WorldWideScience

Sample records for amsr-e ice concentration

  1. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 25 km Tb and Sea Ice Concentration Polar Grids V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 25 km daily sea ice product includes 6.9 - 89.0 GHz TBs and sea ice concentration averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 25 km...

  2. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 25 km Tb and Sea Ice Concentration Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 25 km daily sea ice product includes 6.9 - 89.0 GHz TBs and sea ice concentration averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 25 km...

  3. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 12.5 km Tb, Sea Ice Conc., & Snow Depth Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level 3 12.5 km daily sea ice product includes 18.7 - 89.0 GHz TBs, sea ice concentration averages (asc & desc), and 5-day snow depth over sea...

  4. Summer Sea Ice Motion from the 18 GHz Channel of AMSR-E and the Exchange of Sea Ice between the Pacific and Atlantic Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that sea ice motion in summer can be derived reliably from the 18GHz channel of the AMSR-E instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. The improved spatial resolution of this channel with its lower sensitivity to atmospheric moisture seems to have alleviated various issues that have plagued summer motion retrievals from shorter wavelength observations. Two spatial filters improve retrieval quality: one reduces some of the microwave signatures associated with synoptic-scale weather systems and the other removes outliers. Compared with daily buoy drifts, uncertainties in motion are approx.3-4 km/day. Using the daily motion fields, we examine five years of summer ice area exchange between the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. With the sea-level pressure patterns during the summer of 2006 and 2007 favoring the export of sea ice into the Atlantic Sector, the regional outflow is approx.21% and approx.15% of the total sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector.

  5. Ross Sea Polynyas: Response of Ice Concentration Retrievals to Large Areas of Thin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.; Martin, S.; Drucker, R.

    2007-01-01

    For a 3-month period between May and July of 2005, we examine the response of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Enhanced NASA Team 2 (NT2) and AMSR-E Bootstrap (ABA) ice concentration algorithms to large areas of thin ice of the Ross Sea polynyas. Coincident Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) coverage of the region during this period offers a detailed look at the development of the polynyas within several hundred kilometers of the ice front. The high-resolution imagery and derived ice motion fields show bands of polynya ice, covering up to approximately 105 km(sup 2) of the Ross Sea, that are associated with wind-forced advection. In this study, ice thickness from AMSR-E 36 GHz polarization information serves as the basis for examination of the response. The quality of the thickness of newly formed sea ice (<10 cm) from AMSR-E is first assessed with thickness estimates derived from ice surface temperatures from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The effect of large areas of thin ice in lowering the ice concentration estimates from both NT2/ABA approaches is clearly demonstrated. Results show relatively robust relationships between retrieved ice concentrations and thin ice thickness estimates that differ between the two algorithms. These relationships define the approximate spatial coincidence of ice concentration and thickness isopleths. Using the 83% (ABA) and 91% (NT2) isopleths as polynya boundaries, we show that the computed coverage compares well with that using the estimated 10-cm thickness contour. The thin ice response characterized here suggests that in regions with polynyas, the retrieval results could be used to provide useful geophysical information, namely thickness and coverage.

  6. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Rain Rate/Type GSFC Profiling Algorithm V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B rain product includes instantaneous rain rate and rain type over ice-free and snow-free land and ocean between 70 degrees north and south...

  7. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This document pertains to two data sets: AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures (NSIDC-0301) and AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded...

  8. Several advanced microwave scanning radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) environmental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobl, Elena; Spencer, Roy

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is a conically scanning, dual-polarization, total power microwave radiometer flying on NASA's Aqua satellite. It has been taking global observations for more than four years. The instrument was provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, and it was built by Mitsubishi Electric Company. AMSR-E data provide information on the state of various hydrologic parameters in the atmosphere and on the Earth's surface. AMSR-E measures dual linearly polarized radiation (horizontal and vertical polarizations) at frequencies of 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz. These frequencies have diverse amounts of influence from a wide variety of lower atmospheric and surface variables. Examples of environmental results obtained from AMSR-E data are included. One of the most important new capabilities is global SST observations through clouds, including observations of the cold wakes behind hurricanes. The cold wake behind hurricane Katrina will be shown. A monthly, global soil moisture percentage map was developed from the AMSR-E retrievals, and as an additional benefit maps showing large RFI sources have been compiled. Maps of the snow water equivalent (SWE) and detailed maps of the Arctic sea ice will be shown.

  9. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  10. Antarctic Iceberg Tracking Based on Time Series of Aqua AMSR-E Microwave Brightness Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, S.; Peterson, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of icebergs are identified as one of the requirements for the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in the area of reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. However, iceberg observations are not included among targets in the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan, and thus there is an unfulfilled need for iceberg detection and tracking in the near future. Large Antarctic icebergs have been tracked by the National Ice Center and by the academic community using a variety of satellite sensors including both passive and active microwave imagers, such as SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) deployed on the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) spacecraft. Improvements provided in recent years by NASA and non-NASA satellite radars, scatterometers, and radiometers resulted in an increased number of observed icebergs and even prompted a question: `Is The Number of Antarctic Icebergs Really Increasing?' [D.G. Long, J. Ballantyne, and C. Bertoia, Eos, AGU Transactions 83(42):469&474, 15 October 2002]. AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System) represents an improvement over SSM/I, its predecessor. AMSR-E has more measurement channels and higher spatial resolution than SSM/I. For example, the instantaneous field of view of the AMSR-E's 89-GHz channels is 6 km by 4 km versus 16 km by 14 km for SSM/I's comparable 85-GHz channels. AMSR-E, deployed on the Aqua satellite, scans across a 1450-km swath and provides brightness temperature measurements with near-global coverage every one or two days. In polar regions, overlapping swaths generate coverage up to multiple times per day and allow for creation of image time series with high temporal resolution. Despite these advantages, only incidental usage of AMSR-E data for iceberg tracking has been reported so far, none in an operational environment. Therefore, an experiment was undertaken in the RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability

  11. Global climate monitoring with the advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR and AMSR-E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobl, Elena S.; Spencer, Roy W.; Shibata, Akira; Imaoka, Keiji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Kachi, Misako

    2003-04-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSR) are dual-polarized microwave radiometers having channel frequencies ranging from 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz, and were designed to retrieve global information on precipitation, sea surface temperature, oceanic surface winds and integrated cloud water and water vapor, vegetation, sea ice, and snow cover. Two AMSR's have been built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The first instrument (AMSR-E) was launched in May 2002 on NASA's Aqua satellite. The second will be launched on the Japanese ADEOS-II satellite. The AMSRs provide the highest spatial resolution yet attained for a civilian spaceborne microwave sensor, with spatial resolutions ranging from 5 km at 89 GHz to 60 km at 6.9 GHz. A distributed array of six (seven for ADEOS-II AMSR) feedhorns are illuminated by a 1.6 m diameter offset parabolic reflector on AMSR-E, and a 2.0 m diameter reflector on AMSR for ADEOS-II. While National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is responsible for the calibration of both AMSRs' data, for AMSR-E, science software for the retrieval of the various geophysical parameters has been independently developed by NASDA- and NASA-funded researchers. This software has been implemented for routine near-real time processing in both Japan and the United States. A future goal -- within two years -- is the development of joint algorithms for processing data from both AMSRs. Extensive product validation efforts, involving many different countries, are discussed. Initial data from AMSR-E are also presented.

  12. NASA Team 2 Sea Ice Concentration Algorithm Retrieval Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Ludovic; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Ivanoff, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Satellite microwave radiometers are widely used to estimate sea ice cover properties (concentration, extent, and area) through the use of sea ice concentration (IC) algorithms. Rare are the algorithms providing associated IC uncertainty estimates. Algorithm uncertainty estimates are needed to assess accurately global and regional trends in IC (and thus extent and area), and to improve sea ice predictions on seasonal to interannual timescales using data assimilation approaches. This paper presents a method to provide relative IC uncertainty estimates using the enhanced NASA Team (NT2) IC algorithm. The proposed approach takes advantage of the NT2 calculations and solely relies on the brightness temperatures (TBs) used as input. NT2 IC and its associated relative uncertainty are obtained for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) TB. NT2 IC relative uncertainties estimated on a footprint-by-footprint swath-by-swath basis were averaged daily over each 12.5-km grid cell of the polar stereographic grid. For both hemispheres and throughout the year, the NT2 relative uncertainty is less than 5%. In the Southern Hemisphere, it is low in the interior ice pack, and it increases in the marginal ice zone up to 5%. In the Northern Hemisphere, areas with high uncertainties are also found in the high IC area of the Central Arctic. Retrieval uncertainties are greater in areas corresponding to NT2 ice types associated with deep snow and new ice. Seasonal variations in uncertainty show larger values in summer as a result of melt conditions and greater atmospheric contributions. Our analysis also includes an evaluation of the NT2 algorithm sensitivity to AMSR-E sensor noise. There is a 60% probability that the IC does not change (to within the computed retrieval precision of 1%) due to sensor noise, and the cumulated probability shows that there is a 90% chance that the IC varies by less than

  13. Vacancy Concentration in Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O. E.; Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard

    1977-01-01

    Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10.......Based on the diffusion constant for self-diffusion in ice, which is believed to take place by a vacancy mechanism, we estimate the relative vacancy concentration near the melting point to be at least ∼ 10−6, i.e. much higher than previous estimates of about 10−10....

  14. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  15. Optimal estimation of sea surface temperature from AMSR-E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Høyer, Jacob L.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2018-01-01

    The Optimal Estimation (OE) technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AQUA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). A comprehensive matchup database with drift......The Optimal Estimation (OE) technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AQUA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). A comprehensive matchup database...... with drifting buoy observations is used to develop and test the OE setup. It is shown that it is essential to update the first guess atmospheric and oceanic state variables and to perform several iterations to reach an optimal retrieval. The optimal number of iterations is typically three to four in the current...... and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most...

  16. Operational Implementation of Sea Ice Concentration Estimates from the AMSR2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Stewart, J. Scott; Liu, Yinghui; Key, Jeffrey; Miller, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    An operation implementation of a passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithm to support NOAA's operational mission is presented. The NASA team 2 algorithm, previously developed for the NASA advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the Earth observing system (AMSR-E) product suite, is adapted for operational use with the JAXA AMSR2 sensor through several enhancements. First, the algorithm is modified to process individual swaths and provide concentration from the most recent swaths instead of a 24-hour average. A latency (time since observation) field and a 24-hour concentration range (maximum-minimum) are included to provide indications of data timeliness and variability. Concentration from the Bootstrap algorithm is a secondary field to provide complementary sea ice information. A quality flag is implemented to provide information on interpolation, filtering, and other quality control steps. The AMSR2 concentration fields are compared with a different AMSR2 passive microwave product, and then validated via comparison with sea ice concentration from the Suomi visible and infrared imaging radiometer suite. This validation indicates the AMSR2 concentrations have a bias of 3.9% and an RMSE of 11.0% in the Arctic, and a bias of 4.45% and RMSE of 8.8% in the Antarctic. In most cases, the NOAA operational requirements for accuracy are met. However, in low-concentration regimes, such as during melt and near the ice edge, errors are higher because of the limitations of passive microwave sensors and the algorithm retrieval.

  17. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Global Snow Water Equivalent EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) product includes global SWE on Northern and Southern Hemisphere 25 km EASE-Grids, generated by the GSFC...

  18. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave measurements...

  19. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave measurements...

  20. Estimate of Hurricane Wind Speed from AMSR-E Low-Frequency Channel Brightness Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new parameters (W6H and W6V were defined that represent brightness temperature increments for different low-frequency channels due to ocean wind. We developed a new wind speed retrieval model inside hurricanes based on W6H and W6V using brightness temperature data from AMSR-E. The AMSR-E observations of 12 category 3–5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2011 and corresponding data from the H*wind analysis system were used to develop and validate the AMSR-E wind speed retrieval model. The results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the AMSR-E retrieved wind speeds with respect to H*wind (HRD Real-time Hurricane Wind Analysis System analysis data were −0.01 m/s and 2.66 m/s, respectively. One case study showed that W6H and W6V were less sensitive to rain than the observed AMSR-E C-band and X-band brightness temperature data. The AMSR-E retrieval model was further validated by comparing the retrieved wind speeds against stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The comparison showed an RMS difference of 3.41 m/s and a mean bias of 0.49 m/s.

  1. Optimal Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from AMSR-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Nielsen-Englyst

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Optimal Estimation (OE technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST from AQUA’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System (AMSR-E. A comprehensive matchup database with drifting buoy observations is used to develop and test the OE setup. It is shown that it is essential to update the first guess atmospheric and oceanic state variables and to perform several iterations to reach an optimal retrieval. The optimal number of iterations is typically three to four in the current setup. In addition, updating the forward model, using a multivariate regression model is shown to improve the capability of the forward model to reproduce the observations. The average sensitivity of the OE retrieval is 0.5 and shows a latitudinal dependency with smaller sensitivity for cold waters and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most consistent. The corresponding mean uncertainty is estimated to 0.48 K including the in situ and sampling uncertainties. An independent validation against Argo observations from 2009 to 2011 shows an average difference of 0.01 K, a standard deviation of 0.50 K and a mean uncertainty of 0.47 K, when considering the best 62% of retrievals. The satellite versus in situ discrepancies are highest in the dynamic oceanic regions due to the large satellite footprint size and the associated sampling effects. Uncertainty estimates are available for all retrievals and have been validated to be accurate. They can thus be used to obtain very good retrieval results. In general, the results from the OE retrieval are very encouraging and demonstrate that passive microwave

  2. Comparison between MODIS and AMSR-E cloud LWP over the East Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in the Earth's energy budget and therefore constitute a crucial element of climate change prediction. Thus, the demand for understanding the properties of clouds more accurately has been increasing and satellites have become a dominant tool for cloud observation because of their continual global coverage capability. NASA launched Aqua Earth-observing satellite on May 4, 2002. Aqua has five operating instruments (AIRS, AMSU, CERES, MODIS, and AMSR-E), which have different wavelength coverages and thus different retrieval algorithms. Among them, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP), a highly important cloud property that characterizes clouds, with different retrieval algorithms because MODIS uses VIS/NIR channels while AMSR-E uses microwave channels. In this study, the LWP data retrieved from MODIS and AMSR-E over the East Asia region will be analyzed and compared. The retrieval period is four full years (2007-2010) so that annual averages and seasonal differences can be revealed. Although a comparison of global LWP data from MOIDS and AMSR-E has been done in a previous study, the general global distributions were shown. Here, we focus on the East Asia region where seasonal LWP differences are large due to monsoon circulation and typhoons in summer months. More details will be discussed at the conference.

  3. Arctic sea ice concentration observed with SMOS during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Martinez, Justino; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is under profound transformation. Observations and model predictions show dramatic decline in sea ice extent and volume [1]. A retreating Arctic ice cover has a marked impact on regional and global climate, and vice versa, through a large number of feedback mechanisms and interactions with the climate system [2]. The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, in 2009, marked the dawn of a new type of space-based microwave observations. Although the mission was originally conceived for hydrological and oceanographic studies [3,4], SMOS is also making inroads in the cryospheric sciences by measuring the thin ice thickness [5,6]. SMOS carries an L-band (1.4 GHz), passive interferometric radiometer (the so-called MIRAS) that measures the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the Earth's surface, at about 50 km spatial resolution, continuous multi-angle viewing, large wide swath (1200-km), and with a 3-day revisit time at the equator, but more frequently at the poles. A novel radiometric method to determine sea ice concentration (SIC) from SMOS is presented. The method uses the Bayesian-based Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) approach to retrieve SIC. The advantage of this approach with respect to the classical linear inversion is that the former takes into account the uncertainty of the tie-point measured data in addition to the mean value, while the latter only uses a mean value of the tie-point data. When thin ice is present, the SMOS algorithm underestimates the SIC due to the low opacity of the ice at this frequency. However, using a synergistic approach with data from other satellite sensors, it is possible to obtain accurate thin ice thickness estimations with the Bayesian-based method. Despite its lower spatial resolution relative to SSMI or AMSR-E, SMOS-derived SIC products are little affected by the atmosphere and the snow (almost transparent at L-band). Moreover L-band measurements are more robust in front of the

  4. AMSR-E Rainfall Subset, collocated with the CloudSat track, in HDF-EOS format V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a subset of AMSR-E rain rat eproduct along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return AMSR-E data that are within +-100 km...

  5. A New Operational Snow Retrieval Algorithm Applied to Historical AMSR-E Brightness Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tedesco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Snow is a key element of the water and energy cycles and the knowledge of spatio-temporal distribution of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE is fundamental for hydrological and climatological applications. SWE and snow depth estimates can be obtained from spaceborne microwave brightness temperatures at global scale and high temporal resolution (daily. In this regard, the data recorded by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Orbiting System (EOS (AMSR-E onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA AQUA spacecraft have been used to generate operational estimates of SWE and snow depth, complementing estimates generated with other microwave sensors flying on other platforms. In this study, we report the results concerning the development and assessment of a new operational algorithm applied to historical AMSR-E data. The new algorithm here proposed makes use of climatological data, electromagnetic modeling and artificial neural networks for estimating snow depth as well as a spatio-temporal dynamic density scheme to convert snow depth to SWE. The outputs of the new algorithm are compared with those of the current AMSR-E operational algorithm as well as in-situ measurements and other operational snow products, specifically the Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC and GlobSnow datasets. Our results show that the AMSR-E algorithm here proposed generally performs better than the operational one and addresses some major issues identified in the spatial distribution of snow depth fields associated with the evolution of effective grain size.

  6. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Global Ascending/Descending .25x.25 deg Ocean Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily ocean product includes Sea Surface Temperature, near-surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water over...

  7. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B land surface product includes surface soil moisture and vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information on a global 25 km...

  8. AMSR-E/Aqua 5-Day L3 Global Snow Water Equivalent EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 5-day snow water equivalent (SWE) product includes global 5-day maximum SWE on Northern and Southern Hemisphere 25 km EASE-Grids, generated...

  9. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Surface Soil Moisture, Interpretive Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily land product includes surface soil moisture, vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information, and TBs on global 25 km...

  10. Comparing the Accuracy of AMSRE, AMSR2, SSMI and SSMIS Satellite Radiometer Ice Concentration Products with One-Meter Resolution Visible Imagery in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E. R.; Stanton, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Determining ice concentration in the Arctic is necessary to track significant changes in sea ice edge extent. Sea ice concentrations are also needed to interpret data collected by in-situ instruments like buoys, as the amount of ice versus water in a given area determines local solar heating. Ice concentration products are now routinely derived from satellite radiometers including the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI), and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). While these radiometers are viewed as reliable to monitor long-term changes in sea ice extent, their accuracy should be analyzed, and compared to determine which radiometer performs best over smaller features such as melt ponds, and how seasonal conditions affect accuracy. Knowledge of the accuracy of radiometers at high resolution can help future researchers determine which radiometer to use, and be aware of radiometer shortcomings in different ice conditions. This will be especially useful when interpreting data from in-situ instruments which deal with small scale measurements. In order to compare these passive microwave radiometers, selected high spatial resolution one-meter resolution Medea images, archived at the Unites States Geological Survey, are used for ground truth comparison. Sea ice concentrations are derived from these images in an interactive process, although estimates are not perfect ground truth due to exposure of images, shadowing and cloud cover. 68 images are retrieved from the USGS website and compared with 9 useable, collocated SSMI, 33 SSMIS, 36 AMSRE, and 14 AMSR2 ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean. We analyze and compare the accuracy of radiometer instrumentation in differing ice conditions.

  11. Intercomparison of AMSR2 and AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with MERRA-L data set over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, E.; Choi, M.; Su, C. H.; Ryu, D.; Kim, H.; Jacobs, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in the hydrological cycle on the land surface and plays an essential role in hydrological and meteorological processes. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor on board the Aqua satellite offered valuable soil moisture data set from June 2002 and October 2011 and has been used in a wide range of applications. However, the AMSR-E sensor stopped operation from 4 October 2011 due to a problem with its antenna. AMSR-E was replaced by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on the Global Climate Change Observation Mission 1 - Water (GCOM-W1) satellite in May 2012. Assessment of AMSR2 soil moisture retrievals as compared to AMSR-E has not yet been extensively evaluated. This task is critical if AMSR2 soil moisture products are used as a continuous dataset continuing the legacy of AMSR-E. The purpose of this study is to inter-compare AMSR2 and AMSR-E microwave based soil moisture over Australia, mediated by using model-based soil moisture data set to determine statistically similar inter-comparison periods from time periods of the individual sensors. This work use NASA-VUA AMSR2 and AMSR-E based soil moisture products derived by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and the modelled soil moisture from NASA's MERRA-L (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications-Land) re-analysis. The satellite soil moisture products are compared against the MERRA-L using traditional metrics, and the random errors in individual products are estimated using lagged instrumental variable regression analysis. Generally, the results demonstrate that the two satellite-based soil moisture retrievals have reasonable agreement with MERRA-L soil moisture data set. The error differences are notable, with the zonal error statistics are higher for AMSR2 in all climate zones, though the error maps of AMSR2 and AMSR-E are spatially similar over the Australia regions. This study leads

  12. An Updated Geophysical Model for AMSR-E and SSMIS Brightness Temperature Simulations over Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Zabolotskikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we considered the geophysical model for microwave brightness temperature (BT simulation for the Atmosphere-Ocean System under non-precipitating conditions. The model is presented as a combination of atmospheric absorption and ocean emission models. We validated this model for two satellite instruments—for Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E onboard Aqua satellite and for Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS onboard F16 satellite of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP series. We compared simulated BT values with satellite BT measurements for different combinations of various water vapor and oxygen absorption models and wind induced ocean emission models. A dataset of clear sky atmospheric and oceanic parameters, collocated in time and space with satellite measurements, was used for the comparison. We found the best model combination, providing the least root mean square error between calculations and measurements. A single combination of models ensured the best results for all considered radiometric channels. We also obtained the adjustments to simulated BT values, as averaged differences between the model simulations and satellite measurements. These adjustments can be used in any research based on modeling data for removing model/calibration inconsistencies. We demonstrated the application of the model by means of the development of the new algorithm for sea surface wind speed retrieval from AMSR-E data.

  13. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  14. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide......-swath synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scenes. The analysis is confined to the high-concentration Arctic sea ice, where the ice cover is near 100%. During winter the results indicate that the variability of the SSM/I concentration estimates is larger than the true variability of ice concentration. Results from...... a trusted subset of the SAR scenes across the central Arctic allow the separation of the ice concentration uncertainty due to emissivity variations and sensor noise from other error sources during the winter of 2003-2004. Depending on the algorithm, error standard deviations from 2.5 to 5.0% are found...

  15. ISLSCP II Global Sea Ice Concentration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative II data set, ISLSCP II Global Sea Ice Concentration, is based on the Goddard Space...

  16. Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly sea ice concentration for Arctic (1901 to 1995) and Southern oceans (1973 to 1990) were digitized on a standard 1-degree grid (cylindrical projection) to...

  17. A Round Robin evaluation of AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelbach, Heidi; Hirschi, Martin; Nicolai-Shaw, Nadine; Gruber, Alexander; Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Jones, Lucas A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale and long-term soil moisture observations based on remote sensing are promising data sets to investigate and understand various processes of the climate system including the water and biochemical cycles. Currently, the ESA Climate Change Initiative for soil moisture develops and evaluates a consistent global long-term soil moisture data set, which is based on merging passive and active remotely sensed soil moisture. Within this project an inter-comparison of algorithms for AMSR-E and ASCAT Level 2 products was conducted separately to assess the performance of different retrieval algorithms. Here we present the inter-comparison of AMSR-E Level 2 soil moisture products. These include the public data sets from University of Montana (UMT), Japan Aerospace and Space Exploration Agency (JAXA), VU University of Amsterdam (VUA; two algorithms) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). All participating algorithms are applied to the same AMSR-E Level 1 data set. Ascending and descending paths of scaled surface soil moisture are considered and evaluated separately in daily and monthly resolution over the 2007-2011 time period. Absolute values of soil moisture as well as their long-term anomalies (i.e. removing the mean seasonal cycle) and short-term anomalies (i.e. removing a five weeks moving average) are evaluated. The evaluation is based on conventional measures like correlation and unbiased root-mean-square differences as well as on the application of the triple collocation method. As reference data set, surface soil moisture of 75 quality controlled soil moisture sites from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) are used, which cover a wide range of vegetation density and climate conditions. For the application of the triple collocation method, surface soil moisture estimates from the Global Land Data Assimilation System are used as third independent data set. We find that the participating algorithms generally display a better

  18. Evaluation of Enhanced High Resolution MODIS/AMSR-E SSTs and the Impact on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been generating a 1-km sea surface temperature (SST) composite derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for use in operational diagnostics and regional model initialization. With the assumption that the day-to-day variation in the SST is nominal, individual MODIS passes aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra satellites are used to create and update four composite SST products each day at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC, valid over the western Atlantic and Caribbean waters. A six month study from February to August 2007 over the marine areas surrounding southern Florida was conducted to compare the use of the MODIS SST composite versus the Real-Time Global SST analysis to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Substantial changes in the forecast heat fluxes were seen at times in the marine boundary layer, but relatively little overall improvement was measured in the sensible weather elements. The limited improvement in the WRF model forecasts could be attributed to the diurnal changes in SST seen in the MODIS SST composites but not accounted for by the model. Furthermore, cloud contamination caused extended periods when individual passes of MODIS were unable to update the SSTs, leading to substantial SST latency and a cool bias during the early summer months. In order to alleviate the latency problems, the SPoRT Center recently enhanced its MODIS SST composite by incorporating information from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) instruments as well as the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis. These enhancements substantially decreased the latency due to cloud cover and improved the bias and correlation of the composites at available marine point observations. While these enhancements improved upon the modeled cold bias using the original MODIS SSTs

  19. Long Term Global Surface Soil Moisture Fields Using an SMOS-Trained Neural Network Applied to AMSR-E Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to retrieve soil moisture (SM from Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer—Earth Observing System Sensor (AMSR-E observations using Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Level 3 SM as a reference is discussed. The goal is to obtain longer time series of SM with no significant bias and with a similar dynamical range to that of the SMOS SM dataset. This method consists of training a neural network (NN to obtain a global non-linear relationship linking AMSR-E brightness temperatures ( T b to the SMOS L3 SM dataset on the concurrent mission period of 1.5 years. Then, the NN model is used to derive soil moisture from past AMSR-E observations. It is shown that in spite of the different frequencies and sensing depths of AMSR-E and SMOS, it is possible to find such a global relationship. The sensitivity of AMSR-E T b ’s to soil temperature ( T s o i l was also evaluated using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Interim/Land re-analysis (ERA-Land and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Land (MERRA-Land model data. The best combination of AMSR-E T b ’s to retrieve T s o i l is H polarization at 23 and 36 GHz plus V polarization at 36 GHz. Regarding SM, several combinations of input data show a similar performance in retrieving SM. One NN that uses C and X bands and T s o i l information was chosen to obtain SM in the 2003–2011 period. The new dataset shows a low bias (<0.02 m3/m3 and low standard deviation of the difference (<0.04 m3/m3 with respect to SMOS L3 SM over most of the globe’s surface. The new dataset was evaluated together with other AMSR-E SM datasets and the Climate Change Initiative (CCI SM dataset against the MERRA-Land and ERA-Land models for the 2003–2011 period. All datasets show a significant bias with respect to models for boreal regions and high correlations over regions other than the tropical and boreal forest. All of the global SM datasets including AMSR-E NN were also

  20. AMSR-E/Aqua level 3 global monthly Surface Soil Moisture Standard Deviation V005 (AMSRE_STDMO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dataset contains global monthly soil moisture statistics (standard deviation ) for 1 by 1 degree grid cells. The source for the data is AMSR-E daily estimates of...

  1. Snow cover detection and snow depth algorithms for the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) AMSR2 instrument using AMSR-E/AMSR2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. K.; Kongoli, C.; Key, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Snow is one of the most dynamic hydrological variables on the Earth surface playing a key role in the global energy and water budget. The ability to detect global snow cover and measure snow depth in near all weather conditions has been demonstrated with satellite microwave measurements. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), launched on May 18, 2012 onboard SHIZUKU, is included in A-train group of satellites and will replace the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument. The similarity of channels between AMSR-E and AMSR2 makes AMSR2 instrument a successor of AMSR-E instrument. This study will evaluate the suite of AMSR2 algorithms that are being developed for the operational retrieval of snow cover detection and snow depth using AMSR-E and AMSR2 data. AMSR-E data spans 10 years from June 2002 to September 2011; AMSR2 data spans 2 years from August 2012 to May 2014. The snow cover detection algorithm is based on the operational NOAA's heritage microwave algorithm with snow climatology tests and wet snow filtering as new enhancements. The SD algorithm is adopted from the current version of the operational NASA AMSR-E SWE algorithm. The 24- and 4-km IMS snow cover and in-situ SYNOP and COOP snow depth are used as references for the evaluation. More details about the reference data and evaluation results will be discussed.

  2. A COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO ALGORITHMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AMSR-E DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta ePaloscia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two algorithms for estimating soil moisture with microwave satellite data was carried out by using the datasets collected on the four Agricultural Research Service (ARS watershed sites in the US from 2002 to 2009. These sites collectively represent a wide range of ground conditions and precipitation regimes (from natural to agricultural surfaces and from desert to humid regions and provide long-term in-situ data. One of the algorithms is the artificial neural network-based algorithm developed by the Institute of Applied Physics of the National Research Council (IFAC-CNR (HydroAlgo and the second one is the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA developed by USDA-ARS (US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. Both algorithms are based on the same radiative transfer equations but are implemented very differently. Both made use of datasets provided by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, within the framework of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E and Global Change Observation Mission–Water GCOM/AMSR-2 programs. Results demonstrated that both algorithms perform better than the mission specified accuracy, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE ≤0.06 m3/m3 and Bias <0.02 m3/m3. These results expand on previous investigations using different algorithms and sites. The novelty of the paper consists of the fact that it is the first intercomparison of the HydroAlgo algorithm with a more traditional retrieval algorithm, which offers an approach to higher spatial resolution products.

  3. Response of passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithms to thin ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heygster, Georg; Huntemann, Marcus; Ivanova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sea ice thickness brightness temperatures and ice concentrations retrieved from passive microwave observations is quantified, using horizontally homogeneous sea ice thickness retrievals from ESA's SMOS sensor observations at high incidence angles. Brightness temperatures...... are influenced by thickness below 18 cm (89GHz) and 50 cm (1.4 GHz). Ice concentration retrievals reduced by ice thickness below 0.17 m and 0.33 m, with higher frequency algorithms being less influenced....

  4. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  5. Remote sensing of tropospheric total column water vapor: Intercomparison of POLDER, AMSR-E and MODIS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, J.; Mcharek, L.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-05-01

    Since December 2004, the CNES Parasol (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) mission has been flying in the A-train with Aqua (NASA) providing more than 5 years of temporally and spatially coincident observations from POLDER, MODIS and AMSRE which enable total column water vapor amount retrievals. We are providing here a temporal and statistical analysis of water vapor near-infrared retrievals from POLDER against MODIS and AMSR-E products derived from nearinfrared, thermal infrared and microwave observations over ocean. A temporal analysis of POLDER official product is conducted in view of AMSR-E and MODIS coincident retrievals over ocean. In a second step, an alternative approach based on the use of simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) is developed to improve the mathematical parameterization used to retrieve water vapor amount from near-infrared observation. The retrievals are further improved when an estimate of the 910 nm surface reflectance is obtained through interpolation between PARASOL 865 nm and 1020 nm channels. This last improvement now allows for a unified land/ocean retrieval algorithm for PARASOL/POLDER.

  6. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  7. On the assimilation of ice velocity and concentration data into large-scale sea ice models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dulière

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate way to further assimilate sea ice concentration and velocity observations into a global sea ice-ocean model, we analyze here results from a number of twin experiments (i.e. experiments in which the assimilated data are model outputs carried out with a simplified model of the Arctic sea ice pack. Our objective is to determine to what degree the assimilation of ice velocity and/or concentration data improves the global performance of the model and, more specifically, reduces the error in the computed ice thickness. A simple optimal interpolation scheme is used, and outputs from a control run and from perturbed experiments without and with data assimilation are thoroughly compared. Our results indicate that, under certain conditions depending on the assimilation weights and the type of model error, the assimilation of ice velocity data enhances the model performance. The assimilation of ice concentration data can also help in improving the model behavior, but it has to be handled with care because of the strong connection between ice concentration and ice thickness. This study is first step towards real data assimilation into NEMO-LIM, a global sea ice-ocean model.

  8. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature through Blending MODIS and AMSR-E Data with the Bayesian Maximum Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST plays a major role in the study of surface energy balances. Remote sensing techniques provide ways to monitor LST at large scales. However, due to atmospheric influences, significant missing data exist in LST products retrieved from satellite thermal infrared (TIR remotely sensed data. Although passive microwaves (PMWs are able to overcome these atmospheric influences while estimating LST, the data are constrained by low spatial resolution. In this study, to obtain complete and high-quality LST data, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME method was introduced to merge 0.01° and 0.25° LSTs inversed from MODIS and AMSR-E data, respectively. The result showed that the missing LSTs in cloudy pixels were filled completely, and the availability of merged LSTs reaches 100%. Because the depths of LST and soil temperature measurements are different, before validating the merged LST, the station measurements were calibrated with an empirical equation between MODIS LST and 0~5 cm soil temperatures. The results showed that the accuracy of merged LSTs increased with the increasing quantity of utilized data, and as the availability of utilized data increased from 25.2% to 91.4%, the RMSEs of the merged data decreased from 4.53 °C to 2.31 °C. In addition, compared with the filling gap method in which MODIS LST gaps were filled with AMSR-E LST directly, the merged LSTs from the BME method showed better spatial continuity. The different penetration depths of TIR and PMWs may influence fusion performance and still require further studies.

  9. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  10. ISLSCP II Global Sea Ice Concentration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Initiative II data set is based on the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Sea Ice...

  11. Nimbus-7 SMMR Polar Gridded Radiances and Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains gridded brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations for both polar regions. It spans the period from October 1978 through August 1987,...

  12. Evaluation of the ESA Sea Ice CCI (SICCI) project sea ice concentration data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Bell, Louisa; Ivanova, Natalia

    was computed from brightness temperatures (TB) measured at 19.4 GHz [18.7 GHz] and 37.0 GHz [36.5 GHz] by the space-borne microwave radiometer Special Sensor Microwave / Imager (SSM/I) [Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E)] in both polar hemispheres. The product has daily temporal and 25...... km x 25 km grid resolution and is available for the period 1992-2008 (SSM/I) and 2002-2011 (AMSR-E) from, e.g., http://icdc.zmaw.de. Each data file contains a limited (to the range 0% … 100%) and an unlimited (see below) SIC, SIC retrieval uncertainty, SIC smearing uncertainty from the gridding...... process, and SIC total uncertainty. A flag layer allows to identify where SIC may be less reliable. The unlimited SIC contains the full range of SIC values retrieved. The natural variability of the measured TBs around the typical TBs at 0% and 100% SIC (the so-called tie points) causes SIC to spread...

  13. Improving Arctic sea ice edge forecasts by assimilating high horizontal resolution sea ice concentration data into the US Navy's ice forecast systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, P. G.; Metzger, E. J.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Hebert, D. A.; Allard, R. A.; Smedstad, O. M.; Phelps, M. W.; Fetterer, F.; Stewart, J. S.; Meier, W. N.; Helfrich, S. R.

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the improvement in ice edge error within the US Navy's operational sea ice forecast systems gained by assimilating high horizontal resolution satellite-derived ice concentration products. Since the late 1980's, the ice forecast systems have assimilated near real-time sea ice concentration derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI and then SSMIS). The resolution of the satellite-derived product was approximately the same as the previous operational ice forecast system (25 km). As the sea ice forecast model resolution increased over time, the need for higher horizontal resolution observational data grew. In 2013, a new Navy sea ice forecast system (Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System - ACNFS) went into operations with a horizontal resolution of ~ 3.5 km at the North Pole. A method of blending ice concentration observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR2) along with a sea ice mask produced by the National Ice Center (NIC) has been developed, resulting in an ice concentration product with very high spatial resolution. In this study, ACNFS was initialized with this newly developed high resolution blended ice concentration product. The daily ice edge locations from model hindcast simulations were compared against independent observed ice edge locations. ACNFS initialized using the high resolution blended ice concentration data product decreased predicted ice edge location error compared to the operational system that only assimilated SSMIS data. A second evaluation assimilating the new blended sea ice concentration product into the pre-operational Navy Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 also showed a substantial improvement in ice edge location over a system using the SSMIS sea ice concentration product alone. This paper describes the technique used to create the blended sea ice concentration product and the significant improvements in ice edge forecasting in both of the

  14. [The relationship between the variation rate of MODIS land surface temperature and AMSR-E soil moisture and its application to downscaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Qi; Xie, Chao; Shi, Jian-Cheng; Gong, Hui-Li

    2013-03-01

    Using AMSR-E soil moisture, MODIS land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index product, the authors discuss the relationship between the variation rate of land surface temperature and surface soil moisture. Selecting the plains region of central United States as the study area, the authors propose the distribution triangle of the variation rate of land surface temperature and soil moisture. In the present paper, temperature variation and vegetation index (TVVI), a new index containing the information of temperature variation and vegetation, is introduced. The authors prove that TVVI and soil moisture show a steady relationship of exponential function; and build a quantitative model of soil moisture(SM) and instantaneous surface temperature variation (VTs). The authors later achieve downscaling of AMSR-E soil moisture data, through the above stated functional relationships and high-resolution MODIS data. Comparison with measured data on ground surface indicates that this method of downscaling is of high precision

  15. Assessing concentration uncertainty estimates from passive microwave sea ice products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W.; Brucker, L.; Miller, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice concentration is an essential climate variable and passive microwave derived estimates of concentration are one of the longest satellite-derived climate records. However, until recently uncertainty estimates were not provided. Numerous validation studies provided insight into general error characteristics, but the studies have found that concentration error varied greatly depending on sea ice conditions. Thus, an uncertainty estimate from each observation is desired, particularly for initialization, assimilation, and validation of models. Here we investigate three sea ice products that include an uncertainty for each concentration estimate: the NASA Team 2 algorithm product, the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) product, and the NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record (CDR) product. Each product estimates uncertainty with a completely different approach. The NASA Team 2 product derives uncertainty internally from the algorithm method itself. The OSI-SAF uses atmospheric reanalysis fields and a radiative transfer model. The CDR uses spatial variability from two algorithms. Each approach has merits and limitations. Here we evaluate the uncertainty estimates by comparing the passive microwave concentration products with fields derived from the NOAA VIIRS sensor. The results show that the relationship between the product uncertainty estimates and the concentration error (relative to VIIRS) is complex. This may be due to the sea ice conditions, the uncertainty methods, as well as the spatial and temporal variability of the passive microwave and VIIRS products.

  16. An Evaluation of the PIPS 2.0 Ice Cover Versus SSMI Ice Concentration from 1992-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preller, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    ...). In an operational mode, PIPS 2.0 assimilates SSMI derived ice concentration each day. In a research mode, the SSMI ice concentration data is not assimilated, rather it is used for model metrics (validation). PIPS...

  17. GHRSST Level 2P Gridded Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua satellite for the Atlantic Ocean (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  19. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 (LPRM_AMSRE_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  20. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  1. Potentiel des donnees AMSR-E et RADARSAT-2 pour le suivi des cycles de gel/degel du sol dans des zones agricoles au Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    Soil freezing and thawing processes are of particular importance for agricultural areas. For example, frozen soils can increase the runoff during snowmelt in the spring. Freezing and thawing also have a direct influence on the sowing and harvesting dates, as well as on the crop yield. A better understanding of those phenomena is therefore important, and several researchers focused on this topic in the past. Due to its sensitivity to changes in the state of water, microwave remote sensing is an appropriate tool for that purpose. The main objective of this study is to monitor soil freezing and thawing processes using AMSR-E and RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data acquired over an agricultural area located near Saskatoon (Saskatchewan). With AMSR-E data, the goals are to compare different combinations of frequencies for the spectral gradient's algorithm regarding their capacity for detecting frozen soils, and to analyze the temporal dynamics of the brightness temperature in order to find a new indicator of soil freezing. As for RADARSAT-2 data, several polarimetric parameters and techniques are tested in order to identify soil freezing. For the first part concerning AMSR-E data, a global precision for the discrimination of frozen and thawed soils higher than 90% was obtained with the spectral gradient's algorithm, for the combinations including high (18.7 and 36.5 GHz) and low (6.9 and 10.7 GHz) frequencies as well as for the one using only high frequencies. It is shown that, for the combination based on the 18.7 and 36.5 GHz frequencies, results are improved when a negative threshold is used for the spectral gradient. When high and low AMSR-E frequencies are combined, a null threshold is on the contrary appropriate, which constitutes an operational advantage. A new algorithm for detecting frozen soils, based on a thresholding approach applied to the spectral gradient of polarization difference and the brightness temperature at 36.5 GHz, was also proposed. The performances

  2. The implementation of sea ice model on a regional high-resolution scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Siva; Zakharov, Igor; Bobby, Pradeep; McGuire, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The availability of high-resolution atmospheric/ocean forecast models, satellite data and access to high-performance computing clusters have provided capability to build high-resolution models for regional ice condition simulation. The paper describes the implementation of the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) on a regional scale at high resolution. The advantage of the model is its ability to include oceanographic parameters (e.g., currents) to provide accurate results. The sea ice simulation was performed over Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea to retrieve important parameters such as ice concentration, thickness, ridging, and drift. Two different forcing models, one with low resolution and another with a high resolution, were used for the estimation of sensitivity of model results. Sea ice behavior over 7 years was simulated to analyze ice formation, melting, and conditions in the region. Validation was based on comparing model results with remote sensing data. The simulated ice concentration correlated well with Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) data. Visual comparison of ice thickness trends estimated from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) agreed with the simulation for year 2010-2011.

  3. Quantification of sea ice production in Weddell Sea polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther; Paul, Stephan; Stulic, Lukrecia; Timmermann, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    The regional climate model COSMO-CLM was used to perform simulations the Weddell Sea region in Antarctica for the time period 2002-2015 with the focus on atmosphere-ocean-sea ice interactions. The original model was adapted to polar regions by the use of a thermodynamic sea ice module with snow cover and an temperature-dependent albedo scheme for sea ice. The recently published topography RTopo2 was used. The model was run with nesting in ERA-Interim data in a forecast mode. Sea ice concentrations were taken from satellite measurements (AMSR-E, SSMI/S, AMSR2) and were updated daily to allow for a close-to-reality hindcast. Simulations were done with 15 km resolution for the whole period 2002-2015 with the goal to force the sea-ice ocean model FESOM. In a second step a 5 km simulation was one-way nested for the winter period (April - September) 2002-2015 to allow for a better quantification of sea ice production in the Weddell Sea. Estimates of sea ice production and comparisons of the results to remote sensing data will be presented.

  4. Increasing Arctic sea ice export driven by stronger winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice area has decreased steadily over the last three decades. A thinner and more seasonal Arctic ice cover, related to increased long wave radiation, has become evident. Changes in circulation, including drift patterns of the Arctic pack ice, have been less obvious. Arctic sea ice export estimates have been hampered by low resolution spatial and temporal satellite imagery, especially during summer, making accurate detection difficult. Here we present a new ice area export dataset calculated from sea ice motion and concentration profiles along 79N. Ice drift vectors are calculated from ice feature displacement using Envisat ASAR WideSwath images every 3 days from 2004 while ice concentration is based on DMSP F13 SSMI and AQUA AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The two data sets are combined to give the ice-area flux in consecutive 3-day periods, uninterrupted year-round coverage along 79N. It is shown that sea ice export variability is closely linked to the geostrophic wind in the Fram Strait (correlation of 0.84). Using geostrophic winds from reanalysis back to the 1950s as a proxy for ice export indicates that the Arctic sea ice has annually lost an increasing area since the 1950's driven by stronger winds. Ice concentration has decreased slightly, but does not contribute significantly. The ice export has overall increased by ~25% over the period. Using cyclone tracking the changes in winds seems directly related to a higher low pressure activity in the Nordic Seas. Our results demonstrate that the changes in atmospheric circulation over the Arctic and sub-Arctic have contributed to a trend in the Fram Strait ice export. The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard with average sea ice concentration for summer (red, June through August) and winter (black, January through March). Solid lines are 50%, dashed lines are 15%. Above mean southward ice drift across 79N from August 2004 to July 2010 in 1 degree bins based on SAR imagery, and mean ice

  5. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Concentration and Ice Surface Temperature Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) and Ice Surface Temperature (IST) from the Visible...

  6. Improving the Arctic ice edge forecasts by assimilating high resolution sea ice concentration products in the U.S. Navy's ice forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, P. G.; Metzger, E. J.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Hebert, D. A.; Allard, R.; Smedstad, O. M.; Phelps, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Stewart, S.; Meier, W.; Helfrich, S.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents the improvement in ice edge error within the U.S. Navy's operational sea ice forecast systems gained by assimilating high horizontal resolution satellite-derived ice concentration products. Since the late 1980's, U.S. Navy ice forecast systems have assimilated near real-time sea ice concentration derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI and then SSMIS). The resolution of the SSMI derived product was approximately the same as the previous operational ice forecast system (25 km). As the sea ice forecast model resolution increased over time, the need for higher horizontal resolution observational data grew. In 2013, the Navy's Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS) went into operations with a horizontal resolution of approximately 3.5 km at the North Pole. A method of blending ice concentration observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) with a sea ice mask produced by the National Ice Center has been developed, resulting in a 4 km ice concentration product. In this study, ACNFS was initialized with this newly developed high resolution blended ice concentration product, and the daily ice edge locations from model hindcast simulations were compared against independent observed ice edge locations. A second evaluation assimilating the new blended sea ice concentration product into the pre-operational Navy Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS 3.1). This study describes the technique used to create the blended sea ice concentration product and the significant improvements in ice edge forecasting in both of the Navy's sea ice forecasting systems.

  7. Comparisons of Arctic In-Situ Snow and Ice Data with Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, T.; Cavalien, D. J.; Gasiewski, A.; Sturm, M.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.; Holmgren, J.; Irisov, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the AMSR-E sea ice validation campaign in March 2003, aircraft flights over the Arctic sea ice were coordinated with ground measurements of snow and sea ice properties. The surface-based measurements were in the vicinity of Barrow, AK, and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The NASA P-3 aircraft was equipped with the NOAA ETL PSR microwave radiometer that has the same frequencies as the AMSR-E sensor. The goal was to validate the standard AMSR-E products ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice. Ground measurements are the only way to validate these parameters. The higher spatial resolution of the PSR instrument (between 30 and 500 m, depending on altitude) enables a better comparison between ground measurements and microwave data because of the expected smaller spatial variability. Maps of PSR data can then be used for further down-scaling to AMSR-E pixel areas. Initial results show a good qualitative agreement between the in-situ snow depths and the PSR data. Detailed studies are underway and latest results will be presented.

  8. Reconstruction of Aerosol Concentration and Composition from Glacier Ice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Alexander; Dällenbach, Kaspar; El-Haddad, Imad; Wendl, Isabel; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit

    2017-04-01

    Reconstruction of the concentration and composition of natural aerosol in an undisturbed atmosphere enables the evaluation of the understanding of aerosol-climate effects, which is currently based on highly uncertain emission inventories of the biosphere under pre-industrial conditions. Understanding of the natural state of the pre-industrial atmosphere and evaluating the atmospheric perturbations by anthropogenic emissions, and their potential feedbacks, is essential for accurate model predictions of the future climate (Boucher et al., 2013). Here, we present a new approach for the chemical characterization of the organic fraction preserved in cold-glacier ice cores. From this analysis historic trends of atmospheric organic aerosols are reconstructed, allowing new insights on organic aerosol composition and mass in the pre-industrial atmosphere, which can help to improve climate models through evaluation of our current understanding of aerosol radiative effects. We present results from a proof-of-principal study, analyzing an 800 year ice core record from the Lomonosovfonna glacier ice core, drilled in 2009 in Svalbard, Norway, using a setup that has until then only been applied on offline measurements of aerosol filter extracts (Dällenbach et al., 2016): The melted ice was nebulized and dried, such that aerosols are formed from the soluble and insoluble organic and inorganic compounds that are preserved in the ice. To improve the sensitivity, the aerosol stream was then enriched by the application of an online aerosol concentrator, before the aerosol was analyzed by electron ionization within a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). We were able to demonstrate that this setup is a quantitative method toward nitrate and sulfate when internal inorganic standards of NH415NO3 and (NH4)234SO4 are added to the sample. Comparison between AMS and IC measurements of nitrate and sulfate resulted in an excellent agreement. The analysis of

  9. In-situ aircraft observations of ice concentrations within clouds over the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Grosvenor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In-situ aircraft observations of ice crystal concentrations in Antarctic clouds are presented for the first time. Orographic, layer and wave clouds around the Antarctic Peninsula and Larsen Ice shelf regions were penetrated by the British Antarctic Survey's Twin Otter aircraft, which was equipped with modern cloud physics probes. The clouds studied were mostly in the free troposphere and hence ice crystals blown from the surface are unlikely to have been a major source for the ice phase. The temperature range covered by the experiments was 0 to −21 °C. The clouds were found to contain supercooled liquid water in most regions and at heterogeneous ice formation temperatures ice crystal concentrations (60 s averages were often less than 0.07 l−1, although values up to 0.22 l−1 were observed. Estimates of observed aerosol concentrations were used as input into the DeMott et al. (2010 ice nuclei (IN parameterisation. The observed ice crystal number concentrations were generally in broad agreement with the IN predictions, although on the whole the predicted values were higher. Possible reasons for this are discussed and include the lack of IN observations in this region with which to characterise the parameterisation, and/or problems in relating ice concentration measurements to IN concentrations. Other IN parameterisations significantly overestimated the number of ice particles. Generally ice particle concentrations were much lower than found in clouds in middle latitudes for a given temperature.

    Higher ice crystal concentrations were sometimes observed at temperatures warmer than −9 °C, with values of several per litre reached. These were attributable to secondary ice particle production by the Hallett Mossop process. Even in this temperature range it was observed that there were regions with little or no ice that were dominated by supercooled liquid water. It is likely that in some cases this was due to a

  10. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Humphries

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3 concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm−3 – higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between

  11. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Edge Forecasts by Assimilating High Horizontal Resolution Sea Ice Concentration Data into the US Navy’s Ice Forecast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Mi- crowave/Imager ( SSMI and then SSMIS ). The resolution of the satellite-derived product was approximately...that only assimilated SSMIS data. A second evaluation as- similating the new blended sea ice concentration product into the pre-operational Navy...Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 also showed a substantial improvement in ice edge location over a system using the SSMIS sea ice concentration product

  12. MASAM2: Daily 4 km Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, 2012-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MASIE-AMSR2 (MASAM2) daily 4 km sea ice concentration is a prototype concentration product that is a blend of two other daily sea ice data products: ice coverage...

  13. High resolution sea ice modeling for the region of Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, I.; Prasad, S.; McGuire, P.

    2016-12-01

    A multi-category numerical sea ice model (CICE) with a data assimilation module was implemented to derive sea ice parameters in the region of Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea with resolution higher than 10 km. The model derived ice parameters include concentration, ridge keel measurement, thickness and freeboard. The module for assimilation of ice concentration uses data from the Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and OSI SAF data. The sea surface temperature (SST) data from AMSRE-AVHRR and Operational SST and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) system were used to correct the SST computed by a mixed layer slab ocean model that is used to determine the growth and melt of sea ice. The ice thickness parameter from the model was compared with the measurements from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity - Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (SMOS-MIRAS). The freeboard measures where compared with the Cryosat-2 measurements. A spatial root mean square error computed for freeboard measures was found to be within the uncertainty limits of the observation. The model was also used to estimate the correlation parameter between the ridge and the ridge keel measurements in the region of Makkovik Bank. Also, the level ice draft estimated from the model was in good agreement with the ice draft derived from the upward looking sonar (ULS) instrument deployed in the Makkovik bank. The model corrected with ice concentration and SST from remote sensing data demonstrated significant improvements in accuracy of the estimated ice parameters. The model can be used for operational forecast and climate research.

  14. AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 (LPRM_AMSRE_D_RZSM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) root zone soil...

  15. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LSMEM) L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V001 (WC_LSMEM_SOILM_025) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LSMEM) L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V001 is a global, 10-year (2002-2011) data set. It is created from soil moisture...

  16. Satellite-derived ice data sets no. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Comiso, J. C.; Zwally, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    A summary data set for four years (mid 70's) of Arctic sea ice conditions is available on magnetic tape. The data include monthly and yearly averaged Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) brightness temperatures, an ice concentration parameter derived from the brightness temperatures, monthly climatological surface air temperatures, and monthly climatological sea level pressures. All data matrices are applied to 293 by 293 grids that cover a polar stereographic map enclosing the 50 deg N latitude circle. The grid size varies from about 32 X 32 km at the poles to about 28 X 28 km at 50 deg N. The ice concentration parameter is calculated assuming that the field of view contains only open water and first-year ice with an ice emissivity of 0.92. To account for the presence of multiyear ice, a nomogram is provided relating the ice concentration parameter, the total ice concentration, and the fraction of the ice cover which is multiyear ice.

  17. DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DMSP SSM/I Daily and Monthly Polar Gridded Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations in polar stereographic projection currently include Defense Meteorological Satellite...

  18. Record low sea-ice concentration in the central Arctic during summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Barber, David; Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hongjie

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic sea-ice extent has shown a declining trend over the past 30 years. Ice coverage reached historic minima in 2007 and again in 2012. This trend has recently been assessed to be unique over at least the last 1450 years. In the summer of 2010, a very low sea-ice concentration (SIC) appeared at high Arctic latitudes—even lower than that of surrounding pack ice at lower latitudes. This striking low ice concentration—referred to here as a record low ice concentration in the central Arctic (CARLIC)—is unique in our analysis period of 2003-15, and has not been previously reported in the literature. The CARLIC was not the result of ice melt, because sea ice was still quite thick based on in-situ ice thickness measurements. Instead, divergent ice drift appears to have been responsible for the CARLIC. A high correlation between SIC and wind stress curl suggests that the sea ice drift during the summer of 2010 responded strongly to the regional wind forcing. The drift trajectories of ice buoys exhibited a transpolar drift in the Atlantic sector and an eastward drift in the Pacific sector, which appeared to benefit the CARLIC in 2010. Under these conditions, more solar energy can penetrate into the open water, increasing melt through increased heat flux to the ocean. We speculate that this divergence of sea ice could occur more often in the coming decades, and impact on hemispheric SIC and feed back to the climate.

  19. CONSIDERA TIONS OF ICE MORPHOLOGY AND DRIVING FORCES IN FREEZE CONCENTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    PETZOLD MALDONADO, GUILLERMO

    2013-01-01

    Ice rnorphology (size and shape) influence decisively in sensory appreciation, texture and quality of rnany frozen foods. Ice rnorphology is also irnportant in sorne technological processes such as freeze drying and freeze concentration, which influences the efficiency ofthese processes. The overall objective of this thesis was to increase our knowledge about the control on rnorphology of the ice phase in freezing food and related processes such as freeze concentration. Freezin...

  20. A sea ice concentration estimation algorithm utilizing radiometer and SAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karvonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the possibility of combining the high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR segmentation and ice concentration estimated by radiometer brightness temperatures. Here we present an algorithm for mapping a radiometer-based concentration value for each SAR segment. The concentrations are estimated by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP neural network which has the AMSR-2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 polarization ratios and gradient ratios of four radiometer channels as its inputs. The results have been compared numerically to the gridded Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI ice chart concentrations and high-resolution AMSR-2 ASI (ARTIST Sea Ice algorithm concentrations provided by the University of Hamburg and also visually to the AMSR-2 bootstrap algorithm concentrations, which are given in much coarser resolution. The differences when compared to FMI daily ice charts were on average small. When compared to ASI ice concentrations, the differences were a bit larger, but still small on average. According to our comparisons, the largest differences typically occur near the ice edge and sea–land boundary. The main advantage of combining radiometer-based ice concentration estimation and SAR segmentation seems to be a more precise estimation of the boundaries of different ice concentration zones.

  1. Variability and Anomalous Trends in the Global Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2012-01-01

    MODIS, AMSR-E and SSM/I data reveal that the sea ice production rate at the coastal polynyas along the Ross Ice Shelf has been increasing since 1992. This also means that the salinization rate and the formation of bottom water in the region are going up as well. Simulation studies indicate that the stronger production rate is likely associated with the ozone hole that has caused a deepening of the lows in the West Antarctic region and therefore stronger winds off the Ross Ice Shelf. Stronger winds causes larger coastal polynyas near the shelf and hence an enhanced ice production in the region during the autumn and winter period. Results of analysis of temperature data from MODIS and AMSR-E shows that the area and concentration of the sea ice cover are highly correlated with surface temperature for both the Arctic and Antarctic, especially in the seasonal regions where the correlation coefficients are about 0.9. Abnormally high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and surface ice temperatures (SITs) were also observed in 2007 and 2011when drastic reductions in the summer ice cover occurred, This phenomenon is consistent with the expected warming of the upper layer of the Arctic Ocean on account of ice-albedo feedback. Changes in atmospheric circulation are also expected to have a strong influence on the sea ice cover but the results of direct correlation analyses of the sea ice cover with the Northern and the Southern Annular Mode indices show relatively weak correlations, This might be due in part to the complexity of the dynamics of the system that can be further altered by some phenomena like the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave and extra polar processes like the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (POD),

  2. The impact of melt ponds on summertime microwave brightness temperatures and sea-ice concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Rösel, Anja; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2016-01-01

    Sea-ice concentrations derived from satellite microwave brightness temperatures are less accurate during summer. In the Arctic Ocean the lack of accuracy is primarily caused by melt ponds, but also by changes in the properties of snow and the sea-ice surface itself. We investigate the sensitivity...... the variation of the sensitivity to the melt-pond fraction across the algorithms to a different sensitivity of the brightness temperatures to snow-property variations. We find an underestimation of the sea-ice concentration by between 14 % (Bootstrap_f) and 26 % (Bootstrap_p) for 100 % sea ice with a melt...... % sea-ice concentration. None of the algorithms investigated performs best based on our investigation of data from summer 2009. We suggest that those algorithms which are more sensitive to melt ponds could be optimized more easily because the influence of unknown snow and sea-ice surface property...

  3. Improving Simulated Soil Moisture Fields Through Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with an Ensemble Kalman Filter and a Mass Conservation Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Toll, David; Zhan, Xiwu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce model bias (at locations near the surface) through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce model bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate the actual value of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals to improve the mean of simulated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  4. Improving estimated soil moisture fields through assimilation of AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals with an ensemble Kalman filter and a mass conservation constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of near surface soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce bias of model estimates (at locations near the surface through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals, as they are without any scaling or pre-processing, to improve the estimated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  5. Consistent biases in Antarctic sea ice concentration simulated by climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Lettie A.; Dean, Samuel M.; Renwick, James A.

    2018-01-01

    The simulation of Antarctic sea ice in global climate models often does not agree with observations. In this study, we examine the compactness of sea ice, as well as the regional distribution of sea ice concentration, in climate models from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and in satellite observations. We find substantial differences in concentration values between different sets of satellite observations, particularly at high concentrations, requiring careful treatment when comparing to models. As a fraction of total sea ice extent, models simulate too much loose, low-concentration sea ice cover throughout the year, and too little compact, high-concentration cover in the summer. In spite of the differences in physics between models, these tendencies are broadly consistent across the population of 40 CMIP5 simulations, a result not previously highlighted. Separating models with and without an explicit lateral melt term, we find that inclusion of lateral melt may account for overestimation of low-concentration cover. Targeted model experiments with a coupled ocean-sea ice model show that choice of constant floe diameter in the lateral melt scheme can also impact representation of loose ice. This suggests that current sea ice thermodynamics contribute to the inadequate simulation of the low-concentration regime in many models.

  6. DisPATCh as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture using localized in situ measurements: Application to SMOS and AMSR-E data in Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbéteau, Yoann; Merlin, Olivier; Molero, Beatriz; Rüdiger, Christoph; Bacon, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Validating coarse-scale satellite soil moisture data still represents a big challenge, notably due to the large mismatch existing between the spatial resolution (> 10 km) of microwave radiometers and the representativeness scale (several m) of localized in situ measurements. This study aims to examine the potential of DisPATCh (Disaggregation based on Physical and Theoretical scale Change) for validating SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth observation system) level-3 soil moisture products. The ∽40-50 km resolution SMOS and AMSR-E data are disaggregated at 1 km resolution over the Murrumbidgee catchment in Southeastern Australia during a one year period in 2010-2011, and the satellite products are compared with the in situ measurements of 38 stations distributed within the study area. It is found that disaggregation improves the mean difference, correlation coefficient and slope of the linear regression between satellite and in situ data in 77%, 92% and 94% of cases, respectively. Nevertheless, the downscaling efficiency is lower in winter than during the hotter months when DisPATCh performance is optimal. Consistently, better results are obtained in the semi-arid than in a temperate zone of the catchment. In the semi-arid Yanco region, disaggregation in summer increases the correlation coefficient from 0.63 to 0.78 and from 0.42 to 0.71 for SMOS and AMSR-E in morning overpasses and from 0.37 to 0.63 and from 0.47 to 0.73 for SMOS and AMSR-E in afternoon overpasses, respectively. DisPATCh has strong potential in low vegetated semi-arid areas where it can be used as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture by explicitly representing the sub-pixel variability.

  7. Ion Concentrations from SPRESSO Ice Core, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains ion measurements from co-registered samples from the South Pole Remote Earth Science and Seismological Observatory (SPRESSO) ice core. The...

  8. Global Daily Sea Ice Concentration Reprocessing Data Set for 1978-2007 from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (NODC Accession 0068294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data constitute the reprocessed sea ice concentration data set from the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF), covering the...

  9. Snow and Ice Products from the Aqua, Terra, and ICESat Satellites at the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W. N.; Marquis, M.; Kaminski, M.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.

    2004-05-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder - one of eight NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) - archives and distributes several products from sensors on the suite of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. These include the sun-synchronous polar-orbiting Aqua (launched 4 May 2002) and Terra (launched 18 December 1999) platforms and the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (launched 12 January 2003). The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) is a multi-channel passive microwave radiometer on Aqua (http://nsidc.org/daac/amsr/). AMSR-E Level 3 snow products are produced in EASE-Grid format for both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and are available as daily, 5-day, and monthly fields. Daily AMSR-E Level 3 sea ice products are produced on a polar stereographic projection at gridded spatial resolutions of 6.25 km, 12.5 km and 25 km. Since April 2004, these products have been available for public distribution from NSIDC. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua is a 36-channel visible/infrared sensor that produces a consistent long-term time series of fully-automated, quality-controlled data. Level 2 swath products are available for both snow cover and sea ice. Daily and 8-day Level 3 gridded snow cover products are available with estimates of snow extent and albedo at 500m resolution, along with daily Level 3 gridded sea ice products with estimates for sea ice extent and ice surface temperature at 1 km resolution. These products are currently available from NSIDC (http://nsidc.org/daac/modis/). The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the sole instrument on ICESat. The standard GLAS Level 2 ice sheet altimetry product contains the ice sheet elevation and elevation distribution calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for ice sheet returns. The standard GLAS Level 2 sea ice altimetry product contains the sea ice freeboard and sea ice

  10. What controls the low ice number concentration in the upper troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause play a key role in regulating the moisture entering the stratosphere through their dehydrating effect. Low ice number concentrations ( <  200 L−1 and high supersaturations (150–160 % have been observed in these clouds. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these low ice number concentrations, including the inhibition of homogeneous freezing by the deposition of water vapour onto pre-existing ice crystals, heterogeneous ice formation on glassy organic aerosol ice nuclei (IN, and limiting the formation of ice number from high-frequency gravity waves. In this study, we examined the effect from three different representations of updraft velocities, the effect from pre-existing ice crystals, the effect from different water vapour deposition coefficients (α  =  0.1 or 1, and the effect of 0.1 % of the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles acting as IN. Model-simulated ice crystal numbers are compared against an aircraft observational dataset.Including the effect from water vapour deposition on pre-existing ice particles can effectively reduce simulated in-cloud ice number concentrations for all model setups. A larger water vapour deposition coefficient (α  =  1 can also efficiently reduce ice number concentrations at temperatures below 205 K, but less so at higher temperatures. SOA acting as IN is most effective at reducing ice number concentrations when the effective updraft velocities are moderate ( ∼  0.05–0.2 m s−1. However, the effects of including SOA as IN and using (α  =  1 are diminished when the effect from pre-existing ice is included.When a grid-resolved large-scale updraft velocity ( <  0.1 m s−1 is used, the ice nucleation parameterization with homogeneous freezing only or with both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous nucleation is able to generate low ice number concentrations in good agreement

  11. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Climate Data Record (CDR) dataset is generated using daily gridded brightness temperatures from the Defense...

  12. Near-Real-Time DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Daily Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a near-real-time (NRT) map of sea ice concentrations for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The near-real-time passive microwave...

  13. Major Ion Concentrations in 2004 South Pole Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A 180 m ice core drilled at South Pole in 2004/2005 was analyzed for concentrations of major ions at a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm. Measured ions are...

  14. DMSP-F8 SSM/I Pathfinder Global Level 2 Sea Ice Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These sea ice concentrations have been generated by applying the NASA Team algorithm to DMSP F8 SSM/I brightness temperature observations from 19 GHz (vertical and...

  15. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset version has been superseded by version 2. This data set provides a Climate Data Record (CDR) of passive microwave sea ice concentration based on the...

  16. NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record of Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides a Climate Data Record (CDR) of sea ice concentration from passive microwave data. It provides a consistent, daily and monthly time series of...

  17. Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This sea ice concentration data set was derived using measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the...

  18. Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This sea ice concentration data set was derived using measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the...

  19. Bootstrap Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS, Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This sea ice concentration data set was derived using measurements from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the...

  20. High-Precision Measurement of N2O Concentration in Ice Cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yeongjun; Ahn, Jinho; Yang, Ji-Woong

    2018-01-16

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting substance whose emissions are substantially perturbed by current human activities. Although air trapped in polar ice cores can provide direct information about N 2 O evolution, analytical precision was not previously sufficient for high temporal resolution studies. In this work, we present a highly improved analytical technique with which to study N 2 O concentrations in ancient-air-trapped ice cores. We adopt a melt-refreezing method to extract air and use a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to determine N 2 O concentrations. The GC conditions are optimized to improve the sensitivity for detecting N 2 O. Retrapped N 2 O in ice during the extraction procedure is precisely analyzed and corrected. We confirmed our results using data from the Styx Glacier ice core in Antarctica by comparing them with the results of a dry-extraction method. The precision estimated from the pooled standard deviation of replicated measurements of the Styx ice core was 1.5 ppb for ∼20 g of ice, a smaller sample of ice than was used in previous studies, showing a significant improvement in precision. Our preliminary results from the Styx Glacier ice core samples have the potential to define small N 2 O variations (a few parts per billion) at centennial time scales.

  1. European Marine Background Ice Nucleating Particle concentrations Measured at the Mace Head Station, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, James; Kanji, Zamin A.; Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Ceburnis, Darius; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Ice formation is an important process which controls cloud microphysical properties and can be critical in the creation of precipitation, therefore influencing the hydrological cycle and energy budget of the Earth. Ice Nucleating Particles (INP) can greatly increase the temperature and rate of ice formation, but the sources and geographical distributions of these particles is not well understood. Mace Head in Ireland is a coastal site on the north eastern edge of Europe with prevailing winds generally from the Atlantic Ocean with little continental influence. Observations of INP concentration from August 2015 using the Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC) at temperature of -30 C are presented. Correlations between the INP and meteorological conditions and aerosol compositions are made, as well as comparisons with commonly used INP concentration parameterisations. Observed INP concentrations are generally low, suggesting that oceanic sources in this region do not contribute significant numbers of INP to the global distribution.

  2. New methodology to estimate Arctic sea ice concentration from SMOS combining brightness temperature differences in a maximum-likelihood estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Turiel, Antonio; Elosegui, Pedro; Pla-Resina, Joaquim A.; Portabella, Marcos

    2017-08-01

    Monitoring sea ice concentration is required for operational and climate studies in the Arctic Sea. Technologies used so far for estimating sea ice concentration have some limitations, for instance the impact of the atmosphere, the physical temperature of ice, and the presence of snow and melting. In the last years, L-band radiometry has been successfully used to study some properties of sea ice, remarkably sea ice thickness. However, the potential of satellite L-band observations for obtaining sea ice concentration had not yet been explored. In this paper, we present preliminary evidence showing that data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission can be used to estimate sea ice concentration. Our method, based on a maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE), exploits the marked difference in the radiative properties of sea ice and seawater. In addition, the brightness temperatures of 100 % sea ice and 100 % seawater, as well as their combined values (polarization and angular difference), have been shown to be very stable during winter and spring, so they are robust to variations in physical temperature and other geophysical parameters. Therefore, we can use just two sets of tie points, one for summer and another for winter, for calculating sea ice concentration, leading to a more robust estimate. After analysing the full year 2014 in the entire Arctic, we have found that the sea ice concentration obtained with our method is well determined as compared to the Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI SAF) dataset. However, when thin sea ice is present (ice thickness ≲ 0.6 m), the method underestimates the actual sea ice concentration. Our results open the way for a systematic exploitation of SMOS data for monitoring sea ice concentration, at least for specific seasons. Additionally, SMOS data can be synergistically combined with data from other sensors to monitor pan-Arctic sea ice conditions.

  3. Effect of elevated CO2 concentration on microalgal communities in Antarctic pack ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Thomas; McMinn, Andrew; Nomura, Daiki; Martin, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Increased anthropogenic CO2 emissions are causing changes to oceanic pH and CO2 concentrations that will impact many marine organisms, including microalgae. Phytoplankton taxa have shown mixed responses to these changes with some doing well while others have been adversely affected. Here, the photosynthetic response of sea-ice algal communities from Antarctic pack ice (brine and infiltration microbial communities) to a range of CO2 concentrations (400 ppm to 11,000 ppm in brine algae experiments, 400 ppm to 20,000 ppm in the infiltration ice algae experiment) was investigated. Incubations were conducted as part of the Sea-Ice Physics and Ecosystem Experiment II (SIPEX-2) voyage, in the austral spring (September-November), 2012. In the brine incubations, maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and relative electron transfer rate (rETRmax) were highest at ambient and 0.049% (experiment 1) and 0.19% (experiment 2) CO2 concentrations, although, Fv/Fm was consistently between 0.53±0.10-0.68±0.01 across all treatments in both experiments. Highest rETRmax was exhibited by brine cultures exposed to ambient CO2 concentrations (60.15). In a third experiment infiltration ice algal communities were allowed to melt into seawater modified to simulate the changed pH and CO2 concentrations of future springtime ice-edge conditions. Ambient and 0.1% CO2 treatments had the highest growth rates and Fv/Fm values but only the highest CO2 concentration produced a significantly lower rETRmax. These experiments, conducted on natural Antarctic sea-ice algal communities, indicate a strong level of tolerance to elevated CO2 concentrations and suggest that these communities might not be adversely affected by predicted changes in CO2 concentration over the next century.

  4. Macro-nutrient concentrations in Antarctic pack ice: Overall patterns and overlooked processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Fripiat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic pack ice is inhabited by a diverse and active microbial community reliant on nutrients for growth. Seeking patterns and overlooked processes, we performed a large-scale compilation of macro-nutrient data (hereafter termed nutrients in Antarctic pack ice (306 ice-cores collected from 19 research cruises. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen and silicic acid concentrations change with time, as expected from a seasonally productive ecosystem. In winter, salinity-normalized nitrate and silicic acid concentrations (C* in sea ice are close to seawater concentrations (Cw, indicating little or no biological activity. In spring, nitrate and silicic acid concentrations become partially depleted with respect to seawater (C* Cw. The phosphate excess could be explained by a greater allocation to phosphorus-rich biomolecules during ice algal blooms coupled with convective loss of excess dissolved nitrogen, preferential remineralization of phosphorus, and/or phosphate adsorption onto metal-organic complexes. Ammonium also appears to be efficiently adsorbed onto organic matter, with likely consequences to nitrogen mobility and availability. This dataset supports the view that the sea ice microbial community is highly efficient at processing nutrients but with a dynamic quite different from that in oceanic surface waters calling for focused future investigations.

  5. Filling the Polar Data Gap in Sea Ice Concentration Fields Using Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay Strong

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The “polar data gap” is a region around the North Pole where satellite orbit inclination and instrument swath for SMMR and SSM/I-SSMIS satellites preclude retrieval of sea ice concentrations. Data providers make the irregularly shaped data gap round by centering a circular “pole hole mask” over the North Pole. The area within the pole hole mask has conventionally been assumed to be ice-covered for the purpose of sea ice extent calculations, but recent conditions around the perimeter of the mask indicate that this assumption may already be invalid. Here we propose an objective, partial differential equation based model for estimating sea ice concentrations within the area of the pole hole mask. In particular, the sea ice concentration field is assumed to satisfy Laplace’s equation with boundary conditions determined by observed sea ice concentrations on the perimeter of the gap region. This type of idealization in the concentration field has already proved to be quite useful in establishing an objective method for measuring the “width” of the marginal ice zone—a highly irregular, annular-shaped region of the ice pack that interacts with the ocean, and typically surrounds the inner core of most densely packed sea ice. Realistic spatial heterogeneity in the idealized concentration field is achieved by adding a spatially autocorrelated stochastic field with temporally varying standard deviation derived from the variability of observations around the mask. To test the model, we examined composite annual cycles of observation-model agreement for three circular regions adjacent to the pole hole mask. The composite annual cycle of observation-model correlation ranged from approximately 0.6 to 0.7, and sea ice concentration mean absolute deviations were of order 10 − 2 or smaller. The model thus provides a computationally simple approach to solving the increasingly important problem of how to fill the polar data gap. Moreover, this

  6. Interactions between Arctic sea ice drift, concentration and thickness modelled by NEMO-LIM3.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docquier, David; Massonnet, François; Tandon, Neil F.; Lecomte, Olivier; Fichefet, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice cover and thickness have substantially decreased in the Arctic Ocean since the beginning of the satellite era. As a result, sea ice strength has been reduced, allowing more deformation and fracturing and leading to increased sea ice drift speed. We use the global ocean-sea ice NEMO-LIM3.6 model as well as satellite and buoy observations over the period from 1979 to 2013 to study the interactions between sea ice drift, concentration and thickness. Overall, the model agrees well with observations in terms of sea ice extent, concentration and thickness. Although the seasonal cycle of sea ice drift is reasonably well reproduced by the model, the modelled values are generally higher and the trend is weaker compared to observations, resulting in lower sea ice export at Fram Strait than observed. NEMO-LIM3.6 is able to capture the relationship between sea ice drift and strength in terms of seasonal cycle, with higher drift for both lower concentration and lower thickness, in agreement with observations. Sensitivity experiments are carried out by varying the initial ice strength and show that higher values of ice strength lead to lower ice thickness. The negative feedback between sea ice strength, heat loss and thickness can explain these results. This study forms part of the EU Horizon 2020 PRIMAVERA project aiming at developing a new generation of advanced and well-evaluated high-resolution global climate models.

  7. Enhanced concentrations of ice nucleating particles in Svalbard during summer: Possible linkage with local dust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobo, Y.; Adachi, K.; Nagatsuka, N.; DeMott, P. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Ohata, S.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds, composed of both ice crystals and supercooled water droplets, occur frequently in the Arctic lower troposphere throughout the year. It is suggested that the existence of aerosol particles serving as ice nucleating particles (INPs) plays an important role in forming ice in mixed-phase clouds. However, little is known about the amounts and sources of INPs in the Arctic. In this presentation, we report on the results of the measurements of immersion-mode INPs at the Zeppelin Observatory (475 m AMSL) in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, during an intensive field campaign in July 2016. The results show that INP number concentrations measured at the Zeppelin Observatory were about one order of magnitude higher than those in Arctic summer marine boundary layer reported previously (e.g., Bering Sea and Baffin Bay). Single particle analyses of ambient aerosol particles combined with backward trajectory analyses of air masses suggest that locally-emitted dust particles within the Svalbard region might be one of the dominant aerosol sources in this period. We further conducted freezing experiments with local dusts collected in Ny-Ålesund (i.e., glacial outwash sediments smaller than 5 μm) and confirmed that the dusts have ice nucleating activities comparable to or higher than fertile soil dusts collected at mid-latitudes. The X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates that the Ny-Ålesund dusts contain rich illite, kaolinite and quartz, but less K-feldspar (known as a highly ice nucleation active mineral component). We also found that the Ny-Ålesund dusts significantly lose their ice nucleating abilities after H2O2 treatment, suggesting the presence of ice nucleation active organics. Finally, we estimate that the observed INP number concentrations at the Zeppelin Observatory may be roughly explained by local dust emissions in the Svalbard region, assuming the dust mass concentrations of about 0.01 to 1 μg m-3.

  8. Contribution of feldspar and marine organic aerosols to global ice nucleating particle concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergara-Temprado, Jesús; Murray, Benjamin J.; Wilson, Theodore W.; O& amp; apos; Sullivan, Daniel; Browse, Jo; Pringle, Kirsty J.; Ardon-Dryer, Karin; Bertram, Allan K.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Ceburnis, Darius; DeMott, Paul J.; Mason, Ryan H.; O& amp; apos; Dowd, Colin D.; Rinaldi, Matteo; Carslaw, Ken S.

    2017-01-01

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are known to affect the amount of ice in mixed-phase clouds, thereby influencing many of their properties. The atmospheric INP concentration changes by orders of magnitude from terrestrial to marine environments, which typically contain much lower concentrations. Many modelling studies use parameterizations for heterogeneous ice nucleation and cloud ice processes that do not account for this difference because they were developed based on INP measurements made predominantly in terrestrial environments without considering the aerosol composition. Errors in the assumed INP concentration will influence the simulated amount of ice in mixed-phase clouds, leading to errors in top-of-atmosphere radiative flux and ultimately the climate sensitivity of the model. Here we develop a global model of INP concentrations relevant for mixed-phase clouds based on laboratory and field measurements of ice nucleation by K-feldspar (an ice-active component of desert dust) and marine organic aerosols (from sea spray). The simulated global distribution of INP concentrations based on these two species agrees much better with currently available ambient measurements than when INP concentrations are assumed to depend only on temperature or particle size. Underestimation of INP concentrations in some terrestrial locations may be due to the neglect of INPs from other terrestrial sources. Our model indicates that, on a monthly average basis, desert dusts dominate the contribution to the INP population over much of the world, but marine organics become increasingly important over remote oceans and they dominate over the Southern Ocean. However, day-to-day variability is important. Because desert dust aerosol tends to be sporadic, marine organic aerosols dominate the INP population on many days per month over much of the mid- and high-latitude Northern Hemisphere. This study advances our understanding of which aerosol species need to be included in order to

  9. Assimilating high horizontal resolution sea ice concentration data into the US Navy's ice forecast systems: Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System (ACNFS) and the Global Ocean Forecast System (GOFS 3.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, P. G.; Metzger, E. J.; Wallcraft, A. J.; Hebert, D. A.; Allard, R. A.; Smedstad, O. M.; Phelps, M. W.; Fetterer, F.; Stewart, J. S.; Meier, W. N.; Helfrich, S. R.

    2015-04-01

    This study presents the improvement in the US Navy's operational sea ice forecast systems gained by assimilating high horizontal resolution satellite-derived ice concentration products. Since the late 1980's, the ice forecast systems have assimilated near real-time sea ice concentration derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI and then SSMIS). The resolution of the satellite-derived product was approximately the same as the previous operational ice forecast system (25 km). As the sea ice forecast model resolution increased over time, the need for higher horizontal resolution observational data grew. In 2013, a new Navy sea ice forecast system (Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast System - ACNFS) went into operations with a horizontal resolution of ~3.5 km at the North Pole. A method of blending ice concentration observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR2) along with a sea ice mask produced by the National Ice Center (NIC) has been developed resulting in an ice concentration product with very high spatial resolution. In this study, ACNFS was initialized with this newly developed high resolution blended ice concentration product. The daily ice edge locations from model hindcast simulations were compared against independent observed ice edge locations. ACNFS initialized using the high resolution blended ice concentration data product decreased predicted ice edge location error compared to the operational system that only assimilated SSMIS data. A second evaluation assimilating the new blended sea ice concentration product into the pre-operational Navy Global Ocean Forecast System 3.1 also showed a substantial improvement in ice edge location over a system using the SSMIS sea ice concentration product alone. This paper describes the technique used to create the blended sea ice concentration product and the significant improvements to both of the Navy's sea ice forecasting systems.

  10. Using machine learning to produce near surface soil moisture estimates from deeper in situ records at U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) locations: Analysis and applications to AMSR-E satellite validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Boyles, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Surface soil moisture is a critical parameter for understanding the energy flux at the land atmosphere boundary. Weather modeling, climate prediction, and remote sensing validation are some of the applications for surface soil moisture information. The most common in situ measurement for these purposes are sensors that are installed at depths of approximately 5 cm. There are however, sensor technologies and network designs that do not provide an estimate at this depth. If soil moisture estimates at deeper depths could be extrapolated to the near surface, in situ networks providing estimates at other depths would see their values enhanced. Soil moisture sensors from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used to generate models of 5 cm soil moisture, with 10 cm soil moisture measurements and antecedent precipitation as inputs, via machine learning techniques. Validation was conducted with the available, in situ, 5 cm resources. It was shown that a 5 cm estimate, which was extrapolated from a 10 cm sensor and antecedent local precipitation, produced a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of 0.0215 m3/m3. Next, these machine-learning-generated 5 cm estimates were also compared to AMSR-E estimates at these locations. These results were then compared with the performance of the actual in situ readings against the AMSR-E data. The machine learning estimates at 5 cm produced an RMSE of approximately 0.03 m3/m3 when an optimized gain and offset were applied. This is necessary considering the performance of AMSR-E in locations characterized by high vegetation water contents, which are present across North Carolina. Lastly, the application of this extrapolation technique is applied to the ECONet in North Carolina, which provides a 10 cm depth measurement as its shallowest soil moisture estimate. A raw RMSE of 0.028 m3/m3 was achieved, and with a linear gain and offset applied at each ECONet site, an RMSE of 0.013 m3/m3 was possible.

  11. Verification of a new NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea-ice concentration climate record

    OpenAIRE

    Walter N. Meier; Ge Peng; Donna J. Scott; Matt H. Savoie

    2014-01-01

    A new satellite-based passive microwave sea-ice concentration product developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Data Record (CDR) programme is evaluated via comparison with other passive microwave-derived estimates. The new product leverages two well-established concentration algorithms, known as the NASA Team and Bootstrap, both developed at and produced by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The ...

  12. Measurements of ice nucleating particle concentrations at 242 K in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, L.; Lohmann, U.; Boose, Y.; Zipori, A.; Herrmann, E.; Bukowiecki, N.; Steinbacher, M.; Gute, E.; Kanji, Z. A.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds containing ice play an important role in the Earth's system, but some fundamental knowledge on their formation and further development is still missing. The phase change from vapor or liquid to ice in the atmosphere can occur heterogeneously in the presence of ice nucleating particles (INPs) at temperatures warmer, and supersaturations lower than required for homogeneous freezing. Only a small fraction of particles in an environment relevant for the occurrence of ice- and mixed-phase clouds are INPs, and their identification and quantification remains challenging. We measure INP concentrations with the ETH Horizontal Ice Nucleation Chamber (HINC) at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) during several field campaigns in different seasons and years. The measurements are performed at 242 K and above water saturation, representing ice- and mixed-phase clouds conditions. Due to its elevation of 3580 m a.s.l. the site encounters mostly free tropospheric conditions, and is influenced by boundary layer injections up to 80% of the time in summer. JFJ regularly encounters Saharan dust events and receives air masses of marine origin, which can both occur within the free troposphere. Our measurements show that INP concentrations in the free troposphere do not follow a seasonal cycle. They are remarkably constant, with concentrations from 0.5 - 8 L-1 (interquartile range), which compares well to measurements performed under the same conditions at another location within the free troposphere, the Izaña Atmospheric Research Station in Tenerife. At JFJ, correlations with parameters of physical properties of ambient particles, meteorology and air mass characteristics do not show a single best estimator to predict INP concentrations, emphasizing the complexity of ice nucleation in the free troposphere. Increases in INP concentrations of a temporary nature were observed in the free troposphere during Saharan dust events and marine air mass influence, which

  13. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Markus; Pei, Xiangyu; Liu, Zirui; Ji, Dongsheng; Wex, Heike

    2018-03-01

    Exceedingly high levels of PM2.5 with complex chemical composition occur frequently in China. It has been speculated whether anthropogenic PM2.5 may significantly contribute to ice-nucleating particles (INP). However, few studies have focused on the ice-nucleating properties of urban particles. In this work, two ice-nucleating droplet arrays have been used to determine the atmospheric number concentration of INP (NINP) in the range from -6 to -25 °C in Beijing. No correlations between NINP and either PM2.5 or black carbon mass concentrations were found, although both varied by more than a factor of 30 during the sampling period. Similarly, there were no correlations between NINP and either total particle number concentration or number concentrations for particles with diameters > 500 nm. Furthermore, there was no clear difference between day and night samples. All these results indicate that Beijing air pollution did not increase or decrease INP concentrations in the examined temperature range above values observed in nonurban areas; hence, the background INP concentrations might not be anthropogenically influenced as far as urban air pollution is concerned, at least in the examined temperature range.

  14. Using depolarization to quantify ice nucleating particle concentrations: a new method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zenker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new method to determine ice nucleating particle (INP concentrations observed by the Texas A&M University continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC under a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we evaluate differences in particle optical properties detected by the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer with POLarization (CASPOL to differentiate between ice crystals, droplets, and aerosols. The depolarization signal from the CASPOL instrument is used to determine the occurrence of water droplet breakthrough (WDBT conditions in the CFDC. The standard procedure for determining INP concentration is to count all particles that have grown beyond a nominal size cutoff as ice crystals. During WDBT this procedure overestimates INP concentration, because large droplets are miscounted as ice crystals. Here we design a new analysis method based on depolarization ratio that can extend the range of operating conditions of the CFDC. The method agrees reasonably well with the traditional method under non-WDBT conditions with a mean percent error of ±32.1 %. Additionally, a comparison with the Colorado State University CFDC shows that the new analysis method can be used reliably during WDBT conditions.

  15. Constraining Quaternary ice covers and erosion rates using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2018-02-01

    Paired cosmogenic nuclides are often used to constrain the exposure/burial history of landforms repeatedly covered by ice during the Quaternary, including tors, high-elevation surfaces, and steep alpine summits in the circum-Arctic regions. The approach generally exploits the different production rates and half-lives of 10Be and 26Al to infer past exposure/burial histories. However, the two-stage minimum-limiting exposure and burial model regularly used to interpret the nuclides ignores the effect of variable erosion rates, which potentially may bias the interpretation. In this study, we use a Monte Carlo model approach to investigate systematically how the exposure/burial and erosion history, including variable erosion and the timing of erosion events, influence concentrations of 10Be and 26Al. The results show that low 26Al/10Be ratios are not uniquely associated with prolonged burial under ice, but may as well reflect ice covers that were limited to the coldest part of the late Pleistocene combined with recent exhumation of the sample, e.g. due to glacial plucking during the last glacial period. As an example, we simulate published 26Al/10Be data from Svalbard and show that it is possible that the steep alpine summits experienced ice-free conditions during large parts of the late Pleistocene and varying amounts of glacial erosion. This scenario, which contrasts with the original interpretation of more-or-less continuous burial under non-erosive ice over the last ∼1 Myr, thus challenge the conventional interpretation of such data. On the other hand, high 26Al/10Be ratios do not necessarily reflect limited burial under ice, which is the common interpretation of high ratios. In fact, high 26Al/10Be ratios may also reflect extensive burial under ice, combined with a change from burial under erosive ice, which brought the sample close to the surface, to burial under non-erosive ice at some point during the mid-Pleistocene. Importantly, by allowing for variable

  16. Immersion freezing in concentrated solution droplets for a variety of ice nucleating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Heike; Kohn, Monika; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Welti, Andre; Lohmann, Ulrike; Kanji, Zamin; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The measurement campaign LINC (Leipzig Ice Nucleation counter Comparison) was conducted in September 2015, during which ice nucleation measurements as obtained with the following instruments were compared: - LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, see e.g. Wex et al., 2014) - PIMCA-PINC (Portable Immersion Mode Cooling Chamber together with PINC) - PINC (Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber, Chou et al., 2011) - SPIN (SPectrometer for Ice Nuclei, Droplet Measurement Technologies) While LACIS and PIMCA-PINC measured immersion freezing, PINC and SPIN varied the super-saturation during the measurements and collected data also for relative humidities below 100% RHw. A suite of different types of ice nucleating particles were examined, where particles were generated from suspensions, subsequently dried and size selected. For the following samples, data for all four instruments are available: K-feldspar, K-feldspar treated with nitric acid, Fluka-kaolinite and birch pollen. Immersion freezing measurements by LACIS and PIMCA-PINC were in excellent agreement. Respective parameterizations from these measurement were used to model the ice nucleation behavior below water vapor saturation, assuming that the process can be described as immersion freezing in concentrated solutions. This is equivalent to simply including a concentration dependent freezing point depression in the immersion freezing parameterization, as introduced for coated kaolinite particles in Wex et al. (2014). Overall, measurements performed below water vapor saturation were reproduced by the model, and it will be discussed in detail, why deviations were observed in some cases. Acknowledgement: Part of this work was funded by the DFG Research Unit FOR 1525 INUIT, grant WE 4722/1-2. Literature: Chou, C., O. Stetzer, E. Weingartner, Z. Juranyi, Z. A. Kanji, and U. Lohmann (2011), Ice nuclei properties within a Saharan dust event at the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11(10), 4725

  17. Verification of a New NOAA/NSIDC Passive Microwave Sea-Ice Concentration Climate Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Peng, Ge; Scott, Donna J.; Savoie, Matt H.

    2014-01-01

    A new satellite-based passive microwave sea-ice concentration product developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)Climate Data Record (CDR) programme is evaluated via comparison with other passive microwave-derived estimates. The new product leverages two well-established concentration algorithms, known as the NASA Team and Bootstrap, both developed at and produced by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The sea ice estimates compare well with similar GSFC products while also fulfilling all NOAA CDR initial operation capability (IOC) requirements, including (1) self describing file format, (2) ISO 19115-2 compliant collection-level metadata,(3) Climate and Forecast (CF) compliant file-level metadata, (4) grid-cell level metadata (data quality fields), (5) fully automated and reproducible processing and (6) open online access to full documentation with version control, including source code and an algorithm theoretical basic document. The primary limitations of the GSFC products are lack of metadata and use of untracked manual corrections to the output fields. Smaller differences occur from minor variations in processing methods by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (for the CDR fields) and NASA (for the GSFC fields). The CDR concentrations do have some differences from the constituent GSFC concentrations, but trends and variability are not substantially different.

  18. Verification of a new NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea-ice concentration climate record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter N. Meier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new satellite-based passive microwave sea-ice concentration product developed for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR programme is evaluated via comparison with other passive microwave-derived estimates. The new product leverages two well-established concentration algorithms, known as the NASA Team and Bootstrap, both developed at and produced by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC. The sea-ice estimates compare well with similar GSFC products while also fulfilling all NOAA CDR initial operation capability (IOC requirements, including (1 self-describing file format, (2 ISO 19115-2 compliant collection-level metadata, (3 Climate and Forecast (CF compliant file-level metadata, (4 grid-cell level metadata (data quality fields, (5 fully automated and reproducible processing and (6 open online access to full documentation with version control, including source code and an algorithm theoretical basic document. The primary limitations of the GSFC products are lack of metadata and use of untracked manual corrections to the output fields. Smaller differences occur from minor variations in processing methods by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (for the CDR fields and NASA (for the GSFC fields. The CDR concentrations do have some differences from the constituent GSFC concentrations, but trends and variability are not substantially different.

  19. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Detection and Analysis of High Ice Concentration Events and Supercooled Drizzle from IAGOS Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Martin; Baumgardner, Darrel; Lloyd, Gary; Beswick, Karl; Freer, Matt; Durant, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Hazardous encounters with high ice concentrations that lead to temperature and airspeed sensor measurement errors, as well as engine rollback and flameout, continue to pose serious problems for flight operations of commercial air carriers. Supercooled liquid droplets (SLD) are an additional hazard, especially for smaller commuter aircraft that do not have sufficient power to fly out of heavy icing conditions or heat to remove the ice. New regulations issued by the United States and European regulatory agencies are being implemented that will require aircraft below a certain weight class to carry sensors that will detect and warn of these types of icing conditions. Commercial aircraft do not currently carry standard sensors to detect the presence of ice crystals in high concentrations because they are typical found in sizes that are below the detection range of aircraft weather radar. Likewise, the sensors that are currently used to detect supercooled water do not respond well to drizzle-sized drops. Hence, there is a need for a sensor that can fill this measurement void. In addition, the forecast models that are used to predict regions of icing rely on pilot observations as the only means to validate the model products and currently there are no forecasts for the prevalence of high altitude ice crystals. Backscatter Cloud Probes (BCP) have been flying since 2011 under the IAGOS project on six Airbus commercial airliners operated by Lufthansa, Air France, China Air, Iberia and Cathay Pacific, and measure cloud droplets, ice crystals and aerosol particles larger than 5 μm. The BCP can detect these particles and measures an optical equivalent diameter (OED) but is not able to distinguish the type of particle, i.e. whether they are droplets, ice crystals, dust or ash. However, some qualification can be done based on measured temperature to discriminate between liquid water and ice. The next generation BCP (BCPD, Backscatter Cloud Probe with polarization detection) is

  1. Photochemistry of Coronene in Cosmic Water Ice Analogs at Different Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, A. L. F.; Mattioda, A. L.; Ricca, A.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the photochemistry of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated coronene in water ices at 15 K studied using mid-infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) spectroscopy for C24H12:H2O at concentrations of (1:50), (1:150), (1:200), (1:300), and (1:400). Previous UV irradiation studies of anthracene:H2O, pyrene:H2O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H2O ices at 15 K have shown that aromatic alcohols and ketones, as well as CO2 and H2CO, are formed at very low temperatures. Likewise, here, in addition to the coronene cation, hydroxy-, keto-, and protonated coronene (coronene H+) are formed. The rate constants for the decay of neutral coronene and for the formation of photoproducts have been derived. It is shown that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their UV induced PAH:H2O photoproducts have mid-infrared spectroscopic signatures in the 5-8 μm region that can contribute to the interstellar ice components described by Boogert et al. as C1-C5. Our results suggest that oxygenated and hydrogenated PAHs could be in UV-irradiated regions of the interstellar medium where water-rich ices are important.

  2. Potential ocean–atmosphere preconditioning of late autumn Barents-Kara sea ice concentration anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. King

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have revealed the importance of the climatic state in November on the seasonal climate of the subsequent winter. In particular, it has been shown that interannual variability of sea ice concentration (SIC over the Barents-Kara (BK seas in November is linked to winter atmospheric circulation anomaly that projects on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Understanding the lead–lag processes involving the different components of the climate system from autumn to winter is therefore important. This note presents dynamical interpretation for the ice-ocean–atmosphere relationships that can affect the BK SIC anomaly in late autumn. It is found that cyclonic (anticyclonic wind anomaly over the Arctic in October, by Ekman drift, can be responsible for positive (negative SIC in the BK seas in November. The results also suggest that ocean heat transport via the Barents Sea Opening in September and October can contribute to BK SIC anomaly in November.

  3. Major Ion Concentrations in WDC05Q and WDC06A Ice Cores (WAIS Divide), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains major ion concentrations from the chemical analysis of two WAIS Divide ice cores (WDC05Q, 0-114 m; WDC06A, 0-129 m). The analytical technique...

  4. Sea Ice Concentrations from Nimbus-7 SMMR and DMSP SSM/I-SSMIS Passive Microwave Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is generated from brightness temperature data and is designed to provide a consistent time series of sea ice concentrations spanning the coverage of...

  5. Laboratory measurements of ice tensile strength dependence on density and concentration of silicate and polymer impurities at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, K. L.; Beyeler, J. D.; Polito, P. J.; Zygielbaum, B. R.; Sklar, L. S.; Collins, G. C.

    2009-12-01

    The tensile strength of ice bedrock on Titan should strongly influence the effectiveness of the erosional processes responsible for carving the extensive fluvial drainage networks and other surface features visible in images returned by the Cassini and Huygens probes. Recent measurements of the effect of temperature on the tensile strength of low-porosity, polycrystalline ice, without impurities, suggest that ice bedrock at the Titan surface temperature of 93 K may be as much as five times stronger than ice at terrestrial surface temperatures. However, ice bedrock on Titan and other outer solar system bodies may have significant porosity, and impurities such silicates or polymers are possible in such ices. In this laboratory investigation we are exploring the dependence of tensile strength on the density and concentration of impurities, for polycrystalline ice across a wide range of temperatures. We use the Brazilian tensile splitting test to measure strength, and control temperature with dry ice and liquid nitrogen. The 50 mm diameter ice cores are made from a log-normally distributed seed crystal mixture with a median size of 1.4 mm. To control ice density and porosity we vary the packing density of the seed grains in core molds and vary the degree of saturation of the matrix with added near-freezing distilled water. We also vary ice density by blending in a similarly-sized mixture of angular fragments of two types of impurities, a fine-grained volcanic rock and a polyethylene polymer. Because both types of impurities have greater tensile strength than ice at Earth surface temperatures, we expect higher concentrations of impurities to correlate with increased strength for ice-rock and ice-polymer mixtures. However, at the ultra-cold temperatures of the outer planets, we expect significant divergence in the temperature dependence of ice tensile strength for the various mixtures and resulting densities. These measurements will help constrain the range of possible

  6. Forecasting Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations Using Results of Temporal Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Junhwa; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-06-01

    Sea ice concentration (SIC) data acquired by passive microwave sensors at daily temporal frequencies over extended areas provide seasonal characteristics of sea ice dynamics and play a key role as an indicator of global climate trends; however, it is typically challenging to study long-term time series. Of the various advanced remote sensing techniques that address this issue, temporal mixture analysis (TMA) methods are often used to investigate the temporal characteristics of environmental factors, including SICs in the case of the present study. This study aims to forecast daily SICs for one year using a combination of TMA and time series modeling in two stages. First, we identify temporally meaningful sea ice signatures, referred to as temporal endmembers, using machine learning algorithms, and then we decompose each pixel into a linear combination of temporal endmembers. Using these corresponding fractional abundances of endmembers, we apply a autoregressive model that generally fits all Antarctic SIC data for 1979 to 2013 to forecast SIC values for 2014. We compare our results using the proposed approach based on daily SIC data reconstructed from real fractional abundances derived from a pixel unmixing method and temporal endmember signatures. The proposed method successfully forecasts new fractional abundance values, and the resulting images are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the reference data.

  7. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Study of solute incorporation into ice-layer on freeze concentration with ice-lining; Ice lining toketsu noshukuho ni okeru hyosho sochu eno yoshitsu torikomi ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K. [Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    The mechanism of solute incorporation into an ice-layer in freeze concentration with ice-lining was studied by changing the impeller speed N and the difference between the brine temperature and the freezing point of the feed solution {Delta}T in 10 kg/m{sup 3} CCNa solution. The effect of N on the apparent partition coefficient of the solute K, is more serious than that of {Delta}T. The growth rate of the ice layer is 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -6}m/s under the condition of {Delta}T=2.8 - 7.9degC and N = 20-400 min{sup -1}. The growth rate had a little effect on solute incorporation into the ice-layer. K values depended on the surface condition of the ice layer, which is effected by the mixing speed of the impeller. The ice layer formed at low mixing speed has a complex rough shape, and has much solute because of adhesion to a large surface area. Therefore, it is recommended that freeze concentration is performed by making an ice layer with smooth surface at high mixing speed. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  9. First Measurements of Osmium Concentration and Isotopic Composition in a Summit, Greenland Ice Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Sharma, M.; Hawley, R. L.; Courville, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Osmium (Os) is one of the rarer elements in the environment and therefore one of the most difficult to accurately measure, but its isotopically distinctive crustal, mantle-derived, and extra-terrestrial sources make it a valuable geochemical tracer. Recent state-of-the-art analyses of precipitation, river water, and ocean water samples from around the world have revealed elevated concentrations of Os with a characteristically low (unradiogenic) Os isotopic signature (187Os/188Os). This unusual low Os isotopic signal has been interpreted as evidence for widespread Os pollution due to the smelting of Platinum Group Element (PGE) sulfide ores for use in automobile catalytic converters. However, an environmental time series of Os concentrations and isotopic composition spanning the pre-industrial to modern era has not previously been developed to evaluate changes in atmospheric Os sources through time. Here we present the first measurements of Os concentration and isotopic composition (to our knowledge) in a 100 m-long ice core collected from Summit, Greenland, spanning from ca. 1700 to 2010 AD. Due to the extremely low Os concentrations in snow (10-15 g/g), these analyses have only recently become possible with advances in Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and ultra-clean analytical procedures. Initial results indicate that the 187Os/188Os of Greenland snow was unradiogenic (187Os/188Os = 0.13-0.15) for at least several periods over the past 300 years, including both pre-anthropogenic and modern times. Os concentrations in the Summit ice core are relatively high (11-52 pg/kg) compared to previously measured precipitation in North America, Europe, Asia and Antarctic sea ice (0.35-23 pg/kg). The low (unradiogenic) isotopic composition are consistent with extraterrestrial (cosmic dust and meteorites; 187Os/188Os = 0.13) and possibly volcanic (187Os/188Os = 0.15-0.6) Os sources, although the Os isotopic composition of volcanic emissions is poorly constrained

  10. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors enable freezing of human red blood cells with reduced glycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Kurach, Jayme D R; Turner, Tracey R; Mancini, Ross S; Acker, Jason P; Ben, Robert N

    2015-04-08

    In North America, red blood cells (RBCs) are cryopreserved in a clinical setting using high glycerol concentrations (40% w/v) with slow cooling rates (~1°C/min) prior to storage at -80°C, while European protocols use reduced glycerol concentrations with rapid freezing rates. After thawing and prior to transfusion, glycerol must be removed to avoid intravascular hemolysis. This is a time consuming process requiring specialized equipment. Small molecule ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) such as β-PMP-Glc and β-pBrPh-Glc have the ability to prevent ice recrystallization, a process that contributes to cellular injury and decreased cell viability after cryopreservation. Herein, we report that addition of 110 mM β-PMP-Glc or 30 mM β-pBrPh-Glc to a 15% glycerol solution increases post-thaw RBC integrity by 30-50% using slow cooling rates and emphasize the potential of small molecule IRIs for the preservation of cells.

  11. Optimal Electromagnetic (EM) Geophysical Techniques to Map the Concentration of Subsurface Ice and Adsorbed Water on Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, D. E.; Grimm, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Water ice is ubiquitous in our Solar System and is a probable target for planetary exploration. Mapping the lateral and vertical concentration of subsurface ice from or near the surface could determine the origin of lunar and martian ice and quantify a much-needed resource for human exploration. Determining subsurface ice concentration on Earth is not trivial and has been attempted previously with electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), airborne EM (AEM), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). These EM geophysical techniques do not actually detect ice, but rather the absence of unfrozen water. This causes a non-unique interpretation of frozen and dry subsurface sediments. This works well in the arctic because most locations are not dry. However, for planetary exploration, liquid water is exceedingly rare and subsurface mapping must discriminate between an ice-rich and a dry subsurface. Luckily, nature has provided a unique electrical signature of ice: its dielectric relaxation. The dielectric relaxation of ice creates a temperature and frequency dependence of the electrical properties and varies the relative dielectric permittivity from ~3.1 at radar frequencies to >100 at low frequencies. On Mars, sediments smaller than silt size can hold enough adsorbed unfrozen water to complicate the measurement. This is because the presence of absorbed water also creates frequency-dependent electrical properties. The dielectric relaxation of adsorbed water and ice can be separated as they have different shapes and frequency ranges as long as a spectrum spanning the two relaxations is measured. The volume concentration of ice and adsorbed water is a function of the strength of their relaxations. Therefore, we suggest that capacitively-coupled dielectric spectroscopy (a.k.a. spectral induced polarization or complex resistivity) can detect the concentration of both ice and adsorbed water in the subsurface. To prove this concept we have collected

  12. Sensitivity of the sea ice concentration over the Kara-Barents Sea in autumn to the winter temperature variability over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K. H.; Chang, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we performed sensitivity experiments by utilizing the Global/Regional Integrated Model system with different conditions of the sea ice concentration over the Kara-Barents (KB) Sea in autumn, which can affect winter temperature variability over East Asia. Prescribed sea ice conditions are 1) climatological autumn sea ice concentration obtained from 1982 to 2016, 2) reduced autumn sea ice concentration by 50% of the climatology, and 3) increased autumn sea ice concentration by 50% of climatology. Differently prescribed sea ice concentration changes surface albedo, which affects surface heat fluxes and near-surface air temperature. The reduced (increased) sea ice concentration over the KB sea increases (decreases) near-surface air temperature that leads the lower (higher) sea level pressure in autumn. These patterns are maintained from autumn to winter season. Furthermore, it is shown that the different sea ice concentration over the KB sea has remote effects on the sea level pressure patterns over the East Asian region. The lower (higher) sea level pressure over the KB sea by the locally decreased (increased) ice concentration is related to the higher (lower) pressure pattern over the Siberian region, which induces strengthened (weakened) cold advection over the East Asian region. From these sensitivity experiments it is clarified that the decreased (increased) sea ice concentration over the KB sea in autumn can lead the colder (warmer) surface air temperature over East Asia in winter.

  13. The Contribution of Black Carbon to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations from Prescribed Burns and Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, G. P.; DeMott, P. J.; Suski, K. J.; Emerson, E. W.; Rauker, A. M.; Kodros, J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Farmer, D.; Pierce, J. R.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) has been implicated as a potential immersion-mode ice nucleating particle (INP) because of its relative abundance in the upper troposphere. Furthermore, several field and aircraft measurements have observed positive correlations between BC and INP concentrations. Despite this, the efficiency of BC to act as an immersion-mode INP is poorly constrained. Indeed, previous results from laboratory studies are in conflict, with estimates of BC's impact on INP ranging from no impact to being efficient enough to rival the well-known INP mineral dust. It is, however, becoming clear that the ice nucleation activity of BC may depend on both its fuel type and combustion conditions. For example, previous work has shown that diesel exhaust BC is an extremely poor immersion-mode INP, but laboratory burns of biomass fuels indicate that BC can contribute up to 70% of all INP for some fuel types. Given these dependencies, we propose that sampling from real-world biomass burning sources would provide the most useful new information on the contribution of BC to atmospheric INP. In this work, we will present recent results looking at the sources of INP from prescribed burns and wildfires. To determine the specific contribution of refractory black carbon (rBC) to INP concentrations, we utilized a new technique that couples the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to the Colorado State University Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (CFDC). The SP2 utilizes laser-induced incandescence to quantify rBC mass on a particle-by-particle basis; in doing so, it also selectively destroys rBC particles by heating them to their vaporization temperature. Thus, the SP2 can be used as a selective pre-filter for rBC into the CFDC. Furthermore, we have also used a filter-based technique for measuring INP, the Ice Spectrometer, which can employ pretreatments such as heating and digestion by H2O2 to determine the contribution of heat-labile and organic particles, respectively.

  14. L-band radiometry for sea ice applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heygster, G.; Hedricks, S.; Mills, P.; Kaleschke, L.; Stammer, D.; Tonboe, R.

    2009-04-01

    Peake (1976). This expression was used by Menashi et al. (1993) to derive the thickness of sea ice from UHF (0.6 GHz) radiometer. Second, retrieval algorithms for sea ice parameters with emphasis on ice-water discrimination from L-band observations considering the specific SMOS observations modes and geometries are investigated. A modified Menashi model with the permittivity depending on brine volume and temperature suggests a thickness sensitivity of up to 150 cm for low salinity (multi year or brackish) sea ice at low temperatures. At temperatures approaching the melting point the thickness sensitivity reduces to a few centimetres. For first year ice the modelled thickness sensitivity is roughly half a meter. Runs of the model MEMLS with input data generated from a 1-d thermodynamic sea ice model lead to similar conclusio. The results of the forward model may strongly vary with the input microphysical details. E.g. if the permittivity is modelled to depend in addition on the sea ice thickness as supported by several former field campaigns for thin ice, the model predictions change strongly. Prior to the launch of SMOS, an important source of observational data is the SMOS Sea-Ice campaign held near Kokkola, Finland, March 2007 conducted as an add-on of the POL-ICE campaign. Co-incident L-band observations taken with the EMIRAD instrument of the Technical University of Denmark, ice thickness values determined from the EM bird of AWI and in situ observations during the campaign are combined. Although the campaign data are to be use with care, for selected parts of the flights the sea ice thickness can be retrieved correctly. However, as the instrumental conditions and calibration were not optimal, more in situ data, preferably from the Arctic, will be needed before drawing clear conclusions about a future the sea ice thickness product based on SMOS data. Use of additional information from other microwave sensors like AMSR-E might be needed to constrain the conditions, e

  15. A Long-Term and Reproducible Passive Microwave Sea Ice Concentration Data Record for Climate Studies and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Meier, W. N.; Scott, D. J.; Savoie, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    A long-term, consistent, and reproducible satellite-based passive microwave sea ice concentration climate data record (CDR) is available for climate studies, monitoring, and model validation with an initial operation capability (IOC). The daily and monthly sea ice concentration data are on the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) polar stereographic grid with nominal 25 km × 25 km grid cells in both the Southern and Northern Hemisphere polar regions from 9 July 1987 to 31 December 2007. The data files are available in the NetCDF data format at http://nsidc.org/data/g02202.html and archived by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the satellite climate data record program (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/cdr/operationalcdrs.html). The description and basic characteristics of the NOAA/NSIDC passive microwave sea ice concentration CDR are presented here. The CDR provides similar spatial and temporal variability as the heritage products to the user communities with the additional documentation, traceability, and reproducibility that meet current standards and guidelines for climate data records. The data set, along with detailed data processing steps and error source information, can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.7265/N5B56GN3.

  16. Short communication: low-fat ice cream flavor not modified by high hydrostatic pressure treatment of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, J M; Lim, S-Y; Powers, J R; Ross, C F; Clark, S

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine flavor binding of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated whey protein concentrate (WPC) in a real food system. Fresh Washington State University (WSU, Pullman) WPC, produced by ultrafiltration of separated Cheddar cheese whey, was treated at 300 MPa for 15 min. Commercial WPC 35 powder was reconstituted to equivalent total solids as WSU WPC (8.23%). Six batches of low-fat ice cream were produced: A) HHP-treated WSU WPC without diacetyl; B) and E) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added before HHP; C) WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl added after HHP; D) untreated WSU WPC with 2 mg/L of diacetyl; and F) untreated commercial WPC 35 with 2 mg/L of diacetyl. The solution of WSU WPC or commercial WPC 35 contributed 10% to the mix formulation. Ice creams were produced by using standard ice cream ingredients and processes. Low-fat ice creams containing HHP-treated WSU WPC and untreated WSU WPC were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Sensory evaluation by balanced reference duo-trio test was carried out using 50 untrained panelists in 2 sessions on 2 different days. The headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography analysis revealed that ice cream containing HHP-treated WSU WPC had almost 3 times the concentration of diacetyl compared with ice cream containing untreated WSU WPC at d 1 of storage. However, diacetyl was not detected in ice creams after 14 d of storage. Eighty percent of panelists were able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated WSU WPC with and without diacetyl, confirming panelists' ability to detect diacetyl. However, panelists were not able to distinguish between low-fat ice creams containing untreated and HHP-treated WSU WPC with diacetyl. These results show that WPC diacetyl-binding properties were not enhanced by 300-MPa HHP treatment for 15 min, indicating that HHP may not be suitable for such applications. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy

  17. A new single-moment microphysics scheme for cloud-resolving models using observed dependence of ice concentration on temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairoutdinov, M.

    2015-12-01

    The representation of microphysics, especially ice microphysics, remains one of the major uncertainties in cloud-resolving models (CRMs). Most of the cloud schemes use the so-called bulk microphysics approach, in which a few moments of such distributions are used as the prognostic variables. The System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM) is the CRM that employs two such schemes. The single-moment scheme, which uses only mass for each of the water phases, and the two-moment scheme, which adds the particle concentration for each of the hydrometeor category. Of the two, the single-moment scheme is much more computationally efficient as it uses only two prognostic microphysics variables compared to ten variables used by the two-moment scheme. The efficiency comes from a rather considerable oversimplification of the microphysical processes. For instance, only a sum of the liquid and icy cloud water is predicted with the temperature used to diagnose the mixing ratios of different hydrometeors. The main motivation for using such simplified microphysics has been computational efficiency, especially in the applications of SAM as the super-parameterization in global climate models. Recently, we have extended the single-moment microphysics by adding only one additional prognostic variable, which has, nevertheless, allowed us to separate the cloud ice from liquid water. We made use of some of the recent observations of ice microphysics collected at various parts of the world to parameterize several aspects of ice microphysics that have not been explicitly represented before in our sing-moment scheme. For example, we use the observed broad dependence of ice concentration on temperature to diagnose the ice concentration in addition to prognostic mass. Also, there is no artificial separation between the pristine ice and snow, often used by bulk models. Instead we prescribed the ice size spectrum as the gamma distribution, with the distribution shape parameter controlled by the

  18. Measurements of Bacterial Concentrations on a Millimeter Scale in Ice Cores With a Scanning Laser Fluorescence Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, P.; Rohde, R. A.; Bramall, N. E.; Bay, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    We report non-destructive detection of variability on a mm depth scale in the organic content of ice cores at NICL, as determined by the fluorescence spectrum measured by a Targeted Ultraviolet Chemical Sensor (TUCS). Many of the spectra we obtained are consistent with the amino acid tryptophan, a strongly fluorescing constituent in microbes. Identification with native fluorescence of microbes is supported by previous measurements of varying microbial concentration in samples from selected regions of the GISP2 core (Tung et al., 2005; 2006) that are consistent with our observations at the same depths. Sub-mm depth resolution was achieved and structure at this scale was observed. At each depth the fluorescence emission spectrum was measured at 5 wavelengths using 20-nm narrow band filters plus a long pass channel. The spectrum of microbes was calibrated by making lab measurements of fluorescence of various species and is distinguishable from mineral dust and metals due to differences in spectral shape. In bulk ice samples from 3 depths in the GISP2 core, where a table of methane concentrations (Ed Brook, unpublished) had shown several excesses above the atmospheric contribution, Tung et al. (2005) found 10-fold excesses of microbial concentrations at 2954 m and 3036 m and a 3-fold excess at 3018 m. In the present work we found strong, rapidly varying organic signals at all three depths. At 3018 m the peak value was much stronger than that obtained by Brook and occurred in the core section below the one he studied. Since he measured methane at several-meter depth intervals, and since we found the microbial excesses to be concentrated in 0.3 m intervals, we conclude that of order 30 microbe-rich regions may be present in GISP2. The 3 microbe-rich depths found by Tung et al. (2005) were less than 90 m above the basal ice at 3041-3053 m. The large fluctuations in apparent tryptophan concentrations that we found at 2954, 3018, and 3036 m are consistent with microbe

  19. Impact of ocean acidification on Arctic phytoplankton blooms and dimethyl sulfide concentration under simulated ice-free and under-ice conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussherr, Rachel; Levasseur, Maurice; Lizotte, Martine; Tremblay, Jean-Éric; Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Gosselin, Michel; Starr, Michel; Miller, Lisa A.; Jarniková, Tereza; Schuback, Nina; Mucci, Alfonso

    2017-05-01

    In an experimental assessment of the potential impact of Arctic Ocean acidification on seasonal phytoplankton blooms and associated dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dynamics, we incubated water from Baffin Bay under conditions representing an acidified Arctic Ocean. Using two light regimes simulating under-ice or subsurface chlorophyll maxima (low light; low PAR and no UVB) and ice-free (high light; high PAR + UVA + UVB) conditions, water collected at 38 m was exposed over 9 days to 6 levels of decreasing pH from 8.1 to 7.2. A phytoplankton bloom dominated by the centric diatoms Chaetoceros spp. reaching up to 7.5 µg chlorophyll a L-1 took place in all experimental bags. Total dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPT) and DMS concentrations reached 155 and 19 nmol L-1, respectively. The sharp increase in DMSPT and DMS concentrations coincided with the exhaustion of NO3- in most microcosms, suggesting that nutrient stress stimulated DMS(P) synthesis by the diatom community. Under both light regimes, chlorophyll a and DMS concentrations decreased linearly with increasing proton concentration at all pH levels tested. Concentrations of DMSPT also decreased but only under high light and over a smaller pH range (from 8.1 to 7.6). In contrast to nano-phytoplankton (2-20 µm), pico-phytoplankton ( ≤ 2 µm) was stimulated by the decreasing pH. We furthermore observed no significant difference between the two light regimes tested in term of chlorophyll a, phytoplankton abundance and taxonomy, and DMSP and DMS net concentrations. These results show that ocean acidification could significantly decrease the algal biomass and inhibit DMS production during the seasonal phytoplankton bloom in the Arctic, with possible consequences for the regional climate.

  20. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations from Multichannel Passive-Microwave Satellite Data Sets: October 1978-September 1995 User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Gloersen, Per; Zwally, H. Jay

    1997-01-01

    Satellite multichannel passive-microwave sensors have provided global radiance measurements with which to map, monitor, and study the Arctic and Antarctic polar sea ice covers. The data span over 18 years (as of April 1997), starting with the launch of the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on NASA's SeaSat A and Nimbus 7 in 1978 and continuing with the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI) series beginning in 1987. It is anticipated that the DMSP SSMI series will continue into the 21st century. The SSMI series will be augmented by new, improved sensors to be flown on Japanese and U.S. space platforms. This User's Guide provides a description of a new sea ice concentration data set generated from observations made by three of these multichannel sensors. The data set includes gridded daily ice concentrations (every-other-day for the SMMR data) for both the north and south polar regions from October 26, 1978 through September 30, 1995, with the one exception of a 6-week data gap from December 3, 1987 through January 12, 1988. The data have been placed on two CD-ROMs that include a ReadMeCD file giving the technical details on the file format, file headers, north and south polar grids, ancillary data sets, and directory structure of the CD-ROM. The CD-ROMS will be distributed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, CO.

  1. Sea ice concentration temporal variability over the Weddell Sea and its relationship with tropical sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.; Compagnucci, R.

    2007-01-01

    Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in S-Mode (correlation between temporal series) was performed on sea ice monthly anomalies, in order to investigate which are the main temporal patterns, where are the homogenous areas located and how are they related to the sea surface temperature (SST). This analysis provides 9 patterns (4 in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas and 5 in the Weddell Sea) that represent the most important temporal features that dominated sea ice concentration anomalies (SICA) variability in the Weddell, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas over the 1979-2000 period. Monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations data set derived from satellite information generated by NASA Team algorithm and acquired from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) were used. Monthly means SST are provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis. The first temporal pattern series obtained by PCA has its homogeneous area located at the external region of the Weddell and Bellingshausen Seas and Drake Passage, mostly north of 60°S. The second region is centered in 30°W and located at the southeast of the Weddell. The third area is localized east of 30°W and north of 60°S. South of the first area, the fourth PC series has its homogenous region, between 30° and 60°W. The last area is centered at 0° W and south of 60°S. Correlation charts between the five Principal Components series and SST were performed. Positive correlations over the Tropical Pacific Ocean were found for the five PCs when SST series preceded SICA PC series. The sign of the correlation could relate the occurrence of an El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) warm (cold) event with posterior positive (negative) anomalies of sea ice concentration over the Weddell Sea.

  2. An observational study of atmospheric ice nuclei number concentration during three fog-haze weather periods in Shenyang, northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liguang; Zhou, Deping; Wang, Yangfeng; Hong, Ye; Cui, Jin; Jiang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    Characteristics of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations during three fog-haze weather periods from November 2010 to January 2012 in Shenyang were presented in this paper. A static diffusion chamber was used and sampling of IN aerosols was conducted using a membrane filter method. Sampling membrane filter processing conditions were unified in the activation temperature at - 15 °C under conditions of 20% ice supersaturation and 3% water supersaturation. The variations of natural IN number concentrations in different weather conditions were investigated. The relations between the meteorological factors and the IN number concentrations were analyzed, and relationships between pollutants and IN number concentrations were also studied. The results showed that mean IN number concentration were 38.68 L- 1 at - 20 °C in Shenyang, for all measurements. Mean IN number concentrations are higher during haze days (55.92 L- 1 at - 20 °C) and lower after rain. Of all meteorological factors, wind speed, boundary stability, and airflow direction appeared to influence IN number concentrations. IN number concentrations were positively correlated with particulate matters PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 during haze weather.

  3. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86 × 106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  4. Improvements in methods of analyzing dust concentrations, and influence of the storage processes on dust concentrations in polar snow and ice samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Miyake

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to improve the analytical methods employed when operating a laser particle counter and to evaluate the influence of the storage processes on dust concentrations in polar snow and ice samples. We corrected the particle size ranges and threshold voltage using the new calibration curve, confirmed the analytical precision and dust concentrations of blank of wipers using in a clean room, and managed any variations in the laser sensor's sensitivity by measuring standard particles. The 15 ml glass screw bottles without packing (liner of cap of bottles yielded the lowest dust concentration of the blank among two types of bottles and nine types of packing for dust analysis. Storage of samples of the Dome Fuji ice core (Antarctica in a refrigerator for 1 year resulted in just a 4% decrease in dust concentration, which is within the analytical precision of the laser particle counter. Storage in a freezer resulted in an increase in dust concentrations and a decrease in the ratio of large particles more than 0.98 μm in particle diameter in the samples, suggesting a change in dust particle size during storage and an influence by the materials of the storage bottles. The addition of dispersants to the Antarctic snow samples is not clearly suitable when analyzing dust concentrations after sample storage by refrigeration or freezing.

  5. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  6. Impacts of early autumn Arctic sea ice concentration on subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2017-11-01

    This study reveals a close relation between autumn Arctic sea ice change (SIC) in the Laptev Sea-eastern Siberian Sea-Beaufort Sea and subsequent spring Eurasian surface air temperature (SAT) variation. Specifically, more (less) SIC over the above regions in early autumn generally correspond to SAT warming (cooling) over the mid-high latitudes of Eurasia during subsequent spring. Early autumn Arctic SIC affects spring Eurasian SAT via modulating spring Arctic Oscillation (AO) associated atmospheric changes. The meridional temperature gradient over the mid-high latitudes decreases following the Arctic sea ice loss. This results in deceleration of prevailing westerly winds over the mid-latitudes of the troposphere, which leads to increase in the upward propagation of planetary waves and associated Eliassen-Palm flux convergence in the stratosphere over the mid-high latitudes. Thereby, westerly winds in the stratosphere are reduced and the polar vortex is weakened. Through the wave-mean flow interaction and downward propagation of zonal wind anomalies, a negative spring AO pattern is formed in the troposphere, which favors SAT cooling over Eurasia. The observed autumn Arctic SIC-spring Eurasian SAT connection is reproduced in the historical simulation (1850-2005) of the flexible global ocean-atmosphere-land system model, spectral version 2 (FGOALS-s2). The FGOALS-s2 also simulates the close connection between autumn SIC and subsequent spring AO. Further analysis suggests that the prediction skill of the spring Eurasian SAT was enhanced when taking the autumn Arctic SIC signal into account.

  7. Snow and Ice Particle Sizes and Mass Concentrations at Altitudes Up to 9 km (30,000 ft)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeck, Richard

    1998-01-01

    About 7600 nautical miles (nm) (14,000 km) of select ice particle measurements over the United States have been compiled into a single, computerized database for use in characterizing ice crystal and snowflake...

  8. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of nuclei concentrations, ice nucleation mechanisms and crystal habits on the dynamics and microphysics of Arctic mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcu, Muge

    There is a significant warming in the Arctic that is evident in both observations and in the future climate predictions. The Arctic warming is greater than any other region on Earth, however, the degree of warming is inconsistent among the climate models even for the same emission scenarios. Clouds, especially low-level clouds, are a prevailing feature of the Arctic atmosphere. They strongly affect the surface radiative and energy budgets, which make them a key component of the Arctic climate. Recent inter-comparison studies using regional climate models show that models are incapable of reproducing the supercooled liquid water observed in clouds during the cold season. Large discrepancies exist in the partitioning of phase between ice and liquid water among different models. It is currently thought that these discrepancies are due to the uncertainties in ice nuclei concentrations, ice nucleation, and ice crystal habits used in models. Predicting these physical processes controls the partitioning between liquid and ice, and hence the impact of mixed-phase clouds on the surface energy budget. There is a need to improve model cloud predictions in the Arctic, however, the microphysical uncertainties mentioned above are tied directly to the cloud dynamics that help maintain persistent mixed-phase clouds. Therefore, this dissertation analyzes and inter-compares the impacts of different ice nuclei concentrations, ice nucleation mechanisms and ice crystal habits on mixedphase cloud dynamics. Separate simulations using different ice nuclei concentrations, ice nucleation mechanisms, and crystal habits are performed. It is found that the choice of habits in models alters the water paths and cloud dynamics strongly. Next, the relative importance of and interactions among the processes that influence the dynamics of the cloud, such as the radiative cooling at cloud top, and the ice precipitation induced cloudbase stabilization are investigated. To examine these processes in

  10. Black Carbon Concentrations from ~1850-1980 from a High-Resolution Ice Core from Geladandong, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M.; Kaspari, S.; Kang, S.; Grigholm, B. O.; Mayewski, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    Black carbon (BC), produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil and bio-fuels, is estimated to be the second largest contributor to global warming behind CO2; when deposited on snow and ice BC reduces albedos, potentially enhancing surface melt and glacial retreat. The study of BC's past and present variability is imperative in order to better understand and estimate its potential impact on climate and water resources. This is especially important in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau, a region that provides fresh water to over a billion people and where BC's climatic effects are estimated to be the largest (Flanner et al., 2007; Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008). To more accurately constrain BC's past variability in this sensitive region, an ice core recovered in 2005 from Mt. Geladandong (5800 m a.s.l.) on the central Tibetan Plateau was analyzed for BC at high resolution using a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2). Results indicate that 1) average BC concentrations at this location are higher than at other locations closer to BC sources and analyzed by the same method (Mt. Everest by Kaspari et al., 2011 and Muztagh Ata by Wang et al., in prep), and 2) BC exists in peak concentrations high enough (>10 μg/L) to cause a >1% reduction in surface albedo at the sampling location (Ming et al., 2009; Hadley et al., 2010). Potential causes of the higher BC concentrations at the Geladandong site include lower annual precipitation and the mechanical trapping and concentration of BC caused by surface melt and/or sublimation (Conway et al., 1996; Huang et al., 2011). Preliminary dating (Grigholm et al., in prep) has dated the top of the core to ~1980, suggesting that annual mass loss at the site has removed the upper portion of the record. This supports the findings of Kehrwald et al. (2008) who reported that glaciers below ~6050 m a.s.l. in the Himalaya/Tibetan Plateau are losing mass annually. Presented here is the record of BC on the central Tibetan Plateau over the time

  11. An ultra-clean technique for accurately analysing Pb isotopes and heavy metals at high spatial resolution in ice cores with sub-pg g(-1) Pb concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Laurie J; Rosman, Kevin J R; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Vallelonga, Paul; Burton, Graeme R; Smith, Andrew M; Morgan, Vin I; Barbante, Carlo; Hong, Sungmin; Boutron, Claude F

    2009-02-23

    Measurements of Pb isotope ratios in ice containing sub-pg g(-1) concentrations are easily compromised by contamination, particularly where limited sample is available. Improved techniques are essential if Antarctic ice cores are to be analysed with sufficient spatial resolution to reveal seasonal variations due to climate. This was achieved here by using stainless steel chisels and saws and strict protocols in an ultra-clean cold room to decontaminate and section ice cores. Artificial ice cores, prepared from high purity water were used to develop and refine the procedures and quantify blanks. Ba and In, two other important elements present at pg g(-1) and fg g(-1) concentrations in Polar ice, were also measured. The final blank amounted to 0.2+/-0.2 pg of Pb with (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of 1.16+/-0.12 and 2.35+/-0.16, respectively, 1.5+/-0.4 pg of Ba and 0.6+/-2.0 fg of In, most of which probably originates from abrasion of the steel saws by the ice. The procedure was demonstrated on a Holocene Antarctic ice core section and was shown to contribute blanks of only approximately 5%, approximately 14% and approximately 0.8% to monthly resolved samples with respective Pb, Ba and In concentrations of 0.12 pg g(-1), 0.3 pg g(-1) and 2.3 fg g(-1). Uncertainties in the Pb isotopic ratio measurements were degraded by only approximately 0.2%.

  12. On the observation of unusual high concentration of small chain-like aggregate ice crystals and large ice water contents near the top of a deep convective cloud during the CIRCLE-2 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet, J.-F.; Mioche, G.; Bugliaro, L.; Protat, A.; Minikin, A.; Wirth, M.; Dörnbrack, A.; Shcherbakov, V.; Mayer, B.; Garnier, A.; Gourbeyre, C.

    2012-01-01

    During the CIRCLE-2 experiment carried out over Western Europe in May 2007, combined in situ and remote sensing observations allowed to describe microphysical and optical properties near-top of an overshooting convective cloud (11 080 m/-58 °C). The airborne measurements were performed with the DLR Falcon aircraft specially equipped with a unique set of instruments for the extensive in situ cloud measurements of microphysical and optical properties (Polar Nephelometer, FSSP-300, Cloud Particle Imager and PMS 2-D-C) and nadir looking remote sensing observations (DLR WALES Lidar). Quasi-simultaneous space observations from MSG/SEVIRI, CALIPSO/CALIOP-WFC-IIR and CloudSat/CPR combined with airborne RASTA radar reflectivity from the French Falcon aircraft flying above the DLR Falcon depict very well convective cells which overshoot by up to 600 m the tropopause level. Unusual high values of the concentration of small ice particles, extinction, ice water content (up to 70 cm-3, 30 km-1 and 0.5 g m-3, respectively) are experienced. The mean effective diameter and the maximum particle size are 43 μm and about 300 μm, respectively. This very dense cloud causes a strong attenuation of the WALES and CALIOP lidar returns. The SEVIRI retrieved parameters confirm the occurrence of small ice crystals at the top of the convective cell. Smooth and featureless phase functions with asymmetry factors of 0.776 indicate fairly uniform optical properties. Due to small ice crystals the power-law relationship between ice water content (IWC) and radar reflectivity appears to be very different from those usually found in cirrus and anvil clouds. For a given equivalent reflectivity factor, IWCs are significantly larger for the overshooting cell than for the cirrus. Assuming the same prevalent microphysical properties over the depth of the overshooting cell, RASTA reflectivity profiles scaled into ice water content show that retrieved IWC up to 1 g m-3 may be observed near the cloud top

  13. On the observation of unusual high concentration of small chain-like aggregate ice crystals and large ice water contents near the top of a deep convective cloud during the CIRCLE-2 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Gayet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the CIRCLE-2 experiment carried out over Western Europe in May 2007, combined in situ and remote sensing observations allowed to describe microphysical and optical properties near-top of an overshooting convective cloud (11 080 m/−58 °C. The airborne measurements were performed with the DLR Falcon aircraft specially equipped with a unique set of instruments for the extensive in situ cloud measurements of microphysical and optical properties (Polar Nephelometer, FSSP-300, Cloud Particle Imager and PMS 2-D-C and nadir looking remote sensing observations (DLR WALES Lidar. Quasi-simultaneous space observations from MSG/SEVIRI, CALIPSO/CALIOP-WFC-IIR and CloudSat/CPR combined with airborne RASTA radar reflectivity from the French Falcon aircraft flying above the DLR Falcon depict very well convective cells which overshoot by up to 600 m the tropopause level. Unusual high values of the concentration of small ice particles, extinction, ice water content (up to 70 cm−3, 30 km−1 and 0.5 g m−3, respectively are experienced. The mean effective diameter and the maximum particle size are 43 μm and about 300 μm, respectively. This very dense cloud causes a strong attenuation of the WALES and CALIOP lidar returns. The SEVIRI retrieved parameters confirm the occurrence of small ice crystals at the top of the convective cell. Smooth and featureless phase functions with asymmetry factors of 0.776 indicate fairly uniform optical properties. Due to small ice crystals the power-law relationship between ice water content (IWC and radar reflectivity appears to be very different from those usually found in cirrus and anvil clouds. For a given equivalent reflectivity factor, IWCs are significantly larger for the overshooting cell than for the cirrus. Assuming the same prevalent microphysical properties over the depth of the overshooting cell, RASTA reflectivity profiles scaled into ice water content show that retrieved

  14. Proposed Ice Flow, Given 200m and 400m Additional Ice in the Allan Hills Region, Antarctica: Implications for Meteorite Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub-Metlay, S.; Cassidy, W. A.

    1992-07-01

    The Allan Hills-David Glacier region contains some of the most highly populated meteorite stranding surfaces in Antarctica. Nearly 2000 meteorites have to date been collected from the icefields associated with the Allan Hills, and nearly 1500 from areas around Elephant Moraine. While much attention has been focused on the current geological and glaciological conditions of these stranding surfaces, less work has been done concerning what they may have looked like in the past, when ice thicknesses may have been greater. In this study, conjectural maps of the current Allan Hills area with 200 meters and 400 meters of additional ice cover each are analyzed for probable regional and local ice flow patterns. A dramatic decrease in ice thickness over a relatively brief period of time could result either from climatic change or a geologically rapid regional uplift. Delisle and Sievers (1991) noted that the valley between the Allan Hills Main Icefield and the Allan Hills resembles a half-graben resulting from east-west extensional tectonics, and that the mesa-like bedrock features associated with the Near Western and Mid Western Icefields resemble fault blocks. They concluded that the Allan Hills area icefields may have become active stranding surfaces as a result of a regional uplift within the past 1-2 million years, assuming a current rate of uplift in the Allan Hills region of ~100 meters/million years. Whether the cause was climatic or tectonic, generalized maps of current ice contours plus 400 and 200 meters ice may provide views of what the Allan Hills region looked like just before activation of the modern meteorite stranding surfaces (Figs. 1 and 2). At an ice thickness greater by 400 meters, ice could flow smoothly over the Allan Hills and would drain down to the Mawson Glacier via the Odell Glacier, east of the Allan Hills; down the Manhaul Bay depression between the east and west arms of Allan Hills; and down the half-graben discovered by Delisle and Sievers

  15. Responses of Mixed-Phase Cloud Condensates and Cloud Radiative Effects to Ice Nucleating Particle Concentrations in NCAR CAM5 and DOE ACME Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Shi, Y.; Wu, M.; Zhang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Mixed-phase clouds frequently observed in the Arctic and mid-latitude storm tracks have the substantial impacts on the surface energy budget, precipitation and climate. In this study, we first implement the two empirical parameterizations (Niemand et al. 2012 and DeMott et al. 2015) of heterogeneous ice nucleation for mixed-phase clouds in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5) and DOE Accelerated Climate Model for Energy Version 1 (ACME1). Model simulated ice nucleating particle (INP) concentrations based on Niemand et al. and DeMott et al. are compared with those from the default ice nucleation parameterization based on the classical nucleation theory (CNT) in CAM5 and ACME, and with in situ observations. Significantly higher INP concentrations (by up to a factor of 5) are simulated from Niemand et al. than DeMott et al. and CNT especially over the dust source regions in both CAM5 and ACME. Interestingly the ACME model simulates higher INP concentrations than CAM5, especially in the Polar regions. This is also the case when we nudge the two models' winds and temperature towards the same reanalysis, indicating more efficient transport of aerosols (dust) to the Polar regions in ACME. Next, we examine the responses of model simulated cloud liquid water and ice water contents to different INP concentrations from three ice nucleation parameterizations (Niemand et al., DeMott et al., and CNT) in CAM5 and ACME. Changes in liquid water path (LWP) reach as much as 20% in the Arctic regions in ACME between the three parameterizations while the LWP changes are smaller and limited in the Northern Hemispheric mid-latitudes in CAM5. Finally, the impacts on cloud radiative forcing and dust indirect effects on mixed-phase clouds are quantified with the three ice nucleation parameterizations in CAM5 and ACME.

  16. Sea Ice Index, Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sea Ice Index provides a quick look at Arctic- and Antarctic-wide changes in sea ice. It is a source for consistent, up-to-date sea ice extent and concentration...

  17. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. First in situ determination of gas transport coefficients (DO2, DAr and DN2) from bulk gas concentration measurements (O2, N2, Ar) in natural sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabeck, O.; Delille, B.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    We report bulk gas concentrations of O2, N2, and Ar, as well as their transport coefficients, in natural landfast subarctic sea ice in southwest Greenland. The observed bulk ice gas composition was 27.5% O2, 71.4% N2, and 1.09% Ar. Most previous studies suggest that convective transport is the main...... evolution of an internal gas peak within the ice, we deduced the bulk gas transport coefficients for oxygen (DO2), argon (DAr), and nitrogen (DN2). The values fit to the few existing estimates from experimental work, and are close to the diffusivity values in water (1025 cm2 s21). We suggest that gas...

  19. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  20. Determination of Osmium concentration and isotope composition at ultra-low level in polar ice and snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hye; Sharma, Mukul; Osterberg, Erich; Jackson, Brian P

    2018-04-08

    Here we use two chemical separation procedures to determine exceptionally low Os concentrations (~10-15 g g-1) and Os isotopic composition in polar snow/ice. Melt water weighing approximately 50 g is spiked with 190Os tracer solution and frozen at -20 °C in quartz-glass ampoules. A mixture of H2O2 and HNO3 is then added and the sample is heated to 300 °C at 100 bar using a High Pressure Asher. This allows tracer Os to be equilibrated with the sample as all Os species are oxidized to OsO4. The resulting OsO4 is extracted using either distillation (Method-I) or solvent-extraction (Method-II), purified, and measured using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). A new technique is presented that minimizes Re and Os blanks of the Pt filaments used in N-TIMS. A Pt-Pt double filament geometry is then used to minimize hydrocarbon and Re isobaric mass interferences. We analyzed snow collected from Summit, Greenland during 2009, 2014, and 2017. We find that the average Os concentration of the snow is 0.459 ± 0.018 (95% C.I.) fg g-1 corresponding to an Os flux of 0.0579 ± 0.0023 (95% C.I.) fmol cm-2 yr-1. The average R(187Os/188Os) ratio of the Summit snow is 0.26 ± 0.11 (95% C.I.). Assuming that the volcanic source is negligible, the average ratio indicates that about 0.052 ± 0.004 (95% C.I.) fmol cm-2 yr-1 of Os is of cosmic derivation corresponding to an accretion rate of extra-terrestrial Os to the Earth of 264 ± 21 mol yr-1.

  1. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Arctic, global warming is particularly pronounced so that we need to monitor its development continuously. On the other hand, the vast and hostile conditions make in situ observation difficult, so that available satellite observations should be exploited in the best possible way to extract geophysical information. Here, we give a résumé of the sea ice remote sensing efforts of the European Union's (EU project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. In order to better understand the seasonal variation of the microwave emission of sea ice observed from space, the monthly variations of the microwave emissivity of first-year and multi-year sea ice have been derived for the frequencies of the microwave imagers like AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS and sounding frequencies of AMSU (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit, and have been used to develop an optimal estimation method to retrieve sea ice and atmospheric parameters simultaneously. In addition, a sea ice microwave emissivity model has been used together with a thermodynamic model to establish relations between the emissivities from 6 GHz to 50 GHz. At the latter frequency, the emissivity is needed for assimilation into atmospheric circulation models, but is more difficult to observe directly. The size of the snow grains on top of the sea ice influences both its albedo and the microwave emission. A method to determine the effective size of the snow grains from observations in the visible range (MODIS is developed and demonstrated in an application on the Ross ice shelf. The bidirectional reflectivity distribution function (BRDF of snow, which is an essential input parameter to the retrieval, has been measured in situ on Svalbard during the DAMOCLES campaign, and a BRDF model assuming aspherical particles is developed. Sea ice drift and deformation is derived from satellite observations with the scatterometer

  2. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Further evidence for CCN aerosol concentrations determining the height of warm rain and ice initiation in convective clouds over the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos Braga, Ramon; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Weigel, Ralf; Jurkat, Tina; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Voigt, Christiane; Mahnke, Christoph; Borrmann, Stephan; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Molleker, Sergej; Vila, Daniel A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Grulich, Lucas

    2017-12-01

    We have investigated how aerosols affect the height above cloud base of rain and ice hydrometeor initiation and the subsequent vertical evolution of cloud droplet size and number concentrations in growing convective cumulus. For this purpose we used in situ data of hydrometeor size distributions measured with instruments mounted on HALO aircraft during the ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign over the Amazon during September 2014. The results show that the height of rain initiation by collision and coalescence processes (Dr, in units of meters above cloud base) is linearly correlated with the number concentration of droplets (Nd in cm-3) nucleated at cloud base (Dr ≈ 5 ṡ Nd). Additional cloud processes associated with Dr, such as GCCN, cloud, and mixing with ambient air and other processes, produce deviations of ˜ 21 % in the linear relationship, but it does not mask the clear relationship between Dr and Nd, which was also found at different regions around the globe (e.g., Israel and India). When Nd exceeded values of about 1000 cm-3, Dr became greater than 5000 m, and the first observed precipitation particles were ice hydrometeors. Therefore, no liquid water raindrops were observed within growing convective cumulus during polluted conditions. Furthermore, the formation of ice particles also took place at higher altitudes in the clouds in polluted conditions because the resulting smaller cloud droplets froze at colder temperatures compared to the larger drops in the unpolluted cases. The measured vertical profiles of droplet effective radius (re) were close to those estimated by assuming adiabatic conditions (rea), supporting the hypothesis that the entrainment and mixing of air into convective clouds is nearly inhomogeneous. Additional CCN activation on aerosol particles from biomass burning and air pollution reduced re below rea, which further inhibited the formation of raindrops and ice particles and resulted in even higher altitudes for rain and ice initiation.

  4. Recent increases in atmospheric concentrations of Bi, U, Cs, S and Ca from a 350-year Mount Everest ice core record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspari, Susan; Mayewski, Paul A.; Handley, Michael; Osterberg, Erich; Kang, Shichang; Sneed, Sharon; Hou, Shugui; Qin, Dahe

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution major and trace elements (Sr, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Bi, U, Tl, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co) quantified in a Mount Everest ice core (6518 m above sea level) spanning the period 1650-2002 AD provides the first Asian record of trace element concentrations from the pre-industrial era, and the first continuous high-resolution Asian record from which natural baseline concentrations and subsequent changes due to anthropogenic activities can be examined. Modern concentrations of most elements remain within the pre-industrial range; however, Bi, U, and Cs concentrations and their enrichment factors (EF) have increased since the ˜1950s, and S and Ca concentrations and their EFs have increased since the late 1980s. A comparison of the Bi, U, Cs, S, and Ca data with other ice core records and production data indicates that the increase in atmospheric concentrations of trace elements is widespread, but that enrichment varies regionally. Likely sources for the recent enrichment of these elements include mining, metal smelting, oil and coal combustion, and end uses for Bi, and mining and refinement for U and Cs. The source of the synchronous enrichment of Ca and S is less certain, but may be related to land use and environmental change.

  5. Ice growth in supercooled solutions of a biological "antifreeze", AFGP 1-5: an explanation in terms of adsorption rate for the concentration dependence of the freezing point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, C A; DeVries, A L

    2009-07-21

    It is widely accepted, and we agree, that the lowering of the temperature at which ice can grow in a water solution of one of the biological antifreezes is a result of adsorption of the antifreeze molecules at the ice surface. However, how this can produce a well-defined "freezing point" that varies with the solution concentration has remained problematical. The results of a series of measurements of ice growing in supercooled solutions of an effective antifreeze are reported and interpreted in terms of this fundamental problem. It seemed that the solution of the problem would have to rely upon adsorption rate, because that appeared to be the only way for the concentration in solution to be so important. The crystal growth results are most unusual, and appear to confirm this. The growth rates over a wide range of antifreeze concentration in solution (about 0.05 to 9 mg ml(-1)) are zero from the thermodynamic freezing point down to the "non-equilibrium" freezing point, where there is a very sudden increase to a plateau value that then remains about constant as the supercooling is increased by about 2 degrees C. The plateau values of growth rate are faster than those from pure water at the lower-supercooling ends of the plateaus, but slower at higher supercooling, until the growth rate starts rising toward that from pure water. These plateau values of growth rate increase markedly with increasing concentration of the antifreeze in solution. Along with these changes there are complex changes in the growth orientations, from c-axis spicules in the plateaus to those more characteristic of growth from pure water at greater supercooling. We conclude that the non-equilibrium freezing point is determined by the adsorption rate. It is the warmest temperature at which the ice growth rate on the basal plane (where the antifreeze does not adsorb) is fast enough to prevent the area of basal face on a growing ice crystal from becoming too small to grow, which is determined in

  6. Metrics for monitoring cancer inequities: residential segregation, the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), and breast cancer estrogen receptor status (USA, 1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Singh, Nakul; Waterman, Pamela D

    2016-09-01

    To address the paucity of evidence on residential segregation and cancer, we explored their relationship using a new metric: the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE). We focused on breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status, a biomarker associated with survival and, etiologically, with social and economic privilege. We obtained data from the 13 registry group of US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program for 1992-2012 on all women aged 25-84 who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer (n = 516,382). We appended to each case's record her annual county median household income quintile and the quintile for her annual county value for ICE measures for income (≤20th vs. ≥80th household income quintile), race/ethnicity (black vs. white), and income plus race/ethnicity (low-income black vs. high-income white). The odds of being ER+ versus ER- were estimated in relation to the county-level income and ICE measures, adjusting for relevant covariates. Women in the most privileged versus deprived county quintile for household income and for all three ICE measures had a 1.1- to 1.3-fold increased odds (95 % confidence intervals excluding 1) of having an ER+ tumor. These results were robust to adjustment for age at diagnosis, cancer registry, tumor characteristics (tumor stage, size, histology, grade), and race/ethnicity. A focus on segregation offers news possibilities for understanding how inequitable group relations contribute to cancer inequities. The utility of employing the ICE for monitoring cancer inequities should be investigated in relation to other cancer outcomes.

  7. The interpretation of spikes and trends in concentration of nitrate in polar ice cores, based on evidence from snow and atmospheric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Wolff

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate is frequently measured in ice cores, but its interpretation remains immature. Using daily snow surface concentrations of nitrate at Halley (Antarctica for 2004–2005, we show that sharp spikes (>factor 2 in nitrate concentration can occur from day to day. Some of these spikes will be preserved in ice cores. Many of them are associated with sharp increases in the concentration of sea salt in the snow. There is also a close association between the concentrations of aerosol nitrate and sea salt aerosol. This evidence is consistent with many of the spikes in deposited nitrate being due to the conversion or trapping of gas-phase nitrate, i.e. to enhanced deposition rather than enhanced atmospheric concentrations of NOy. Previously, sharp spikes in nitrate concentration (with concentration increases of up to a factor 4 seen in probably just one snowfall have been assigned to sharp production events such as solar proton events (SPEs. We find that it is unlikely that SPEs can produce spikes of the kind seen. Taken together with our evidence that such spikes can be produced depositionally, we find that it is not possible to track past SPEs without carrying out a new multi-site and multi-analyte programme. Seasonal and interannual trends in nitrate concentration in cores from any single site cannot be interpreted in terms of production changes until the recycling of nitrate from central Antarctica to coastal Antarctica is better quantified. It might be possible to assess the interannual input of NOy to the Antarctic lower troposphere by using a network of cores to estimate variability in the total annual deposition across the continent (which we estimate to be 9±2×107kg/a – as NO3, but it will first have to be established that the outflow across the coast can be ignored.

  8. Concentrations and source regions of light-absorbing particles in snow/ice in northern Pakistan and their impact on snow albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Chaman; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Zhang, Yulan; Ali, Shaukat; Li, Yang; Li, Xiaofei

    2018-04-01

    Black carbon (BC), water-insoluble organic carbon (OC), and mineral dust are important particles in snow and ice which significantly reduce albedo and accelerate melting. Surface snow and ice samples were collected from the Karakoram-Himalayan region of northern Pakistan during 2015 and 2016 in summer (six glaciers), autumn (two glaciers), and winter (six mountain valleys). The average BC concentration overall was 2130 ± 1560 ng g-1 in summer samples, 2883 ± 3439 ng g-1 in autumn samples, and 992 ± 883 ng g-1 in winter samples. The average water-insoluble OC concentration overall was 1839 ± 1108 ng g-1 in summer samples, 1423 ± 208 ng g-1 in autumn samples, and 1342 ± 672 ng g-1 in winter samples. The overall concentration of BC, OC, and dust in aged snow samples collected during the summer campaign was higher than the concentration in ice samples. The values are relatively high compared to reports by others for the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. This is probably the result of taking more representative samples at lower elevation where deposition is higher and the effects of ageing and enrichment are more marked. A reduction in snow albedo of 0.1-8.3 % for fresh snow and 0.9-32.5 % for aged snow was calculated for selected solar zenith angles during daytime using the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) model. The daily mean albedo was reduced by 0.07-12.0 %. The calculated radiative forcing ranged from 0.16 to 43.45 W m-2 depending on snow type, solar zenith angle, and location. The potential source regions of the deposited pollutants were identified using spatial variance in wind vector maps, emission inventories coupled with backward air trajectories, and simple region-tagged chemical transport modeling. Central, south, and west Asia were the major sources of pollutants during the sampling months, with only a small contribution from east Asia. Analysis based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-STEM) chemical transport model identified a

  9. Daily Global Land Surface Parameters Derived from AMSR-E

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  10. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  11. Analysis of Light Absorbing Aerosols in Northern Pakistan: Concentration on Snow/Ice, their Source Regions and Impacts on Snow Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, C.; Praveen, P. S.; Shichang, K.; Adhikary, B.; Zhang, Y.; Ali, S.

    2016-12-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) and light absorbing organic carbon (OC) are important particulate impurities in snow and ice which significantly reduce the albedo of glaciers and accelerate their melting. Snow and ice samples were collected from Karakorum-Himalayan region of North Pakistan during the summer campaign (May-Jun) 2015 and only snow samples were collected during winter (Dec 2015- Jan 2016). Total 41 surface snow/ice samples were collected during summer campaign along different elevation ranges (2569 to 3895 a.m.s.l) from six glaciers: Sachin, Henarche, Barpu, Mear, Gulkin and Passu. Similarly 18 snow samples were collected from Sust, Hoper, Tawas, Astore, Shangla, and Kalam regions during the winter campaign. Quartz filters were used for filtering of melted snow and ice samples which were then analyzed by thermal optical reflectance (TOR) method to determine the concentration of EC and OC. The average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) were found as follows: Passu (249.5, 536.8, 475), Barpu (1190, 397.6, 1288), Gulkin (412, 793, 761), Sachin (911, 2130, 358), Mear (678, 2067, 83) and Henarche (755, 1868, 241) respectively during summer campaign. Similarly, average concentration of EC (ng/g), OC (ng/g) and dust (ppm) was found in the samples of Sust (2506, 1039, 131), Hoper (646, 1153, 76), Tawas (650, 1320, 16), Astore (1305, 2161, 97), Shangla (739, 2079, 31) and Kalam (107, 347, 5) respectively during winter campaign. Two methods were adopted to identify the source regions: one coupled emissions inventory with back trajectories, second with a simple region tagged chemical transport modeling analysis. In addition, CALIPSO subtype aerosol composition indicated that frequency of smoke in the atmosphere over the region was highest followed by dust and then polluted dust. SNICAR model was used to estimate the snow albedo reduction from our in-situ measurements. Snow albedo reduction was observed to be 0.3% to 27.6%. The derived results were used

  12. Great Lakes Ice Charts, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the...

  13. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known...

  14. Methane Concentrations from the WAIS Divide Ice Core (WDC06A), 60 to 11,300 ybp, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains a high-resolution history of atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations in parts per billion (ppb) from approximately 60 to 11,300 years before...

  15. An ultra-clean technique for accurately analysing Pb isotopes and heavy metals at high spatial resolution in ice cores with sub-pg g{sup -1} Pb concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, Laurie J. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Rosman, Kevin J.R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia)], E-mail: K.Rosman@curtin.edu.au; Candelone, Jean-Pierre [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Vallelonga, Paul [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali (IDPA-CNR), Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Burton, Graeme R. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, Western Australia (Australia); Smith, Andrew M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Morgan, Vin I. [Australian Antarctic Division and Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC, Private Bag 80, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Barbante, Carlo [Istituto per la Dinamica dei Processi Ambientali (IDPA-CNR), Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Hong, Sungmin [Korea Polar Research Institute, Songdo Techno Park, 7-50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Boutron, Claude F. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement du CNRS, 54, rue Moliere, B.P. 96, 3840.2 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2009-02-23

    Measurements of Pb isotope ratios in ice containing sub-pg g{sup -1} concentrations are easily compromised by contamination, particularly where limited sample is available. Improved techniques are essential if Antarctic ice cores are to be analysed with sufficient spatial resolution to reveal seasonal variations due to climate. This was achieved here by using stainless steel chisels and saws and strict protocols in an ultra-clean cold room to decontaminate and section ice cores. Artificial ice cores, prepared from high purity water were used to develop and refine the procedures and quantify blanks. Ba and In, two other important elements present at pg g{sup -1} and fg g{sup -1} concentrations in Polar ice, were also measured. The final blank amounted to 0.2 {+-} 0.2 pg of Pb with {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of 1.16 {+-} 0.12 and 2.35 {+-} 0.16, respectively, 1.5 {+-} 0.4 pg of Ba and 0.6 {+-} 2.0 fg of In, most of which probably originates from abrasion of the steel saws by the ice. The procedure was demonstrated on a Holocene Antarctic ice core section and was shown to contribute blanks of only {approx}5%, {approx}14% and {approx}0.8% to monthly resolved samples with respective Pb, Ba and In concentrations of 0.12 pg g{sup -1}, 0.3 pg g{sup -1} and 2.3 fg g{sup -1}. Uncertainties in the Pb isotopic ratio measurements were degraded by only {approx}0.2%.

  16. Comparative measurements of ambient atmospheric concentrations of ice nucleating particles using multiple immersion freezing methods and a continuous flow diffusion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Paul J.; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Petters, Markus D.; Bertram, Allan K.; Tobo, Yutaka; Mason, Ryan H.; Suski, Kaitlyn J.; McCluskey, Christina S.; Levin, Ezra J. T.; Schill, Gregory P.; Boose, Yvonne; Rauker, Anne Marie; Miller, Anna J.; Zaragoza, Jake; Rocci, Katherine; Rothfuss, Nicholas E.; Taylor, Hans P.; Hader, John D.; Chou, Cedric; Huffman, J. Alex; Pöschl, Ulrich; Prenni, Anthony J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2017-09-01

    A number of new measurement methods for ice nucleating particles (INPs) have been introduced in recent years, and it is important to address how these methods compare. Laboratory comparisons of instruments sampling major INP types are common, but few comparisons have occurred for ambient aerosol measurements exploring the utility, consistency and complementarity of different methods to cover the large dynamic range of INP concentrations that exists in the atmosphere. In this study, we assess the comparability of four offline immersion freezing measurement methods (Colorado State University ice spectrometer, IS; North Carolina State University cold stage, CS; National Institute for Polar Research Cryogenic Refrigerator Applied to Freezing Test, CRAFT; University of British Columbia micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique, MOUDI-DFT) and an online method (continuous flow diffusion chamber, CFDC) used in a manner deemed to promote/maximize immersion freezing, for the detection of INPs in ambient aerosols at different locations and in different sampling scenarios. We also investigated the comparability of different aerosol collection methods used with offline immersion freezing instruments. Excellent agreement between all methods could be obtained for several cases of co-sampling with perfect temporal overlap. Even for sampling periods that were not fully equivalent, the deviations between atmospheric INP number concentrations measured with different methods were mostly less than 1 order of magnitude. In some cases, however, the deviations were larger and not explicable without sampling and measurement artifacts. Overall, the immersion freezing methods seem to effectively capture INPs that activate as single particles in the modestly supercooled temperature regime (> -20 °C), although more comparisons are needed in this temperature regime that is difficult to access with online methods. Relative to the CFDC method, three immersion freezing

  17. Calculation of NO2 concentration in air from the point source Tepláreň Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mačala

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The most threatened part of environment is air and its pollution increases rapidly. In the local rate, the weight of air pollution increases by reason of a more intensive influence on the human population. The problem is significant mostly in urban areas, places with the biggest concentration of peoples, industry and transport. The greatest producers of air pollution are various parts of industry, heat production and traffic. For a complex valuation, the influence of particular parts of industry is needed to know the sources of air pollution in the specific area. Only with a knowledge, it is possible to evaluate a spotted area in terms of air quality.

  18. Simultaneous determination of picogram per gram concentrations of Ba, Pb and Pb isotopes in Greenland ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimi, Salah I.; Rosman, Kevin J.R.; Candelone, Jean-Pierre; Burn, Laurie J. [Curtin University of Technology, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Perth (Australia); Hong, Sungmin [Polar Research Centre, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, Ansan, P.O. Box 29, Seoul (Korea); Boutron, Claude F. [Domaine Universitaire, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique du l' Environnement, 54 rue Moliere, Saint Martin d' Heres (France); UFR de Mecanique, Universite Joseph Fourier de Grenoble (Institut Universitaire de France), Domaine Universitaire, Grenoble (France)

    2008-01-15

    A technique has been developed to simultaneously measure picogram per gram concentrations of Ba and Pb by isotope dilution mass spectrometry, as well as Pb isotopic ratios in polar ice by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry. BaPO{sup +}{sub 2} and Pb{sup +} ions were employed for these determinations. A calibrated mixture of enriched {sup 205}Pb and {sup 137}Ba was added to the samples providing an accuracy of better than approximately 2% for Pb/Ba element ratio determinations. Interference by molecular ions in the Pb mass spectrum occurred only at {sup 204}Pb and {sup 205}Pb, but these contributions were negligible in terms of precisions expected on picogram-sized Pb samples. The technique is illustrated with measurements on Greenland firn, using a drill-core section that includes the Laki volcanic eruption of 1783-1784. The data show deviations from the element concentrations indicating volatile metal enrichments, but the Pb isotopic signature of the Laki lava could not be identified. (orig.)

  19. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  20. Ancient ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Simon Belt, Guillaume Massé and colleagues rammed their way through sheets of ice, spotting some polar bears on the way, in their attempt to reconstruct Arctic sea-ice records covering thousands of years.

  1. Submesoscale Sea Ice-Ocean Interactions in Marginal Ice Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharyan, Georgy E.; Thompson, Andrew F.

    2017-12-01

    Signatures of ocean eddies, fronts, and filaments are commonly observed within marginal ice zones (MIZs) from satellite images of sea ice concentration, and in situ observations via ice-tethered profilers or underice gliders. However, localized and intermittent sea ice heating and advection by ocean eddies are currently not accounted for in climate models and may contribute to their biases and errors in sea ice forecasts. Here, we explore mechanical sea ice interactions with underlying submesoscale ocean turbulence. We demonstrate that the release of potential energy stored in meltwater fronts can lead to energetic submesoscale motions along MIZs with spatial scales O(10 km) and Rossby numbers O(1). In low-wind conditions, cyclonic eddies and filaments efficiently trap the sea ice and advect it over warmer surface ocean waters where it can effectively melt. The horizontal eddy diffusivity of sea ice mass and heat across the MIZ can reach O(200 m2 s-1). Submesoscale ocean variability also induces large vertical velocities (order 10 m d-1) that can bring relatively warm subsurface waters into the mixed layer. The ocean-sea ice heat fluxes are localized over cyclonic eddies and filaments reaching about 100 W m-2. We speculate that these submesoscale-driven intermittent fluxes of heat and sea ice can contribute to the seasonal evolution of MIZs. With the continuing global warming and sea ice thickness reduction in the Arctic Ocean, submesoscale sea ice-ocean processes are expected to become increasingly prominent.

  2. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  3. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  4. Inter-Relationship Between Subtropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in Recent Summers and Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2017-01-01

    The inter-relationship between subtropical western-central Pacific sea surface temperatures (STWCPSST), sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea (SICBS), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are investigated for the last 37 summers and winters (1980-2016). Lag-correlation of the STWCPSST×(-1) in spring with the NAO phase and SICBS in summer increases over the last two decades, reaching r = 0.4-0.5 with significance at 5 percent, while winter has strong correlations in approximately 1985-2005. Observational analysis and the atmospheric general circulation model experiments both suggest that STWCPSST warming acts to increase the Arctic geopotential height and temperature in the following season. This atmospheric response extends to Greenland, providing favorable conditions for developing the negative phase of the NAO. SIC and surface albedo tend to decrease over the Beaufort Sea in summer, linked to the positive surface net shortwave flux. Energy balance considering radiative and turbulent fluxes reveal that available energy that can heat surface is larger over the Arctic and Greenland and smaller over the south of Greenland, in response to the STWCPSST warming in spring. XXXX Arctic & Atlantic: Positive upper-level height/T anomaly over the Arctic and Greenland, and a negative anomaly over the central-eastern Atlantic, resembling the (-) phase of the NAO. Pacific: The negative height/T anomaly over the mid-latitudes, along with the positive anomaly over the STWCP, where 1degC warming above climatology is prescribed. Discussion: It is likely that the Arctic gets warm and the NAO is in the negative phase in response to the STWCP warming. But, there are other factors (e.g., internal variability) that contribute to determination of the NAO phase: not always the negative phase of the NAO in the event of STWCP warming (e.g.: recent winters and near neutral NAO in 2017 summer).

  5. Analysis of sea ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, J.

    1988-01-01

    The ongoing work has established the basis for using multiyear sea ice concentrations from SMMR passive microwave for studies of largescale advection and convergence/divergence of the Arctic sea ice pack. Comparisons were made with numerical model simulations and buoy data showing qualitative agreement on daily to interannual time scales. Analysis of the 7-year SMMR data set shows significant interannual variations in the total area of multiyear ice. The scientific objective is to investigate the dynamics, mass balance, and interannual variability of the Arctic sea ice pack. The research emphasizes the direct application of sea ice parameters derived from passive microwave data (SMMR and SSMI) and collaborative studies using a sea ice dynamics model. The possible causes of observed interannual variations in the multiyear ice area are being examined. The relative effects of variations in the large scale advection and convergence/divergence within the ice pack on a regional and seasonal basis are investigated. The effects of anomolous atmospheric forcings are being examined, including the long-lived effects of synoptic events and monthly variations in the mean geostrophic winds. Estimates to be made will include the amount of new ice production within the ice pack during winter and the amount of ice exported from the pack.

  6. Rain-on-snow and ice layer formation detection using passive microwave radiometry: An arctic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Johnson, C. A.; Brucker, L.; Dolant, C.; Richards, A.; Roy, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the current changes observed in the Arctic, an increase in occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events has been reported in the Arctic (land) over the past few decades. Several studies have established that strong linkages between surface temperatures and passive microwaves do exist, but the contribution of snow properties under winter extreme events such as rain-on-snow events (ROS) and associated ice layer formation need to be better understood that both have a significant impact on ecosystem processes. In particular, ice layer formation is known to affect the survival of ungulates by blocking their access to food. Given the current pronounced warming in northern regions, more frequent ROS can be expected. However, one of the main challenges in the study of ROS in northern regions is the lack of meteorological information and in-situ measurements. The retrieval of ROS occurrence in the Arctic using satellite remote sensing tools thus represents the most viable approach. Here, we present here results from 1) ROS occurrence formation in the Peary caribou habitat using an empirically developed ROS algorithm by our group based on the gradient ratio, 2) ice layer formation across the same area using a semi-empirical detection approach based on the polarization ratio spanning between 1978 and 2013. A detection threshold was adjusted given the platform used (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E), and initial results suggest high-occurrence years as: 1981-1982, 1992-1993; 1994-1995; 1999-2000; 2001-2002; 2002-2003; 2003-2004; 2006-2007; 2007-2008. A trend in occurrence for Banks Island and NW Victoria Island and linkages to caribou population is presented.

  7. Evidence for radionuclide transport by sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meese, D.A.; Tucker, W.B.; Gow, A.J.; Reimnitz, E.; Bischof, J.; Darby, D.

    1997-01-01

    Ice and ice-borne sediments were collected across the Arctic Basin during the Arctic Ocean Section, 1994 (AOS-94), a recent US/Canada trans-Arctic expedition. Sediments were analysed for 137 Cs, clay mineralogy and carbon. Concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 5 to 73 Bq kg -1 in the ice-borne sediments. Concentrations of ice samples without sediment were all less than 1 Bq m -3 . The sediment sample with the highest 137 Cs concentration (73 Bq kg -1 ) was collected in the Beaufort Sea. This concentration was significantly higher than in bottom sediments collected in the same area, indicating an ice transport mechanism from an area with correspondingly higher concentrations. Recent results from the application of ice transport models and sediment analyses indicate that it is very likely that sediments are transported by ice, from the Siberian shelf areas to the Beaufort Sea

  8. Calibrated cryo-cell UV-LA-ICPMS elemental concentrations from the NGRIP ice core reveal abrupt, sub-annual variability in dust across the GI-21.2 interstadial period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Della Lunga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several abrupt shifts from periods of extreme cold (Greenland stadials, GS to relatively warmer conditions (Greenland interstadials, GI called Dansgaard–Oeschger events are recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Using cryo-cell UV-laser-ablation inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (UV-LA-ICPMS, we analysed a 2.85 m NGRIP ice core section (2691.50–2688.65 m depth, age interval 84.86–85.09 ka b2k, thus covering  ∼  230 years across the transitions of GI-21.2, a short-lived interstadial prior to interstadial GI-21.1. GI-21.2 is a  ∼  100-year long period with δ18O values 3–4 ‰ higher than the following  ∼  200 years of stadial conditions (GS-21.2, which precede the major GI-21.1 warming. We report concentrations of major elements indicative of dust and/or sea salt (Na, Fe, Al, Ca, Mg at a spatial resolution of  ∼  200 µm, while maintaining detection limits in the low-ppb range, thereby achieving sub-annual time resolution even in deep NGRIP ice. We present an improved external calibration and quantification procedure using a set of five ice standards made from aqueous (international standard solutions. Our results show that element concentrations decrease drastically (more than 10-fold at the warming onset of GI-21.2 at the scale of a single year, followed by relatively low concentrations characterizing the interstadial part before gradually reaching again typical stadial values.

  9. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of

  10. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  11. CHEMICAL AND ISOTOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ICE FROM AN ICE-WEDGE IN SEYMOUR ISLAND (ISLA VCOM. MARAMBIO), ANTARCTIC PENINSULA REGION (I)

    OpenAIRE

    カトウ, キクオ; / フクダ, マサミ; Kikuo, KATO; Arturo M., CORTE; Masami, FUKUDA

    1990-01-01

    In Seymour Island free of ice cover were found many ice-wedges and ice-wedge casts. In order to clarify chemical characteristics of ice in ice-wedges, chemical analyses were done on ice samples from an ice-wedge. The concentrations and compositions of chemical species in the ice body vary in an unexpectedly wide range and are greatly different between the upper and lower parts, even from the same ice-wedge ice body. Its lower part shows very high concentrations of Na^+ nas SC_4^, whereas its ...

  12. Observations on the relationship between the Antarctic coastal diatoms Thalassiosira antarctica Comber and Porosira glacialis (Grunow) Jørgensen and sea ice concentrations during the Late Quaternary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, J.; Crosta, X.; Maddison, E.J.; Stickley, C.E.; Denis, D.; Barbara, L.; Renssen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The available ecological and palaeoecological information for two sea ice-related marine diatoms (Bacillariophyceae), Thalassiosira antarctica Comber and Porosira glacialis (Grunow) Jørgensen, suggests that these two species have similar sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS) and

  13. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumpen, T.; Haas, C.; Itkin, P.

    2016-12-01

    Interannual variability and trends in sea ice export out of the Laptev Sea were investigated using a combination of observations and satellite data. The Laptev Sea shows a statistically positive trend in ice area export that is likely associated to an increase in ice drift velocity being the consequence of a thinning ice cover further north. Moreover, we could show that there is a high statistical connection of the late winter (Jan-May) sea ice export and ice formation in Laptev Sea polynyas to the summer sea ice concentration. By means of a sensitivity study using a coupled sea ice-ocean model (MITgcm), we could highlight the importance of winter sea ice processes for summer sea ice conditions in the Laptev Sea and likewise in the adjacent Siberian Seas. Years of high ice export have a thinning effect on the ice cover, which in turn preconditions early fast ice break up, pack ice melt and the occurrence of negative sea ice extent anomalies in summer. Our model simulation also indicate that observed increase in the sea ice export from the Laptev Sea is accompanied by an increase in the volume export, which is important for the Arctic sea ice budget.

  14. Open-Source Python Modules to Estimate Level Ice Thickness from Ice Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Deliberty, T. L.; Bernstein, E. R.; Helfrich, S.

    2012-12-01

    A collaborative research effort between the University of Delaware (UD) and National Ice Center (NIC) addresses the task of providing open-source translations of sea ice stage-of-development into level ice thickness estimates on a 4km grid for the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). The characteristics for stage-of-development are quantified from remote sensing imagery with estimates of level ice thickness categories originating from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) egg coded ice charts codified since the 1970s. Conversions utilize Python scripting modules which transform electronic ice charts with WMO egg code characteristics into five level ice thickness categories, in centimeters, (0-10, 10-30, 30-70, 70-120, >120cm) and five ice types (open water, first year pack ice, fast ice, multiyear ice, and glacial ice with a reserve slot for deformed ice fractions). Both level ice thickness categories and ice concentration fractions are reported with uncertainties propagated based on WMO ice stage ranges which serve as proxy estimates for standard deviation. These products are in preparation for use by NCEP, CMC, and NAVO by 2014 based on their modeling requirements for daily products in near-real time. In addition to development, continuing research tests the value of these estimated products against in situ observations to improve both value and uncertainty estimates.

  15. Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Mary Jane

    2017-05-01

    Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, Ih. Despite its prevalence, Ih remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.

  16. Reconstructing the atmospheric concentration and emissions of CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 prior to direct atmospheric measurements, using air from polar firn and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudinger, Cathy; Etheridge, David; Sturges, William; Vollmer, Martin; Miller, Benjamin; Worton, David; Rigby, Matt; Krummel, Paul; Martinerie, Patricia; Witrant, Emmanuel; Rayner, Peter; Battle, Mark; Blunier, Thomas; Fraser, Paul; Laube, Johannes; Mani, Frances; Mühle, Jens; O'Doherty, Simon; Schwander, Jakob; Steele, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Perfluorocarbons are very potent and long-lived greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, released predominantly during aluminium production, electronic chip manufacture and refrigeration. Mühle et al. (2010) presented records of the concentration and inferred emissions of CF4 (PFC-14), C2F6 (PFC-116) and C3F8 (PFC-218) from the 1970s up to 2008, using measurements from the Cape Grim Air Archive and a suite of tanks with old Northern Hemisphere air, and the AGAGE in situ network. Mühle et al. (2010) also estimated pre-industrial concentrations of these compounds from a small number of polar firn and ice core samples. Here we present measurements of air from polar firn at four sites (DSSW20K, EDML, NEEM and South Pole) and from air bubbles trapped in ice at two sites (DE08 and DE08-2), along with recent atmospheric measurements to give a continuous record of concentration from preindustrial levels up to the present. We estimate global emissions (with uncertainties) consistent with the concentration records. The uncertainty analysis takes into account uncertainties in characterisation of the age of air in firn and ice by the use of two different (independently-calibrated) firn models (the CSIRO and LGGE-GIPSA firn models). References Mühle, J., A.L. Ganesan, B.R. Miller, P.K. Salameh, C.M. Harth, B.R. Greally, M. Rigby, L.W. Porter, L. P. Steele, C.M. Trudinger, P.B. Krummel, S. O'Doherty, P.J. Fraser, P.G. Simmonds, R.G. Prinn, and R.F. Weiss, Perfluorocarbons in the global atmosphere: tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, and octafluoropropane, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5145-5164, doi:10.5194/acp-10-5145-2010, 2010.

  17. Initiation of secondary ice production in clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sylvia C.; Hoose, Corinna; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2018-02-01

    Disparities between the measured concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) and in-cloud ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) have led to the hypothesis that mechanisms other than primary nucleation form ice in the atmosphere. Here, we model three of these secondary production mechanisms - rime splintering, frozen droplet shattering, and ice-ice collisional breakup - with a six-hydrometeor-class parcel model. We perform three sets of simulations to understand temporal evolution of ice hydrometeor number (Nice), thermodynamic limitations, and the impact of parametric uncertainty when secondary production is active. Output is assessed in terms of the number of primarily nucleated ice crystals that must exist before secondary production initiates (NINP(lim)) as well as the ICNC enhancement from secondary production and the timing of a 100-fold enhancement. Nice evolution can be understood in terms of collision-based nonlinearity and the phasedness of the process, i.e., whether it involves ice hydrometeors, liquid ones, or both. Ice-ice collisional breakup is the only process for which a meaningful NINP(lim) exists (0.002 up to 0.15 L-1). For droplet shattering and rime splintering, a warm enough cloud base temperature and modest updraft are the more important criteria for initiation. The low values of NINP(lim) here suggest that, under appropriate thermodynamic conditions for secondary ice production, perturbations in cloud concentration nuclei concentrations are more influential in mixed-phase partitioning than those in INP concentrations.

  18. Determining the ice seasons severity during 1982-2015 using the ice extents sum as a new characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rjazin, Jevgeni; Pärn, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is a key climate factor and it restricts considerably the winter navigation in sever seasons on the Baltic Sea. So determining ice conditions severity and describing ice cover behaviour at severe seasons interests scientists, engineers and navigation managers. The present study is carried out to determine the ice seasons severity degree basing on the ice seasons 1982 to 2015. A new integrative characteristic is introduced to describe the ice season severity. It is the sum of ice extents of the ice season id est the daily ice extents of the season are summed. The commonly used procedure to determine the ice season severity degree by the maximal ice extent is in this research compared to the new characteristic values. The remote sensing data on the ice concentrations on the Baltic Sea published in the European Copernicus Programme are used to obtain the severity characteristic values. The ice extents are calculated on these ice concentration data. Both the maximal ice extent of the season and a newly introduced characteristic - the ice extents sum are used to classify the winters with respect of severity. The most severe winter of the reviewed period is 1986/87. Also the ice seasons 1981/82, 1984/85, 1985/86, 1995/96 and 2002/03 are classified as severe. Only three seasons of this list are severe by both the criteria. They are 1984/85, 1985/86 and 1986/87. We interpret this coincidence as the evidence of enough-during extensive ice cover in these three seasons. In several winters, for example 2010/11 ice cover extended enough for some time, but did not endure. At few other ice seasons as 2002/03 the Baltic Sea was ice-covered in moderate extent, but the ice cover stayed long time. At 11 winters the ice extents sum differed considerably (> 10%) from the maximal ice extent. These winters yield one third of the studied ice seasons. The maximal ice extent of the season is simple to use and enables to reconstruct the ice cover history and to predict maximal ice

  19. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  20. Glacial Boundary Features Delineated Using Enhanced-resolution Passive-microwave Data to Determine Melt Season Variation of the Vatnajokull Ice Cap, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzillier, D. M.; Ramage, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Temperate glaciers such as those seen in Iceland experience high annual mass flux, thereby responding to small scale changes in Earth's climate. Decadal changes in the glacial margins of Iceland's ice caps are observable in the Landsat record, however twice daily AMSR-E Calibrated Enhanced-Resolution Passive Microwave Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record (ESDR) allow for observation on a daily temporal scale and a 3.125 km spatial scale, which can in turn be connected to patterns seen over longer periods of time. Passive microwave data allow for careful observation of melt onset and duration in Iceland's glacial regions by recording changes in emissivity of the ice surface, known as brightness temperature (TB), which is sensitive to fluctuations in the liquid water content of snow and ice seen during melting in glaciated regions. Enhanced resolution of this data set allows for a determination of a threshold that defines the melting season. The XPGR snowmelt algorithm originally presented by Abdalati and Steffen (1995) is used as a comparison with the diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) values on Iceland's Vatnajokull ice cap located at 64.4N, -16.8W. Ground-based air temperature data in this region, digital elevation models (DEMs), and river discharge dominated by glacial runoff are used to confirm the glacial response to changes in global climate. Results show that Iceland glaciers have a bimodal distribution of brightness temperature delineating when the snow/ice is melting and refreezing. Ground based temperatures have increased on a decadal trend. Clear glacial boundaries are visible on the passive microwave delineating strong features, and we are working to understand their variability and contribution to glacier evolution. The passive microwave data set allows connections to be made between observations seen on a daily scale and the long term glacier changes observed by the Landsat satellite record that integrates the

  1. IOMASA SEA ICE DEVELOPMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren; Tonboe, Rasmus; Heygster, Georg

    2005-01-01

    and determine the circumstances that may lead to anomalous sea ice concentration retrieval as well as to assess and possibly minimize the sensitivities of the retrieval system. Through an active partnership with the SAF on Ocean and Sea Ice, a prototype system will be implemented as an experimental product...... chain in order to shorten the loop from development to operational processing. The presentation will present the developments and examples of the new retrievals and finally give an outlook to the future perspectives of the system....

  2. Observational Evidence of a Hemispheric-wide Ice-ocean Albedo Feedback Effect on Antarctic Sea-ice Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ice-ocean albedo feedback (a kind of ice-albedo feedback) on sea-ice decay is demonstrated over the Antarctic sea-ice zone from an analysis of satellite-derived hemispheric sea ice concentration and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-40) atmospheric data for the period 1979-2001. Sea ice concentration in December (time of most active melt) correlates better with the meridional component of the wind-forced ice drift (MID) in November (beginning of the melt season) than the MID in December. This 1 month lagged correlation is observed in most of the Antarctic sea-ice covered ocean. Daily time series of ice , concentration show that the ice concentration anomaly increases toward the time of maximum sea-ice melt. These findings can be explained by the following positive feedback effect: once ice concentration decreases (increases) at the beginning of the melt season, solar heating of the upper ocean through the increased (decreased) open water fraction is enhanced (reduced), leading to (suppressing) a further decrease in ice concentration by the oceanic heat. Results obtained fi-om a simple ice-ocean coupled model also support our interpretation of the observational results. This positive feedback mechanism explains in part the large interannual variability of the sea-ice cover in summer.

  3. Ice stratigraphy at the Pakitsoq ice margin, West Greenland, derived from gas records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaefer, H.; Petrenko, V. V.; Brook, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal ice-core sites, where ancient ice is exposed at the glacier surface, offer unique opportunities for paleo-studies of trace components requiring large sample volumes. Following previous work at the Pakitsoq ice margin in West Greenland, we use a combination of geochemical parameters...... measured in the ice matrix (delta O-18(ice)) and air occlusions (delta O-18(atm), delta N-15 of N-2 and methane concentration) to date ice layers from specific climatic intervals. The data presented here expand our understanding of the stratigraphy and three-dimensional structure of ice layers outcropping...... at Pakitsoq. Sections containing ice from every distinct climatic interval during Termination I, including Last Glacial Maximum, Bolling/Allerod, Younger Dryas and the early Holocene, are identified. In the early Holocene, we find evidence for climatic fluctuations similar to signals found in deep ice cores...

  4. Microparticle, Conductivity, and Density Measurements from the WAIS Divide Deep Ice Core, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes microparticle concentration, electrical conductivity, and density measurements from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep ice core,...

  5. A spongy icing model for aircraft icing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Researches have indicated that impinging droplets can be entrapped as liquid in the ice matrix and the temperature of accreting ice surface is below the freezing point. When liquid entrapment by ice matrix happens, this kind of ice is called spongy ice. A new spongy icing model for the ice accretion problem on airfoil or aircraft has been developed to account for entrapped liquid within accreted ice and to improve the determination of the surface temperature when entering clouds with supercooled droplets. Different with conventional icing model, this model identifies icing conditions in four regimes: rime, spongy without water film, spongy with water film and glaze. By using the Eulerian method based on two-phase flow theory, the impinging droplet flow was investigated numerically. The accuracy of the Eulerian method for computing the water collection efficiency was assessed, and icing shapes and surface temperature distributions predicted with this spongy icing model agree with experimental results well.

  6. There goes the sea ice: following Arctic sea ice parcels and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Tooth, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice distribution has changed considerably over the last couple of decades. Sea ice extent record minimums have been observed in recent years, the distribution of ice age now heavily favors younger ice, and sea ice is likely thinning. This new state of the Arctic sea ice cover has several impacts, including effects on marine life, feedback on the warming of the ocean and atmosphere, and on the future evolution of the ice pack. The shift in the state of the ice cover, from a pack dominated by older ice, to the current state of a pack with mostly young ice, impacts specific properties of the ice pack, and consequently the pack's response to the changing Arctic climate. For example, younger ice typically contains more numerous melt ponds during the melt season, resulting in a lower albedo. First-year ice is typically thinner and more fragile than multi-year ice, making it more susceptible to dynamic and thermodynamic forcing. To investigate the response of the ice pack to climate forcing during summertime melt, we have developed a database that tracks individual Arctic sea ice parcels along with associated properties as these parcels advect during the summer. Our database tracks parcels in the Beaufort Sea, from 1985 - present, along with variables such as ice surface temperature, albedo, ice concentration, and convergence. We are using this database to deduce how these thousands of tracked parcels fare during summer melt, i.e. what fraction of the parcels advect through the Beaufort, and what fraction melts out? The tracked variables describe the thermodynamic and dynamic forcing on these parcels during their journey. This database will also be made available to all interested investigators, after it is published in the near future. The attached image shows the ice surface temperature of all parcels (right) that advected through the Beaufort Sea region (left) in 2014.

  7. A sea ice model for the marginal ice zone with an application to the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, Max D.

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented that describes the formation, transport, and desalinization of frazil and pancake ice as it is formed in marginal seas. This model uses as input the total ice concentration evaluated from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and wind speed and direction. The model calculates...... the areal concentration, thickness, volume concentration, and salinity of frazil ice as well as the areal concentration, thickness, and salinity of pancakes. A simple parameterization for the Odden region of the Greenland Sea is presented. The model is run for the winter of 1996-1997. There are direct...... observations of the thickness and salinity of pancakes and the volume concentration of frazil ice to compare with the model. The model results compare very well with the measured data. This new ice model can be tuned to work in marginal seas elsewhere to calculate ice thickness, motion, and brine rejection...

  8. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  9. CICE, The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-12

    The Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) is the result of an effort to develop a computationally efficient sea ice component for a fully coupled atmosphere–land–ocean–ice global climate model. It was originally designed to be compatible with the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), an ocean circulation model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on massively parallel computers. CICE has several interacting components: a vertical thermodynamic model that computes local growth rates of snow and ice due to vertical conductive, radiative and turbulent fluxes, along with snowfall; an elastic-viscous-plastic model of ice dynamics, which predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the ice; an incremental remapping transport model that describes horizontal advection of the areal concentration, ice and snow volume and other state variables; and a ridging parameterization that transfers ice among thickness categories based on energetic balances and rates of strain. It also includes a biogeochemical model that describes evolution of the ice ecosystem. The CICE sea ice model is used for climate research as one component of complex global earth system models that include atmosphere, land, ocean and biogeochemistry components. It is also used for operational sea ice forecasting in the polar regions and in numerical weather prediction models.

  10. Arctic sea ice decline contributes to thinning lake ice trend in northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Vladimir; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements, satellite observations, and models document a thinning trend in seasonal Arctic lake ice growth, causing a shift from bedfast to floating ice conditions. September sea ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean since 1991 correlate well (r = +0.69,p Research and Forecasting model output produced a 7% decrease in lake ice growth when 2007/08 sea ice was imposed on 1991/92 climatology and a 9% increase in lake ice growth for the opposing experiment. Here, we clearly link early winter 'ocean-effect' snowfall and warming to reduced lake ice growth. Future reductions in sea ice extent will alter hydrological, biogeochemical, and habitat functioning of Arctic lakes and cause sub-lake permafrost thaw.

  11. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  12. The impact of snow depth, snow density and ice density on sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.

    2015-01-01

    sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Warren climatology (Warren et al., 1999). We compare the different data sets in spatiotemporal scales where satellite radar altimetry yields meaningful results. An inter-comparison of the snow...

  13. The ecophysiology of under-ice fauna

    OpenAIRE

    Aarset, Arne V.

    1991-01-01

    During exposure to low salinity, the under-ice amphipods Gammarus wilkitzkii and Onisimus glacialis appeared as euryhaline osmoregulators, displaying regulation of haemolymph concentrations of sodium and chloride. Free amino acids took part in the regulation. During freezing and brine formation, the amphipods were freeze-sensitive and did not tolerate being frozen into solid ice. However, they could stay in the vicinity of the ice, conforming osmotically to the ambient brine and thus lowering...

  14. Concentrations of sunscreens and antioxidant pigments in Arctic Calanus spp. in relation to ice cover, ultraviolet radiation, and the phytoplankton spring bloom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hylander, Samuel; Kiørboe, Thomas; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Arctic zooplankton ascend to shallow depths during spring to graze on the yearly occurring phytoplankton bloom. However, in surface waters they are exposed to detrimental ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels. Here, we quantified concentrations of substances known to have UVR-protective functions, n...

  15. Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katrin; Brown, Thomas A.; Belt, Simon T.; Ireland, Louise C.; Taylor, Kyle W. R.; Thorpe, Sally E.; Ward, Peter; Atkinson, Angus

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice affects primary production in polar regions in multiple ways. It can dampen water column productivity by reducing light or nutrient supply, provide a habitat for ice algae and condition the marginal ice zone (MIZ) for phytoplankton blooms on its seasonal retreat. The relative importance of three different carbon sources (sea ice derived, sea ice conditioned, non-sea-ice associated) for the polar food web is not well understood, partly due to the lack of methods that enable their unambiguous distinction. Here we analysed two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) biomarkers to trace sea-ice-derived and sea-ice-conditioned carbon in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) and relate their concentrations to the grazers' body reserves, growth and recruitment. During our sampling in January-February 2003, the proxy for sea ice diatoms (a di-unsaturated HBI termed IPSO25, δ13C = -12.5 ± 3.3 ‰) occurred in open waters of the western Scotia Sea, where seasonal ice retreat was slow. In suspended matter from surface waters, IPSO25 was present at a few stations close to the ice edge, but in krill the marker was widespread. Even at stations that had been ice-free for several weeks, IPSO25 was found in krill stomachs, suggesting that they gathered the ice-derived algae from below the upper mixed layer. Peak abundances of the proxy for MIZ diatoms (a tri-unsaturated HBI termed HBI III, δ13C = -42.2 ± 2.4 ‰) occurred in regions of fast sea ice retreat and persistent salinity-driven stratification in the eastern Scotia Sea. Krill sampled in the area defined by the ice edge bloom likewise contained high amounts of HBI III. As indicators for the grazer's performance we used the mass-length ratio, size of digestive gland and growth rate for krill, and recruitment for the biomass-dominant calanoid copepods Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus. These indices consistently point to blooms in the MIZ as an important feeding ground for pelagic grazers. Even though ice

  16. Windows in Arctic sea ice: Light transmission and ice algae in a refrozen lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Hanna M.; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Assmy, Philipp; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Mundy, C. J.; Duarte, Pedro; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Olsen, Lasse M.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Johnsen, Geir; Elliott, Ashley; Wang, Feiyue; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-06-01

    The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing from thicker multiyear to thinner first-year ice cover, with significant consequences for radiative transfer through the ice pack and light availability for algal growth. A thinner, more dynamic ice cover will possibly result in more frequent leads, covered by newly formed ice with little snow cover. We studied a refrozen lead (≤0.27 m ice) in drifting pack ice north of Svalbard (80.5-81.8°N) in May-June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015). We measured downwelling incident and ice-transmitted spectral irradiance, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), particle absorption, ultraviolet (UV)-protecting mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in melted sea ice samples. We found occasionally very high MAA concentrations (up to 39 mg m-3, mean 4.5 ± 7.8 mg m-3) and MAA to Chl a ratios (up to 6.3, mean 1.2 ± 1.3). Disagreement in modeled and observed transmittance in the UV range let us conclude that MAA signatures in CDOM absorption spectra may be artifacts due to osmotic shock during ice melting. Although observed PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) transmittance through the thin ice was significantly higher than that of the adjacent thicker ice with deep snow cover, ice algal standing stocks were low (≤2.31 mg Chl a m-2) and similar to the adjacent ice. Ice algal accumulation in the lead was possibly delayed by the low inoculum and the time needed for photoacclimation to the high-light environment. However, leads are important for phytoplankton growth by acting like windows into the water column.

  17. Iron in sea ice: Review and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lannuzel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The discovery that melting sea ice can fertilize iron (Fe-depleted polar waters has recently fostered trace metal research efforts in sea ice. The aim of this review is to summarize and synthesize the current understanding of Fe biogeochemistry in sea ice. To do so, we compiled available data on particulate, dissolved, and total dissolvable Fe (PFe, DFe and TDFe, respectively from sea-ice studies from both polar regions and from sub-Arctic and northern Hemisphere temperate areas. Data analysis focused on a circum-Antarctic Fe dataset derived from 61 ice cores collected during 10 field expeditions carried out between 1997 and 2012 in the Southern Ocean. Our key findings are that 1 concentrations of all forms of Fe (PFe, DFe, TDFe are at least a magnitude larger in fast ice and pack ice than in typical Antarctic surface waters; 2 DFe, PFe and TDFe behave differently when plotted against sea-ice salinity, suggesting that their distributions in sea ice are driven by distinct, spatially and temporally decoupled processes; 3 DFe is actively extracted from seawater into growing sea ice; 4 fast ice generally has more Fe-bearing particles, a finding supported by the significant negative correlation observed between both PFe and TDFe concentrations in sea ice and water depth; 5 the Fe pool in sea ice is coupled to biota, as indicated by the positive correlations of PFe and TDFe with chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon; and 6 the vast majority of DFe appears to be adsorbed onto something in sea ice. This review also addresses the role of sea ice as a reservoir of Fe and its role in seeding seasonally ice-covered waters. We discuss the pivotal role of organic ligands in controlling DFe concentrations in sea ice and highlight the uncertainties that remain regarding the mechanisms of Fe incorporation in sea ice.

  18. Charging of ice-vapor interfaces: applications to thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nelson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The build-up of intrinsic Bjerrum and ionic defects at ice-vapor interfaces electrically charges ice surfaces and thus gives rise to many phenomena including thermoelectricity, ferroelectric ice films, sparks from objects in blizzards, electromagnetic emissions accompanying cracking in avalanches, glaciers, and sea ice, and charge transfer during ice-ice collisions in thunderstorms. Fletcher's theory of the ice surface in equilibrium proposed that the Bjerrum defects have a higher rate of creation at the surface than in the bulk, which produces a high concentration of surface D defects that then attract a high concentration of OH- ions at the surface. Here, we add to this theory the effect of a moving interface caused by growth or sublimation. This effect can increase the amount of ionic surface charges more than 10-fold for growth rates near 1 mm s-1 and can extend the spatial separation of interior charges in qualitative agreement with many observations. In addition, ice-ice collisions should generate sufficient pressure to melt ice at the contact region and we argue that the ice particle with the initially sharper point at contact loses more mass of melt than the other particle. A simple analytic model of this process with parameters that are consistent with observations leads to predicted collisional charge exchange that semiquantitatively explains the negative charging region of thunderstorms. The model also has implications for snowflake formation, ferroelectric ice, polarization of ice in snowpacks, and chemical reactions in ice surfaces

  19. Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckstrom, Kaarina; Masse, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis G.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25......, identified in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice, has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover. We tested the reliability of this biomarker as a sea ice proxy against observational sea ice data (sea ice concentrations from the global HadISST1 database) and against a more....... When assessed against observational sea ice data, IP25 appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sea ice variability in this setting compared to sea ice diatoms and proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing low-frequency variability in past sea ice concentrations. The PIP25 index...

  20. PU-ICE Summary Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Generator Knowledge Report for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment Containment Systems (GK Report) provides information for the Plutonium Isentropic Compression Experiment (Pu- ICE) program to support waste management and characterization efforts. Attachment 3-18 presents generator knowledge (GK) information specific to the eighteenth Pu-ICE conducted in August 2015, also known as ‘Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and Pu-ICE Z-2841 (1).’ Shot 18 (Aug 2015) was generated on August 28, 2015 (1). Calculations based on the isotopic content of Shot 18 (Aug 2015) and the measured mass of the containment system demonstrate the post-shot containment system is low-level waste (LLW). Therefore, this containment system will be managed at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico (SNL/NM) as LLW. Attachment 3-18 provides documentation of the TRU concentration and documents the concentration of any hazardous constituents.

  1. Solar radiation interactions with seasonal sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Jens Kristian

    features---such as frost flowers or slush layers---is required to understand the albedo of newly formed sea ice. The sea ice had reached its maximum thickness by late April in both FB and BB (˜1.8 m vs. 1.5-1.7 m). However, surface conditions differed notably as surface melting had not been initiated in FB, while melting had progressed to an advanced stage in BB, illustrating the difference in climate between the two regions (Arctic vs. sub-Arctic). The shortwave partitioning between the atmosphere, sea ice and the ocean---as well as within the sea ice---was strongly affected by diurnal freeze-thaw processes and synoptic weather events that controlled the optical characteristics of the surface. In spring, in situ measurements with a high vertical resolution were conducted within the bottom sea ice layers. The optical properties were strongly affected by ice algae present in the bottom few centimeters. Particulate absorption decreased quickly within the ice above the living algae layer, and showed characteristics of detrital matter. The optical properties for the bottom layers of the sea ice were found to significantly differ from interior ice. This is expected as the bottom ice is very porous and has a lamellar platelet structure, in addition to containing high concentrations of biological matter. These findings emphasize the importance of processes occurring near the surface and bottom boundaries in determining radiative transfer in sea ice covers. Ultimately, a focus on linking numerous aspects of sea ice physics and biology is required in order to predict the seasonal evolution of the sea ice cover in a changing climate.

  2. Modeling interfacial liquid layers on environmental ices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Kuo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interfacial layers on ice significantly influence air-ice chemical interactions. In solute-containing aqueous systems, a liquid brine may form upon freezing due to the exclusion of impurities from the ice crystal lattice coupled with freezing point depression in the concentrated brine. The brine may be segregated to the air-ice interface where it creates a surface layer, in micropockets, or at grain boundaries or triple junctions.

    We present a model for brines and their associated liquid layers in environmental ice systems that is valid over a wide range of temperatures and solute concentrations. The model is derived from fundamental equlibrium thermodynamics and takes into account nonideal solution behavior in the brine, partitioning of the solute into the ice matrix, and equilibration between the brine and the gas phase for volatile solutes. We find that these phenomena are important to consider when modeling brines in environmental ices, especially at low temperatures. We demonstrate its application for environmentally important volatile and nonvolatile solutes including NaCl, HCl, and HNO3. The model is compared to existing models and experimental data from literature where available. We also identify environmentally relevant regimes where brine is not predicted to exist, but the QLL may significantly impact air-ice chemical interactions. This model can be used to improve the representation of air-ice chemical interactions in polar atmospheric chemistry models.

  3. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  4. Algae Drive Enhanced Darkening of Bare Ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, Marek; Box, Jason E.; Cameron, Karen A.; Langen, Peter L.; Yallop, Marian L.; Mottram, Ruth H.; Khan, Alia L.; Molotch, Noah P.; Chrismas, Nathan A. M.; Calı Quaglia, Filippo; Remias, Daniel; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Hubbard, Alun; Tranter, Martyn; van As, Dirk; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.

    2017-11-01

    Surface ablation of the Greenland ice sheet is amplified by surface darkening caused by light-absorbing impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon, and pigmented microbial cells. We present the first quantitative assessment of the microbial contribution to the ice sheet surface darkening, based on field measurements of surface reflectance and concentrations of light-absorbing impurities, including pigmented algae, during the 2014 melt season in the southwestern part of the ice sheet. The impact of algae on bare ice darkening in the study area was greater than that of nonalgal impurities and yielded a net albedo reduction of 0.038 ± 0.0035 for each algal population doubling. We argue that algal growth is a crucial control of bare ice darkening, and incorporating the algal darkening effect will improve mass balance and sea level projections of the Greenland ice sheet and ice masses elsewhere.

  5. Image Techniques for Identifying Sea-Ice Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of ice forces are critical to Dynamic Positioning (DP operations in Arctic waters. Ice conditions are important for the analysis of ice-structure interaction in an ice field. To monitor sea-ice conditions, cameras are used as field observation sensors on mobile sensor platforms in Arctic. Various image processing techniques, such as Otsu thresholding, k-means clustering, distance transform, Gradient Vector Flow (GVF Snake, mathematical morphology, are then applied to obtain ice concentration, ice types, and floe size distribution from sea-ice images to ensure safe operations of structures in ice covered regions. Those techniques yield acceptable results, and their effectiveness are demonstrated in case studies.

  6. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  7. Ice Nuclei Production in Volcanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper [Durant et al., 2008] includes a review of research on ice nucleation in explosive volcanic clouds in addition to reporting their own research on laboratory measurements focused on single-particle ice nucleation. Their research as well as the research they reviewed were concerned with the freezing of supercooled water drops (250 to 260 K) by volcanic ash particles acting as ice freezing nuclei. Among their conclusions are: Fine volcanic ash particles are very efficient ice freezing nuclei. Volcanic clouds likely contain fine ash concentrations 104 to 105 times greater than found in meteorological clouds. This overabundance of ice nuclei will produce a cloud with many small ice crystals that will not grow larger as they do in meteorological clouds because the cloud water content is widely distributed among the numerous small ice crystals. The small ice crystals have a small fall velocity, thus volcanic clouds are very stable. The small ice crystals are easily lofted into the stratosphere transporting water and adsorbed trace gasses. In this paper we examine the mechanism for the production of the small ice nuclei and develop a simple model for calculating the size of the ice nuclei based upon the distribution of magma around imbedded bubbles. We also have acquired a volcanic bomb that exhibits bubble remnants on its entire surface. The naturally occurring fragments from the volcanic bomb reveal a size distribution consistent with that predicted by the simple model. Durant, A. J., R. A. Shaw, W. I. Rose, Y. Mi, and G. G. J. Ernst (2008), Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D09206, doi:10.1029/2007JD009064.

  8. Intercomparison of the Arctic sea ice cover in global ocean-sea ice reanalyses from the ORA-IP project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Matthieu; Smith, Gregory C.; Dupont, Frédéric; Lemieux, Jean-François; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Hernandez, Fabrice; Msadek, Rym; Peterson, K. Andrew; Storto, Andrea; Toyoda, Takahiro; Valdivieso, Maria; Vernieres, Guillaume; Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Chang, You-Soon; Ferry, Nicolas; Garric, Gilles; Haines, Keith; Keeley, Sarah; Kovach, Robin M.; Kuragano, Tsurane; Masina, Simona; Tang, Yongming; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Wang, Xiaochun

    2017-08-01

    Ocean-sea ice reanalyses are crucial for assessing the variability and recent trends in the Arctic sea ice cover. This is especially true for sea ice volume, as long-term and large scale sea ice thickness observations are inexistent. Results from the Ocean ReAnalyses Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP) are presented, with a focus on Arctic sea ice fields reconstructed by state-of-the-art global ocean reanalyses. Differences between the various reanalyses are explored in terms of the effects of data assimilation, model physics and atmospheric forcing on properties of the sea ice cover, including concentration, thickness, velocity and snow. Amongst the 14 reanalyses studied here, 9 assimilate sea ice concentration, and none assimilate sea ice thickness data. The comparison reveals an overall agreement in the reconstructed concentration fields, mainly because of the constraints in surface temperature imposed by direct assimilation of ocean observations, prescribed or assimilated atmospheric forcing and assimilation of sea ice concentration. However, some spread still exists amongst the reanalyses, due to a variety of factors. In particular, a large spread in sea ice thickness is found within the ensemble of reanalyses, partially caused by the biases inherited from their sea ice model components. Biases are also affected by the assimilation of sea ice concentration and the treatment of sea ice thickness in the data assimilation process. An important outcome of this study is that the spatial distribution of ice volume varies widely between products, with no reanalysis standing out as clearly superior as compared to altimetry estimates. The ice thickness from systems without assimilation of sea ice concentration is not worse than that from systems constrained with sea ice observations. An evaluation of the sea ice velocity fields reveals that ice drifts too fast in most systems. As an ensemble, the ORA-IP reanalyses capture trends in Arctic sea ice area and extent

  9. Under Sea Ice phytoplankton bloom detection and contamination in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Zeng, T.; Xu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Previous researches reported compelling sea ice phytoplankton bloom in Arctic, while seldom reports studied about Antarctic. Here, lab experiment showed sea ice increased the visible light albedo of the water leaving radiance. Even a new formed sea ice of 10cm thickness increased water leaving radiance up to 4 times of its original bare water. Given that phytoplankton preferred growing and accumulating under the sea ice with thickness of 10cm-1m, our results showed that the changing rate of OC4 estimated [Chl-a] varied from 0.01-0.5mg/m3 to 0.2-0.3mg/m3, if the water covered by 10cm sea ice. Going further, varying thickness of sea ice modulated the changing rate of estimating [Chl-a] non-linearly, thus current routine OC4 model cannot estimate under sea ice [Chl-a] appropriately. Besides, marginal sea ice zone has a large amount of mixture regions containing sea ice, water and snow, where is favorable for phytoplankton. We applied 6S model to estimate the sea ice/snow contamination on sub-pixel water leaving radiance of 4.25km spatial resolution ocean color products. Results showed that sea ice/snow scale effectiveness overestimated [Chl-a] concentration based on routine band ratio OC4 model, which contamination increased with the rising fraction of sea ice/snow within one pixel. Finally, we analyzed the under sea ice bloom in Antarctica based on the [Chl-a] concentration trends during 21 days after sea ice retreating. Regardless of those overestimation caused by sea ice/snow sub scale contamination, we still did not see significant under sea ice blooms in Antarctica in 2012-2017 compared with Arctic. This research found that Southern Ocean is not favorable for under sea ice blooms and the phytoplankton bloom preferred to occur in at least 3 weeks after sea ice retreating.

  10. Wave–ice interactions in the neXtSIM sea-ice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Williams

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a waves-in-ice model (WIM, which calculates ice breakage and the wave radiation stress (WRS. This WIM is then coupled to the new sea-ice model neXtSIM, which is based on the elasto-brittle (EB rheology. We highlight some numerical issues involved in the coupling and investigate the impact of the WRS, and of modifying the EB rheology to lower the stiffness of the ice in the area where the ice has broken up (the marginal ice zone or MIZ. In experiments in the absence of wind, we find that wind waves can produce noticeable movement of the ice edge in loose ice (concentration around 70 % – up to 36 km, depending on the material parameters of the ice that are used and the dynamical model used for the broken ice. The ice edge position is unaffected by the WRS if the initial concentration is higher (≳ 0.9. Swell waves (monochromatic waves with low frequency do not affect the ice edge location (even for loose ice, as they are attenuated much less than the higher-frequency components of a wind wave spectrum, and so consequently produce a much lower WRS (by about an order of magnitude at least.In the presence of wind, we find that the wind stress dominates the WRS, which, while large near the ice edge, decays exponentially away from it. This is in contrast to the wind stress, which is applied over a much larger ice area. In this case (when wind is present the dynamical model for the MIZ has more impact than the WRS, although that effect too is relatively modest. When the stiffness in the MIZ is lowered due to ice breakage, we find that on-ice winds produce more compression in the MIZ than in the pack, while off-ice winds can cause the MIZ to be separated from the pack ice.

  11. Channelized melting drives thinning under Dotson ice shelf, Western Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourmelen, N.; Goldberg, D.; Snow, K.; Henley, S. F.; Bingham, R. G.; Kimura, S.; Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Mouginot, J.; Lenaerts, J.; Ligtenberg, S.; Van De Berg, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of meteoric ice that forms in West Antarctica leaves the ice sheet through floating ice shelves, many of which have been thinning substantially over the last 25 years. A significant proportion of ice-shelf thinning has been driven by submarine melting facilitated by increased access of relatively warm (>0.6oC) modified Circumpolar Deep Water to sub-shelf cavities. Ice shelves play a significant role in stabilising the ice sheet from runaway retreat and regulating its contribution to sea level change. Ice-shelf melting has also been implicated in sustaining high primary productivity in Antarctica's coastal seas. However, these processes vary regionally and are not fully understood. Under some ice shelves, concentrated melting leads to the formation of inverted channels. These channels guide buoyant melt-laden outflow, which can lead to localised melting of the sea ice cover. The channels may also potentially lead to heightened crevassing, which in turn affects ice-shelf stability. Meanwhile, numerical studies suggest that buttressing loss is sensitive to the location of ice removal within an ice-shelf. Thus it is important that we observe spatial patterns, as well as magnitudes, of ice-shelf thinning, in order to improve understanding of the ocean drivers of thinning and of their impacts on ice-shelf stability. Here we show from high-resolution altimetry measurements acquired between 2010 to 2016 that Dotson Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, thins in response to basal melting focussed along a single 5 km-wide and 60 km-long channel extending from the ice shelf's grounding zone to its calving front. The coupled effect of geostrophic circulation and ice-shelf topography leads to the observed concentration of basal melting. Analysis of previous datasets suggests that this process has been ongoing for at least the last 25 years. If focused thinning continues at present rates, the channel would melt through within 40-50 years, almost two centuries before it is

  12. Ice sheet margins and ice shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.

  13. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  14. Validation and evaluation of a workstation for monitoring sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Neil; Boardman, Diane; Darwin, David; Sullivan, Ken

    1994-12-01

    Demand for reliable sea ice information comes from many quarters including ship routing and resource exploitation companies, weather forecasting agencies and glaciological research institution. For operational purposes, this information is typically required for local regions on short timescales. To explore this market a prototype sea ice workstation has been developed. The workstation uses data from several current earth observation sensors, combining the advantages of regional survey, all-weather capability and high-resolution imagery. The output from the workstation is an integrated sea ice chart which can be used to display combinations of ice edge, ice type, ice concentrations, ice motion vectors and sea surface temperatures. During the course of its development significant new progress in automated ice classification has been achieved together with the enhancement of existing ice motion algorithms. The quality of the sea ice information from each geophysical algorithm was assessed through validation campaigns which collected independent datasets. The results of this analysis show the ice type classification to be most accurate in identifying multi-year ice; this is probably the most critical ice category for navigational purposes. A program of end-user evaluation has also been started in which sea ice charts are supplied to operational organizations and value-added services. This will continue during 1994 and provide feedback on the use of the workstation in a semi-operational environment.

  15. Methodology of satellite microwave diagnostics of latitudinal-zonal and seasonal variations of frozen soil and sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Melentiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the work we have had investigated the utility of 6.9GHz dual polarization passive microwave data from the sensor AMSR-E for quantitative assessment of spatial and temporal variations of permafrost, seasonally frozen grounds and sea ice properties along the transect 70° E in 2005–2008 years. Analysis of the factors which could be detected with using study of the spatial-temporal variations of the microwave emissivity (brightness temperatures of the system «Earth-atmosphere» was carried out with using in situ data obtained from meteorological stations situated along the investigated transect of the Western Siberia and geocryologic station Marre-Sale (Yamal Peninsula. A new method of visualization of the brightness temperatures in spatial-temporal dimensions was suggested and practical applied. Eight latitudinal zones with intrinsic peculiarities of the spatial and seasonal variability of the brightness temperatures were revealed and investigated in many details. Comparison of the location of these zones with geographic distribution of biomes in Western Siberia was provided and it shows that satellite passive microwave information can be used for classification of the territories inside biomes. In frame of this study the annual brightness temperatures course for tundra zone area has been strictly divided into four periods (seasons characterized by different types of microwave emissivity variations. For boreal needle-leaved forest zone these seasons are manifested weaker. Comprehensive analysis of the satellite microwave survey data and corresponding the in situ data has shown satisfactory correlation between the brightness temperatures of the tundra areas on the Yamal Peninsula and their thermodynamic ground-trough temperatures at the square of geocryologic station Marre-Sale during winter period of stable frozen conditions and vegetation period. In these periods one-channel satellite microwave survey could be applied for the

  16. Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas using passive AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradizadeh, Mina; Saradjian, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for soil parameter retrievals. Therefore, various soil parameters estimation models have been developed using brightness temperature (BT) measured by passive microwave sensors. Due to the low resolution of satellite microwave radiometer data, the main goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with the use of higher resolution visible/infrared sensor data. Accordingly, after the soil parameters have been obtained using Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model algorithm, the downscaling method has been applied to the soil moisture estimations that have been validated against in situ soil moisture data. Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS BT data in Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 region in the south and north of Oklahoma have been used to this end. Results illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation of the accuracy.

  17. SST, Aqua AMSR-E, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA OceanWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from microwave sensors, which can measure ocean temperatures even in the presence of clouds....

  18. SMEX03 AMSR-E Daily Gridded Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperatures, Brazil, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  19. SMEX03 AMSR-E Daily Gridded Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperatures, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  20. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 (SMEX04) Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer, AMSR-E and Heterogeneous Landscapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, T. J; Bindlish, R; Cosh, M; Gasiewski, A; Stankov, B; Klein, M; Weber, B; Zavorotny, V

    2005-01-01

    An unresolved issue in global soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave sensors is the spatial integration of heterogeneous landscape features to the nominal 50 km footprint observed by most satellite systems...

  1. Co-Registered AMSR-E, QuikSCAT, and WMO Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  2. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  3. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  4. A comparison between two algorithms for the retrieval of soil moisture using AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparison between two algorithms for estimating soil moisture with microwave satellite data was carried out by using the datasets collected on the four Agricultural Research Service (ARS) watershed sites in the US from 2002 to 2009. These sites collectively represent a wide range of ground condit...

  5. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  6. Initiation of secondary ice production in clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Sullivan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disparities between the measured concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs and in-cloud ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs have led to the hypothesis that mechanisms other than primary nucleation form ice in the atmosphere. Here, we model three of these secondary production mechanisms – rime splintering, frozen droplet shattering, and ice–ice collisional breakup – with a six-hydrometeor-class parcel model. We perform three sets of simulations to understand temporal evolution of ice hydrometeor number (Nice, thermodynamic limitations, and the impact of parametric uncertainty when secondary production is active. Output is assessed in terms of the number of primarily nucleated ice crystals that must exist before secondary production initiates (NINP(lim as well as the ICNC enhancement from secondary production and the timing of a 100-fold enhancement. Nice evolution can be understood in terms of collision-based nonlinearity and the phasedness of the process, i.e., whether it involves ice hydrometeors, liquid ones, or both. Ice–ice collisional breakup is the only process for which a meaningful NINP(lim exists (0.002 up to 0.15 L−1. For droplet shattering and rime splintering, a warm enough cloud base temperature and modest updraft are the more important criteria for initiation. The low values of NINP(lim here suggest that, under appropriate thermodynamic conditions for secondary ice production, perturbations in cloud concentration nuclei concentrations are more influential in mixed-phase partitioning than those in INP concentrations.

  7. Recent changes in the dynamic properties of declining Arctic sea ice: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinlun; Lindsay, Ron; Schweiger, Axel; Rigor, Ignatius

    2012-10-01

    Results from a numerical model simulation show significant changes in the dynamic properties of Arctic sea ice during 2007-2011 compared to the 1979-2006 mean. These changes are linked to a 33% reduction in sea ice volume, with decreasing ice concentration, mostly in the marginal seas, and decreasing ice thickness over the entire Arctic, particularly in the western Arctic. The decline in ice volume results in a 37% decrease in ice mechanical strength and 31% in internal ice interaction force, which in turn leads to an increase in ice speed (13%) and deformation rates (17%). The increasing ice speed has the tendency to drive more ice out of the Arctic. However, ice volume export is reduced because the rate of decrease in ice thickness is greater than the rate of increase in ice speed, thus retarding the decline of Arctic sea ice volume. Ice deformation increases the most in fall and least in summer. Thus the effect of changes in ice deformation on the ice cover is likely strong in fall and weak in summer. The increase in ice deformation boosts ridged ice production in parts of the central Arctic near the Canadian Archipelago and Greenland in winter and early spring, but the average ridged ice production is reduced because less ice is available for ridging in most of the marginal seas in fall. The overall decrease in ridged ice production contributes to the demise of thicker, older ice. As the ice cover becomes thinner and weaker, ice motion approaches a state of free drift in summer and beyond and is therefore more susceptible to changes in wind forcing. This is likely to make seasonal or shorter-term forecasts of sea ice edge locations more challenging.

  8. CARBON TRACE GASES IN LAKE AND BEAVER POND ICE NEAR THOMPSON, MANITOBA, CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concentrations of CO2, CO, and CH4 were measured in beaver pond and lake ice in April 1996 near Thompson, Manitoba to derive information on possible impacts of ice melting on corresponding atmospheric trace gas concentrations. CH4 concentrations in beaver pond and lake ice ranged...

  9. Cesium-137 contamination in Arctic Ocean ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meese, D.; Tucker, W.; Cooper, L.; Larsen, I.L.; Grebmeier, J.

    1995-01-01

    Sea ice and ice-borne sediment samples were collected across the western Arctic basin on the joint US/Canada Arctic Ocean Section during August 1994. Samples were processed on board and returned at the completion of the cruise to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for analysis. Sediment was observed on the surface and in the ice from the southern ice limit in the Chukchi Sea to the North Pole. Preliminary results on the ice-borne sediment samples show widespread elevated concentrations of 137 Cs, ranging from 4.9 to 73 mBq g dry weight -1 . An analysis of the measurements indicate that sea ice is primary transport mechanism by which contaminated sediments are redistributed throughout the Arctic Ocean and possibly exported into the Greenland Sea and North Atlantic through Fram Strait. The wide variability in the ice-borne sediment concentrations of 137 Cs measured along the transect argues that contaminants incorporated on the Siberian shelves can follow much more variable trajectories than is suggested by mean ice drift calculations. 2 figs

  10. Experiences With an Optimal Estimation Algorithm for Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From Passive Microwave Data in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarlat, Raul Cristian; Heygster, Georg; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2017-01-01

    the brightness temperatures observed by a passive microwave radiometer. The retrieval method inverts the forward model and produces ensembles of the seven parameters, wind speed, integrated water vapor, liquid water path, sea and ice temperature, sea ice concentration and multiyear ice fraction. The method...... compared with the Arctic Systems Reanalysis model data as well as columnar water vapor retrieved from satellite microwave sounders and the Remote Sensing Systems AMSR-E ocean retrieval product in order to determine the feasibility of using the same setup over pure surface with 100% and 0% sea ice cover......, respectively. Sea ice concentration retrieval shows good skill for pure surface cases. Ice types retrieval is in good agreement with scatterometer backscatter data. Deficiencies have been identified in using the forward model over sea ice for retrieving atmospheric parameters, that are connected...

  11. Monitoring of sea ice drift and area flux in the Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, S.; Kloster, K.; Wåhlin, J.

    2009-04-01

    The western part of the Fram strait is normally covered with sea ice throughout the year. The ice is stationary as fast ice out to 70 -140km from the Greenland coast. Outside is a zone with drifting ice with a gradual increase in drift speed further eastwards to the centre of the strait. Since 2004 NERSC has used ENVISAT ASAR Wideswath images with 150 m resolution to estimate ice drift with three days interval. To resolve the zonal variability in the ice drift field, strait is divided into four different zones. Zone I has usually fastice, zone II is the transition zone with a zonal ice drift gradient, Zone III is only drifting ice and zone IV includes the shelf break and the marginal ice zone where the ice drift is normally at a maximum. This is zone is also more difficult for ice drift for ice drift retrieval from satellites because of quite homogeneous ice cover. The ice area flux is calculated from the detailed ice drift- and concentration-profiles at 79N, as the integral in longitude of the product of ice concentration and ice displacement. The data shows an increased ice flux over the last four seasons since 2004-05. The SAR derived ice drift data are compared with similar ice drift data from AMSRE and merged QuikScat and SSMI data for the winter season October to April when passive microwave and scatterometer data can be used for ice drift retrieval. The comparison shows that the SAR data resolves the zonal structure and gives a general higher ice drift compared the other data sets. SAR also provides year-round data on ice drift, which allows a more precise estimation of monthly and annual ice area fluxes. The study is supported by the DAMOCLES project.

  12. The AMS dating of pollen from syngenetic ice-wedge ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' chuk, Alla C. E-mail: vasilch@orc.ru; Kim, Jong-Chan; Vasil' chuk, Yurij K

    2004-08-01

    The features of pollen occurrence in ice-wedge ice such as: size of pollen of tundra plants, incoming pollen into frost cracks together with melt water, dust and partially from host sediment and also clay envelopes around pollen grains caused the pretreatment methods of ice-wedge ice samples. Good preservation of thin-wall pollen grains of Salix and Liliaceae after pretreatment evidenced appropriate pretreatment procedure. There is evident correlation between pollen dates and re-deposited pollen and spores content. However an interpretation of {sup 14}C dating of pollen concentrate is required independent time scale such as annual laminas or the AMS dates of macro or microfossils.

  13. Characteristics of ice-active substances released by sea ice diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, James A.

    1997-07-01

    Several species of antarctic sea ice diatoms have been found to release ice-active substances (IAS). At natural concentrations, they produce dense pitting on ice crystal surfaces at temperatures slightly below the freezing point, without significantly affecting the freezing point. This phenomenon appears to be associated with cold-adapted species as it has not been found in temperature fresh water and marine diatoms. IASs have been found in several species of sea ice diatoms, including both attached and unattached species. The ice-active substances have been found both in ice platelet water as well as in the solid congelation ice in McMurdo Sound in early summer, and in newly formed ice in winter in the Weddell and Bellinghausen seas. An IAS- producing species (Amphiprora) was cultured in the laboratory and produced noticeable increases in IAS activity. The IAS is retained by dialysis tubing and appears to be proteinaceous, as it is inactivated by proteases and heat. Further attempts to purify and characterize the IAS are in progress. The role of the IAS is unknown. Possible roles involving attachment of diatoms to ice and modification of the optical properties of ice are being considered.

  14. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  15. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  16. A microwave technique for mapping ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, K.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Remote Sensing Div.; Cavalieri, D.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1997-07-01

    A technique for deriving ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone from passive microwave radiances has been developed. The algorithm operates on brightness temperatures derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and uses ice concentration and type from a previously developed thin ice algorithm to estimate the surface emissivity. Comparisons of the microwave derived temperatures with estimates derived from infrared imagery of the Bering Strait yield a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and an RMS difference of 2.1 K when coastal and cloud contaminated pixels are removed. SSM/I temperatures were also compared with a time series of air temperature observations from Gambell on St. Lawrence Island and from Point Barrow, AK weather stations. These comparisons indicate that the relationship between the air temperature and the ice temperature depends on ice type.

  17. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  18. Investigating Arctic Sea Ice Survivability in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tooth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice extent has continued to decline in recent years, and the fractional coverage of multi-year sea ice has decreased significantly during this period. The Beaufort Sea region has been the site of much of the loss of multi-year sea ice, and it continues to play a large role in the extinction of ice during the melt season. We present an analysis of the influence of satellite-derived ice surface temperature, ice thickness, albedo, and downwelling longwave/shortwave radiation as well as latitude and airborne snow depth estimates on the change in sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea from 2009 to 2016 using a Lagrangian tracking database. Results from this analysis indicate that parcels that melt during summer in the Beaufort Sea reside at lower latitudes and have lower ice thickness at the beginning of the melt season in most cases. The influence of sea ice thickness and snow depth observed by IceBridge offers less conclusive results, with some years exhibiting higher thicknesses/depths for melted parcels. Parcels that melted along IceBridge tracks do exhibit lower latitudes and ice thicknesses, however, which indicates that earlier melt and breakup of ice may contribute to a greater likelihood of extinction of parcels in the summer.

  19. Ice storm `98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulard, F.; Trant, D.; Filoso, J.; Van Wesenbeeck, P. [Statistics Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environment Statistics Program

    1998-12-31

    As much as 100 millimeters of freezing rain fell on central and eastern Canada between January 4 to 10, 1998. This study concentrates on Canada`s St. Lawrence River Valley where total precipitation exceeded 73 mm in Kingston, 85 mm in Ottawa and 100 mm in areas south of Montreal. By comparison, the largest previously recorded ice storms left between 30 and 40 mm of ice. A state of emergency was declared for the affected regions. 56 per cent of Quebec`s population and 11 per cent of Ontario`s population were affected by the storm. Over 1000 power transmission towers collapsed and more than 30,000 wooden utility poles were brought down. In Quebec, nearly 1.4 million customers were left without electricity. In Ontario that number was about 230,000. While some manufacturers benefited directly from the storm, including makers of hydro and telephone poles, batteries and specialized electrical equipment, the overall economic losses for Montreal and Ottawa were high as estimates run to $585 million and $114 million, respectively. Almost 5 million sugar maple taps in Quebec and Ontario were located and suffered some damage in the affected areas. Nearly one-quarter (274,000) of all dairy cows were also located in the affected areas. Since in the absence of electricity they could not be milked, many of them suffered from mastitis. Many succumbed, others that survived may never attain their former level of productivity. As of June 1998, over 600,000 insurance claims totaling one billion dollars had been filed by Canadian households and businesses from the area affected by the ice storm.1 fig.

  20. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  1. Reviews and syntheses: Ice acidification, the effects of ocean acidification on sea ice microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    Sea ice algae, like some coastal and estuarine phytoplankton, are naturally exposed to a wider range of pH and CO2 concentrations than those in open marine seas. While climate change and ocean acidification (OA) will impact pelagic communities, their effects on sea ice microbial communities remain unclear. Sea ice contains several distinct microbial communities, which are exposed to differing environmental conditions depending on their depth within the ice. Bottom communities mostly experience relatively benign bulk ocean properties, while interior brine and surface (infiltration) communities experience much greater extremes. Most OA studies have examined the impacts on single sea ice algae species in culture. Although some studies examined the effects of OA alone, most examined the effects of OA and either light, nutrients or temperature. With few exceptions, increased CO2 concentration caused either no change or an increase in growth and/or photosynthesis. In situ studies on brine and surface algae also demonstrated a wide tolerance to increased and decreased pH and showed increased growth at higher CO2 concentrations. The short time period of most experiments (impacts appear to be minimal. In sea ice also, the few reports available suggest no negative impacts on bacterial growth or community richness. Sea ice ecosystems are ephemeral, melting and re-forming each year. Thus, for some part of each year organisms inhabiting the ice must also survive outside of the ice, either as part of the phytoplankton or as resting spores on the bottom. During these times, they will be exposed to the full range of co-stressors that pelagic organisms experience. Their ability to continue to make a major contribution to sea ice productivity will depend not only on their ability to survive in the ice but also on their ability to survive the increasing seawater temperatures, changing distribution of nutrients and declining pH forecast for the water column over the next centuries.

  2. Challenges in validating model results for first year ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Arne; Eastwood, Steinar; Xie, Jiping; Aaboe, Signe; Bertino, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In order to assess the quality of model results for the distribution of first year ice, a comparison with a product based on observations from satellite-borne instruments has been performed. Such a comparison is not straightforward due to the contrasting algorithms that are used in the model product and the remote sensing product. The implementation of the validation is discussed in light of the differences between this set of products, and validation results are presented. The model product is the daily updated 10-day forecast from the Arctic Monitoring and Forecasting Centre in CMEMS. The forecasts are produced with the assimilative ocean prediction system TOPAZ. Presently, observations of sea ice concentration and sea ice drift are introduced in the assimilation step, but data for sea ice thickness and ice age (or roughness) are not included. The model computes the age of the ice by recording and updating the time passed after ice formation as sea ice grows and deteriorates as it is advected inside the model domain. Ice that is younger than 365 days is classified as first year ice. The fraction of first-year ice is recorded as a tracer in each grid cell. The Ocean and Sea Ice Thematic Assembly Centre in CMEMS redistributes a daily product from the EUMETSAT OSI SAF of gridded sea ice conditions which include "ice type", a representation of the separation of regions between those infested by first year ice, and those infested by multi-year ice. The ice type is parameterized based on data for the gradient ratio GR(19,37) from SSMIS observations, and from the ASCAT backscatter parameter. This product also includes information on ambiguity in the processing of the remote sensing data, and the product's confidence level, which have a strong seasonal dependency.

  3. Late Holocene Methane Concentrations from WAIS Divide and GISP2, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set measures methane concentrations in ancient air trapped in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide and Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP2) ice cores;...

  4. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice

  5. STUDY ON THE RETRIEVAL OF SNOW DEPTH FROM FY3B/MWRI IN THE ATCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available temperatures. Given the high albedo and low thermal conductivity, snow is regarded as one of the key reasons for the amplification of the warming in polar regions. The distributions of sea ice and snow depth are essential to the whole thermal conduction in the Arctic. This study focused on the retrieval of snow depth on sea ice from brightness temperatures of the MicroWave Radiometer Imager (MWRI onboard the FengYun (FY-3B satellite during the period from December 1, 2010 to April 30, 2011. After cross calibrated to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–EOS (AMSR-E Level 2A data, the MWRI brightness temperatures were applied to calculate the sea ice concentrations based on the Arctic Radiation and Turbulence Interaction Study Sea Ice (ASI algorithm. According to the proportional relationship between the snow depth and the surface scattering in 18.7 and 36.5 GHz, the snow depths were derived. In order to eliminate the influence of uncertainties in grain sizes of snow as well as sporadic weather effects, the seven-day averaged snow depths were calculated. Then the results were compared with the snow depths from the AMSR-E Level 3 Sea Ice products. The bias of differences between the MWRI and the AMSR-E Level 3 products are ranged between −1.09 and −0.32 cm,while the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients are ranged from 2.47 to 2.88 cm and from 0.78 to 0.90 for different months. As a result, it could be summarized that FY3B/MWRI showed a promising prospect in retrieving snow depth on sea ice.

  6. Antarctic Ice Velocity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of recent ice velocity data of the Antarctic ice sheet is intended for use by the polar scientific community. The data are presented in tabular form...

  7. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  8. Linescan camera evaluation of SSM/I 85.5 GHz sea ice retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, Caren; Lubin, Dan; Kern, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    misclassify clouds over open water as sea ice, and is therefore unreliable for locating the sea ice edge. The best algorithm for locating the sea ice edge is found to be the SEA LION algorithm, which explicitly uses meteorological reanalysis data to correct for atmospheric contamination. For total sea ice......Retrievals of total sea ice concentration from four algorithms using the 85.5 GHz vertically and horizontally polarized channels of the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) over the marginal ice zone in the Barents and Greenland Seas are compared with retrievals of total sea ice concentration...... from helicopter-borne linescan camera observations made during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern during May-June 1997. The goals are to evaluate (1) SSM/I 85.5 GHz retrievals of total sea ice concentration for climatological purposes, and (2) the ability of 85.5 GHz data to show the sea ice edge through...

  9. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    pp. 68-69, 1947. Speranza, F., OThe Formation of Ice,a Rivista di Meteorologia Aeronautics, 1(2), pp. 19-30, 1937. Steiner, R. 0., "The Icing of...Deposits of Ice on Airplane Carburetors,8 (Translation) Rivista di Meteorologia Aeronautica, 4(2), pp. 38-47, 1940. Von Glahn, U. H.; Renner, C. E

  10. Technology for Ice Rinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  11. Antarctic Sea Ice Variability and Trends, 1979-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Cavalieri, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In sharp contrast to the decreasing sea ice coverage of the Arctic, in the Antarctic the sea ice cover has, on average, expanded since the late 1970s. More specifically, satellite passive-microwave data for the period November 1978 - December 2010 reveal an overall positive trend in ice extents of 17,100 +/- 2,300 square km/yr. Much of the increase, at 13,700 +/- 1,500 square km/yr, has occurred in the region of the Ross Sea, with lesser contributions from the Weddell Sea and Indian Ocean. One region, that of the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas, has, like the Arctic, instead experienced significant sea ice decreases, with an overall ice extent trend of -8,200 +/- 1,200 square km/yr. When examined through the annual cycle over the 32-year period 1979-2010, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice cover as a whole experienced positive ice extent trends in every month, ranging in magnitude from a low of 9,100 +/- 6,300 square km/yr in February to a high of 24,700 +/- 10,000 square km/yr in May. The Ross Sea and Indian Ocean also had positive trends in each month, while the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas had negative trends in each month, and the Weddell Sea and Western Pacific Ocean had a mixture of positive and negative trends. Comparing ice-area results to ice-extent results, in each case the ice-area trend has the same sign as the ice-extent trend, but differences in the magnitudes of the two trends identify regions with overall increasing ice concentrations and others with overall decreasing ice concentrations. The strong pattern of decreasing ice coverage in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas region and increasing ice coverage in the Ross Sea region is suggestive of changes in atmospheric circulation. This is a key topic for future research.

  12. Ice nucleation and overseeding of ice in volcanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, A. J.; Shaw, R. A.; Rose, W. I.; Mi, Y.; Ernst, G. G. J.

    2008-05-01

    Water is the dominant component of volcanic gas emissions, and water phase transformations, including the formation of ice, can be significant in the dynamics of volcanic clouds. The effectiveness of volcanic ash particles as ice-forming nuclei (IN) is poorly understood and the sparse data that exist for volcanic ash IN have been interpreted in the context of meteorological, rather than volcanic clouds. In this study, single-particle freezing experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of ash particle composition and surface area on water drop freezing temperature. Measured freezing temperatures show only weak correlations with ash IN composition and surface area. Our measurements, together with a review of previous volcanic ash IN measurements, suggest that fine-ash particles (equivalent diameters between approximately 1 and 1000 μm) from the majority of volcanoes will exhibit an onset of freezing between ˜250-260 K. In the context of explosive eruptions where super-micron particles are plentiful, this result implies that volcanic clouds are IN-rich relative to meteorological clouds, which typically are IN-limited, and therefore should exhibit distinct microphysics. We can expect that such "overseeded" volcanic clouds will exhibit enhanced ice crystal concentrations and smaller average ice crystal size, relative to dynamically similar meteorological clouds, and that glaciation will tend to occur over a relatively narrow altitude range.

  13. Polar Sea Ice Monitoring Using HY-2A Scatterometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A sea ice detection algorithm based on Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis is developed to segment sea ice and open water for the Ku-band scatterometer onboard the China’s Hai Yang 2A Satellite (HY-2A/SCAT. Residual classification errors are reduced through image erosion/dilation techniques and sea ice growth/retreat constraint methods. The arctic sea-ice-type classification is estimated via a time-dependent threshold derived from the annual backscatter trends based on previous HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice extent. The extent and edge of the sea ice obtained in this study is compared with the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sea ice concentration data and the Sentinel-1 SAR imagery for verification, respectively. Meanwhile, the classified sea ice type is compared with a multi-sensor sea ice type product based on data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and SSMIS. Results show that HY-2A/SCAT is powerful in providing sea ice extent and type information, while differences in the sensitivities of active/passive products are found. In addition, HY-2A/SCAT derived sea ice products are also proved to be valuable complements for existing polar sea ice data products.

  14. Understanding first-year ice thickness variability using IceBridge measurements and drift track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. C.; Palo, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    In a first-year ice dominated environment, positive climate feedbacks in the Arctic persist from year to year when increased summertime melt results in decreased ice growth the following winter. In this presentation, we describe a novel approach to evaluating the impacts of delayed freeze-up, oceanic heat flux, and variable atmospheric forcing on end-of-season first year ice thickness. Parcels of first-year sea ice selected from IceBridge sea ice thickness retrievals are tracked backwards through their winter drift paths using the Pathfinder Ice Motion product. The freeze-up date for each parcel is determined by tracing the drift path through the SSMI Ice Concentration product, and summertime mixed layer heat is estimated from the NOAA Optimal Interpolation SST product at the locations of freeze-up and the end-of-season measurement. Over-winter atmospheric forcing is estimated from integrating the drift path through the MERRA2 reanalysis product using a simple 1-D ice growth model. The end of season ice thickness distributions can then be analyzed in the context of the processes that drive ice growth. The summer mixed layer temperature at the end-of-season measurement location, the integrated atmospheric forcing, and the length of the growth season are the three parameters, after end-of-season snow depth, most correlated with the ice thickness. Controlling for these other factors, delaying freeze-up by one week leads to 5.3 cm thinner ice cover at the end of the season. Warming summer ocean temperatures contribute to delayed freeze-up, but even after controlling for changing freeze-up dates and atmospheric forcing, each degree (C) of warmer summertime temperatures results in 1.9 centimeters of thinner ice cover at the end of the winter season. This indicates that oceanic heat flux due to trapped seasonal heat compounds the loss of ice growth due to delayed freeze-up resulting in thinner first-year ice cover in the Arctic seasonal ice zones.

  15. Grain boundary melting in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wilen, L. A.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentr...

  16. Basic Physical Properties of Ammonia-Rich Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandera, S. E.; Lorenz, R. D.

    2000-10-01

    We report simple measurements of the thermal conductivity, mechanical strength and microwave absorptivity of ammonia hydrate ices, which are likely to be abundant in the Saturnian system. Understanding the dielectric properties of ammonia ice could play an important role in interpreting data from the Cassini spacecraft, which will image Titan's surface by radar in 2004. Thermal conductivity measurements were made by freezing a thin copper wire in the center of ice samples. The wire acted as both heater and temperature sensor, calibrated by a thermocouple also frozen in the sample. Ices with concentrations of 5- 30% ammonia were compared to pure water ice and ices containing salts. Thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing concentration of ammonia - a factor of 3 or 4 less than pure water ice for the 30% peritectic composition. Microwave absorptivity was measured by placing insulated ice samples and calibration materials in a conventional microwave oven. The microwave absorptivity was found to increase with increasing concentration of ammonia, although the effect is strongly temperature dependent, and heat leak from the room made quantitative measurement difficult. Mechanical strength was estimated using a ball bearing/accelerometer indentation method. For temperatures 100-150K, ammonia-rich ice has a Young's modulus about 10x smaller than pure ice. These properties affect tidal dissipation and the likelihood and style of cryovolcanism on (and the radar appearance of) the icy satellites and Titan. This work was supported by the Cassini RADAR team and the Arizona Space Grant Consortium.

  17. Influence of Sea Ice Crack Formation on the Spatial Distribution of Nutrients and Microalgae in Flooded Antarctic Multiyear Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Daiki; Aoki, Shigeru; Simizu, Daisuke; Iida, Takahiro

    2018-02-01

    Cracks are common and natural features of sea ice formed in the polar oceans. In this study, a sea ice crack in flooded, multiyear, land-fast Antarctic sea ice was examined to assess its influence on biological productivity and the transport of nutrients and microalgae into the upper layers of neighboring sea ice. The water inside the crack and the surrounding host ice were characterized by a strong discoloration (brown color), an indicator of a massive algal bloom. Salinity and oxygen isotopic ratio measurements indicated that 64-84% of the crack water consisted of snow meltwater supplied during the melt season. Measurements of nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations within the slush layer pool (the flooded layer at the snow-ice interface) revealed the intrusion of water from the crack, likely forced by mixing with underlying seawater during the tidal cycle. Our results suggest that sea ice crack formation provides conditions favorable for algal blooms by directly exposing the crack water to sunlight and supplying nutrients from the under-ice water. Subsequently, constituents of the crack water modified by biological activity were transported into the upper layer of the flooded sea ice. They were then preserved in the multiyear ice column formed by upward growth of sea ice caused by snow ice formation in areas of significant snow accumulation.

  18. Summertime heat and Arctic ice retreat: the role of solar heat on bottom melting of Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Light, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice in the Arctic has experienced significant change in recent years. Multiyear ice has been replaced by seasonal ice, and ice area has been replaced by lead area. Accompanying a thinner and less concentrated sea ice pack is an increase in solar heat input to the ocean through absorption in leads and light transmission through the ice. Previous work using sea ice mass balance data demonstrated a relationship between solar heat addition to the ice and ocean and bottom melting during the summer of 2008. Here we explore this relationship using results from other years. Data collected in recent years by collocated Ice Mass Balance (IMB) and Ocean Heat Flux (OHF) buoys has been analyzed for similar trends and is presented here over several melt seasons. Estimation of bottom heat fluxes have been determined from IMB data and turbulent heat transfer modeling. Incident shortwave radiations fluxes are obtained from reanalysis products, while lead fractions are determined from satellite observations. Radiative fluxes reflected and transmitted by the sea ice cover are estimated using algorithms and models. Relationships between ice melt, ice motion, and heat in the upper ocean are also explored.

  19. Arctic ice management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Steven J.; Smith, Nathan; Groppi, Christopher; Vargas, Perry; Jackson, Rebecca; Kalyaan, Anusha; Nguyen, Peter; Probst, Luke; Rubin, Mark E.; Singleton, Heather; Spacek, Alexander; Truitt, Amanda; Zaw, Pye Pye; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2017-01-01

    As the Earth's climate has changed, Arctic sea ice extent has decreased drastically. It is likely that the late-summer Arctic will be ice-free as soon as the 2030s. This loss of sea ice represents one of the most severe positive feedbacks in the climate system, as sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by sea ice is absorbed by open ocean. It is unlikely that CO2 levels and mean temperatures can be decreased in time to prevent this loss, so restoring sea ice artificially is an imperative. Here we investigate a means for enhancing Arctic sea ice production by using wind power during the Arctic winter to pump water to the surface, where it will freeze more rapidly. We show that where appropriate devices are employed, it is possible to increase ice thickness above natural levels, by about 1 m over the course of the winter. We examine the effects this has in the Arctic climate, concluding that deployment over 10% of the Arctic, especially where ice survival is marginal, could more than reverse current trends of ice loss in the Arctic, using existing industrial capacity. We propose that winter ice thickening by wind-powered pumps be considered and assessed as part of a multipronged strategy for restoring sea ice and arresting the strongest feedbacks in the climate system.

  20. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...

  1. NSIDC Near Real-Time Global Ice and Snow Extent (NISE) [MODIS Ancillary Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Near Real-Time SSM/I EASE-Grid Daily Global Ice Concentration and Snow Extent product (Near real-time Ice and Snow Extent, NISE) provides daily, global near...

  2. Sulfate-Based Volcanic Record from South Pole Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains concentrations of soluble chemical species (ions) within a 120 m ice core retrieved at the South Pole station in 2001. The ice core was dated...

  3. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Siple Dome A Ice Core, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes a record of cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in the Siple Dome A ice core collected as part of the West Antarctic ice core program. The...

  4. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  5. Sudden increase in Antarctic sea ice: Fact or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    Three sea ice data sets commonly used for climate research display a large and abrupt increase in Antarctic sea ice area (SIA) in recent years. This unprecedented change of SIA is diagnosed to be primarily caused by an apparent sudden increase in sea ice concentrations within the ice pack, especially in the area of the most-concentrated ice (greater than 95% concentration). A series of alternative satellite-derived records do not display any abnormal sudden SIA changes, but do reveal substantial discrepancies between different satellite sensors and sea ice algorithms. Sea ice concentrations in the central ice pack and SIA values derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSRE) are consistently greater than those derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI). A switch in source data from the SSMI to AMSRE in mid-2009 explains most of the SIA increase in all three affected data sets. If uncorrected for, the discontinuity artificially exaggerates the winter Antarctic SIA increase (1979-2010) by more than a factor of 2 and the spring trend by almost a factor of 4. The discontinuity has a weaker influence on the summer and autumn SIA trends, on calculations of Antarctic sea ice extent, and in the Arctic.

  6. Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Leichty, J. M.; Klesh, A. T.; Matthews, J. B.; Hand, K. P.

    2012-12-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested a prototype robotic mobility platform for exploring the underside of ice sheets in frozen lake or ocean environments. The ice-water interface often provides some of the most interesting and dynamic chemistry in partially frozen systems, as dissolved impurities are rejected from the advancing freezing front. Higher concentrations of microorganisms can be found in this region, and the topography of the ice underside can help reveal the history of its formation. Furthermore, in lake environments ice cover can serve to trap gases released from biological and geological processes in the subsurface. The rover uses a two-wheeled design with a flexible dragging tail, enabling it to fit into a 10-inch diameter ice borehole. The sealed air-filled cylindrical body, along with closed-cell foam inside of cone-shaped wheels, provides buoyancy force to enable roving along the underside of the ice. The prototype contains two cameras that stream live video via a tethered connection to a ground station and uses semi-autonomous control via a PC. Preliminary testing of the prototype in a cold lab and in northern Alaskan thermokarst lakes demonstrates the utility and simplicity of this type of robotic platform for exploring the ice-water interface. This technology has potential future use in landed missions to icy ocean worlds in the solar system.

  7. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  8. Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, O; Andersson, P; Axelman, J; Bucheli, T D; Kömp, P; McLachlan, M S; Sobek, A; Thörngren, J-O

    2005-04-15

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 l ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l(-1) in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC(-1) in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K(ow) (ice log K(oc)-log K(ow) regressions: p<0.05, r2=0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration

  9. Observations of the PCB distribution within and in-between ice, snow, ice-rafted debris, ice-interstitial water, and seawater in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone and the North Pole area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Oe.; Andersson, P.; Axelman, J.; Bucheli, T.D.; Koemp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.; Sobek, A.; Thoerngren, J.-O.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the two hypotheses of locally elevated exposure of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ice-associated microenvironments and ice as a key carrier for long-range transport of POPs to the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ), dissolved and particulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in ice, snow, ice-interstitial water (IIW), seawater in the melt layer underlying the ice, and in ice-rafted sediment (IRS) from the Barents Sea MIZ to the high Arctic in the summer of 2001. Ultra-clean sampling equipment and protocols were specially developed for this expedition, including construction of a permanent clean room facility and a stainless steel seawater intake system on the I/B ODEN as well as two mobile 370 l ice-melting systems. Similar concentrations were found in several ice-associated compartments. For instance, the concentration of one of the most abundant congeners, PCB 52, was typically on the order of 0.1-0.3 pg l -1 in the dissolved (melted) phase of the ice, snow, IIW, and underlying seawater while its particulate organic-carbon (POC) normalized concentrations were around 1-3 ng gPOC -1 in the ice, snow, IIW, and IRS. The solid-water distribution of PCBs in ice was well correlated with and predictable from K ow (ice log K oc -log K ow regressions: p 2 =0.78-0.98, n=9), indicating near-equilibrium partitioning of PCBs within each local ice system. These results do generally not evidence the existence of physical microenvironments with locally elevated POP exposures. However, there were some indications that the ice-associated system had harbored local environments with higher exposure levels earlier/before the melting/vegetative season, as a few samples had PCB concentrations elevated by factors of 5-10 relative to the typical values, and the elevated levels were predominantly found at the station where melting had putatively progressed the least. The very low PCB concentrations and absence of any significant concentration gradients, both

  10. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J C; Aslam, Shazia N; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N

    2013-09-24

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.

  11. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    The Sea Ice Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by GCOS pertains of both sea ice concentration, thickness, and drift. Now in its second phase, the ESA CCI Sea Ice project is conducting the necessary research efforts to address sea ice drift.Accurate estimates of sea ice drift direction...... the physical parametrizations. Sea ice drift products are also required to locate regions of convergent and divergent ice motion across spatio-temporal scales from meters / hours to basins / years.The work in the CCI Sea Ice project includes defining metrics for assessing the accuracy of algorithms, selecting...... relevant satellite and “ground-truth” data, building the Round-Robin Data Package for testing the algorithms, and finally selection of the most promising algorithm(s) for processing of a new sea ice drift climate dataset. Specific efforts are dedicated to the definition of per-grid-cell uncertainties...

  12. Do pelagic grazers benefit from sea ice? Insights from the Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schmidt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice affects primary production in polar regions in multiple ways. It can dampen water column productivity by reducing light or nutrient supply, provide a habitat for ice algae and condition the marginal ice zone (MIZ for phytoplankton blooms on its seasonal retreat. The relative importance of three different carbon sources (sea ice derived, sea ice conditioned, non-sea-ice associated for the polar food web is not well understood, partly due to the lack of methods that enable their unambiguous distinction. Here we analysed two highly branched isoprenoid (HBI biomarkers to trace sea-ice-derived and sea-ice-conditioned carbon in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba and relate their concentrations to the grazers' body reserves, growth and recruitment. During our sampling in January–February 2003, the proxy for sea ice diatoms (a di-unsaturated HBI termed IPSO25, δ13C  =  −12.5 ± 3.3 ‰ occurred in open waters of the western Scotia Sea, where seasonal ice retreat was slow. In suspended matter from surface waters, IPSO25 was present at a few stations close to the ice edge, but in krill the marker was widespread. Even at stations that had been ice-free for several weeks, IPSO25 was found in krill stomachs, suggesting that they gathered the ice-derived algae from below the upper mixed layer. Peak abundances of the proxy for MIZ diatoms (a tri-unsaturated HBI termed HBI III, δ13C  =  −42.2 ± 2.4 ‰ occurred in regions of fast sea ice retreat and persistent salinity-driven stratification in the eastern Scotia Sea. Krill sampled in the area defined by the ice edge bloom likewise contained high amounts of HBI III. As indicators for the grazer's performance we used the mass–length ratio, size of digestive gland and growth rate for krill, and recruitment for the biomass-dominant calanoid copepods Calanoides acutus and Calanus propinquus. These indices consistently point to blooms in the MIZ as an important feeding

  13. Ice Nucleation and Dehydration in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric J.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Lawson, R Paul; Lance, Sara; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Mcgill, Matthew J.; Pfister, Leonhard; Toon, Owen B.; Gao, Rushan

    2013-01-01

    Optically thin cirrus near the tropical tropopause regulate the humidity of air entering the stratosphere, which in turn has a strong influence on the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Recent highaltitude, unmanned aircraft measurements provide evidence for two distinct classes of cirrus formed in the tropical tropopause region: (i) vertically extensive cirrus with low ice number concentrations, low extinctions, and large supersaturations (up to approx. 70%) with respect to ice; and (ii) vertically thin cirrus layers with much higher ice concentrations that effectively deplete the vapor in excess of saturation. The persistent supersaturation in the former class of cirrus is consistent with the long time-scales (several hours or longer) for quenching of vapor in excess of saturation given the low ice concentrations and cold tropical tropopause temperatures. The low-concentration clouds are likely formed on a background population of insoluble particles with concentrations less than 100 L-1 (often less than 20 L-1), whereas the high ice concentration layers (with concentrations up to 10,000 L-1) can only be produced by homogeneous freezing of an abundant population of aqueous aerosols. These measurements, along with past high-altitude aircraft measurements, indicate that the low-concentration cirrus occur frequently in the tropical tropopause region, whereas the high-concentration cirrus occur infrequently. The predominance of the low-concentration clouds means cirrus near the tropical tropopause may typically allow entry of air into the stratosphere with as much as approx. 1.7 times the ice saturation mixing ratio.

  14. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  15. Ice-surface adsorption enhanced colligative effect of antifreeze proteins in ice growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yougang; Ba, Yong

    2006-09-01

    This Communication describes a mechanism to explain antifreeze protein's function to inhibit the growth of ice crystals. We propose that the adsorption of antifreeze protein (AFP) molecules on an ice surface induces a dense AFP-water layer, which can significantly decrease the mole fraction of the interfacial water and, thus, lower the temperature for a seed ice crystal to grow in a super-cooled AFP solution. This mechanism can also explain the nearly unchanged melting point for the ice crystal due to the AFP's ice-surface adsorption. A mathematical model combining the Langmuir theory of adsorption and the colligative effect of thermodynamics has been proposed to find the equilibrium constants of the ice-surface adsorptions, and the interfacial concentrations of AFPs through fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental thermal hysteresis data. This model has been demonstrated by using the experimental data of serial size-mutated beetle Tenebrio molitor (Tm) AFPs. It was found that the AFP's ice-surface adsorptions could increase the interfacial AFP's concentrations by 3 to 4 orders compared with those in the bulk AFP solutions.

  16. Sea ice trends and cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Jack; McDonald, Adrian; Rack, Wolfgang; Dale, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Significant trends in the extent of Southern Hemisphere sea ice have been noted over the course of the satellite record, with highly variable trends between different seasons and regions. In this presentation, we describe efforts to assess the impact of cyclones on these trends. Employing a maximum cross-correlation method, we derive Southern Ocean ice-motion vectors from daily gridded SSMI 85.5 GHz brightness temperatures. We then derive a sea ice budget from the NASA-Team 25 km square daily sea ice concentrations. The budget quantifies the total daily change in sea ice area, and includes terms representing the effects of ice advection and divergence. A residual term represents the processes of rafting, ridging, freezing and thawing. We employ a cyclone tracking algorithm developed at the University of Canterbury to determine the timing, location, size and strength of Southern Hemisphere cyclones from mean sea-level pressure fields of the ERA-Interim reanalysis. We then form composites of the of sea ice budget below the location of cyclones. Unsurprisingly, we find that clockwise atmospheric flow around Southern Hemisphere cyclones exerts a strong influence on the movement of sea ice, an effect which is visible in the advection and divergence terms. Further, we assess the climatological importance of cyclones by comparing seasons of sea ice advance for periods with varying numbers of cyclones. This analysis is performed independently for each sea ice concentration pixel, thus affording us insight into the geographical importance of storm systems. We find that Southern Hemisphere sea ice extent is highly sensitive to the presence of cyclones in the periphery of the pack in the advance season. Notably, the sensitivity is particularly high in the northern Ross Sea, an area with a marked positive trend in sea ice extent. We discuss whether trends in cyclone activity in the Southern Ocean may have contributed to sea ice extent trends in this region.

  17. Local Residential Segregation Matters: Stronger Association of Census Tract Compared to Conventional City-Level Measures with Fatal and Non-Fatal Assaults (Total and Firearm Related), Using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) for Racial, Economic, and Racialized Economic Segregation, Massachusetts (US), 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Feldman, Justin M; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent A; Hemenway, David

    2017-04-01

    Research on residential segregation and health, primarily conducted in the USA, has chiefly employed city or regional measures of racial segregation. To test our hypothesis that stronger associations would be observed using local measures, especially for racialized economic segregation, we analyzed risk of fatal and non-fatal assault in Massachusetts (1995-2010), since this outcome is strongly associated with residential segregation. The segregation metrics comprised the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), the Index of Dissimilarity, and poverty rate, with measures computed at both the census tract and city/town level. Key results were that larger associations between fatal and non-fatal assaults and residential segregation occurred for models using the census tract vs. city/town measures, with the greatest associations observed for racialized economic segregation. For fatal assaults, comparing the bottom vs. top quintiles, the incidence rate ratio (and 95% confidence interval (CI)) in models using the census tract measures equaled 3.96 (95% CI 3.10, 5.06) for the ICE for racialized economic segregation, 3.26 (95% CI 2.58, 4.14) for the ICE for income, 3.14 (95% CI 2.47, 3.99) for poverty, 2.90 (95% CI 2.21, 3.81) for the ICE for race/ethnicity, and only 0.93 (95% CI 0.79, 1.11) for the Index of Dissimilarity; in models that included both census tract and city/town ICE measures, this risk ratio for the ICE for racialized economic segregation was higher at the census tract (3.29; 95% CI 2.43, 4.46) vs. city/town level (1.61; 95% CI 1.12, 2.32). These results suggest that, at least in the case of fatal and non-fatal assaults, research on residential segregation should employ local measures, including of racialized economic segregation, to avoid underestimating the adverse impact of segregation on health.

  18. Multiyear Arctic Ice Classification Using ASCAT and SSMIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Lindell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentration, type, and extent of sea ice in the Arctic can be estimated based on measurements from satellite active microwave sensors, passive microwave sensors, or both. Here, data from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS are employed to broadly classify Arctic sea ice type as first-year (FY or multiyear (MY. Combining data from both active and passive sensors can improve the performance of MY and FY ice classification. The classification method uses C-band σ0 measurements from ASCAT and 37 GHz brightness temperature measurements from SSMIS to derive a probabilistic model based on a multivariate Gaussian distribution. Using a Gaussian model, a Bayesian estimator selects between FY and MY ice to classify pixels in images of Arctic sea ice. The ASCAT/SSMIS classification results are compared with classifications using the Oceansat-2 scatterometer (OSCAT, the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age dataset available from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC, and the Canadian Ice Service (CIS charts, also available from the NSIDC. The MY ice extent of the ASCAT/SSMIS classifications demonstrates an average difference of 282 thousand km - + from that of the OSCAT classifications from 2009 to 2014. The difference is an average of 13.6% of the OSCAT MY ice extent, which averaged 2.19 million km2 over the same period. Compared to the ice classified as two years or older in the EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age dataset (EASE-2+ from 2009 to 2012, the average difference is 617 thousand km2 . The difference is an average of 22.8% of the EASE-2+ MY ice extent, which averaged 2.79 million km2 from 2009 to 2012. Comparison with the Canadian Ice Service (CIS charts shows that most ASCAT/SSMIS classifications of MY ice correspond to a MY ice concentration of approximately 50% or greater in the CIS charts. The addition of the passive SSMIS data appears to improve classifications by mitigating

  19. Transport of ice nuclei over the north pacific ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Peter V.; Bluhm, George C.; Ohtake, T.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements have been made over extended periods of time of the relative concentrations of ice nuclei in the air at stations in Alaska, Hawaii and Washington State. On occasions large increases in ice nucleus counts lasting for a week or more (“ice nucleus storms”) were observed. The ice nucleus storms sometimes occurred in close proximity in time at different stations and it is shown that in some cases this can be explained by the advection of particles in the lower troposphere...

  20. Cl-36 in polar ice, rainwater and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Elmore, D.; Ferraro, R. D.; Gove, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of the cosmogenic radioisotope Cl-36 in Antarctic ice, rain, and an upper limit of the seawater value are determined using van de Graaff accelerator high energy mass spectrometry. Cl-36 concentrations in Antarctic ice range between 2.5 to 8.7 x 10 to the 6th atoms Cl-36/kg, while those concentrations in samples collected at the Alan Hills ice field locations where meteorites have been brought to the surface by glacial flow and ablation are found to vary by more than a factor of three. This variation is attributed either to the effects of atmospheric mixing and scavenging or to radioactive decay in old ice. The Cl-36 concentration found in a present sample of rainwater is much lower than that reported in samples collected in the early 1960's, suggesting the occurrence of a decrease in the concentration of atmospheric Cl-36 derived from nuclear weapons tests over this time period.

  1. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Observations and Data Access to Support Advances in Sea Ice Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The economic and strategic importance of the Arctic region is becoming apparent. One of the most striking and widely publicized changes underway is the declining sea ice cover. Since sea ice is a key component of the climate system, its ongoing loss has serious, and wide-ranging, socio-economic implications. Increasing year-to-year variability in the geographic location, concentration, and thickness of the Arctic ice cover will pose both challenges and opportunities. The sea ice research community must be engaged in sustained Arctic Observing Network (AON) initiatives so as to deliver fit-for-purpose remote sensing data products to a variety of stakeholders including Arctic communities, the weather forecasting and climate modeling communities, industry, local, regional and national governments, and policy makers. An example of engagement is the work currently underway to improve research collaborations between scientists engaged in obtaining and assessing sea ice observational data and those conducting numerical modeling studies and forecasting ice conditions. As part of the US AON, in collaboration with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), we are developing a strategic framework within which observers and modelers can work towards the common goal of improved sea ice forecasting. Here, we focus on sea ice thickness, a key varaible of the Arctic ice cover. We describe multi-sensor, and blended, sea ice thickness data products under development that can be leveraged to improve model initialization and validation, as well as support data assimilation exercises. We will also present the new PolarWatch initiative (polarwatch.noaa.gov) and discuss efforts to advance access to remote sensing satellite observations and improve communication with Arctic stakeholders, so as to deliver data products that best address societal needs.

  2. Towards Improving Sea Ice Predictabiity: Evaluating Climate Models Against Satellite Sea Ice Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The last four decades have seen a remarkable decline in the spatial extent of the Arctic sea ice cover, presenting both challenges and opportunities to Arctic residents, government agencies and industry. After the record low extent in September 2007 effort has increased to improve seasonal, decadal-scale and longer-term predictions of the sea ice cover. Coupled global climate models (GCMs) consistently project that if greenhouse gas concentrations continue to rise, the eventual outcome will be a complete loss of the multiyear ice cover. However, confidence in these projections depends o HoHoweon the models ability to reproduce features of the present-day climate. Comparison between models participating in the World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) and observations of sea ice extent and thickness show that (1) historical trends from 85% of the model ensemble members remain smaller than observed, and (2) spatial patterns of sea ice thickness are poorly represented in most models. Part of the explanation lies with a failure of models to represent details of the mean atmospheric circulation pattern that governs the transport and spatial distribution of sea ice. These results raise concerns regarding the ability of CMIP5 models to realistically represent the processes driving the decline of Arctic sea ice and to project the timing of when a seasonally ice-free Arctic may be realized. On shorter time-scales, seasonal sea ice prediction has been challenged to predict the sea ice extent from Arctic conditions a few months to a year in advance. Efforts such as the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) project, originally organized through the Study of Environmental Change (SEARCH) and now managed by the Sea Ice Prediction Network project (SIPN) synthesize predictions of the September sea ice extent based on a variety of approaches, including heuristic, statistical and dynamical modeling. Analysis of SIO contributions reveals that when the

  3. Hydrogen behavior in ice condenser containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstroem, P.; Hongisto, O. [Power Plant Lab., Helsinki (Finland); Theofanous, T.G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A new hydrogen management strategy is being developed for the Loviisa ice condenser containment. The strategy relies on containment-wide natural circulations that develop, once the ice condenser doors are forced open, to effectively produce a well-mixed behavior, and a correspondingly slow rise in hydrogen concentration. Levels can then be kept low by a distributed catalytic recombiner system, and (perhaps) an igniter system as a backup, while the associated energy releases can be effectively dissipated in the ice bed. Verification and fine-tuning of the approach is carried out experimentally in the VICTORIA facility and by associated scaling/modelling studies. VICTORIA represents an 1/15th scale model of the Loviisa containment, hydrogen is simulated by helium, and local concentration measurements are obtained by a newly developed instrument specifically for this purpose, called SPARTA. This paper is focused on experimental results from several key experiments that provide a first delineation of key behaviors.

  4. Rheology of glacier ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, K. C.; Alley, R. B.; Thomas, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new method for calculating the stress field in bounded ice shelves is used to compare strain rate and deviatoric stress on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The analysis shows that strain rate (per second) increases as the third power of deviatoric stress (in newtons/sq meter), with a constant of proportionality equal to 2.3 x 10 to the -25th.

  5. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  6. Academic Airframe Icing Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David

    2009-01-01

    2-D ice accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important ice accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger systems issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach

  7. Making an Ice Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  8. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  9. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, Rachel W.; Sadri, Saeed; Wong, Ying Qi; Khitun, Alexandra A.; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Richard C.

    2014-06-01

    When sea ice forms it scavenges and concentrates particulates from the water column, which then become trapped until the ice melts. In recent years, melting has led to record lows in Arctic Sea ice extent, the most recent in September 2012. Global climate models, such as that of Gregory et al. (2002), suggest that the decline in Arctic Sea ice volume (3.4% per decade) will actually exceed the decline in sea ice extent, something that Laxon et al. (2013) have shown supported by satellite data. The extent to which melting ice could release anthropogenic particulates back to the open ocean has not yet been examined. Here we show that Arctic Sea ice from remote locations contains concentrations of microplastics at least two orders of magnitude greater than those that have been previously reported in highly contaminated surface waters, such as those of the Pacific Gyre. Our findings indicate that microplastics have accumulated far from population centers and that polar sea ice represents a major historic global sink of man-made particulates. The potential for substantial quantities of legacy microplastic contamination to be released to the ocean as the ice melts therefore needs to be evaluated, as do the physical and toxicological effects of plastics on marine life.

  10. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Figure 1). When the ice is snow covered there is little difference in albedo and partitioning between first year and multiyear ice. Once the snow melts...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...and iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice- albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice

  11. Sunlight, Sea Ice, and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Artic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. SUNLIGHT, SEA ICE , AND THE ICE ALBEDO FEEDBACK IN A...iv) onset dates of melt and freeze up. 4. Assess the magnitude of the contribution from ice - albedo feedback to the observed decrease of sea ice in... sea ice prediction and modeling community to improve the treatment of solar radiation and the ice - albedo feedback. This transfer will take the form of

  12. Observations of cloud microphysics and ice formation during COPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present microphysical observations of cumulus clouds measured over the southwest peninsula of the UK during the COnvective Precipitation Experiment (COPE in August 2013, which are framed into a wider context using ground-based and airborne radar measurements. Two lines of cumulus clouds formed in the early afternoon along convergence lines aligned with the peninsula. The lines became longer and broader during the afternoon due to new cell formation and stratiform regions forming downwind of the convective cells. Ice concentrations up to 350 L−1, well in excess of the expected ice nuclei (IN concentrations, were measured in the mature stratiform regions, suggesting that secondary ice production was active. Detailed sampling focused on an isolated liquid cloud that glaciated as it matured to merge with a band of cloud downwind. In the initial cell, drizzle concentrations increased from  ∼ 0.5 to  ∼ 20 L−1 in around 20 min. Ice concentrations developed up to a few per litre, which is around the level expected of primary IN. The ice images were most consistent with freezing drizzle, rather than smaller cloud drops or interstitial IN forming the first ice. As new cells emerged in and around the cloud, ice concentrations up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the predicted IN concentrations developed, and the cloud glaciated over a period of 12–15 min. Almost all of the first ice particles to be observed were frozen drops, while vapour-grown ice crystals were dominant in the latter stages. Our observations are consistent with the production of large numbers of small secondary ice crystals/fragments, by a mechanism such as Hallett–Mossop or droplets shattering upon freezing. Some of the small ice froze drizzle drops on contact, while others grew more slowly by vapour deposition. Graupel and columns were seen in cloud penetrations up to the −12 °C level, though many ice particles were mixed habit due to riming and

  13. GLERL Radiation Transfer Through Freshwater Ice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radiation transmittance (ratio of transmitted to incident radiation) through clear ice, refrozen slush ice and brash ice, from ice surface to ice-water interface in...

  14. Microfabric and Structures in Glacial Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monz, M.; Hudleston, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Similar to rocks in active orogens, glacial ice develops both structures and fabrics that reflect deformation. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), associated with mechanical anisotropy, develops as ice deforms, and as in rock, directly reflects the conditions and mechanisms of deformation and influences the overall strength. This project aims to better constrain the rheologic properties of natural ice through microstructural analysis and to establish the relationship of microfabric to macroscale structures. The focus is on enigmatic fabric patterns found in coarse grained, "warm" (T > -10oC) ice deep in ice sheets and in valley glaciers. Deformation mechanisms that produce such patterns are poorly understood. Detailed mapping of surface structures, including bedding, foliation, and blue bands (bubble-free veins of ice), was done in the ablation zone of Storglaciären, a polythermal valley glacier in northern Sweden. Microstructural studies on samples from a transect across the ablation zone were carried out in a cold room. Crystal size was too large for use of electron backscattered diffraction to determine CPO, therefore a Rigsby universal stage, designed specifically for ice, was used. In thick and thin sections, recrystallized grains are locally variable in both size (1mm-7cm in one thin section) and shape and clearly reflect recrystallization involving highly mobile grain boundaries. Larger crystals are often branching, and appear multiple times throughout one thin section. There is a clear shape preferred orientation that is generally parallel with foliation defined by bubble alignment and concentration. Locally, there appears to be an inverse correlation between bubble concentration and smoothness of grain boundaries. Fabric in samples that have undergone prolonged shear display roughly symmetrical multimaxima patterns centered around the pole to foliation. The angular distances between maxima suggest a possible twin relationship that may have

  15. Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Stern

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology – the cycle of biological events – is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979–2014 mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from −3 to −9 days decade−1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade−1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of −7 to −19 days decade−1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June–October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from −1 to −9 percent decade−1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in

  16. Sea-ice indicators of polar bear habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Harry L.; Laidre, Kristin L.

    2016-09-01

    Nineteen subpopulations of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are found throughout the circumpolar Arctic, and in all regions they depend on sea ice as a platform for traveling, hunting, and breeding. Therefore polar bear phenology - the cycle of biological events - is linked to the timing of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall. We analyzed the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in all 19 polar bear subpopulation regions from 1979 to 2014, using daily sea-ice concentration data from satellite passive microwave instruments. We define the dates of sea-ice retreat and advance in a region as the dates when the area of sea ice drops below a certain threshold (retreat) on its way to the summer minimum or rises above the threshold (advance) on its way to the winter maximum. The threshold is chosen to be halfway between the historical (1979-2014) mean September and mean March sea-ice areas. In all 19 regions there is a trend toward earlier sea-ice retreat and later sea-ice advance. Trends generally range from -3 to -9 days decade-1 in spring and from +3 to +9 days decade-1 in fall, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The trends are not sensitive to the threshold. We also calculated the number of days per year that the sea-ice area exceeded the threshold (termed ice-covered days) and the average sea-ice concentration from 1 June through 31 October. The number of ice-covered days is declining in all regions at the rate of -7 to -19 days decade-1, with larger trends in the Barents Sea and central Arctic Basin. The June-October sea-ice concentration is declining in all regions at rates ranging from -1 to -9 percent decade-1. These sea-ice metrics (or indicators of habitat change) were designed to be useful for management agencies and for comparative purposes among subpopulations. We recommend that the National Climate Assessment include the timing of sea-ice retreat and advance in future reports.

  17. Modelling snow ice and superimposed ice on landfast sea ice in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Snow ice and superimposed ice formation on landfast sea ice in a Svalbard fjord, Kongsfjorden, was investigated with a high-resolution thermodynamic snow and sea-ice model, applying meteorological weather station data as external forcing. The model shows that sea-ice formation occurs both at the ice bottom and at the snow/ice interface. Modelling results indicated that the total snow ice and superimposed ice, which formed at the snow/ice interface, was about 14 cm during the simulation period, accounting for about 15% of the total ice mass and 35% of the total ice growth. Introducing a time-dependent snow density improved the modelled results, and a time-dependent oceanic heat flux parameterization yielded reasonable ice growth at the ice bottom. Model results suggest that weather conditions, in particular air temperature and precipitation, as well as snow thermal properties and surface albedo are the most critical factors for the development of snow ice and superimposed ice in Kongsfjorden. While both warming air and higher precipitation led to increased snow ice and superimposed ice forming in Kongsfjorden in the model runs, the processes were more sensitive to precipitation than to air temperature.

  18. Ecology of bottom ice algae: I. Environmental controls and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cota, G. F.; Legendre, L.; Gosselin, M.; Ingram, R. G.

    1991-08-01

    Over large ocean areas of the Arctic, Subarctic and Antarctic, which are covered by landfast sea ice during springtime, high concentrations of microalgae have been observed in the interstices of the lower margin of sea ice floes and, in some cases, in a thin layer of surface water immediately under the ice cover or associated with semi-consolidated frazil ice. Ice algal blooms enhance and extend biological production in polar waters by at least 1-3 months. Biomass accumulation of sea ice algal populations ultimately depends upon the duration of the growth season, which is largely a function of climatic and environmental variability. Growth seasons are shorter at lower latitudes because of abbreviated photoperiods, warmer air temperatures and earlier ablation and break up. Environmental factors, which regulate ice algal distributions and dynamics, display characteristic scales of time/space variance. Sea ice habitats are much more stable than planktonic environments, because ice is not subject to large vertical displacements in the irradiance field. Temperature and salinity are relatively constant over most of the growth period. However, nutrients must be supplied to relatively thin, dense layers of cells and fluxes are variable depending on ice growth and hydrodynamics. Although the occurrence of prolonged blooms of ice algae at the ice-water interface is a widespread phenomenon, there are important differences between the growth habits and environments of several well-studied sites. Recent observations from seasonal studies of these sites are compared and contrasted with an emphasis on how the dominant scales of environmental variability influence ice algal populations.

  19. Evolution of the early Antarctic ice ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, Diederik; de Bakker, Anouk T M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371573734; Beddow, Helen M; Wilson, Paul A; Bohaty, Steven M; Ruessink, Gerben|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/169093360; Pälike, Heiko; Batenburg, Sietske J; Hilgen, Frederik J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102639876; Hodell, David A; Huck, Claire E; Kroon, Dick; Raffi, Isabella; Saes, Mischa J M; van Dijk, Arnold E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341412082; Lourens, Lucas J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023103

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the stability of the early Antarctic ice cap in the geological past is of societal interest because present-day atmospheric CO2 concentrations have reached values comparable to those estimated for the Oligocene and the Early Miocene epochs. Here we analyze a new high-resolution

  20. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  1. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P dry ice. Further, ABI can potentially serve as an additional processing hurdle to guard against pathogens during processing, transportation, distribution, and/or storage. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Numerical modelling of thermodynamics and dynamics of sea ice in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical dynamic-thermo-dynamic sea-ice model for the Baltic Sea is used to analyze the variability of ice conditions in three winter seasons. The modelling results are validated with station (water temperature and satellite data (ice concentration as well as by qualitative comparisons with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute ice charts. Analysis of the results addresses two major questions. One concerns effects of meteorological forcing on the spatio-temporal distribution of ice concentration in the Baltic. Patterns of correlations between air temperature, wind speed, and ice-covered area are demonstrated to be different in larger, more open sub-basins (e.g., the Bothnian Sea than in the smaller ones (e.g., the Bothnian Bay. Whereas the correlations with the air temperature are positive in both cases, the influence of wind is pronounced only in large basins, leading to increase/decrease of areas with small/large ice concentrations, respectively. The other question concerns the role of ice dynamics in the evolution of the ice cover. By means of simulations with the dynamic model turned on and off, the ice dynamics is shown to play a crucial role in interactions between the ice and the upper layers of the water column, especially during periods with highly varying wind speeds and directions. In particular, due to the fragmentation of the ice cover and the modified surface fluxes, the ice dynamics influences the rate of change of the total ice volume, in some cases by as much as 1 km3 per day. As opposed to most other numerical studies on the sea-ice in the Baltic Sea, this work concentrates on the short-term variability of the ice cover and its response to the synoptic-scale forcing.

  3. High Speed Ice Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour-Pierce, Alexandra; Sammonds, Peter; Lishman, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Many different tribological experiments have been run to determine the frictional behaviour of ice at high speeds, ostensibly with the intention of applying results to everyday fields such as winter tyres and sports. However, experiments have only been conducted up to linear speeds of several metres a second, with few additional subject specific studies reaching speeds comparable to these applications. Experiments were conducted in the cold rooms of the Rock and Ice Physics Laboratory, UCL, on a custom built rotational tribometer based on previous literature designs. Preliminary results from experiments run at 2m/s for ice temperatures of 271 and 263K indicate that colder ice has a higher coefficient of friction, in accordance with the literature. These results will be presented, along with data from further experiments conducted at temperatures between 259-273K (in order to cover a wide range of the temperature dependent behaviour of ice) and speeds of 2-15m/s to produce a temperature-velocity-friction map for ice. The effect of temperature, speed and slider geometry on the deformation of ice will also be investigated. These speeds are approaching those exhibited by sports such as the luge (where athletes slide downhill on an icy track), placing the tribological work in context.

  4. Reviews and syntheses: Ice acidification, the effects of ocean acidification on sea ice microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. McMinn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice algae, like some coastal and estuarine phytoplankton, are naturally exposed to a wider range of pH and CO2 concentrations than those in open marine seas. While climate change and ocean acidification (OA will impact pelagic communities, their effects on sea ice microbial communities remain unclear. Sea ice contains several distinct microbial communities, which are exposed to differing environmental conditions depending on their depth within the ice. Bottom communities mostly experience relatively benign bulk ocean properties, while interior brine and surface (infiltration communities experience much greater extremes. Most OA studies have examined the impacts on single sea ice algae species in culture. Although some studies examined the effects of OA alone, most examined the effects of OA and either light, nutrients or temperature. With few exceptions, increased CO2 concentration caused either no change or an increase in growth and/or photosynthesis. In situ studies on brine and surface algae also demonstrated a wide tolerance to increased and decreased pH and showed increased growth at higher CO2 concentrations. The short time period of most experiments (< 10 days, together with limited genetic diversity (i.e. use of only a single strain, however, has been identified as a limitation to a broader interpretation of the results. While there have been few studies on the effects of OA on the growth of marine bacterial communities in general, impacts appear to be minimal. In sea ice also, the few reports available suggest no negative impacts on bacterial growth or community richness. Sea ice ecosystems are ephemeral, melting and re-forming each year. Thus, for some part of each year organisms inhabiting the ice must also survive outside of the ice, either as part of the phytoplankton or as resting spores on the bottom. During these times, they will be exposed to the full range of co-stressors that pelagic organisms experience. Their ability

  5. Airborne discrimination between ice and water - Application to the laser measurement of chlorophyll-in-water in a marginal ice zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Wright, C. Wayne; Swift, Robert N.; Yungel, James K.

    1989-01-01

    The concurrent active-passive measurement capabilities of the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar have been used to (1) discriminate between ice and water in a large ice field within the Greenland Sea and (2) achieve the detection and measurement of chlorophyll-in-water by laser-induced and water-Raman-normalized pigment fluorescence. Passive upwelled radiances from sea ice are significantly stronger than those from the neighboring water, even when the optical receiver field-of-view is only partially filled with ice. Thus, weaker passive upwelled radiances, together with concurrently acquired laser-induced spectra, can rather confidently be assigned to the intervening water column. The laser-induced spectrum can then be processed using previously established methods to measure the chlorophyll-in-water concentration. Significant phytoplankton patchiness and elevated chlorophyll concentrations were found within the waters of the melting ice compared to ice-free regions just outside the ice field.

  6. Synchronizing ice cores from the Renland and Agassiz ice caps to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Fischer, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Four ice cores from the Agassiz ice cap in the Canadian high arctic and one ice core from the Renland ice cap in eastern Greenland have been synchronized to the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05) which is based on annual layer counts in the DYE-3, GRIP and NGRIP ice cores. Volcanic....... Annual layer thicknesses in the Agassiz ice cores point to a well-developed Raymond bump in the Agassiz ice cap....... reference horizons, seen in electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) have been used to carry out the synchronization throughout the Holocene. The Agassiz ice cores have been matched to the NGRIP ice core ECM signal, while the Renland core has been matched to the GRIP ice core ECM signal, thus tying...

  7. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  8. Wave-ice Interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    single buoys that were moved from place to place. These new data, obtained within the comprehensive set of ocean, ice and atmosphere sensors and remote...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave- ice interaction and the Marginal Ice Zone Prof...between ocean waves and a sea ice cover, in terms, of scattering, attenuation, and mechanical effect of the waves on the ice . OBJECTIVES The

  9. Radar Detection of Layering in Ice: Experiments on a Constructed Layered Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, L. M.; Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Ghent, R. R.; Koutnik, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The polar caps and glaciers of both Earth and Mars display internal layering that preserves a record of past climate. These layers are apparent both in optical datasets (high resolution images, core samples) and in ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. On Mars, the SHARAD (Shallow Radar) radar on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows fine layering that changes spatially and with depth across the polar caps. This internal layering has been attributed to changes in fractional dust contamination due to obliquity-induced climate variations, but there are other processes that can lead to internal layers visible in radar data. In particular, terrestrial sounding of ice sheets compared with core samples have revealed that ice density and composition differences account for the majority of the radar reflectors. The large cold rooms and ice laboratory facility at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) provide us a unique opportunity to construct experimental ice sheets in a controlled setting and measure them with radar. In a CRREL laboratory, we constructed a layered ice sheet that is 3-m deep with a various snow and ice layers with known dust concentrations (using JSC Mars-1 basaltic simulant) and density differences. These ice sheets were profiled using a commercial GPR, at frequencies of 200, 400 and 900 MHz, to determine how the radar profile changes due to systematic and known changes in snow and ice layers, including layers with sub-wavelength spacing. We will report results from these experiments and implications for interpreting radar-detected layering in ice on Earth and Mars.

  10. Creep of ice: further studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, H.C.; Durham, W.B.; Kirby, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed studies have been done of ice creep as related to the icy satellites, Ganymede and Callisto. Included were: (1) the flow of high-pressure water ices II, III, and V, and (2) frictional sliding of ice I sub h. Work was also begun on the study of the effects of impurities on the flow of ice. Test results are summarized

  11. Physical controls on the storage of methane in land fast sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jiayun; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier

    2014-01-01

    regulated the storage of CH4 in sea ice: bubble formation and sea ice permeability. Gas bubble formation from solubility changes had favoured the accumulation of CH4 in the ice at the beginning of ice growth. CH4 retention in sea ice was then twice as efficient as that of salt; this also explains...... the overall higher CH4 concentrations in brine than in the under-ice water. As sea ice thickened, gas bubble formation became less efficient so that CH4 was then mainly trapped in the dissolved state. The increase of sea ice permeability during ice melt marks the end of CH4 storage.......We report on methane (CH4) dynamics in landfast sea ice, brine and under-ice seawater at Barrow in 2009. The CH4 concentrations in under-ice water ranged between 25.9 and 116.4 nmol L−1sw, indicating a superaturation of 700 to 3100% relative to the atmosphere. In comparison, the CH4 concentrations...

  12. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the White Sea snow-ice cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of the White Sea snow-ice cover was estimated by examining the distribution of organic compounds, including oil and pyrogenic hydrocarbons. Ice and snow cores were taken from Chupa Bay and the Kandalaksha Gulf in the Cape Kartesh area in the spring of 2004 and from the mouth of the Severnaya Dvina River in the spring of 2005, 2006, and 2007. This paper presented data on the lipid content, aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and suspended particulate matter in snow, ice and under-ice water. This paper focused on organic compounds and suspended matter (SM) concentrations in the sea snow-ice cover and described the ice forming conditions and interactions of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The amount of particulate matter and organic compounds in the snow increased sharply near industrial centres. The concentration of compounds decreased further away from these centres, suggesting that most pollutants are deposited locally. The study revealed that organic compounds concentrate in barrier zones, such as snow-ice and water-ice, depending on the source of pollution. There was no obvious evidence of petrogenic sources of PAHs in particulate matter from the White Sea snow-ice cover. The SM and organic compounds accumulated in layers characterized by local depositional processes. The zones remained biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions, but the accumulation of both SM and organic compounds was at its highest during the initial stage of ice formation. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Vortex ice in nanostructured superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichhardt, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reichhardt, Cynthia J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Libal, Andras J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate using numerical simulations of nanostructured superconductors that it is possible to realize vortex ice states that are analogous to square and kagome ice. The system can be brought into a state that obeys either global or local ice rules by applying an external current according to an annealing protocol. We explore the breakdown of the ice rules due to disorder in the nanostructure array and show that in square ice, topological defects appear along grain boundaries, while in kagome ice, individual defects appear. We argue that the vortex system offers significant advantages over other artificial ice systems.

  14. Polynyas and Ice Production Evolution in the Ross Sea (PIPERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    One focus of the PIPERS cruise into the Ross Sea ice cover during April-June 2017 was the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya where joint measurements of air-ice-ocean wave interaction were conducted over twelve days. In Terra Nova Bay, measurements were made in three katabatic wind events each with sustained winds over 35 ms-1 and air temperatures below -15C. Near shore, intense wave fields with wave amplitudes of over 2m and 7-9 sec periods built and large amounts of frazil ice crystals grew. The frazil ice gathered initially into short and narrow plumes that eventually were added laterally to create longer and wider streaks or bands. Breaking waves within these wider streaks were dampened which appeared to enhance the development of pancake ice. Eventually, the open water areas between the streaks sealed off, developing a complete ice cover of 100 percent concentration (80-90 percent pancakes, 20-10 percent frazil) over a wide front (30km). The pancakes continued to grow in diameter and thickness as waves alternately contracted and expanded the ice cover, with the thicker larger floes further diminishing the wave field and lateral motion between pancakes until the initial pancake ice growth ceased. The equilibrium thickness of the ice was 20-30cm in the pancake ice. While the waves had died off however, katabatic wind velocities were sustained and resulted in a wide area of concentrated, rafted, pancake ice that was rapidly advected downstream until the end of the katabatic event. High resolution TerraSar-X radar satellite imagery showed the length of the ice area produced in one single event extended over 300km or ten times the length of the open water area during one polynya event. The TNB polynya is therefore an "ice factory" where frazil ice is manufactured into pancake ice floes that are then pushed out of the assembly area and advected, rafted (and occasionally piled up into "dragon skin" ice), until the katabatic wind dies off at the coastal source.

  15. Roles of wind stress and thermodynamic forcing in recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and Southern Ocean SST: An ocean-sea ice model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Williams, Guy D.; Massom, Robert; Reid, Phillip; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-11-01

    In contrast to a strong decrease in Arctic sea ice extent, overall Antarctic sea ice extent has modestly increased since 1979. Several hypotheses have been proposed for the net Antarctic sea ice expansion, including atmosphere/ocean circulation and temperature changes, sea ice-atmospheric-ocean feedback, increased precipitation, and enhanced basal meltwater from ice shelves. Concomitant with this positive trend in Antarctic sea ice, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) over the Southern Ocean south of approximately 45°S have cooled over this period. However, the mechanisms responsible for the Antarctic sea ice expansion and the SST cooling trend remain poorly defined. Here, we conduct comprehensive sensitivity experiments using a coupled ocean-sea ice model with a steady-state ice shelf component in order to investigate the main drivers of recent trends in Antarctic sea ice and SST over the Southern Ocean. The results suggest that Antarctic sea ice expansion is mostly explained by trends in the thermodynamic surface forcing, notably cooling and drying and a reduction in longwave radiation. Similarly, thermodynamic forcing is found to be the main driver of the zonal SST cooling trend. While apparently less influential on sea ice extent and SST, wind stress plays a key role in sea ice motion, thickening coastal sea ice, and thinning and decreasing the concentration of ice in mid-pack regions of the Amundsen-eastern Ross seas and 65-95°E in winter-spring. Furthermore, the model suggests that ocean-ice shelf interaction does not significantly influence the observed trends in Antarctic sea ice coverage and Southern Ocean SST in recent decades.

  16. Web life: Ice Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Computer and video gamers of a certain vintage will have fond memories of Lemmings, a game in which players must shepherd pixelated, suicidal rodents around a series of obstacles to reach safety. At first glance, Ice Flows is strikingly similar.

  17. Ice Engineering Research Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Refrigerated Physical Modeling of Waterways in a Controlled EnvironmentThe Research Area in the Ice Engineering Facility at the Cold Regions Research and Engineering...

  18. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over...... the last 130 years and through reconstruction of the vegetation from the end of the Holocene Thermal Maximum (5528 ± 75 cal year BP) using meta-barcoding of plant DNA recovered from the nunatak sediments (sedaDNA). Our results show that several of the plant species detected with sedaDNA are described from...

  19. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Kötlujökull transports considerable amounts of supraglacial debris at its snout because of frontal oscillations with frequent ice advances followed by ice-margin stagnation. Kötlujökull provides suitable conditions of studying dead-ice melting and landscape formation in a debris-charged lowland...... under humid, sub-polar conditions? Does this rate differ from rates reported from polar environments of dry continental nature? How will the sedimentary architecture appear in the geological record? How will the final landsystem appear? These key questions are answered in a review of research...... and conclusions on dead-ice melting and landscape formation from Kötlujökull. Processes and landform-sediment associations are linked to the current climate and glacier–volcano interaction....

  20. Global ice sheet modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States). Institute for Quaternary Studies

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed.

  1. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  2. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  3. Identification of Plant Ice-binding Proteins Through Assessment of Ice-recrystallization Inhibition and Isolation Using Ice-affinity Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredow, Melissa; Tomalty, Heather E; Walker, Virginia K

    2017-05-05

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs) belong to a family of stress-induced proteins that are synthesized by certain organisms exposed to subzero temperatures. In plants, freeze damage occurs when extracellular ice crystals grow, resulting in the rupture of plasma membranes and possible cell death. Adsorption of IBPs to ice crystals restricts further growth by a process known as ice-recrystallization inhibition (IRI), thereby reducing cellular damage. IBPs also demonstrate the ability to depress the freezing point of a solution below the equilibrium melting point, a property known as thermal hysteresis (TH) activity. These protective properties have raised interest in the identification of novel IBPs due to their potential use in industrial, medical and agricultural applications. This paper describes the identification of plant IBPs through 1) the induction and extraction of IBPs in plant tissue, 2) the screening of extracts for IRI activity, and 3) the isolation and purification of IBPs. Following the induction of IBPs by low temperature exposure, extracts are tested for IRI activity using a 'splat assay', which allows the observation of ice crystal growth using a standard light microscope. This assay requires a low protein concentration and generates results that are quickly obtained and easily interpreted, providing an initial screen for ice binding activity. IBPs can then be isolated from contaminating proteins by utilizing the property of IBPs to adsorb to ice, through a technique called 'ice-affinity purification'. Using cell lysates collected from plant extracts, an ice hemisphere can be slowly grown on a brass probe. This incorporates IBPs into the crystalline structure of the polycrystalline ice. Requiring no a priori biochemical or structural knowledge of the IBP, this method allows for recovery of active protein. Ice-purified protein fractions can be used for downstream applications including the identification of peptide sequences by mass spectrometry and the

  4. Electrical Properties of Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    carriers in ice. T U] P2 P3 PU4 (00C (m2 V s) (m21V S) (M21V s) (m2/V s) Method used Reference -13 to -36 (1.1±O..1)xl0𔄁 Analysis of Kunst and...Chapter 18. In Ice, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., p. 783-7 99 . Kunst , M. and J. Warnan (1983) Nanosecond time-resolved

  5. Leipzig Ice Nucleation chamber Comparison (LINC): intercomparison of four online ice nucleation counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert-Kohn, Monika; Wex, Heike; Welti, André; Hartmann, Susan; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Herenz, Paul; Atkinson, James D.; Stratmann, Frank; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2017-09-01

    Ice crystal formation in atmospheric clouds has a strong effect on precipitation, cloud lifetime, cloud radiative properties, and thus the global energy budget. Primary ice formation above 235 K is initiated by nucleation on seed aerosol particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs). Instruments that measure the ice-nucleating potential of aerosol particles in the atmosphere need to be able to accurately quantify ambient INP concentrations. In the last decade several instruments have been developed to investigate the ice-nucleating properties of aerosol particles and to measure ambient INP concentrations. Therefore, there is a need for intercomparisons to ensure instrument differences are not interpreted as scientific findings.In this study, we intercompare the results from parallel measurements using four online ice nucleation chambers. Seven different aerosol types are tested including untreated and acid-treated mineral dusts (microcline, which is a K-feldspar, and kaolinite), as well as birch pollen washing waters. Experiments exploring heterogeneous ice nucleation above and below water saturation are performed to cover the whole range of atmospherically relevant thermodynamic conditions that can be investigated with the intercompared chambers. The Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) and the Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber coupled to the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PIMCA-PINC) performed measurements in the immersion freezing mode. Additionally, two continuous-flow diffusion chambers (CFDCs) PINC and the Spectrometer for Ice Nuclei (SPIN) are used to perform measurements below and just above water saturation, nominally presenting deposition nucleation and condensation freezing.The results of LACIS and PIMCA-PINC agree well over the whole range of measured frozen fractions (FFs) and temperature. In general PINC and SPIN compare well and the observed differences are explained by the ice crystal growth and different residence times in

  6. Ice slurry accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, K.G.; Kauffeld, M.

    1998-06-01

    More and more refrigeration systems are designed with secondary loops, thus reducing the refrigerant charge of the primary refrigeration plant. In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, alternatives to the well established single phase coolants (brines) and different concepts of the cooling plant have to be evaluated. Combining the use of ice-slurry - mixture of water, a freezing point depressing agent (antifreeze) and ice particles - as melting secondary refrigerant and the use of a cool storage makes it possible to build plants with secondary loops without increasing the energy consumption and investment. At the same time the operating costs can be kept at a lower level. The accumulation of ice-slurry is compared with other and more traditional storage systems. The method is evaluated and the potential in different applications is estimated. Aspects of practically use of ice-slurry has been examined in the laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). This paper will include the final conclusions from this work concerning tank construction, agitator system, inlet, outlet and control. The work at DTI indicates that in some applications systems with ice-slurry and accumulation tanks have a great future. These applications are described by a varying load profile and a process temperature suiting the temperature of ice-slurry (-3 - -8/deg. C). (au)

  7. Grain boundary melting in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Wilen, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentration. Although we understand that the interfacial surface charge densities qs and solute concentrations can potentially dominate the film thickness, we cannot directly measure them within a given grain boundary. Therefore, as a framework for interpreting the data we consider two appropriate qs dependent limits; one is dominated by the colligative effect and other is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

  8. Continuous Chemistry in Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid

    resolution increase our knowledge on fast climate variations and cover a wide range of proxies informing on a variety of components such as atmospheric transport, volcanic eruptions, forest fires and many more. New CFA methods for the determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and pH are presented...... as part of this thesis. Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for the biosphere. The phosphorus is cycled mainly via hydrology, but some biological systems, such as the remote oceans and old forests are dependent on atmospheric deposition of phosphorus. The flux of phosphorus to the ocean is suggested...... on parameters involved in the study of photolysis as a source of in situ CO2. The concentration of organic substances in Greenland ice is poorly known due to their low levels and the fact that only a few studies evaluate the concentrations of specific organic compounds. Light does not penetrate deep...

  9. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  10. Estimation of degree of sea ice ridging based on dual-polarized C-band SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegiuc, Alexandru; Similä, Markku; Karvonen, Juha; Lensu, Mikko; Mäkynen, Marko; Vainio, Jouni

    2018-01-01

    For ship navigation in the Baltic Sea ice, parameters such as ice edge, ice concentration, ice thickness and degree of ridging are usually reported daily in manually prepared ice charts. These charts provide icebreakers with essential information for route optimization and fuel calculations. However, manual ice charting requires long analysis times, and detailed analysis of large areas (e.g. Arctic Ocean) is not feasible. Here, we propose a method for automatic estimation of the degree of ice ridging in the Baltic Sea region, based on RADARSAT-2 C-band dual-polarized (HH/HV channels) SAR texture features and sea ice concentration information extracted from Finnish ice charts. The SAR images were first segmented and then several texture features were extracted for each segment. Using the random forest method, we classified them into four classes of ridging intensity and compared them to the reference data extracted from the digitized ice charts. The overall agreement between the ice-chart-based degree of ice ridging and the automated results varied monthly, being 83, 63 and 81 % in January, February and March 2013, respectively. The correspondence between the degree of ice ridging reported in the ice charts and the actual ridge density was validated with data collected during a field campaign in March 2011. In principle the method can be applied to the seasonal sea ice regime in the Arctic Ocean.

  11. Estimation of degree of sea ice ridging based on dual-polarized C-band SAR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gegiuc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For ship navigation in the Baltic Sea ice, parameters such as ice edge, ice concentration, ice thickness and degree of ridging are usually reported daily in manually prepared ice charts. These charts provide icebreakers with essential information for route optimization and fuel calculations. However, manual ice charting requires long analysis times, and detailed analysis of large areas (e.g. Arctic Ocean is not feasible. Here, we propose a method for automatic estimation of the degree of ice ridging in the Baltic Sea region, based on RADARSAT-2 C-band dual-polarized (HH/HV channels SAR texture features and sea ice concentration information extracted from Finnish ice charts. The SAR images were first segmented and then several texture features were extracted for each segment. Using the random forest method, we classified them into four classes of ridging intensity and compared them to the reference data extracted from the digitized ice charts. The overall agreement between the ice-chart-based degree of ice ridging and the automated results varied monthly, being 83, 63 and 81 % in January, February and March 2013, respectively. The correspondence between the degree of ice ridging reported in the ice charts and the actual ridge density was validated with data collected during a field campaign in March 2011. In principle the method can be applied to the seasonal sea ice regime in the Arctic Ocean.

  12. The Timing of Arctic Sea Ice Advance and Retreat as an Indicator of Ice-Dependent Marine Mammal Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H. L.; Laidre, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is widely recognized as the front line of climate change. Arctic air temperature is rising at twice the global average rate, and the sea-ice cover is shrinking and thinning, with total disappearance of summer sea ice projected to occur in a matter of decades. Arctic marine mammals such as polar bears, seals, walruses, belugas, narwhals, and bowhead whales depend on the sea-ice cover as an integral part of their existence. While the downward trend in sea-ice extent in a given month is an often-used metric for quantifying physical changes in the ice cover, it is not the most relevant measure for characterizing changes in the sea-ice habitat of marine mammals. Species that depend on sea ice are behaviorally tied to the annual retreat of sea ice in the spring and advance in the fall. Changes in the timing of the spring retreat and the fall advance are more relevant to Arctic marine species than changes in the areal sea-ice coverage in a particular month of the year. Many ecologically important regions of the Arctic are essentially ice-covered in winter and ice-free in summer, and will probably remain so for a long time into the future. But the dates of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall are key indicators of climate change for ice-dependent marine mammals. We use daily sea-ice concentration data derived from satellite passive microwave sensors to calculate the dates of sea-ice retreat in spring and advance in fall in 12 regions of the Arctic for each year from 1979 through 2013. The regions include the peripheral seas around the Arctic Ocean (Beaufort, Chukchi, East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents), the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and the marginal seas (Okhotsk, Bering, East Greenland, Baffin Bay, Hudson Bay). We find that in 11 of the 12 regions (all except the Bering Sea), sea ice is retreating earlier in spring and advancing later in fall. Rates of spring retreat range from -5 to -8 days/decade, and rates of fall advance range from +5 to +9

  13. Preservation of a Preglacial Landscape Under the Center of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Paul R.; Corbett, Lee B.; Graly, Joseph A.; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Lini, Andrea; Crosby, Benjamin T.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2014-01-01

    Continental ice sheets typically sculpt landscapes via erosion; under certain conditions, ancient landscapes can be preserved beneath ice and can survive extensive and repeated glaciation. We used concentrations of atmospherically produced cosmogenic beryllium-10, carbon, and nitrogen to show that ancient soil has been preserved in basal ice for millions of years at the center of the ice sheet at Summit, Greenland. This finding suggests ice sheet stability through the Pleistocene (i.e., the past 2.7 million years). The preservation of this soil implies that the ice has been non-erosive and frozen to the bed for much of that time, that there was no substantial exposure of central Greenland once the ice sheet became fully established, and that preglacial landscapes can remain preserved for long periods under continental ice sheets

  14. Sea Ice - The overlooked Player in the Arctic Methane Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas and increasing atmospheric concentrations contribute to trigger global warming. The Arctic hosts large natural methane sources and is expected to be a region where warming feeds warming, i.e. temperature changes may quickly induce enhanced methane emissions. This Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, thinning sea ice and decreasing multiyear and increasing one-year sea ice. Hence as feedback to a feedback, sea ice loss will have until now unforeseen consequences for methane efflux while as well as sea ice-ocean interactions and shelf-ocean links have to be taken into account. I will present an overview of multiple direct and indirect effects of sea ice on the marine methane cycle not yet counted. Arctic shelf water is reported to be methane super-saturated in summer. Hence an important interaction between sea ice and methane is to be expected when sea ice formation on shelves induces super-saturated brine which will be enclosed in sea ice during winter and released in spring during melt. It will be shown that especially Polynya regions allow studying the effect of strong ice formation in winter which generate deep convection and resuspension of sediments with subsequent methane release. Once released, then methane may either directly escape to the atmosphere or remain trapped in sea ice. The further fate of the enclosed methane is closely coupled to the fate of the sea ice. Hence thinning and shifts in sea ice-age will be pivotal for methane cycling. Sea ice drift may transport shelf- released methane to remote locations in the interior Arctic where the cascade of freezing and melting events triggers the level of super-saturation in Polar surface water below. To date these kinds of sea ice-ocean interaction processes initially induced by shelf-released methane are the most unknown boxes in calculating the methane budget. Considering these pathways instead of efflux estimations calculated by

  15. Slush Fund: Modeling the Multiphase Physics of Oceanic Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J.; Schmidt, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence of ice interacting with an ocean, both on Earth and throughout the solar system, and its crucial role as the mediator of exchange between the hydrosphere below and atmosphere above, have made quantifying the thermodynamic, chemical, and physical properties of the ice highly desirable. While direct observations of these quantities exist, their scarcity increases with the difficulty of obtainment; the basal surfaces of terrestrial ice shelves remain largely unexplored and the icy interiors of moons like Europa and Enceladus have never been directly observed. Our understanding of these entities thus relies on numerical simulation, and the efficacy of their incorporation into larger systems models is dependent on the accuracy of these initial simulations. One characteristic of seawater, likely shared by the oceans of icy moons, is that it is a solution. As such, when it is frozen a majority of the solute is rejected from the forming ice, concentrating in interstitial pockets and channels, producing a two-component reactive porous media known as a mushy layer. The multiphase nature of this layer affects the evolution and dynamics of the overlying ice mass. Additionally ice can form in the water column and accrete onto the basal surface of these ice masses via buoyancy driven sedimentation as frazil or platelet ice. Numerical models hoping to accurately represent ice-ocean interactions should include the multiphase behavior of these two phenomena. While models of sea ice have begun to incorporate multiphase physics into their capabilities, no models of ice shelves/shells explicitly account for the two-phase behavior of the ice-ocean interface. Here we present a 1D multiphase model of floating oceanic ice that includes parameterizations of both density driven advection within the `mushy layer' and buoyancy driven sedimentation. The model is validated against contemporary sea ice models and observational data. Environmental stresses such as supercooling and

  16. Sea ice thickness retrieval from L-band radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleschke, L.; Maaß, N.; Hendricks, S.; Heygster, G.; Tonboe, R.

    2008-12-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is an earth observation mission developed by the European Space Agency to be launched in 2009. The main objective is to provide global measurements of soil moisture over land and sea surface salinity over ocean from L-band (1.4 GHz) radiometric observations. An exciting spin-off is the retrieval of sea ice thickness which we demonstrate to be possible due to the large penetration depth at L-band. SMOS will provide sea ice thickness information complementary to those from altimeters because of the expected sensitivity for thin ice thickness variations. Moreover, SMOS will provide data with an almost global coverage every second day. A three layer (ocean-ice-atmosphere) dielectric slab model is used to calculate the brightness temperature as a function of ice thickness and the dielectric properties. The dielectric properties depend on the relative brine volume as a function of bulk salinity and temperature. A model for the brightness temperature of a mixture of open water and sea ice reveals that the parameters ice concentration and thickness can hardly be retrieved both simultaneously. With the assumption of a closed ice cover the retrieval of ice thickness is feasible. The model calculations suggest a thickness sensitivity of up to 150 cm for low salinity (multi year or brackish) sea ice at low temperatures. At temperatures approaching the melting point the thickness sensitivity reduces to a few centimeters. For first year ice the modeled thickness sensitivity is roughly half a meter. The brightness temperature at 1.4 GHz (L-band) was measured in the Bothnia in Bay in March 2007 as part of the SMOS Sea-Ice campaign. The research aircraft was equipped with the Technical University of Denmark (TUD) Electromagnetics Institute Radiometer (EMIRAD). The EMIRAD measurements were coordinated with helicopter EM ice thickness measurements. The campaign was conducted under non- favorable conditions with temperatures around the melting

  17. Characteristics of ice, needed for ice loadings determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polit’ko Valentin Aleksandrovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine ice loads on the offshore oil and gas structures different ice information is required as an input data. At the present moment there is no unified generally recognized methodology for estimating ice loads and set the main ice parameters. In this relation there appears a question of the ice parameters which need to be investigated. The article attempts to analyze a variety of sources, including standards, on the subject of collection of ice information, required and sufficient for the calculation of ice loads. The article presents the basic steps in the planning of ice information collection, the list of main characteristics and parameters of ice, modern methods of observations and direct measurements of the ice, as well as the ways in which the field tests data of physical and mechanical properties of ice is processed. Particular attention is paid to the anisotropy of ice, integrated assessment of the strength of the ice field, as well as the variability of meteorological conditions.

  18. Ice flow Modelling of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Tangaa

    Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others. In t...... a steady state with respect to the reference climate at the end of the simulation and that the mass balance of the ice sheet at this time was more sensitive to recent climate fluctuations than the temperature forcing in the early or mid-Holocene.......Models of ice flow have a range of application in glaciology, including investigating the large-scale response of ice sheets to changes in climate, assimilating data to estimate unknown conditions beneath the ice sheet, and in interpreting proxy records obtained from ice cores, among others....... In this PhD project, the use of ice flow models for the interpretation of the age-structure of the Greenland ice sheet, i.e. the depth within the ice, at which ice deposited at given times are found at present day. Two different observational data sets of this archive were investigated. Further, paleo...

  19. A one stop website for sharing sea ice, ocean and ice sheet data over the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.; Hui, F.; Ding, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctic, are changing rapidly. Our capabilities to remotely monitor the state of the polar regions are increasing greatly. Satellite and airborne technologies have been deployed and further improvements are underway. Meanwhile, various algorithms have been developed to retrieve important parameters to maximize the effectiveness of available remote sensing data. These technologies and algorithms promise to greatly increase our understanding of variations in sea ice, ocean and ice sheet. However, so much information is scattered out there. It is challenging to find exactly what you are looking for by just searching it through the network. Therefore, we try to establish a common platform to sharing some key parameters for the polar regions. A group of scientists from Beijing Normal University and University at Albany developed a website as a "one-stop shop" for the current state of the polar regions. The website provides real-time (or near real-time) key parameters derived from a variety of operational satellites in an understandable, accessible and credible way. Three types of parameter, which are sea ice, ocean and ice sheet respectively, are shown and available to be downloaded in the website. Several individual parameters are contained in a specific type of parameter. The parameters of sea ice include sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, melt pond, sea ice leads and sea ice drift. The ocean parameters contain sea surface temperature and sea surface wind. Ice sheet balance, ice velocity and some other parameters are classified into the type of ice sheet parameter. Some parameters are well-calibrated and available to be obtained from other websites, such as sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness sea surface temperature. Since these parameters are retrieved from different sensors, such as SSMI, AMSR2 etc., data format, spatial resolution of the parameters are not unified. We collected and reprocessed these

  20. Annual layering in the NGRIP ice core during the Eemian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Kettner, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    records and visual stratigraphy, and stratigraphic layer counting has been performed back to 60 ka. In the deepest part of the core, however, the ice is close to the pressure melting point, the visual stratigraphy is dominated by crystal boundaries, and annual layering is not visible to the naked eye....... In this study, we apply a newly developed setup for high-resolution ice core impurity analysis to produce continuous records of dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations as well as conductivity of melt water. We analyzed three 2.2m sections of ice from the Eemian and the glacial inception. In all of the analyzed......The Greenland NGRIP ice core continuously covers the period from present day back to 123 ka before present, which includes several thousand years of ice from the previous interglacial period, MIS 5e or the Eemian. In the glacial part of the core, annual layers can be identified from impurity...

  1. Interior ice/mineral/water interface dynamics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    The search for life begins with the search for liquid water. In our solar system, persistent water reservoirs are invariably found together with ice. On Earth, organisms have evolved to thrive at sub-zero temperatures in ice-bound habitats that have numerous analogues throughout our solar system and beyond. To assess the potential for life requires a thorough investigation of the dynamic interactions within these deposits. Well-established thermodynamic principles govern the stable coexistence of premelted liquid at the interface between ice and other minerals. Foreign constituents are efficiently rejected from the ice crystal lattice and are concentrated in residual liquid regions instead. This gains added importance with the recognition that the most fundamental requirements for survival include a food source and the removal of waste. This talk reviews the astrobiological implications of the availability, behavior, and properties of liquid water in association with the interiors of icy bodies and ice-mineral interfacial regions.

  2. Sea ice thermohaline dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: Empirical and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Assmy, Philipp; Rösel, Anja; Itkin, Polona; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Sundfjord, Arild; Steen, Harald; Hop, Haakon; Cohen, Lana; Peterson, Algot K.; Jeffery, Nicole; Elliott, Scott M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Turner, Adrian K.

    2017-07-01

    Large changes in the sea ice regime of the Arctic Ocean have occurred over the last decades justifying the development of models to forecast sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) to simulate physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks and to use the model to analyze ice algal bloom dynamics in different types of ice. Ocean and atmospheric forcing data and observations of the evolution of the sea ice properties collected from 18 April to 4 June 2015, during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition, were used to test the CICE model. Our results show the following: (i) model performance is reasonable for sea ice thickness and bulk salinity; good for vertically resolved temperature, vertically averaged Chl a concentrations, and standing stocks; and poor for vertically resolved Chl a concentrations. (ii) Improving current knowledge about nutrient exchanges, ice algal recruitment, and motion is critical to improve sea ice biogeochemical modeling. (iii) Ice algae may bloom despite some degree of basal melting. (iv) Ice algal motility driven by gradients in limiting factors is a plausible mechanism to explain their vertical distribution. (v) Different ice algal bloom and net primary production (NPP) patterns were identified in the ice types studied, suggesting that ice algal maximal growth rates will increase, while sea ice vertically integrated NPP and biomass will decrease as a result of the predictable increase in the area covered by refrozen leads in the Arctic Ocean.

  3. IDEOLOGICALLY CHALLENGING ENTERTAINMENT (ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lori Chalmers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideologically Challenging Entertainment (ICE is entertainment that challenges ‘us vs. them’ ideologies associated with radicalization, violent conflict and terrorism. ICE presents multiple perspectives on a conflict through mainstream entertainment. This article introduces the theoretical underpinnings of ICE, the first ICE production and the audience responses to it. The first ICE production was Two Merchants: The Merchant of Venice adapted to challenge ideologies of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views. Each performance included two versions of the adaptation: a Jewish dominated society with an Arab Muslim minority, contrasted with an Arab Muslim dominated society and a Jewish minority. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views to become more tolerant of differences away from ideological radicalization. Of audience members who did not initially agree with the premise of the production, 40% reconsidered their ideological views, indicating increased tolerance, greater awareness of and desire to change their own prejudices. In addition, 86% of the audience expressed their intention to discuss the production with others, thereby encouraging critical engagement with, and broader dissemination of the message. These outcomes suggest that high quality entertainment – as defined by audience responses to it - can become a powerful tool in the struggle against radicalised ideologies.

  4. Data archaeology at ICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Harry D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the function of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), both past and present, in particular in the context of its interest in compiling oceanographic data sets. Details are provided of the procedures it adopted to ensure adequate internationally collaborative marine investigations during the first part of the century, such as how it provided a forum for action by its member states, how it coordinated and published the results of scientific programs, and how it provided a foundation, through scientists employed in the ICES Office, for the establishment of the original oceanographic marine databases and associated products, and the scientific interpretation of the results. The growth and expansion of this area of ICES activity is then traced, taking into account the changing conditions for oceanographic data management resulting from the establishment of the National Data Centres, as well as the World Data Centres for Oceanography, which were created to meet the needs of the International Geophysical Year (IGY). Finally, there is a discussion of the way in which the very existence of ICES has proved to be a valuable source of old data, some of which have not yet been digitized, but which can be readily retrieved because they have been very carefully documented throughout the years. Lessons from this activity are noted, and suggestions are made on how the past experiences of ICES can be utilized to ensure the availability of marine data to present and future generations of scientists.

  5. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard; Helm, Veit; Sun, Sainan; Pattyn, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB), i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique - based on satellite observations - to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation). Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from -14.7 to 8.6 m a-1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km) lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a-1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks). However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing) toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite-based BMB values remain uncertain, we have

  6. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  7. IceBridge PARIS L2 Ice Thickness V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains contains Greenland ice thickness measurements acquired using the Pathfinder Advanced Radar Ice Sounder (PARIS).The data were collected as part...

  8. Electrical conductivity measurements from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clausen, Henrik Brink; Taylor, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    THE direct-current electrical conductivity of glacial ice depends on its acidity1-3, and can also indicate changes in climate, as ice formed in cold, dusty periods has a high concentration of alkaline dust1,4,5, which significantly reduces the conductivity6,7 compared to warmer, less dusty periods....... Here we present electrical conductivity records for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) and Greenland Ice-core Project (GRIP) ice cores, drilled 28 km apart to enable direct comparison of the results. The upper parts of both records are consistent with previous evidence from other Greenland cores...

  9. Methodological synergies for glaciological constraints to find Oldest Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    The Beyond EPICA - Oldest Ice (BE-OI) consortium and its international partners unite a globally unique concentration of scientific expertise and infrastructure for ice-core investigations. It delivers the technical, scientific and financial basis for a comprehensive plan to retrieve an ice core up to 1.5 million years old. The consortium takes care of the pre-site surveys for site selection around Dome C and Dome Fuji, both potentially appropriate regions in East Antarctica. Other science consortia will investigate other regions under the umbrella of the International Partnerships in Ice Core Sciences (IPICS). Of major importance to obtain reliable estimates of the age of the ice in the basal layers of the ice sheet are the physical boundary conditions and ice-flow dynamics: geothermal heat flux, advection and layer integrity to avoid layer overturning and the formation of folds. The project completed the first field season at both regions of interest. This contribution will give an overview how the combined application of various geophysical, geodetical and glaciological methods applied in the field in combination with ice-flow modelling can constrain the glaciological boundary conditions and thus age at depth.

  10. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  11. Ice Nuclei from Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Seifried, Teresa; Winkler, Philipp; Schmale, David, III; Grothe, Hinrich

    2017-04-01

    .H., Robinson, N.H., Frohlich-Nowoisky, J., Tobo, Y., Després, V.R., Garcia, E., Gochis, D.J., Harris, E., Müller-Germann, I., Ruzene, C., Schmer, B., Sinha, B., Day, D.A., Andreae, M.O., Jimenez, J.L., Gallagher, M., Kreidenweis, S.M., Bertram, A.K., and Pöschl, U.: High concentrations of biological aerosol particles and ice nuclei during and after rain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1651-1664, 2013. Pummer, B.G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S., and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2541-2550, 2012.

  12. EASE-Grid Sea Ice Age

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides weekly estimates of sea ice age for the Arctic Ocean from remotely sensed sea ice motion and sea ice extent. The ice age data are derived from...

  13. Thin ice and storms: Sea ice deformation from buoy arrays deployed during N-ICE2015

    OpenAIRE

    Itkin, Polona; Spreen, Gunnar; Cheng, Bin; Doble, Martin; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Haapala, Jari; Hughes, Nick; Kaleschke, Lars; Nicolaus, Marcel; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Arctic sea ice has displayed significant thinning as well as an increase in drift speed in recent years. Taken together this suggests an associated rise in sea ice deformation rate. A winter and spring expedition to the sea ice covered region north of Svalbard – the Norwegian young sea ICE 2015 expedition (N-ICE2015) - gave an opportunity to deploy extensive buoy arrays and to monitor the deformation of the first- and second-year ice now common in the majority of the Arctic Basin. During the ...

  14. Canadian snow and sea ice: historical trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudryk, Lawrence R.; Derksen, Chris; Howell, Stephen; Laliberté, Fred; Thackeray, Chad; Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Vionnet, Vincent; Kushner, Paul J.; Brown, Ross

    2018-04-01

    The Canadian Sea Ice and Snow Evolution (CanSISE) Network is a climate research network focused on developing and applying state of the art observational data to advance dynamical prediction, projections, and understanding of seasonal snow cover and sea ice in Canada and the circumpolar Arctic. Here, we present an assessment from the CanSISE Network on trends in the historical record of snow cover (fraction, water equivalent) and sea ice (area, concentration, type, and thickness) across Canada. We also assess projected changes in snow cover and sea ice likely to occur by mid-century, as simulated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) suite of Earth system models. The historical datasets show that the fraction of Canadian land and marine areas covered by snow and ice is decreasing over time, with seasonal and regional variability in the trends consistent with regional differences in surface temperature trends. In particular, summer sea ice cover has decreased significantly across nearly all Canadian marine regions, and the rate of multi-year ice loss in the Beaufort Sea and Canadian Arctic Archipelago has nearly doubled over the last 8 years. The multi-model consensus over the 2020-2050 period shows reductions in fall and spring snow cover fraction and sea ice concentration of 5-10 % per decade (or 15-30 % in total), with similar reductions in winter sea ice concentration in both Hudson Bay and eastern Canadian waters. Peak pre-melt terrestrial snow water equivalent reductions of up to 10 % per decade (30 % in total) are projected across southern Canada.

  15. Dry Ice Etches Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Every year seasonal carbon dioxide ice, known to us as 'dry ice,' covers the poles of Mars. In the south polar region this ice is translucent, allowing sunlight to pass through and warm the surface below. The ice then sublimes (evaporates) from the bottom of the ice layer, and carves channels in the surface. The channels take on many forms. In the subimage shown here (figure 1) the gas from the dry ice has etched wide shallow channels. This region is relatively flat, which may be the reason these channels have a different morphology than the 'spiders' seen in more hummocky terrain. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003364_0945 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 15-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.4 degrees latitude, 104.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 251.5 km (157.2 miles). At this distance the image scale is 25.2 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 75 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:57 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 75 degrees, thus the sun was about 15 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 219.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  16. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  17. Optically thin ice clouds in Arctic : Formation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouan, C.; Girard, E.; Pelon, J.; Blanchet, J.; Wobrock, W.; Gultepe, I.; Gayet, J.; Delanoë, J.; Mioche, G.; Adam de Villiers, R.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic ice cloud formation during winter is poorly understood mainly due to lack of observations and the remoteness of this region. Their influence on Northern Hemisphere weather and climate is of paramount importance, and the modification of their properties, linked to aerosol-cloud interaction processes, needs to be better understood. Large concentration of aerosols in the Arctic during winter is associated to long-range transport of anthropogenic aerosols from the mid-latitudes to the Arctic. Observations show that sulphuric acid coats most of these aerosols. Laboratory and in-situ measurements show that at cold temperature (coating lowers the freezing point and deactivates ice nuclei (IN). Therefore, the IN concentration is reduced in these regions and there is less competition for the same available moisture. As a result, large ice crystals form in relatively small concentrations. It is hypothesized that the observed low concentration of large ice crystals in thin ice clouds is linked to the acidification of aerosols. Extensive measurements from ground-based sites and satellite remote sensing (CloudSat and CALIPSO) reveal the existence of two types of extended optically thin ice clouds (TICs) in the Arctic during the polar night and early spring. The first type (TIC-1) is seen only by the lidar, but not the radar, and is found in pristine environment whereas the second type (TIC-2) is detected by both sensors, and is associated with high concentration of aerosols, possibly anthropogenic. TIC-2 is characterized by a low concentration of ice crystals that are large enough to precipitate. To further investigate the interactions between TICs clouds and aerosols, in-situ, airborne and satellite measurements of specific cases observed during the POLARCAT and ISDAC field experiments are analyzed. These two field campaigns took place respectively over the North Slope of Alaska and Northern part of Sweden in April 2008. Analysis of cloud type can be done from these

  18. Safety hazard of aircraft icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclean, J. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of aircraft icing is reported as well as the type of aircraft affected, the pilots involved, and an identification of the areas where reduction in icing accidents are readily accomplished.

  19. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  20. Expanding Antarctic Sea Ice: Anthropogenic or Natural Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitz, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Antarctic sea ice extent has increased over the last 36 years according to the satellite record. Concurrent with Antarctic sea-ice expansion has been broad cooling of the Southern Ocean sea-surface temperature. Not only are Southern Ocean sea ice and SST trends at odds with expectations from greenhouse gas-induced warming, the trend patterns are not reproduced in historical simulations with comprehensive global climate models. While a variety of different factors may have contributed to the observed trends in recent decades, we propose that it is atmospheric circulation changes - and the changes in ocean circulation they induce - that have emerged as the most likely cause of the observed Southern Ocean sea ice and SST trends. I will discuss deficiencies in models that could explain their incorrect response. In addition, I will present results from a series of experiments where the Antarctic sea ice and ocean are forced by atmospheric perturbations imposed within a coupled climate model. Figure caption: Linear trends of annual-mean SST (left) and annual-mean sea-ice concentration (right) over 1980-2014. SST is from NOAA's Optimum Interpolation SST dataset (version 2; Reynolds et al. 2002). Sea-ice concentration is from passive microwave observations using the NASA Team algorithm. Only the annual means are shown here for brevity and because the signal to noise is greater than in the seasonal means. Figure from Armour and Bitz (2015).

  1. Glaciochemical investigations of the ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mountain, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kern

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3H activity and the concentration of 23 metals and metalloids have been analysed in cave ice samples from the perennial cave ice deposit of Vukušić Ice Cave, Velebit Mt., Croatia. The results of tritium measurements exclude a secular age for the upper 2.4 m of ice deposition, and provide clear arguments that the sampled ice sequence consists of frozen post-1950 precipitation. Measured concentrations of most of the analysed elements have largely surmounted reported concentrations of similar elements from local precipitation or Alpine snow/firn/ice records, whereas three metals (Cr, Cu, Pb show concentrations comparable to them. Principal component analysis was used to select three groups of elements. The Ca-Mg-governed group (PC1 encompasses the bedrock-related components; their fluctuation might thus reflect the past intensity of dissolution in the epikarst. PC2, with the most characteristic elements being Na, Cr and Pb, probably preserved an atmospheric depositional signal. PC3 is governed by Al and Fe. This probably carries the distal, non-karstic crustal signal and hence might be related to atmospheric circulation (i.e., wind direction and speed.

  2. Glacial-interglacial sea ice proxies from the Antarctic Peninsula using the James Ross Island ice core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, A. K.; Mulvaney, R.; Triest, J.; Abram, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ice core records from Antarctica have shown promise as highly-resolved indicators of regional sea ice change, but to date semi-quantified reconstructions do not extend back more than ~150 years. In this study the chemical composition of the James Ross Island ice core is presented as a potential sea ice proxy record spanning the full Holocene and into the last glacial interval. A CFA-TE method was used to analyse the chemical composition of the entire 363.9m core including final 5m which contains evidence of glacial age ice. MSA- and major anions were measured at 4cm effective resolution, along with trace elements Na, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, H2O2, NO3, total conductivity and dust at <0.5cm effective resolution. Seasonal signals from H2O2 in the upper 50m of the core support the use of non sea salt-SO42- for determining seasonality in deeper sections. This multi-proxy analysis of the oldest ice core to date from the Antarctic Peninsula region allows the concurrent interpretation of sea ice changes and their environmental drivers. The potential dual influence of previous winter sea ice extent and air pathway source region on MSA concentrations in the core are interpreted with use of Na as a winter maximum indicator and Ca and dust signal strength showing changes in dust flux indicating potential source region variation.

  3. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  4. A New Normal for the Sea Ice Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Florence; Windnagel, Ann; Meier, Walter N.

    2014-01-01

    The NSIDC Sea Ice Index is a popular data product that shows users how ice extent and concentration have changed since the beginning of the passive microwave satellite record in 1978. It shows time series of monthly ice extent anomalies rather than actual extent values, in order to emphasize the information the data are carrying. Along with the time series, an image of average extent for the previous month is shown as a white field, with a pink line showing the median extent for that month. These are updated monthly; corresponding daily products are updated daily.

  5. Polymerisation of activated RNA in eutectic ice phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dörr, Mark; Maurer, Sarah Elisabeth; Monnard, Pierre-Alain

    The non enzymatic elongation of RNA oligomers by activated RNA dimers and other oligomers in eutectic ice phases is investigated. Eutectic salt-ice mixtures contain channels of liquid aqueous solutions with a high molecule concentration or brines, which form an environment conductive to spontaneous...... (“cooperative sequences”) or degrading (“parasitic sequences”) the RNA population. These eutectic phases in water-ice are plausible prebiotic micro-environments that should help to overcome the dilution problem in origin of life scenarios. They might have supported the production of libraries....../populations of longer RNA chains rising the potential to produce (auto-)catalytic active molecular species (e.g. ribozymes)....

  6. A forward model for calculating the AMSR brightness temperatures of sea-ice and ocean as seen through the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Hofmann-Bang, Dorthe

    with SSM/I retrievals, with ocean and atmosphere retrievals by Remote Sensing Systems, with SST data from the Ocean and Sea Ice SAF and with sea ice concentrations and MY-fractions of the NASA Team and Comiso Bootstrap sea ice algorithms. The forward model is the level 0 emissivity and radiative transfer...

  7. Co-distribution of seabirds and their polar cod prey near the ice edge in southern Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Mathieu; Gauthier, S; Mosbech, Anders

    species, and age-1 polar cod found in bird stomachs were likely individuals associated to ice. At a large scale of hundreds of kilometers, seabirds and age-0 polar cod were more abundant in ice-covered habitats (30 to 100% ice concentration). At medium and small scale of 12.5 and 1 km respectively...

  8. CARVE: Daily Thaw State of Boreal and Arctic Alaska from AMSR-E and SSM/I, 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides daily 10 km resolution maps of the Alaskan and Arctic Boreal land surface state as either frozen, melting, or thawed. These data are generated...

  9. AMSR-E/Aqua Weekly L3 Global Ascending/Descending .25x.25 deg Ocean Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-3 daily product (AE_DyOcn), weekly product (AE_WkOcn), and monthly product (AE_MoOcn) include SST, near-surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, and...

  10. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Ascending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  11. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Descending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  12. An Intercomparison of ERS-Scat, AMSR-E Soil Moisture Observations with Model Simulations over France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudiger, C.; Calvet, J.C.; Gruhier, C.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study undertaken in preparation of the work leading up to the assimilation of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations into the land surface model (LSM) Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) at Météo-France. This study consists of an intercomparison

  13. Microbial activity in debris-rich basal ice; adaption to sub-zero, saline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montross, S. N.; Skidmore, M. L.; Christner, B. C.; Griggs, R.; Tison, J.; Sowers, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Polycrystalline ice in glaciers and ice sheets has a high preservation potential for biological material and chemical compounds that can be used to document the presence of active microbial metabolism at sub-zero temperatures. The concentration and isotopic composition of gases, in conjunction with other aqueous chemical species in debris-rich basal glacier ice from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica were used as direct evidence that cells entrained in the ice remain metabolically active at temperatures as low as -17°C, likely in thin films of liquid water along ice crystal and mineral grain boundaries. δ18O2 and δ13CO2 values measured in the ice are consistent with the hypothesis that abrupt changes measured in O2 and CO2 concentrations between debris-rich and debris-poor ice are due to in situ microbial mineralization of organic carbon. Low temperature culture-based experiments conducted using organisms isolated from the ice indicate the ability to respire organic carbon to CO2 under oxic conditions and under anoxic conditions couple carbon mineralization to dissimilatory iron reduction using Fe3+ as an electron acceptor. Microorganisms that are active in the debris-rich basal ice layers in terrestrial polar ice masses need to be adapted to surviving subzero temperatures and saline conditions on extended timescales. Thus these terrestrial glacial systems and the isotopic and geochemical biomarkers therein provide good analogues for guiding exploration and analysis of debris-rich ices in extraterrestrial settings, for example, on Mars.

  14. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Peculiarities of hydrocarbon distribution in the snow-ice cover of different regions of the white sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovskaya, I. A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents data on the content of hydrocarbons (HCs) in the snow-ice cover of the coastal regions of the Dvina and Kandalaksha gulfs, White Sea, in 2008-2012 in comparison with the content of organic carbon, lipids, and the suspension. The accumulation of HCs in the snow-ice cover depends on the degree of pollution of the atmosphere, formation conditions of ice, and intensity of biogeochemical processes at the ice-water boundary. Thus, the highest concentrations in the water basin of Arkhangelsk are identified in snow and in the upper part of the ice. The peculiarities of formation of the snow-ice cover in Rugozero Bay of the Kandalaksha Gulf leads to the concentration of HCs in different snow and ice layers. The decreased HC content in the snow-ice cover of the White Sea, in comparison with previous studies, is caused by recession of industrial production in recent years.

  16. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J. C.; Aslam, Shazia N.; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M.; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions. PMID:24019487

  17. Polar Stereographic Valid Ice Masks Derived from National Ice Center Monthly Sea Ice Climatologies, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These valid ice masks provide a way to remove spurious ice caused by residual weather effects and land spillover in passive microwave data. They are derived from the...

  18. Analysis on ice resistance and ice response of ships sailing in brash ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to explore the interaction between a hull and crushed ice, [Methods] a discrete element model is combined with Euler multiphase flow. The force of a hull under different speeds and different ice levels is calculated, and the motion response of ice during ship-ice interaction discussed. The reasons for ice resistance and movement change are explained intuitively. [Results] The ice resistance of the hull is obtained, mainly due to the friction and collision of the crushed ice and hull surface, which increases with the increase of the speed, but when the speed increases to a certain value, the crushing resistance no longer increases and even reduces the trend. [Conclusions] This provides a reference for the optimization of ship type for ice zones, as well as propeller design.

  19. Citrus peel extract incorporated ice cubes to protect the quality of common pandora: Fish storage in ice with citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Gokoglu, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ice with albedo and flavedo fragments of Citrus (Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.)) extracts on the quality of common pandora (Pagellus erythrinus). Concentrated citrus extracts were diluted with distilled water (1/100 w/v) before making of ice. The ice cubes were spread on each layer of fishes and stored at 0 °C for 15 days. The pH value showed a regular increase in all samples. TVB-N levels of b...

  20. Under the sea ice: Exploring the relationship between sea ice and the foraging behaviour of southern elephant seals in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Sara; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Fraser, Alexander D.; Massom, Robert A.; Reid, Phillip; Sumner, Michael; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, Robert; McMahon, Clive; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark A.; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2017-08-01

    Investigating ecological relationships between predators and their environment is essential to understand the response of marine ecosystems to climate variability and change. This is particularly true in polar regions, where sea ice (a sensitive climate variable) plays a crucial yet highly dynamic and variable role in how it influences the whole marine ecosystem, from phytoplankton to top predators. For mesopredators such as seals, sea ice both supports a rich (under-ice) food resource, access to which depends on local to regional coverage and conditions. Here, we investigate sex-specific relationships between the foraging strategies of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in winter and spatio-temporal variability in sea ice concentration (SIC) and coverage in East Antarctica. We satellite-tracked 46 individuals undertaking post-moult trips in winter from Kerguelen Islands to the peri-Antarctic shelf between 2004 and 2014. These data indicate distinct general patterns of sea ice usage: while females tended to follow the sea ice edge as it extended northward, the males remained on the continental shelf despite increasing sea ice. Seal hunting time, a proxy of foraging activity inferred from the diving behaviour, was longer for females in late autumn in the outer part of the pack ice, ∼150-370 km south of the ice edge. Within persistent regions of compact sea ice, females had a longer foraging activity (i) in the highest sea ice concentration at their position, but (ii) their foraging activity was longer when there were more patches of low concentration sea ice around their position (either in time or in space; 30 days & 50 km). The high spatio-temporal variability of sea ice around female positions is probably a key factor allowing them to exploit these concentrated patches. Despite lack of information on prey availability, females may exploit mesopelagic finfishes and squids that concentrate near the ice-water interface or within the water column (from

  1. Size of bacterial ice-nucleation sites measured in situ by radiation inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, A.G.; Lindow, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Four bacterial species are known to catalyze ice formation at temperatures just below 0 0 C. To better understand the relationship between the molecular structure of bacterial ice-nucleation site(s) and the quantitative and qualitative features of the ice-nucleation-active phenotype, the authors determined by γ-radiation analysis the in situ size of ice-nucleation sites in strains of Pseudomonas syringae and Erwinia herbicola and in Escherichia coli HB101 carrying the plasmid pICE1.1. Lyophilized cells of each bacterial strain were irradiated with a flux of γ radiation from 0 to 10.2 Mrad. Differential concentrations of active ice nuclei decreased as a first-order function of radiation dose in all strains as temperature was decreased from -2 0 C to -14 0 C in 1 0 C intervals. Sizes of ice nuclei were calculated from the + -radiation flux at which 37% of initial ice nuclei active within each 1 0 C temperature interval remained. The minimum mass of a functional ice nucleus was about 150 kDa for all strains. The size of ice nuclei increased logarithmically with increasing temperature from -12 0 CC to -2 0 C, where the estimated nucleant mass was 19,000 kDa. The ice nucleant in these three bacterial species may represent an oligomeric structure, composed at least in part of an ice gene product that can self-associate to assume many possible sizes

  2. Development of a Mid-Infrared Sea and Lake Ice Index (MISI Using the GOES Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dorofy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An automated ice-mapping algorithm has been developed and evaluated using data from the GOES-13 imager. The approach includes cloud-free image compositing as well as image classification using spectral criteria. The algorithm uses an alternative snow index to the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI. The GOES-13 imager does not have a 1.6 µm band, a requirement for NDSI; however, the newly proposed Mid-Infrared Sea and Lake Ice Index (MISI incorporates the reflective component of the 3.9 µm or mid-infrared (MIR band, which the GOES-13 imager does operate. Incorporating MISI into a sea or lake ice mapping algorithm allows for mapping of thin or broken ice with no snow cover (nilas, frazil ice and thicker ice with snow cover to a degree of confidence that is comparable to other ice mapping products. The proposed index has been applied over the Great Lakes region and qualitatively compared to the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS, the National Ice Center ice concentration maps and MODIS snow cover products. The application of MISI may open additional possibilities in climate research using historical GOES imagery. Furthermore, MISI may be used in addition to the current NDSI in ice identification to build more robust ice-mapping algorithms for the next generation GOES satellites.

  3. Methane excess in Arctic surface water-triggered by sea ice formation and melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E; Rudels, B; Schauer, U; Mau, S; Dieckmann, G

    2015-11-10

    Arctic amplification of global warming has led to increased summer sea ice retreat, which influences gas exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the atmosphere where sea ice previously acted as a physical barrier. Indeed, recently observed enhanced atmospheric methane concentrations in Arctic regions with fractional sea-ice cover point to unexpected feedbacks in cycling of methane. We report on methane excess in sea ice-influenced water masses in the interior Arctic Ocean and provide evidence that sea ice is a potential source. We show that methane release from sea ice into the ocean occurs via brine drainage during freezing and melting i.e. in winter and spring. In summer under a fractional sea ice cover, reduced turbulence restricts gas transfer, then seawater acts as buffer in which methane remains entrained. However, in autumn and winter surface convection initiates pronounced efflux of methane from the ice covered ocean to the atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that sea ice-sourced methane cycles seasonally between sea ice, sea-ice-influenced seawater and the atmosphere, while the deeper ocean remains decoupled. Freshening due to summer sea ice retreat will enhance this decoupling, which restricts the capacity of the deeper Arctic Ocean to act as a sink for this greenhouse gas.

  4. IceCube SWIRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongliang L.

    2017-01-01

    Clouds, ice clouds in particular, are a major source of uncertainty in climate models. Submm-wave sensors fill the sensitivity gap between MW and IR.Cloud microphysical properties (particle size and shape) account for large (200 and 40) measurement uncertainty.

  5. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  6. User's guide for ICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.K.

    1976-07-01

    ICE is a cross-section mixing code which will accept cross sections from an AMPX working library and produce mixed cross sections in the AMPX working library format, ANISN format, and the group-independent ANISN format. User input is in the free-form or fixed-form FIDO structure. The code is operable as a module in the AMPX system

  7. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  8. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  9. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  10. Ice particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampara, Naresh; Turnbull, Barbara; Hill, Richard; Swift, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Granular interactions of ice occur in a range of geophysical, astrophysical and industrial applications. For example, Saturn's Rings are composed of icy particles from micrometers to kilometres in size - inertial and yet too small to interact gravitationally. In clouds, ice crystals are smashed to pieces before they re-aggregate to for snow floccules in a process that is very much open to interpretation. In a granular flow of ice particles, the energy spent in collisions can lead to localized surface changes and wetting, which in turn can promote aggregation. To understand the induced wetting and its effects, we present two novel experimental methods which provide snippets of insight into the collisional behaviour of macroscopic ice particles. Experiment 1: Microgravity experiments provide minute details of the contact between the ice particles during the collision. A diamagnetic levitation technique, as alternative to the parabolic flight or falling tower experiments, was used to understand the collisional behaviour of individual macroscopic icy bodies. A refrigerated cylinder, that can control ambient conditions, was inserted into the bore of an 18 Tesla superconducting magnet and cooled to -10°C. Initial binary collisions were created, where one 4 mm ice particle was levitated in the magnet bore whilst another particle was dropped vertically from the top of the bore. The trajectories of both particles were captured by high speed video to provide the three-dimensional particle velocities and track the collision outcome. Introducing complexity, multiple particles were levitated in the bore and an azimuthal turbulent air flow introduced, allowing the particles to collide with other particles within a coherent fluid structure (mimicking Saturn's rings, or an eddy in a cloud). In these experiments, a sequence of collisions occur, each one different to the previous one due to the changes in surface characteristics created by the collisions themselves. Aggregation

  11. Icing Research Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennault, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    The Icing Research Tunnel in Building 11 at the NASA Glenn Research Center is committed to researching the effects of in flight icing on aircraft and testing ways to stop the formation of hazardous icing conditions on planes. During this summer, I worked here with Richard DelRosa, the lead engineer for this area. address one of the major concerns of aviation: icing conditions. During the war, many planes crashed (especially supply planes going over the.Himalayas) because ice built up in their wings and clogged the engines. To this day, it remains the largest ice tunnel in the world, with a test section that measures 6 feet high, 9 feet long, and 20 feet wide. It can simulate airspeeds from 50 to 300 miles per hour at temperatures as low as -50 Fahrenheit. Using these capabilities, IRT can simulate actual conditions at high altitudes. The first thing I did was creating a cross reference in Microsoft Excel. It lists commands for the DPU units that control the pressure and temperature variations in the tunnel, as well as the type of command (keyboard, multiplier, divide, etc). The cross reference also contains the algorithm for every command, and which page it is listed in on the control sheet (visual Auto-CAD graphs, which I helped to make). I actually spent most of the time on the computer using Auto-CAD. I drew a diagram of the entire icing tunnel and then drew diagrams of its various parts. Between my mentor and me, we have drawings of every part of it, from the spray bars to the thermocouples, power cabinets, input-output connectors for power systems, and layouts of various other machines. I was also responsible for drawing schematics for the Escort system (which controls the spray bars), the power system, DPUs, and other electrical systems. In my spare time, I am attempting to build and program the "toddler". Toddler is a walking robot that I have to program in PBASIC language. When complete, it should be able to walk on level terrain while avoiding obstacles in

  12. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Wahr, J.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change...... a significant acceleration in mass loss at elevations above 1200 m. Both the improved mass loss estimate along the ice sheet margin and the acceleration at higher elevations have implications for predictions of the elastic adjustment of the lithosphere caused by present-day ice mass changes. Our study shows...... change. Our results show that adding Airborne Topographic Mapper and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor data to the ICESat data increases the catchment-wide estimate of ice volume loss by 11%, mainly due to an improved volume loss estimate along the ice sheet margin. Furthermore, our results show...

  13. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  14. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.

    2012-01-01

    concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt......The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite...... in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging...

  15. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  16. A mechanism for biologically induced iodine emissions from sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Blaszczak-Boxe, C. S.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2015-09-01

    Ground- and satellite-based measurements have reported high concentrations of iodine monoxide (IO) in coastal Antarctica. The sources of such a large iodine burden in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere remain unknown. We propose a mechanism for iodine release from sea ice based on the premise that micro-algae are the primary source of iodine emissions in this environment. The emissions are triggered by the biological production of iodide (I-) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) from micro-algae (contained within and underneath sea ice) and their diffusion through sea-ice brine channels, ultimately accumulating in a thin brine layer (BL) on the surface of sea ice. Prior to reaching the BL, the diffusion timescale of iodine within sea ice is depth-dependent. The BL is also a vital component of the proposed mechanism as it enhances the chemical kinetics of iodine-related reactions, which allows for the efficient release of iodine to the polar boundary layer. We suggest that iodine is released to the atmosphere via three possible pathways: (1) emitted from the BL and then transported throughout snow atop sea ice, from where it is released to the atmosphere; (2) released directly from the BL to the atmosphere in regions of sea ice that are not covered with snowpack; or (3) emitted to the atmosphere directly through fractures in the sea-ice pack. To investigate the proposed biology-ice-atmosphere coupling at coastal Antarctica we use a multiphase model that incorporates the transport of iodine species, via diffusion, at variable depths, within brine channels of sea ice. Model simulations were conducted to interpret observations of elevated springtime IO in the coastal Antarctic, around the Weddell Sea. While a lack of experimental and observational data adds uncertainty to the model predictions, the results nevertheless show that the levels of inorganic iodine (i.e. I2, IBr, ICl) released from sea ice through this mechanism could account for the observed IO concentrations during

  17. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice-Albedo Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Brian E. J.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice-albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  18. Sea Ice and Hydrographic Variability in the Northwest North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, I. G.; Heimbach, P.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice anomalies in the Northwest North Atlantic's Labrador Sea are of climatic interest because of known and hypothesized feedbacks with hydrographic anomalies, deep convection/mode water formation, and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric patterns. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, hydrographic anomalies formed in the Arctic Ocean associated with warming will propagate into the Labrador Sea via the Fram Strait/West Greenland Current and the Canadian Archipelago/Baffin Island Current. Therefore, understanding the dynamical response of sea ice in the basin to hydrographic anomalies is essential for the prediction and interpretation of future high-latitude climate change. Historically, efforts to quantify the link between the observed sea ice and hydrographic variability in the region has been limited due to in situ observation paucity and technical challenges associated with synthesizing ocean and sea ice observations with numerical models. To elaborate the relationship between sea ice and ocean variability, we create three one-year (1992-1993, 1996-1997, 2003-2004) three-dimensional time-varying reconstructions of the ocean and sea ice state in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The reconstructions are syntheses of a regional coupled 32 km ocean-sea ice model with a suite of contemporary in situ and satellite hydrographic and ice data using the adjoint method. The model and data are made consistent, in a least-squares sense, by iteratively adjusting several model control variables (e.g., ocean initial and lateral boundary conditions and the atmospheric state) to minimize an uncertainty-weighted model-data misfit cost function. The reconstructions reveal that the ice pack attains a state of quasi-equilibrium in mid-March (the annual sea ice maximum) in which the total ice-covered area reaches a steady state -ice production and dynamical divergence along the coasts balances dynamical convergence and melt along the pack’s seaward edge. Sea ice advected to the

  19. Sea-ice production in the northern Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihashi, Sohey; Ohshima, Kay I.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    Sinking of the dense water plays a significant role in the global climate system by driving thermohaline (overturning) circulation and biogeochemical cycles. Deep water convection occurs also in the Japan Sea, and the convection has been considered to be mainly caused by intense cooling of the sea surface. Another possible cause of the convection is brine rejection associated with high sea-ice production in a coastal polynya (thin sea-ice) area in the northern Japan Sea. We have developed an algorithm which detects the thin ice area and estimates the thickness using passive microwave satellite data. Based on a heat flux calculation with the satellite-derived ice thickness, the total sea-ice production in winter (December-March) averaged over 2002/03-2010/11 is estimated to be 4.27 × 1010 m3. This indicates that the ice production was underestimated by about half in a previous study in which the polynya was unrealistically treated as a low ice concentration area. The main determinant factor for the total ice production is the surface air temperature in early winter (December-January), which shows a rapid warming trend of 0.7 °C/decade for this 40-years. Based on a linear regression approach, the total ice production is estimated to have decreased by 5%/decade due to air temperature warming. If brine rejection due to the ice production contributes to the deep water formation in the Japan Sea, this is consistent with the fact that the deep water formation has been decreasing for the last 50-100 years.

  20. Magnetization of Greenland ice and its relationship with dust content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanci, L.; Kent, D. V.; Biscaye, P. E.; Steffensen, J. P.

    2004-05-01

    We estimate the concentration of fine magnetic particles in ice samples from the North Greenland Ice Core Project core from the central Greenland ice sheet, using low-temperature (77K) isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) analysis and compare it with the mass concentration of aerosol dust. Samples were taken from six climatic intervals, spanning the time from the Holocene (Preboreal) back to the Last Glacial Dansgaard/Oeschger cycle 5. The mean IRM intensity of the ice varies by a factor of 3 from glacial to interglacial stages, being lower during interglacials. The IRM acquisition curves of the ice do not quite saturate at the maximum available field of 0.8 T and show a relatively broad coercivity, which is compatible with a mixture of maghemite or magnetite and hematite. Comparison of the IRM intensity and total dust mass shows a remarkably good correlation but also reveals a large background magnetization, which may be essentially constant over the different climatic stages. IRM suggests that the dust properties are independent of the background signal and that the dust aerosol has a magnetization within about 30% of pristine loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau, which is considered to have the same source in the same east Asian deserts as dust in Greenland ice. Ice contamination and the flux of extraterrestrial dust particles were considered in order to explain the origin of the background magnetization. Nevertheless, we could not find a convincing explanation for this signal, which represents a considerable part of the IRM signal and is the dominant component during interglacial intervals, without invoking the presence of undetected dust mass. The alternative hypothesis of a varying magnetization of the ice dust at different climatic periods would suggest that different sources of aerosol are active during different climatic periods. This, however, has not proven to be the case so far for studies of the provenance of dust in Greenland ice.

  1. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    experimental solubility in this system. Incorporation of hydrohalite solubility into a 1D thermodynamic model of the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice showed its precipitation to initiate once the incoming shortwave radiation dropped to 0 W m-2, and that it can reach concentrations of 9.9 g kg-1 within the upper and coldest layers of the ice pack. This suggests a limited effect of hydrohalite on the albedo of sea ice. The insights provided by the solubility measurements into the behaviour of gypsum and hydrohalite in the ice-brine system cannot be gleaned from field investigations at present.

  2. The Influence of Platelet Ice and Snow on Antarctic Land-fast Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Sea ice fastened to coasts, icebergs and ice shelves is of crucial importance for climate- and ecosystems. Near Antarctic ice shelves, this land-fast sea ice exhibits two unique characteristics that distinguish it from most other sea ice: 1) Ice platelets form and grow in super-cooled water, which originates from ice shelf cavities. The crystals accumulate beneath the solid sea-ice cover and are incorporated into the sea-ice fabric, contributing between 10 and 60% to the mas...

  3. Arctic Sea ice by passive microwave observations from the Nimbus-5 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Gloersen, P.; Zwally, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a dynamic/thermodynamic numerical model of Arctic sea ice are compared with satellite images from the Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer. The model combines aspects of two previous sea ice models those of Parkinson and Washington and Ling, Rasmussen, and Campbell. A solid/fluid model basically follows the formulation of the Parkinson and Washington model with the addition of the constitutive equation and equation of state from the Ling model. The Parkinson and Washington model simulates the seasonal cycle of sea ice thicknesses and concentrations with a horizontal resolution of roughly 200 km and a timestep of 8 hours. The thermodynamics are calculated through energy balances at the interfaces between ice and air, water and ice, and water and air. The ice dynamics are calculated through a momentum equation balancing air stress, water stress, dynamic topography, and Coriolis force, with an adjustment for internal ice resistance.

  4. Future sea ice conditions and weather forecasts in the Arctic: Implications for Arctic shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascard, Jean-Claude; Riemann-Campe, Kathrin; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Schyberg, Harald; Randriamampianina, Roger; Karcher, Michael; Zhang, Jinlun; Rafizadeh, Mehrad

    2017-12-01

    The ability to forecast sea ice (both extent and thickness) and weather conditions are the major factors when it comes to safe marine transportation in the Arctic Ocean. This paper presents findings focusing on sea ice and weather prediction in the Arctic Ocean for navigation purposes, in particular along the Northeast Passage. Based on comparison with the observed sea ice concentrations for validation, the best performing Earth system models from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) program (CMIP5-Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) were selected to provide ranges of potential future sea ice conditions. Our results showed that, despite a general tendency toward less sea ice cover in summer, internal variability will still be large and shipping along the Northeast Passage might still be hampered by sea ice blocking narrow passages. This will make sea ice forecasts on shorter time and space scales and Arctic weather prediction even more important.

  5. Twenty-Three Century-scale Ice Core Records of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) from West Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains sub-annually resolved concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), snow, firn and ice from 23 sites on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS).

  6. The direct mechanical influence of sea ice state on ice sheet mass loss via iceberg mélange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, A.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction between sea ice and land ice has typically been considered as a large-scale exchange of moisture, heat and salinity through the ocean and atmosphere. However, recent observations from marine-terminating glaciers in Greenland indicate that the long-term decline of local sea ice cover has been accompanied by an increase in nearby iceberg calving and associated ice sheet mass loss. Near glacier calving fronts, sea ice binds icebergs together into an aggregate granular material known as iceberg mélange. Studies have hypothesized that mélange may suppress calving by exerting a mechanical buttressing force directly on the glacier terminus. Here, we show explicitly how sea ice thickness and concentration play a critical role in setting the material strength of mélange. To do so, we adapt a discrete element model to simulate mélange as a cohesive granular material. In these simulations, mélange laden with thick, dense, landfast sea ice can produce enough resistance to shut down calving at the terminus. When sea ice thins, mélange weakens, reducing the mechanical force of mélange on the glacier terminus, and increasing the likelihood of calving. We discuss whether longer periods of sea-ice-free conditions in winter may lead to a transition from currently slow calving, predominantly occurring in the summer, to rapid calving, occurring throughout the year. We also discuss the potential role of freshwater discharge in promoting sea ice formation in fjords, potentially strengthening mélange.

  7. Changes in summer sea ice, albedo, and portioning of surface solar radiation in the Pacific sector of Arctic Ocean during 1982-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Ruibo; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Leppäranta, Matti; Wang, Jia; Kaleschke, Lars; Zhang, Zhanhai

    2016-01-01

    SSM/I sea ice concentration and CLARA black-sky composite albedo were used to estimate sea ice albedo in the region 70 degrees N-82 degrees N, 130 degrees W-180 degrees W. The long-term trends and seasonal evolutions of ice concentration, composite albedo, and ice albedo were then obtained. In July-August 1982-2009, the linear trend of the composite albedo and the ice albedo was -0.069 and -0.046 units per decade, respectively. During 1 June to 19 August, melting of sea ice resulted in an inc...

  8. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A.; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H.; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration.

  9. Possible connections of the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lejiang; Zhong, Shiyuan; Winkler, Julie A; Zhou, Mingyu; Lenschow, Donald H; Li, Bingrui; Wang, Xianqiao; Yang, Qinghua

    2017-04-05

    Sea ice is an important component of the global climate system and a key indicator of climate change. A decreasing trend in Arctic sea-ice concentration is evident in recent years, whereas Antarctic sea-ice concentration exhibits a generally increasing trend. Various studies have investigated the underlying causes of the observed trends for each region, but possible linkages between the regional trends have not been studied. Here, we hypothesize that the opposite trends in Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice concentration may be linked, at least partially, through interdecadal variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Although evaluation of this hypothesis is constrained by the limitations of the sea-ice cover record, preliminary statistical analyses of one short-term and two long-term time series of observed and reanalysis sea-ice concentrations data suggest the possibility of the hypothesized linkages. For all three data sets, the leading mode of variability of global sea-ice concentration is positively correlated with the AMO and negatively correlated with the PDO. Two wave trains related to the PDO and the AMO appear to produce anomalous surface-air temperature and low-level wind fields in the two polar regions that contribute to the opposite changes in sea-ice concentration.

  10. Accuracy of Sea Ice Data from Remote Sensing Methods, its Impact on Safe Speed Determination and Planning of Voyage in Ice-Covered Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The data related to ice floe concentration and ice thickness were analysed. Sources of data have been verified by visual observation and by comparison in between information from different remote sensing sources. The results of this work exceeded initial expectations. The discrepancies of the information provided by various data sources result from the error of the measurement method, which can be as high as 15% of the concentration of ice floes. It should also be borne in mind that the more generalized information about the state of the ice cover, the lower probability of detection of ice floe patches of a high concentration and spatial extent. Each vessel that is planning voyage in ice should take into consideration inaccurate estimation of concentration and thickness of ice floes received by means of satellite remote sensing methods. The method of determining permissible speed of various ice class vessel in ice on basis of safe speed graph for the icebreaker was developed. A well-defined equation approximates relationship between speed of the icebreaker and the vessels of specified ice classes. Average distance of 24.1 Nm from sea ice extent line was related to all analysed lines representing 30-40% ice floe concentration (IUP product excluded and 30.6 Nm for analysed lines representing 70-81-91% ice floe concentration. The maximal average distance of the furthest analysed line (IUP product excluded was equal 37.2 Nm. The average standard deviation of that results was equal 8.3 Nm only. Average distances of analysed lines from sea ice extent line to maximal ice data values were found as follow: 8.4 Nm (23% for NSIDC-CCAR ice age, 12.3 Nm (33% for minimal distance of 30-40% ice concentration, 15.4 Nm (41% for OSISAF ice type “ambiguous” zone from Open Water side, 25 Nm (67% for minimal distance of 70-81-91% ice concentration, 26.6 Nm (72% for OSISAF ice type “ambiguous” zone from 1st year ice age side, 35.9 Nm (97% for maximal distance

  11. Arctic sea ice in the global eddy-permitting ocean reanalysis ORAP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietsche, Steffen; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Zuo, Hao; Mogensen, Kristian

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the state of Arctic sea ice in the global eddy-permitting ocean reanalysis Ocean ReAnalysis Pilot 5 (ORAP5). Among other innovations, ORAP5 now assimilates observations of sea ice concentration using a univariate 3DVar-FGAT scheme. We focus on the period 1993-2012 and emphasize the evaluation of model performance with respect to recent observations of sea ice thickness. We find that sea ice concentration in ORAP5 is close to assimilated observations, with root mean square analysis residuals of less than 5 % in most regions. However, larger discrepancies exist for the Labrador Sea and east of Greenland during winter owing to biases in the free-running model. Sea ice thickness is evaluated against three different observational data sets that have sufficient spatial and temporal coverage: ICESat, IceBridge and SMOSIce. Large-scale features like the gradient between the thickest ice in the Canadian Arctic and thinner ice in the Siberian Arctic are simulated well by ORAP5. However, some biases remain. Of special note is the model's tendency to accumulate too thick ice in the Beaufort Gyre. The root mean square error of ORAP5 sea ice thickness with respect to ICESat observations is 1.0 m, which is on par with the well-established PIOMAS model sea ice reconstruction. Interannual variability and trend of sea ice volume in ORAP5 also compare well with PIOMAS and ICESat estimates. We conclude that, notwithstanding a relatively simple sea ice data assimilation scheme, the overall state of Arctic sea ice in ORAP5 is in good agreement with observations and will provide useful initial conditions for predictions.

  12. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  13. The calculation of desalination of mineralized porous ice at thawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sosnovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in this work demonstrate that dynamics of desalination of porous ice depends on a mobility of ions of salts, and the mobility is determined by the diffusion coefficient. The ice was made by freezing of mineralized water of different chemical composition. Model calculations of average mineralization of the porous ice at its thawing were made, and the ion concentrations of different salts were defined. Values of the diffusion coefficients of the salt ions in the film of brine ice pellets were obtained by means of comparison of results of measurements and calculations of dynamics of content of the salt ions in a porous ice at its thawing. The diffusion coefficient of ions Na+, Cl−, SO4 2− is by order of magnitude larger than that of Ca2+ and by two orders of magnitudethan HCO3 −. This results in that the content of ions Na+, Cl−, SO42− decreases in porous ice at its thawing 3 times faster than the content of the ions Ca2+. Basing on analysis of chemical composition of drainage water in some regions in Russia a possibility to desalinate the porous ice formed during the winter sprinkling is demonstrated.

  14. Organic compounds and suspended matter in the marine ice of the Eastern Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Data on the composition of organic compounds in Antarctic sea ice are virtually non-existent, as most works concentrate on the structure, physical composition and biological properties of the ice. Data is needed for the study of the global carbon cycle and the estimation of background values and anthropogenic compounds. Specific features of the hydrometeorological regime near Antarctica affect the structure of the ice cover and its properties. The transportation of large volumes of snow to the ocean results in the formation of a snow sludge layer which gradually accumulates on the sea surface and freezes into young slush ice. The irregular distribution of snow at the ice surface and seawater infiltration results in the formation of ice with a specific crystalline structure and physiochemical properties. This paper discussed the dissolved and suspended lipids and hydrocarbons, as well as suspended matter (SM) concentrations in snow, sea ice and sub-ice water in coastal zones of the East Antarctic. The data was obtained during the Russian Antarctic Expedition in 2003. Variations in the concentration and distribution of the various substances suggest that they are related to ice forming conditions and to the processes that occur when ice forms, as well as in the interaction of the substances with ice, snow and sub-ice water. The SM and organic compounds are accumulated in layers characterized by intense autochthonous processes. It was noted that the zones stay biogeochemically active even under low temperature conditions. The highest concentrations of organic compounds, along with the biggest variations in their proportions have been discovered in the areas surrounded by penguin colonies near Buromsky Island and Haswell Island's Lake. The presence of significant quantities of PAHs in both pack and seasonal ice of high latitudes indicates that their formation is relatively rapid even at low temperatures. Many biochemical processes are intense under the influence of ice

  15. Impact of sea ice on the marine iron cycle and phytoplankton productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Bailey, D.; Lindsay, K.; Moore, J. K.; Holland, M.

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a key nutrient for phytoplankton growth in the surface ocean. At high latitudes, the iron cycle is closely related to the dynamics of sea ice. In recent decades, Arctic sea ice cover has been declining rapidly and Antarctic sea ice has exhibited large regional trends. A significant reduction of sea ice in both hemispheres is projected in future climate scenarios. In order to adequately study the effect of sea ice on the polar iron cycle, sea ice bearing iron was incorporated in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). Sea ice acts as a reservoir for iron during winter and releases the trace metal to the surface ocean in spring and summer. Simulated iron concentrations in sea ice generally agree with observations in regions where iron concentrations are relatively low. The maximum iron concentrations simulated in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice are much lower than observed, which is likely due to underestimation of iron inputs to sea ice or missing mechanisms. The largest iron source to sea ice is suspended sediments, contributing fluxes of iron of 2.2 × 108 mol Fe month-1 in the Arctic and 4.1 × 106 mol Fe month-1 in the Southern Ocean during summer. As a result of the iron flux from ice, iron concentrations increase significantly in the Arctic. Iron released from melting ice increases phytoplankton production in spring and summer and shifts phytoplankton community composition in the Southern Ocean. Results for the period of 1998 to 2007 indicate that a reduction of sea ice in the Southern Ocean will have a negative influence on phytoplankton production. Iron transport by sea ice appears to be an important process bringing iron to the central Arctic. The impact of ice to ocean iron fluxes on marine ecosystems is negligible in the current Arctic Ocean, as iron is not typically the growth-limiting nutrient. However, it may become a more important factor in the future, particularly in the central Arctic, as iron concentrations will decrease with declining sea

  16. Mars, earth, and ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordell, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Possible mechanisms to explain the global ice covering of Mars, and previous ice ages on the earth, are considered. Evidence for the Milankovitch effect is found in the close correspondence of earth's past climate with its orbital variations, as recorded principally in ocean sediments, and the role of CO 2 is discussed. Mars' range of obliquity, 10 times that of the earth, and orbital eccentricity, fluctuating over a range 2 1/2 times that of the earth, could produce an important climate-driving cycle. Mathematical models of the Martian surface and atmosphere based on Viking data suggest that escaped CO 2 could create a surface pressure of 1-3 bars. Other factors such as the effect of continental drift, the increased brightness of the sun, and planetary reversals of magnetic field polarity are discussed, and the questions of where Martian water and CO 2 have gone are considered

  17. Animals and ICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hemmen, J Leo; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Carr, Catherine E

    2016-01-01

    experimental and mathematical foundation, it is known that there is a low-frequency regime where the internal time difference (iTD) as perceived by the animal may well be 2-5 times higher than the external ITD, the interaural time difference, and that there is a frequency plateau over which the fraction i......TD/ITD is constant. There is also a high-frequency regime where the internal level (amplitude) difference iLD as perceived by the animal is much higher than the interaural level difference ILD measured externally between the two ears. The fundamental tympanic frequency segregates the two regimes. The present special...... issue devoted to "internally coupled ears" provides an overview of many aspects of ICE, be they acoustic, anatomical, auditory, mathematical, or neurobiological. A focus is on the hotly debated topic of what aspects of ICE animals actually exploit neuronally to localize a sound source....

  18. Skating on slippery ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. J. van Leeuwen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The friction of a stationary moving skate on smooth ice is investigated, in particular in relation to the formation of a thin layer of water between skate and ice. It is found that the combination of ploughing and sliding gives a friction force that is rather insensitive for parameters such as velocity and temperature. The weak dependence originates from the pressure adjustment inside the water layer. For instance, high velocities, which would give rise to high friction, also lead to large pressures, which, in turn, decrease the contact zone and so lower the friction. The theory is a combination and completion of two existing but conflicting theories on the formation of the water layer.

  19. A glaciochemical study of the 120 m ice core from Mill Island, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mana; Curran, Mark A. J.; Moy, Andrew D.; van Ommen, Tas D.; Fraser, Alexander D.; Phillips, Helen E.; Goodwin, Ian D.

    2017-05-01

    A 120 m ice core was drilled on Mill Island, East Antarctica (65°30' S, 100°40' E) during the 2009/2010 Australian Antarctic field season. Contiguous discrete 5 cm samples were measured for hydrogen peroxide, water stable isotopes, and trace ion chemistry. The ice core was annually dated using a combination of chemical species and water stable isotopes. The Mill Island ice core preserves a climate record covering 97 years from 1913 to 2009 CE, with a mean snow accumulation of 1.35 m (ice-equivalent) per year (mIE yr-1). This northernmost East Antarctic coastal ice core site displays trace ion concentrations that are generally higher than other Antarctic ice core sites (e.g. mean sodium levels were 254 µEq L-1). The trace ion record at Mill Island is characterised by a unique and complex chemistry record with three distinct regimes identified. The trace ion record in regime A displays clear seasonality from 2000 to 2009 CE; regime B displays elevated concentrations with no seasonality from 1934 to 2000 CE; and regime C displays relatively low concentrations with seasonality from 1913 to 1934 CE. Sea salts were compared with instrumental data, including atmospheric models and satellite-derived sea-ice concentration, to investigate influences on the Mill Island ice core record. The mean annual sea salt record does not correlate with wind speed. Instead, sea-ice concentration to the east of Mill Island likely influences the annual mean sea salt record. A mechanism involving formation of frost flowers on sea ice is proposed to explain the extremely high sea salt concentration. The Mill Island ice core records are unexpectedly complex, with strong modulation of the trace chemistry on long timescales.

  20. Geomorphological Evidence for Shallow Ice in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, D.; McEwen, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    The localized loss of near-surface excess ice on Mars by sublimation (and perhaps melting) can produce thermokarstic collapse features such as expanded craters and scalloped depressions, which can be indicators of the preservation of shallow ice. We demonstrate this by identifying High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images containing expanded craters south of Arcadia Planitia (25-40°N) and observe a spatial correlation between regions with thermokarst and the lowest-latitude ice-exposing impact craters identified to date. In addition to widespread thermokarst north of 35°N, we observe localized thermokarst features that we interpret as patchy ice as far south as 25°N. Few ice-exposing craters have been identified in the southern hemisphere of Mars since they are easier to find in dusty, high-albedo regions, but the relationship among expanded craters, ice-exposing impacts, and the predicted ice table boundary in Arcadia Planitia allows us to extend this thermokarst survey into the southern midlatitudes (30-60°S) to infer the presence of ice today. Our observations suggest that the southern hemisphere excess ice boundary lies at 45°S regionally. At lower latitudes, some isolated terrains (e.g., crater fill and pole-facing slopes) also contain thermokarst, suggesting local ice preservation. We look for spatial relationships between our results and surface properties (e.g., slope and neutron spectrometer water ice concentration) and ice table models to understand the observed ice distribution. Our results show trends with thermal inertia and dust cover and are broadly consistent with ice deposition during a period with a higher relative humidity than today. Shallow, lower-latitude ice deposits are of interest for future exploration.

  1. The Characteristics of Ice Cloud Properties in China Derived from DARDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Ice clouds play an important role in modulating the Earth radiation budget and global hydrological cycle.Thus,study the properties of ice clouds has the vital significance on the interaction between the atmospheric models,cloud,radiation and climate .The world has explore the combination of two or several kinds of sensor data to solve the complementary strengths and error reduction to improve accuracy of ice cloud at the present , but for China ,has be lack of research on combination sensor data to analysis properties of ice cloud.To reach a wider range of ice cloud, a combination of the CloudSat radar and the CALIPSO lidar is used to derive ice cloud properties. These products include the radar/lidar product (DARDAR) developed at the University of Reading.The China probability distribution of ice cloud occurrence frequency, ice water path, ice water content and ice cloud effective radius were presented based on DARDAR data from 2012 to 2016,the distribution and vertical sturctures was discussed.The results indicate that the ice cloud occurrence frequency distribution takes on ascend trend in the last 4 years and has obvious seasonal variation, the high concentration area in the northeastern part of the Tibetan Plateau,ice cloud occurrence frequency is relatively high in northwest area.the increased of ice cloud occurrence frequency play an integral role of the climate warming in these four years; the general trend for the ice water path is southeast area bigger than northwest area, in winter the IWP is the smallest, biggest in summer; the IWC is the biggest in summer, and the vertical height distribution higher than other seasons; ice cloud effective radius and ice water content had similar trend..There were slight declines in ice cloud effective radius with increase height of China,in the summer ice effective radius is generally larger.The ice cloud impact Earth radiation via their albedo an greenhouse effects, that is, cooling the Earth by reflecting solar

  2. Sports: Ice -Doping Time

    OpenAIRE

    Barys Tasman

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...

  3. Car engine breather icing

    OpenAIRE

    Horoufi, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    Icing in an engine breather system can block the engine breather pipe, cause excessive crankcase pressure and degrade the engine performance. In this project, a numerical study, experimental tests and CFD analysis are employed in order to understand condensation and the extent of freezing inside a vertical pipe, a horizontal pipe and a T-joint pipe which are exposed to an external convective cooling. The pipe internal flow is assumed to be a vapour/air mixture. This study has l...

  4. Helicopter Icing Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    on the ground or could be injurious to per- sons on the ground. Ice on the rotor hub and fuselage may become critical in a flight transitioning from...0 uE -4- c -) U. c-j -- 0- CL) - lCA AC) O C-)) 41 4J 4- -C -I Q -. x 0 s- =U. A S (U C C -- () : -) -_ __ _r__ . -( ___ 4)a -)r ’ ) - 0 n - 1 3092

  5. Ice-dynamic projections of the Greenland ice sheet in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Fürst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuing global warming will have a strong impact on the Greenland ice sheet in the coming centuries. During the last decade (2000–2010, both increased melt-water runoff and enhanced ice discharge from calving glaciers have contributed 0.6 ± 0.1 mm yr−1 to global sea-level rise, with a relative contribution of 60 and 40% respectively. Here we use a higher-order ice flow model, spun up to present day, to simulate future ice volume changes driven by both atmospheric and oceanic temperature changes. For these projections, the flow model accounts for runoff-induced basal lubrication and ocean warming-induced discharge increase at the marine margins. For a suite of 10 atmosphere and ocean general circulation models and four representative concentration pathway scenarios, the projected sea-level rise between 2000 and 2100 lies in the range of +1.4 to +16.6 cm. For two low emission scenarios, the projections are conducted up to 2300. Ice loss rates are found to abate for the most favourable scenario where the warming peaks in this century, allowing the ice sheet to maintain a geometry close to the present-day state. For the other moderate scenario, loss rates remain at a constant level over 300 years. In any scenario, volume loss is predominantly caused by increased surface melting as the contribution from enhanced ice discharge decreases over time and is self-limited by thinning and retreat of the marine margin, reducing the ice–ocean contact area. As confirmed by other studies, we find that the effect of enhanced basal lubrication on the volume evolution is negligible on centennial timescales. Our projections show that the observed rates of volume change over the last decades cannot simply be extrapolated over the 21st century on account of a different balance of processes causing ice loss over time. Our results also indicate that the largest source of uncertainty arises from the surface mass balance and the underlying climate change

  6. Ice condenser experimental plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannberg, L.D.; Piepel, G.F.; Owczarski, P.C.; Liebetrau, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental plan is being developed to validate the computer code ICEDF. The code was developed to estimate the extent of aerosol retention in the ice compartments of pressurized water reactor ice condenser containment systems during severe accidents. The development of the experimental plan began with review of available information on the conditions under which the code will be applied. Computer-generated estimates of thermohydraulic and aerosol conditions entering the ice condenser were evaluated and along with other information, used to generate design criteria. The design criteria have been used for preliminary test assembly design and for generation of statistical test designs. Consideration of the phenomena to be evaluated in the testing program, as well as equipment and measurement limitations, have led to changes in the design criteria and to subsequent changes in the test assembly design and statistical test design. The overall strategy in developing the experimental plan includes iterative generation and evaluation of candidate test designs using computer codes for statistical test design and ICEDF for estimation of experimental results. Estimates of experimental variability made prior to actual testing will be verified by replicate testing at preselected design points

  7. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongsuk; Yi, Yu

    2016-12-01

    The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP) F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI) and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/ or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA).

  8. Abnormal Winter Melting of the Arctic Sea Ice Cap Observed by the Spaceborne Passive Microwave Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongsuk Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial size and variation of Arctic sea ice play an important role in Earth’s climate system. These are affected by conditions in the polar atmosphere and Arctic sea temperatures. The Arctic sea ice concentration is calculated from brightness temperature data derived from the Defense Meteorological Satellite program (DMSP F13 Special Sensor Microwave/Imagers (SSMI and the DMSP F17 Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS sensors. Many previous studies point to significant reductions in sea ice and their causes. We investigated the variability of Arctic sea ice using the daily and monthly sea ice concentration data from passive microwave observations to identify the sea ice melting regions near the Arctic polar ice cap. We discovered the abnormal melting of the Arctic sea ice near the North Pole even during the summer and the winter. This phenomenon is hard to explain only surface air temperature or solar heating as suggested by recent studies. We propose a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon. The heat from the deep sea in Arctic Ocean ridges and/or the hydrothermal vents might be contributing to the melting of Arctic sea ice. This hypothesis could be verified by the observation of warm water column structure below the melting or thinning arctic sea ice through the project such as Coriolis dataset for reanalysis (CORA.

  9. [Bacterial diversity within different sections of summer sea-ice samples from the Prydz Bay, Antarctica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jifei; Du, Zongjun; Luo, Wei; Yu, Yong; Zeng, Yixin; Chen, Bo; Li, Huirong

    2013-02-04

    In order to assess bacterial abundance and diversity within three different sections of summer sea-ice samples collected from the Prydz Bay, Antarctica. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to determine the proportions of Bacteria in sea-ice. Bacterial community composition within sea ice was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene clone library construction. Correlation analysis was performed between the physicochemical parameters and the bacterial diversity and abundance within sea ice. The result of fluorescence in situ hybridization shows that bacteria were abundant in the bottom section, and the concentration of total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen and phosphate may be the main factors for bacterial abundance. In bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries of sea-ice, nearly complete 16S rRNA gene sequences were grouped into three distinct lineages of Bacteria (gamma-Proteobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes). Most clone sequences were related to cultured bacterial isolates from the marine environment, arctic and Antarctic sea-ice with high similarity. The member of Bacteroidetes was not detected in the bottom section of sea-ice. The bacterial communities within sea-ice were little heterogeneous at the genus-level between different sections, and the concentration of NH4+ may cause this distribution. The number of bacteria was abundant in the bottom section of sea-ice. Gamma-proteobacteria was the dominant bacterial lineage in sea-ice.

  10. Systematic analysis of Arctic sea ice response to the passage of synoptic-scale cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E. A. P.; Serreze, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice extent has been trending downward over the period of satellite observations, particularly in the late summer and early autumn. Questions remain regarding how much of this trend is driven by anthropogenic greenhouse warming versus natural variability. In recognition, past studies have examined dynamic and thermodynamic sea ice responses to atmospheric circulation patterns. In free-drift (summer) conditions, sea ice under cyclonic winds is expected to diverge, decreasing the ice concentration and increasing ice extent. Summer cyclonic patterns over the Arctic Ocean also tend to be fairly cold, limiting melt. However, the trend towards a smaller, weaker ice pack suggests possible changes in the sea ice response. For example, the record low extent in September 2012 followed an intense August cyclone that likely enhanced ice loss, and the second lowest extent on record in September 2016 was preceded by a strongly cyclonic summer. Here, we systematically investigate the response of sea ice extent and concentration to the passage of cyclonic storms. Passive microwave data from AMSR-2 is used in conjunction with a cyclone-tracking algorithm applied to data from the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. We analyze different seasons and sectors of the Arctic to capture the variability in ice response within cyclone domains.

  11. A multivariate analysis of Antarctic sea ice since 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes Neto, Newton de; Evangelista, Heitor [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tanizaki-Fonseca, Kenny [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Uerj), LARAMG - Laboratorio de Radioecologia e Mudancas Globais, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Dept. Analise Geoambiental, Inst. de Geociencias, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Penello Meirelles, Margareth Simoes [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ)/Geomatica, Maracana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Carlos Eiras [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Laboratorio de Oceanografia Fisica, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Recent satellite observations have shown an increase in the total extent of Antarctic sea ice, during periods when the atmosphere and oceans tend to be warmer surrounding a significant part of the continent. Despite an increase in total sea ice, regional analyses depict negative trends in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Sea and positive trends in the Ross Sea. Although several climate parameters are believed to drive the formation of Antarctic sea ice and the local atmosphere, a descriptive mechanism that could trigger such differences in trends are still unknown. In this study we employed a multivariate analysis in order to identify the response of the Antarctic sea ice with respect to commonly utilized climate forcings/parameters, as follows: (1) The global air surface temperature, (2) The global sea surface temperature, (3) The atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, (4) The South Annular Mode, (5) The Nino 3, (6) The Nino (3 + 4, 7) The Nino 4, (8) The Southern Oscillation Index, (9) The Multivariate ENSO Index, (10) the Total Solar Irradiance, (11) The maximum O{sub 3} depletion area, and (12) The minimum O{sub 3} concentration over Antarctica. Our results indicate that western Antarctic sea ice is simultaneously impacted by several parameters; and that the minimum, mean, and maximum sea ice extent may respond to a separate set of climatic/geochemical parameters. (orig.)

  12. Weather Features Associated with Aircraft Icing Conditions: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fernández-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.

  13. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, T.; Powell, R.; Levy, R.; Wilson, G.; Scherer, R.; Talarico, F.; Krissek, L.; Niessen, F.; Pompilio, M.; Wilson, T.; Carter, L.; DeConto, R.; Huybers, P.; McKay, R.; Pollard, D.; Ross, J.; Winter, D.; Barrett, P.; Browne, G.; Cody, R.; Cowan, E.; Crampton, J.; Dunbar, G.; Dunbar, N.; Florindo, F.; Gebhardt, C.; Graham, I.; Hannah, M.; Hansaraj, D.; Harwood, D.; Helling, D.; Henrys, S.; Hinnov, L.; Kuhn, G.; Kyle, P.; Laufer, A.; Maffioli, P.; Magens, D.; Mandernack, K.; McIntosh, W.; Millan, C.; Morin, R.; Ohneiser, C.; Paulsen, T.; Persico, D.; Raine, I.; Reed, J.; Riesselman, C.; Sagnotti, L.; Schmitt, D.; Sjunneskog, C.; Strong, P.; Taviani, M.; Vogel, S.; Wilch, T.; Williams, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records from microfossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth's orbital geometry control the ice ages1, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles2. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the 'warmer-than-present' early-Pliocene epoch (5–3 Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possible range of ice-sheet behaviour in the context of future global warming3. Here we present a marine glacial record from the upper 600 m of the AND-1B sediment core recovered from beneath the northwest part of the Ross ice shelf by the ANDRILL programme and demonstrate well-dated, 40-kyr cyclic variations in ice-sheet extent linked to cycles in insolation influenced by changes in the Earth's axial tilt (obliquity) during the Pliocene. Our data provide direct evidence for orbitally induced oscillations in the WAIS, which periodically collapsed, resulting in a switch from grounded ice, or ice shelves, to open waters in the Ross embayment when planetary temperatures were up to 3 °C warmer than today4 and atmospheric CO2 concentration was as high as 400 p.p.m.v. (refs 5, 6). The evidence is consistent with a new ice-sheet/ice-shelf model7 that simulates fluctuations in Antarctic ice volume of up to +7 m in equivalent sea level associated with the loss of the WAIS and up to +3 m in equivalent sea level from the East Antarctic ice sheet, in response to ocean-induced melting paced by obliquity. During interglacial times, diatomaceous sediments indicate high surface-water productivity, minimal summer sea ice and air temperatures above freezing, suggesting an additional influence of surface melt8 under conditions of elevated CO2.

  14. A correction for in situ 14C in Antarctic ice with 14CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijen, J.J. van; Borg, K. van der; Jong, A.F.M. de; Oerlemans, J.

    1995-01-01

    We use a dry extraction method to obtain trapped C02 of shallow ice cores from a blue ice area of East Antarctica. In-situ-produced 14C extracted in 14CO2 and 10CO concentrations show a mean ratio of 3.4 ± 0.4. Correction for insitu 14CO2 resulted in ice ages within 7-13 ka. The accumulation and

  15. Dry extraction of 14C02 and 14C0 from Antarctic ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roijen, J.J. van; Bintanja, R.; Borg, R. van den; Broeke, M.R. van den; Jong, A.F.M. de; Oerlemans, J.

    A dry extraction method was used to obtain trapped CO, of 2-5 kg ice samples from a blue ice zone in East Antarctica. In situ produced 14C was also extracted in 14C0, and 14C0 concentrations at a ratio of 3.4 f 0.9. Correction of trapped 14C0, from in situ resulted in ice dates in the range 5-15

  16. Using ice melting and ice rolling technologies to remove ice from sub-transmission and transmission lines at Manitoba Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    Development of an of an Ice Storm Management program by Manitoba Hydro to reduce ice storm damage to its 8 kV feeders to 115 kV transmission lines, is discussed. The program consists of the de-icing of overhead lines, either by ice melting, or ice rolling. Ice melting involves the placement of a three-phase short at a calculated point. The term ice rolling denotes a process of mechanically stripping the ice from conductors. The most recent major ice storm experienced by Manitoba Hydro was in the winter of 1997/1998. During the period from February 6 to February 17, 1998, a total of 83 'ice melt' procedures were performed to melt the ice from 2,628 km of overhead line (7,883 km of conductor), in addition to 'ice rolling'. This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's 25-years' experience with ice melting and it also describes the advantages and disadvantages of both ice melting and ice rolling. Although not a panacea to combat the effects of ice storms, ice melting was found to be the most effective way of removing ice from overhead transmission and sub-transmission lines. Ice rolling was also found to be effective. Other tools that have been found to be useful by various utilities in combating ice storm damage include improved structure and line design, system design that provide more redundancies and emergency sources, and standby generators at critical load points

  17. Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland

    2002-01-01

    The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice

  18. Numerical and physical modelling of oil spreading in broken ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoesteen, Janne K. Oekland

    2002-07-01

    The present work focuses on oil spreading in broken ice and the content of this thesis falls into three categories: 1) The physical and numerical modelling of oil spreading in ice. 2) Ice models and parameters describing the ice cover. 3) Experiments on oil spreading in broken ice. A background study was carried out to investigate existing models for simulating oil in broken ice. Most of them describe motion of oil simply as a function of the ice motion and do not take advantage of the possibilities that recent ice models provide. We decided to choose another direction, starting from scratch with equations describing the flow of oil on top of a water surface. The equations were implemented numerically, including proper boundary conditions to account for the presence of physical restrictions in the form of ice floes in the simulation area. The implementation was designed to be able to apply data on ice motion calculated by an existing dynamic ice model. A first validation of the model was carried out using existing experimental data. As those data were obtained in a different setting, the recorded parameters and set-up of the experiment were not ideal for our purpose. However, we were able to conclude that our model behaviour was reasonable. We have carried out statistical analysis on meteorological data of wind speeds, temperatures, flow sizes and ice thickness to obtain probability distributions describing the parameters. Those data has been collected in the Pechora Sea. Wind and temperature had been recorded for a period of 30-40 years. For this region we also had available Argos satellite data from four buoys drifting in the ice in April-June 1998. The Argos data were carefully analysed to suggest probability distributions and return periods for certain speeds. (Indoor basin tests were carried out to obtain data on spreading of oil in broken ice. A set of 20 tests was conducted, each with different type of oil, ice concentration, slush concentration or ice

  19. Passive microwave remote sensing for sea ice research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for gathering data by remote sensors on satellites utilized for sea ice research are summarized. Measurement of brightness temperatures by a passive microwave imager converted to maps of total sea ice concentration and to the areal fractions covered by first year and multiyear ice are described. Several ancillary observations, especially by means of automatic data buoys and submarines equipped with upward looking sonars, are needed to improve the validation and interpretation of satellite data. The design and performance characteristics of the Navy's Special Sensor Microwave Imager, expected to be in orbit in late 1985, are described. It is recommended that data from that instrument be processed to a form suitable for research applications and archived in a readily accessible form. The sea ice data products required for research purposes are described and recommendations for their archival and distribution to the scientific community are presented.

  20. Modelling ice-ocean interaction in ice shelf crevasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J. R.; Holland, P.; Piggott, M. D.; Jenkins, A.; Kimura, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean freezing within ice shelf basal crevasses could potentially act as a stabilising influence on ice shelves, however ice-ocean interaction and ocean dynamics within these crevasses are as yet poorly understood. To this end, an idealised two-dimensional model of an ice shelf basal crevasse has been developed using Fluidity-ICOM, a finite element ocean model using an unstructured mesh. A model of frazil ice formation and deposition has been incorporated into Fluidity-ICOM to better represent the freezing process. Model results show that freezing at the top of crevasses leads to the formation of an unstable overturning circulation due to the rejection of dense, salty water. The strength of this circulation, which is increased by the formation of frazil ice, is found to be the dominant factor influencing the total freezing rate. Frazil ice precipitation is found to be responsible for roughly one sixth of ice formation on the top of the basal crevasse, with direct freezing, enhanced by the complex dynamics of the overturning circulation, responsible for the rest. Increasing the frazil crystal radii used in the model has little impact on the amount of frazil ice deposition but does increase the amount of direct freezing. Significant melting and freezing was found to occur on the walls of the crevasse due to the strong overturning circulation. With previous modelling approaches it has not been possible to simulate this strong circulation, with water rising up one side of the crevasse and down the other.

  1. IceCube systematic errors investigation: Simulation of the ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resconi, Elisa; Wolf, Martin [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schukraft, Anne [RWTH, Aachen University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory for astroparticle and astronomy research at the South Pole. It uses one cubic kilometer of Antartica's deepest ice (1500 m-2500 m in depth) to detect Cherenkov light, generated by charged particles traveling through the ice, with an array of phototubes encapsulated in glass pressure spheres. The arrival time as well as the charge deposited of the detected photons represent the base measurements that are used for track and energy reconstruction of those charged particles. The optical properties of the deep antarctic ice vary from layer to layer. Measurements of the ice properties and their correct modeling in Monte Carlo simulation is then of primary importance for the correct understanding of the IceCube telescope behavior. After a short summary about the different methods to investigate the ice properties and to calibrate the detector, we show how the simulation obtained by using this information compares to the measured data and how systematic errors due to uncertain ice properties are determined in IceCube.

  2. Radiation chemistry of nitrate ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Moorthy, P.N.; Rao, K.N.

    1978-01-01

    The yields of various products formed in γ-irradiated nitrate ices, viz NO 2 - , H 2 O 2 , O 2 and H 2 , have been measured at different nitrate concentrations. Daniel's method of partition of yields has been employed to evaluate the direct and indirect effect contributions to the yields of the first three products. G(H 2 ) is close to zero at all nitrate concentrations above approximately 0.5 mol dm -3 . The mechanism of product formation has been discussed in the light of various reactions put forth to explain the radiolysis of fluid aqueous nitrate solutions. The effect of various scavengers for the primary species on the product yields has also been investigated. From this it is inferred that nitrate is able to scavenge both the reducing species, viz. H and e - sub(m) giving nitrite and possibly also the holes (h + sub(m)) giving O 2 , and excited water molecules (H 2 O*) giving H 2 O 2 and additional nitrite. (author)

  3. In-Situ Segregation of Ground Ice on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, A.; Sizemore, H. G.; Rempel, A. W.

    2011-12-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the presence of nearly pure, segregated ground ice in the martian high latitudes. In particular, shallow ice containing only 1-2% soil was excavated by Phoenix. One hypothesis for the excess ice is that it developed in situ, via a mechanism analogous to terrestrial ice lenses. Problematically, terrestrial soil-ice segregation is driven by freeze/thaw cycles, which have not occurred recently on Mars. Here we investigate ice lens formation at T table migration due to vapor phase transport might average a few μm/year. Thus, with the possible exception of a single episode at ~ 630 ka bp, vapor phase exchange with the atmosphere would be expected to outstrip and prevent in situ segregated ice lens formation in a salt-free soil. (Earlier in Mars' history however, we find that warmer temperatures frequently lead to macroscopic lens development.) The soils measured by Phoenix of course were not salt-free; in particular the presence of per-chlorate argues that our model must be expanded. The inclusion of even a single salt has multiple complicating effects. For saturated Mg(ClO4)2 solutions, the eutectic temperature is as low as 206 K. The resulting decrease in pore ice at low T leads to higher hydraulic permeability which would enhance growth rates. Liquid phase density increases, which increases the buoyancy forces on soil grains. Conversely, dynamic viscosity also increases, inhibiting lens growth. Both the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of the melt are also affected. At high concentrations, osmotic potentials begin to play a role in determining the movement of melt. Finally, all of these properties evolve continually with temperature, as the composition of the liquid phase changes. Understanding the ways in which these processes might affect in situ segregation of martian ground ice is a challenging and exciting undertaking.

  4. Circulation and Respiration in Ice-covered Alaskan Arctic Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, S.; Cortés, A.

    2016-12-01

    Arctic lakes are ice-covered 9 months of the year. For some of this time, the sediments heat the overlying water, and respiration in the sediments increases specific conductivity, depletes oxygen, and produces greenhouse gases (GHG). Whether anoxia forms and whether the greenhouse gases are sequestered at depth depends on processes inducing circulation and upward fluxes. Similarly, whether the GHG are released at ice off depends on the extent of vertical mixing at that time. Using time series meteorological data and biogeochemical arrays with temperature, specific conductivity, and optical oxygen sensors in 5 lakes ranging from 1 to 150 ha, we illustrate the connections between meteorological forcing and within lake processes including gravity currents resulting from increased density just above the sediment water interface and internal waves including those induced by winds acting on the surface of the ice and at ice off. CO2 production was well predicted by the initial rate of oxygen drawdown near the bottom at ice on and that the upward density flux depended on lake size, with values initially high in all lakes but near molecular in lakes of a few hectares in size by mid-winter. Both CO2 production and within lake vertical fluxes were independent of the rate of cooling in fall and subsequent within lake temperatures under the ice. Anoxia formed near the sediments in all 5 lakes with the concentration of CH4 dependent, in part, on lake size and depth. Twenty to fifty percent of the greenhouse gases produced under the ice remained in the lakes by the time thermal stratification was established in summer despite considerable internal wave induced mixing at the time of ice off. These observations and analysis lay a framework for understanding the links between within lake hydrodynamics, within year variability, and the fraction of greenhouse gases produced over the winter which evade at ice off.

  5. Ice blockage of water intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, K.L.

    1978-12-01

    The ice blockage of water intake structures can pose serious threats to the availability of cooling water at thermal power plants. Using information gained from a literature search and general knowledge of the problem, ice blockage difficulties are described as they may occur in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, and as they may affect intakes either at the surface or submerged. To further enable understanding of these problems, characteristics of both surface sheet ice and frazil ice are examined, namely, formational processes, sizes, thicknesses, movement or mobility, and modes of blockage or adhesion. Case histories of incidents of ice blockage of intakes are given by means of excerpts from the technical literature. Lastly, a brief overview is provided on the matter of solving ice blockage problems, either through original design, post-construction modification, or revised operational techniques

  6. Antarctic sea ice variability using NASA team algorithm data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, S.; Compagnucci, R.

    Sea ice is an important, highly variable feature of the Earth's surface, both reflecting and influencing climatic conditions. Sea ice covers approximately 7 percent of the world oceans, significantly reduces the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the Earth's surface, greatly restricts the transfer of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere in winter, and influences global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. In this paper, monthly through interannual variability of the sea ice between 0 and 120W is analysed for the 22-year period 1979 through 2000. The monthly Polar Gridded Sea Ice Concentrations data set derived from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) DMSP-F8, F11 and F13, Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) generated by NASA team algorithm were used. This data were acquired from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) and are gridded on the SSM/I polar stereographic grid (25 x 25 km) provided in two-byte integer format. Principal Components Analysis in T-Mode was performed on pre-processed sea ice data (anomalies from which have been removed continent and perennial open water), in order to investigate which are the main space patterns, when do they present and how they are coupled to different atmospheric variables. This analysis provide 12 patterns (6 in direct mode and 6 in inverse mode) that represent the most important spatial features that dominate sea ice variability in the Weddell, Amudsen and Bellinghausen Seas. These 12 patterns, or their combinations, describe completely the behavior of the 264 month means sea ice concentration anomalies of the record we used of the selected Antarctic region.

  7. Temporal dynamics of ikaite in experimental sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Wang, F.; Galley, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    the experiment, ikaite precipitated in sea ice when temperatures were below −4 C, creating three distinct zones of ikaite concentrations: (1) a millimeter-to-centimeter-thin surface layer containing frost flowers and brine skim with bulk ikaite concentrations of > 2000 μmol kg−1, (2) an internal layer...... with ikaite concentrations of 200–400 μmol kg−1, and (3) a bottom layer with ikaite concentrations of brine salinities to increase, resulting in rapid...... ikaite precipitation. The observed ikaite concentrations were on the same order of magnitude as modeled by FREZCHEM, which further supports the notion that ikaite concentration in sea ice increases with decreasing temperature. Thus, varying snow conditions may play a key role in ikaite precipitation...

  8. Ice formation and development in aged, wintertime cumulus over the UK : observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, I.; Bower, K. N.; Choularton, T. W.; Dearden, C.; Crosier, J.; Westbrook, C.; Capes, G.; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Williams, P.; Trembath, J.; Cui, Z.; Blyth, A.

    2011-11-01

    In-situ high resolution aircraft measurements of cloud microphysical properties were made in coordination with ground based remote sensing observations of Radar and Lidar as part of the Aerosol Properties, PRocesses And InfluenceS on the Earth's climate (APPRAISE) project. A narrow but extensive line (~100 km long) of shallow convective clouds over the southern UK was studied. Cloud top temperatures were observed to be higher than ~-8 °C, but the clouds were seen to consist of supercooled droplets and varying concentrations of ice particles. No ice particles were observed to be falling into the cloud tops from above. Current parameterisations of ice nuclei (IN) numbers predict too few particles will be active as ice nuclei to account for ice particle concentrations at the observed near cloud top temperatures (~-7 °C). The role of biological particles, consistent with concentrations observed near the surface, acting as potential efficient high temperature IN is considered important in this case. It was found that very high concentrations of ice particles (up to 100 L-1) could be produced by powerful secondary ice particle production emphasising the importance of understanding primary ice formation in slightly supercooled clouds. Aircraft penetrations at -3.5 °C, showed peak ice crystal concentrations of up to 100 L-1 which together with the characteristic ice crystal habits observed (generally rimed ice particles and columns) suggested secondary ice production had occurred. To investigate whether the Hallett-Mossop (HM) secondary ice production process could account for these observations, ice splinter production rates were calculated. These calculated rates and observations could only be reconciled provided the constraint that only droplets >24 μm in diameter could lead to splinter production, was relaxed slightly by 2 μm. Model simulations of the case study were also performed with the WRF (Weather, Research and Forecasting) model and ACPIM (Aerosol Cloud and

  9. Arctic continental shelf morphology related to sea-ice zonation, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E.; Toimil, L.; Barnes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-1 and NOAA satellite imagery for the winter 1972-1973, and a variety of ice and sea-floor data were used to study sea-ice zonation and dynamics and their relation to bottom morphology and geology on the Beaufort Sea continental shelf of arctic Alaska. In early winter the location of the boundary between undeformed fast ice and westward-drifting pack ice of the Pacific Gyre is controlled by major coastal promontories. Pronounced linear pressure- and shear-ridges, as well as hummock fields, form along this boundary and are stabilized by grounding, generally between the 10- and 20-m isobaths. Slippage along this boundary occurs intermittently at or seaward of the grounded ridges, forming new grounded ridges in a widening zone, the stamukhi zone, which by late winter extends out to the 40-m isobath. Between intermittent events along the stamukhi zone, pack-ice drift and slippage is continuous along the shelf edge, at average rates of 3-10 km/day. Whether slippage occurs along the stamukhi zone or along the shelf edge, it is restricted to a zone several hundred meters wide, and ice seaward of the slip face moves at uniform rates without discernible drag effects. A causal relationship is seen between the spatial distribution of major ice-ridge systems and offshore shoals downdrift of major coastal promontories. The shoals appear to have migrated shoreward under the influence of ice up to 400 m in the last 25 years. The sea floor seaward of these shoals within the stamukhi zone shows high ice-gouge density, large incision depths, and a high degree of disruption of internal sedimentary structures. The concentration of large ice ridges and our sea floor data in the stamukhi zone indicate that much of the available marine energy is expended here, while the inner shelf and coast, where the relatively undeformed fast ice grows, are sheltered. There is evidence that anomalies in the overall arctic shelf profile are related to sea-ice zonation, ice dynamics, and bottom

  10. Organic components in hair-ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Disko, Ulrich; Wagner, Gerhard; Mätzler, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Hair-ice is a rather unknown phenomenon. In contrast to generally known frost needles, originating from atmospheric water and expanding e.g. from plant surfaces in all directions, hair ice grows from the basis of wet, rotten hardwood. The hair-like, flexible, linear structures may reach up to 10 cm in length without any ramifications. Hair-ice appears to be related to the biological activity of a fungus mycelium within the wood. Hair-ice can attract winter-active Collemboles (snow flea, Isotoma nivalis). At the onset of hair-ice melt a very thin fibre becomes apparent, which carries brownish pearl-like water drops. Therefore, it is supposed that organic substances are inherent, which could possibly act as freezing catalyst as well as recrystallization inhibitor. The aim of this work was the chemical characterization of organic substances contained in hair-ice. First analyses of melted hair-ice show a total organic carbon (TOC) value of 235 mg/l in contrast to 11 mg/l total nitrogen. Most of inherent nitrogen (70 %) exists thereby as ammonium. Screened by different (mass spectrometric) methods, no evidence could be found for the initially expected organic substances like proteins, lipids, small volatile substances or carboxylic acids. By coupling of Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with a triple quadrupol mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) a non-resolved chromatogram from a melted hair-ice sample was received. Averaged spectra from different regions are similar among themselves with a broad peak spreading over the mass range 100-650 Da with favored intense, odd-numbered peaks. Such spectra are similar to dissolved organic matter (DOM), known e.g. from terrestrial and marine waters, soil extracts or aerosols. In the next step, samples were desalted and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis (FIA) in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T

  11. Erodibility of Titan ice bedrock constrained by laboratory measurements of ice strength and erosion by sediment impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Collins, G. C.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.; Zygielbaum, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Saturn's moon Titan has a remarkably earth-like surface morphology, with branching fluvial networks draining elevated terrain. A paucity of impact craters suggests fluvial dissection is active and that the pace of landscape evolution is rapid. A key limitation on modeling rates of incision by Titan's rivers of liquid methane has been a lack of information on the erodibility of water-ice bedrock at ultra-cold temperatures. Here we report results from laboratory measurements of ice resistance to tensile fracture and rates of erosion of Titan bedrock analogs by low-velocity sediment impacts. We apply these experimental results to modeling fluvial incision, and explore constraints on rates and frequency of channel cutting on Titan. We made test samples of polycrystalline ice with a narrow and wide size distribution of seed ice grains. For some samples we added solid impurities composed of basalt, urea, and ammonium-sulfate, to account for the possibility that Titan's ice bedrock also contains silicates from meteors, organic polymers derived from Titan's atmosphere, and ammonia-based compounds formed by cryovolcanism. The experiments were conducted in a walk-in freezer and environmental chamber, where we varied temperature between 260 and 110 K using dry ice and liquid nitrogen (LN). For terrestrial rocks, resistance to erosion by sediment impacts depends on the kinetic energy required to detach a unit volume, which has been shown to scale with the square of tensile strength. We measured the tensile strength of Titan bedrock analogs using the Brazilian splitting test and found that strength increases with decreasing temperature at 7 kPa/K, for all ice types tested. Ice at Titan temperatures is thus roughly twice as strong as at terrestrial conditions; ice is strengthened by increasing impurity concentrations, finer grain-size distributions, and lower porosity. To replicate erosion of ice bedrock by bedload sediment impacts, we filled a 55-gallon drum with various ice

  12. Diffuse scattering in Ih ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Krisch, Michael; Bosak, Alexeï; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Bulat, Sergey; Ezhov, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of ice Ih, extracted from the subglacial Lake Vostok accretion ice layer (3621 m depth) were investigated by means of diffuse x-ray scattering and inelastic x-ray scattering. The diffuse scattering was identified as mainly inelastic and rationalized in the frame of ab initio calculations for the ordered ice XI approximant. Together with Monte-Carlo modelling, our data allowed reconsidering previously available neutron diffuse scattering data of heavy ice as the sum of thermal diffuse scattering and static disorder contribution. (paper)

  13. Modelling the Early Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheets: role of ice shelves and influence of ice-dammed lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Peyaud

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last glaciation, a marine ice sheet repeatedly appeared in Eurasia. The floating part of this ice sheet was essential to its rapid extension over the seas. During the earliest stage (90 kyr BP, large ice-dammed lakes formed south of the ice sheet. These lakes are believed to have cooled the climate at the margin of the ice. Using an ice sheet model, we investigated the role of ice shelves during the inception and the influence of ice-dammed lakes on the ice sheet evolution. Inception in Barents sea seems due to thickening of a large ice shelf. We observe a substantial impact of the lakes on the evolution of the ice sheets. Reduced summer ablation enhances ice extent and thickness, and the deglaciation is delayed by 2000 years.

  14. Interaction between Antarctic sea ice and synoptic activity in the circumpolar trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    Different from conditions in the Arctic, total Antarctic sea ice extent does not show large interannual variability and almost no long-term trend is found. On a regional/monthly scale, however, large differences are observed, depending on winds and oceanic currents, thus on the prevailing synoptic weather situation. At the same time, the sea ice influences atmospheric conditions: presence of sea ice considerably changes the energy exchange between ocean and atmosphere, thus the meridional air temperature gradient, which is usually strongest at the sea ice edge. This leads to high baroclinicity in this area and thus favours cyclogenesis. The position and movement of low pressure systems, in turn, together with the local heat balance, determines sea ice extent and concentration. Divergence and convergence of sea ice also depends on the position of the circumpolar trough relative to the sea ice edge, since its position determines whether the atmospheric flow is predominantly easterly or westerly, which leads to sea ice transport to the southwest or the northeast, respectively. The circumpolar trough is usually situated closer to the coast in spring and autumn and moves north in summer and winter. In this study, meteorological data from the ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis as well as sea ice extent and concentration derived from passive microwave data (SSMI/SMMR) are used to investigate the interactions between Antarctic sea ice and synoptic activity in the polar ocean. Special consideration is given to the frequency of regional sea ice minima and warm air advection from lower latitudes. A stable synoptic situation with amplified Rossby waves can lead to regional extrema in sea ice extent. An extreme case was observed in the austral summer of 2001/2002 in the Weddell Sea, when continuous northwesterly winds removed the ice from the northwestern part of the Weddell Sea and drove it to the coast of Coats Land, where usually coastal polynyas are observed in summer.

  15. Urediospores of Puccinia spp. and other rusts are warm-temperature ice nucleators and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.

    2012-10-01

    In light of various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause that illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history, we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections from 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset temperatures and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active having freezing onset temperatures as warm as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in air at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. We suggest that air sampling techniques have ignored the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric concentrations that occur under conditions propitious for precipitation that could increase their local abundance intermittently. Nevertheless, we propose that the relative low abundance of warm-temperature biological ice nucleators in the

  16. Numerical Investigation of Ice Slurry Flow in a Horizontal Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, K. S.; Pratihar, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, phase changing material slurry (PCMS) gained much attention as a cooling medium due to its high energy storage capacity and transportability. However the flow of PCM slurry is a complex phenomenon as it affected by various parameters, i.e. fluid properties, velocity, particle size and concentration etc.. In the present work ice is used as a PCM and numerical investigation of heterogeneous slurry flow has been carried out using Eulerian KTGF model in a horizontal pipe. Firstly the present model is validated with existing experiment results available in the literature, and then model is applied to the present problem. Results show that, flow is almost homogeneous for ethanol based ice slurry with particle diameter of 0.1 mm at the velocity of 1 m/s. It is also found that ice particle distribution is more uniform at higher velocity, concentration of ice and ethanol in slurry. Results also show that ice concentration increases on the top of the pipe, and the effect of particle wall collision is more significant at higher particle diameter.

  17. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    One of the proposed concepts for mitigating the warming effect of increasing greenhouse gases is seeding cirrus cloud with ice nuclei (IN) in order to reduce the lifetime and coverage of cold cirrus that have a net warming impact on the earth's surface. Global model simulations of the net impact of changing upper tropospheric IN have given widely disparate results, partly as a result of poor understanding of ice nucleation processes in the current atmosphere, and partly as a result of poor representation of these processes in global models. Here, we present detailed process-model simulations of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) transport and cirrus formation with ice nuclei properties based on recent laboratory nucleation experiments and field measurements of aerosol composition. The model is used to assess the sensitivity of TTL cirrus occurrence frequency and microphysical properties to the abundance and efficacy of ice nuclei. The simulated cloud properties compared with recent high-altitude aircraft measurements of TTL cirrus and ice supersaturation. We find that abundant effective IN (either from glassy organic aerosols or crystalline ammonium sulfate with concentrations greater than about 100/L) prevent the occurrences of large ice concentration and large ice supersaturations, both of which are clearly indicated by the in situ observations. We find that concentrations of effective ice nuclei larger than about 50/L can drive significant changes in cirrus microphysical properties and occurrence frequency. However, the cloud occurrence frequency can either increase or decrease, depending on the efficacy and abundance of IN added to the TTL. We suggest that our lack of information about ice nuclei properties in the current atmosphere, as well as uncertainties in ice nucleation processes and their representations in global models, preclude meaningful estimates of climate impacts associated with addition of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere. We will briefly discuss

  18. Under-Ice Phytoplankton Blooms Inhibited by Spring Convective Mixing in Refreezing Leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Kate E.; Pickart, Robert S.; Selz, Virginia; Mills, Matthew M.; Pacini, Astrid; Lewis, Kate M.; Joy-Warren, Hannah L.; Nobre, Carolina; van Dijken, Gert L.; Grondin, Pierre-Luc; Ferland, Joannie; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2018-01-01

    Spring phytoplankton growth in polar marine ecosystems is limited by light availability beneath ice-covered waters, particularly early in the season prior to snowmelt and melt pond formation. Leads of open water increase light transmission to the ice-covered ocean and are sites of air-sea exchange. We explore the role of leads in controlling phytoplankton bloom dynamics within the sea ice zone of the Arctic Ocean. Data are presented from spring measurements in the Chukchi Sea during the Study of Under-ice Blooms In the Chukchi Ecosystem (SUBICE) program in May and June 2014. We observed that fully consolidated sea ice supported modest under-ice blooms, while waters beneath sea ice with leads had significantly lower phytoplankton biomass, despite high nutrient availability. Through an analysis of hydrographic and biological properties, we attribute this counterintuitive finding to springtime convective mixing in refreezing leads of open water. Our results demonstrate that waters beneath loosely consolidated sea ice (84-95% ice concentration) had weak stratification and were frequently mixed below the critical depth (the depth at which depth-integrated production balances depth-integrated respiration). These findings are supported by theoretical model calculations of under-ice light, primary production, and critical depth at varied lead fractions. The model demonstrates that under-ice blooms can form even beneath snow-covered sea ice in the absence of mixing but not in more deeply mixed waters beneath sea ice with refreezing leads. Future estimates of primary production should account for these phytoplankton dynamics in ice-covered waters.

  19. On the influence of model physics on simulations of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Massonnet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hindcast (1983–2007 simulations are performed with the global, ocean-sea ice models NEMO-LIM2 and NEMO-LIM3 driven by atmospheric reanalyses and climatologies. The two simulations differ only in their sea ice component, while all other elements of experimental design (resolution, initial conditions, atmospheric forcing are kept identical. The main differences in the sea ice models lie in the formulation of the subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution, of the thermodynamic processes, of the sea ice salinity and of the sea ice rheology. To assess the differences in model skill over the period of investigation, we develop a set of metrics for both hemispheres, comparing the main sea ice variables (concentration, thickness and drift to available observations and focusing on both mean state and seasonal to interannual variability. Based upon these metrics, we discuss the physical processes potentially responsible for the differences in model skill. In particular, we suggest that (i a detailed representation of the ice thickness distribution increases the seasonal to interannual variability of ice extent, with spectacular improvement for the simulation of the recent observed summer Arctic sea ice retreats, (ii the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology enhances the response of ice to wind stress, compared to the classical viscous-plastic approach, (iii the grid formulation and the air-sea ice drag coefficient affect the simulated ice export through Fram Strait and the ice accumulation along the Canadian Archipelago, and (iv both models show less skill in the Southern Ocean, probably due to the low quality of the reanalyses in this region and to the absence of important small-scale oceanic processes at the models' resolution (~1°.

  20. Continuous analysis of phosphate in a Greenland shallow ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Vallelonga, Paul; Kettner, Ernesto; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2010-05-01

    Phosphate is an important and sometimes limiting nutrient for primary production in the oceans. Because of deforestation and the use of phosphate as a fertilizer changes in the phosphate cycle have occurred over the last centuries. On longer time scales, sea level changes are thought to have also caused changes in the phosphate cycle. Analyzing phosphate concentrations in ice cores may help to gain important knowledge about those processes. In the present study, we attach a phosphate detection line to an existing continuous flow analysis (CFA) setup for ice core analysis at the University of Copenhagen. The CFA system is optimized for high-resolution measurements of insoluble dust particles, electrolytic melt water conductivity, and the concentrations of ammonium and sodium. For the phosphate analysis we apply a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method that has been successfully applied to determine phosphate concentrations of sea water (Zhang and Chi, 2002). A line of melt water from the CFA melt head (1.01 ml per minute) is combined with a molybdate blue reagent and an ascorbic acid buffer. An uncompleted reaction takes place in five meters of heated mixing coils before the absorption measurement at a wavelength of 710 nanometer takes place in a 2 m long liquid waveguide cell (LWCC) with an inner volume of 0.5 ml. The method has a detection limit of around 0.1 ppb and we are currently investigating a possible interference from molybdate reacting with silicates that are present in low amounts in the ice. Preliminary analysis of early Holocene samples from the NGRIP ice core show phosphate concentration values of a few ppb. In this study, we will attempt to determine past levels of phosphate in a shallow Northern Greenland firn core with an annual layer thickness of about 20 cm ice equivalent. With a melt speed of 2.5 cm ice per minute our method should allow the resolution of any seasonal variability in phosphate concentrations.

  1. Tracking Sea Ice Parcel Histories: Analyzing the Processes Leading to the Decline of Arctic Sea Ice From 1996-2015 by Linking Sea Ice Motion With Ancillary Data Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, M.; Tschudi, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    A program has been developed at the University of Colorado at Boulder to track weekly sea ice motion vectors, MODIS ice surface temperature, SSMI/SSMIS ice concentration, Pan-Arctic ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) ice thickness, convergence/divergence fields, and Extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) radiative flux data for individual sea ice "parcels" on EASE-Grid from 1996-2015. The resulting data product combines these variables and the EASE-Grid coordinates of individual parcels as they advect through the Arctic to produce individual ice parcel histories during the period of study. An example of the resulting sea ice parcel tracks and an individual parcel's IST and concentration history are shown in the attached figure. The combination of these data with individual parcel locations allows for the analysis of trends in individual parcel variables, groups of parcels, and regions through which the parcels advect during the course of a year or multiple years. Preliminary results of the analysis of these data for some Arctic regions will be presented in the context of the main variables and feedbacks that have driven the drastic changes that have occurred in the Arctic over the past decade.

  2. Improved ice loss estimate of the northwestern Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjeldsen, K.K.; Khan, S.A.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Angelen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate ice volume change rates in the northwest Greenland drainage basin during 2003–2009 using Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) laser altimeter data. Elevation changes are often reported to be largest near the frontal portion of outlet glaciers. To improve the volume change

  3. Eulerian method for ice crystal icing in turbofan engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The newer generations of high-bypass-ratio engines are susceptible to the ingestion of small ice crystals which may cause engine power loss or damage. The research presented in this thesis focusses on the development of a computational method for in-engine ice crystal accretion. The work has been