locality. Surveys and sample collections were conducted in cucurbit crops inthe period from 2008 to 2009 at 15 localities in Vojvodina province, and sample testing wascarried out using the DAS-ELISA method and commercially available antisera for six economicallymost important cucurbit viruses. In 2008, a total of 51 samples were collected from13 cucurbit crops of oilseed pumpkin Olinka variety, squash, and bottle gourd and CMV wasdetected in a total of 55% of tested samples with symptoms of viral infection. The most commoninfectious type was mixed infection with ZYMV and WMV (35.3%, and then mixedinfection with ZYMV (17.7% and WMV (2%. A total of 599 symptomatic samples of oilseedpumpkin Olinka variety, zucchini squash varieties Beogradska and Tosca, squash, and wintersquash were collected in 15 cucurbits crops in 2009. CMV was present in 4.4% of totalcollected samples, in single infections in 1.3%, and in mixed with WMV or ZYMV in 1.3%, and1.8%. Five CMV isolates were obtained by mechanical inoculations of N. glutinosa and oneof them was selected for further biological characterization. Test plants which were describedto be hosts of CMV expressed symptoms characteristic for those caused by CMV afterinoculations by isolate 115-08. CMV specific primers Au1u/Au2d were used to amplify an850 bp fragment using RT-PCR method. Amplified fragment encodes the entire viral coatprotein (CP gene and partial 5’ and 3’ UTRs of two selected CMV isolates. Amplified fragmentswere sequenced and deposited in the NCBI, where

  17. In situ localization and tissue distribution of the replication-associated proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Roberts, Ian M; Palukaitis, Peter

    2002-11-01

    The replication-associated proteins encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the 1a and 2a proteins, were detected by immunogold labeling in two host species of this virus, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In both hosts, the 1a and 2a proteins colocalized predominantly to the vacuolar membranes, the tonoplast. While plus-strand CMV RNAs were found distributed throughout the cytoplasm by in situ hybridization, minus-strand CMV RNAs were barely detectable but were found associated with the tonoplast. In both cucumber and tobacco, 2a protein was detected at higher densities than 1a protein. The 1a and 2a proteins also showed quantitative differences with regard to tissue distributions in tobacco and cucumber. About three times as much 2a protein was detected in CMV-infected cucumber tissues as in CMV-infected tobacco tissues. In tobacco, high densities of these proteins were observed only in vascular bundle cells of minor veins. In contrast, in cucumber, high densities of 1a and 2a proteins were observed in mesophyll cells, followed by epidermis cells, with only low levels being observed in vascular bundle cells. Differences were also observed in the distributions of 2a protein and capsid protein in vascular bundle cells of the two host species. These observations may represent differences in the relative rates of tissue infection in different hosts or differences in the extent of virus replication in vascular tissues of different hosts.

  18. Two biologically distinct isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus lack seed transmissibility in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Kollerova, E

    2007-01-01

    The seed transmission of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was studied in cucumber using two isolates unrelated in their biological characteristics. Although the virus could be readily detected in mature seeds harvested from infected cucumbers, the seedlings obtained from infected germinated seeds tested negative for ZYMV using both ELISA and RT-PCR assays. No evidence was obtained for transmission of two ZYMV isolates through seeds.

  19. Inter- and intramolecular recombinations in the cucumber mosaic virus genome related to adaptation to alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-04-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria.

  20. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  1. Inter- and Intramolecular recombinations in the Cucumber Mosaic Virus genome related to adaptation to Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that the

  2. Occurence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Ornamental Plants and Perspectives of Transgenic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis described the characterization of a range of ornamental-infecting Cucumber mosaic virus strains and the development of novel transgene constructs to improve the efficiency of obtaining resistant transformants which is essential for most ornamental plants that are diffi

  3. Alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates contain additional sequences in the RNA 3 segment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.A.; Goldbach, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) genes and flanking regions of three alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates (CMV-ALS), denoted ALS-LBO, ALS-IPO, and ALS-NAK, were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined and compared at both nucleic acid and deduced protein level with the published sequen

  4. A bench-scale, cost effective and simple method to elicit Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus attack using ozone-mediated inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, N; Nagendra-Prasad, D; Mohan, N; Murugesan, K

    2007-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate ozone for inactivation of Cucumber mosaic virus present in the inoculum and to stimulate Lycopersicon esculentum cv. PKM1 (tomato) plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection by using the inactivated Cucumber mosaic virus inoculum. Application of a T(4) (0.4mg/l) concentration of ozone to the inoculum containing Cucumber mosaic virus resulted in complete inactivation of the virus. The inactivated viral inoculum was mixed with a penetrator (delivery agent), referred to as T(4) preparation, and it was evaluated for the development of systemic acquired resistance in the tomato plants. Application of a T(4) preparation 5 days before inoculation with the Cucumber mosaic virus protected tomato plants from the effects of Cucumber mosaic virus. Among the components of the inactivated virus tested, coat protein subunits and aggregates were responsible for the acquired resistance in tomato plants. In field trials, the results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that, Cucumber mosaic virus accumulation was significantly less for all the test plants (16%) sprayed with the T(4) preparation than untreated control plants (89.5%) at 28 days postinoculation (dpi). A remarkable increase in the activities of the total soluble phenolics (10-fold) and salicylic acid (16-fold) was detected 5 days after the treatment in foliar extracts of test plants relative to untreated control plants. The results showed that treatment of tomato plants with inactivated viral inoculum led to a significant enhancement of protection against Cucumber mosaic virus attack in a manner that mimics a real pathogen and induces systemic acquired resistance.

  5. Colorimetric detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified gold nanoparticles as colorimetric probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Liu, Zhanmin; Xia, Xueying; Yang, Cuiyun; Huang, Junyi; Wan, Sibao

    2017-05-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes a severe mosaic symptom of watermelon and cucumber, and can be transmitted via infected cucumber seeds, leaves and soil. It remains a challenge to detect this virus to prevent its introduction and infection and spread in fields. For this purpose, a simple and sensitive label-free colorimetric detection method for CGMMV has been developed with unmodified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as colorimetric probes. The method is based on the finding that the presence of RT-PCR target products of CGMMV and species-specific probes results in color change of AuNPs from red to blue after NaCl induction. Normally, species-specific probes attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. The concentration of sodium, probes in the reaction system and evaluation of specificity and sensitivity of a novel assay, visual detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus using unmodified AuNPs has been carried out with simple preparation of samples in our study. Through this assay, as low as 30pg/μL of CGMMV RNA was thus detected visually, by the naked eye, without the need for any sophisticated, expensive instrumentation and biochemical reagents. The specificity was 100% and exhibited good reproducibility in our assays. The results note that this assay is highly species-specific, simple, low-cost, and visual for easy detection of CGMMV in plant tissues. Therefore, visual assay is a potentially useful tool for middle or small-scales corporations and entry-exit inspection and quarantine bureau to detect CGMMV in cucumber seeds or plant tissues.

  6. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

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    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  7. Wirus mozaiki ogórka na zawilcu (Anemone coronaria L. [Cucumber mosaic virus on Anemone coronaria L.

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    J. Kochman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From Anemone coronaria cucumber mosaic virus (Cucumis virus 1 Smith was isolated. It caused a general chlorosis, reduction of leaves blades and of the whole plants. 66 species of test plants were inoculated with the sap from infected cucumber plants. 33 of these were infected systemically and 11 only locally. Among 22 noninfected plants was Anemone coronaria which indicated as it was experimentally proved, that this species is infected only by the aphids – Myzus persicae Sulz.

  8. Development of transgenic watermelon resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus and Watermelon mosaic virus by using a single chimeric transgene construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Yi; Ku, Hsin-Mei; Chiang, Yi-Hua; Ho, Hsiu-Yin; Yu, Tsong-Ann; Jan, Fuh-Jyh

    2012-10-01

    Watermelon, an important fruit crop worldwide, is prone to attack by several viruses that often results in destructive yield loss. To develop a transgenic watermelon resistant to multiple virus infection, a single chimeric transgene comprising a silencer DNA from the partial N gene of Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV) fused to the partial coat protein (CP) gene sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) and Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was constructed and transformed into watermelon (cv. Feeling) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Single or multiple transgene copies randomly inserted into various locations in the genome were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Transgenic watermelon R(0) plants were individually challenged with CMV, CGMMV or WMV, or with a mixture of these three viruses for resistance evaluation. Two lines were identified to exhibit resistance to CMV, CGMMV, WMV individually, and a mixed inoculation of the three viruses. The R(1) progeny of the two resistant R(0) lines showed resistance to CMV and WMV, but not to CGMMV. Low level accumulation of transgene transcripts in resistant plants and small interfering (si) RNAs specific to CMV and WMV were readily detected in the resistant R(1) plants by northern blot analysis, indicating that the resistance was established via RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Loss of the CGMMV CP-transgene fragment in R1 progeny might be the reason for the failure to resistant CGMMV infection, as shown by the absence of a hybridization signal and no detectable siRNA specific to CGMMV in Southern and northern blot analyses. In summary, this study demonstrated that fusion of different viral CP gene fragments in transgenic watermelon contributed to multiple virus resistance via PTGS. The construct and resistant watermelon lines developed in this study could be used in a watermelon breeding program for resistance to multiple viruses.

  9. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

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    Mi-Kyeong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  10. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  11. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy

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    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-05-01

    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  12. Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2014-07-01

    Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in cucurbit crops of KPK, Pakistan

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    Asad Ali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Field survey of the cucurbit crops revealed a high incidence of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, Pakistan. Among the seven districts surveyed, average percent incidence of CGMMV was recorded up to 58.1% in district Nowshera, followed by 51.1% in district Charsada, 40.5% in district Swabi and 37.3% in district Mardan. In Swat and Dir districts average incidence CGMMV was recorded upto 31.2% and 29.4%, respectively. Among the different crops highest incidence in plain areas of KPK was recorded in bottle gourd (59.3% followed by 56.3% in Squash, 54.5% in Pumpkin, 45.5% in Melon, 41.7% in Cucumber and 29.9% in Sponge gourd. In Northern hilly areas highest incidence of CGMMV (52.9% was observed in pumpkin, followed by 49.6% in bottle gourd, 47.3% in squash, 45.1% in Melon 42.3% in cucumber and 41.6% in sponge gourd. Little variability was observed in the coat protein amino acid sequence identities of CGMMV Pakistan isolate, when compared with other reported isolates.

  14. Effects of Cowpea mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus on six Soybean (Glycine max L. cultivars

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    Aliyu Taiye H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was carried out to determine the comparative pathogenic response of six cultivars of soybean; TGx 1844-18E, TGx 1448-2E, TGx 1910-8F, TGx 1019-2EN, TGx 1910-8F and TGx 1876-4E to single and mixed infections with cowpea mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus. The experiment was conducted in the screenhouse at the crop production pavilion, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara state Nigeria. The results of the experiment revealed that all soybean cultivars were susceptible to single and mixed infection of the two viruses but to seemingly different extent. The single infection with cowpea mottle virus (CMeV, however, caused the most severe symptoms on the soybean cultivars. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV alone was not as severe as the CMeV. The mixed infection of CMeV and CMV did not cause higher severity than CMeV alone indicating that there was little or no synergistic effect between the two viruses on soybean.

  15. SCREENING FOR CUCUMBER MOSAIC RESISTANT LINES FROM THE OVULE CULTURE DERIVED DOUBLE HAPLOID CUCUMBERS

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    Parichat Plapung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA (2:1 or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino purine (2ip and IAA (5:1 and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.

  16. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

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    Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV movement protein (MP gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV replication protein (Rep gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58 immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32 immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃ did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of Nicotiana tabacum infected by Cucumber mosaic virus during systemic symptom development.

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    Jie Lu

    Full Text Available Virus infection of plants may induce a variety of disease symptoms. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of systemic symptom development in infected plants. Here we performed the first next-generation sequencing study to identify gene expression changes associated with disease development in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc induced by infection with the M strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (M-CMV. Analysis of the tobacco transcriptome by RNA-Seq identified 95,916 unigenes, 34,408 of which were new transcripts by database searches. Deep sequencing was subsequently used to compare the digital gene expression (DGE profiles of the healthy plants with the infected plants at six sequential disease development stages, including vein clearing, mosaic, severe chlorosis, partial and complete recovery, and secondary mosaic. Thousands of differentially expressed genes were identified, and KEGG pathway analysis of these genes suggested that many biological processes, such as photosynthesis, pigment metabolism and plant-pathogen interaction, were involved in systemic symptom development. Our systematic analysis provides comprehensive transcriptomic information regarding systemic symptom development in virus-infected plants. This information will help further our understanding of the detailed mechanisms of plant responses to viral infection.

  18. Characterisation of several heterogeneous species of defective RNAs derived from RNA 3 of cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, C; Aramburu, J; Galipienso, L; Nuez, F

    2007-01-01

    Preparations of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) extracted from Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi plants infected with a subgroup IB isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) were found to contain a heterogeneous population of defective RNAs (D-RNAs) derived from RNA 3. Characterised D-RNAs ranged in size from 1.5 to 1.9 kb and were derived either by a single in-frame deletion within the 3a or 3b genes or by means of double in-frame deletions within both genes. Also, northern blot hybridisation showed two other types of RNA derived from RNA 3: (a) RNA species of ca. 0.7 kb containing the 3'-terminus but lacking the 5'-terminus, which could be 3'-coterminal subgenomic of D-RNAs derived from the 3b gene and (b) RNA species of unknown origin of ca. 0.8 kb containing the 5'-terminus but lacking the 3'-terminus.

  19. [Specifics of the coat protein gene in Russian strains of the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavokhotova, A A; Andreeva, E N; Shiian, A N; Odintsova, T I; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2007-11-01

    The primary structure of the coat protein (CP) gene was examined for pathogenic strain MS-1 and vaccine strain VIROG-43M of the cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). In CP amino acid composition, strains MS-1 and VIROG-43M are typical representatives of CGMMV: their CPs have 98-100% homology to CPs of other tobamoviruses of the group. The CP gene has the same nucleotide composition in pathogenic MS-1 and vaccine VIROG-43M, indicating that strain attenuation is not determined by this gene. The CP amino acid sequences of the two Russian strains are fully identical to the CP sequences of two Greek strains, GR-3 and GR-5. However, the nucleotide sequences of their genes differ in 13 bp, testifying to the difference between the Russian and Greek strains.

  20. Heterologous replicase driven 3' end repair of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanandam, Venkatesh; Varady, Erika; Rao, A L N

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the extent of the 3' end repair in a satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Q (Q(sat)) by a heterologous Tomato aspermy virus (TAV), a set of biologically active agrotransformants corresponding to the three genomic RNAs of TAV was developed. Analysis of Nicotiana benthamiana plants agroinfiltrated with TAV and either wild type or each of the six 3' deletion mutants of Q(sat) revealed that (i) heterologous replicase failed to generate Q(sat) multimers, a hallmark feature of homologous replicase dependent replication of Qsat; (ii) manifestation of severe symptom phenotypes and progeny analysis suggested that heterologous replicase was competent to repair Q(sat) deletion mutants lacking up to 3'13 nucleotides (nt) but not beyond and (iii) comparative in silico analysis indicated that the 3' secondary structural features of the repaired Q(sat) progeny from heterologous vs homologous driven replicases are remarkably very similar. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND EFFECTS OF MIXED INFECTION OF Potyvirus ISOLATES WITH Cucumber mosaic virus IN CUCURBITS

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    GRAZIELA DA SILVA BARBOSA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed infections in cucurbits are frequently observed in natural conditions between viruses from the Potyvirus genus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, which significantly decreases productivity. The objectives of the present study was to compare the host range of PRSV - W, WMV, and ZYMV isolates and evaluate the effects of mixed infections with CMV in zucchini plants ( Cucurbita pepo L.. Host range studies comprising 23 plant species confirmed some similarities and biological differences among the isolates of PRSV - W, ZYMV, and WMV. RT - PCR confirmed the amplification of DNA fragments of the PRSV - W, WMV, and ZYMV coat protein gene ( cp and cytoplasm inclusion gene ( ci . The virus interaction studies in zucchini Caserta plants indicated synergistic interactions, particularly among species from the Potyvirus genus, and some CMV interference with some virus combinations.

  2. Nucleotide sequences of two Korean isolates of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Jung-Myung; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Oh, Man-Ho; Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2003-12-31

    The nucleotide sequences of the genomic RNAs of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus Korean watermelon isolate (CGMMV-KW) and Korean oriental melon isolate (CGMMV-KOM) were determined and compared to the sequences of other tobamoviruses including CGMMV strains W and SH. Each CGMMV isolate had a genome of 6,424 nucleotides. Each also had 60 and 176 nucleotides of 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), respectively, and four open reading frames (ORF1-4). ORFs 1 to 4 encode proteins of 129, 186, 29, and 17.4 kDa, respectively. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of CGMMV-KOM and CGMMV-KW were more than 98.3% identical. When compared to other CGMMV strains in a phylogenetic analysis they were found to form a distinct virus clade, and were more distantly related to other tobamoviruses (23.5-56.7% identity).

  3. Antiviral activity of plant extract from Tanacetum vulgare against Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Potato Virus Y

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    Nikolay Petrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY have been described among the top five important viruses infecting vegetable species worldwide. They cause severe damages in fruits and cultivated plants. There is currently no available effective pesticide to control these viral diseases. Higher plants contain a wide spectrum of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids, quinones, tannins, essential oils, alkaloids, saponins, sterols and others. Extracts prepared from different plants have been reported to have a variety of properties including antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial properties against pathogens. Tanacetum vulgare (Tansy is native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has many horticultural and pharmacological qualities. T. vulgare is principally used in traditional Asian and North African medicine as an antihelminthic, antispasmodic, stimulant to abdominal viscera, tonic, antidiabetic and diuretic, and it is antihypertensive. In our research we established antiviral effect of methanol extract from T. vulgare against CMV and PVY in tomato plants.

  4. Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Chili Veinal Mottle Virus Infection on Growth and Yield Component of Chilli

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    ENDANG NURHAYATI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A research was undergone to study the effect of single and double infection of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV and Chili Veinal Mottle Virus (ChiVMV on the growth and yield of five chilli cultivars, i.e. Prabu, Taro, Jatilaba, Laris, and Keriting Bogor. Mechanical inoculation was conducted to transmit the virus. Infection of the virus was then confirmed with DAS-ELISA. Severe symptom was observed on plant given double infection compared to those given single infection. The rate of plant growth and the amount and weight of fruits were reduced. The type of interaction between CMV and ChiVMV on most chilli cultivar can be considered as interference and additive. Synergism interaction was only observed on cultivar Laris. Based on symptom expression and reduction on yield, it can be concluded that all chilli cultivars used in this study could not hold up the virus infection.

  5. Compost Extracts of Vegetable Wastes as Biopesticide to Control Cucumber Mosaic Virus

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    WIWIEK SRI WAHYUNI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In semiaerobic conditions, different composting processes of vegetable wastes have different characteristics. When compost extracts amended with the effective microorganism-4 (EM4, +E and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ch1 (+B stored for 40 days, the bacteria population and P-content increased. Tobacco plants treated with compost extracts amended with +E+B and [+E+B] directly to organic materials and inoculated with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV both sprayed or watered applications reduced the disease severity. This is due to the higher bacteria population in the root and rhizosphere, particularly the activities of P. aeruginosa Ch1 as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR rather than the activities of bacteria from EM4. The role of P. aeruginosa Ch1 to induce resistance of the plants to CMV was suggested by producing siderophores under the limited Fe conditions,17-20 ppm.

  6. Breakage of resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus by co-infection with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: enhancement of CMV accumulation independent of symptom expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Lee, K C; Gaba, V; Wong, S M; Palukaitis, P; Gal-On, A

    2004-02-01

    Resistance to the cucumovirus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in cucumber cv. Delila was manifested as a very low level of accumulation of viral RNA and capsid protein, and an absence of CMV-induced symptoms. In addition, resistance was observed at the single cell level, with a reduction in accumulation of CMV RNAs, compared to accumulation in cells of the susceptible cucumber cv. Bet Alpha. Resistance to CMV in cv. Delila was broken by co-infection with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). Resistance breakage in cv. Delila plants was manifested by an increase in the accumulation of (+) and (-) CMV RNA as well as CMV capsid protein, with no increase in the level of accumulation of ZYMV. Resistance breakage in the resistant cultivar by ZYMV also occurred at the single cell level. Thus, synergistic interactions known to occur between a potyvirus and a cucumovirus led to resistance breakage during a double infection. However, resistance breakage was not accompanied by an increase in disease symptoms beyond those induced by ZYMV itself. On co-inoculation with an asymptomatic variant of ZYMV-AG an enhancement of CMV infection occurred without disease manifestation. Consequently, intensification of viral RNA and capsid protein accumulation can occur without a corresponding increase in disease development, suggesting that different host genes regulate viral accumulation and disease development in the CMV-resistant cucumber plants.

  7. Synergy between cucumber mosaic virus and zucchini yellow mosaic virus on Cucurbitaceae hosts tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rong; Liao, Qiansheng; Feng, Junli; Li, Dingjun; Chen, Jishuang

    2007-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are two principal viruses infecting cucurbitaceous crops, and their synergy has been repeatedly observed. In our present work, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction procedure was established to study the accumulation kinetics of these two viruses in single and combined infections at the molecular level. The accumulations of open reading frames (ORFs) for 1a, 2a, 3a and coat protein (CP) of CMV and CP of ZYMV were tested. In the single infection, CMV-Fny ORFs accumulated to their maxima in cucumber or bottle gourd at 14 d post-inoculation (dpi), and gradually declined thereafter. ZYMV-SD CP ORF reached maximal accumulation at 14 and 28 dpi on cucumber and bottle gourd, respectively. However, when co-infected with CMV-Fny and ZYMV-SD, the maximal accumulation levels of all viral ORFs were delayed. CMV-Fny ORFs reached their maxima at 21 dpi on both hosts, and ZYMV-SDCP ORF reached maximal accumulation at 21 and 28 dpi on cucumber and bottle gourd, respectively. Generally, the accumulation levels of CMV-Fny ORFs in the co-infection were higher than those in the single infection, whereas the accumulation of ZYMV-SD CP ORF showed a reverse result.

  8. Potential involvement of a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 in the long-distance movement of Cucumber mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, A; Simón-Buela, L; Salcedo, G; García-Arenal, F

    2006-07-01

    The systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in cucumber plants was analyzed. The structure that is translocated and its putative interactions with phloem components were analyzed in phloem exudate (PE) samples, which reflect sieve tubes stream composition. Rate zonal centrifugation and electron-microscopy analyses of PE from CMV-infected plants showed that CMV moves through sieve tubes as virus particles. Gel overlay assays revealed that CMV particles interact with a PE protein, p48. The amino-acid sequence of several tryptic peptides of p48 was determined. Partial amino-acid sequence of p48 showed it was a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 (PP1) from pumpkin, with which p48 also shares several chemical properties. PP1 from pumpkin has plasmodesmata-gating ability and translocates in sieve tubes. Encapsidated CMV RNA in PE samples from infected plants was less accessible to digestion by RNase A than RNA in purified CMV particles, a property that was reconstituted by the in vitro interaction of purified CMV particles and protein p48. These results indicate that the interaction with p48 modifies CMV particle structure and suggest that CMV particles interact with the cucumber homolog of PP1 during translocation in the sieve tubes.

  9. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  10. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhubala, R; Bhadramurthy, V; Bhat, A I; Hareesh, P S; Retheesh, S T; Bhai, R S

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  11. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhubala; V Bhadramurthy; A I Bhat; P S Hareesh; S T Retheesh; R S Bhai

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  12. Sequence analysis and genetic diversity of five new Indian isolates of cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Gautam, K K; Raj, S K

    2015-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is an important virus since it causes severe losses to many economically important crops worldwide. Five new isolates of CMV were isolated from naturally infected Hippeastrum hybridum, Dahlia pinnata, Hemerocallis fulva, Acorus calamus and Typhonium trilobatum plants, all exhibiting severe leaf mosaic symptoms. For molecular identification and sequence analyses, the complete coat protein (CP) gene of these isolates was amplified by RT-PCR. The resulting amplicons were cloned and sequenced and isolates were designated as HH (KP698590), DP (JF682239), HF (KP698589), AC (KP698588) and TT (JX570732). For study of genetic diversity among these isolates, the sequence data were analysed by BLASTn, multiple alignment and generating phylogenetic trees along with the respective sequences of other CMV isolates available in GenBank Database were done. The isolates under study showed 82-99% sequence diversity among them at nucleotide and amino acid levels; however they showed close relationships with CMV isolates of subgroup IB. In alignment analysis of amino acid sequences of HH and AC isolates, we have found fifteen and twelve unique substitutions, compared to HF, DP and TT isolates, suggesting the cause of high genetic diversity.

  13. Pseudorecombination between Two Distinct Strains of Cucumber mosaic virus Results in Enhancement of Symptom Severity

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    Mi Sa Vo Phan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV strain, named as CMV-209, was isolated from Glycine soja. In this study, symptom expression of CMV-209 was analyzed in detail in Nicotiana benthamiana by comparing with that of CMV-Fny, which is a representative strain of CMV. Using infectious cDNA clones of CMV strains 209 and Fny, symptom expression of various pseudorecombinants between these two strains were examined in the early and late infection stages. In the early infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing Fny-RNA2 induced stunting and leaf distortion on the newly emerged leaves whereas the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA2 caused no obvious symptoms. In the late infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA1 and Fny-RNA2 induced severe leaf distortion and stunting, while CMV-209 induced mild symptom and CMV-Fny caused typical mosaic, general stunting, and leaf distortion symptoms, indicating that RNA 2 encodes a symptom determinant(s of CMV, which is capable of enhancing symptoms. Furthermore, our results support the possibility that natural recombination between compatible viruses can result in emergence of novel viruses causing severe damages in crop fields.

  14. Pseudorecombination between Two Distinct Strains of Cucumber mosaic virus Results in Enhancement of Symptom Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mi Sa Vo; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Choi, Hong-Soo; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2014-09-01

    Recently, a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain, named as CMV-209, was isolated from Glycine soja. In this study, symptom expression of CMV-209 was analyzed in detail in Nicotiana benthamiana by comparing with that of CMV-Fny, which is a representative strain of CMV. Using infectious cDNA clones of CMV strains 209 and Fny, symptom expression of various pseudorecombinants between these two strains were examined in the early and late infection stages. In the early infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing Fny-RNA2 induced stunting and leaf distortion on the newly emerged leaves whereas the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA2 caused no obvious symptoms. In the late infection stage, the pseudorecombinants containing 209-RNA1 and Fny-RNA2 induced severe leaf distortion and stunting, while CMV-209 induced mild symptom and CMV-Fny caused typical mosaic, general stunting, and leaf distortion symptoms, indicating that RNA 2 encodes a symptom determinant(s) of CMV, which is capable of enhancing symptoms. Furthermore, our results support the possibility that natural recombination between compatible viruses can result in emergence of novel viruses causing severe damages in crop fields.

  15. Satellite RNA-mediated Reduction of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Genomic RNAs Accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiansheng LIAO; Liping ZHU; Zhiyou DU; Rong ZENG; Junli FENG; Jishuang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are molecular parasites that interfere with the pathogenesis of the helper viruses.In this study,the relative accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny genomic RNAs with or without satRNAs were quantitatively analyzed by real-time RT-PCR.The results showed that satRs apparently attenuated the symptoms of CMV-Fny on Nicotiana tabacum by depressing the accumulation of CMV-Fny genomic RNAs,tested as open reading frames.The accumulation of CMV-Fny la,2a,2b,3a,and CP genes was much higher than that of CMV-Fny with satRs added(CMV-Fsat),at different inoculation times.CMV-Fny△2b,in which the complete 2b gene and 41 amino acids at the C-terminal of the 2a gene were deleted,caused only a slight mosaic effect on N.tabacum seedlings,similar to that of CMVFsat,but the addition of satRs to CMV-Fny△2b showed further decrease in the accumulation of CMVFny△2b genomic RNAs.Our results indicated that the attenuation of CMV,by adding satRs or deleting the 2b gene,was due to the low accumulation of CMV genomic RNAs,and that satRNA-mediated reduction of CMV genomic RNAs accumulation in N.tabacum was possibly related to the 2b gene.

  16. Genetic diversity, distant phylogenetic relationships and the occurrence of recombination events among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from zucchini in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Chrzanowski, Mateusz; Budzyńska, Daria; Rymelska, Natalia; Borodynko-Filas, Natasza

    2017-02-25

    In recent years, the occurrence of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been noted in zucchini crops in Poland. Beside characteristic isolates, which displayed mosaics and chlorosis on infected plants, new necrotic isolates have also been identified. Here, we analysed the molecular variability of 27 isolates of CMV collected from zucchini in various regions of the country. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis based on the genes encoding the coat (CP) and movement (MP) proteins revealed that the Polish isolates belong to two subgroups: IA and II, with the prevalence of subgroup II. New recombinant variants with an IA-MP/II-CP pattern for RNA3 were also detected.

  17. Molecular characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus infecting Gladiolus, revealing its phylogeny distinct from the Indian isolate and alike the Fny strain of CMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Vimal Kumar; Aminuddin; Singh, Vijai Pal

    2010-08-01

    The majority of Gladiolus plants growing in the botanical garden at NBRI, Lucknow, India and adjoining areas exhibited symptoms of mosaic, color breaking, stunting of spikes and reduction in flower size. The occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was suspected in symptomatic Gladiolus plants. Cucumber mosaic virus, the type species of the genus Cucumovirus of the family Bromoviridae, is an important plant virus worldwide, which infects many plants and causes quantity and quality losses. For virus characterization, total RNA was isolated from leaves of infected plants and used in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with a primer set designed in the Cucumber mosaic virus coat protein region. Viral amplicons of the expected 657 bp size were obtained from infected plants. No viral amplicon was obtained from healthy control plants. Viral amplicons were cloned and sequenced (DQ295914). Molecular characterization was performed and phylogenetic relationship determined by the comparison of coat protein gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences with other Cucumber mosaic virus isolates reported from India and worldwide. The nucleotide and amino acid percentage comparison and phylogenetic tree results revealed that Cucumber mosaic virus infecting Gladiolus show resemblance with the Fny strain, which is not common in the Asian continent.

  18. Recombination with coat protein transgene in a complemen-tation system based on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI; Wanli

    2001-01-01

    [1]Palukaitis, P., Roossinck, M. J., Dietzgen, R. G. et al., Cucumber mosaic virus, Adv. Virus Res., 1992, 41: 281-348.[2]Hayes, R. J., Buck, K. W., Complete replication of an eukaryotic virus RNA in vitro by a purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Cell, 1990, 63: 363-369.[3]Nitta, N., Takanami, Y., Kuwata, S. et al., Inoculation with RNAs 1 and 2 of cucumber mosaic virus induces viral RNA replicase activity in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, J. Gen. Virol., 1988, 69: 2695-2700.[4]Suzuki, M., Kuwata, S., Kataoda, J. et al., Functional analysis of deletion mutants of cucumber mosaic virus RNA3 using an in vitro transcription system, Virology, 1991, 183: 106-113.[5]Canto, T., Prior, D. A. M., Hellwald, K. H. et al., Characterization of cucumber mosaic virus (IV)--Movement protein and coat protein are both essential for cell-to-cell movement of cucumber mosaic virus, Virology, 1997, 237:237-248.[6]Takanami, Y., A striking change in symptoms on cucumber mosaic virus-infected tobacco plants induced by a satellite RNA, Virology, 1981, 109: 120-126.[7]DeBorde, D. C., Naeve, C. W., Herlocher, M. L. et al., Resolution of a common RNA sequencing ambiguity by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, Anal. Biochem., 1986, 157: 275-282.[8]Haseloff, J., Siemering, K. R., Prasher, D. C. et al., Removal of a cryptic intron and subcellular localization of green fluo-rescent protein are required to mark transgenic Arabidopsis plants brightly, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 1997, 94: 2122-2127.[9]Shi, B. J., Ding, S. W., Symons, R. H., Plasmid vector for cloning infectious cDNAs from plant RNA viruses: high infec-tivity of cDNA clones of tomato aspermy cucumovirus, J. Gen. Virol., 1997, 78: 1181-1185.[10]Rizzo, T. M., Palukaitis, P., Construction of full-length cDNA clones of cucumber mosaic virus RNAs 1, 2 and 3: Genera-tion of infectious RNA transcripts, Mol. Gen. Genet., 1990, 222: 249-256.[11]Hall, R. D., The initiation and maintenance of

  19. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

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    Qian Yajuan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a member of the genus Tobamovirus, can be transmitted by seeds and infects many cucurbit species, causing serious yield losses in cucumber and watermelon plants. In this paper, five serological methods including antigen-coated plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA, triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA, Dot-immunobinding assay (DBIA, direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA and immunocapture reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR were described for detection and diagnosis of CGMMV. Results Using the purified CGMMV particles as immunogens, six murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs were produced. Five serological methods were established using the MAb 4H1 and detection sensitivity was compared using purified preparations and infected-plant tissue extracts. The detection sensitivity of ACP-ELISA was 0.16 ng of purified CGMMV, whereas TAS-ELISA was more sensitive than ACP-ELISA with a minimum detection of 0.04 ng of purified CGMMV. The sensitivities of TAS-ELISA and DBIA were similar for detecting CGMMV in infected-plant tissue extracts, and were four times higher than ACP-ELISA. The IC-RT-PCR was the most sensitive method, which could detect as little as 0.1 pg of purified virus. The detection sensitivity of IC-RT-PCR for CGMMV-infected plant tissues was about 400 times higher than that of TAS-ELISA and DBIA. Conclusions The established ACP-ELISA, TAS-ELISA, DBIA and DTBIA are suitable for routine CGMMV detection of large-scale samples in the field survey, while IC-RT-PCR is more sensitive and suitable for acquiring information about the viral genome.

  20. Genetic variation and population structure of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li-Xia; Guo, Yushuang; Zhang, Li-Li; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Hong, Jian; Wu, Jian-Xiang

    2017-01-04

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is a single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus infecting cucurbitaceous plants. In recent years, CGMMV has become an important pathogen of cucurbitaceous crops including watermelon, pumpkin, cucumber and bottle gourd in China, causing serious losses to their production. In this study, we surveyed CGMMV infection in various cucurbitaceous crops grown in Zhejiang Province and in several seed lots purchased from local stores with the dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA), using a CGMMV specific monoclonal antibody. Seven CGMMV isolates obtained from watermelon, grafted watermelon or oriental melon samples were cloned and sequenced. Identity analysis showed that the nucleotide identities of the seven complete genome sequences ranged from 99.2 to 100%. Phylogenetic analysis of seven CGMMV isolates as well as 24 other CGMMV isolates from the GenBank database showed that all CGMMV isolates could be grouped into two distinct monophyletic clades according to geographic distribution, i.e. Asian isolates for subtype I and European isolates for subtype II, indicating that population diversification of CGMMV isolates may be affected by geographical distribution. Site variation rate analysis of CGMMV found that the overall variation rate was below 8% and mainly ranged from 2 to 5%, indicating that the CGMMV genomic sequence was conservative. Base substitution type analysis of CGMMV showed a mutational bias, with more transitions (A↔G and C↔T) than transversions (A↔C, A↔T, G↔C and G↔T). Most of the variation occurring in the CGMMV genome resulted in non-synonymous substitutions, and the variation rate of some sites was higher than 30% because of this mutational bias. Selection constraint analysis of CGMMV ORFs showed strong negative selection acting on the replication-associated protein, similar to what occurs for other plant RNA viruses. Finally, potential recombination analysis identified isolate Ec as a

  1. Production of cucumber mosaic virus RNA5 and its role in recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wispelaere, Melissanne; Rao, A L N

    2009-02-05

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a plant infecting tripartite positive-strand RNA virus. In addition to three genomic and two known subgenomic RNAs, CMV strains of subgroup II (e.g. Q-CMV), but not subgroup I (e.g. Fny-CMV), produce and package a redundant RNA5 encompassing the 3' 304-307 nucleotides of RNAs 2 and 3. The mechanism regulating RNA5 production and its role in CMV life cycle is unknown. In this study, transient expression of Q2 or Q3 by agroinfiltration into Nicotiana benthamiana plants resulted in efficient accumulation of RNA5 suggesting that its production is independent of CMV replication. Deletion and point mutations engineered into a highly conserved region (Box1) adjacent to the 5' end of RNA5 identified sequences required for its efficient production. An experimental system, involving a chimera of Q3 (Q3B3) characterized by having a 3' tRNA-like structure (3'TLS) from Brome mosaic virus (BMV) and RNA5 defective variants of Q1 (Q1Delta), Q2 (Q2Delta) and Q3B3 (Q3DeltaB3), was used to evaluate in vivo the contribution of RNA5 in promoting RNA recombination. Generation of precise homologous recombinants was strictly dependent on sequence identity. When both parental RNAs carried the Box1, recombination occurred preferentially within the Box1. In contrast, generation of non-homologous recombinants occurred only when Q1 and Q2 were competent to produce RNA5. A mechanistic model explaining the functional role played by the RNA5 in generating CMV recombinants was presented.

  2. Emergence of a new satellite RNA from cucumber mosaic virus isolate P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SandraPérezAlvarez; 薛朝阳; 周雪平

    2003-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate P1 caused very mild symptoms on many plant species.After serial passages by mechanical inoculation over five years, CMV P1 caused severe symptoms on several tobacco cultivars and tomato. A specific band of approximately 0.3 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with primers synthesized based on reported CMV satellite RNA (satRNA) sequences. Sequence analysis showed there were two satRNAs (Sat-Pl-1 and Sat-P1-2). Sat-Pl-1 contained 335 nucleotides, and Sat-P1-2 contained 394 nucleotides. These two satRNAs shared 64% overall nucleotide sequence homology, and differences between the two satRNAs included mutations as well as deletions. Sat-Pl-1 was identical to a satRNA (Z96099) reported in 1995 in CMV P1. Based on differences in the sequence and secondary structure between these two satRNAs, we conclude that Sat-P1-2 represents the emergence of a new satellite ( necrotic satellite) from attenuated satRNA populations. The possible effect of the emergence of this new satRNA is discussed.

  3. Emergence of a new satellite RNA from cucumber mosaic virus isolate P1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate P1 caused very mild symptoms on many plant species. After serial passages by mechanical inoculation over five years, CMV P1 caused severe symptoms on several tobacco cultivars and tomato. A specific band of approximately 0.3 kb in length was amplified by RT-PCR with primers synthesized based on reported CMV satellite RNA (satRNA) sequences. Sequence analysis showed there were two satRNAs (Sat-P1-1 and Sat-P1-2). Sat-P1-1 contained 335 nucleotides, and Sat-P1-2 contained 394 nucleotides. These two satRNAs shared 64% overall nucleotide sequence homology, and differences between the two satRNAs included mutations as well as deletions. Sat-P1-1 was identical to a satRNA (Z96099) reported in 1995 in CMV P1. Based on differences in the sequence and secondary structure between these two satRNAs, we conclude that Sat-P1-2 represents the emergence of a new satellite (necrotic satellite) from attenuated satRNA populations. The possible effect of the emergence of this new satRNA is discussed.

  4. A cucumber mosaic virus based expression system for the production of porcine circovirus specific vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akos Gellért

    Full Text Available Potential porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 capsid protein epitopes, suitable for expression on the surface of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV particles were determined by a thorough analysis of the predicted PCV capsid protein structure. The ab initio protein structure prediction was carried out with fold recognition and threading methods. The putative PCV epitopes were selected on the basis of PCV virion models and integrated into the plant virus coat protein, after amino acid position 131. The recombinants were tested for infectivity and stability on different Nicotiana species and stable recombinant virus particles were purified. The particles were tested for their ability to bind to PCV induced porcine antibodies and used for specific antibody induction in mice and pigs. The results showed that PCV epitopes expressed on the CMV surface were recognized by the porcine antibodies and they were also able to induce PCV specific antibody response. Challenge experiment with PCV2 carried out in immunized pigs showed partial protection against the infection. Based on these results it was concluded that specific antiviral vaccine production for the given pathogen was feasible, offering an inexpensive way for the mass production of such vaccines.

  5. Molecular characterization of cucumber mosaic virus isolates infecting tomato in Hamedan and Tehran provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaeizadeh, M; Saidi, A; Palukaitis, P

    2015-06-01

    Here we identified four isolates, MS, 3H, 50A, and 2K of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) infecting tomato, on the basis of their non-coding intergenic region and a part of the coat protein (CP) sequence in the CMV genomic RNA3. The sequences from the four isolates were compared with other previously characterized isolates of CMV isolated from different plant species across the globe. Sequence comparisons revealed that the two CMV isolates from Hamedan province (MS and 3H) had the highest sequence identity with CMV-G10 (98%), which was previously reported as a severe Hellenic tomato isolate of CMV, while the CMV isolates from Tehran province, including CMV-2K (isolated from Karaj region) and CMV-50A (isolated from Varamin region), had the highest sequence identity with that of CMV-ALF (99%). Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed that CMV-MS and CMV-3H belong to group IB, while CMV-2K and CMV-50A belong to group IA. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of novel isolates of CMV infecting tomato plants in Iran.

  6. The first evidence of subgroup IB isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus in Ukraine

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    Shevchenko T. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In current work, we proceeded with the strain attribution of Ukrainian isolates CMV based on the phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequences of the coat protein gene. Methods. ELISA, RT-PCR, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is widespread among the variety of crops from the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae families in Ukraine. The symptomatic samples from different regions of Ukraine were collected and tested for the presence of CMV. The coat protein (CP gene of two isolates was amplified and sequenced. The partial nucleotide sequences of CP gene were determined and compared to those of other CMV strains belonging to the IA, IB and II subgroups. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of Ukrainian isolates showed their similar identity percentages and close relationships with the subgroup IB strains from other countries. The highest nucleotide homology was shared with the strains ABI (Korea and SD (China. Conclusions. Based on the highest identities of the coat protein gene sequences and close phylogenetic relationships with the subgroup IB members of CMV, the Ukrainian isolates under study were identified as belonging to the subgroup IB. Our findings show for the first time an occurrence of the IB subgroup isolates of CMV in Ukraine.

  7. Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IA frequently occurs in the northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokhandan Bashir, N; Nematollahi, S; Torabi, E

    2008-01-01

    To monitor genetic variation between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates of northwest Iran, samples of cucurbitaceous plants expressing symptoms similar to those caused by CMV were collected. The samples were first screened by ELISA to detect CMV and to determine its subgroup. All detected CMV isolates appeared to be subgroup I (S-I). When total RNA from the samples was subjected to RT-PCR with a pair of primers corresponding to the CMV coat protein (CP) flanking regions, the expected ~870 bp DNA fragment was amplified at 18 samples of 34 tested. MspI restriction analysis of 18 amplified products produced two DNA fragments with sizes about 530 and 330 bp corresponding to MspI profile of CMV S-I. The amplification products of four representative samples were cloned and nucleotide sequences of 1-5 clones from each isolate were determined. The clones from each isolate were over 99% identical and also the isolates themselves were only up to 2% divergent. These isolates clustered in subgroup IA clade on a consensus phylogenetic tree and formed a distinct subclade suggesting that the isolates have originated from a common source.

  8. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tomato Infected by Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Antonella; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lovelli, Stella; Sofo, Adriano; Valerio, Maria; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV.

  9. Induction of Systemic Resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana by Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1

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    Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma asperellum SKT-1 is a microbial pesticide that is very effective against various diseases. Our study was undertaken to evaluate T. asperellum SKT-1 for induction of resistance against yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Y in Arabidopsis plants. Disease severity was rated at 2 weeks post inoculation (WPI. CMV titre in Arabidopsis leaves was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA at 2 WPI. Our results demonstrated that among all Arabidopsis plants treated with barley grain inoculum (BGI of SKT-1 NahG and npr1 plants showed no significant reduction in disease severity and CMV titre as compared with control plants. In contrast, disease severity and CMV titre were significantly reduced in all Arabidopsis plants treated with culture filtrate (CF of SKT-1 as compared with control plants. RT-PCR results showed increased expression levels of SA-inducible genes, but not JA/ET-inducible genes, in leaves of BGI treated plants. Moreover, expression levels of SA- and JA/ET-inducible genes were increased in leaves of CF treated plants. In conclusion, BGI treatment induced systemic resistance against CMV through SA signaling cascade in Arabidopsis plants. While, treatment with CF of SKT-1 mediated the expression of a majority of the various pathogen related genes, which led to the increased defense mechanism against CMV infection.

  10. Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Sheu, Fuu; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-02-24

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been identified as the causal agent of several disease epidemics in most countries of the world. Insect-mediated virus diseases, such as those caused by CMV, caused remarkable loss of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) production in Taiwan. With expression of the CMV coat protein gene (Cmvcp) in a local popular tomato cultivar L4783, transgenic tomato line R8 has showed consistent CMV resistance through T(0) to T(8). In this report, the allergenicity of the CMV coat protein (CMV cp) expressed in transgenic tomato R8 was assessed by investigation of the expression of the transgene source of protein, sequence similarity with known allergens, and resistance to pepsin hydrolysis. There is no known account for either the CMV or its coat protein being an allergen. The result of a bioinformatic search also showed no significant homology between CMV cp and any known allergen. The pepsin-susceptible property of recombinant CMV cp was revealed by a simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay. Following the most recent FAO/WHO decision tree, all results have indicated that CMV cp was a protein with low possibility to be an allergen and the transgenic tomato R8 should be considered as safe as its host.

  11. Interaction of replicase components between Cucumber mosaic virus and Peanut stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masashi; Yoshida, Megumi; Yoshinuma, Toshio; Hibi, Tadaaki

    2003-07-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Peanut stunt virus (PSV) each have genomes consisting of three single-stranded RNA molecules: RNA 1, 2 and 3. RNAs 1 and 2 encode the 1a and 2a proteins, respectively, which are necessary for replication of the viral genome. Although RNA 3 is exchangeable between CMV and PSV, exchange of RNA 1 and 2 between the two viruses has been unsuccessful. In this study, reassortants containing PSV RNA 1 and CMV RNA 2 together with RNA 3 of CMV or PSV were shown to be able to replicate their genomic RNA, but not to transcribe subgenomic RNA 4 in tobacco protoplasts. Conversely, the reassortant consisting of CMV RNA 1 and PSV RNA 2 together with RNA 3 of CMV or PSV could not replicate. Subsequently, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to analyse the in vivo interaction between the 1a and 2a proteins. The C-terminal half of PSV-1a protein interacted with the N-terminal region of 2a protein of both PSV and CMV, but the C-terminal half of CMV-1a and the N-terminal region of PSV-2a did not interact. These results suggest that RNA replication in the interspecific reassortant between CMV and PSV requires compatibility between the C-terminal half of the 1a protein and the N-terminal region of the 2a protein, and this compatibility is insufficient for transcription of subgenomic RNA 4.

  12. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 induces systemic resistance in tomato infected by Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Vitti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22 to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV.

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of a new satellite RNA associated with cucumber mosaic virus inducing tomato necrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宁辉; 方荣祥; 濮祖芹; 方中达

    1997-01-01

    A new strain (TN strain) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was isolated from tomato plants with necrotic symptoms and proved to carry a necrogenic satellite RNA (TN-Sat RNA). Double-strand cDNA of the TN-Sat RNA was synthesized by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction using primers designed according to the conserved terminal sequences of known CMV satellite RNAs. Sequence analysis indicated that the TN-Sat RNA consisted of 390 nucleotides (nt). Comparison of the sequence of the TN-Sat RNA with those of other CMV satellite RNAs revealed four homologous regions ( I . 1-81 nt; II . 216-261 nt; III. 278-338 nt; IV . 349-390 nt) and one hypervarible domain in the region of 82-215 nt. Moreover, the TN-Sat RNA contained a characteristic necro-genic consensus sequence at the 3’ end (339-367 nt) as reported in the known necrosis-inducing CMV satellite RNAs.

  14. Trichoderma harzianum T-22 Induces Systemic Resistance in Tomato Infected by Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitti, Antonella; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lovelli, Stella; Sofo, Adriano; Valerio, Maria; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the induction of plant defenses against viruses using biocontrol agents is essential for developing new strategies against these pathogens, given the ineffectiveness of chemical treatments. The ability of Trichoderma harzianum, strain T-22 (T22) to control Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme plants and the changes in the physiology of tomato treated/infected with T22/CMV were examined. Plant growth-promoting effects, photosynthetic performance, reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, and phytohormones were investigated. T22 improved tomato growth in terms of plant height and improved photosynthesis, total chlorophyll content and plant gas exchange. In contrast, CMV induced a negative effect on dry matter accumulation and inhibited the photosynthetic capacity. The analysis of plant hormones demonstrated that treating with T22 before or simultaneously to CMV infection, led to a systemic resistance by jasmonic acid/ethylene and salicylic acid signaling pathways. Conversely, systemic resistance was abscissic acid-dependent when T22 treatment was administered after the CMV infection. In conclusion, the data reported here indicate that the T22-based strategy may be the most effective measure against CMV. PMID:27777581

  15. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rodríguez Pardina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth. Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de preservar este recurso nativo y fuente regional de ingresos, la especie está siendo domesticada. Durante este proceso, se observó la aparición de síntomas de un conspicuo mosaico amarillo, típico de infección viral. Análisis biológicos, serológicos y moleculares (RT-PCR, RFLP, clonado y secuenciación pusieron de manifiesto la presencia del subgrupo IA de Cucumber mosaic virus en las plantas domesticadas de peperina. El aislamiento viral estudiado está íntimamente relacionado con la raza Y previamente informada en Japón. Éste es el primer informe de un virus que infecta a la peperina.

  16. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

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    H W Liu

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16' were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d, and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01 validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways and genetic information processes (40 pathways and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways. These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  17. Behavior of RNAi suppressor protein 2b of Cucumber mosaic virus in planta in presence and absence of virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Shelly; Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Anil K

    2008-08-01

    The 2b protein encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been shown as a virus counter defense factor that interferes with the RNAi pathway. The 2b gene from CMV-banana, New Delhi isolate (CMV-NDLS) was amplified from CMV infected cucumber plants to generate the sense and antisense binary vector constructs for 2b expression and repression in planta. Constitutive expression of 2b gene in healthy Nicotiana tabacum caused phenotypic aberrations during somatic embryogenesis, which were not observed when expressed in CMV infected N. tabacum. Further, the established virus population in CMV infected N. tabacum was not affected by constitutive expression and repression of 2b gene. Thus, indicating its role in initiation of gene silencing, at the early stage of viral infection. This is the first demonstration of differential behavior of 2b suppressor protein in host development in the absence and presence of virus.

  18. Coat protein-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IB in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Srivastava; S K Raj

    2008-06-01

    Coat protein (CP)-mediated resistance against an Indian isolate of the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup IB was demonstrated in transgenic lines of Nicotiana benthamiana through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Out of the fourteen independently transformed lines developed, two lines were tested for resistance against CMV by challenge inoculations. The transgenic lines exhibiting complete resistance remained symptomless throughout life and showed reduced or no virus accumulation in their systemic leaves after virus challenge. These lines also showed virus resistance against two closely related strains of CMV. This is the first report of CP-mediated transgenic resistance against a CMV subgroup IB member isolated from India.

  19. Nicotiana small RNA sequences support a host genome origin of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite RNAs (satRNAs are small noncoding subviral RNA pathogens in plants that depend on helper viruses for replication and spread. Despite many decades of research, the origin of satRNAs remains unknown. In this study we show that a β-glucuronidase (GUS transgene fused with a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV Y satellite RNA (Y-Sat sequence (35S-GUS:Sat was transcriptionally repressed in N. tabacum in comparison to a 35S-GUS transgene that did not contain the Y-Sat sequence. This repression was not due to DNA methylation at the 35S promoter, but was associated with specific DNA methylation at the Y-Sat sequence. Both northern blot hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing detected 24-nt siRNAs in wild-type Nicotiana plants with sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that the N. tabacum genome contains Y-Sat-like sequences that give rise to 24-nt sRNAs capable of guiding RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM to the Y-Sat sequence in the 35S-GUS:Sat transgene. Consistent with this, Southern blot hybridization detected multiple DNA bands in Nicotiana plants that had sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that Y-Sat-like sequences exist in the Nicotiana genome as repetitive DNA, a DNA feature associated with 24-nt sRNAs. Our results point to a host genome origin for CMV satRNAs, and suggest novel approach of using small RNA sequences for finding the origin of other satRNAs.

  20. Paenibacillus lentimorbus Inoculation Enhances Tobacco Growth and Extenuates the Virulence of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Kumar

    Full Text Available Previous studies with Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488" (hereafter referred as B-30488, a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from cow's milk, revealed its capabilities to improve plant quality under normal and stress conditions. Present study investigates its potential as a biocontrol agent against an economically important virus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley plants and delineates the physical, biophysical, biochemical and molecular perturbations due to the trilateral interactions of PGPR-host-CMV. Soil inoculation of B-30488 enhanced the plant vigor while significantly decreased the virulence and virus RNA accumulation by ~12 fold (91% in systemic leaves of CMV infected tobacco plants as compared to the control ones. Histology of these leaves revealed the improved tissue's health and least aging signs in B-30488 inoculated tobacco plants, with or without CMV infection, and showed lesser intercellular spaces between collenchyma cells, reduced amount of xyloglucans and pectins in connecting primary cells, and higher polyphenol accumulation in hypodermis layer extending to collenchyma cells. B-30488 inoculation has favorably maneuvered the essential biophysical (ion leakage and photosynthetic efficiency and biochemical (sugar, proline, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase attributes of tobacco plants to positively regulate and release the virus stress. Moreover, activities of defense related enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase induced due to CMV-infection were ameliorated with inoculation of B-30488, suggesting systemic induced resistance mediated protection against CMV in tobacco. The quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the genes related to normal plant development, stress and pathogenesis also corroborate well with the biochemical data and revealed the regulation (either up or down of these genes in favor of

  1. Proteomic analysis of the plant-virus interaction in cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) resistant transgenic tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Villani, Maria Elena; Bianco, Linda; Lombardi, Raffaele; Perrotta, Gaetano; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello

    2010-11-05

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), a member of the Cucumovirus genus, is the causal agent of several plant diseases in a wide range of host species, causing important economic losses in agriculture. Because of the lack of natural resistance genes in most crops, different genetic engineering strategies have been adopted to obtain virus-resistant plants. In a previous study, we described the engineering of transgenic tomato plants expressing a single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv G4) that are specifically protected from CMV infection. In this work, we characterized the leaf proteome expressed during compatible plant-virus interaction in wild type and transgenic tomato. Protein changes in both inoculated and apical leaves were revealed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to differential in gel electrophoresis (DIGE) technology. A total of 2084 spots were detected, and 50 differentially expressed proteins were identified by nanoscale liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS). The majority of these proteins were related to photosynthesis (38%), primary metabolism (18%), and defense activity (14%) and demonstrated to be actively down regulated by CMV in infected leaves. Moreover, our analysis revealed that asymptomatic apical leaves of transgenic inoculated plants had no protein profile alteration as compared to control wild type uninfected plants demonstrating that virus infection is confined to the inoculated leaves and systemic spread is hindered by the CMV coat protein (CP)-specific scFv G4 molecules. Our work is the first comparative study on compatible plant-virus interactions between engineered immunoprotected and susceptible wild type tomato plants, contributing to the understanding of antibody-mediated disease resistance mechanisms.

  2. Genetic structure and molecular variability of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahideh Nouri

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV has a worldwide distribution and the widest host range of any known plant virus. From 2000 to 2012, epidemics of CMV severely affected the production of snap bean (Phaseulos vulgaris L. in the Midwest and Northeastern United States. Virus diversity leading to emergence of new strains is often considered a significant factor in virus epidemics. In addition to epidemics, new disease phenotypes arising from genetic exchanges or mutation can compromise effectiveness of plant disease management strategies. Here, we captured a snapshot of genetic variation of 32 CMV isolates collected from different regions of the U.S including new field as well as historic isolates. Nucleotide diversity (π was low for U.S. CMV isolates. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV subgroup I is predominant in the US and further showed that the CMV population is a mixture of subgroups IA and IB. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggests likely reassortment between subgroups IA and IB within five CMV isolates. Based on phylogenetic and computational analysis, recombination between subgroups I and II as well as IA and IB in RNA 3 was detected. This is the first report of recombination between CMV subgroups I and II. Neutrality tests illustrated that negative selection was the major force operating upon the CMV genome, although some positively selected sites were detected for all encoded proteins. Together, these data suggest that different regions of the CMV genome are under different evolutionary constraints. These results also delineate composition of the CMV population in the US, and further suggest that recombination and reassortment among strain subgroups does occur but at a low frequency, and point towards CMV genomic regions that differ in types of selection pressure.

  3. Nicotiana small RNA sequences support a host genome origin of cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kiran; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Smith, Neil A; Schumann, Ulrike; Fang, Yuan-Yuan; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Zhang, Ren; Guo, Hui-Shan; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are small noncoding subviral RNA pathogens in plants that depend on helper viruses for replication and spread. Despite many decades of research, the origin of satRNAs remains unknown. In this study we show that a β-glucuronidase (GUS) transgene fused with a Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y satellite RNA (Y-Sat) sequence (35S-GUS:Sat) was transcriptionally repressed in N. tabacum in comparison to a 35S-GUS transgene that did not contain the Y-Sat sequence. This repression was not due to DNA methylation at the 35S promoter, but was associated with specific DNA methylation at the Y-Sat sequence. Both northern blot hybridization and small RNA deep sequencing detected 24-nt siRNAs in wild-type Nicotiana plants with sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that the N. tabacum genome contains Y-Sat-like sequences that give rise to 24-nt sRNAs capable of guiding RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) to the Y-Sat sequence in the 35S-GUS:Sat transgene. Consistent with this, Southern blot hybridization detected multiple DNA bands in Nicotiana plants that had sequence homology to Y-Sat, suggesting that Y-Sat-like sequences exist in the Nicotiana genome as repetitive DNA, a DNA feature associated with 24-nt sRNAs. Our results point to a host genome origin for CMV satRNAs, and suggest novel approach of using small RNA sequences for finding the origin of other satRNAs.

  4. Movement Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Associates with Apoplastic Ascorbate Oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Kumar, Surender; Singh, Lakhmir; Hallan, Vipin

    Plant viral movement proteins facilitate virion movement mainly through interaction with a number of factors from the host. We report the association of a cell wall localized ascorbate oxidase (CsAO4) from Cucumis sativus with the movement protein (MP) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). This was identified first in a yeast two-hybrid screen and validated by in vivo pull down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. The BiFC assay showed localization of the bimolecular complexes of these proteins around the cell wall periphery as punctate spots. The expression of CsAO4 was induced during the initial infection period (up to 72 h) in CMV infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. To functionally validate its role in viral spread, we analyzed the virus accumulation in CsAO4 overexpressing Arabidopsis thaliana and transiently silenced N. benthamiana plants (through a Tobacco rattle virus vector). Overexpression had no evident effect on virus accumulation in upper non-inoculated leaves of transgenic lines in comparison to WT plants at 7 days post inoculation (dpi). However, knockdown resulted in reduced CMV accumulation in systemic (non-inoculated) leaves of NbΔAO-pTRV2 silenced plants as compared to TRV inoculated control plants at 5 dpi (up to 1.3 fold difference). In addition, functional validation supported the importance of AO in plant development. These findings suggest that AO and viral MP interaction helps in early viral movement; however, it had no major effect on viral accumulation after 7 dpi. This study suggests that initial induction of expression of AO on virus infection and its association with viral MP helps both towards targeting of the MP to the apoplast and disrupting formation of functional AO dimers for spread of virus to nearby cells, reducing the redox defense of the plant during initial stages of infection.

  5. Identification a coat protein region of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) essential for long-distance movement in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salánki, Katalin; Kiss, László; Gellért, Akos; Balázs, Ervin

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the long-distance movement determinant of cucumoviral coat proteins (CPs), five mutants were engineered into the CMV CP bearing the corresponding tomato aspermy virus (TAV) loops exposed on the surface of the virion. Both viruses can move long-distance in Nicotiana clevelandii, but only CMV can move long-distance in cucumber. Investigation of the CMV chimeras identified three amino acids of the βB-βC loop that were essential for the CMV long-distance movement in cucumber. Introducing these mutations into the TAV CP was not sufficient for long-distance movement, indicating that this is not the sole region causing long-distance movement deficiency.

  6. Occurrence and distribution of pepper veinal mottle virus and cucumber mosaic virus in pepper in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Arogundade Olawale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral diseases constitute obstacles to pepper production in the world. In Nigeria, pepper plants are primarily affected by pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Pepper leaf curl Virus (TLCV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Pepper mottle virus (PMV and a host of other viruses. The experiment was carried out with a diagnostic survey on the experimental field of the National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria and on pepper farms in six local government areas within Ibadan Oyo State, Nigeria, forty samples were collected from each of the farms. Diseased samples were obtained from the field and taken to the laboratory for indexing. In ELISA test some of the samples from the pepper farms showed positive reaction to single infection with PVMV (36.79%, CMV (22.14% while some others showed positive reaction to mixed infection of the two viruses (10% but some also negative reaction to PVMV and CMV antisera (31.07.

  7. Effects of cucumber mosaic virus infection on electron transport and antioxidant system in chloroplasts and mitochondria of cucumber and tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xing-Shun; Wang, Yan-Jie; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Nogués, Salvador; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-03-01

    We examined the responses of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport and antioxidant systems in cell organelles of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves to infection of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by comparing the gas exchange, Chl fluorescence, respiratory electron transport, superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle enzymes and the production of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts, mitochondria and soluble fraction in virus-infected and non-infected leaves. Long-term CMV infection resulted in decreased photosynthesis and respiration rates. Photosynthetic electron flux to carbon reduction, respiratory electron transport via both complex I and complex II and also the Cyt respiration rate all significantly decreased, while photosynthetic alternative electron flux and alternative respiration significantly increased. These changes in electron transport were accompanied by a general increase in the activities of SOD/AsA-GSH cycle enzymes followed by an increased H(2)O(2) accumulation in chloroplasts and mitochondria. These results demonstrated that disturbance of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport by CMV also affected the antioxidative systems, thereby leading to oxidative stress in various organelles.

  8. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Zayame Vegette [UNESP; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Piedade,Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  9. Development of a molecular assay for the detection of Cucumber mosaic virus and the discrimination of its subgroups I and II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bald-Blume, N.; Bergervoet, J.H.W.; Maiss, E.

    2017-01-01

    A nucleic acid based test for the detection of the economically important plant virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) based on the Luminex xTAG technology was developed. This technology has the advantage of allowing the simultaneous detection of various targets. Applying this method, we prove the presen

  10. Transgenic cucumbers harboring the 54-kDa putative gene of Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus are highly resistant to viral infection and protect non-transgenic scions from soil infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-On, Amit; Wolf, Dalia; Antignus, Yehezkel; Patlis, Larisa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Min, Byoung Eun; Pearlsman, Malenia; Lachman, Oded; Gaba, Victor; Wang, Yongzeng; Shiboleth, Yoel Moshe; Yang, Jee; Zelcer, Aaron

    2005-02-01

    Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CFMMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms and yellow mottling on leaves and fruits and, occasionally, severe wilting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants. No genetic source of resistance against this virus has been identified in cucumber. The gene coding for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene of CFMMV was cloned into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector, and transformation was performed on cotyledon explants of a parthenocarpic cucumber cultivar. R1 seedlings were screened for resistance to CFMMV by symptom expression, back inoculation on an alternative host and ELISA. From a total of 14 replicase-containing R1 lines, eight resistant lines were identified. Line 144--homozygous for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene--was immune to CFMMV infection by mechanical and graft inoculation, and to root infection following planting in CFMMV-infested soil. A substantial delay of symptom appearance was observed following infection by three additional cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. When used as a rootstock, line I44 protected susceptible cucumber scions from soil infection by CFMMV. This paper is the first report on protection of a susceptible cultivar against a soil-borne viral pathogen, by grafting onto a transgenic rootstock.

  11. Partial biological and molecular characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate naturally infecting Cucumis melo in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulpour, Rasoul; Afsharifar, Alireza; Izadpanah, Keramat

    2016-06-01

    Melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of Iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. The virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of Fabaceae family and Chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. Agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate showed the presence of CMV in the mechanically inoculated plants (designated CMV-Me). The virus was purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation and differential centrifugation. A polyclonal antiserum was produced against the virus that reacted specifically with virus antigen in ELISA and agar gel diffusion tests. The virus was molecularly characterized by PCR amplification of the full length of the coat protein gene using cucumovirus genus specific primer pair CPTALL-3/CPTALL-5 and sequence analysis of the resulting product. No RNA satellite was detected using the primer pair CMVsat3H/sat5T7P. Phylogenetic analysis based on the coat protein amino acid sequences showed that CMV-Me belongs to Subgroup IB. These results may be helpful in melon breeding programs, focusing on plant resistance to plant viruses including CMV.

  12. The capsid protein p38 of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the suppression of cucumber mosaic virus in Arabidopsis thaliana co-infected with cucumber mosaic virus and turnip crinkle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Jian; Deng, Xing-Guang; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Tong; Chen, Li-Juan; Bao, Wei-Kai; Xi, De-Hui; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Infection of plants by multiple viruses is common in nature. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) belong to different families, but Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana are commonly shared hosts for both viruses. In this study, we found that TCV provides effective resistance to infection by CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected by both viruses, and this antagonistic effect is much weaker when the two viruses are inoculated into different leaves of the same plant. However, similar antagonism is not observed in N. benthamiana plants. We further demonstrate that disrupting the RNA silencing-mediated defense of the Arabidopsis host does not affect this antagonism, but capsid protein (CP or p38)-defective mutant TCV loses the ability to repress CMV, suggesting that TCV CP plays an important role in the antagonistic effect of TCV toward CMV in Arabidopsis plants co-infected with both viruses.

  13. Expression of Cucumber mosaic virus suppressor 2b alters FWA methylation and its siRNA accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Sadia Hamera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV suppressor 2b co-localizes with AGO4 in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biochemical fractionation of A. thaliana cellular extracts revealed that 2b and AGO4 coexist in multiple size exclusions. 2b transgenic A. thaliana exhibited an enhanced accumulation of 24nt siRNAs from flowering wageningen (FWA and other heterochromatic loci. These plants also exhibited hypo-methylation of an endogenous- as well as transgene-FWA promoter at non-CG sites. In corroboration, both transgenic 2b and CMV infection affected the regulation of transposons which mimics the ago4 phenotype. In conclusion, 2b perturbs plant defense by interfering with AGO4-regulated transcriptional gene silencing.

  14. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Verma; B K Mahinghara; Raja Ram; A A Zaidi

    2006-03-01

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA-RNA hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). A complete coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using degenerate primers and sequenced. The CP gene showed nucleotide and amino acid homology up to 97%–98% and 96%–99%, respectively with the sequences of CMV subgroup II. The CP gene also showed homologies of 75%–97% in nucleotide and 77%–96% in amino acid with the CMV Indian isolates infecting various crops. On the basis of sequence homology, it was concluded that CMV-infecting geraniums in India belong to subgroup II.

  15. Quantitative Determination of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Genome RNAs in Virions by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Li FENG; Shao-Ning CHEN; Xiang-Shan TANG; Xian-Feng DING; Zhi-You DU; Ji-Shuang CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A real-time RT-PCR procedure using the green fluorescent dye SYBR Green I was developed for determining the absolute and relative copies of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) genomic RNAs contained in purified virions. Primers specific to each CMV ORF were designed and selected. Sequences were then amplified with length varying from 61 to 153 bp. Using dilution series of CMV genome RNAs prepared by in vitro transcription as the standard samples, a good linear correlation was observed between their threshold cycle (Ct)values and the logarithms of the initial template amounts. The copies of genomic RNA 1, RNA 2,RNA 3 and the subgenomic RNA 4 in CMV virions were quantified by this method, and the ratios were about Our work is the first report concerning the relative amounts of different RNA fragments in CMV virions as a virus with tripartite genome.

  16. Temporal analysis of reassortment and molecular evolution of Cucumber mosaic virus: Extra clues from its segmented genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Kazusato; Matsumoto, Kosuke; Yasaka, Ryosuke; Nishiyama, Mai; Soejima, Kenta; Korkmaz, Savas; Ho, Simon Y W; Gibbs, Adrian J; Takeshita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a damaging pathogen of over 200 mono- and dicotyledonous crop species worldwide. It has the broadest known host range of any virus, but the timescale of its evolution is unknown. To investigate the evolutionary history of this virus, we obtained the genomic sequences of 40 CMV isolates from brassicas sampled in Iran, Turkey and Japan, and combined them with published sequences. Our synonymous ('silent') site analyses revealed that the present CMV population is the progeny of a single ancestor existing 1550-2600 years ago, but that the population mostly radiated 295-545 years ago. We found that the major CMV lineages are not phylogeographically confined, but that recombination and reassortment is restricted to local populations and that no reassortant lineage is more than 251 years old. Our results highlight the different evolutionary patterns seen among viral pathogens of brassica crops across the world.

  17. Real time TaqMan RT-PCR assay for the detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyun, Chen; Wenjun, Zhao; Qinsheng, Gu; Qing, Chen; Shiming, Lin; Shuifang, Zhu

    2008-05-01

    A real time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for efficient detection of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The method was designed to use a duo-primer system with a TaqMan probe targeting the conserved sequence in 3' noncoding region (NCR) of CGMMV to detect isolates of this virus collected in China. The sensitivity of the real time RT-PCR assay was 0.13 pg of total RNA or 50 molecules of RNA transcripts. This level of sensitivity indicated that the one step real time RT-PCR developed in the present study could be used for routine testing assays. The real time RT-PCR method could assist in the implementation of quarantine measures for prevention and control of the disease caused by CGMMV.

  18. Expression of Cucumber mosaic virus suppressor 2b alters FWA methylation and its siRNA accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamera, Sadia; Yan, Youngsheng; Song, Xiaoguang; Chaudhary, Safee Ullah; Murtaza, Iram; Su, Lei; Tariq, Muhammad; Chen, Xiaoying; Fang, Rongxiang

    2016-11-15

    The Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) suppressor 2b co-localizes with AGO4 in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of Arabidopsis thaliana Biochemical fractionation of A. thaliana cellular extracts revealed that 2b and AGO4 coexist in multiple size exclusions. 2b transgenic A. thaliana exhibited an enhanced accumulation of 24nt siRNAs from flowering wageningen (FWA) and other heterochromatic loci. These plants also exhibited hypo-methylation of an endogenous- as well as transgene-FWA promoter at non-CG sites. In corroboration, both transgenic 2b and CMV infection affected the regulation of transposons which mimics the ago4 phenotype. In conclusion, 2b perturbs plant defense by interfering with AGO4-regulated transcriptional gene silencing.

  19. Destruction of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus by heat treatment and rapid detection of virus inactivation by RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Min; Nam, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Myung; Yim, Kyu-Ock; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2003-12-31

    Heat treatment is commonly used to control viral contamination of seeds. To study virus inactivation, virus was purified from seeds contaminated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) after various heat treatments. CGMMV particles were observed to be physically disrupted by high temperature. Analysis of viral RNA revealed that the 5' and 3' termini of the genome were protected whereas regions between 2-2.5, 3.2-3.7 and 4-4.8 kb from the 5' terminus were not. Heat inactivation of virus on seeds was confirmed by RT-PCR using primers for a heat-sensitive region. The RT-PCR approach developed here may prove preferable to time- and labor-intensive bioassays for assessing virus heat inactivation.

  20. Completion sequence and cloning of the infectious cDNA of a chb isolate of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, M; Zhao, X; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Cao, K

    2015-03-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) is an important and widespread seed-borne virus that infects Cucurbitaceous plants. It is a member of the genus Tobamovirus in the family Virgaviridae with a monopartite (+) ssRNA genome. Here we report the complete genome sequence, construction and testing of the infectious clones of a chb isolate of CGMMV. Full-length CGMMV cDNA was cloned into the vector pUC19. The linearized vector containing full-length cDNA was used as template for in vitro transcription, and the synthesized capped transcript was highly infectious in Chenopodium amaranticolor and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Inoculated plants showed symptoms typical of CGMMV infection. The infectivity was confirmed by mechanical transmission to new plants, RT-PCR and western blot. Progeny virus derived from infectious transcripts had the same biological and biochemical properties as wild-type virus. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of a biologically active transcript from CGMMV.

  1. [Phylogenetic and Bioinformatics Analysis of Replicase Gene Sequence of Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoqiong; Meng, Yan; Luo, Laixin; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-11-01

    The replicase genes of five isolates of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan and Beijing were amplificated, sequenced and analyzed. The similarities of nucleotide acid sequences indicated that 129 kD and 57 kD replicase genes of CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 2, CGMMV-No. 3, CGMMV-No. 4 and CGMMV-No. 5 were 99.64% and 99.74%, respectively. The similarities of 129 kD and 57 kD replicase genes of CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 3 and CGMMV-No. 4 were 99.95% and 99.94%, while they were lower between CGMMV-No. 2 and the rest of four reference sequences, just from 99.16% to 99.27% and from 99.04% to 99.18%. All reference sequences could be divided into six groups in neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees based on the replicase gene sequences of 129 kD, 57 kD protein respectively. CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 3 and CGMMV-No. 4 were clustered together with Shandong isolate (Accession No. KJ754195) in two NJ trees; CGMMV-No. 5 was clustered together with Liaoning isolate (Accession No. EF611826) in two NJ trees; CGMMV-No. 2 was clustered together with Korea watermelon isolate (Accession No. AF417242) in phylogenetic tree of 129 kD replicase gene of CGMMV; Interestingly, CGMMV-No. 2 was classified as a independent group in phylogenetic tree of 57 kD replicase gene of CGMMV. There were no significant hydrophobic and highly coiled coil regions on 129 kD and 57 kD proteins of tested CGMMV isolates. Except 129 kD protein of CGMMV-No. 4, the rest were unstable protein. The number of transmembrane helical segments (TMHs) of 129 kD protein of CGMMV-No. 1, CGMMV-No. 2, CGMMV-No. 3 and CGMMV-No. 5 were 6, 6, 2 and 4, respectively, which were 13, 13 and 5 on the 57 kD protein of CGMMV-No. 2, CGMMV-No. 4 and CGMMV-No. 5. The glycosylation site of 129 kD protein of tested CGMMV isolates were 2, 4, 4, 4 and 4, and that of 57 kD protein were 2, 5, 2, 5 and 2. There were difference between the disorders, globulins, phosphorylation sites and B cell antigen epitopes of 129 kD and 57

  2. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    OpenAIRE

    Zayame Vegette Pinto; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Valdir Atsushi Yuki; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  3. Serological and molecular detection of an isolate of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV infecting cucumber (Cucumis sativus and cloning of its coat protein gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Shetti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a widely prevalent plant virus infecting important vegetable, plantation and flower crops. Methods for early detection of viruses in plants and vectors transmitting them play a critical role in plant virus disease management. Direct plate and Dot- Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was standardized for detection of CMV. Optimum OD of 1.249 (1.9 ng/μl and 1.242 (1.52 ng/μl was observed in 1:20 and 1:50 dilution of crude and ultrapurified antigen respectively, at a dilution of 1:1000 of both primary and secondary antibody. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using CMV coat protein (CMV CP gene specific primers amplified a 657 base pair (bp fragment, which was then  cloned in pTZ57R/T cloning vector and positive clones were identified by band shift assay and colony PCR. This will aid in developing field diagnostic kits for detection of CMV in different crops and also in developing transgenics with the CP gene. 

  4. Complete genome sequences of two highly divergent Japanese isolates of Plantago asiatica mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komatsu, Ken; Yamashita, Kazuo; Sugawara, Kota; Verbeek, Martin; Fujita, Naoko; Hanada, Kaoru; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Fuji, Shin Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Plantago asiatica mosaic virus (PlAMV) is a member of the genus Potexvirus and has an exceptionally wide host range. It causes severe damage to lilies. Here we report on the complete nucleotide sequences of two new Japanese PlAMV isolates, one from the eudicot weed Viola grypoceras (PlAMV-Vi), and t

  5. Synergism of Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida Pf-20 in Inducing Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIEK SRI WAHYUNI

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Both Lumbricus rubellus and Pseudomonas putida decompose soil organic matters. The population of P. putida Pf-20 increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the cucumber growth medium. The process of organic decomposition was much better if the medium was introduced with both L. rubellus and P. putida Pf-20, compared to the medium contained only either one of those organisms. The activity of L. rubellus may serve to provide nutrients for both the cucumber and P. putida. The role of P. putida to reduce disease severity was increased if L. rubellus was introduced to the growth medium. The synergism of these two organisms, reduced either the level of disease severity to CMV-48 and C/N ratio of medium, but increased the content of available phosphor and potassium.

  6. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus Reaction of cowpea genotypes reveals resistance to co-infection by Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus and Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.Many factors can affect the yield of cowpea, especially viruses. The main species of viruses infecting cowpea in Brazil are Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV and Cowpea golden mosaic virus (CPGMV. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of cowpea genotypes for resistance to CMV in single or in co

  7. Spatio-temporal expression of miRNAs in tomato tissues upon Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato aspermy virus infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junli Feng; Xin Liu; Leiyu Lai; Jishuang Chen

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development. Recent work has shown that miRNA-mediated regulation of cellular mRNA expression is involved in pathogen-host interactions. However, knowledge about the timing and spatial regulation of plant miRNA expression is still limited. Here, we use stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression changes of seven miRNAs and their target mRNAs in different tomato tissues during the pathogenic processes. Compared with mock-inoculated plants, the expression levels of investigated miRNAs and mRNAs were enhanced by different degrees upon Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny and Tomato aspermy virus-Bj infections, but were almost unchanged in CMV-FnyA2b (a CMV-Fny 2b-deletion mutant)-infected tomato seedlings. In addition, the obvious up-regulation of several miRNAs and target mRNAs in some tomato tissues suggested their special roles in these tissues' organogenesis and development. Temporal analyses also revealed that the expressions of these miRNAs and mRNAs were highly regulated by different viral infections. Taken together, the observed spatially and temporally changes in miRNAs and target mRNAs expression levels indicate the abilities of different viruses to interfere with miRNA pathway, and are correlated with their respective functions in phenotype determination in different tomato tissues.

  8. Two amino acids on 2a polymerase of Cucumber mosaic virus co-determine hypersensitive response on legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO; Xiaorong; (陶小荣); ZHOU; Xueping; (周雪平); LI; Guixin; (李桂新); YU; Jialin; (于嘉林)

    2003-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) is one of the most important defense responses during the incompatible interaction between plant and pathogen. The viral determinant of HR on legumes induced by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied, and our previous results showed that 243 nucleotides on 2a polymerase gene of CMV were involved in the induction of HR on legumes. With further analysis of the nucleotides and amino acids in this region, the amino acids Phe and Ala at positions 631 and 641 in the 2a polymerase of CMV-Fny, a legume local necrotic strain, were specifically exchanged to Tyr and Ser, respectively and simultaneously, in the 2a polymerase of CMV-P1, a legume systemic infecting strain, and three point mutants were constructed. The point mutant Fny-F/Y (Phe631 to Tyr) induced large necrotic lesions instead of pinpoint lesions, and the size of lesions could enlarge from initial sites. The point mutant Fny-A/S (Ala641 to Ser) induced similar symptoms as CMV-Fny. The double-point mutant Fny-FA/YS (Phe631 to Tyr and Ala641 to Ser) infected the legumes systemically without HR. These data indicate that the induction of HR on legumes is co-determined by two amino acids at positions 631 and 641 in CMV 2a polymerase.

  9. Infection of host plants by Cucumber mosaic virus increases the susceptibility of Myzus persicae aphids to the parasitoid Aphidius colemani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2015-06-04

    Plant viruses can profoundly alter the phenotypes of their host plants, with potentially far-reaching implications for ecology. Yet few studies have explored the indirect, host-mediated, effects of plant viruses on non-vector insects. We examined how infection of Cucurbita pepo plants by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) impacted the susceptibility of aphids (Myzus persicae) to attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani. In semi-natural foraging assays, we observed higher rates of aphid parasitism on infected plants compared to healthy plants. Subsequent experiments revealed that this difference is not explained by different attack rates on plants differing in infection status, but rather by the fact that parasitoid larvae successfully complete their development more often when aphid hosts feed on infected plants. This suggests that the reduced nutritional quality of infected plants as host for aphids--documented in previous studies--compromises their ability to mount effective defenses against parasitism. Furthermore, our current findings indicate that the aphid diet during parasitoid development (rather than prior to wasp oviposition) is a key factor influencing resistance. These findings complement our previous work showing that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry alter patterns of aphid recruitment and dispersal in ways conducive to virus transmission.

  10. The interaction between Turnip crinkle virus p38 and Cucumber mosaic virus 2b and its critical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Feifei; Ren, Han; Zhu, Lin; Xi, Dehui; Lin, Honghui

    2016-08-15

    Cross protection is a common phenomenon among closely related strain viruses in co-infected plants. However, unrelated viruses, Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), also show an antagonistic effect in co-infected Arabidopsis plants. In many cases, viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) have important roles in the interactions between viruses in mixed infections. CMV 2b and TCV p38 are multifunctional proteins and both of them are well characterized VSRs and have important roles in operation synergistic interactions with other viruses. Here, we demonstrated antagonistic effects of TCV toward CMV and showed that RNA silencing-mediated resistance protein, RCY1 and TCV-interacting protein (TIP) of Arabidopsis plants did not affect this antagonism effect. We further showed that TCV p38 and CMV 2b could interact with each other in vivo but not in vitro. Further mutational analysis showed that C-terminal of 2b and middle domains of p38 had more important roles in the interaction between the two viruses.

  11. One-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-yu; Wei, Qi-wei; Liu, Yong; Tan, Xin-qiu; Zhang, Wen-na; Wu, Jian-yan; Charimbu, Miriam Karwitha; Hu, Bai-shi; Cheng, Zhao-bang; Yu, Cui; Tao, Xiao-rong

    2013-11-01

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) has caused serious damage to Cucurbitaceae crops worldwide. The virus is considered one of the most serious Cucurbitaceae quarantine causes in many countries. In this study, a highly efficient and practical one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed for the detection of CGMMV. The total RNA or crude RNA extracted from watermelon plants or seeds could be detected easily by this RT-LAMP assay. The RT-LAMP assay was conducted in isothermal (63°C) conditions within 1h. The amplified products of CGMMV could be detected as ladder-like bands using agarose gel electrophoresis or visualized in-tube under UV light with the addition of a fluorescent dye. The RT-LAMP amplification was specific to CGMMV, as no cross-reaction was observed with other viruses. The RT-LAMP assay was 100-fold more sensitive than that of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This is the first report of the application of the RT-LAMP assay to detect CGMMV. The sensitive, specific and rapid RT-LAMP assay developed in this study can be applied widely in laboratories, the field and quarantine surveillance of CGMMV.

  12. Molecular evidence and sequence analysis of a natural reassortant between cucumber mosaic virus subgroup IA and II strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfei; Chen, Jishuang; Zhang, Huarong; Tang, Xiangshan; Du, Zhiyou

    2007-10-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tripartite RNA virus and has been divided into three subgroups, named IA, IB, and II. Some studies have found a few natural reassortants between CMV subgroups, although reassortment between CMV subgroups is infrequent. In our present work, a CMV reassortant, named CMV-Tsh, was obtained from a tomato plant. The complete sequence of CMV-Tsh genomic RNAs has been determined and analyzed. The results of sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CMV-Tsh RNAs 1 and 3 are derived from one or two CMV subgroup II strain(s), while RNA2 is derived from a CMV subgroup IA strain. A PCR and restriction enzyme analysis-based method was developed to analyze the possibility of mixed infection by CMV strains of different subgroup in the CMV-Tsh-infected tomato plant. The results of the restriction enzyme analysis proved that CMV-Tsh is the unique strain in the tomato plant. Taken together, CMV-Tsh is a natural reassortant having CMV subgroup IA RNA2 and subgroup II RNAs 1 and 3.

  13. Detection, differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of cucumber mosaic virus isolates from cucurbits in the northwest region of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Kalhor, Mohammad Rasaei; Zarghani, Shaheen Nourinejhad

    2006-06-01

    One hundred and twenty three cucurbit samples with one or more symptoms of leaf mosaic, leaf distortion, fruit mosaic, stunting, mottling and yellowing were collected from several locations in the northwest region of Iran. Screening by double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) with a cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) polyclonal antibody, produced positive reactions from 13 samples. However, none of these positive samples reacted with a CMV subgroup-II (S-II)-specific monoclonal antibody in a triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELSIA. When total RNA from the CMV-infected samples was subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with a pair of primers corresponding to the flanking regions of the virus coat protein (CP) gene, an expected DNA fragment of about 872 bp was amplified from 10 of the 13 isolates. This fragment covered the CP open reading frame (ORF) plus 92 and 123 bp of the 5' and 3' flanking regions, respectively. Restriction analysis with MspI (HpaII) was done on 9 of the PCR products and revealed a previously described CMV subgroup I (S-I) specific profile (537 and 335 bp fragments) for the isolates B13, B23, B5, SH5, SH17, S342 and S337, and an additional fragment, suggestive of combined profiles, was present for B13, SH5 and S342. Two other isolates, SH12 and B7 had a CMV S-II MspI profile (four visible fragments and a predicted non-visible 28-bp fragment on 2% agarose). Also, BsuRI (HaeIII) did not cut the PCR products characteristic of the CMV S-I specific MspI profile, whereas for the S-II isolates, BsuRI gave two fragments with sizes of approximately 559 and 313 bp. Nucleotide (nt) sequences of clones from the isolates B13, B23, SH5, SH17, S337 and SH12 were determined and aligned with those of previously published CMV strains and isolates. Consensus parsimonious trees constructed on the basis of the whole amplified region (841 nt excluding the primer sequences), CP ORF (nt or deduced amino acid data), or

  14. Comparison of three magnetic-bead-based RNA extraction methods for detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Lijie; Yan, Wenlong; Sun, Ning; Liang, Xinmiao; Deng, Congliang

    2015-07-01

    To determine the efficiency of RNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads, three different bead-based methods (one using silica-coated magnetic beads [SMNP], one using immunomagnetic beads conjugated to a specific antibody [IMB], and one using magnetic beads to nonspecifically adsorb virions [MNP]) were compared with the TRIzol method for the extraction of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) RNA from cucumber leaves by real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated that the extraction efficiency of the SMNP method was 10 times higher than those of the IMB and MNP methods and 100 times higher than that of the TRIzol method. Therefore, the SMNP method could be considered for use in quarantine measures for the prevention and control of the disease caused by CGMMV.

  15. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  16. Transgenic accumulation of a defective cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) replicase derived double stranded RNA modulates plant defence against CMV strains O and Y in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Kynet, Kong; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Chin, Dong Poh; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2013-12-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus is an important plant pathogen with a broad host range encompassing many plant species. This study demonstrates the production of transgenic potato lines exhibiting complete resistance to cucumber mosaic virus strain O and Y by post transcriptional gene silencing. Two constructs were used, one, pEKH2IN2CMVai, contains inverted repeat of 1,138 bp fragment of a defective CMV replicase gene derived from RNA2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain O (CMV-O), while the other, TRV-based VIGS vector (pTRV2CMVai), contains the same fragment of the replicase gene, but without inverted repeat. These constructs were used to produce transgenic potato lines of cultivar 'Danshaku', a susceptible genotype to CMV. Transgenic lines derived from pEKH2IN2CMVai accumulated small interfering RNA (siRNA) before and after virus challenge, whereas those derived from pTRV2CMVai showed siRNA expression after virus challenge. When transgenic lines were challenged with CMV-O or CMV-Y, four lines exhibited complete (100%) resistance to both strains, whereas the other lines had high levels of resistance. Infectivity of CMV-O was lower than that of CMV-Y in the highly resistant plants. There were no significant differences with regard to resistance between plants derived from pEKH2IN2CMVai and those obtained from pTRV2CMVai. The presence of CMV-specific siRNA in the resistant phenotypes indicates that the resistance was acquired through RNA silencing.

  17. Development of an agroinoculation system for full-length and GFP-tagged cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongying; Xiao, Caili; Han, Kelei; Peng, Jiejun; Lin, Lin; Lu, Yuwen; Xie, Li; Wu, Xiaohua; Xu, Pei; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2015-11-01

    The complete 6243-nucleotide sequence of a cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate from bottle gourd in Zhejiang province, China, was determined. A full-length cDNA clone of this isolate was constructed by inserting the cDNA between the 35S promoter and the ribozyme in the binary plasmid pCB301-CH. A suspension of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 clone carrying this construct was highly infectious in Nicotiana benthamiana and bottle gourd. Another infectious clone containing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter gene was also successfully constructed. This study is the first report of the efficient use of agroinoculation for generating CGMMV infections.

  18. The relationship between host lifespan and pathogen reservoir potential: an analysis in the system Arabidopsis thaliana--cucumber mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Michel Hily

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the determinants of pathogen reservoir potential is central to understand disease emergence. It has been proposed that host lifespan is one such determinant: short-lived hosts will invest less in costly defenses against pathogens, so that they will be more susceptible to infection, more competent as sources of infection and/or will sustain larger vector populations, thus being effective reservoirs for the infection of long-lived hosts. This hypothesis is sustained by analyses of different hosts of multihost pathogens, but not of different genotypes of the same host species. Here we examined this hypothesis by comparing two genotypes of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana that differ largely both in life-span and in tolerance to its natural pathogen Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Experiments with the aphid vector Myzus persicae showed that both genotypes were similarly competent as sources for virus transmission, but the short-lived genotype was more susceptible to infection and was able to sustain larger vector populations. To explore how differences in defense against CMV and its vector relate to reservoir potential, we developed a model that was run for a set of experimentally-determined parameters, and for a realistic range of host plant and vector population densities. Model simulations showed that the less efficient defenses of the short-lived genotype resulted in higher reservoir potential, which in heterogeneous host populations may be balanced by the longer infectious period of the long-lived genotype. This balance was modulated by the demography of both host and vector populations, and by the genetic composition of the host population. Thus, within-species genetic diversity for lifespan and defenses against pathogens will result in polymorphisms for pathogen reservoir potential, which will condition within-population infection dynamics. These results are relevant for a better understanding of host-pathogen co-evolution, and of

  19. cmv1 is a gate for Cucumber mosaic virus transport from bundle sheath cells to phloem in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Díaz-Pendón, Juan Antonio; Peña, Eduardo J; Heinlein, Manfred; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat

    2016-08-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has the broadest host range among plant viruses, causing enormous losses in agriculture. In melon, strains of subgroup II are unable to establish a systemic infection in the near-isogenic line SC12-1-99, which carries the recessive resistance gene cmv1 from the accession PI 161375, cultivar 'Songwhan Charmi'. Strains of subgroup I overcome cmv1 resistance in a manner dependent on the movement protein. We characterized the resistance conferred by cmv1 and established that CMV-LS (subgroup II) can move from cell to cell up to the veins in the inoculated leaf, but cannot enter the phloem. Immunogold labelling at transmission electron microscopy level showed that CMV-LS remains restricted to the bundle sheath (BS) cells in the resistant line, and does not invade vascular parenchyma or intermediary cells, whereas, in the susceptible line 'Piel de Sapo' (PS), the virus invades all vein cell types. These observations indicate that the resistant allele of cmv1 restricts systemic infection in a virus strain- and cell type-specific manner by acting as an important gatekeeper for virus progression from BS cells to phloem cells. Graft inoculation experiments showed that CMV-LS cannot move from the infected PS stock into the resistant cmv1 scion, thus suggesting an additional role for cmv1 related to CMV transport within or exit from the phloem. The characterization of this new form of recessive resistance, based on a restriction of virus systemic movement, opens up the possibility to design alternative approaches for breeding strategies in melon.

  20. The Roles of Alpha-Momorcharin and Jasmonic Acid in Modulating the Response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Meng, Yao; Chen, Li-Juan; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia-cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA) and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor) and (α-MMC+ibuprofen)-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway.

  1. The roles of alpha-momorcharin and jasmonic acid in modulating the response of Momordica charantia to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC is a type-I ribosome inactivating protein (RIP with a molecular weight of 29kDa that is found in Momordica charantia, and has been shown to be effective against a broad range of human viruses as well as having anti-tumor activities. However, the role of endogenous α-MMC under viral infection and the mechanism of the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in plants are still unknown. To study the effect of α-MMC on plant viral defense and how α-MMC increases plant resistance to virus, the M. charantia–cucumber mosaic virus (CMV interaction system was investigated. The results showed that the α-MMC level was positively correlated with the resistance of M. charantia to CMV. α-MMC treatment could alleviate photosystem damage and enhance the ratio of glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSH in M. charantia under CMV infection. The relationship of α-MMC and defense related phytohormones, and their roles in plant defense were further investigated. α-MMC treatment led to a significant increase of jasmonic acid (JA and vice versa, while there was no obvious relevance between salicylic acid (SA and α-MMC. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS were induced in α-MMC-pretreated plants, in a similar way to the ROS burst in JA-pretreated plants. The production of ROS in both ibuprofen (JA inhibitor and (α-MMC+ibuprofen-pretreated plants was reduced markedly, leading to a greater susceptibility of M. charantia to CMV. Our results indicate that the anti-viral activities of α-MMC in M. charantia may be accomplished through the JA related signaling pathway.

  2. Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNAs that induce similar symptoms in melon plants show large differences in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Mónica; Fraile, Aurora; García-Arenal, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    Two groups of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) satellite RNAs (satRNAs), necrogenic and non-necrogenic, can be differentiated according to the symptoms they cause in tomato plants, a host in which they also differ in fitness. In most other CMV hosts these CMV-satRNA cause similar symptoms. Here, we analyse whether they differ in traits determining their relative fitness in melon plants, in which the two groups of CMV-satRNAs cause similar symptoms. For this, ten necrogenic and ten non-necrogenic field satRNA genotypes were assayed with Fny-CMV as a helper virus. Neither type of CMV-satRNA modified Fny-CMV symptoms, and both types increased Fny-CMV virulence similarly, as measured by decreases in plant biomass and lifespan. Necrogenic and non-necrogenic satRNAs differed in their ability to multiply in melon tissues; necrogenic satRNAs accumulated to higher levels both in single infection and in competition with non-necrogenic satRNAs. Indeed, multiplication of some non-necrogenic satRNAs was undetectable. Transmission between hosts by aphids was less efficient for necrogenic satRNAs as a consequence of a more severe reduction of CMV accumulation in leaves. The effect of CMV accumulation on aphid transmission was not compensated for by differences in satRNA encapsidation efficiency or transmissibility to CMV progeny. Thus, necrogenic and non-necrogenic satRNAs differ in their relative fitness in melon, and trade-offs are apparent between the within-host and between-host components of satRNA fitness. Hence, CMV-satRNAs could have different evolutionary dynamics in CMV host-plant species in which they do not differ in pathogenicity.

  3. Recombination with coat protein transgene in a complemen-tation system based on Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to study the feasibility of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as an expression vector, the full-length cDNA of RNA 3 from strain SD was cloned and the sequence around the start codon of the coat protein (CP) gene was modified to create an NsiⅠ site for insertion of foreign genes. The CP gene was replaced by the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The cDNAs of Fny RNAs 1 and 2 and the chimeric SD RNA 3 were cloned between the modified 35S promoter and terminator. Tobacco protoplasts were transfected with a mixture of the viral cDNAs containing 35S promoter and terminator as a replacement vector and expressed GFP. A complementation system was established when the replacement vector was inoculated onto the transgenic tobacco plants ex-pressing SD-CMV CP. GFP was detected in the inoculated leaves in 5 of 18 tested plants and in the first upper systemic leaf of one of the 5 plants ten days after inoculation. However, no GFP could be detected in all the plants one month after inoculation. Recombination between the CMV vector and the CP transgene was proved by retro-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and verified by DNA sequencing. Our results argue against the feasibility of the CMV-based replace-ment vector trans-complemented by the CP transgene, and at the same time, enlighten ways to improve the CMV-based expression vector and the biosafety of CMV CP-mediated virus resistant transgenic plants.

  4. Molecular and Biological Characterization of an Isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus from Glycine soja by Generating its Infectious Full-genome cDNA Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sa Vo Phan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular and biological characteristics of an isolate of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV from Glycine soja (wild soybean, named as CMV-209, was examined in this study. Comparison of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analyses of CMV-209 with the other CMV strains revealed that CMV-209 belonged to CMV subgroup I. However, CMV-209 showed some genetic distance from the CMV strains assigned to subgroup IA or subgroup IB. Infectious full-genome cDNA clones of CMV-209 were generated under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Infectivity of the CMV-209 clones was evaluated in Nicotiana benthamiana and various legume species. Our assays revealed that CMV-209 could systemically infect Glycine soja (wild soybean and Pisum sativum (pea as well as N. benthamiana, but not the other legume species.

  5. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  6. Study on Control Efficiency of Junkeduke on Tobacco Mosaic Virus(TMV) and Cucumber Mosaic Virus(CMV)%菌克毒克防治烟草花叶病效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何杰忠

    2014-01-01

    研究菌克毒克对烟草花叶病的防治效果,结果表明:菌克毒克(8%宁南霉素水剂内销品)对烟草花叶病有较好的防治效果,平均防治效果达66.7%,可促进烟株的生长,经济效益显著。%Effect of Junkeduke on tobacco mosaic virus(TMV)and cucumber mosaic virus(CMV)were studied . The results showed that Junkeduke(8%Ningnanmycin domestic product)had better control efficincy,the average control efficiency reached 66.7%.It could promote the growth of tobacco plants,economic benefits was significant.

  7. A genetic map of cucumber composed of RAPDs, RFLPs, AFLPs, and loci conditioning resistance to papaya ringspot and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Sensoy, S; Wye, C; Antonise, R; Peleman, J; Havey, M J

    2000-12-01

    The watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are potyviruses that cause significant disease losses in cucumber. Resistances have been identified primarily in exotic germplasm that require transfer to elite cultivated backgrounds. To select more efficiently for virus resistances, we identified molecular markers tightly linked to PRSV-W and ZYMV resistances in cucumber. We generated F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between Cucumis sativus L. 'Straight 8' and a line from 'Taichung Mou Gua', TMG1 (susceptible and resistant, respectively, to both viruses), and studied the segregations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV. A 353-point map of cucumber was generated, delineating 12 linkage groups at LOD 3.5. Linkage arrangements among RFLPs were consistent with previously published maps; however linkages among RAPDs in our map did not agree with a previously published map. Resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV were tightly linked (2.2 cM) and mapped to the end of one linkage group. One AFLP cosegregated with resistance to ZYMV.

  8. Alteration of intersubunit acid–base pair interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry of Cucumber mosaic virus disrupts aphid vector transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bricault, Christine A. [Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Perry, Keith L., E-mail: KLP3@cornell.edu [Department of Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology, 334 Plant Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2013-06-05

    In the atomic model of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), six amino acid residues form stabilizing salt bridges between subunits of the asymmetric unit at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry. To evaluate the effects of these positions on virion stability and aphid vector transmissibility, six charged amino acid residues were individually mutated to alanine. All of the six engineered viruses were viable and exhibited near wild type levels of virion stability in the presence of urea. Aphid vector transmissibility was nearly or completely eliminated in the case of four of the mutants; two mutants demonstrated intermediate aphid transmissibility. For the majority of the engineered mutants, second-site mutations were observed following aphid transmission and/or mechanical passaging, and one restored transmission rates to that of the wild type. CMV capsids tolerate disruption of acid–base pairing interactions at the quasi-threefold axis of symmetry, but these interactions are essential for maintaining aphid vector transmissibility. - Highlights: ► Amino acids between structural subunits of Cucumber mosaic virus affect vector transmission. ► Mutant structural stability was retained, while aphid vector transmissibility was disrupted. ► Spontaneous, second-site mutations restored aphid vector transmissibility.

  9. Helicase domain encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus RNA1 determines systemic infection of Cmr1 in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Kang

    Full Text Available The Cmr1 gene in peppers confers resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus isolate-P0 (CMV-P0. Cmr1 restricts the systemic spread of CMV strain-Fny (CMV-Fny, whereas this gene cannot block the spread of CMV isolate-P1 (CMV-P1 to the upper leaves, resulting in systemic infection. To identify the virulence determinant of CMV-P1, six reassortant viruses and six chimeric viruses derived from CMV-Fny and CMV-P1 cDNA clones were used. Our results demonstrate that the C-terminus of the helicase domain encoded by CMV-P1 RNA1 determines susceptibility to systemic infection, and that the helicase domain contains six different amino acid substitutions between CMV-Fny and CMV-P1(. To identify the key amino acids of the helicase domain determining systemic infection with CMV-P1, we then constructed amino acid substitution mutants. Of the mutants tested, amino acid residues at positions 865, 896, 957, and 980 in the 1a protein sequence of CMV-P1 affected the systemic infection. Virus localization studies with GFP-tagged CMV clones and in situ localization of virus RNA revealed that these four amino acid residues together form the movement determinant for CMV-P1 movement from the epidermal cell layer to mesophyll cell layers. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that CMV-P1 and a chimeric virus with four amino acid residues of CMV-P1 accumulated more genomic RNA in inoculated leaves than did CMV-Fny, indicating that those four amino acids are also involved in virus replication. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the helicase domain is responsible for systemic infection by controlling virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Whereas four amino acids are responsible for acquiring virulence in CMV-Fny, six amino acid (positions at 865, 896, 901, 957, 980 and 993 substitutions in CMV-P1 were required for complete loss of virulence in 'Bukang'.

  10. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of Cucumber mosaic virus subgroups and Tobamoviruses infecting Tomato using 18S rRNA as an internal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaoning; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Jishuang; Zhu, Weimin

    2011-06-01

    A multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol was developed for simultaneous detection and discrimination of subgroups of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), including its satellite RNA, Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), using 18S rRNA as an internal control. Species- and subgroups-specific primers designed to differentiate CMV subgroups I and II, ToMV and TMV, were assessed using the cDNA clones of viral genomes, CMV satellite RNA and 18S rRNA gene from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) or tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum). Using total RNA extracted from artificial mixture of tomato leaf tissues infected by each virus, the reaction components and cycling parameters were optimized and a multiplex RT-PCR procedure was established. Six fragments of 704, 593, 512, 421, 385, 255 bp, specific to CMV subgroup II, CMV subgroup I, ToMV, TMV, satellite RNA and 18S rRNA, respectively, were simultaneously amplified. The sensitivity of the multiplex RT-PCR method for detecting CMV was 100 times higher than that of double-antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). This method was successfully used for field detection. Among 141 samples collected from East China through tomato growth seasons, 106 single infections with one of the above isolates were detected and 13 mixed infections were found. The results showed the potential use of this method for investigating the epidemiology of viral diseases infecting tomato.

  11. The full-length clone of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and its application as an expression system for Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Aikseng; Tan, Sianghee; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2006-02-24

    A cucumber green mosaic mottle virus (CGMMV) full-length clone was developed for the expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The expression of the surface displayed HBsAg by the chimeric virus was confirmed through a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Assessment of the coat protein composition of the chimeric virus particles by SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 50% of the coat proteins were fused to the HBsAg. Biological activity of the expressed HBsAg was assessed through the stimulation of in vitro antibody production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC that were cultured in the presence of the chimeric virus showed up to an approximately three-fold increase in the level of anti HBsAg immunoglobulin thus suggesting the possible use of this new chimeric virus as an effective Hepatitis B vaccine.

  12. A map of the diversity of RNA3 recombinants appearing in plants infected with Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato aspermy virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wispelaere, Mélissanne; Gaubert, Stéphane; Trouilloud, Séverine; Belin, Christophe; Tepfer, Mark

    2005-01-05

    In order to better understand the role of recombination in creating the diversity of viral genomes that is acted on by selection, we have studied in detail the population of recombinant RNA3 molecules occurring in tobacco plants coinfected with wild-type strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and tomato aspermy virus (TAV) under conditions of minimal selection pressure. Recombinant RNA3s were observed in 9.6% of the samples. Precise homologous recombination predominated since it was observed at 28 different sites, primarily in six hot spots. Imprecise homologous recombination was observed at two sites, particularly within a GU repeat in the 5' noncoding region. Seven of the eight aberrant homologous recombination sites observed were clustered in the 3' noncoding region. These results have implications on the role of recombination in host adaptation and virus evolution. They also provide essential baseline information for understanding the potential epidemiological impact of recombination in transgenic plants expressing viral sequences.

  13. Development of a molecular assay for the detection of Cucumber mosaic virus and the discrimination of its subgroups I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bald-Blume, N; Bergervoet, J H W; Maiss, E

    2017-05-01

    A nucleic acid based test for the detection of the economically important plant virus Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) based on the Luminex xTAG technology was developed. This technology has the advantage of allowing the simultaneous detection of various targets. Applying this method, we prove the presence of CMV in general and differentiate between its two subgroups I and II for which significant differences concerning severity of symptoms and virulence have been reported. For the development of the test procedure the coat protein gene sequences of 29 CMV isolates were cloned, sequenced and classified into subgroups. Sequences from GenBank were used to design primers. Additionally, a subgroup specific ELISA was conducted for comparison. This work is part of a project which aims to develop a test for the simultaneous detection of various plant pathogens (viral, bacterial and fungal) in plant material.

  14. Repair of the 3' proximal and internal deletions of a satellite RNA associated with Cucumber mosaic virus is directed toward restoring structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sun-Jung; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Rao, A L N

    2014-02-01

    The phenomenon of rapid turnover of 3' proximal nucleotides (nt) lost by the action of nuclease in RNA viruses is integral to replication. Here, a set of six deletions encompassing the 3' 23 nt region of a satellite RNA (satRNA) of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Q (Q-sat), were engineered. Repair of the 3' end was not observed in the absence of CMV. However, co-expression with CMV in planta revealed that Q-sat mutants lacking the 3' 18 nt but not the 3' 23 nt are repaired and the progeny accumulation was inversely proportional to the extent of the deletion. Progeny of the 3'Δ3 mutant were repaired to wild type (wt) while those from the remaining four mutants were heterogeneous, exhibiting a wt secondary structure. Analysis of additional 3' internal deletions mutants revealed that progeny with a repaired sequence reminiscent of wt secondary structure were competent for replication and systemic spread.

  15. The effect of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Budia, F; Medina, P; Morales, I; Fereres, A; Viñuela, E

    2015-02-01

    The effects of two aphidophagous predators, the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea and adults of Adalia bipunctata, on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) transmitted in a non-persistent manner by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii were studied under semi-field conditions. Natural enemies and aphids were released inside insect-proof cages (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) with a central CMV-infected cucumber plant surrounded by 48 healthy cucumber seedlings, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the virus and vector were evaluated in the short and long term (1 and 5 days) in the presence and absence of the natural enemy. The spatial analysis by distance indices methodology together with other indices measuring the dispersal around a single focus was used to assess the spatial pattern and the degree of association between the virus and its vector. Both natural enemies significantly reduced the number of aphids in the CMV-source plant after 5 days but not after 1 day. The CMV transmission rate was generally low, especially after 1 day, due to the limited movement of aphids from the central CMV-source plant, which increased slightly after 5 days. Infected plants were mainly located around the central virus-infected source plant, and the percentage of aphid occupation and CMV-infected plants did not differ significantly in absence and presence of natural enemies. The distribution patterns of A. gossypii and CMV were only coincident close to the central plant. The complexity of multitrophic interactions and the role of aphid predators in the spread of CMV are discussed.

  16. 湖南省10种天南星科作物DsMV和CMV的检测%Detection of Dasheen Mosaic Virus and Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Ten Species of Areaceae Collected from Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何煜波; 桂明; 李永伟; 唐爱菊; 陈集双

    2005-01-01

    利用32p标记的cDNA探针对采集于湖南省永州等地的10种天南星科观赏植物和大田作物绿帝王(Philodendron sodiroi)、半夏(Pinellia ternata)、海芋(Alocasia macrorhiza)、马蹄莲(Zantedeschia aethiopica)、龟背竹(Monstera deliciosa)、尖尾芋(Alocasia cucullata)、白蝶合果芋(Sygonium podophyllum)、羽裂蔓绿绒(Philodendron selloum)、广东万年青(Aglaonema modestum)、芋(Colocasia esculenta)进行了芋花叶病毒(Dasheen mosaic virus,DsMV)和黄瓜花叶病毒(Cucumber mosaic virus,CMV)的检测,同时对部分样品进行病毒提纯、病毒粒子观察和内含体结构检查.结果显示:DsMV在10种植物上普遍存在,是最主要的病毒病原;同时首次在芋、绿帝王和广东万年青等3种植物上检测到CMV和DsMV的复合侵染.

  17. Synthesis, anti-tobacco mosaic virus and cucumber mosaic virus activity, and 3D-QSAR study of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chengwen; Li, Pei; Chen, Meihang; Dong, Liangrun; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2015-09-18

    A series of novel 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety were designed and synthesized. Antiviral bioassay results indicated that most of the title compounds exhibited excellent antiviral activities against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in vivo. Among the title compounds, 7j exhibited the best curative activity against TMV, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 213.5 μg/mL, which was better than that of ningnanmycin (270.9 μg/mL). Meanwhile, 7a showed remarkable protection activity against TMV and curative activity against CMV, with EC50 values of 124.3 and 365.5 μg/mL, respectively, which were superior to those of ningnanmycin (195.1 and 404.9 μg/mL, respectively). Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) models were generated on the basis of the curative activities against TMV and exhibited good predictive abilities with cross-validated q(2) and non-cross-validated r(2) values for CoMFA and CoMSIA of 0.548, 0.647 and 0.994, 0.993, respectively. These results provided a practical tool for guiding the design and synthesis of novel and more potent 1,4-pentadien-3-one derivatives containing 4-thioquinazoline moiety.

  18. Identification and control measures of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Shanghai suburbs%上海郊区黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒的鉴定和防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚萍; 董萍; 赵驾浩; 张艇; 于子翔; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2013-01-01

    在上海市浦东新区孙桥蔬菜基地温室内发现大量黄瓜植株发病,叶片出现花叶、斑驳、皱缩和变形等症状,发病率达50%以上.经DAS-ELISA、RT-PCR和摩擦接种试验鉴定,发现引起黄瓜发病的病原生物是黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus),并提出了防治对策.%It was found that a large quantity of cucumber plants in the Sunqiao Vegetables Base' s greenhouses had mosaic,mottle,shrinking and deformation symptoms on leaves and the disease incidence was over 50%.The DAS-ELISA,RT-PCR and biological inoculation tests for them showed that the pathogen of the diseased plants was cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). It was the first time to find this quarantine virus in Shanghai suburbs,and some control measures were proposed.

  19. First detection in the United States of Ligustrum necrotic ringspot virus in Mazus reptans with mild mosaic symptoms, in mixed infection with Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazus reptans N.E. Br (creeping mazus) is a perennial flowering groundcover plant in the family Scrophulariaceae. A plant of M. reptans ‘Alba’ with mild mosaic symptoms was obtained from a Maryland nursery in 2010. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of slightly flexuous particles of 595-674...

  20. 江苏黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒的鉴定%Identification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春梅; 程兆榜; 缪倩; 王锋; 张重阳; 徐冬青; 周益军

    2013-01-01

    为确定从江苏省洪泽县大棚西瓜、仪征市露地瓠瓜、东台市露地南瓜上采集到3个表现为褪绿、斑驳花叶症状的病样是否为黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(CGMMV)侵染,采用电子镜观察、RT-PCR和序列测定方法对其进行鉴定.电子显微镜下可见300 nm×18 nm大小的直杆状病毒粒子.根据已报道的CGMMV外壳蛋白质(cp)基因序列合成特异性引物,对所提取病样的总RNA进行RT-PCR扩增,3个分离物的RNA模板中均可扩增到大小为500bp左右的DNA片段,测序结果表明3个分离物的片段均含有486个核苷酸,包含完整的cp基因,编码161个氨基酸.3个分离物与已报道的7个CGMMV分离物核苷酸及其所推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为91.8% ~99.8%和98.1%~100.0%,与同属的其他3个病毒(Kyuri绿斑驳花叶病毒、黄瓜果实斑驳花叶病毒和小西葫芦绿斑驳花叶病毒)cp基因核苷酸及其所推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为40.7%~ 54.7%和44.4% ~60.2%,表明所采集的3个病样由CGMMV侵染引起.%This study was performed to identify three isolates with chlorisis and mottle mosaic symptom collected from greenhouse watermelon in Hongze of Jiangsu, openground gourd in Yizheng of Jiangsu and openground pumpkin in Dongtai of Jiangsu. Straight rod virus particles with size of 300 nm×18 nm were shown under the electron micrograph in the crude extract of above isolates. Total RNA were amplified by RT-PCR with the specific primers designed on the basis of the reported coat protein ( cp) gene of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus( CGMMV) . An 500-bp gene fragment was amplified from total RNA of all three isolates, and subsequent sequence analysis indicated that the 486 bp fragment contained complete cp gene which encoded 161 amino acids. The nucleotides and deduced amino acid sequences of the cp genes from these isolates shared homologies from 91. 8% to 99. 8% and from 98. 1% to 100. 0% with 7 reported CGMMV

  1. Research progress in management of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus%黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒病防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华威; 罗来鑫; 朱春雨; 梁超琼; 刘鹏飞; 李健强

    2016-01-01

    黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus ,CGMMV)主要危害葫芦科作物,已被世界上许多国家和地区列为检疫性有害生物。CGMMV 目前在我国23个省、市、区已有报道发生和危害,严重影响葫芦科作物的生产;近年来该病害在国内外呈现迅猛扩展的趋势并对生产造成危害。本文综述了防治该病害的种子处理、化学及生物防治、嫁接以及转基因等分子生物学方法;分析了 CGMMV 与寄主黄瓜互作研究的最新进展,对小分子RNA 参与调控寄主对 CGMMV 病毒的防控策略提出了展望,并概述了下一代测序技术、基因编辑技术在植物新病毒的检测、鉴定以及培育抗病新品种等方面的应用。%Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV)causes devastating disease on cucurbits,and it has been listed as quarantine pathogen in many countries in the world.It was reported in at least 23 provinces in China, causing substantial yield losses and lower market value of cucurbits.This review summarized the current control methods of CGMMV and tried to explore the novel control strategies,including next-generation sequencing (NGS)and gene-editing technology for viral diagnostics and identification,and miRNA mediated-resistance to CGMMV infection.

  2. Coat protein mutations in an attenuated Cucumber mosaic virus encoding mutant 2b protein that lacks RNA silencing suppressor activity induces chlorosis with photosynthesis gene repression and chloroplast abnormalities in infected tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Yamazaki, Ryota; Wada, Tomoya; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2014-05-01

    In tobacco plants, the Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) pepo strain induces mosaic symptoms, including pale green chlorosis and malformed tissues. Here, we characterized the involvement of 2b protein and coat protein (CP) in the development of mosaic symptoms. A 2b mutant (R46C) that lacks viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) activity showed an asymptomatic phenotype with low levels of virus accumulation. Tomato spotted wilt virus NSs protein did not complement the virulence of the R46C, although it did restore high-level virus accumulation. However, R46C mutants expressing mutated CP in which the amino acid P129 was mutated to A, E, C, Q, or S induced chlorosis that was associated with reduced expression of chloroplast and photosynthesis related genes (CPRGs) and abnormal chloroplasts with fewer thylakoid membranes. These results suggest that the CP of the CMV pepo strain acquires virulence by amino acid mutations, which causes CPRG repression and chloroplast abnormalities.

  3. Transferring cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain coat protein gene into Cucumis melo L. and evaluating transgenic plants for protection against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonsalves, C.; Xue, B.; Yepes, M.; Fuchs, M.; Ling, K.; Namba, S. (Cornell Univ., Geneva, NY (United States). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1994-03-01

    A single regeneration procedure using cotyledon examples effectively regenerated five commercially grown muskmelon cultivars. This regeneration scheme was used to facilitate gene transfers using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens or microprojectile bombardment methods. In both cases, the transferred genes were from the T-DNA region of the binary vector plasmid pGA482GG/cp cucumber mosaic virus-white leaf strain (CMV-WL), which contains genes that encode neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II), [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS), and the CMV-WL coat protein (CP). Explants treated with pGA482GG/cpCMV-WL regenerated shoots on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 4.4 [mu]m 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), kanamycin (Km) at 150 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1] and carbenicillin (Cb) at 500 mg[center dot]liter[sup [minus]1]. The authors' comparison of A. tumefaciens- and microprojectile-mediated gene transfer procedures shows that both methods effectively produce nearly the same percentage of transgenic plants. R[sub 0] plants were first tested for GUS or NPT II expression, then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other tests were used to verify the transfer of the NPT II, GUS, and CMV-WL CP genes.

  4. Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

    2013-10-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions.

  5. Microarray-based identification of tomato microRNAs and time course analysis of their response to Cucumber mosaic virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-lei LANG; Xiao-chuan ZHOU; Xiao-lin ZHANG; Rafal DRABEK; Zhi-xiang ZUO; Yong-liang REN; Tong-bin LI; Ji-shuang CHEN; Xiao-lian GAO

    2011-01-01

    A large number of plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are now documented in the miRBase, among which only 30 are for Solatium lycopersicum (tomato). Clearly, there is a far-reaching need to identify and profile the expression of miRNAs in this important crop under various physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we used an in situ synthesized custom microarray of plant miRNAs to examine the expression and temporal presence of miRNAs in the leaves of tomato plants infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Following computational sequence homology search and hairpin structure prediction, we identified three novel tomato miRNA precursor genes. Our results also show that, in accordance with the phenotype of the developing leaves, the tomato miRNAs are differentially expressed at different stages of plant development and that CMV infection can induce or suppress the expression of miRNAs as well as up-regulate some star miRNAs (miRNA*s) which are normally present at much lower levels. The results indicate that developmental anomalies elicited by virus infection may be caused by more complex biological processes.

  6. The pathogenicity on legumes of Cucumber mosaic virus was determined by 243 nucleotides on 2a polymerase gene of viral RNA2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We had isolated and identified two Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, the CMV red bean (CMV-RB)isolate and the CMV pea (CMV-P1) isolate. CMV-RBinduces necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves of broad bean, pea, cowpea and bean, and could not infect these hosts systemically. However, CMV-P1 was able to infect these legumes systemically. To study the difference of pathogenicity. on the legumes induced by these two CMV isolates, the full-length infectious cDNA clones of CMV-Fny, which induced similar symptoms as CMV-RB in the four legumes,were used. The 243 nucleotides fragment, which encodes highly conserved GDD amino acid motif on 2a replicase gene of CMV-Fny RNA2, was replaced with that of CMV-P1. The constructed chimeric virus FP could infect these legumes systemically. The exchange of this region changes the virus symptoms on the legumes, indicating that this 243 nucleotides fragment has major effect on pathogenicity of CMV on the legumes.``

  7. A single amino acid at N-terminal region of the 2b protein of cucumber mosaic virus strain m1 has a pivotal role in virus attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneechoat, Phoowanarth; Takeshita, Minoru; Uenoyama, Misa; Nakatsukasa, Maki; Kuroda, Atsuko; Furuya, Naruto; Tsuchiya, Kenichi

    2015-02-02

    Host responses to infection by a mild strain of cucumber mosaic virus, termed CMV-m1, were re-examined in several plant species in comparison with those by a severe strain CMV-Y. Mild systemic symptoms were developed on the six plant species inoculated with CMV-m1. Virus titer in the Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected with CMV-m1 was significantly lower than those infected with CMV-Y, although infection by CMV-m1 interfered with further infection by CMV-Y in the plants. Subsequently, the attenuated virulence of CMV-m1 was analyzed by reassortment and recombination analyses between CMV-m1 and CMV-Y RNAs. The results suggested that the 2b protein of CMV-m1 (m1-2b) is involved in the formation of mild symptoms in N. benthamiana. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Thr18 of m1-2b is responsible for formation of mild symptoms. Local RNA silencing suppressor activity of m1-2b was a little lower than that of severe strain CMV-Y. We discuss the relationship between attenuation of CMV-m1 and the features of m1-2b.

  8. Identification of the subgenomic promoter of the coat protein gene of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus and development of a heterologous expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2016-06-01

    Heterologous gene expression using plant virus vectors enables research on host-virus interactions and the production of useful proteins, but the host range of plant viruses limits the practical applications of such vectors. Here, we aimed to develop a viral vector based on cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, whose members infect cucurbits. The subgenomic promoter (SGP) in the coat protein (CP) gene, which was used to drive heterologous expression, was mapped by analyzing deletion mutants from a CaMV 35S promoter-driven infectious CFMMV clone. The region from nucleotides (nt) -55 to +160 relative to the start codon of the open reading frame (ORF) of CP was found to be a fully active promoter, and the region from nt -55 to +100 was identified as the active core promoter. Based on these SGPs, we constructed a cloning site in the CFMMV vector and successfully expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Co-inoculation with the P19 suppressor increased EGFP expression and viral replication by blocking degradation of the viral genome. Our CFMMV vector will be useful as an expression vector in cucurbits.

  9. Virus-Specific Read-Through Codon Preference Affects Infectivity of Chimeric Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Viruses Displaying a Dengue Virus Epitope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV was used to present a truncated dengue virus type 2 envelope (E protein binding region from amino acids 379 to 423 (EB4. The EB4 gene was inserted at the terminal end of the CGMMV coat protein (CP open reading frame (ORF. Read-through sequences of TMV or CGMMV, CAA-UAG-CAA-UUA, or AAA-UAG-CAA-UUA were, respectively, inserted in between the CP and the EB4 genes. The chimeric clones, pRT, pRG, and pCG+FSRTRE, were transcribed into full-length capped recombinant CGMMV transcripts. Only constructs with the wild-type CGMMV read-through sequence yielded infectious viruses following infection of host plant, muskmelon (Cucumis melo leaves. The ratio of modified to unmodified CP for the read-through expression clone developed was also found to be approximately 1:1, higher than what has been previously reported. It was also observed that infectivity was not affected by differences in pI between the chimera and its wild counterpart. Analysis of recombinant viruses after 21-days-postinculation (dpi revealed that deletions occurred resulting in partial reversions of the viral population to near wild type and suggesting that this would be the limiting harvest period for obtaining true to type recombinants with this construct.

  10. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  11. A cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) RNA 1 transgene mediates suppression of the homologous viral RNA 1 constitutively and prevents CMV entry into the phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, T; Palukaitis, P

    2001-10-01

    Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in tobacco lines transformed with CMV RNA 1 is characterized by reduced virus accumulation in the inoculated leaf, with specific suppression of accumulation of the homologous viral RNA 1, and by the absence of systemic infection. We show that the suppression of viral RNA 1 occurs in protoplasts from resistant transgenic plants and therefore is not due to a host response activated by the cell-to-cell spread of virus. In contrast, suppression of Tobacco rattle virus vectors carrying CMV RNA 1 sequences did not occur in protoplasts from resistant plants. Furthermore, steady-state levels of transgene mRNA 1 were higher in resistant than in susceptible lines. Thus, the data indicate that sequence homology is not sufficient to induce suppression. Grafting experiments using transgenic resistant or susceptible rootstocks and scions demonstrated that the resistance mechanism exhibited an additional barrier to phloem entry, preventing CMV from moving a long distance in resistant plants. On the other hand, virus from susceptible rootstocks could systemically infect grafted resistant scions via the phloem. Analysis of viral RNA accumulation in the infected scions showed that the mechanism that suppresses the accumulation of viral RNA 1 at the single-cell level was overcome. The data indicate that this transgene-mediated systemic resistance probably is not based on a posttranscriptional gene-silencing mechanism.

  12. Virus-specific read-through codon preference affects infectivity of chimeric cucumber green mottle mosaic viruses displaying a dengue virus epitope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Pak-Guan; Ooi, Aik-Seng; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2009-01-01

    A Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) was used to present a truncated dengue virus type 2 envelope (E) protein binding region from amino acids 379 to 423 (EB4). The EB4 gene was inserted at the terminal end of the CGMMV coat protein (CP) open reading frame (ORF). Read-through sequences of TMV or CGMMV, CAA-UAG-CAA-UUA, or AAA-UAG-CAA-UUA were, respectively, inserted in between the CP and the EB4 genes. The chimeric clones, pRT, pRG, and pCG+FSRTRE, were transcribed into full-length capped recombinant CGMMV transcripts. Only constructs with the wild-type CGMMV read-through sequence yielded infectious viruses following infection of host plant, muskmelon (Cucumis melo) leaves. The ratio of modified to unmodified CP for the read-through expression clone developed was also found to be approximately 1:1, higher than what has been previously reported. It was also observed that infectivity was not affected by differences in pI between the chimera and its wild counterpart. Analysis of recombinant viruses after 21-days-postinculation (dpi) revealed that deletions occurred resulting in partial reversions of the viral population to near wild type and suggesting that this would be the limiting harvest period for obtaining true to type recombinants with this construct.

  13. Functional significance of a hepta nucleotide motif present at the junction of Cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA multimers in helper-virus dependent replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jang-Kyun; Kwon, Sun-Jung; Chaturvedi, Sonali; Choi, Soon Ho; Rao, A L N

    2013-01-20

    Satellite RNAs (satRNA) associated with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) have been shown to generate multimers during replication. We have discovered that multimers of a CMV satRNA generated in the absence of its helper virus (HV) are characterized by the addition of a hepta nucleotide motif (HNM) at the monomer junctions. Here, we evaluated the functional significance of HNM in HV-dependent replication by ectopically expressing wild type and mutant forms of satRNA multimers in planta either in (+) or (-)-strand polarity. Comparative replication profiles revealed that (-)-strand multimers with complementary HNM (cHNM) are the preferred initial templates for HV-dependent replication than (-)-strand monomers and multimers lacking the cHNM. Further mutational analyses of the HNM accentuate that preservation of the sequence and native length of HNM is obligatory for efficient replication of satRNA. A model implicating the significance of HNM in HV-dependent production of monomeric and multimeric forms of satRNA is presented.

  14. Genotyping of Cucumber mosaic virus isolates in western New York State during epidemic years: Characterization of an emergent plant virus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jeremy R; Langenhan, Jamie L; Fuchs, Marc; Perry, Keith L

    2015-12-02

    In the early 2000s an epidemic of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) spread within the Midwestern and Eastern US affecting snap and dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation. Fifty one CMV isolates from this period were partially characterized from varied hosts by sequencing a section from each of the three genomic RNAs. Aside from one subgroup II strain from pepper, all isolates, including those from snap bean, fell within the IA subgroup. The nucleotide sequence diversity of virus populations sampled at multiple sites and at different years was significantly higher than that of a population from single site in a single year, although in general the number of polymorphisms was low (virus infection on plant growth. Inoculations with pseudorecombinants derived from Bn57 and the non-bean infecting strain Fny confirmed RNA2 as a specific determinant for snap bean infection. Bn57, along with almost all isolates identified in this study contained the Y631 locus in the 2a protein, a determinant for systemic infection in bean. The presence of this locus extended to all non-bean hosts except two pepper infecting isolates. Infection by Bn57 in snap bean had a significant effect on pod number and mass with a 55 and 41 percent reduction in greenhouse assays, respectively. To our knowledge Bn57 is the first CMV strain isolated from P. vulgaris to be fully sequenced and cloned, providing a useful tool for analyses of CMV-host interactions.

  15. Effect of dicer-like proteins2 and 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase1 as RNA silencing components on cyclic mosaic symptom development in tobacco infected with the Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Sunpapao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nicotiana tabacum genome contains four Dicer-like proteins (DCLs and six RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR homologues involved in the RNA silencing mechanism employed against viral infection. DCL1 synthesizes 18-21 nt-long microRNA, whereas DCL2, DCL3 and DCL4 produce 22 nt, 24 nt and 21 nt-long siRNA, respectively, in the RNA silencing process. This study aimed to clarify which components among these are involved in changes in the amount of virus and the development of symptoms in Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-infected tobacco. Infected transgenic tobacco lines with a single down-regulation of DCL2, DCL4, RDR1 or a double down-regulation of both DCL2 and 4 were analyzed. The amounts of viral RNA in young developing leaves in transgenic tobacco lines were examined by Northern blot analysis. Most transgenic plants inoculated with CMV Pepo, a virulent strain, exhibited cyclic mosaic symptoms. The amount of viral RNA in single down-regulated lines varied based on leaf position in a similar manner to that noted in non-transgenic tobacco, while that of the double down-regulated line did not. Furthermore, the expression of RNA-silencing-related genes during high and low CMV infection did not differ among the transgenic plants. These results suggested that (i changes in the amounts of the virus in the developing leaves of all the single down-regulated lines were associated with cyclic symptom expression in fully expanded leaves, and (ii the lower expression of DCL2, DCL4 and RDR1 may be sufficient to establish cyclic symptom development.

  16. Role of intron-mediated enhancement on accumulation of an Arabidopsis NB-LRR class R-protein that confers resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiyo Sato

    Full Text Available The accumulation of RCY1 protein, which is encoded by RESISTANCE TO CMV(Y (RCY1, a CC-NB-LRR class R-gene, is tightly correlated with the strength of the resistance to a yellow strain of Cucumber mosaic virus [CMV(Y] in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to enhance resistance to CMV by overexpression of RCY1, A. thaliana was transformed with intron-less RCY1 cDNA construct under the control of strong CaMV35S promoter. Remarkably, a relative amount of RCY1 protein accumulation in the transformants was much lower than that in plants expressing genomic RCY1 under the control of its native promoter. To identify a regulatory element of RCY1 that could cause such differential levels of RCY1 accumulation, a series of RCY1 cDNA and genomic RCY1 constructs were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves by the Agrobacterium-mediated infiltration method. Comparative analysis of the level of RCY1 accumulation in the leaf tissues transiently expressing each construct indicated that the intron located in the RCY1-coding region of genomic RCY1, but not the native RCY1 genomic promoter or the 5'-and 3'-untranslated regions of RCY1, was indispensable for high level RCY1 accumulation. The increased levels of RCY1 accelerated plant disease defense reactions. Interestingly, such intron-mediated enhancement of RCY1 accumulation depended neither on the abundance of the RCY1 transcript nor on the RCY1 specific-intron sequence. Taken together, intron-mediated RCY1 expression seems to play a key role in the expression of complete resistance to CMV(Y by maintaining RCY1 accumulation at high levels.

  17. Different Virus-Derived siRNAs Profiles between Leaves and Fruits in Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus-Infected Lagenaria siceraria Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junmin; Zheng, Hongying; Zhang, Chenhua; Han, Kelei; Wang, Shu; Peng, Jiejun; Lu, Yuwen; Zhao, Jinping; Xu, Pei; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Guojing; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) playing roles in host antiviral defense are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2058) or 22-nt (3996) were identified but only six (21-nt) and one (22-nt) positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5'-terminal and 3'-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  18. Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria as a Protecting Agent Against Cucumber Mosaic Virus and Chilli Veinal Mottle Virus on Chillipepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD TAUFIK

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in protecting chillipepper plant from infection of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and chilli veinal mottle virus (ChiVMV. Seven isolates of PGPR, i.e. BC1, BTP2H, BTP3G, BTP3O BTP1, BTP2D, and T1F were applied as seed treatment and soil drench. Plants height, number of branch, and fruits weight were measured every one and ten weeks after virus inoculation. Virus concentration in plants and disease incidence were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. Results showed that inoculation with PGPR improved the seed germination. Eight days after sowing, the percentage of PGPR treated seed germination reached 50-84%; whereas those of untreated seed reached only 18%. In general, PGPR treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05 the effect of virus infection on plant growth. Two PGPR isolates, i.e. BTP1 and BTP2H, maintained fruit weight of infected plants as good as those of healthy plants. Based on ELISA, PGPR was able to inhibit the disease incidence. The BTP3O and BTP2D isolates even protected the plant from ChiVMV infection. Concentration of salicylic acid and peroxidase were relatively higher on plants treated with PGPR than those without PGPR treatment. This gave an indication that PGPR may act as induction agents for systemic acquired resistance. Therefore, PGPR treatment is a promising strategy to control viral diseases on chillipepper.

  19. Four sequence positions of the movement protein of Cucumber mosaic virus determine the virulence against cmv1-mediated resistance in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Díaz-Pendón, Juan Antonio; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    The resistance to a set of strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in the melon accession PI 161375, cultivar 'Songwhan Charmi', is dependent on one recessive gene, cmv1, which confers total resistance, whereas a second set of strains is able to overcome it. We tested 11 strains of CMV subgroups I and II in the melon line SC12-1-99, which carries the gene cmv1, and showed that this gene confers resistance to strains of subgroup II only and that restriction is not related to either viral replication or cell-to-cell movement. This is the first time that a resistant trait has been correlated with CMV subgroups. Using infectious clones of the CMV strains LS (subgroup II) and FNY (subgroup I), we generated rearrangements and viral chimaeras between both strains and established that the determinant of virulence against the gene cmv1 resides in the first 209 amino acids of the movement protein, as this region from FNY is sufficient to confer virulence to the LS clone in the line SC12-1-99. A comparison of the sequences of the strains of both subgroups in this region shows that there are five main positions shared by all strains of subgroup II, which are different from those of subgroup I. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CMV-LS clone to substitute these residues for those of CMV-FNY revealed that a combination of four of these changes [the group 64-68 (SNNLL to HGRIA), and the point mutations R81C, G171T and A195I] was required for a complete gain of function of the LS MP in the resistant melon plant.

  20. A versatile complementation assay for cell-to-cell and long distance movements by cucumber mosaic virus based agro-infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yao, Min; Li, Chun; Miriam, Karwitha; Zhang, Xue; Tao, Xiaorong

    2014-09-22

    Microinjection, bombardment or tobamovirus and potexvirus based assay has been developed to identify the putative movement protein (MP) or to characterize plasmodesma-mediated macromolecular transport. In this study, we developed a versatile complementation assay for the cell-to-cell and long distance movements of macromolecules by agro-infiltration based on the infectious clones of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The movement-deficient CMV reporter was constructed by replacing the MP on RNA 3 with ER targeted GFP. The ectopic expression of CMV MP was able to efficiently move the RNA3-MP::erGFP reporter from the original cell to neighboring cells, whereas CMV MP-M5 mutant was unable to initiate the movement. Importantly, the presence of CMV RNA1 and RNA2 can dramatically amplify the movement signals once the RNA3-MP::erGFP reporter moves out of the original cell. The appropriate observation time for this movement complementation assay was at 48-72 hours post infiltration (hpi), whereas the optimal incubation temperature was between 25 and 28 °C. The ectopic co-expression of MPs from other virus genera, NSm from tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) or NSvc4 from rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), could also facilitate the movement of the RNA3::erGFP reporter from the original cell into other cells. The chimeric mutant virus created by substituting the MP of CMV RNA3 with NSm from TSWV or NSvc4 from RSV move systemically in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by agro-infiltration. This agro-infiltration complementation assay is simple, efficient and reliable. Our approach provides an alternative and powerful tool with great potentials in identifying putative movement protein and characterizing macromolecular trafficking.

  1. Two amino acids near the N-terminus of Cucumber mosaic virus 2b play critical roles in the suppression of RNA silencing and viral infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhen; Chai, Long-Xiang; Tong, Xin; Xu, Jin; Li, Dawei; Wang, Xian-Bing

    2016-02-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) 2b suppresses RNA silencing primarily through the binding of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of varying sizes. However, the biologically active form of 2b remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the single and double alanine substitution mutants in the N-terminal 15th leucine and 18th methionine of CMV 2b exhibit drastically attenuated virulence in wild-type plants, but are efficiently rescued in mutant plants defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) and Dicer-like 4 (DCL4). Moreover, the transgenic plants of 2b, but not 2blm (L15A/M18A), rescue the high infectivity of CMV-Δ2b through the suppression of antiviral silencing. L15A, M18A or both weaken 2b suppressor activity on local and systemic transgene silencing. In contrast with the high affinity of 2b to short and long dsRNAs, 2blm is significantly compromised in 21-bp duplex small interfering RNA (siRNA) binding ability, but maintains a strong affinity for long dsRNAs. In cross-linking assays, 2b can form dimers, tetramers and oligomers after treatment with glutaraldehyde, whereas 2blm only forms dimers, rather than tetramers and oligomers, in vitro. Together, these findings suggest that L15 and M18 of CMV 2b are required for high affinity to ds-siRNAs and oligomerization activity, which are essential for the suppression activity of 2b on antiviral silencing.

  2. Immunogold silver staining associated with epi-fluorescence for cucumber mosaic virus localisation on semi-thin sections of banana tissues

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    B Helliot

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The immunogold-silver staining (IGSS technique in combination with epi-fluorescence detection was used to localise cucumber mosaic virus (CMV particles within banana infected tissues. For this purpose, tissue samples (2 mm3 were excised from CMV-infected and highly proliferating meristem cultures of Williams BSJ banana (ITC. 0570, AAA, Cavendish subgroup. These samples were immediately fixed in a 2% paraformaldehyde/0.25% glutaraldehyde mixture, dehydrated in ethanol, and finally embedded in L.R.White resin. Semi-thin sections were cut, mounted on clean treated glass slides and immunostained for CMV particles using gold-labelled secondary antibodies and silver enhancement. Sections were counterstained with basic fuchsin and examined using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Negative controls included immuno-stained samples excised from non-virus infected material as well as infected material on which primary or secondary antibodies were not applied. Images of autofluorescence (in red and of epi-reflectance of silver-enhanced immunogold particles (in green were recorded separately and merged, allowing the specific localisation of CMV particles at the cellular level on semi-thin sections of aldehyde-fixed banana tissues. The main advantage of this analytical approach compared to previously published protocols is that it combines a fast staining procedure, stable preparation, a high resolution, and a narrow plane of focus with the flexibility in generation, processing and analysis of images offered by laser scanning confocal microscopy. Finally, the presence of numerous CMV particles within banana meristems constitutes a clear explanation of the very low CMV elimination efficiency when using meristem- tip culture alone.

  3. Tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance by Ty-1 involves increased cytosine methylation of viral genomes and is compromised by cucumber mosaic virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach, Patrick; Verlaan, Maarten G; Dullemans, Annette; Lohuis, Dick; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Kormelink, Richard

    2014-09-02

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and related begomoviruses are a major threat to tomato production worldwide and, to protect against these viruses, resistance genes from different wild tomato species are introgressed. Recently, the Ty-1 resistance gene was identified, shown to code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and to be allelic with Ty-3. Here we show that upon TYLCV challenging of resistant lines carrying Ty-1 or Ty-3, low virus titers were detected concomitant with the production of relatively high levels of siRNAs whereas, in contrast, susceptible tomato Moneymaker (MM) revealed higher virus titers but lower amounts of siRNAs. Comparative analysis of the spatial genomic siRNA distribution showed a consistent and subtle enrichment for siRNAs derived from the V1 and C3 genes in Ty-1 and Ty-3. In plants containing Ty-2 resistance the virus was hardly detectable, but the siRNA profile resembled the one observed in TYLCV-challenged susceptible tomato (MM). Furthermore, a relative hypermethylation of the TYLCV V1 promoter region was observed in genomic DNA collected from Ty-1 compared with that from (MM). The resistance conferred by Ty-1 was also effective against the bipartite tomato severe rugose begomovirus, where a similar genome hypermethylation of the V1 promoter region was discerned. However, a mixed infection of TYLCV with cucumber mosaic virus compromised the resistance. The results indicate that Ty-1 confers resistance to geminiviruses by increasing cytosine methylation of viral genomes, suggestive of enhanced transcriptional gene silencing. The mechanism of resistance and its durability toward geminiviruses under natural field conditions is discussed.

  4. Different virus-derived siRNAs profiles between leaves and fruits in Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus-infected Lagenaria siceraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA silencing is an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism, through which virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs playing roles in host antiviral defence are produced in virus-infected plant. Deep sequencing technology has revolutionized the study on the interaction between virus and plant host through the analysis of vsiRNAs profile. However, comparison of vsiRNA profiles in different tissues from a same host plant has been rarely reported. In this study, the profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs from leaves and fruits of Lagenaria siceraria plants infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV were comprehensively characterized and compared. Many more vsiRNAs were present in infected leaves than in fruits. vsiRNAs from both leaves and fruits were mostly 21- and 22-nt in size as previously described in other virus-infected plants. Interestingly, vsiRNAs were predominantly produced from the viral positive strand RNAs in infected leaves, whereas in infected fruits they were derived equally from the positive and negative strands. Many leaf-specific positive vsiRNAs with lengths of 21-nt (2,058 or 22-nt (3,996 were identified but only six (21-nt and one (22-nt positive vsiRNAs were found to be specific to fruits. vsiRNAs hotspots were only present in the 5’-terminal and 3’-terminal of viral positive strand in fruits, while multiple hotspots were identified in leaves. Differences in GC content and 5'-terminal nucleotide of vsiRNAs were also observed in the two organs. To our knowledge, this provides the first high-resolution comparison of vsiRNA profiles between different tissues of the same host plant.

  5. Complete nucleotide sequences and construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in a versatile newly developed binary vector including both 35S and T7 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Hwan; Ju, Hye-Kyoung; Han, Jae-Yeong; Park, Jong-Seo; Kim, Ik-Hyun; Seo, Eun-Young; Kim, Jung-Kyu; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub

    2017-04-01

    Seed-transmitted viruses have caused significant damage to watermelon crops in Korea in recent years, with cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infection widespread as a result of infected seed lots. To determine the likely origin of CGMMV infection, we collected CGMMV isolates from watermelon and melon fields and generated full-length infectious cDNA clones. The full-length cDNAs were cloned into newly constructed binary vector pJY, which includes both the 35S and T7 promoters for versatile usage (agroinfiltration and in vitro RNA transcription) and a modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme sequence to precisely cleave RNA transcripts at the 3' end of the tobamovirus genome. Three CGMMV isolates (OMpj, Wpj, and Mpj) were separately evaluated for infectivity in Nicotiana benthamiana, demonstrated by either Agroinfiltration or inoculation with in vitro RNA transcripts. CGMMV nucleotide identities to other tobamoviruses were calculated from pairwise alignments using DNAMAN. CGMMV identities were 49.89% to tobacco mosaic virus; 49.85% to pepper mild mottle virus; 50.47% to tomato mosaic virus; 60.9% to zucchini green mottle mosaic virus; and 60.96% to kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, confirming that CGMMV is a distinct species most similar to other cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. We further performed phylogenetic analysis to determine relationships of our new Korean CGMMV isolates to previously characterized isolates from Canada, China, India, Israel, Japan, Korea, Russia, Spain, and Taiwan available from NCBI. Analysis of CGMMV amino acid sequences showed three major clades, broadly typified as 'Russian,' 'Israeli,' and 'Asian' groups. All of our new Korean isolates fell within the 'Asian' clade. Neither the 128 nor 186 kDa RdRps of the three new isolates showed any detectable gene silencing suppressor function.

  6. Reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi revela resistência às coinfecções pelo Cucumber mosaic virus, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus e Cowpea severe mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Roberta Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O rendimento do feijão-caupi pode ser afetado por diversos fatores, em especial as viroses. As principais espécies de vírus que infectam o feijão-caupi, no Brasil, são: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV e o Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV. Este trabalho foi realizado em duas etapas e teve como objetivo avaliar a reação de genótipos de feijão-caupi quanto à resistência à infecção simples pelo CMV e mista nas combinações CMV+CABMV, CMV+CPSMV-I e CMV+CABMV+CPSMV-I. Inicialmente, foram incluídos 57 genótipos, sendo três avaliações em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e uma em condição de campo sob infecção natural. Em seguida, foram selecionados 18 genótipos para serem desenvolvidos em nove ensaios, oito em gaiolas com tela antiafídeos sob infecção controlada, e um em campo sob infecção natural. Nesses ensaios, avaliaram-se os efeitos qualitativos e quantitativos resultantes das infecções. No ensaio de campo, foram avaliados o número de plantas assintomáticas, comprimento de vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos e produtividade. As coinfecções reduziram a altura da planta e a massa seca. Além disso, nas infecções envolvendo os três vírus ocorreu a morte prematura de alguns genótipos. Os genótipos BR17-Gurguéia, Epace V-96, TE97-309G-9, TE97-309G-22, TE97-309G-24 e Patativa, além de bom comportamento diante das coinfecções virais, têm sementes com padrão comercial, podendo ser empregadas diretamente em programas de melhoramento.

  7. 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒传播方式的研究进展%Research Progress on Transmission Modes of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊香; 古勤生

    2015-01-01

    黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物重要病毒,通过多种方式如种子、土壤、水、介体和机械接触传播,病害蔓延扩散迅速。该病害在许多国家和地区频繁报道,我国也曾大面积受到为害,尤其是西瓜嫁接地区,产业损失严重。带毒种子为初侵染源,发生过该病害的地块土壤也是重要的侵染源,发病植株可通过灌溉水以及机械接触传播病毒。为了更好地控制该病害的发生与流行,本文介绍了该病毒传播方式方面的研究进展。%Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus(CGMMV;genus Tobamovirus)is an important virus of cucurbit crops. It spread through a number of ways,such as seed,soil,water,vector and mechanical contact and spread quickly. This disease was frequently reported in many countries and regions. China was once harmed by this disease on large areas,especially regions where watermelon was grafted. This disease caused severe damage in grafting watermelon production. Seed with CGMMV was the primary source of infection. And the soil contaminated with infected plants debris was also recognized as the major primary source. The infected plants can transmit virus via irrigation water and mechanical contact. In order to better control the occurance and spread of this disease,this paper introduced the research progress in the transmission modes of CGMMV.

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Lutibaculum baratangense Strain AMV1T, Isolated from a Mud Volcano in Andamans, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditya; Sreenivas, Ara; Sathyanarayana Reddy, Gundlapally; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2014-07-24

    The 4.3-Mb genome of Lutibaculum baratangense strain AMV1(T), isolated from a soil sample collected from a mud volcano in Andamans, India, is reported. The draft genome of strain Lutibaculum baratangense AMV1(T) consists of 4,300,776 bp with a G+C content of 66.93 mol% and 4,198 predicted coding regions, including 56 RNAs.

  9. External forcing as a source for the observed multi-decadal relation between AMV and the Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Lea; Luo, Feifei; Sankar, Syam; Gao, Yongqi; Keenlyside, Noel; Vareed Joseph, Porathur; Johannessen, Ola

    2016-04-01

    The instrumental records show a significant positive correlation between the Atlantic multi-decadal variability (AMV) and the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall, where a positive (negative) AMV is associated with more (less) ISM rainfall. We have used both proxy reconstruction and twelve models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to investigate if the observed AMV-ISM relation is a persistent internal climate signal or externally forced. A comparison of several annual resolution proxy records both from the Atlantic and for the ISM show that the multi-decadal variability in both indices is persistent, but the link between them is not. The correlation between the two regions is weak, and even negative in some periods, before the instrumental time period. The analysis of CMIP5 simualtions is consistent with these results. While none of the CMIP5 models investigated simulate the significant AMV-ISM connection in the pre-industrial control simulations with fixed external forcing, three of the models reproduce the relation in the 20th century historical simulations with transient forcing. In these models external forcing is linked to the mid-to-upper tropospheric temperature pattern with a strengthened land-ocean contrast over South Asia, consistent with an enhanced ISM, as well as the evolution of AMV. We conclude that the significant AMV-ISM relation found in the observations after the industrial revolution may be associated with external forcing, rather than being internal climate variability.

  10. Cucumber cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for business and development personnel who want to use Cucumber for behavior-driven development and test automation. Readers with some familiarity with Cucumber will find this book of most benefit. Since the main objective of this book is to create test automation frameworks, previous experience in automation will be helpful.

  11. Prosystemin overexpression induces transcriptional modifications of defense-related and receptor-like kinase genes and reduces the susceptibility to Cucumber mosaic virus and its satellite RNAs in transgenic tomato plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubici, Giovanni; Carluccio, Anna Vittoria; Stavolone, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Systemin is a plant signal peptide hormone involved in the responses to wounding and insect damage in the Solanaceae family. It works in the same signaling pathway of jasmonic acid (JA) and enhances the expression of proteinase inhibitors. With the aim of studying a role for systemin in plant antiviral responses, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) transgenic line overexpressing the prosystemin cDNA, i.e. the systemin precursor, was inoculated with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) strain Fny supporting either a necrogenic or a non-necrogenic satellite RNA (satRNA) variant. Transgenic plants showed reduced susceptibility to both CMV/satRNA combinations. While symptoms of the non-necrogenic inoculum were completely suppressed, a delayed onset of lethal disease occurred in about half of plants challenged with the necrogenic inoculum. RT-qPCR analysis showed a correlation between the systemin-mediated reduced susceptibility and the JA biosynthetic and signaling pathways (e.g. transcriptional alteration of lipoxygenase D and proteinase inhibitor II). Moreover, transgenically overexpressed systemin modulated the expression of a selected set of receptor-like protein kinase (RLK) genes, including some playing a known role in plant innate immunity. A significant correlation was found between the expression profiles of some RLKs and the systemin-mediated reduced susceptibility to CMV/satRNA. These results show that systemin can increase plant defenses against CMV/satRNA through transcriptional reprogramming of diverse signaling pathways. PMID:28182745

  12. Complete nucleotide sequence of Alfalfa mosaic virus isolated from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Bejerman, Nicolás; Lenardon, Sergio; Giolitti, Fabián

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of an Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) isolate infecting alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in Argentina, AMV-Arg, was determined. The virus genome has the typical organization described for AMV, and comprises 3,643, 2,593, and 2,038 nucleotides for RNA1, 2 and 3, respectively. The whole genome sequence and each encoding region were compared with those of other four isolates that have been completely sequenced from China, Italy, Spain and USA. The nucleotide identity percentages ranged from 95.9 to 99.1 % for the three RNAs and from 93.7 to 99 % for the protein 1 (P1), protein 2 (P2), movement protein and coat protein (CP) encoding regions, whereas the amino acid identity percentages of these proteins ranged from 93.4 to 99.5 %, the lowest value corresponding to P2. CP sequences of AMV-Arg were compared with those of other 25 available isolates, and the phylogenetic analysis based on the CP gene was carried out. The highest percentage of nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene was 98.3 % with a Chinese isolate and 98.6 % at the amino acid level with four isolates, two from Italy, one from Brazil and the remaining one from China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that AMV-Arg is closely related to subgroup I of AMV isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete nucleotide sequence of AMV from South America and the first worldwide report of complete nucleotide sequence of AMV isolated from alfalfa as natural host.

  13. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  14. PCR multiplex para a detecção de BSV e CMV em bananeiras micropropagadas Multiplex PCR for detection of Banana streak virus and Cucumber mosaic virus from micropropagated banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vasquez Figueiredo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Um protocolo de PCR multiplex foi estabelecido para a detecção do Banana streak virus (BSV e do Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV em bananeiras micropropagadas. Estes vírus são responsáveis por perdas na produção de bananas em todo o mundo. Alguns trabalhos descrevem a integração do BSV no genoma B da bananeira. Contudo, a existência de bananeiras híbridas livres do BSV tem sido demonstrada. Ademais, determinadas estirpes do CMV não são transmitidas mecanicamente sob condições de laboratório, nem tampouco detectadas por testes sorológicos. Como conseqüência, a indexação de matrizes para cultura de tecido algumas vezes se mostra ineficiente. A metodologia apresentada neste trabalho sobrepõe esta dificuldade, pois se baseia na detecção do ácido nucléico viral presente em amostras foliares de bananeira. Na reação, foram usados os oligonucleotídeos BADNA 1A e BADNA 4, para a detecção do BSV, e "CMV senso" e "CMV antisenso" para a detecção do CMV. Após a eletroforese foi verificada a presença de dois fragmentos de DNA amplificados simultaneamente, um dos quais com 597 pb correspondente ao BSV e o outro, com 488 pb, correspondente ao CMV. Este resultado indica que o PCR multiplex pode ser utilizado como uma ferramenta adicional na indexação do BSV e do CMV em bananeiras propagadas por cultura de tecido.A protocol for multiplex PCR assay was established to detect both Banana streak virus (BSV and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV in micropropagated banana cultivars. These viruses are responsible for losses in banana production worldwide. Previous reports have described the integration of BSV in banana genome B. However, the existence of hybrid BSV-free banana cultivars has been reported. Moreover, there have been reports that some CMV strains cannot be mechanically transmitted under laboratory conditions and are not always detected by serological assays. Therefore, the selection of virus-free mother plants for tissue culture is

  15. 侵染南瓜的西瓜花叶病毒和黄瓜花叶病毒CP基因的克隆和序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analyses of the Coat Protein Genes of Watermelon mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus from one Mix-infected Squash Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金亮; 王凤婷; 魏毅; 张世宏; 潘洪玉

    2010-01-01

    为从分子水平鉴定山东聊城的一表现明显花叶、黄化、蕨叶及果实畸形的南瓜病毒病的病原,采用RT-PCR的方法,用马铃薯Y病毒属病毒3'-末端序列的简并引物和黄瓜花叶病毒(Cucumber mosaic virus,CMV)外壳蛋白(CP)基因的特异引物,对该样品进行了检测,并对克隆到的基因序列进行分析.结果表明,该样品受西瓜花叶病毒(Watermelon mosaic virus,WMV)和CMV 2种病毒的复合侵染,分别命名为WMV-liaocheng和CMV-liaocheng,与其他相应病毒分离物CP基因核苷酸序列的同源性分别为91.2%~98.0%和77.0%~97.9%,推导的氨基酸序列同源性分别为96.4%~98.5%和81.2%~99.1%.根据完整CP基因核苷酸序列构建的系统进化树显示:18个WMV分离物可分为3组,其中WMV-liaocheng与HLJ、CHN及Habenaria等分离物表现出较近的亲缘关系,形成Ⅲ组;30个CMV分为2个亚组,其中CMV-liaocheng属于亚组Ⅰ,CMV-liaocheng可能发生过重组.

  16. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der M.W.; Carette, J.E.; Reinhoud, P.J.; Haegi, A.; Bol, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and show

  17. Bipartite and tripartite Cucumber mosaic virus-based vectors for producing the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1,4-β-glucanase and other proteins in non-transgenic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using plant viruses to produce desirable proteins in plants allows for using non-transgenic plant hosts and if necessary, the ability to make rapid changes in the virus construct for increased or modified protein product yields. The objective of this work was the development of advanced CMV-based protein production systems to produce Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic plants. Results We used two new Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-based vector systems for producing the green fluorescent protein (GFP and more importantly, the Acidothermus cellulolyticus endo-1, 4-β-glucanase (E1 in non-transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants. These are the inducible CMVin (CMV-based inducible and the autonomously replicating CMVar (CMV-based advanced replicating systems. We modified a binary plasmid containing the complete CMV RNA 3 cDNA to facilitate insertion of desired sequences, and to give modifications of the subgenomic mRNA 4 leader sequence yielding several variants. Quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis showed good levels of CMV RNA and coat protein accumulation for some variants of both CMVin and CMVar. When genes for E1 or GFP were inserted in place of the CMV coat protein, both were produced in plants as shown by fluorescence (GFP and immunoblot analysis. Enzymatic activity assays showed that active E1 was produced in plants with yields up to ~ 11 μg/g fresh weight (FW for specific variant constructs. We also compared in vitro CMV genomic RNA reassortants, and CMV RNA 3 mutants which lacked the C’ terminal 33 amino acids of the 3A movement protein in attempts to further increase E1 yield. Taken together specific variant constructs yielded up to ~21 μg/g FW of E1 in non-transgenic plants. Conclusions Intact, active E1 was rapidly produced in non-transgenic plants by using agroinfiltration with the CMV-based systems. This reduces the time and cost compared to that required to

  18. DETECCIÓN DE LOS VIRUS AMV, CMV Y PLRV EN CULTIVOS DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL (SOLANUM BETACEUM CAV. EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA DETECTION OF VIRUSES AMV, CMV AND PLRV IN TAMARILLO (SOLANUM BETACEUM CAV. ORCHARDS IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Jaramillo Zapata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El tomate de árbol es uno de los principales frutales cultivados en la región andina de Colombia. Durante los últimos años las áreas dedicadas a su plantación se han reducido drásticamente, debido entre otras razones, al efecto detrimental de la enfermedad conocida como Virosis. A pesar de la importancia económica de esta enfermedad, el nivel de conocimiento que se tiene en el país, sobre la identidad taxonómica de los virus asociados a su ocurrencia es precario y por tanto, se carece de buena parte de la información necesaria para el diseño de estrategias de manejo efectivas contra esta enfermedad. En este trabajo se evaluó la presencia e incidencia de los virus isométricos AMV, CMV y PLRV en cultivos de tomate de árbol establecidos en el departamento de Antioquia, mediante el empleo de pruebas de ELISA, RT-PCR y secuenciación de la cápside viral. Las pruebas serológicas permitieron detectar la presencia de los tres virus, aunque las secuencias generadas sólo fueron confirmatorias para el virus PLRV, lo que posiblemente sugiere que existen diferencias en las secuencias dirigidas a los sitios de alineamiento de los cebadores para AMV y CMV. La incidencia de los virus CMV y PLRV en las muestras analizadas fue de un 57 y 41% respectivamente, mientras que para AMV ésta solo llegó a un nivel del 2%. Los hallazgos obtenidos permiten confirmar la presencia de un complejo viral asociado a la enfermedad de la Virosis del tomate de árbol en el territorio mencionado.Tamarillo is one of the main fruit crops in the Colombian andean region. However, during the past years, there has been a drastic reduction in the total crop area due to the detrimental effect of a disease known as Virosis. In spite of the economic impact of this disease, there is little knowledge about the taxonomical identity of its associated viruses; therefore, no information is available for the design of appropriate control strategies. In this work, was evaluated

  19. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  20. The AMV and WCMV gene pyramiding in transgenic red clover%AMV和WCMV在转基因红三叶中的基因累集

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂琴; Roger KALLA

    2003-01-01

    Artificial hybridization was carried out between AMV (alfalfa mosaic virus) and WCMV (white clovermosaic virus) transgenic red clover plants in order to combine both genes in one plant. Almost all the pair crossesset seeds, the germination rate of T1 plants varied among different crosses, with those from 1 copy transgeneparents gave the highest values. Southern hybridization analysis demonstrates that some T1 plants got more thanone copies of transgene, some of them expressed both transgenes. Their resistance to viruses were assessed byvirus challenge and bioassay, which showed that the T1 plants with both transgenes were resistant against bothAMV and WCMV, from which immune plants were generated. Some of plants were only resistant to either AMVor WCMV, some were susceptible in spite of their positive results in Northern hybridization. Compared with genetransformation in transgenic plants, artificial hybridization between different transgenic plants is a simpler, time-saving way for gene pyramiding.%随着转基因技术的发展及其在植物育种中的应用,出现了一大批表现优良、经济效益高的转基因植物,但生产实践要求一种植物同时具有多个优良的转基因性状.目前解决这一问题的方法主要是基因累集(Gene pyramiding),就是将多个基因集中到同一植株,可以将已经转入1个基因的植株做原材料,用农杆菌介导或基因枪等方法将另一基因转进去.也可以采用人工杂交,在不同转基因植株之间进行人工授粉,从后代中筛选出所需要的基因型.本研究对抗苜蓿花叶病毒(AMV)的转基因红三叶和抗白三叶花叶病毒(WCMV)的转基因红三叶进行了人工杂交,以期获得兼有2个基因、同时抵抗2种病毒的新植株,为下一步的育种打好基础.几乎所有的杂交组合都结了种子,杂交一代的发芽率随杂交亲本转基因拷贝数的不同而有所变化,只有1个转基因拷贝的亲本其杂种发芽率最高.对

  1. Mosaic Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudecki, Maryanna

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a lesson inspired by Sicilian mosaics. The author first presented a PowerPoint presentation of mosaics from the Villa Romana del Casale and reviewed complementary and analogous colors. Students then created mosaics using a variety of art materials. They presented their work to their peers and discussed the thought and…

  2. 西瓜感染黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒后糖的变化与倒瓤关系的研究%The relation between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon infected with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立梅; 吴元华; 赵秀香; 王文航; 王林; 蔡明

    2011-01-01

    By high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC), the contents of glucose, fructose and sucrose, and the sweetness were analyzed in watermelon inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV). The relationship between sugar change and blood-flesh of watermelon was determined. The results indicated that the content of glucose was apparently increased compared to that of the control before maturity (within 28 days after pollination), but reduced to 24.8% of the control after maturity (at 35 days after pollination). The content of fructose was higher than that of the control within 14 days after pollination, and then decreased with a significant difference. In all cases, the content of sucrose increased with the growth of watermelon. However, compared with the control, the sucrose content of watermelon inoculated with CGMMV was lower. The ratios of glucose, fructose and sucrose in the total sugar were abnormal. Coincidence with the changes of the total sugar, the fruit sweetness before maturity was higher than that of the control, whereas decreased sharply after maturity ( lower than that of the control). The inner pulp of the mature fruit appeared to be water-soaked and dirty red with no edibility. In a word, after inoculation with CGMMV, the changes of sugars and sweetness affected the watermelon quality.%@@ 黄瓜绿斑驳花叶病毒(Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus,CGMMV)是葫芦科作物上的重要病毒,2006年12月被农业部列为全国检疫性有害生物,2007年5月又被列为中华人民共和国进境植物检疫性有害生物.西瓜感染该病毒后,果肉出现油渍状深色病变,种子周围形成暗紫红色空洞,变色组织软化溶解呈丝状纤维化,俗称血瓤或倒瓤,果味异样,丧失食用价值[1].

  3. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  4. Cucumber as a model plant to study mitochondrial-nuclear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three genomes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) show different modes of transmission: maternal for plastid, paternal for mitochondrial (mt), and biparental for nuclear DNA. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ is passed through cell cultures, paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes appear after re...

  5. Mosaic Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Annemarie

    2012-01-01

    Through the generosity of a Lowes Toolbox for Education Grant and a grant from the Bill Graham Foundation, an interdisciplinary mosaic mural was created and installed at Riverview Middle School in Bay Point, California. The actual mural, which featured a theme of nurturing students through music, art, sports, science, and math, took about three…

  6. 黄瓜花叶病毒萝卜分离株卫星RNA的克隆及其与12个卫星RNA核苷酸序列的比较%Cloning and sequencing of a cucumber mosaic virus satellite RNA isolated from Raphanus sativus and comparison of its sequence with 12 satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈集双; 冯明光; 张耀洲

    2001-01-01

    对一株分离自萝卜(Raphanus sativus)的黄瓜花叶病毒(CMV)卫星RNA (Rs)进行了cDNA克隆与序列确定,并与12个已知的卫星RNA序列进行了比较。结果表明:卫星RNA Rs的大小为368 nt;该卫星RNA所比较的13个卫星RNA的大小分布为334~405 nt,可分为3个组和4个亚组;CMV卫星RNA的序列同源性和分组与卫星RNA的大小并无直接联系。卫星RNA序列之间的连续缺失和插入均集中在90~255 nt 间几个邻近的区域。在卫星RNA二级结构中的非配对区序列、卫星RNA的5'端近80个碱基和3'端近45个碱基相当保守。由此推测CMV卫星RNA的理论长度可达446 nt。序列结构的比较显示,CMV卫星RNA具有作为外源基因载体的潜力。%The sequence of a sat-RNA of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-Rs) originally isolated from Raphanus sativus in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province in April 1998, was determined. This satllite was found consisting of 368 nucleotides (nt). Compared its nucleotide sequence with those of 12 CMV sat-RNAs in document, ranging from 334 nt to 405 nt, resulted three groups and four subgroups. The sequence similarity and grouping were not related to the sizes of the sat-RNAs. The sites of nucleotide insertion or deletion on the 13 sat-RNAs were located at several neighboring sections between 90 nt and 255 nt. The 80 nt at the 5' end, the 45 nt at the 3'end, and unpaired sections in satellite RNA structure were highly conservative. It is thus speculated that a CMV sat-RNA may include 446 nt and could be highly potential for vectoring a foreign fragments for particular purpose.

  7. A Question of Mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasjid, Dorine

    1983-01-01

    At the Grand Royal Palace Compound in Bangkok, mosaics speak to art teachers in new forms. Thai culture can be linked to the study of mosaics, inspire subject matter, and lead to new approaches in mosaic work. (AM)

  8. Construction of a fosmid library of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and comparative analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E regions from cucumber and melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D F; Deleu, W; Garcia-Mas, J; Havey, M J

    2008-05-01

    A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as an unrestricted resource for researchers and used for comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes, both members of the genus Cucumis and the two most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. End sequencing of random fosmids produced over 680 kilobases of cucumber genomic sequence, of which 25% was similar to ribosomal DNAs, 25% to satellite sequences, 20% to coding regions in other plants, 4% to transposable elements, 13% to mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences, and 13% showed no hits to the databases. The relatively high frequencies of ribosomal and satellite DNAs are consistent with previous analyses of cucumber DNA. Cucumber fosmids were selected and sequenced that carried eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4E and iso(4E), genes associated with recessively inherited resistances to potyviruses in a number of plants. Indels near eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E mapped independently of the zym, a recessive locus conditioning resistance to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, establishing that these candidate genes are not zym. Cucumber sequences were compared with melon BACs carrying eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E and revealed extensive sequence conservation and synteny between cucumber and melon across these two independent genomic regions. This high degree of microsynteny will aid in the cloning of orthologous genes from both species, as well as allow for genomic resources developed for one Cucumis species to be used for analyses in other species.

  9. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chang-Long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-03-16

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber.

  10. U.S. Fresh and Pickling Cucumber Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to estimate the potential impact of downy mildew to U.S. growers of cucumbers, this report reviews historical trends in production and markets for cucumbers including slicing and pickling cucumbers.

  11. Mosaicism and clinical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Nancy B; Conlin, Laura K

    2014-12-01

    With the introduction of increasingly sensitive technologies for mutation detection such as chromosomal microarrays and next-generation sequencing, the importance of mosaicism for human disease is being more fully appreciated. Mosaicism can occur for any type of mutation, either at the chromosomal or DNA sequence level, and while in many cases mosaicism can modify the clinical effects of a syndrome, there are many alterations that can only occur in mosaic form as the mutation is lethal when present in every cell. Mosaicism can have a wide range of effects, from early pregnancy loss, to organ specific pathology, to modification of clinical syndromes. Recent evidence reveals that generation of mosaic alterations is associated with aging, and our ability to detect mosaic alterations sheds light on normal and pathologic changes across the lifespan.

  12. The Psm locus controls paternal sorting of the cucumber mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA.

  13. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  14. Analysis of 50 Cucumber Accessions by RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) accessions from American, Holland, Japan and China was detected and evaluated using RAPD markers. 25 selected primers produced 215 scorable polymorphic RAPD bands and the ratio of polymorphism is 86.98%. Four main groups of cucumber accessions could be distinguished from UPGMA analysis: Occidental cucumber, South-China cucumber, North-China cucumber and Xishuangbanna cucumber. Our result confirmed that cucumber is a narrow-based germplasm, nevertheless RAPD analysis was still useful in cucumber genotypic differentiation. More significantly, Xishuangbanna cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Var Xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan), a mutation of cucumber, was clustered together to a special group in the study, which implied its special status in cucumber germplasm.

  15. Development of broad virus resistance in non-transgenic cucumber using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Jeyabharathy; Brumin, Marina; Wolf, Dalia; Leibman, Diana; Klap, Chen; Pearlsman, Mali; Sherman, Amir; Arazi, Tzahi; Gal-On, Amit

    2016-09-01

    Genome editing in plants has been boosted tremendously by the development of CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology. This powerful tool allows substantial improvement in plant traits in addition to those provided by classical breeding. Here, we demonstrate the development of virus resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using Cas9/subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) technology to disrupt the function of the recessive eIF4E (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E) gene. Cas9/sgRNA constructs were targeted to the N' and C' termini of the eIF4E gene. Small deletions and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the eIF4E gene targeted sites of transformed T1 generation cucumber plants, but not in putative off-target sites. Non-transgenic heterozygous eif4e mutant plants were selected for the production of non-transgenic homozygous T3 generation plants. Homozygous T3 progeny following Cas9/sgRNA that had been targeted to both eif4e sites exhibited immunity to Cucumber vein yellowing virus (Ipomovirus) infection and resistance to the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ring spot mosaic virus-W. In contrast, heterozygous mutant and non-mutant plants were highly susceptible to these viruses. For the first time, virus resistance has been developed in cucumber, non-transgenically, not visibly affecting plant development and without long-term backcrossing, via a new technology that can be expected to be applicable to a wide range of crop plants.

  16. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  17. Chromosomal mosaicism goes global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurov Yuri B

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Intercellular differences of chromosomal content in the same individual are defined as chromosomal mosaicism (alias intercellular or somatic genomic variations or, in a number of publications, mosaic aneuploidy. It has long been suggested that this phenomenon poorly contributes both to intercellular (interindividual diversity and to human disease. However, our views have recently become to change due to a series of communications demonstrated a higher incidence of chromosomal mosaicism in diseased individuals (major psychiatric disorders and autoimmune diseases as well as depicted chromosomal mosaicism contribution to genetic diversity, the central nervous system development, and aging. The later has been produced by significant achievements in the field of molecular cytogenetics. Recently, Molecular Cytogenetics has published an article by Maj Hulten and colleagues that has provided evidences for chromosomal mosaicism to underlie formation of germline aneuploidy in human female gametes using trisomy 21 (Down syndrome as a model. Since meiotic aneuploidy is suggested to be the leading genetic cause of human prenatal mortality and postnatal morbidity, these data together with previous findings define chromosomal mosaicism not as a casual finding during cytogenetic analyses but as a more significant biological phenomenon than previously recognized. Finally, the significance of chromosomal mosaicism can be drawn from the fact, that this phenomenon is involved in genetic diversity, normal and abnormal prenatal development, human diseases, aging, and meiotic aneuploidy, the intrinsic cause of which remains, as yet, unknown.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of viruses infecting the bean in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the incidence and distribution of the most important bean viruses in Serbia: Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV. The viral isolates were characterized serologically and biologically. BCMV was found in the largest number of plants (30.53%, followed by BCMNV (2.67%, CMV (5.34%, and AMV (3.41%, since BYMV was not determined. Mixed viral infections were found in several samples. The RT-PCR method was used to prove that the tested isolates belong to the BCMV, family Potyviridae and strains Russian and NL-3 D. Results obtained in this work will enable further studies of the genetic variability of bean virus isolates from Serbia. .

  19. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  20. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  1. CsAGP1, a gibberellin-responsive gene from cucumber hypocotyls, encodes a classical arabinogalactan protein and is involved in stem elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Me Hea; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Chono, Makiko; Knox, J Paul; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2003-03-01

    Fluorescence differential display was used to isolate the gibberellin (GA)-responsive gene, CsAGP1, from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls. A sequence analysis of CsAGP1 indicated that the gene putatively encodes a "classical" arabinogalactan protein (AGP) in cucumber. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CsAGP1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced a Y(betaGlc)(3)-reactive proteoglycan in addition to AGPs present in wild-type tobacco plants. Immuno-dot blotting of the product, using anti-AGP antibodies, showed that the CsAGP1 protein had the AGP epitopes common to AGP families. The transcription level of CsAGP1 in cucumber hypocotyls increased in response not only to GA but also to indole-3-acetic acid. Although CsAGP1 is expressed in most vegetative tissues of cucumber, including the shoot apices and roots, the GA treatment resulted in an increase in the mRNA level of CsAGP1 only in the upper part of the hypocotyls. Y(betaGlc)(3), which selectively binds AGPs, inhibited the hormone-promoted elongation of cucumber seedling hypocotyls. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing CsAGP1 showed a taller stature and earlier flowering than the wild-type plants. These observations suggest that CsAGP1 is involved in stem elongation.

  2. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING CUCUMBERS PICKLING

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of some chemical indices (salt content, pH and ascorbic acid content) during cucumbers pickling was the purpose of this paper. The experience materials used in this work were: cucumbers cornichon, iodized and non-iodized salt and tap water. The samples containing cucumbers in iodized and in non-iodized brine were left to ferment, and at 3-4 days were made determinations of above mentioned indices. During pickling process, non-iodized salt has accumulated in cucumber ...

  4. Infantile spasms and pigmentary mosaicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars K; Bygum, Anette; Krogh, Lotte N

    2010-01-01

    Summary We present a 3-year-old boy with pigmentary mosaicism and persistent intractable infantile spasms due to mosaicism of chromosome 7. Getting the diagnosis of pigmentary mosaicism in a child with infantile spasms may not be easy, as most diagnostic work-up is done in infancy, at a time when...

  5. Revertant mosaicism in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai-Cheong, J E; McGrath, J A

    2013-02-01

    Revertant mosaicism is a naturally occurring phenomenon involving the spontaneous correction of a pathogenic mutation in a somatic cell. Revertant mosaicism is not a rare event and has been described in several inherited skin conditions, including various subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa. The recognition of revertant mosaicism paves the way for revertant therapy which represents a potentially exciting "natural gene therapy" option for genetic disorders. The skin provides a useful model for studying revertant mosaicism because it is readily accessible and easy to examine. In this paper, we provide an overview of revertant mosaicism and its relevance in genetic skin disorders.

  6. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  7. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized pickling cucumbers but not only fresh ones. More precise information about visual and gustatory properties of new created lines and hybrids will be obtained by performing of sensory analysis at different harvest times.

  8. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  9. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized p...

  10. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  11. j_ima_mosaic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Mosaicking software for JEM-X images included in the INTEGRAL Offline Science Analysis (OSA) software maintained by ISDC, University of Geneva, Switzerland. It is a C-program running under UNIX and Linux to merge images obtained by the JEM-X telescope and weighted by their relative exposure time........ The obtained mosaic image makes it possible to broaden the observed sky area as well as to reach deeper sensitivity at given sky positions....

  12. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucumber pickling were also studied. The disruption extent of the middle lamella in SF cucumber displayed more obviously than that in LABIF cucumber, implying that LABIF contributed to keep the cucumber original structure intact. Based on the organic acid accumulation pattern, in SF LAB and Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB fermented simultaneously, while in LABIF LAB fermented beforehand thus being in dominant position, then AAB fermented vigorously in a acidic condition created by LAB. The acetic acid accumulaton pattern could be regarded as the distinctive feature between SF and LABIF. The orgnic acids produced in LABIF were higher than that in SF. The final score of sensory evaluation combining texture analysis demonstrated that LABIF overmatched SF. It was concluded that LABIF could obviously enhance the quality of pickled cucumber and overwhelming SF, due to LABIF more beneficial to keep the cucumber original structure intact and organic acids accumulation.

  13. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  14. Reactive oxygen species are involved in brassinosteroid-induced stress tolerance in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Yan-Jie; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Tao, Yuan; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Asami, Tadao; Chen, Zhixiang; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) induce plant tolerance to a wide spectrum of stresses. To study how BR induces stress tolerance, we manipulated the BR levels in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) through a chemical genetics approach and found that BR levels were positively correlated with the tolerance to photo-oxidative and cold stresses and resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus. We also showed that BR treatment enhanced NADPH oxidase activity and elevated H(2)O(2) levels in apoplast. H(2)O(2) levels were elevated as early as 3 h and returned to basal levels 3 d after BR treatment. BR-induced H(2)O(2) accumulation was accompanied by increased tolerance to oxidative stress. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase and chemical scavenging of H(2)O(2) reduced BR-induced oxidative and cold tolerance and defense gene expression. BR treatment induced expression of both regulatory genes, such as RBOH, MAPK1, and MAPK3, and genes involved in defense and antioxidant responses. These results strongly suggest that elevated H(2)O(2) levels resulting from enhanced NADPH oxidase activity are involved in the BR-induced stress tolerance.

  15. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Altaf Mohammed; RAO, CHINTHALAPALLY V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimu...

  16. 45,X/46,XY mosaicism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Hagen, Casper P; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa;

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are case reports or have described single aspects of the disease.......Most previous studies of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism are case reports or have described single aspects of the disease....

  17. Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Description Fact sheet introduces the Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) with images from a section of the mosaic over McMurdo Station, descriptions of the four versions of LIMA, where to access and download LIMA, and a brief explanation of the Antarctic Web portal.

  18. Association between the degree of mosaicism and the severity of syndrome in Turner mosaics and Klinefelter mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R; Marimuthu, K M

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on the investigations carried on 82 cases of Turners of which 50 of them were mosaics and 85 cases of Klinefelters of which 70 of them were mosaics, is an attempt to explain the vast range of clinical variations observed in cytogenetically established Turner mosaics (45,X/46,XX) and Klinefelter mosaics (47,XXY/46,XY) in the light of the degree of mosaicism present in them. It was observed that the severity of the syndrome in Turner mosaics and Klinefelter mosaics increased with the relative increase in the abnormal cell line population.

  19. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K

    1974-10-01

    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  20. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  1. A Review of Image Mosaicing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghela, Dushyant; Naina, Prof. Kapildev

    2014-01-01

    Image Mosaicing is a method of constructing multiple images of the same scene into a larger image. The output of the image mosaic will be the union of two input images. Image-mosaicing algorithms are used to get mosaiced image. Image Mosaicing processed is basically divided in to 5 phases. Which includes; Feature point extraction, Image registration, Homography computation, Warping and Blending if Image. Various corner detection algorithm is being used for Feature extraction. This corner prod...

  2. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  3. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  4. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  6. USDA, ARS beit alpha cucumber inbred backcross line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) market type inbred backcross were released in January 2010 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were made available to U.S. cucumber breeders to supply a source from which they may develop Beit Al...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  8. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber gene

  9. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The COA_Mosaic33 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland mosaic...

  10. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  11. The mosaic mutants of cucumber: A method to produce knock-downs of mitochondrial transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytoplasmic effects on plant performance are well documented and result from the intimate interaction between organellar and nuclear gene products. In plants, deletions, mutations, or chimerism of mitochondrial genes are often associated with deleterious phenotypes, as well as economically important...

  12. Study on Graft-induced Resistance to Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-ju; LIU Ya-guang; DIAO Zhuo; YUTAKA Hirata

    2004-01-01

    To introduce CMV resistance to susceptible variety, interspecific grafting between d45-6 (Capsicum annuum) and LS1205 (C. baccatum) was conducted. The graft-progenies, G1 and G1S1 were obtained. Mechanical inoculation with CMV showed that disease index of G1 and G1S1 were significantly decreased, similar to that of the resistant stock. ELISA serological test indicated that resistance of LS1205 and the graft-progenies to CMV was caused by inhibition of virul replication. Further, peroxidase isozymatic analysis revealed that zymotypes of G1 were a summation of those found in the donor plants. This result perfectly fit the theory of gene transformation and reconfirmed the conclusion of mechanism of graft-induced variants.

  13. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  14. Severe Outbreak of a Yellow Mosaic Disease on the Yard Long Bean in Bogor, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI ASMIRA DAMAYANTI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available During 2008 crop season, an outbreak of severe yellow mosaic disease on yard long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquipedalis occurred in several farmers’ fields in West Java. Yard long bean var. Parade inoculated manually with extracts from symptomatic leaves showed the symptoms indicating the presence of virus. Symptomatic leaf samples tested positive in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with antibodies to group specific Potyvirus and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. Total RNA derived from symptomatic leaves was subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using primers specific to the cylindrical inclusion (CI protein of potyviruses and CMV coat protein (CP specific primers. Pair wise comparison of sequences obtained from cloned RT-PCR products with corresponding nucleotide sequences in the GenBank confirmed the presence of Bean common mosaic virus strain Blackeye (BCMV-BlC and CMV in the symptomatic beans. Sequences of BCMV and CMV isolates from the beans showed maximum nucleotide sequence identities (92-97% and (90%, respectively with BCMV-BIC and CMV isolates from Taiwan. Each virus isolate also clustered closely with corresponding isolates from Taiwan in a phylogenetic analyses. These results provide first evidence of the occurrence of multiple infection of BCMV-BIC and CMV in the yard long been from Bogor, West Java.

  15. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides......Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...

  16. Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins, P1 and P2, localize to the tonoplast in the presence of virus RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Present address: Genomics Facility, Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12619 (Egypt); Hutchens, Heather M. [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Howard Berg, R. [Integrated Microscopy Facility, Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, Saint Louis, MO 63132 (United States); Sue Loesch-Fries, L., E-mail: loeschfr@purdue.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2012-11-25

    To identify the virus components important for assembly of the Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase complex, we used live cell imaging of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts that expressed various virus cDNAs encoding native and GFP-fusion proteins of P1 and P2 replicase proteins and full-length virus RNAs. Expression of P1-GFP alone resulted in fluorescent vesicle-like bodies in the cytoplasm that colocalized with FM4-64, an endocytic marker, and RFP-AtVSR2, RabF2a/Rha1-mCherry, and RabF2b/Ara7-mCherry, all of which localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), which are also called prevacuolar compartments, that mediate traffic to the lytic vacuole. GFP-P2 was driven from the cytosol to MVBs when expressed with P1 indicating that P1 recruited GFP-P2. P1-GFP localized on the tonoplast, which surrounds the vacuole, in the presence of infectious virus RNA, replication competent RNA2, or P2 and replication competent RNA1 or RNA3. This suggests that a functional replication complex containing P1, P2, and a full-length AMV RNA assembles on MVBs to traffic to the tonoplast.

  17. Mosaicism for trisomy 21: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, Paulie; Charalsawadi, Chariyawan; Rafferty, Kelly; Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    The clinical and cytogenetic findings associated with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome are the focus of this review. The primary topics discussed in this overview of the extant literature include the history of this condition and its diagnosis, the incidence of mosaicism, the meiotic and/or mitotic chromosomal malsegregation events resulting in mosaicism, the observation of mosaicism in the parents of children with the non-mosaic form of Down syndrome, and the variation in phenotypic outcome for both constitutional and acquired traits present in people with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome, including cognition, fertility, and overall phenotypic findings. Additional topics reviewed include the social conditions of people with mosaicism, as well as age-related and epigenetic alterations observed in people with mosaicism for trisomy 21/Down syndrome. .

  18. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  19. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  20. Genetic Analysis on Bent Characters of Cucumber Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhiwei; WANG Lili; ZHOU Xiuyan

    2011-01-01

    Bent varieties and straight varieties were made as parents for the genetic analysis to investigate cucumber bending genetic mechanism. The results showed that the bent characters of the cucumber fruit (BCCF) were quantitative inheritance controlled by multiple genes and major genes. The additive effect played the main role and the dominance effect played the lesser role. Compared with the additive environmental variance, the dominant-environmental variance was more important and the cucumber fruit was more easily affected by the additive effect. The broad heritability and the narrow heritability of BCCF were both higher. The varieties of D0455 and D07299 could be used as parents which were benefit for improving the straight characters of the cucumber fruit

  1. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber follows the classic theory of continuous or discontinuous phase transition. The mechanism of bulged tail in cucumber is interpreted by phase coexistence and characterized by critical conditions. Conclusions are given for advances in food engineering and novel fabrication techniques in mechanical biology.

  2. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  3. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an altern...

  4. Confined placental mosaicism in short term culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding of fetal chromosomal mosaicism complicates genetic counseling, as well as pregnancy management. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of confined placental mosaicism in short term culture of chorionic villous samples. We conducted a retrospective review of karyotype analysis results obtained after chorionic villous sampling (CVS in two years period. A 420 samples of chorionic villi were taken transabdominally and obtained by a semidirect method (overnight incubating culture. All fetuses with CVS mosaicism were under the intensive perinatal care. In all cases of chromosome mosaicism the additional karyotyping was performed from fetal blood samples after 22nd gestational week in order to exclude true fetal mosaicism. After delivery newborns were examined by experienced pediatrician. From 420 analyzed samples in 11 (2,6% cases we found placental mosaicism. No anomalies were seen in genetic sonogram of this fetuses and mosaicism was confirmed only in one case. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM was found in 2,1% (9/420 of all analyzed cases, and it made 90% of all placental mosaicism. In 60% (6/10 of placental mosaicism cases we found mosaicism with single aberrant cell. Trisomy 21 mosaicism was the most frequent aberration found in 30% of cases. Finding of mosaicism in chorionic villi sample is at special importance for genetic counseling, because every case has to be reveled individually regarding the type and level of mosaicism. Anyway, in every case of placental mosaicism intensive antenatal monitoring is necessary, with additional chromosome analysis from different tissue in consideration of previous findings.

  5. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-12

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Cucumber Defense Rresponses Induced by Propamocarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; WU Tao; ZHOU Xiu-yan; XIN Ming; GUO Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Propamocarb is an agricultural chemical that has been widely used to protect cucumber plants from downy mildew. To understand the mechanisms of cucumber defense responses to propamocarb, we investigated the physiological and proteomic responses of the cucumber line D0351 with propamocarb application. We found that after treatment with propamocarb, the activities of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione S-tramsferase, GST) and soluble sugar content of cucumber fruit were signiifcantly increased, but malonaldehyde (MDA) content was signiifcantly reduced. To identify components of propamocarb responsive signaling, we compared the high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein proifles of control and propamocarb-treated fruits, and identiifed 18 differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) proteins induced by propamocarb which were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The majority of the proteins had functions related to detoxication, energy and transport, protein biosynthesis, regulating reactions and defending against stresses. A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation patterns for 18 candidate proteins, and the expression of 14 was consistent at both transcript and protein levels. The responses of cucumber proteome to propamocarb seemed complex; the identified proteins may play an important role in regulating adaptation activities following exposure to propamocarb. Data presented herein may shed light on understanding cucumber fruit defense responses under propamocarb treatment.

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lv

    Full Text Available Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber.

  8. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  9. Frequency and Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Mosaic Virus from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV is widespread in cucurbit crops, most commonly occuring in temperate and Mediterranean regions. In Serbia WMV has been detected in single and mixed infections with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus in field-grown pumpkin and squash crops. Among pumpkin-affecting viruses WMV is the most frequent one, both by the number of localities and its incidence at each location. During the growing season of 2009, samples from 583 plants of Cucurbita pepo cvs. Olinka, Belgrade zucchini and Tosca (Zucchini group, as well as from C. maxima and C. moschata showing symptoms of virus infection were collected from 12 commercial fields at eight localities and analyzed by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific to six most important cucurbit viruses. Interestingly, WMV was detected at fewer sites and had lower ncidence rate than in two previous years. In single infections, WMV was found in 11% of tested plants in three fields; in mixed infections with ZYMV, it was recorded in 9.9% of plants in five fields and with CMV in only 0.2% in one field. The partial coat protein gene and 3’ non-translated region from two representativeisolates of WMV originating from different localities and host plant species were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced, and compared with the sequences available in GenBank database. The PCR-amplified fragment of predicted size of approximately 1017 bp was obtained. The sequences of isolates 137-08 (Acc. No. GQ259958 and 159-08 (GU144020 proved to be 94-99% identical at the nucleotide level with those from other parts of the world. The sequences of these two isolates differed from each other only at two nucleotide positions, without any amino acid substitution. Phylogenetic analysis of 57 isolates based on 750 bp sequences of the coat protein gene showed no correlation between isolates and their geographic origin, and italso indicated that these isolates fell into three molecular groups of

  10. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  11. QTL mapping of parthenocarpic fruit set in North American processing cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait with potential for increasing yield and quality in US processing cucumber production. Many successful parthenocarpic fresh market cucumber varieties have been developed, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic expression in cucumber is largely u...

  12. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  13. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  14. Predicting keeping quality of batches of numbers of cucumber fruit based on a physiological mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    The keeping quality for a cucumber, defined as the time the colour remains acceptable to the consumer, depends on the state of the chlorophyll metabolism. By building a physiological model of the chlorophyll metabolism for cucumbers and using colour data from cucumbers stored at 12, 20 and 28 °C, th

  15. Synergistic effect of flyash and SO{sub 2} on development of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaf injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, G.; McIlveen, W.D.; Jones, R.D. [Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy, Etobicoke, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    In a two-factorial experiment, sulfur dioxide alone at concentration of 131 {micro}g/m{sup 3} over long exposures or flyash for either coal or oil combustion alone applied onto cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) foliage causes no visible injury. However, if both flyash and sulfur dioxide were presented simultaneously, a specific mosaic-chlorosis symptom developed on leaves. A synergistic effect was thus demonstrated. Histopathology of the mosaic-chlorosis symptom was studied. An unusual pattern of tissue abnormally initiated from the collapse of the anticlinal cell walls of the upper epidermal cells and progressed along cell walls into mesophyll tissues. Cellular injury at the lower spongy tissues typical of that caused by SO{sub 2} was also observed. A significant elevation of sulfate-sulfur in the leaves treated with a combination of SO{sub 2} and flyash was demonstrated. Significant interactions between the two factors were found for both injury and sulfur chemistry. This suggests that flyash deposits on the leaf surface play a catalytic role in oxidizing atmospheric sulfur dioxide continuously to form sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) in situ. This acid could infiltrate into mesophyll damage cells and tissues en route.

  16. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  17. Mosaic Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservativel Model (ECO_RES.COA_MOSAIC66)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The COA_Mosaic66 layer designates areas with potential for forest/grassland mosaic conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest/grassland land...

  18. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  19. Influence of Fertilization System on the Quality of Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CÎMPEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Different types of cucumbers culture, respectively organic system and the system of chemical and organic fertilization can influence vegetable quality. The present study was carried out in a solarium on a farm, in six experimental variants, three replications. Three variants for fertilization systems with two cucumbers cultivars were used. The biological material used in the experiments consisted of the cultivars ‘Triumf’ F1 and ‘Mirabelle’ F1. Fertilization systems used were organic with manure, classic with chemical fertilizers and soluble complex fertilizers with fertigation. In the present research agrochemical and biochemical characteristics were analysed and also weight of fruits and yield on plants and kg/m2 were measured. Agrochemical characteristics were: contents of nitrates, phosphorus and potassium from cucumbers and the biochemical characteristics measured were: acidity, soluble carbohydrates, vitamin C and dry matter. The results showed that the fertilization with soluble complex fertilizers in addition with fertigation assured the entire necessary for the growth and fructification of cucumbers. The presence of chemical fertilizers do not influence in a negative way the nitrates, phosphorus and potassium content and the quality of consumption of cucumbers was assured. Regarding the cultivars the best yield and quality results were obtained to ‘Mirabelle’ F1.

  20. Trisomy 4 mosaicism: Delineation of the phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Arjan; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, Anne-Marie; Huijsdens-van Amsterdam, Karin; Dahhan, Nordin; Knegt, Lia; Vansenne, Fleur; Cobben, Jan Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 4 mosaicism in liveborns is very rare. We describe a 17-month-old girl with trisomy 4 mosaicism. Clinical findings in this patient are compared to previously reported patients. Based on the few descriptions available in the literature the common phenotype of trisomy 4 mosaicism seems to consist of IUGR, low birth weight/length/OFC, congenital heart defects, characteristic thumb anomalies (aplasia/hypoplasia), skin abnormalities (hypo-/hyperpigmentation), several dysmorphic features, and likely some degree of intellectual disability. When trisomy 4 mosaicism is suspected clinicians should be aware that a normal karyotype in lymphocytes does not exclude mosaicism for trisomy 4. This report contributes to a further delineation of the phenotype associated with trisomy 4 mosaicism.

  1. Mosaic trisomy 13 and a sacral appendage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachajoa, Harry; Meza Escobar, Luis Enrique

    2013-07-31

    Mosaic trisomy 13 occurs when there is a percentage of trisomic cells for an entire chromosome 13, while the remaining percentage of cells is euploid. The prevalence of this syndrome ranges from 1 in 10 000 to 1 in 20 000 births. Complete, partial or mosaic forms of this disorder can occur. The phenotype of mosaic trisomy 13 patients varies widely. Patients with mosaic trisomy 13 usually have a longer survival and a less severe phenotype compared to patients with complete trisomy 13. Genetic counselling is difficult due to the wide variation among the clinical manifestations of these patients. There have been 49 cases of mosaic trisomy 13 reported in the literature. We report the case of a patient with mosaic trisomy 13, a sacral appendage and a cleft lip and palate.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Pallister-Killian mosaic syndrome is a developmental disorder that affects ...

  3. Mosaicism and uniparental disomy in prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermann, Thomas; Soellner, Lukas; Buiting, Karin; Kotzot, Dieter

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal mosaicism is the presence of numerous cell lines with different chromosomal complements in the same individual. Uniparental disomy (UPD) is the inheritance of two homologous chromosomes from the same parent. These genetic anomalies arise from errors in meiosis and/or mitosis and can occur independently or in combination. Due to the formation mechanisms of UPD, low-level or undetected mosaicisms are assumed for a significant number of UPD cases. The pre- and postnatal clinical consequences of mosaicism for chromosomal aberrations and/or UPD depend on the gene content of the involved chromosome. In prenatal evaluation of chromosomal mosaicism and UPD, genetic counseling should be offered before any laboratory testing.

  4. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  5. An Improved Bioassay for Cytokinins Using Cucumber Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R. A.; Kallidumbil, V.; Steele, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay is frequently used for detecting cytokinins. Beneficial modifications of the original technique included using 5-day-old cucumber (Cucumus sativus L., cv. National Pickling) cotyledons treated with combinations of 40 millimolar KCl and various concentrations of cytokinins. A dark incubation period of 20 hours was followed by an exposure to light for 3.5 hours. Under these conditions, extremely low (0.0001 milligram per liter) concentrations of N6-benzyladenine, zeatin, kinetin, or zeatin riboside can be detected. Of the four cytokinins tested, kinetin appeared to be the least active. With these improvements, the assay is 10 times more sensitive than is the previously described cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay for cytokinins. PMID:16662273

  6. An improved bioassay for cytokinins using cucumber cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R A; Kallidumbil, V; Steele, P

    1982-03-01

    The cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay is frequently used for detecting cytokinins. Beneficial modifications of the original technique included using 5-day-old cucumber (Cucumus sativus L., cv. National Pickling) cotyledons treated with combinations of 40 millimolar KCl and various concentrations of cytokinins. A dark incubation period of 20 hours was followed by an exposure to light for 3.5 hours. Under these conditions, extremely low (0.0001 milligram per liter) concentrations of N(6)-benzyladenine, zeatin, kinetin, or zeatin riboside can be detected. Of the four cytokinins tested, kinetin appeared to be the least active. With these improvements, the assay is 10 times more sensitive than is the previously described cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay for cytokinins.

  7. Inhibition of brome mosaic virus (BMV) amplification in protoplasts from transgenic tobacco plants expressing replicable BMV RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, M; Mori, M; Mise, K; Okuno, T; Furusawa, I

    1995-11-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants (V123 plants) expressing a set of full-length brome mosaic virus (BMV) genomic RNAs from the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were produced. The accumulation level of BMV RNAs in V123 plant cells was approximately 1% of that in nontransgenic tobacco protoplasts inoculated with BMV RNAs. The level of BMV RNA in V123 protoplasts did not increase after inoculating the protoplasts with BMV RNAs, whereas V123 protoplasts supported the accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) RNAs to a level similar to that in non-transgenic tobacco protoplasts after inoculation with CMV RNA. Such BMV-specific resistance was also observed in protoplasts from V12 plants expressing full-length BMV RNA1 and RNA2, both of which are required and sufficient for BMV RNA replication. On the other hand, protoplasts from M12 plants, expressing truncated BMV RNA1 and RNA2 in which the 3' 200 nucleotides required for BMV RNA replication were deleted, exhibited weaker resistance to infection with BMV RNA than V12 protoplasts, although the accumulation level of truncated BMV RNA1 and RNA2 in M12 protoplasts was higher than that of BMV RNA1 and RNA2 in V12 protoplasts. These results suggest that expression of BMV RNA replicons is involved in the induction of resistance, rather than high-level accumulation of BMV RNAs and/or their encoded proteins.

  8. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors.

  9. Mechanistic study of programmed cell death of root border cells of cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.) induced by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Song, Jie; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Chen; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-12-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in root border cells (RBCs) induced by Copper (Cu) has been little studied. This study explored whether Cu induced PCD in RBCs of cucumber or not and investigated the possible mechanisms. The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic RBCs increased with increasing concentration of Cu treatment. A quick burst of ROS in RBCs was detected, while mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) decreased sharply with Cu treatment. Caspase-3 like protease activity showed a tendency of increase with Cu treatment. The potential of Cu to induce PCD in RBCs of cucumber was first proved. Our results showed that ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential loss played important roles in Cu-induced caspase-3-like activation and PCD in RBCs of cucumber, which provided new insight into the signaling cascades that modulate Cu phytotoxicity mechanism.

  10. Mental Development in Down Syndrome Mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishler, Karol; Koch, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of the mental status of 30 subjects with Down's Syndrome mosaicism and 30 matched subjects with trisomy 21 Down's Syndrome found that the mean intelligent quotient of the mosaic Down's Syndrome group was significantly higher and that this group showed better verbal abilities and more normal visual-perceptual skills. (Author/DB)

  11. [Revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    Revertant somatic mosaicism has been described in an increasing number of genetic disorders including primary immunodeficiency diseases. Both back mutations leading to restoration of wild-type sequences and second-site mutations resulting in compensatory changes have been demonstrated in mosaic individuals. Recent studies identifying revertant somatic mosaicism caused by multiple independent genetic changes further support its frequent occurrence in primary immunodeficiency diseases. Revertant mosaicism acquires a particular clinical relevance because it may lead to selective growth advantage of the corrected cells, resulting in improvement of disease symptoms or atypical clinical presentations. This phenomenon also provides us unique opportunities to evaluate the biological effects of restored gene expression in different cell lineages. Here we review the recent findings of revertant somatic mosaicism in primary immunodeficiency diseases and discuss its clinical implications.

  12. Web Map Services (WMS) Global Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, George; Plesea, Lucian

    2003-01-01

    The WMS Global Mosaic provides access to imagery of the global landmass using an open standard for web mapping. The seamless image is a mosaic of Landsat 7 scenes; geographically-accurate with 30 and 15 meter resolutions. By using the OpenGIS Web Map Service (WMS) interface, any organization can use the global mosaic as a layer in their geospatial applications. Based on a trade study, an implementation approach was chosen that extends a previously developed WMS hosting a Landsat 5 CONUS mosaic developed by JPL. The WMS Global Mosaic supports the NASA Geospatial Interoperability Office goal of providing an integrated digital representation of the Earth, widely accessible for humanity's critical decisions.

  13. Survival of Salmonella Newport on Whole and Fresh-Cut Cucumbers Treated with Lytic Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Dashiell, Gwendolyn; Handy, Eric T; East, Cheryl; Reynnells, Russell; White, Chanelle; Nyarko, Esmond; Micallef, Shirley; Hashem, Fawzy; Millner, Patricia D

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to S. enterica contamination during growing, harvesting, and postharvest handling. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for S. enterica was evaluated to reduce Salmonella populations on cucumbers. Unwaxed cucumbers ('Lisboa' variety, or mini-cucumbers purchased at retail) were inoculated with Salmonella Newport (5 log CFU per cucumber) and were sprayed with 3.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (control) or 10 log PFU/ml of SalmoFresh, a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage preparation (phage), to deliver 4.76 × 10(7) PFU/cm(2). Cucumbers were stored at 10 or 22°C for 7 days. Inoculated mini-cucumbers were sliced with a sterile knife to investigate Salmonella transfer to mesocarp, and cut pieces were stored at 4°C for 2 days. Populations (log CFU per cucumber) of Salmonella Newport on phage-treated whole cucumbers were significantly (P cucumbers (4.27 ± 0.37) on day 0. Populations on phage-treated cucumbers stored at 10°C were 1.72 ± 0.77 and 1.56 ± 0.46, which were significantly lower than those on control-treated cucumbers (3.20 ± 0.48 and 2.33 ± 0.25) on days 1 and 4, respectively. Between days 0 and 1, populations on control-treated cucumbers stored at 10 and 22°C declined by 1.07 and 2.47 log CFU per cucumber, respectively. At 22°C, Salmonella Newport populations declined by 2.37 log CFU per cucumber between days 0 and 1. Phage application to whole cucumbers before slicing did not reduce the transfer of Salmonella Newport to fresh-cut slices. Lytic phage application may be a potential intervention to reduce Salmonella populations on whole cucumbers.

  14. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  15. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen

  16. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during t

  17. Rationalization of a genebank cucumber collection with SSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijeweert, van W.; Treuren, van R.

    2012-01-01

    The CGN cucumber (Cucumis sativus) collection consists of 937 accessions. The majority of accessions originated from the working collection of the former Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT), where they were used for breeding. The collection mainly includes old cultivars received from Du

  18. In vitro auxin binding to cellular membranes of cucumber fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, K R; Mudge, K W; Poovaiah, B W

    1981-04-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s).

  19. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  20. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  1. An integrated genetic and cytogenetic map of the cucumber genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular linkage maps. We report herein the development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers originated from whole genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent construction of a high-density genetic linkage map. This map includes 995 SSRs in seven linkage groups which spans in total 573 cM, and defines approximately 680 recombination breakpoints with an average of 0.58 cM between two markers. These linkage groups were then assigned to seven corresponding chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH assays also revealed a chromosomal inversion between Cucumis subspecies [C. sativus var. sativus L. and var. hardwickii (R. Alef], which resulted in marker clustering on the genetic map. A quarter of the mapped markers showed relatively high polymorphism levels among 11 inbred lines of cucumber. Among the 995 markers, 49%, 26% and 22% were conserved in melon, watermelon and pumpkin, respectively. This map will facilitate whole genome sequencing, positional cloning, and molecular breeding in cucumber, and enable the integration of knowledge of gene and trait in cucurbits.

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lv, J.; Qi, J.; Shi, Q.; Shen, D.; Zhang, S.; Shao, G.; Li, H.; Sun, Z.; Weng, Y.; Shang, Y.; Gu, X.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.; Zhang, J.; Treuren, van R.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also incl

  3. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES I. SALAD CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of six salad cucumber varieties was carried out. The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of the harvest time on the fruit sensory properties. Flesh colour was the most stable character while appearance, skin colour, aroma, texture, taste and total sensory evaluation varied during the three investigated harvest periods. Two-way analysis of variance proved significant effect of the varieties, harvest time and its interaction on all sensory characters. Depending on the harvest time some of the varieties changed their places one toward other by total sensory evaluation. Therefore, it could not be made reliable conclusions of data obtained from one harvest time. The number of harvest times as well as the number of vegetations should be more then one in order to receive more accurate information for sensory characteristics.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Fruit Bending in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-li; ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; ZHOU Xiu-yan

    2014-01-01

    In cucumber, fruit shape is an important quality criterion, and fruit bending is known to limit growth, yield, and taste. To investigate the post-transcriptional changes that regulate fruit bending and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we generated a proteomic proifle of the abdomen and back of cucumber bending fruit. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed the detection of approximately 900 distinct protein spots in each gel, 32 of which were differentially expressed in the abdomen and back of bending cucumber fruit. Ten of the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser ionization time of lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A search of primary databases showed that the identiifed proteins are involved in various metabolic processes and cellular responses, including photosynthesis metabolism, energy metabolism, defense and stress response, and regulation. The identiifed proteins included large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which are involved in photosynthesis and photorespiratory metabolism, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is possible that imbalances in catabolic and anabolic processes directly affect the bending of cucumber fruit. The predicted function of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase isozyme is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis; fruit bending may be regulated by ethylene, or by ethylene signaling crosstalk during fruit development. The 14-3-3 protein is usually considered to be a regulation-related protein, which plays a role in regulating cell hyperplasia, cell differentiation during growth, and apoptosis during senescence. Involvement of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins in signal transmission is known to regulate the development of cells in cucumber fruits and to play a role in fruit shape variation. Patterns of protein expression showed high repeatability. We hypothesize

  5. MODIFIED TECHNIQUES FOR PURIFICATION OF ALFALFA MOSAIC VIRUS%苜蓿花叶病毒提纯方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈集双; 冯明光

    2001-01-01

    用来自于白车根草(Trifolium repens)上的一个苜蓿花叶病毒分离物AMV-SY为材料,比较了3种以差速离心为主结合PEG沉淀和超速离心提纯病毒的方法,对提纯病毒进行紫外吸收测定、电镜检查和SDS-聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳检测的结果显示:以交替使用含有0.1mol/LEDTA和0.1mol/L MgSO4的磷酸缓冲液作为病毒悬浮介质的提纯程序最为理想。该方法提取苜蓿花叶病毒的得率为47.6mg/100g昆诺藜鲜病叶,该病毒分离物的外壳蛋白分子量为29kD。该方法的病毒得率较高、杂蛋白较少、病毒粒子完整,是比较理想的提纯方法。%Three purification methods ,based on differential centrifugation,precipitation by polyethylene glycol (PEG)and ultra-speed centrifugation,were compared for purification of an alfalfa mosaic virus (AMVSY)previously isolated from Trifolium repens. The Purified virus was observed under electron microscope, measured,by ultra-violet absorpton analysis and protein determination with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Our results showed that a method by alternative use of sodium phosphate buffers containing 0. 1mol/L EDTA and 0. 1mol/L MgSO4 achieved the best purification with less miscellaneous protein contamination,integrate virus particles and relatively high yield, which was of 47.6mg virion per hundred grams of fresh leaves of Chanopodium quinoa inoculated with AMV-SY. The coat protein of AMY-SY was tested for about 29 kilo-Dalton.

  6. Trisomy 21 mosaicism and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the maternal age-specific risk for trisomy 21 mosaicism. Data were obtained on 322 trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism and 27,943 simple trisomy 21 diagnoses recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register from 1989 to 2009 in England and Wales. Trisomy 21 cases with mosaicism have a mean maternal age of 33.1 years compared to 35.0 years for free trisomy 21 cases. Sixty-seven percent of trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are maternal age dependent, with a risk 0.8% that of the corresponding maternal age specific risk for simple trisomy 21. However 33% (0.8 per 100,000 births) are not maternal age dependent, indicating that maternal age is not the only risk factor for mosaicism. Trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are more likely to be female than free trisomy 21 diagnoses, however there was no association of fetal sex with maternal age which indicates that there is another factor involved in the presence of mosaicism not associated with maternal age, but associated with fetal sex.

  7. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  8. A MOSAIC for the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Vincent L.; Needles, M. M.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Costa, D.; Cadigan, J.; Clements, C.; May, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    MOSAIC (Mesospheric Ozone System for Atmospheric Investigations in the Classroom) is a project to engage secondary and undergraduate students in authentic inquiry-based science learning using a network of inexpensive spectrometers monitoring the mesospheric ozone concentration. The MOSAIC system observes the 11 GHz emission line of ozone using electronics built around satellite television equipment. The possibilities for student investigation are broad and scientifically significant. MOSAIC observations have confirmed diurnal variations in mesospheric ozone concentration and detected semiannual variations that may be due to inter-hemispheric meridional circulation of water vapor. Possible future projects include monitoring the temperature of the mesosphere and correlations with the solar cycle. Students are also encouraged to design their own investigations with MOSAIC data. Early results have been reported in a major scientific journal, and further scientific progress is likely as future MOSAIC systems are deployed -- increasing the sensitivity and geographic coverage of the network. Complete teaching units, including slides, laboratory activities, background information, student worksheets, and conformance with national and Massachusetts educational standards, have been developed to integrate MOSAIC into a classroom environment. One unit introduces the layers of the atmosphere, Earth's energy balance, the greenhouse effect, processes of ozone creation and destruction, noctilucent clouds, heat transfer, the laws of thermodynamics, radio waves (including radio astronomy), and fluid behavior. A second unit, currently being tested in classrooms, uses the MOSAIC system to motivate and deepen understanding of a large portion of electromagnetism in a conceptual physics class. MOSAIC has also been used in a local high school chemistry class. MOSAIC is still in development and is funded by the National Science Foundation.

  9. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecka, Marzena

    2016-04-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method on the mosaicism detection rate is especially highlighted. As next-generation sequencing technologies constitute a promising methodological solution in mosaicism detection in the coming years, revisions in current diagnostic protocols are necessary to increase the detection rate of the unrevealed mosaicism events. Since mosaicism identification is a complex process, numerous examples of multistep mosaicism investigations are presented and discussed.

  10. Trisomy 9 Mosaicism Diagnosed In Utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of trisomy 9 mosaicism diagnosed by amniocentesis with ongoing pregnancies after referral to our center due to fetal abnormalities. Two cases were associated with severe fetal growth restriction (FGR, each of which resulted in an intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD in the third trimester. The other case involved mild FGR with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia and resulted in a live birth with severe development delay. A major prenatal finding of trisomy 9 mosaicism is FGR. Fetuses with trisomy 9 mosaicism can rarely survive in the case of severe FGR.

  11. Unrevealed mosaicism in the next-generation sequencing era

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mosaicism refers to the presence in an individual of normal and abnormal cells that are genotypically distinct and are derived from a single zygote. The incidence of mosaicism events in the human body is underestimated as the genotypes in the mosaic ratio, especially in the low-grade mosaicism, stay unrevealed. This review summarizes various research outcomes and diagnostic questions in relation to different types of mosaicism. The impact of both tested biological material and applied method ...

  12. Progresses in the Mechanism of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xingang; WU Fengzhi; WANG Xuezheng; YUAN Ye

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum (Owen) is one of the most devastating diseases in cucumber production worldwide.Recent progresses in the mechanism of resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber were reviewed in this paper,including pathogenic mechanism of Fusarium oxysporum,the resistance mechanism of cucumber,the heredity of resistance,and the location of resistance genes.Following works should be the location and cloning of resistance genes with molecular biologic methods.

  13. Biological control mechanisms of D-pinitol against powdery mildew in cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; Fernandez, Diana; Wang, D. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Dai, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    D-pinitol is an effective agent for controlling powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in cucumber. In this study, we determined the mechanisms of D-pinitol in controlling powdery mildew in cucumber plants. We compared P. xanthii development on cucumber leaf surface treated with D-pinitol or water (2 mg ml(-1)) at different time points after inoculation. The germinating conidia, hyphae, and conidiophores of the pathogen were severely damaged by D-pinitol at any time of application tested. The h...

  14. Mosaic of Commemorative Microscope Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Written by electron beam lithography in the Microdevices Laboratory of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, this Optical Microscope substrate helps the Phoenix Mars Mission science team learn how to assemble individual microscope images into a mosaic by aligning rows of text. Each line is about 0.1 millimeter tall, the average thickness of a human hair. Except for the Mogensen twins, the names are of babies born and team members lost during the original development of MECA (the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer) for the canceled 2001 Mars lander mission. The plaque also acknowledges the MECA 2001 principal investigator, now retired. This image was taken by the MECA Optical Microscope on Sol 111, or the 111th day of the Phoenix mission (Sept. 16, 2008). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Characterization and expression analysis of a complement component gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong; Zhou, Zunchun; Yang, Aifu; Dong, Ying; Guan, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Bai

    2015-12-01

    The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of animals. It can be activated by distinct yet overlapping classical, alternative and lectin pathways. In the alternative pathway, complement factor B (Bf) serves as the catalytic subunit of complement component 3 (C3) convertase, which plays the central role among three activation pathways. In this study, the Bf gene in sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), termed AjBf, was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of AjBf was 3231 bp in length barring the poly (A) tail. It contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2742 bp encoding 913 amino acids, a 105 bp 5'-UTR (5'-terminal untranslated region) and a 384 bp 3'-UTR. AjBf was a mosaic protein with six CCP (complement control protein) domains, a VWA (von Willebrand factor A) domain, and a serine protease domain. The deduced molecular weight of AjBf protein was 101 kDa. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the expression level of AjBf in A. japonicus was obviously higher at larval stage than that at embryonic stage. Expression detection in different tissues showed that AjBf expressed higher in coelomocytes than in other four tissues. In addation, AjBf expression in different tissues was induced significantly after LPS or PolyI:C challenge. These results indicated that AjBf plays an important role in immune responses to pathogen infection.

  16. Recurrence risk for germinal mosaics revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, M A; te Meerman, G J

    1995-01-01

    A formula to calculate recurrence risk for germline mosaicism published by Hartl in 1971 has been updated to include marker information. For practical genetic counselling new, more elaborate tables are given.

  17. Revertant mosaicism in human genetic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, MF

    1999-01-01

    Somatic reversion of inherited mutations is known for many years in plant breeding, however it was recognized only recently in humans. The concept of revertant mosaicism is important in medical genetics. (C) 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Detecting somatic mosaicism: considerations and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A S A; Wilson, S L; Trinh, J; Ye, X C

    2015-06-01

    Human disease is rarely a matter of all or nothing; variable expressivity is generally observed. Part of this variability is explained by somatic mosaicism, which can arise by a myriad of genetic alterations. These can take place at any stage of development, possibly leading to unusual features visible at birth, but can also occur later in life, conceivably leading to cancer. Previously, detection of somatic mosaicism was extremely challenging, as many gold standard tests lacked the necessary resolution. However, with the advances in high-throughput sequencing, mosaicism is being detected more frequently and at lower levels. This raises the issue of normal variation within each individual vs mosaicism leading to disease, and how to distinguish between the two. In this article, we will define somatic mosaicism with a brief overview of its main mechanisms in concrete clinical examples, discuss the impact of next-generation sequencing technologies in its detection, and expand on the clinical implications associated with a discovery of somatic mosaicism in the clinic.

  19. Presence and Distribution of Oilseed Pumpkin Viruses and Molecular Detection of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vučurović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intensive spread of virus infections of oilseed pumpkin has resulted in significant economic losses in pumpkin crop production, which is currently expanding in our country. In 2007 and 2008, a survey for the presence and distribution of oilseed pumpkin viruses was carried out in order to identify viruses responsible for epidemics and incidences of very destructive symptoms on cucurbit leaves and fruits. Monitoring andcollecting samples of oil pumpkin, as well as other species such as winter and butternut squash and buffalo and bottle gourd with viral infection symptoms, was conducted in several localities of Vojvodina Province. The collected plant samples were tested by DAS-ELISA using polyclonal antisera specific for the detection of six most economically harmful pumpkin viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMW, Squash mosaic virus (SqMV, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV and Tobaccoringspot virus (TRSV that are included in A1 quarantine list of harmful organisms in Serbia.Identification of viruses in the collected samples indicated the presence of three viruses, ZYMV, WMV and CMV, in individual and mixed infections. Frequency of the identified viruses varied depending on locality and year of investigations. In 2007, WMV was the most frequent virus (94.2%, while ZYMV was prevalent (98.04% in 2008. High frequency of ZYMV determined in both years of investigation indicated the need for its rapid and reliable molecular detection. During this investigation, a protocol for ZYMVdetection was developed and optimized using specific primers CPfwd/Cprev and commercial kits for total RNA extraction, as well as for RT-PCR. In RT-PCR reaction using these primers, a DNA fragment of approximately 1100 bp, which included coat protein gene, was amplified in the samples of infected pumkin leaves. Although serological methods are still useful for large-scale testing of a great number of

  20. Silicon-mediated accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawe, A; Abou-Zaid, M; Menzies, J G; Bélanger, R R

    1998-05-01

    ABSTRACT The controversial role of silicon in plant disease resistance, described mostly as a passive mechanical protection, has been addressed. Conclusive evidence is presented that silicon is involved in the increased resistance of cucumber to powdery mildew by enhancing the antifungal activity of infected leaves. This antifungal activity was attributable to the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites. One of these metabolites, described here as a phytoalexin, was identified as a flavonol aglycone rhamnetin (3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-O-methoxyflavone). This is the first report of a phytoalexin for this chemical group in the plant kingdom and of a flavonol phytoalexin in cucumber, a chemical defense long believed to be nonexistent in the family Cucurbitaceae. The antifungal activity of leaf extracts was better expressed after acid hydrolysis, extending to another plant species the concept that some phytoalexins are synthesized as glycosylated phytoalexins or their precursors.

  1. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  2. Variation of Plant Electrophysiology in Cucumber under Different Water Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; YU Hai-ye; MA Cheng-lin; WANG Rui

    2005-01-01

    AP and VP were measured in cucumbers under water sufficiency and water stress. The results indicated that, the AP would be evoked by electrical impulse, for water-stressed cucumber, its amplitude could reached more than 40 mV which was obviously greater than that (about 10-20 mV) of plant under well-watered,and no VP came out. Along with the intensity of light increased, the VP appeared going-up trend, and accompanied by evidently spiking electrical signal, for plant under water stress, the VP increased more clearly, but the change of spiking amplitude of AP (about 3 mY) was rather smaller than that (8-10 mY) of plant under well-watered.

  3. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  4. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-04

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  5. Study on the Resistance of Cucumber to Temperature Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Four cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) inbred lines with different resistances to temperature stress were used in this experiment. The seedlings of line Q10 and Q21 that have high resistance to chilling stress also have high resistance to heat stress. The seedlings of line T94 and T55 that have lower resistance to chilling stress also have lower resistance to heat stress. It seems that the resistance of cucumber seedlings to different temperature stresses was similar. The influences of chilling and heat stress on the germination ability of cucumber seeds were different. Under the chilling stress, the germination percentage decreased less, and the germination velocity decreased more,so the germination index decreased significantly. Under the heat stress, the germination percentage and velocity of the seeds with high resistance decreased less and those of the seeds with lower resistance decreased more. The differences among the lines became more evident under the extreme heat condition. The content of chlorophyll decreased under the different temperature stresses, the content of chlorophyll a decreased more than that of chlorophyll b, so the value of chlorophyll a/b decreased.The temperature stress inhibited the photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings significantly. After chilling or heat treatment, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased remarkably. With the stomatal conductance (Gs) decreased, the stomatal limited value (Is) decreased, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, and both the apparent quantum efficiencies (AQE) and the carboxylation efficiencies (CE) decreased. Results showed that the non-stomatal factors were the main causes of Pn decrease, and the photosynthetic mechanism was destroyed remarkably.

  6. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  7. Subtropical Modern Greenhouse Cucumber Canopy Transpiration Under Summer Climate Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-hong; WANG Xiao-han; DING Wei-min; CHEN Yu-qing; DAI Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse canopy transpiration not only has effects on greenhouse air temperature and humidity, but also is important for determining the set-point of fertigation. In this study, Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate the greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition.The effects of greenhouse environmental factors on canopy transpiration were analyzed based on the measurements of greenhouse microclimate factors and canopy transpiration. The results showed that Penman-Monteith equation was reliable and robust in estimating greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition. Greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration rate increased linearly with the increase of net radiation and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) above the canopy. But the maximum value of the canopy transpiration rate occurred at the same time as that of VPD whereas about two hours later than that of net radiation. Based on the results, it was concluded that in addition to radiation, air humidity should also be considered when determine the set-point of fertigation.

  8. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  9. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  10. Characterization of a mitogen-activated protein kinase gene from cucumber required for trichoderma-conferred plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoresh, Michal; Gal-On, Amit; Leibman, Diana; Chet, Ilan

    2006-11-01

    The fungal biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum has been recently shown to induce systemic resistance in plants through a mechanism that employs jasmonic acid and ethylene signal transduction pathways. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins have been implicated in the signal transduction of a wide variety of plant stress responses. Here we report the identification and characterization of a Trichoderma-induced MAPK (TIPK) gene function in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Similar to its homologs, wound-induced protein kinase, MPK3, and MPK3a, TIPK is also induced by wounding. Normally, preinoculation of roots with Trichoderma activates plant defense mechanisms, which result in resistance to the leaf pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv lachrymans. We used a unique attenuated virus vector, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV-AGII), to overexpress TIPK protein and antisense (AS) RNA. Plants overexpressing TIPK were more resistant to pathogenic bacterial attack than control plants, even in the absence of Trichoderma preinoculation. On the other hand, plants expressing TIPK-AS revealed increased sensitivity to pathogen attack. Moreover, Trichoderma preinoculation could not protect these AS plants against subsequent pathogen attack. We therefore demonstrate that Trichoderma exerts its protective effect on plants through activation of the TIPK gene, a MAPK that is involved in signal transduction pathways of defense responses.

  11. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  12. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  13. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  14. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  15. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  16. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  17. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  18. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  19. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  20. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  1. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  2. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  3. Thick root of cucumber: other susceptible plants and the effect of pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Paternotte, P.; Hamelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thick root is a relatively new disorder of cucumber grown in artificial substrates. Plants of cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, lupin, anthurium, Cucurbita ficifolia, C. maxima and two lines from crosses between C. maxima and C. moschata were grown in thick root disease (TRD)-infested nutrient solutio

  4. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  5. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  6. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  7. Transiently Expressed Short Hairpin RNA Targeting 126 kDa Protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Interferes with Virus Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Min ZHAO; De-Rong AN; Jian ZHAO; Guang-Hua HUANG; Zu-Hua HE; Jiang-Ye CHEN

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) silences gene expression by guiding mRNA degradation in asequence-specific fashion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA), an intermediate of the RNAi pathway, has been shown to be very effective in inhibiting virus infection in mammalian cells and cultured plant cells. Here, we report that Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) could inhibit tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA accumulation by targeting the gene encoding the replication-associated 126 kDa protein in intact plant tissue. Our results indicate that transiently expressed shRNA efficiently interfered with TMV infection. The interference observed is sequence-specific, and time- and site-dependent.Transiently expressed shRNA corresponding to the TMV 126 kDa protein gene did not inhibit cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), an unrelated tobamovirus. In order to interfere with TMV accumulation in tobacco leaves, it is essential for the shRNA constructs to be infiltrated into the same leaves as TMV inoculation. Our results support the view that RNAi opens the door for novel therapeutic procedures against virus diseases.We propose that a combination of the RNAi technique and Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression could be employed as a potent antiviral treatment in plants.

  8. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato torrado virus: two emerging viruses affecting tomato crops in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Pedro; Sempere, Raqueln; Aranda, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The molecular biology, epidemiology, and evolutionary dynamics of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) are much better understood than those of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV). The earliest descriptions of PepMV suggest a recent jump from nontomato species (e.g., pepino; Solanum muricatum) to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Its stability in contaminated plant tissues, its transmission through seeds, and the global trade of tomato seeds and fruits may have facilitated the global spread of PepMV. Stability and seed transmission also probably account for the devastating epidemics caused by already-established PepMV strains, although additional contributing factors may include the efficient transmission of PepMV by contact and the often-inconspicuous symptoms in vegetative tomato tissues. The genetic variability of PepMV is likely to have promoted the first phase of emergence (i.e., the species jump) and it continues to play an important role as the virus becomes more pervasive, progressing from regional outbreaks to pandemics. In contrast, the long-term progression of ToTV outbreaks is not yet clear and this may reflect factors such as the limited accumulation of the virus in infected plants, which has been shown to be approximately two orders of magnitude less than PepMV. The efficient dispersion of ToTV may therefore depend on dense populations of its principal vectors, Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum, as has been proposed for the necrogenic satellite RNA of Cucumber mosaic virus.

  9. The categories of cutaneous mosaicism: A proposed classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Mosaic disorders can most easily be studied in the skin. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the different forms of cutaneous mosaicism. Major categories are genomic versus epigenetic mosaicism and nonsegmental versus segmental mosaicism. The class of nonsegmental mosaics includes single point mosaicism as exemplified by solitary benign or malignant skin tumors; disseminated mosaicism as noted in autosomal dominant tumor syndromes such as neurofibromatosis 1; and patchy mosaicism without midline separation as found in giant melanocytic nevus. The class of segmental mosaics includes segmental manifestation of lethal genes surviving by mosaicism as noted in Proteus syndrome; type 1 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting heterozygosity for a postzygotic new mutation; type 2 segmental mosaicism of autosomal dominant skin disorders reflecting loss of heterozygosity that occurred at an early developmental stage in a heterozygous embryo; and isolated or superimposed segmental mosaicism of common polygenic skin disorders such as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis. A particular form of genomic mosaicism is didymosis (twin spotting). Revertant mosaicism is recognizable as one or more areas of healthy skin in patients with epidermolysis bullosa or other serious genodermatoses. The category of epigenetic mosaicism includes several X-linked, male lethal disorders such as incontinentia pigmenti, and the patterns of lyonization as noted in X-linked non-lethal disorders such as hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Christ-Siemens-Touraine type. An interesting field of future research will be the concept of epigenetic autosomal mosaicism that may explain some unusual cases of autosomal transmission of linear hypo- or hypermelanosis.

  10. Isolation and characterization of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, H J; Farjah, M; Osman, T A; Buck, K W

    1995-06-01

    A template-bound RNA polymerase was isolated from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus (RCNMV) by differential centrifugation, solubilization with dodecyl beta-D-maltopyranoside, and chromatography on columns of Sephacryl S-400 and Q-Sepharose. Analysis of the purified polymerase by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by silver staining or immunoblotting, showed that it contained virus-encoded proteins of molecular masses 27 kDa and 88 kDa together with several minor proteins possibly of host origin. After removal of endogenous RNA with micrococcal nuclease, the polymerase became template-dependent. It was also template-specific, being able to utilize as templates RNA of two strains of RCNMV, but not RNAs of three viruses in different taxonomic groups, namely cucumber mosaic cucumovirus, tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus and tomato mosaic tobamovirus. The products of RNA polymerase reactions were double-stranded RNAs corresponding to RCNMV RNAs 1 and 2. The ability of the template-dependent RNA polymerase to synthesize RNA was completely inhibited by antibodies to a peptide containing the GDD motif, whereas the activity of the template-bound enzyme was unaffected by these antibodies.

  11. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  12. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  13. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  14. Induction and mechanism of cucumber resistance to anthracnose induced by Pieris rapae extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pieris rapae extract was sprayed on the surface of cucumber leaf to determine the induction of resistance to anthracnose.The enzyme activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were detected on cucumber leaves after P.rapae extract induction and pathogen challenge.The results showed that the disease index of cucumber anthracnose was significantly decreased after the cucumber was induced with the P.rapae extract at a concentration of 5.0 mg·mL-1.The POD and PPO activities in foliar-applied P.rapae extract without pathogen inoculation (PETO) or with pathogen inoculation (PETI) were relatively higher than those with no-P.rapae extract treatment and without pathogen inoculation (CONO) or with pathogen inoculation (CONI),respectively.The results suggested that the increased levels of POD and PPO activities in PETO and PETI play an important role in the induction of resistance to cucumber anthracnose.

  15. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  16. Influence of host chloroplast proteins on Tobacco mosaic virus accumulation and intercellular movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sumana; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Cole, Anthony B; Ballard, Kimberly D; Lei, Zhentian; Watson, Bonnie S; Sumner, Lloyd W; Nelson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) forms dense cytoplasmic bodies containing replication-associated proteins (virus replication complexes [VRCs]) upon infection. To identify host proteins that interact with individual viral components of VRCs or VRCs in toto, we isolated viral replicase- and VRC-enriched fractions from TMV-infected Nicotiana tabacum plants. Two host proteins in enriched fractions, ATP-synthase γ-subunit (AtpC) and Rubisco activase (RCA) were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Through pull-down analysis, RCA bound predominantly to the region between the methyltransferase and helicase domains of the TMV replicase. Tobamovirus, but not Cucumber mosaic virus or Potato virus X, infection of N. tabacum plants resulted in 50% reductions in Rca and AtpC messenger RNA levels. To investigate the role of these host proteins in TMV accumulation and plant defense, we used a Tobacco rattle virus vector to silence these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana plants prior to challenge with TMV expressing green fluorescent protein. TMV-induced fluorescent lesions on Rca- or AtpC-silenced leaves were, respectively, similar or twice the size of those on leaves expressing these genes. Silencing Rca and AtpC did not influence the spread of Tomato bushy stunt virus and Potato virus X. In AtpC- and Rca-silenced leaves TMV accumulation and pathogenicity were greatly enhanced, suggesting a role of both host-encoded proteins in a defense response against TMV. In addition, silencing these host genes altered the phenotype of the TMV infection foci and VRCs, yielding foci with concentric fluorescent rings and dramatically more but smaller VRCs. The concentric rings occurred through renewed virus accumulation internal to the infection front.

  17. Genetic Mosaics and the Germ Line Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Samuels

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic mosaics provide information about cellular lineages that is otherwise difficult to obtain, especially in humans. De novo mutations act as cell markers, allowing the tracing of developmental trajectories of all descendants of the cell in which the new mutation arises. De novo mutations may arise at any time during development but are relatively rare. They have usually been observed through medical ascertainment, when the mutation causes unusual clinical signs or symptoms. Mutational events can include aneuploidies, large chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, or point mutations. In this review we focus primarily on the analysis of point mutations and their utility in addressing questions of germ line versus somatic lineages. Genetic mosaics demonstrate that the germ line and soma diverge early in development, since there are many examples of combined somatic and germ line mosaicism for de novo mutations. The occurrence of simultaneous mosaicism in both the germ line and soma also shows that the germ line is not strictly clonal but arises from at least two, and possibly multiple, cells in the embryo with different ancestries. Whole genome or exome DNA sequencing technologies promise to expand the range of studies of genetic mosaics, as de novo mutations can now be identified through sequencing alone in the absence of a medical ascertainment. These technologies have been used to study mutation patterns in nuclear families and in monozygotic twins, and in animal model developmental studies, but not yet for extensive cell lineage studies in humans.

  18. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  19. Global Color Mosaic of Triton

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Global color mosaic of Triton, taken in 1989 by Voyager 2 during its flyby of the Neptune system. Color was synthesized by combining high- resolution images taken through orange, violet, and ultraviolet filters; these images were displayed as red, green, and blue images and combined to create this color version. With a radius of 1,350 (839 mi), about 22% smaller than Earth's moon, Triton is by far the largest satellite of Neptune. It is one of only three objects in the Solar System known to have a nitrogen-dominated atmosphere (the others are Earth and Saturn's giant moon, Titan). Triton has the coldest surface known anywhere in the Solar System (38 K, about -391 degrees Farenheit); it is so cold that most of Triton's nitrogen is condensed as frost, making it the only satellite in the Solar System known to have a surface made mainly of nitrogen ice. The pinkish deposits constitute a vast south polar cap believed to contain methane ice, which would have reacted under sunlight to form pink or red compounds. The dark streaks overlying these pink ices are believed to be an icy and perhaps carbonaceous dust deposited from huge geyser-like plumes, some of which were found to be active during the Voyager 2 flyby. The bluish-green band visible in this image extends all the way around Triton near the equator; it may consist of relatively fresh nitrogen frost deposits. The greenish areas include what is called the cataloupe terrain, whose origin is unknown, and a set of 'cryovolcanic' landscapes apparently produced by icy-cold liquids (now frozen) erupted from Triton's interior.

  20. Mosaic Convergence of Rodent Dentitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, Vincent; Charles, Cyril; Tafforeau, Paul; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Aguilar, Jean-Pierre; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Michaux, Jacques; Viriot, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. Conclusion/Significance The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible pathways. Because convergent

  1. Mosaic convergence of rodent dentitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lazzari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding mechanisms responsible for changes in tooth morphology in the course of evolution is an area of investigation common to both paleontology and developmental biology. Detailed analyses of molar tooth crown shape have shown frequent homoplasia in mammalian evolution, which requires accurate investigation of the evolutionary pathways provided by the fossil record. The necessity of preservation of an effective occlusion has been hypothesized to functionally constrain crown morphological changes and to also facilitate convergent evolution. The Muroidea superfamily constitutes a relevant model for the study of molar crown diversification because it encompasses one third of the extant mammalian biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Combined microwear and 3D-topographic analyses performed on fossil and extant muroid molars allow for a first quantification of the relationships between changes in crown morphology and functionality of occlusion. Based on an abundant fossil record and on a well resolved phylogeny, our results show that the most derived functional condition associates longitudinal chewing and non interlocking of cusps. This condition has been reached at least 7 times within muroids via two main types of evolutionary pathways each respecting functional continuity. In the first type, the flattening of tooth crown which induces the removal of cusp interlocking occurs before the rotation of the chewing movement. In the second type however, flattening is subsequent to rotation of the chewing movement which can be associated with certain changes in cusp morphology. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The reverse orders of the changes involved in these different pathways reveal a mosaic evolution of mammalian dentition in which direction of chewing and crown shape seem to be partly decoupled. Either can change in respect to strong functional constraints affecting occlusion which thereby limit the number of the possible

  2. Document image mosaicing: A novel approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Hemantha Kumar; P Shivakumara; D S Guru; P Nagabhushan

    2004-06-01

    There are situations where it is not possible to capture large documents with the given imaging media such as scanners or copying machines in a single stretch because of their inherent limitations. This results in capture of a large document in terms of split components of a document image. Hence, the need is to mosaic the split components into the original and put together the document image. In this paper, we present a novel and simple approach to mosaic two split images of a large document based on pixel value matching. The method compares the values of pixels in the columns of split images to identify the common or overlapping region (OR) in them, which helps in mosaicing of split images of a large document.

  3. Mosaic Turner syndrome and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhayyat, H.; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Steer, J.;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A common and well recognised feature of Turner's syndrome (partial or total monosomy X) is impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. A small percentage of patients with Turner's syndrome have a complex mosaic karyotype with atypical clinical features and mental retardation....... METHODS/PATIENT: We report the first case of a child with a complex mosaic Turner genotype and hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia responsive to diazoxide therapy. RESULTS: Cytogenetic analysis showed four cell lines: one with 45,X; the others with an additional small ring chromosome, a small marker......'s syndrome is important as persistent hypoglycaemia may lead to brain damage in addition to the risk of mental retardation. Further studies are required to understand whether the mosaic over--or underexpression of unidentified X chromosome gene(s) in the pancreatic beta-cells leads to hyperinsulinaemic...

  4. Outcome of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 6 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Oh, Tracey; Durcan, Judy; Abdelhak, Yaakov; Clachko, Mark; Aviv, Hana

    2002-08-01

    We report the prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 6 mosaicism via amniocentesis, in which trisomy 6 cells were identified in three of five culture vessels with 33% (5/15) of colonies showing trisomic cells. The pregnancy was electively terminated and examination revealed minor abnormalities (shortening of the femurs, micrognathia, posterior malrotation of the ears, and bilateral camptomelia of the second digit of the hands and fifth digits of the feet). Cytogenetic analysis of the placenta showed trisomy 6 in 100% of 20 cells studied. Karyotype was 46,XX in 100 cells examined from fetal skin. There are relatively few prenatally diagnosed cases of mosaic trisomy 6 at amniocentesis. Confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has been postulated in other cases where follow-up cytogenetic studies were not available. The present case differs from those previously reported, as it appears to represent CPM of chromosome 6 with phenotypic effects to the fetus.

  5. Infrared image mosaic using point feature operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhen; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Hou, Junjie; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study infrared image mosaic around a single point of rotation, aiming at expanding the narrow view range of infrared images. We propose an infrared image mosaic method using point feature operators including image registration and image synthesis. Traditional mosaic algorithms usually use global image registration methods to extract the feature points in the global image, which cost too much time as well as considerable matching errors. To address this issue, we first roughly calculate the image shift amount using phase correlation and determine the overlap region between images, and then extract image features in overlap region, which shortens the registration time and increases the quality of feature points. We improve the traditional algorithm through increasing constraints of point matching based on prior knowledge of image shift amount based on which the weighted map is computed using fade in-out method. The experimental results verify that the proposed method has better real time performance and robustness.

  6. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO IDENTIFY TOMATO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS (TOMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Keila M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV isolated in Brazil. One antibody (8G7G2 isotyped as IgG2b (kappa light chain showed strong specificity and very low cross reaction with the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. It can be used in identification of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV.

  7. Somatic Mosaicism in Cases with Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Thomas; Karamysheva, Tatyana; Merkas, Martina; Brecevic, Lukrecija; Hamid, Ahmed B.; Ewers, Elisabeth; Mrasek, Kristin; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Weise, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Somatic mosaicism is something that is observed in everyday lives of cytogeneticists. Chromosome instability is one of the leading causes of large-scale genome variation analyzable since the correct human chromosome number was established in 1956. Somatic mosaicism is also a well-known fact to be present in cases with small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), i.e. karyotypes of 47,+mar/46. In this study, the data available in the literature were collected concerning the frequency mosaicism in different subgroups of patients with sSMC. Of 3124 cases with sSMC 1626 (52%) present with somatic mosaicism. Some groups like patients with Emanuel-, cat-eye- or i(18p)- syndrome only tend rarely to develop mosaicism, while in Pallister-Killian syndrome every patient is mosaic. In general, acrocentric and non-acrocentric derived sSMCs are differently susceptible to mosaicism; non-acrocentric derived ones are hereby the less stable ones. Even though, in the overwhelming majority of the cases, somatic mosaicism does not have any detectable clinical effects, there are rare cases with altered clinical outcomes due to mosaicism. This is extremely important for prenatal genetic counseling. Overall, as mosaicism is something to be considered in at least every second sSMC case, array-CGH studies cannot be offered as a screening test to reliably detect this kind of chromosomal aberration, as low level mosaic cases and cryptic mosaics are missed by that. PMID:21358988

  8. Heterogeneity Analysis of Cucumber Canopy in the Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Ting-ting; LU Sheng-lian; ZHAO Chun-jiang; GUO Xin-yu; WEN Wei-liang; DU jian-jun

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity is an essential step in conducting parameters for a canopy structural model. This paper aims to analyze the structural heterogeneity of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) canopy by means of analyzing leaf distribution in a greenhouse environment with natural sunlight and also to assess the effect of structural canopy heterogeneity on light interception and photosynthesis. Two experiments and four measurements were carried out in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. A static virtual three-dimensional (3D) canopy structure was reconstructed using a 3D digitizing method. The diurnal variation of photosynthesis rate was measured using CIRAS-2 photosynthesis system. The results showed that, leaf azimuth as tested with the Rayleigh-test was homogeneous at vine tip over stage but turned heterogeneous at fruit harvest stage. After eliminating the inlfuence of the environment on the azimuth using the von Mises-Fisher method, the angle between two successive leaves was 144°;at the same time, a rule for the azimuth distribution in the canopy was established, stating that the azimuth distribution in cucumber followed a law which was positive spin and anti-spin. Leaf elevation angle of south-oriented leaves was on average 13.8° higher than that of north-oriented leaves. The horizontal distribution of light interception and photosynthesis differed signiifcantly between differently oriented leaves. East-and west-oriented leaves exhibited the highest photosynthetic rate. In conclusion, detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity in this study indicated that leaf azimuth and elevation angle were heterogeneous in cucumber canopy and they should be explicitly described as they have a great impact both on light distribution and photosynthesis.

  9. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables.

  10. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela NEAȚĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine, yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main stem, average weight of fruit and fruits weight per plant and fruits quality components (nitrate, phosphate and potassium mg kg-1. The results showed significant differences (P12 cm, revealed a declining value with increase in the cucumber length. The study findings suggest that irrespective of the cultivar, the amount of nitrate was higher in shorter cucumbers (6-9 cm length although all recorded values (between 192.7 and 364.3 mg kg-1 fresh matter being under maximum accepted limit concentrations. The amount of phosphate was higher in medium to long cucumbers, while the amount of potassium was higher in shorter cucumbers.

  11. Study on Relationship Between Cucumber Germplasm and Propa-mocarb Residue Using Subjective Rating Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Peng; Qin Zhi-wei; Zhou Xiu-yan; Wu Tao; Xin Ming; Guo Qian-qian

    2014-01-01

    Propamocarb (PM) residue in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) receives little attention. As is well known to all, high PM residue of cucumber could lead to increase in the violation rates of maximum residue limits and ultimately cause harm to human health. Knowledge of PM residue could help cucumber breeders in developing cultivars with low PM residue and improving cucumber quality. In this study, 32 representative cucumber accessions (26 breeding lines and six cultivars) from different regions of China were evaluated for their PM residue in fruit and leaf to provide meaning to the subjective rating, which was highly correlated with PM residual content of fruit (r=0.97) and leaf (r=0.94). In addition, PM residual content of North China ecotype was the highest and Pickling ecotype was the lowest in fruit and leaf of cucumber. The leaf had significantly higher (P<0.01) PM residual content than the fruit, and poor correlation between leaf and fruit was represented. This study verified PM residual relationship between fruit and leaf, and laid the foundation for further identification of germplasm resources and breeding of new varieties for low PM residue of cucumber.

  12. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumber and Botrytis cinerea during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwen Kong

    Full Text Available Cucumber gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered one of the most serious cucumber diseases. With the advent of Hi-seq technology, it is possible to study the plant-pathogen interaction at the transcriptome level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA-seq to identify cucumber and B. cinerea differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and after the plant-pathogen interaction. In total, 248,908,688 raw reads were generated; after removing low-quality reads and those containing adapter and poly-N, 238,341,648 clean reads remained to map the reference genome. There were 3,512 cucumber DEGs and 1,735 B. cinerea DEGs. GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on these DEGs to study the interaction between cucumber and B. cinerea. To verify the reliability and accuracy of our transcriptome data, 5 cucumber DEGs and 5 B. cinerea DEGs were chosen for RT-PCR verification. This is the first systematic transcriptome analysis of components related to the B. cinerea-cucumber interaction. Functional genes and putative pathways identified herein will increase our understanding of the mechanism of the pathogen-host interaction.

  13. Silicon facilitates manganese phytoextraction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dragišić-Maksimović, Jelena; Mojović, Miloš; Maksimović, Vuk

    2016-01-01

    The effect of excess nutrient levels of manganese (Mn, 50 and 100 mM) on the growth inhibition and the appearance of Mn-toxicity symptoms in the leaves was studied in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long). Silicon (Si), when supplied as 1.5 mM silicic acid, clearly decreased symptoms of Mn-toxicity despite approximately the same total Mn content in the leaves. In treated plants, Si improves growth and biomass production compared with that of non-Si treated plants. Inert deposi...

  14. Two triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua Yuan; Yang Hua Yi; Ling Li; Bao Shu Liu; Hong Wei Zhang; Peng Sun

    2008-01-01

    Further studies on the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger led to the isolation of a new holostan-type triterpene glycoside,Marmoroside C (1) together with a known triterpene glycoside (2).On the basis of spectroscopic analyses,including twodimensional NMR techniques,and chemical reactions,the structure of the new triterpene glycoside was elucidated as 3-0-[3-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-13-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium-sulfato-β-D-xylo-pyranosyl]-25-acetoxy-22-oxo-9(11)-holostene-3β,12α,17α-triol.

  15. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  16. Purification, properties, and diagnosis of banana bract mosaic potyvirus and its distinction from abaca mosaic potyvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Geering, A D; Gambley, C F; Kessling, A F; White, M

    1997-07-01

    ABSTRACT Using biochemical, serological, and cytopathological evidence, we have confirmed that banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) is a distinct member of the family Potyviridae. Virions of a Philippine isolate of BBrMV were purified from field-infected banana cv. Cardaba. Particles were approximately 725-nm long, banded at a density equivalent to 1.29 to 1.31 g/ml in cesium chloride equilibrium gradients, and had an A(260/280) of 1.17. Yields of about 4 mg/kg were obtained from fresh or frozen leaf midrib or lamina tissue. Three major protein species with sizes of 31, 37, and 39 kDa were resolved from dissociated virions, and all reacted specifically with polyclonal antibodies to BBrMV. Infected leaf cells contained typical pinwheel inclusions. Virus-specific cDNA was amplified from field samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using potyvirus degenerate primers. In plate-trapped antigen-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), weak serological relationships were demonstrated between BBrMV and other members of the family Potyviridae, including abaca mosaic (AbaMV), dasheen mosaic, maize dwarf mosaic, sorghum mosaic, sugarcane mosaic, and wheat streak mosaic viruses. Despite similarities in the symptoms caused by the two viruses, AbaMV was serologically distinct from BBrMV and reacted only weakly, or not at all, with BBrMV antibodies in double-antibody sandwich (DAS)-ELISA. No cross reactions were observed when RT-PCR products from the two viruses were examined by Southern blot hybridization using BBrMV- and AbaMV-specific digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. BBrMV was consistently associated with banana bract mosaic disease, as assessed by DAS-ELISA and Southern blot hybridization using DNA probes. The known geographical distribution of BBrMV was extended to include India (Kokkan disease) and Sri Lanka.

  17. Infection of Plants by Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry; Maratos, Marina; Farabaugh, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Provides three exercises that introduce high school and college students to a common strain of the tobacco mosaic virus and the study of some basic biological processes. Activities involve inoculation of plants and observing and recording symptom development in infected plants. (DDR)

  18. Diploid/triploid mosaicism in dysmorphic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, [No Value; Rabelink, G; Hochstenbach, R; Tuerlings, J; Giltay, J

    2002-01-01

    Diploid/triploid mosaicism is a dysmorphology syndrome consisting of mental retardation, truncal obesity, body and/or facial asymmetry, growth retardation, hypotonia, a small phallus, malformed low-set ears and micrognathia. In 75% of the cases, the blood karyotype is normal and the diagnosis can on

  19. PTEN mosaicism with features of Cowden syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, A; Jasperson, K; Pilarski, R; Prior, Tw; Kuwada, S

    2013-12-01

    We present the first known case of somatic PTEN mosaicism causing features of Cowden syndrome (CS) and inheritance in the subsequent generation. A 20-year-old woman presented for genetics evaluation with multiple ganglioneuromas of the colon. On examination, she was found to have a thyroid goiter, macrocephaly, and tongue papules, all suggestive of CS. However, her reported family history was not suspicious for CS. A deleterious PTEN mutation was identified in blood lymphocytes, 966A>G, 967delA. Genetic testing was recommended for her parents. Her 48-year-old father was referred for evaluation and was found to have macrocephaly and a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but no other features of CS. Site-specific genetic testing carried out on blood lymphocytes showed mosaicism for the same PTEN mutation identified in his daughter. Identifying PTEN mosaicism in the proband's father had significant implications for the risk assessment/genetic testing plan for the rest of his family. His result also provides impetus for somatic mosaicism in a parent to be considered when a de novo PTEN mutation is suspected.

  20. Increased chromosome 21 mosaicism in older Down syndrome individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, E.C.; Schupf, N.; Harris, M. [New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Loss of one chromosome 21 in older Down syndrome individuals has been reported recently. During a study of the familial aggregation of Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease, our preliminary observations indicated increased mosaicism for the loss of a chromosome 21 in whole blood cultures from Down syndrome individuals who were age 50 or over from a cohort of 22 individuals. We retrospectively reviewed our experience in 189 cases of Down syndrome ranging in age from 1 day to 71 years. In a combined total of 212 individuals, 39 were age 50 or more of whom 7 or 18% were mosaic, while 169 were under age 50 of whom 4 or 2% were mosaic. Therefore the occurrence of mosaicism was strikingly increased in the group of individuals who were age 50 or over ({chi}{sup 2}=12.8, p<.001). Our observations confirm the above reports of increased mosaicism for chromosome 21 loss in lymphocyte cultures from older Down syndrome individuals. Since the older individuals were not karyotyped at birth, it is not possible to determine whether the age-related increase in mosaicism is due to increased survival of mosaic individuals or acquired mosaicism. Assuming 1% mosaicism at birth for Down syndrome and assuming the general population`s death rates for these mosaic individuals, life table methods showed that the expected proportion of these individuals at age 70 was 5%. This was less than 1/3 of our observations suggesting that acquired mosaicism was the predominant mechanism for our findings.

  1. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine), yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main s...

  2. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  3. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  4. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  5. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D J; Durachko, D M

    1994-11-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  6. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  7. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  8. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  9. The Physiologic Reaction of Cucumber to Low Temperature and Low Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-jun; ZHANG Fu-man; WANG Yong-jian; Kurata Kenji

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of chlorophyll content, leaf area and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under sole stress of two low temperatures and low light intensity as well as combined stresses of low light intensity and the two low temperatures. The results showed that low light intensity reduced sensitivity of cucumber to low temperature and improved chlorophyll content, leaf area and chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. The photosynthesis rate was reduced under low light intensity. The intensity of light played the leading role in growth of cucumber under the low temperature condition, while the low temperature played the leading role under the critical low temperature condition. There were differences in reaction to light and temperature among different varieties. The tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity was not always synergetic for the same cucumber variety.

  10. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  11. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  12. Technological aspects of keeping and pickling qualities of cucumbers as influenced by fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Gawish, R A

    1993-07-01

    The effect of the interactions between K (potassium) and Ca (calcium) applications (preharvest treatment), packaging method and storage conditions on the keeping and pickling qualities of cucumber were investigated. Spraying with 100 ppm K and 5000 ppm Ca prolonged the shelf-life of cucumber, especially when packaged in perforated polyethylene and stored at refrigeration conditions. Packaging and refrigeration both reduced weight loss and decay percentages. Decay was greater in packaged fruits stored at high temperature. Packaging had only a slight effect on chemical composition. Packaged fruits from plants sprayed with 100 ppm K maintained their fresh appearance and firmness > or = 3 times longer than a control sample at ambient conditions and over 20 days under refrigeration. Sensory evaluation of pickled cucumbers revealed that both K and Ca applications on plants during growth improved substantially the pickling quality of cucumber.

  13. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  14. Current status of genetic transformation technology developed in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-li; Seong Sub Ku; YE Xing-guo; HE Cong-fen; Suk Yoon Kwon; Pil Son Choi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technique for functional genomics study and genetic improvement of plants. Until now, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods using cotyledon as explants has been the major approach for cu-cumber, and its frequency has been up to 23%. For example, signiifcantly enhancement of the transformation efifciency of this plant species was achieved from the cotyledon explants of the cultivar Poinsett 76 infected by Agrobacterium strains EHA105 with efifcient positive selection system in lots of experiments. This review is to summarize some key factors in-lfuencing cucumber regeneration and genetic transformation, including target genes, selection systems and the ways of transgene introduction, and then to put forward some strategies for the increasing of cucumber transformation efifciency. In the future, it is high possible for cucumber to be potential bioreactor to produce vaccine and biomaterials for human beings.

  15. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  16. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  17. Construction of a BAC library from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and identification of linkage group specific clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guan; Qi Chen; Junsong Pan; Zheng Li; Huanle He; Aizhong Wu; Rentao Song; Run Cai

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 19,200 clones with an average insert size of 105 kb has been constructed from a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) inbred line S94, derived from a cultivar in North China. The entire library was equivalent to approximately 5 haploid cucumber genomes. To facilitate chromosome engineering and anchor the cucumber genetic linkage map to its chromosomes, 15 sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers from each link-age group of cucumber were used to screen an ordered array of pooled BAC DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifteen mark-ers gave at least two positive clones. As a result, 22 BAC clones representing 7 linkage groups of cucumber were identified, which further validated the genome coverage and utility of the library. This BAC library and linkage group specific clones provide essential resources for future research of the cucumber genome.

  18. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  19. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  20. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  1. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant:...

  2. Dynamics of Microbial Communities in Bulk and Developing Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-sen; WU Kun; LIU Na; CHEN Hong-ge; JIA Xin-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The microbial population dynamics in bulk and developing cucumber rhizospheres were studied by cultivation and cultivation-independent approach based on directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from tested field 2, 4, 7 and 10 weeks after the seeds were planted, which was positively related to the corresponding date of cucumber growth stages. The plate culture amount showed that total number of bacteria,fungi and actinomyces began to rise when cucumber planted and quickly reached peak at seedling or blossom period, but decreased slightly later. Bacterial population in rhizosphere was higher by comparison with that of counterpart except for seedling and flowering stages, but the shift trend of them were quite similar all the time. Nitrogen fixating, nitrobacter and ammonifying bacteria showed the same change tendency in population as bacteria and actinomyces did, however, cellulose-decomposing bacteria had the contrary rhizosphere effect as cucumber developed. Data revealed that positive relevance existed between the dominant rhizosphere microbe population and cucumber development. PCR was employed to amolify the V3 region of 16S rDNA, then the products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). DGGE profile indicated that a few microbe species lived stable in farmland soil, but some were influenced by population due to cucumber roots growth. Significant difference was observed in bulk and rhizosphere soils especially for the seedling and flowering samples. Few prominent bands in DGGE patterns, which displayed stronger or less illumination, means the representative bacteria had great population variation in that period. These phenomena indicated that flowering cucumber heavily affected rhizosphere bacteria, or the bacteria, most probably the uncultured bacteria, functioned specially to cucumber blossom. Most detected bands with no illumination change in DGGE quite possibly represent the indigenous

  3. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  4. Silicon Application Effects on Yield and Growth of Two Cucumber Genotypes in Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohaghegh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has beneficial effects on the growth, yield, and tolerance of some crops against biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering the absence of Si in the nutrient solutions used in hydroponically-grown cucumber, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of Si on the growth and yield of two cucumber genotypes (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Dominus GRC and Super Dominus. In a hydroponic experiment, two cucumber cultivars were exposed to three Si levels (0, 100, and 200 mg L-1 Si in the form of sodium silicate. The results showed that supplement of Si in the nutrient solution increased Si concentration in cucumber root and shoot. The root and shoot dry weight, crop height, and root length of cucumber plants were significantly (P< 0.05 greater in the presence of Si in comparison with the free- Si treatments. Most of the growth parameters, did not have significant difference at the 100 and 200 mg L-1 silicate levels. According to the results of the present study, it seems that the application of 100 mg/L Si in the nutrient solution could improve the growth and yield of cucumber.

  5. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  6. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazamid Saari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, Vitamin B3 (niacin, and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs, sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates, phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  7. Residues and Analysis of Degradation of Novel Fungicide Picoxystrobin in Cucumber and Soil Under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for the residues of picoxystrobin in cucumber vegetable and soil matrices was developed and the dissipation of picoxystrobin under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection(LODof picoxystrobin was 3.5×10 -11 g and the limit of quantifica-tion(LOQwas found to be 0.005 mg·kg -1 in cucumber and soil. At three different spiking levels(0.005, 0.05, 0.25 mg·kg -1, mean recoveries and relative standard deviation(RSDfrom fortified samples in five replicated experiments for each matrix were in the range of 68.61%-122.4% and 1.06%-17.2%, respectively. The results showed that the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Tianjin City were 5.71 d and 12.9 d, respectively, the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Shandong Province were 2.70 d and 10.3 d, respec-tively, and the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Jiangsu Province were 9.76 d and 14.9 d, respectively. The maximum residual concentration of picoxystrobin on the 5th day after the last application was 0.014 mg· kg -1, much lower than the Maximum Residue Limits(MRLsfor picoxystrobin in cucumber according to the standards of EU(0.05 mg·kg-1.

  8. The Syndrome of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Infected by Virus and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan DENG; Zun-chun ZHOU; Nian-bin WANG; Chang LIU

    2008-01-01

    A outbreak of disease with symptoms of evisceration and skin ulteration led to mass mortality in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus cultivated in indoor ponds near the Dalian coast from December 2004 to April 2005. Spherical virus particles with a diameter of 75-200 nm were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the water-system, the alimentary canal and in the respiratory trees of the diseased and dying sea cucumber individuals by electron microscopic observation of ultrathin sections. Examination by negative stained samples revealed that all the diseased sea cucumbers were infected by the virus, while the healthly ones cultivated outside the contagious area were not. Two bacterial strains were also isolated from the diseased animals. When exposed to a medium containing the virus particles, regardless of whether the bacterial suspension was added,healthy sea cucumbers exhibited identical disease symptoms as the ones in the indoor ponds, and had a mortality of 90%-100%. However, when exposed to a medium in which there was only one of the two bacterial strains, 30%-80% of the sea cucumbers were infected and nearly 20% died. Negative staining showed that the viral particles were detected only in the bodies of the tested animals that were exposed to the viral medium. Histopathologically, the diseased sea cucumbers are characterized by karyopycnosis, and disintegration of the endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the epithelial cells in the water-system, the respiratory tree and the alimentary canal.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  10. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  11. Mosaic double aneuploidy: Down syndrome and XYY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Parihar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities are seen in nearly 1% of live born infants. We report a 5-year-old boy with the clinical features of Down syndrome, which is the most common human aneuploidy. Cytogenetic analysis showed a mosaicism for a double aneuploidy, Down syndrome and XYY. The karyotype was 47, XY,+21[19]/48, XYY,+21[6]. ish XYY (DXZ1 × 1, DYZ1 × 2. Mosaic double aneuploidies are very rare and features of only one of the aneuploidies may predominate in childhood. Cytogenetic analysis is recommended even if the typical features of a recognized aneuploidy are present so that any associated abnormality may be detected. This will enable early intervention to provide the adequate supportive care and management.

  12. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-03-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome.

  13. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome. PMID:24926463

  14. Effect of mitochondrial genome rearrangement on respiratory activity, photosynthesis, photorespiration and energy status of MSC16 cucumber (Cucumis sativus) mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczuk, Izabela M; Flexas, Jaume; Szal, Bozena; Dabrowska, Zofia; Ribas-Carbo, Miquel; Rychter, Anna M

    2007-12-01

    The effects of changes in mitochondrial DNA in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) mosaic mutant (MSC16) on respiration, photosynthesis and photorespiration were analyzed under non-stressed conditions. Decreased respiratory capacity of complex I in MSC16 mitochondria was indicated by lower respiration rates of intact mitochondria with malate and by rotenone-inhibited NADH or malate oxidation in the presence of alamethicin. Moreover, blue native PAGE indicated decreased intensity of protein bands of respiratory chain complex I in MSC16 leaves. Concerning the redox state, complex I impairment could be compensated to some extent by increased external NADH dehydrogenases (ND(ex)NADH) and alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity, the latter presenting differential expression in the light and in the dark. Although MSC16 mitochondria have a higher AOX protein level and an increased capacity, the AOX activity measured in the dark conditions by oxygen discrimination technique is similar to that in wild-type (WT) plants. Photosynthesis induction by light followed different patterns in WT and MSC16, suggesting changes in feedback chloroplast DeltapH caused by different adenylate levels. At steady-state, net photosynthesis was only slightly impaired in MSC16 mutants, while photorespiration rate (PR) was significantly increased. This was the result of large decreases in both stomatal and mesophyll conductance to CO2, which resulted in a lower CO2 concentration in the chloroplasts. The observed changes on CO2 diffusion caused by mitochondrial mutations open a whole new view of interaction between organelle metabolism and whole tissue physiology. The sum of all the described changes in photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism resulted in a lower ATP availability and a slower plant growth.

  15. Digital Elevation Model Mosaic of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A. C.; Watters, T. R.; Robinson, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    At CEPS (Center for Earth and Planetary Studies) work has been underway since 2000 to semi-automatically stereo match all Mariner 10 stereo pairs. The resulting matched image coordinates are converted into longitude, latitude, and height points and then combined to form a map projected Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic of the planet's surface. Stereo images from Mariner 10 cover one quarter of the planet's surface, mostly in the southern hemisphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, T W; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Guida, M; Enrile, B G

    1995-01-30

    We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of 2 sons but was absent in the mother's somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. This finding has important implications for counseling fragile X families with deletion mutations.

  17. Diffraction studies of papaya mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollin, P; Bancroft, J B; Richardson, J F; Payne, N C; Beveridge, T J

    1979-10-15

    X-ray and optical diffraction studies of the flexuous papaya mosaic virus are described. The virus is constructed so that there are 35 coat protein subunits in 4 turns of the helix. The virus contains about 1410 protein subunits and 6800 nucleotides and has a molecular weight of about 33 x 10(6). The structure of tubes assembled in vitro from coat protein both in the presence and absence of nucleic acid resembles that of the native virus.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) may be imported into the United States from the Republic...

  19. The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, R.; Vornberger, P.; Fleming, A.; Fox, A.; Mullins, J.; Binnie, D.; Paulsen, S.J.; Granneman, B.; Gorodetzky, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at http://lima.usgs.gov. Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at http://lima.nasa.gov.

  20. Reassessing Jacob Strauss and the Mosaic Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel McDurmon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed claims made by modern scholars Ford Lewis Battles, G.H. Williams, and Theodore Tappert concerning the views of Jacob Strauss (1480–1530, court preacher at Eisenach, particularly in regard to the imposition of Mosaic Law upon the civil realm. Most pointedly, Battles claims Strauss proposed to replace European civil law completely with the ‘entire Mosaic code’. This study examined Strauss’s relevant writings to determine his position on Mosaic Law and civil law and demonstrated that the claims of Battles, Williams, and Tappert were not supported by the primary source evidence. Selections from Strauss’ 51 theses on usury are translated into English for the first time. To a much lesser degree, this study addressed the issue in regard to the Weimar court preacher Wolfgang Stein, against whom the same claims were made. A paucity of evidence rendered those claims dubious in his case. In the end we were left only with unsubstantiated second-hand claims against these men.

  1. Confined placental mosaicisms and uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalousek, D.K.; Langlois, S.; Harrison, K.J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 2% of pregnancies studied with chorionic villous sampling (CVS) show confined placental mosaicism (CPM) which persists to term in 50-70% of cases. An increased frequency of complications, such as intrauterine fetal growth restriction or intrauterine death, is observed in these pregnancies. As trisomic zygote rescue is a common mechanism responsible for CPM, fetal uniparental disomy (UPD), resulting from the loss of the extra trisomic chromosome in the embryonic stem cells, would be expected to occur in a proportion of pregnancies with CPM. We have studied 27 pregnancies with CPM involving trisomies for chromosomes 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 for involvement of specific cell lineage(s) and levels of mosaicism in term placentas. Also, DNA from the parents and infant was analyzed for UPD or biparental disomy (BPD). Five infants with UPD for chromosome 16 and one infant with UPD for chromosome 7 were detected. All other infants showed BPD for the chromosome involved in CPM. For trisomy 16 mosaic gestations, a close correlation between high levels of trisomic cells in placenta and intrauterine fetal growth restriction has been found irrespective of the type of disomy present in the infant. The effect of other trisomies (2, 7, 9, 10, 12) on placental function appears to be similar, but the low numbers of pregnancies studied and lack of detection of UPD for chromosomes 2, 9, 10 and 12 does not allow a definitive conclusion.

  2. The newly applied mortars in mosaic restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Moro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’intervention de restauration sur la mosaïque de Dionysos à Cologne a permis, dans le cadre du travail de fin d’étude, une recherche sur les problématiques liées au choix du lit de pose des mosaïques detachées et replacées sur de nouveaux supports. Elle a contribué à l’étude des facteurs qui influencent la conservation des mosaïques qui ont précédemment fait l’objet d’interventions de détachement du site originel.The restoration of the Dionysos mosaic in Cologne gave us the opportunity for analysing the process involved in the choice of interstitial mortars in mosaics that were detached from their original site and re-layed on new supports, thus losing their original setting bed. This intervention lead us to investigate the relationships between restoration and a philological perspective and the damages following the stripping of mosaics.

  3. The complete sequence of a sugarcane mosaic virus isolate causing maize dwarf mosaic disease in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晔; 陈炯; 陈剑平

    2002-01-01

    The complete sequence of a potyvirus from maize in Zhejiang Province was determined. The RNA was 9596 nucleotides long, excluding the 3′-poly (A) tail, and there was a single long open reading frame (ORF) of 9192 nts encoding a 346.1 ku polyprotein. The polyprotein had substantial amino acid sequence homology with those encoded by the RNAs of a Chinese isolate of sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV-C) and a Bulgarian isolate of maize dwarf mosaic virus, but it was most closely related to sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) isolates, for which only partial sequences have been published. According to the published criteria for distinguishing potyviruses, the sequence reported here is clearly a strain of SCMV, but it also showed a surprisingly high amino acid homology with SrMV-C in the HC-Pro, P3 and CI proteins.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of a trisomy 7/trisomy 13 mosaicism

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsdens-van Amsterdam Karin; Barge-Schaapveld Daniela QCM; Mathijssen Inge B; Alders Mariëlle; Pajkrt Eva; Knegt Alida C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Double aneuploidy mosaicism of two different aneuploidy cell lines is rare. We describe for the first time a double trisomy mosaicism, involving chromosomes 7 and 13 in a fetus presenting with multiple congenital anomalies. No evidence for chimerism was found by DNA genotyping. The origin of both trisomies are consistent with isodisomy of maternal origin. Therefore, it is most likely that the double trisomy mosaicism arose from two independent events very early in embryonic developme...

  5. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  6. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  7. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  8. Triterpene Glycosides from Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra with Cytotoxic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hua; LI Ling; YI Yang-hua; WANG Xiao-hua; PAN Min-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the new triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra with cytotoxic activity.Methods Triterpene glycosides from H.scabra were separated and purified by chromatography on DA-101,silica gel,and reversed-phase silica gel column,as well as RP-HPLC.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.Results Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside D (1),fuscocineroside C (2),and 24-dehydroechinoside A (3).Their inhibition on P-388,A549,MKN-28,HCT116,and MCF-7 cells were significant.Conclusion Scabraside D (1) is a new triterpene glycoside,and compounds 2 and 3 are isolated from H.scabra for the first time.The glycosides 1-3 show the in vitro cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  9. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress.

  10. Propagation of Cucumber Seedlings in Different Organic and Inorganic Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cinkilİc

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of using grape marc and cinder an alternative media to peat for cucumber propagation and find out the results.In the study;normal grape marc, normal grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, ground grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, cinder+25% süper coarse perlite, peat+25% süper coarse perlite and peat were used, the best results were obtained from grape marc + 25% super coarse perlite in stem diameter, number of true leaves, weight of seedling, width of seedling, length of leaves and width of leaves; from peat + 25% super coarse perlite in length of seedling, length of seedling with root, weight of root, weight of seedling with root and length of root. The cinder which is the residue of burned coal, gave the worst results in all seedling properties.

  11. Sex Determination in Sea Cucumbers: Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pinheiro Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber aquaculture is underexploited in temperate regions, and it is inexistent in Portugal. However, there are some species with a large potential for this sector, namely Stichopus regalis and Holothuria forskali, as it their nutritional value. S. regalis is a common sea cucumber that is found in a wide depth range and is currently consumed all over the world, majority in Asia, with a high commercial value. On the other hand, H. forskali is the most plentiful specie of the Portuguese coast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sex ratio on both species through biopsy method, using biopsy needle to collect a piece of gonad. Holothurian specimens were sampled coastwise in Peniche, Portugal (39° 21′ 32″ N, 9° 22′ 40″ W. A total of 45 H. forskali were collected in the low tide and 48 S. regalis were caught by trawl method. Both species were kept in captivity during 8 months, the rearing conditions are maintained close as possible to the natural habitat, and they were placed in a sand bottom. Mortality was evaluated during conditioning period, and it was verified approximately 19% of mortality in S. regalis, although in H. forskali it was not observed. Sex identification was performed with success only in H. forskali, and sexual ratio found was 1:1. All S. regalis specimens arrived eviscerated to the Aquaculture Laboratory and it was caused by the trawl capture method. For that reason, it was not possible to assess the sexual ratio. The possibility to distinguish holothurian genre is essential to realize sexual behavior, and to ease the understanding of reproductive cycle in attempt to introduce these new species for aquaculture rearing.

  12. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  13. Image blending techniques and their application in underwater mosaicing

    CERN Document Server

    Prados, Ricard; Neumann, László

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes strategies and solutions to tackle the problem of building photo-mosaics of very large underwater optical surveys, presenting contributions to the image preprocessing, enhancing and blending steps, and resulting in an improved visual quality of the final photo-mosaic. The text opens with a comprehensive review of mosaicing and blending techniques, before proposing an approach for large scale underwater image mosaicing and blending. In the image preprocessing step, a depth dependent illumination compensation function is used to solve the non-uniform illumination appearance du

  14. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  15. Effects of sulphur dioxide on southern bean mosaic and maize dwarf mosaic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, J.A.; Aluisio, A.L.; Weinstein, L.H.; McCune, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Sub-acute doses of sulphur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) (either 262 or 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/) for 5-10 days caused small but consistent increases in the titre of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) in Bountiful bean and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in maize. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ also increased infection and intensified symptoms caused by MDMV. Sulphur uptake by the host plant was not affected by either virus; however, pre- and post-inoculation exposures of bean plants to SO/sub 2/ resulted in greater than additive effects on sulphur uptake.

  16. Ser/Thr kinase-like protein of Nicotiana benthamiana is involved in the cell-to-cell movement of Bamboo mosaic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Fang Cheng

    Full Text Available To investigate the plant genes affected by Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV infection, we applied a cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique to screen genes with differential expression. A serine/threonine kinase-like (NbSTKL gene of Nicotiana benthamiana is upregulated after BaMV infection. NbSTKL contains the homologous domain of Ser/Thr kinase. Knocking down the expression of NbSTKL by virus-induced gene silencing reduced the accumulation of BaMV in the inoculated leaves but not in the protoplasts. The spread of GFP-expressing BaMV in the inoculated leaves is also impeded by a reduced expression of NbSTKL. These data imply that NbSTKL facilitates the cell-to-cell movement of BaMV. The subcellular localization of NbSTKL is mainly on the cell membrane, which has been confirmed by mutagenesis and fractionation experiments. Combined with the results showing that active site mutation of NbSTKL does not change its subcellular localization but significantly affects BaMV accumulation, we conclude that NbSTKL may regulate BaMV movement on the cell membrane by its kinase-like activity. Moreover, the transient expression of NbSTKL does not significantly affect the accumulation of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus X (PVX; thus, NbSTKL might be a specific protein facilitating BaMV movement.

  17. Germline mosaicism at the fragile X locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.C.; Snyder, P.J.; Sedra, M.S. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X full mutation, which is associated with the phenotypic expression of the disorder, is characterized by an expansion of CGG repeat and hypermethylation of the CpG island adjacent to the FMR1 gene. New mutations leading to amplification of the CGG repeat have not been reported. We have identified a fragile X syndrome pedigree where the disorder is associated with a molecular deletion. The deletion was present in the DNA of two affected sons but was absent in the mother`s somatic cell (lymphocyte) DNA. This was confirmed by dosage analysis of the Southern blot using StB12-3 and an additional probe against the dystrophin gene and by PCR analysis of DXS548 alleles. The results are consistent with the deletion arising as a postzygotic event in the mother, who therefore is germinally mosaic. The case reported here clearly demonstrates that FMR1 deletions, unlike the expansions, are not always inherited and the finding of heterozygosity or normal dosage from lymphocyte DNA in the mother of a deletion case does not necessarily rule out the possibility of having a second affected child. The deletion of FMR1 gene may be responsible for a small but significant number of fragile X cases. Therefore, it is imperative that those involved in genetic counseling recognize this diagnostic pitfall. Since it depends upon the size of the mutant clone in the mosaic mother, the exact recurrence risk in germline carriers is unknown. However, prenatal and carrier testing should be performed independently of the outcome of the mother. Furthermore, it is possible that the deletion may not be restricted to the germline, and therefore the mother may actually be a somatic mosaic.

  18. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  19. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  20. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  1. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  2. Studies on biological control of powdery mildew in cucumber (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa) by means of mycoparasites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew on rose ( Sphaerotheca pannosa ) and cucumber ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea ) are two serious diseases in glasshouses. Intensive control by fungicides is needed. The research presented here deals with biocontrol of powdery mildew on cucumber and rose by means of mycoparasites.The mycoparas

  3. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Philipp W

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Until very recently, cucumber genetic and genomic resources, especially molecular markers, have been very limited, impeding progress of cucumber breeding efforts. Microsatellites are short tandemly repeated DNA sequences, which are frequently favored as genetic markers due to their high level of polymorphism and codominant inheritance. Data from previously characterized genomes has shown that these repeats vary in frequency, motif sequence, and genomic location across taxa. During the last year, the genomes of two cucumber genotypes were sequenced including the Chinese fresh market type inbred line '9930' and the North American pickling type inbred line 'Gy14'. These sequences provide a powerful tool for developing markers in a large scale. In this study, we surveyed and characterized the distribution and frequency of perfect microsatellites in 203 Mbp assembled Gy14 DNA sequences, representing 55% of its nuclear genome, and in cucumber EST sequences. Similar analyses were performed in genomic and EST data from seven other plant species, and the results were compared with those of cucumber. Results A total of 112,073 perfect repeats were detected in the Gy14 cucumber genome sequence, accounting for 0.9% of the assembled Gy14 genome, with an overall density of 551.9 SSRs/Mbp. While tetranucleotides were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, dinucleotide repeats, which had more repeat units than any other SSR type, had the highest cumulative sequence length. Coding regions (ESTs of the cucumber genome had fewer microsatellites compared to its genomic sequence, with trinucleotides predominating in EST sequences. AAG was the most frequent repeat in cucumber ESTs. Overall, AT-rich motifs prevailed in both genomic and EST data. Compared to the other species examined, cucumber genomic sequence had the highest density of SSRs (although

  4. Image Mosaicing Algorithm for Rolled Fingerprint Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺迪; 荣钢; 周杰

    2002-01-01

    Fingerprint identification is one of the most important biometric authentication methods. However, current devices for recording digital fingerprints can only capture plain-touch fingerprints. Rolled fingerprints have much more information for recognition, so a method is needed to construct a rolled fingerprint from a series of plain-touch fingerprints. This paper presents a novel algorithm for image mosaicing for real time rolled fingerprint construction in which the images are assembled with corrections to create a smooth, non-fragmented rolled fingerprint in real time. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness by comparing it with other conventional algorithms.

  5. Mosaic crystal algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, P A

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for calculating reflectivity, absorption, and scattering of mosaic crystals in Monte Carlo simulations of neutron instruments. The algorithm uses multi-step transport through the crystal with an exact solution of the Darwin equations at each step. It relies on the kinematical model for Bragg reflection (with parameters adjusted to reproduce experimental data). For computation of thermal effects (the Debye-Waller factor and coherent inelastic scattering), an expansion of the Debye integral as a rapidly converging series of exponential terms is also presented. Any crystal geometry and plane orientation may be treated. The algorithm has been incorporated into the neutron instrument simulation package NISP. (orig.)

  6. Statistical Mechanics Characterization of Neuronal Mosaics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; de Lima, Silene Maria Araujo

    2005-01-01

    The spatial distribution of neuronal cells is an important requirement for achieving proper neuronal function in several parts of the nervous system of most animals. For instance, specific distribution of photoreceptors and related neuronal cells, particularly the ganglion cells, in mammal's retina is required in order to properly sample the projected scene. This work presents how two concepts from the areas of statistical mechanics and complex systems, namely the \\emph{lacunarity} and the \\emph{multiscale entropy} (i.e. the entropy calculated over progressively diffused representations of the cell mosaic), have allowed effective characterization of the spatial distribution of retinal cells.

  7. Subassembly aggregates of papaya mosaic virus protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J W; Hallett, F R; Bancroft, J B

    1983-08-01

    An examination of the number of subunits in small aggregates of papaya mosaic virus (PMV) coat protein is presented based on a model system which gives results consistent with the experimental observation that the 14 S subassembly species is a double disc, composed of two rows of nine subunits each. The estimated hydration of the disc, about 0.85 g 1H20/9 protein, is unusually large and indicates a cavitated structure for the disc. Comparison with other rod-shaped viruses suggests that the flexuous nature of PMV is a consequence of sparse axial inter-subunit contacts at high radius.

  8. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Heineman, Maas Jan; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is d

  9. High rate of mosaicism in tuberous sclerosis complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, S; Bakker, L; Tempelaars, AMP; Hesseling-Janssen, ALW; Mazurczak, T; Jozwiak, S; Fois, A; Bartalini, G; Zonnenberg, BA; van Essen, AJ; Lindhout, D; Halley, DJJ; van den Ouweland, AMW

    1999-01-01

    Six families with mosaicism are identified in a series of 62 unrelated families with a mutation in one of the two tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, TSC1 or TSC2. In five families, somatic mosaicism was present in a mildly affected parent of an index patient. In one family with clinically unaff

  10. Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echten-Arends, J. van; Mastenbroek, S.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Korevaar, J.C.; Heineman, M.J.; Veen, F. van der; Repping, S.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos has been described for almost two decades, its exact prevalence is still unknown. The prevalence of mosaicism is important in the context of preimplantation genetic screening in which the chromosomal status of an embryo is d

  11. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with mosaic trisomy 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutoglou, Christos; Meditskou, Soultana; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Manthou, Marilena; Anesidis, Nikolaos; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kumar, Sailesh

    2010-09-01

    Ectopia cordis and mosaic trisomy 16 are two rare fetal anomalies, which have not been reported in association. We report a case of an isolated ectopia cordis at 11(+3) weeks. Subsequent embryological examination confirmed thoracic ectopia cordis with normal heart structure and array comparative genomic hybridization of fetal tissue detected trisomy 16 mosaicism.

  12. Effect of shrink wrap packaging for maintaining quality of cucumber during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Rajinder Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev R; Mahajan, B V C

    2012-08-01

    Immature green cucumber cv. 'Padmini' fruits were individually shrink wrapped with Cryovac D955 (60 guage) film and stored at 12 ± 1 °C, 90-95% RH as well as ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH). At 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, individual shrink wrapped cucumber recorded minimum Physiological loss in weight (0.66%) as compared with unwrapped fruits (11.11%) at the end of refrigerated storage (15 days). The softening (loss of firmness) was maximum (1304.6-876.6 g force) in unwrapped cucumbers whereas in shrink wrapping, minimum loss in firmness (1304.6-1065.3 g force) was observed after 12 days storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH but greater loss of weight and firmness makes the control cucumbers unmarketable after 9 days of storage. There were no rotting at all both in shrink wrapped and unwrapped cucumbers upto 15 days of storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH. After 15 days storage of shrink wrapped cucumbers at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, there was loss of green colour and development of yellowness and decay. The sensory attributes score was highest in shrink wrapped cucumbers as compared to unwrapped cucumbers at end of both storage conditions. Thus it can be concluded that individual shrink wrapped cucumber can be stored well upto 15 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 5 days at ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH) with maximum retention of green colour, no spoilage, minimum weight and firmness loss and very good sensory quality attributes whereas, unwrapped fruits can be stored well upto 9 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 2 days at ambient conditions with maximum retention of physico-chemical quality attributes.

  13. Effects of Grafting on Root Exudates of Cucumber and Rhizosphere Environment under Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua LI; Hongjun HE; Tengfei LI; Xin LI; Zikun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study to aimed to investigate the effects of Cu stress on root exudates and microbial activities in rhizosphere of grafted and ungrafted cucum-ber seedlings, and therefore to elucidate the microbial mechanism of grafting for in-creasing cucumber plants tolerance to Cu stress [Method] Four treatments: (1) un-grafted seedlings + test soil (U0); (2) ungrafted seedlings + test soil + CuSO4·5H2O (U1); (3) grafted seedlings + test soil (G0); (4) grafted seedlings + test soil + Cu-SO4·5H2O (G1) were set in the pot culture experiment. The contents of free amino acids, organic acids, phenolic acid and sugars, microbial population and enzyme ac-tivity in the four treatment were measured, respectively. [Result] The secretion of amino acids and organic acids were increased under Cu stress. The amino acids secretions of grafted seedlings roots were obviously higher than ungrafted seedlings except for Phe and Val. At the same time, the secretion of oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, cinnamic acid, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid of grafted seedlings were significantly higher than ungrafted seedlings as wel . There-fore, more Cu2+ were restricted in soil by chelating, complexing and precipitation with root exudates, and its toxicity was decreased. The soil microbial biomass C and N in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significantly higher than those in ungrafted cu-cumber rhizosphere, whereas basal respiration and metabolic quotient were signifi-cantly lower. Under Cu stress, the numbers of actinomyces and nitrogen fixing bac-teria decreased and the number of fungi increased significantly, whereas there was no significant difference in amounts of bacteria. The numbers of bacteria, actino-myces, and nitrogen fixing bacteria in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significant-ly higher than those in ungrafted cucumber rhizosphere, but the number of fungi was opposite. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in grafted

  14. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  15. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  16. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  17. Growth, Metabolism and Physiological Response of the Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka During Periods of Inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rongbin; ZANG Yuanqi; TIAN Xiangli; DONG Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    The growth,metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus,were investigated during periods of inactivity.The body weight,oxygen consumption rate (OCR),activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP),alkaline phosphatase (AKP),catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A.japonicus were measured during starvation,experimental aestivation and aestivation.The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period (P<0.05).The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments,but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment.The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments,whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment.The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24℃.To some extent,the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response.These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism ofA.japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  18. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, C.R. [Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the ERF gene family in cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the ERF transcription-factor family participate in a number of biological processes, viz., responses to hormones, adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress, metabolism regulation, beneficial symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation and developmental processes. So far, no tissue-expression profile of any cucumber ERF protein has been reported in detail. Recent completion of the cucumber full-genome sequence has come to facilitate, not only genome-wide analysis of ERF family members in cucumbers themselves, but also a comparative analysis with those in Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, 103 hypothetical ERF family genes in the cucumber genome were identified, phylogenetic analysis indicating their classification into 10 groups, designated I to X. Motif analysis further indicated that most of the conserved motifs outside the AP2/ERF domain, are selectively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree. From chromosomal localization and genome distribution analysis, it appears that tandem-duplication may have contributed to CsERF gene expansion. Intron/exon structure analysis indicated that a few CsERFs still conserved the former intron-position patterns existent in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots. Expression analysis revealed the widespread distribution of the cucumber ERF gene family within plant tissues, thereby implying the probability of their performing various roles therein. Furthermore, members of some groups presented mutually similar expression patterns that might be related to their phylogenetic groups.

  20. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  1. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  2. Effects of Different Preceding Crops on Soil Micro-ecological Environment and Yield of Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shouwei; LIU Shuqin; PAN Kai; WANG Lili; WU Fengzhi

    2011-01-01

    Pepper, celery, eggplant and tomato were used as preceding crops to study their effects on the yield, soil microorganism quantity and soil enzyme activities of cucumber. Results showed that four preceding crops all increased soil microorganism quantity in cucumber, but decreased population of Fusarium oxysporum. The effect of pepper was more significant than that of the others Populations of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomyces of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, except that the populations of fungi had no significant difference with celery and eggplant treatments on 50 days after transplanting, while that of Fusarium oxysporum was fewer than that of the other treatments. The soil microorganism quantity in celery and eggplant treatment was more significant than tomato, but lower population of Fusarium oxysporum. Four preceding crops all increased sol enzyme activities, lnvertase and urease activities of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, catalase activities of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments were significantly higher than those of tomato and the control treatments All preceding crops remarkably increased cucumber yield, with pepper as the highest. Comparing with the control, cucumber yields of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments increased by 24.9%, 13.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Results suggested that four preceding crops all improved soil microbial ecology and increased cucumber yield. The pepper was the most suitable preceding crop, then followed by celery and eggplant. Tomato had the similar effect as the control.

  3. Hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 child with hemihypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Naveed; Wheeler, Kate; Stewart, Helen; Campbell, Carolyn

    2016-01-21

    To date, there are 12 reported cases of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients, three of whom had a mosaic chromosome pattern. We report on an 18-month-old child who had hemihypertrophy and developmental delay, was found to have hepatoblastoma on surveillance ultrasound scan, and was subsequently diagnosed with mosaic trisomy 18 on array comparative genomic hybridisation from a peripheral blood sample and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the tumour specimen. Although hemihypertrophy has been associated with mosaic trisomies, there are only a couple of published case reports of hemihypertrophy or asymmetry in mosaic trisomy 18 patients and none in the reported cases of hepatoblastoma in a mosaic trisomy 18 setting. We have reviewed the published case reports of hepatoblastoma in trisomy 18 patients and found that they seem to tolerate the intensive treatment very well if there are no significant comorbidities.

  4. Dawn FC2 Derived Ceres Mosaics V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Elgner, S.; Schroeder, S. E.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2016-10-01

    This accumulating data set includes Ceres global mosaics and quadrangles derived from images acquired by the Framing Camera 2 (FC2) on the NASA Dawn spacecraft. Global mosaics are provided in cylindrical and polar stereographic projections. The quadrangle mosaics use Mercator (equatorial), Lambert conformal (mid-latitude) and stereographic projections. Global color filter mosaics are provided for data acquired during the high altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) on volume DWNCHFFC2_2. Global mapping in all filters at low altitude was not possible due to time and downlink limitations. Attempts were made to acquire color imaging of selected Ceres targets but with only limited success because of issues related to ephemeris predictability. Clear filter global mosaics and quadrangle maps are provided for both HAMO (DWNCHCFC2_2) and the low altitude mapping orbit (LAMO, DWNCLCFC2_2) science phases.

  5. Confirmation of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D E; Kalousek, D K

    1989-04-01

    Prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism causes problems in interpretation and in genetic counselling. Part of the difficulty with any prenatal diagnosis of mosaicism is interpretation of results without knowing the exact origin, embryonic or extraembryonic, of the abnormal cell line. To confuse the issue in cases of prenatal diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism is the recent demonstration that a diagnosis of 45,X/46,XY made prenatally is not necessarily associated with the same phenotype as when diagnosed postnatally. We present two cases of prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism (45,X/46,XY and 45,X/47,XYY). Posttermination examination of the phenotypically normal male fetuses and their placentas established that the placenta was the most likely source of the 45,X cell line. An approach to confirming the prenatal diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaicism and establishing its origin utilizing detailed cytogenetic examination of both fetus and placenta is suggested.

  6. Identification of a strain of maize dwarf mosaic virus, related to sugarcane mosaic virus isolated from maize in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhoyen, M.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of maize dwarf mosaic virus related to sugarcane mosaic virus has been isolated from maize in Burundi. The properties (including electron microscopy and serology of the virus are described, and elements for a control strategy are reviewed.

  7. Difference of Low Temperature and Low Irradiance-Resistance between Figleaf Gourd and Cucumber Seedlings Related to Mineral Elements Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-Yong; GUO Shang-Jing; LI Xin-Guo; MENG Jing-Jinga; HE Qi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We have repotted that the roots of fig, leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to 6 h stress at low temperature and low irradiance [1]. In this experiment, the relationship between the mineral elements uptake and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings were to be studied during low temperature (8 C) stress under low irradiance (100 μ. mol m-2 s-1 PFD) for 5 days. Compared with control seedlings, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm) and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings decreased, and beth Fv/Fm and P700+ were lower in cucumber leaves than in figleaf gourd seedlings at the end of the stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in beth leaves and roots of figleaf gourd than in leaves and roots of cucumber at both room temperature and low temperature. However, the product rate of O 2 was lower in figleaf gourd leaves than in cucumber leaves. Upon ex-posure to the stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased markedly in leaves and roots of figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings, and it grew faster in cucumber seedlings than that in figleaf gourd seedlings. Under adaptive conditions, some mineral elements (Such as Cu, Zn, Mn and Mg) have different contents in leaves and roots between figleaf gourd seedlings and cucumber seedlings. However, at the end of the stress these elements were accumulated apparently in both leaves and roots of figleaf gourd accompanied by no obvious change in cucumber seedlings.

  8. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  9. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  10. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers.

  11. Effect of cypermethrin insecticide on the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoguo; ZHANG Hongxun; JIN Bo; TANG Ling; YANG Jianzhou; LI Baoju; ZHUANG Guoqiang; BAI Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most widely used vegetable in the world, and different pesticides have been extensively used for controlling the insects and disease pathogens of this plant. However, little is known about how the pesticides affect the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere. This study was the first attempt to assess the impact of pyrethroid insecticide cyperemethrin on the microbial communities of cucumber phyllosphere using biochemical and genetic approaches. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) assay indicated that cyperemethrin insecticide treatment led to a significant increase in both total and bacterial biomass and a decrease in fungal biomass and the ratio of Gram-positive (GP) bacteria to Gram-negative (GN) bacteria within the cucumber phyllosphere. Principal-component analyses (PCA) suggested that the number of unsaturated and cyclopropane PLFAs (16:1ω9t,18:1ω7, cy17:0, cy19:0) increased with the insecticide treatment, whereas the saturated PLFA i16:0, i17:0 decreased. The increase of GN bacteria implied that the cypermethrin insecticide might be a nutrient for the growth of these phyllosphere microbes. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) reinforced the PLFA results. A significant change of bacterial community structure was observed in the separate dendrogram cluster between control and treated samples with the cucumber phyllosphere following cypermethrin insecticide treatment. Moreover, the increased terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) (58, 62, 89, 99, 119, 195, 239,311,340, and 473 bp) indicated that some bacteria might play a significant role in the insecticide degradation within the cucumber phylosphere, whereas the disappeared T-RFs (44, 51, 96, 223, 306, and 338 bp) implied that some other bacteria might potentially serve as microbial indicator of cyperemethrin insecticide exposure.

  12. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  13. Mössbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Fodor, F.; Vértes, A.; Kamnev, A. A.

    2005-09-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 μM Fe citrate enriched with 57Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Mössbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe3+ components with typical average Mössbauer parameters of δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 0.46 mm s-1 and δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 1.2 mm s-1 at 78 K and the presence of an Fe2+ doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe2+ ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Mössbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  14. Effects of Exogenous Cinnamic Acids on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exogenous cinnamic acids on plant growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane at cucumber seedling stage, the seedlings of Shandong Mici cucumber were tested. The results showed that seedlings growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane were inhibited by cinnamic acids. The growth and root activities of seedlings were significantly cinnamic acids, whereas ATPase activities exhibited a higher sensitivity and greatly decreased in the soil amended with 50 mg kg-1 cinnamic acids. These results suggested that cinnamic acids could induce a stress condition, and the stress intensities increased with enhanced cinnamic acid concentration.

  15. Extensive Hidden Genomic Mosaicism Revealed in Normal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2016-03-03

    Genomic mosaicism arising from post-zygotic mutation has recently been demonstrated to occur in normal tissue of individuals ascertained with varied phenotypes, indicating that detectable mosaicism may be less an exception than a rule in the general population. A challenge to comprehensive cataloging of mosaic mutations and their consequences is the presence of heterogeneous mixtures of cells, rendering low-frequency clones difficult to discern. Here we applied a computational method using estimated haplotypes to characterize mosaic megabase-scale structural mutations in 31,100 GWA study subjects. We provide in silico validation of 293 previously identified somatic mutations and identify an additional 794 novel mutations, most of which exist at lower aberrant cell fractions than have been demonstrated in previous surveys. These mutations occurred across the genome but in a nonrandom manner, and several chromosomes and loci showed unusual levels of mutation. Our analysis supports recent findings about the relationship between clonal mosaicism and old age. Finally, our results, in which we demonstrate a nearly 3-fold higher rate of clonal mosaicism, suggest that SNP-based population surveys of mosaic structural mutations should be conducted with haplotypes for optimal discovery.

  16. The eMOSAIC model for humanoid robot control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Norikazu; Morimoto, Jun; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we propose an extension of the MOSAIC architecture to control real humanoid robots. MOSAIC was originally proposed by neuroscientists to understand the human ability of adaptive control. The modular architecture of the MOSAIC model can be useful for solving nonlinear and non-stationary control problems. Both humans and humanoid robots have nonlinear body dynamics and many degrees of freedom. Since they can interact with environments (e.g., carrying objects), control strategies need to deal with non-stationary dynamics. Therefore, MOSAIC has strong potential as a human motor-control model and a control framework for humanoid robots. Yet application of the MOSAIC model has been limited to simple simulated dynamics since it is susceptive to observation noise and also cannot be applied to partially observable systems. Our approach introduces state estimators into MOSAIC architecture to cope with real environments. By using an extended MOSAIC model, we are able to successfully generate squatting and object-carrying behaviors on a real humanoid robot.

  17. Parallel-Processing Software for Creating Mosaic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, Gerhard; Deen, Robert; McCauley, Michael; DeJong, Eric

    2008-01-01

    A computer program implements parallel processing for nearly real-time creation of panoramic mosaics of images of terrain acquired by video cameras on an exploratory robotic vehicle (e.g., a Mars rover). Because the original images are typically acquired at various camera positions and orientations, it is necessary to warp the images into the reference frame of the mosaic before stitching them together to create the mosaic. [Also see "Parallel-Processing Software for Correlating Stereo Images," Software Supplement to NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 9 (September 2007) page 26.] The warping algorithm in this computer program reflects the considerations that (1) for every pixel in the desired final mosaic, a good corresponding point must be found in one or more of the original images and (2) for this purpose, one needs a good mathematical model of the cameras and a good correlation of individual pixels with respect to their positions in three dimensions. The desired mosaic is divided into slices, each of which is assigned to one of a number of central processing units (CPUs) operating simultaneously. The results from the CPUs are gathered and placed into the final mosaic. The time taken to create the mosaic depends upon the number of CPUs, the speed of each CPU, and whether a local or a remote data-staging mechanism is used.

  18. Extensive Hidden Genomic Mosaicism Revealed in Normal Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattathil, Selina; Scheet, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Genomic mosaicism arising from post-zygotic mutation has recently been demonstrated to occur in normal tissue of individuals ascertained with varied phenotypes, indicating that detectable mosaicism may be less an exception than a rule in the general population. A challenge to comprehensive cataloging of mosaic mutations and their consequences is the presence of heterogeneous mixtures of cells, rendering low-frequency clones difficult to discern. Here we applied a computational method using estimated haplotypes to characterize mosaic megabase-scale structural mutations in 31,100 GWA study subjects. We provide in silico validation of 293 previously identified somatic mutations and identify an additional 794 novel mutations, most of which exist at lower aberrant cell fractions than have been demonstrated in previous surveys. These mutations occurred across the genome but in a nonrandom manner, and several chromosomes and loci showed unusual levels of mutation. Our analysis supports recent findings about the relationship between clonal mosaicism and old age. Finally, our results, in which we demonstrate a nearly 3-fold higher rate of clonal mosaicism, suggest that SNP-based population surveys of mosaic structural mutations should be conducted with haplotypes for optimal discovery. PMID:26942289

  19. An Intelligent mutli-object retrieval system for historical mosaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Maghrebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a Mosaics Intelligent Retrieval System (MIRS for digital museums. The objective of this work is to attain a semantic interpretation of images of historical mosaics. We use the fuzzy logic techniques and semantic similarity measure to extract knowledge from the images for multi-object indexing. The extracted knowledge provides the users (experts and laypersons with an intuitive way to describe and to query the images in the database. Our contribution in this paper is firstly, to define semantic fuzzy linguistic terms to encode the object position and the inter-objects spatial relationships in the mosaic image. Secondly, to present a fuzzy color quantization approach using the human perceptual HSV color space and finally, to classify semantically the mosaics images using a semantic similarity measure. The automatically extracted knowledge are collected and traduced into XML language to create mosaics metadata. This system uses a simple Graphic User Interface (GUI in natural language and applies the classification approach both on the mosaics images database and on user queries, to limit images classes in the retrieval process. MIRS is tested on images from the exceptional Tunisian collection of complex mosaics. Experimental results are based on queries of various complexities which yielded a system’s recall and precision rates of 86.6% and 87.1%, respectively, while the classification approach gives an average success rate evaluated to 76%.

  20. Solar Mosaic Inc. Mosaic Home Solar Loan SunShot 9 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Colin James [Solar Mosaic Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The 6686 Mosaic SunShot award has helped Solar Mosaic Inc to progress from an early stage startup focused on commercial crowdfunding to a leading multi-state residential solar lender. The software platform is now used by the majority of the nation's top solar installers and offers a variety of simple home solar loans. Mosaic is has originated approximately $1Bil in solar loans to date to put solar on over 35k rooftops. The company now lends to homeowners with a wide range of credit scores across multiple states and mitigates boundaries preventing them from profiting from ownership of a home solar system. The project included milestones in 5 main categories: 1. Lending to homeowners outside of CA 2. Lending to homeowners with FICO scores under 700 3. Packaging O&M with the home solar loan 4. Allowing residential installers to process home solar loans via API 5. Lowering customer acquisition costs below $1500 This report includes a detailed review of the final results achieved and key findings.

  1. Tissue differences in fragile X mosaics: Mosaicism in blood cells may differ greatly from skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobkin, C.S.; Nolin, S.L.; Cohen, I. [NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-09

    The fragile X mutation is diagnosed from the structure of the FMR1 gene in blood cell DNA. An estimated 12 to 41% of affected males are mosaics who carry both a {open_quotes}full mutation{close_quotes} allele from which there is no gene expression and a {open_quotes}premutation{close_quotes} allele which has normal gene expression. We compared the DNA in blood cells and skin fibroblasts from four mosaic fragile X males to see if there was a difference in the relative amounts of premutation and full mutation alleles within the tissues of these individuals. Two of these males showed striking differences in the ratio of premutation to full mutation in different tissues while the other two showed only slight differences. These observations conform with the widely accepted hypothesis that the fragile X CGG repeat is unstable in somatic tissue during early embryogenesis. Accordingly, the mosaicism in brain and skin, which are both ectodermal in origin, may be similar to each other but different from blood which is not ectodermal in origin. Thus, the ratio of full mutation to premutation allele in skin fibroblasts might be a better indicator of psychological impairment than the ratio in blood cells. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Mosaic tetracycline resistance genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Philip J; Amodeo, Nina; Roberts, Adam P

    2016-12-01

    First reported in 2003, mosaic tetracycline resistance genes are a subgroup of the genes encoding ribosomal protection proteins (RPPs). They are formed when two or more RPP-encoding genes recombine resulting in a functional chimera. To date, the majority of mosaic genes are derived from sections of three RPP genes, tet(O), tet(W) and tet(32), with others comprising tet(M) and tet(S). In this first review of mosaic genes, we report on their structure, diversity and prevalence, and suggest that these genes may be responsible for an under-reported contribution to tetracycline resistance in bacteria.

  3. Image mosaic method based on SIFT features of line segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ren, Mingwu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel image mosaic method based on SIFT (Scale Invariant Feature Transform) feature of line segment, aiming to resolve incident scaling, rotation, changes in lighting condition, and so on between two images in the panoramic image mosaic process. This method firstly uses Harris corner detection operator to detect key points. Secondly, it constructs directed line segments, describes them with SIFT feature, and matches those directed segments to acquire rough point matching. Finally, Ransac method is used to eliminate wrong pairs in order to accomplish image mosaic. The results from experiment based on four pairs of images show that our method has strong robustness for resolution, lighting, rotation, and scaling.

  4. MOSAICISM CONFINED TO PLACENTA IN PREGNANCIES WITH ADVERSE OUTCOME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; KarinSundberg; BjarneBeck; 孙念怙

    1995-01-01

    Chorionic villi and feral tissues from 50 pathological human conceptions ar gesrarional weeks 9-40 were cultured and cytogenetically analyzed to explore the existence of chromosomal mosaicism confined to the extraembryonic tissues and to clarify the relationship between confined placental mosaicism and adverse outcome of pregnancy. Chorionic villi and fetal rlssues from 12 second trimester gesrations terminated for social reasons served as a control group. In two pathological gestations, true mosaicism was found exclusively in chorionic cells and could not be confirmed in cells derived from the fetal tissues, One of these was severely growth retarded, Concordant results were obtained in all other cases,

  5. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  6. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  7. Methods of Spectral Analysis in C++ (MOSAIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesser, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Stellar spectroscopic classification is most often still done by hand. MOSAIC is a project focused on the collection and classification of astronomical spectra using a computerized algorithm. The code itself attempts to accurately classify stellar spectra according to the broad spectral classes within the Morgan-Keenan system of spectral classification, based on estimated temperature and the relative abundances of certain notable elements (Hydrogen, Helium, etc.) in the stellar atmosphere. The methodology includes calibrating the wavelength for pixels across the image by using the wavelength dispersion of pixels inherent with the spectrograph used. It then calculates the location of the peak in the star's Planck spectrum in order to roughly classify the star. Fitting the graph to a blackbody curve is the final step for a correct classification. Future work will involve taking a closer look at emission lines and luminosity classes.

  8. A Mosaic of Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Bathje MS, OTR/L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Martha Branson-Banks, OT, provided the cover art for the summer 2014 issue of the Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The piece is titled “Garden with thanks to Klimt” and is one of several mosaic art pieces in her collection of works. She created the piece with art glass and resin on an abandoned door. Her use of a repurposed door represents her belief in the capacity for transformation and beauty within each individual she has treated and taught throughout her career. Martha’s work as an occupational therapist, educator, and artist reminds us of the foundational beliefs of the occupational therapy profession, including the benefits of engagement in meaningful and creative activities.

  9. Nucleotide sequence of papaya mosaic virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, T L; Abouhaidar, M G; Holy, S

    1989-09-01

    The RNA genome of papaya mosaic virus is 6656 nucleotides long [excluding the poly(A) tail] with six open reading frames (ORFs) more than 200 nucleotides long. The four nearest the 5' end each overlap with adjacent ORFs and could code for proteins with Mr 176307, 26248, 11949 and 7224 (ORFs 1 to 4). The fifth ORF produces the capsid protein of Mr 23043 and the sixth ORF, located completely within ORF1, could code for a protein with Mr 14113. The translation products of ORFs 1 to 3 show strong similarity with those of other potexviruses but the ORF 4 protein has only limited similarity with the other potexvirus ORF 4 proteins of 7K to 11K.

  10. A 2014 nationwide survey of the distribution of Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV) and Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV) major viruses in South Korean soybean fields, and changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014 symptomatic soybean samples were collected throughout Korea, and were tested for the most important soybean viruses found in Korea, namely Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean yellow common mosaic virus (SYCMV), and Soybean yellow mottle mosaic virus (SYMMV). SYMMV was most commonly detected,...

  11. Peach latent mosaic viroid: not so latent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia; Rodio, María-Elena; Ambrós, Silvia; Hernández, Carmen; Serio, Francesco D I

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid within the family Avsunviroidae of chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Physical properties: A small circular RNA of 336-351 nt (differences in size result from the absence or presence of certain insertions) adopting a branched conformation stabilized by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. This particular conformation is most likely responsible for the insolubility of PLMVd in highly saline conditions (in which other viroids adopting a rod-like conformation are soluble). Both polarity strands are able to form hammerhead structures and to self-cleave during replication as predicted by these ribozymes. Biological properties: Although most infections occur without conspicuous symptoms, certain PLMVd isolates induce leaf mosaics, blotches and in the most extreme cases albinism (peach calico, PC), flower streaking, delays in foliation, flowering and ripening, deformations and decolorations of fruits, which usually present cracked sutures and enlarged roundish stones, bud necrosis, stem pitting and premature ageing of the trees, which also adopt a characteristic growing pattern (open habit). The molecular determinant for PC has been mapped at a 12-14-nt insertion that folds into a hairpin capped by a U-rich loop present only in certain variants. PLMVd is horizontally transmitted by the propagation of infected buds and to a lesser extent by pruning tools and aphids, but not by pollen; the viroid is not vertically transmitted through seed. Interesting features: This provides a suitable system for studying how a minimal non-protein-coding catalytic RNA replicates (subverting a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe an RNA template), moves, interferes with the metabolism of its host (inciting specific symptoms and a defensive RNA silencing response) and evolves following a quasi-species model characterized by a complex spectrum of variants.

  12. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  13. A High-Density Genetic Map for Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L. Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and QTL fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing (NGS, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000×S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on 7 chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected.

  14. AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION OF TURBAN FORMS OF CUCUMBER, AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION, EVOLUTION AND USE OF THIS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers turban cucumber forms, we have also described the origin of this characteristic, briefly overviewed turban forms in species of the family of Cucurbitaceae. We have given the agro-botanical iconography of this trait in pumpkin cultures for cucumis. In Europe, China and America turbanoformis cucumber forms are used as a vegetable, there are some varieties. It is shown that turbanoformis forms are found in the fruit of the cucumber with hermaphrodite flower, polunina ovaries, short or shareplace the melon, and also in forms with the ongoing evolutionary process

  15. 野生黄瓜代换系的构建%Construction of Wild Cucumber Substitution Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学峰; 胡晓文; 张圣平; 顾兴芳; 张忠华; 黄三文

    2011-01-01

    Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii Royle is the only extant wild subspecies of domesticated cucumber ( Cucumis sativus var. sativus L. ). The wild cucumber contains several favorable traits including root-knot nematodes and CMV resistance, etc. It has a strong branching capability. The fruit shape of wild cucumber is oval and it tastes very bitter. In this study, we created a set of substitution lines using wild cucumber accession lines PI183967 as the donor and domesticated cucumber inbred Xintaimici as the receptor. During the process of backcrossing and self crossing, the wild cucumber genomic fragments were tracked using 62 SSR markers distributed in the cucumber genome. Subsequently, 21 single-segment substitution lines and 10 double-segment substitution lines were obtained, which in total cover 96.81% of the wild cucumber genome. These substitution lines provided a new resource for the utilization of genes from wild cucumber and also the materials basis for the precise genetic analysis of quantitative traits in cucumber, as well as for the investigation of molecular mechanism of evolution from wild cucumber to domesticated cucumber.%野牛黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var.hardwickii Royle)是目前唯一被发现的黄瓜野生变种,具有抗根结线虫和CMV等优异性状,分枝性强,果实为卵圆形,味极苦.利用野生黄瓜品系PI183967为供体材料,栽培黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var.sativus L.)‘新泰密刺'纯系为受体材料,经过3次回交和1次自交,创造了一套代换系材料.在回交和自交过程中,利用均匀分布在全基凶组上的62个SSR标记,跟踪野生黄瓜的基因组片段,共选择出21份单片段和10份双片段代换系材料,共得到代换片段41个.这些野生代换片段重叠累加覆盖野生黄瓜染色体组96.81%.这套代换系材料为利用野生黄瓜的优异基因提供了新的种质资源,也为精确分析黄瓜数量性状奠定了材料基础.

  16. 1935 15' Quad #315 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #290 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #248 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #223 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #035 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  1. Paspalum striate mosaic virus: an Australian mastrevirus from Paspalum dilatatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geering, Andrew D W; Thomas, John E; Holton, Timothy; Hadfield, James; Varsani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Three monocot-infecting mastreviruses from Australia, all found primarily in pasture and naturalised grasses, have been characterised at the molecular level. Here, we present the full genome sequence of a fourth, Paspalum striate mosaic virus (PSMV), isolated from Paspalum dilatatum from south-east Queensland. The genome was 2816 nt long and had an organisation typical of other monocot-infecting mastreviruses. Its nearest relative is Bromus cartharticus striate mosaic virus (BCSMV), with which it shares an overall genome identity of 75%. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and each of the putative viral proteins places PSMV in a group with the other three Australian striate mosaic viruses. PSMV, BCSMV and Digitaria didactyla striate mosaic virus all contain a similar, small recombinant sequence in the small intergenic region.

  2. 1935 15' Quad #059 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  3. 1935 15' Quad #129 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index - NM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  4. 1935 15' Quad #177 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  5. 1935 15' Quad #411 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  6. 1935 15' Quad #367 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  7. 1935 15' Quad #099 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  8. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Casco Bay, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  9. 1935 15' Quad #410 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  10. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Yabucoa, Puerto Rico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  11. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Searsport Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  12. 2009 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Brunswick Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  13. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Galveston, Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  14. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Baltimore, Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...

  15. 1935 15' Quad #265 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  16. 1935 15' Quad #250 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  17. 1935 15' Quad #028 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  18. 1935 15' Quad #078 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  19. 1935 15' Quad #031 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...

  20. 1935 15' Quad #081 Aerial Photo Mosaic Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Aerial Photo Reference Mosaics contain aerial photographs that are retrievable on a frame by frame basis. The inventory contains imagery from various sources that...