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Sample records for amsr aqua amsr-e

  1. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This document pertains to two data sets: AMSR-E/Aqua Daily EASE-Grid Brightness Temperatures (NSIDC-0301) and AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded...

  2. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave measurements...

  3. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily Global Quarter-Degree Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave measurements...

  4. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Global Snow Water Equivalent EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) product includes global SWE on Northern and Southern Hemisphere 25 km EASE-Grids, generated by the GSFC...

  5. Antarctic Iceberg Tracking Based on Time Series of Aqua AMSR-E Microwave Brightness Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, S.; Peterson, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of icebergs are identified as one of the requirements for the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in the area of reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. However, iceberg observations are not included among targets in the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan, and thus there is an unfulfilled need for iceberg detection and tracking in the near future. Large Antarctic icebergs have been tracked by the National Ice Center and by the academic community using a variety of satellite sensors including both passive and active microwave imagers, such as SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) deployed on the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) spacecraft. Improvements provided in recent years by NASA and non-NASA satellite radars, scatterometers, and radiometers resulted in an increased number of observed icebergs and even prompted a question: `Is The Number of Antarctic Icebergs Really Increasing?' [D.G. Long, J. Ballantyne, and C. Bertoia, Eos, AGU Transactions 83(42):469&474, 15 October 2002]. AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System) represents an improvement over SSM/I, its predecessor. AMSR-E has more measurement channels and higher spatial resolution than SSM/I. For example, the instantaneous field of view of the AMSR-E's 89-GHz channels is 6 km by 4 km versus 16 km by 14 km for SSM/I's comparable 85-GHz channels. AMSR-E, deployed on the Aqua satellite, scans across a 1450-km swath and provides brightness temperature measurements with near-global coverage every one or two days. In polar regions, overlapping swaths generate coverage up to multiple times per day and allow for creation of image time series with high temporal resolution. Despite these advantages, only incidental usage of AMSR-E data for iceberg tracking has been reported so far, none in an operational environment. Therefore, an experiment was undertaken in the RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability

  6. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  7. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Global Ascending/Descending .25x.25 deg Ocean Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily ocean product includes Sea Surface Temperature, near-surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, and columnar cloud liquid water over...

  8. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B land surface product includes surface soil moisture and vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information on a global 25 km...

  9. AMSR-E/Aqua 5-Day L3 Global Snow Water Equivalent EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 5-day snow water equivalent (SWE) product includes global 5-day maximum SWE on Northern and Southern Hemisphere 25 km EASE-Grids, generated...

  10. AMSR-E/Aqua L2B Global Swath Rain Rate/Type GSFC Profiling Algorithm V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-2B rain product includes instantaneous rain rate and rain type over ice-free and snow-free land and ocean between 70 degrees north and south...

  11. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Surface Soil Moisture, Interpretive Parms, & QC EASE-Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 daily land product includes surface soil moisture, vegetation/roughness water content interpretive information, and TBs on global 25 km...

  12. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 25 km Tb and Sea Ice Concentration Polar Grids V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 25 km daily sea ice product includes 6.9 - 89.0 GHz TBs and sea ice concentration averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 25 km...

  13. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 25 km Tb and Sea Ice Concentration Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level-3 25 km daily sea ice product includes 6.9 - 89.0 GHz TBs and sea ice concentration averages (daily, ascending, and descending) on a 25 km...

  14. CLPX-Satellite: AMSR-E Brightness Temperature Grids, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) passive microwave brightness temperatures gridded to the...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Gridded Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua satellite for the Atlantic Ocean (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  17. GHRSST Level 2P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) on the NASA Aqua Satellite (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  18. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 (LPRM_AMSRE_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km ascending V002 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  19. AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 12.5 km Tb, Sea Ice Conc., & Snow Depth Polar Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E/Aqua Level 3 12.5 km daily sea ice product includes 18.7 - 89.0 GHz TBs, sea ice concentration averages (asc & desc), and 5-day snow depth over sea...

  20. AMSR-E/Aqua level 3 global monthly Surface Soil Moisture Standard Deviation V005 (AMSRE_STDMO) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dataset contains global monthly soil moisture statistics (standard deviation ) for 1 by 1 degree grid cells. The source for the data is AMSR-E daily estimates of...

  1. Optimal estimation of sea surface temperature from AMSR-E

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Høyer, Jacob L.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2018-01-01

    The Optimal Estimation (OE) technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AQUA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). A comprehensive matchup database with drift......The Optimal Estimation (OE) technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI) to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AQUA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). A comprehensive matchup database...... with drifting buoy observations is used to develop and test the OE setup. It is shown that it is essential to update the first guess atmospheric and oceanic state variables and to perform several iterations to reach an optimal retrieval. The optimal number of iterations is typically three to four in the current...... and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most...

  2. AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 (LPRM_AMSRE_D_RZSM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua root zone soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 25 km x 25 km descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) root zone soil...

  3. Global climate monitoring with the advanced microwave scanning radiometer (AMSR and AMSR-E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobl, Elena S.; Spencer, Roy W.; Shibata, Akira; Imaoka, Keiji; Sasaki, Masayuki; Kachi, Misako

    2003-04-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometers (AMSR) are dual-polarized microwave radiometers having channel frequencies ranging from 6.9 GHz to 89 GHz, and were designed to retrieve global information on precipitation, sea surface temperature, oceanic surface winds and integrated cloud water and water vapor, vegetation, sea ice, and snow cover. Two AMSR's have been built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Space Development Agency of Japan. The first instrument (AMSR-E) was launched in May 2002 on NASA's Aqua satellite. The second will be launched on the Japanese ADEOS-II satellite. The AMSRs provide the highest spatial resolution yet attained for a civilian spaceborne microwave sensor, with spatial resolutions ranging from 5 km at 89 GHz to 60 km at 6.9 GHz. A distributed array of six (seven for ADEOS-II AMSR) feedhorns are illuminated by a 1.6 m diameter offset parabolic reflector on AMSR-E, and a 2.0 m diameter reflector on AMSR for ADEOS-II. While National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) is responsible for the calibration of both AMSRs' data, for AMSR-E, science software for the retrieval of the various geophysical parameters has been independently developed by NASDA- and NASA-funded researchers. This software has been implemented for routine near-real time processing in both Japan and the United States. A future goal -- within two years -- is the development of joint algorithms for processing data from both AMSRs. Extensive product validation efforts, involving many different countries, are discussed. Initial data from AMSR-E are also presented.

  4. Comparison between MODIS and AMSR-E cloud LWP over the East Asian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in the Earth's energy budget and therefore constitute a crucial element of climate change prediction. Thus, the demand for understanding the properties of clouds more accurately has been increasing and satellites have become a dominant tool for cloud observation because of their continual global coverage capability. NASA launched Aqua Earth-observing satellite on May 4, 2002. Aqua has five operating instruments (AIRS, AMSU, CERES, MODIS, and AMSR-E), which have different wavelength coverages and thus different retrieval algorithms. Among them, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) retrieve cloud liquid water path (LWP), a highly important cloud property that characterizes clouds, with different retrieval algorithms because MODIS uses VIS/NIR channels while AMSR-E uses microwave channels. In this study, the LWP data retrieved from MODIS and AMSR-E over the East Asia region will be analyzed and compared. The retrieval period is four full years (2007-2010) so that annual averages and seasonal differences can be revealed. Although a comparison of global LWP data from MOIDS and AMSR-E has been done in a previous study, the general global distributions were shown. Here, we focus on the East Asia region where seasonal LWP differences are large due to monsoon circulation and typhoons in summer months. More details will be discussed at the conference.

  5. Intercomparison of AMSR2 and AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with MERRA-L data set over Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, E.; Choi, M.; Su, C. H.; Ryu, D.; Kim, H.; Jacobs, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in the hydrological cycle on the land surface and plays an essential role in hydrological and meteorological processes. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sensor on board the Aqua satellite offered valuable soil moisture data set from June 2002 and October 2011 and has been used in a wide range of applications. However, the AMSR-E sensor stopped operation from 4 October 2011 due to a problem with its antenna. AMSR-E was replaced by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on the Global Climate Change Observation Mission 1 - Water (GCOM-W1) satellite in May 2012. Assessment of AMSR2 soil moisture retrievals as compared to AMSR-E has not yet been extensively evaluated. This task is critical if AMSR2 soil moisture products are used as a continuous dataset continuing the legacy of AMSR-E. The purpose of this study is to inter-compare AMSR2 and AMSR-E microwave based soil moisture over Australia, mediated by using model-based soil moisture data set to determine statistically similar inter-comparison periods from time periods of the individual sensors. This work use NASA-VUA AMSR2 and AMSR-E based soil moisture products derived by the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) and the modelled soil moisture from NASA's MERRA-L (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications-Land) re-analysis. The satellite soil moisture products are compared against the MERRA-L using traditional metrics, and the random errors in individual products are estimated using lagged instrumental variable regression analysis. Generally, the results demonstrate that the two satellite-based soil moisture retrievals have reasonable agreement with MERRA-L soil moisture data set. The error differences are notable, with the zonal error statistics are higher for AMSR2 in all climate zones, though the error maps of AMSR2 and AMSR-E are spatially similar over the Australia regions. This study leads

  6. Several advanced microwave scanning radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) environmental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobl, Elena; Spencer, Roy

    2006-12-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is a conically scanning, dual-polarization, total power microwave radiometer flying on NASA's Aqua satellite. It has been taking global observations for more than four years. The instrument was provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA, and it was built by Mitsubishi Electric Company. AMSR-E data provide information on the state of various hydrologic parameters in the atmosphere and on the Earth's surface. AMSR-E measures dual linearly polarized radiation (horizontal and vertical polarizations) at frequencies of 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 36.5, and 89 GHz. These frequencies have diverse amounts of influence from a wide variety of lower atmospheric and surface variables. Examples of environmental results obtained from AMSR-E data are included. One of the most important new capabilities is global SST observations through clouds, including observations of the cold wakes behind hurricanes. The cold wake behind hurricane Katrina will be shown. A monthly, global soil moisture percentage map was developed from the AMSR-E retrievals, and as an additional benefit maps showing large RFI sources have been compiled. Maps of the snow water equivalent (SWE) and detailed maps of the Arctic sea ice will be shown.

  7. AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LSMEM) L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V001 (WC_LSMEM_SOILM_025) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR-E/Aqua surface soil moisture (LSMEM) L3 1 day 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V001 is a global, 10-year (2002-2011) data set. It is created from soil moisture...

  8. A New Operational Snow Retrieval Algorithm Applied to Historical AMSR-E Brightness Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tedesco

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Snow is a key element of the water and energy cycles and the knowledge of spatio-temporal distribution of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE is fundamental for hydrological and climatological applications. SWE and snow depth estimates can be obtained from spaceborne microwave brightness temperatures at global scale and high temporal resolution (daily. In this regard, the data recorded by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Orbiting System (EOS (AMSR-E onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA AQUA spacecraft have been used to generate operational estimates of SWE and snow depth, complementing estimates generated with other microwave sensors flying on other platforms. In this study, we report the results concerning the development and assessment of a new operational algorithm applied to historical AMSR-E data. The new algorithm here proposed makes use of climatological data, electromagnetic modeling and artificial neural networks for estimating snow depth as well as a spatio-temporal dynamic density scheme to convert snow depth to SWE. The outputs of the new algorithm are compared with those of the current AMSR-E operational algorithm as well as in-situ measurements and other operational snow products, specifically the Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC and GlobSnow datasets. Our results show that the AMSR-E algorithm here proposed generally performs better than the operational one and addresses some major issues identified in the spatial distribution of snow depth fields associated with the evolution of effective grain size.

  9. An Updated Geophysical Model for AMSR-E and SSMIS Brightness Temperature Simulations over Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta Zabolotskikh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we considered the geophysical model for microwave brightness temperature (BT simulation for the Atmosphere-Ocean System under non-precipitating conditions. The model is presented as a combination of atmospheric absorption and ocean emission models. We validated this model for two satellite instruments—for Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E onboard Aqua satellite and for Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS onboard F16 satellite of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP series. We compared simulated BT values with satellite BT measurements for different combinations of various water vapor and oxygen absorption models and wind induced ocean emission models. A dataset of clear sky atmospheric and oceanic parameters, collocated in time and space with satellite measurements, was used for the comparison. We found the best model combination, providing the least root mean square error between calculations and measurements. A single combination of models ensured the best results for all considered radiometric channels. We also obtained the adjustments to simulated BT values, as averaged differences between the model simulations and satellite measurements. These adjustments can be used in any research based on modeling data for removing model/calibration inconsistencies. We demonstrated the application of the model by means of the development of the new algorithm for sea surface wind speed retrieval from AMSR-E data.

  10. Estimate of Hurricane Wind Speed from AMSR-E Low-Frequency Channel Brightness Temperature Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new parameters (W6H and W6V were defined that represent brightness temperature increments for different low-frequency channels due to ocean wind. We developed a new wind speed retrieval model inside hurricanes based on W6H and W6V using brightness temperature data from AMSR-E. The AMSR-E observations of 12 category 3–5 hurricanes from 2003 to 2011 and corresponding data from the H*wind analysis system were used to develop and validate the AMSR-E wind speed retrieval model. The results show that the mean bias and the overall root-mean-square (RMS difference of the AMSR-E retrieved wind speeds with respect to H*wind (HRD Real-time Hurricane Wind Analysis System analysis data were −0.01 m/s and 2.66 m/s, respectively. One case study showed that W6H and W6V were less sensitive to rain than the observed AMSR-E C-band and X-band brightness temperature data. The AMSR-E retrieval model was further validated by comparing the retrieved wind speeds against stepped-frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR measurements. The comparison showed an RMS difference of 3.41 m/s and a mean bias of 0.49 m/s.

  11. Optimal Estimation of Sea Surface Temperature from AMSR-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Nielsen-Englyst

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Optimal Estimation (OE technique is developed within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI to retrieve subskin Sea Surface Temperature (SST from AQUA’s Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System (AMSR-E. A comprehensive matchup database with drifting buoy observations is used to develop and test the OE setup. It is shown that it is essential to update the first guess atmospheric and oceanic state variables and to perform several iterations to reach an optimal retrieval. The optimal number of iterations is typically three to four in the current setup. In addition, updating the forward model, using a multivariate regression model is shown to improve the capability of the forward model to reproduce the observations. The average sensitivity of the OE retrieval is 0.5 and shows a latitudinal dependency with smaller sensitivity for cold waters and larger sensitivity for warmer waters. The OE SSTs are evaluated against drifting buoy measurements during 2010. The results show an average difference of 0.02 K with a standard deviation of 0.47 K when considering the 64% matchups, where the simulated and observed brightness temperatures are most consistent. The corresponding mean uncertainty is estimated to 0.48 K including the in situ and sampling uncertainties. An independent validation against Argo observations from 2009 to 2011 shows an average difference of 0.01 K, a standard deviation of 0.50 K and a mean uncertainty of 0.47 K, when considering the best 62% of retrievals. The satellite versus in situ discrepancies are highest in the dynamic oceanic regions due to the large satellite footprint size and the associated sampling effects. Uncertainty estimates are available for all retrievals and have been validated to be accurate. They can thus be used to obtain very good retrieval results. In general, the results from the OE retrieval are very encouraging and demonstrate that passive microwave

  12. AMSR-E Rainfall Subset, collocated with the CloudSat track, in HDF-EOS format V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a subset of AMSR-E rain rat eproduct along CloudSat field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return AMSR-E data that are within +-100 km...

  13. Remote sensing of tropospheric total column water vapor: Intercomparison of POLDER, AMSR-E and MODIS retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedi, J.; Mcharek, L.; Dubuisson, P.; Parol, F.; Thieuleux, F.

    2013-05-01

    Since December 2004, the CNES Parasol (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) mission has been flying in the A-train with Aqua (NASA) providing more than 5 years of temporally and spatially coincident observations from POLDER, MODIS and AMSRE which enable total column water vapor amount retrievals. We are providing here a temporal and statistical analysis of water vapor near-infrared retrievals from POLDER against MODIS and AMSR-E products derived from nearinfrared, thermal infrared and microwave observations over ocean. A temporal analysis of POLDER official product is conducted in view of AMSR-E and MODIS coincident retrievals over ocean. In a second step, an alternative approach based on the use of simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) is developed to improve the mathematical parameterization used to retrieve water vapor amount from near-infrared observation. The retrievals are further improved when an estimate of the 910 nm surface reflectance is obtained through interpolation between PARASOL 865 nm and 1020 nm channels. This last improvement now allows for a unified land/ocean retrieval algorithm for PARASOL/POLDER.

  14. Snow cover detection and snow depth algorithms for the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) AMSR2 instrument using AMSR-E/AMSR2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. K.; Kongoli, C.; Key, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Snow is one of the most dynamic hydrological variables on the Earth surface playing a key role in the global energy and water budget. The ability to detect global snow cover and measure snow depth in near all weather conditions has been demonstrated with satellite microwave measurements. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), launched on May 18, 2012 onboard SHIZUKU, is included in A-train group of satellites and will replace the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument. The similarity of channels between AMSR-E and AMSR2 makes AMSR2 instrument a successor of AMSR-E instrument. This study will evaluate the suite of AMSR2 algorithms that are being developed for the operational retrieval of snow cover detection and snow depth using AMSR-E and AMSR2 data. AMSR-E data spans 10 years from June 2002 to September 2011; AMSR2 data spans 2 years from August 2012 to May 2014. The snow cover detection algorithm is based on the operational NOAA's heritage microwave algorithm with snow climatology tests and wet snow filtering as new enhancements. The SD algorithm is adopted from the current version of the operational NASA AMSR-E SWE algorithm. The 24- and 4-km IMS snow cover and in-situ SYNOP and COOP snow depth are used as references for the evaluation. More details about the reference data and evaluation results will be discussed.

  15. Land Surface Microwave Emissivities Derived from AMSR-E and MODIS Measurements with Advanced Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncet, Jean-Luc; Liang, Pan; Galantowicz, John F.; Lipton, Alan E.; Uymin, Gennady; Prigent, Catherine; Grassotti, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    A microwave emissivity database has been developed with data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and with ancillary land surface temperature (LST) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the same Aqua spacecraft. The primary intended application of the database is to provide surface emissivity constraints in atmospheric and surface property retrieval or assimilation. An additional application is to serve as a dynamic indicator of land surface properties relevant to climate change monitoring. The precision of the emissivity data is estimated to be significantly better than in prior databases from other sensors due to the precise collocation with high-quality MODIS LST data and due to the quality control features of our data analysis system. The accuracy of the emissivities in deserts and semi-arid regions is enhanced by applying, in those regions, a version of the emissivity retrieval algorithm that accounts for the penetration of microwave radiation through dry soil with diurnally varying vertical temperature gradients. These results suggest that this penetration effect is more widespread and more significant to interpretation of passive microwave measurements than had been previously established. Emissivity coverage in areas where persistent cloudiness interferes with the availability of MODIS LST data is achieved using a classification-based method to spread emissivity data from less-cloudy areas that have similar microwave surface properties. Evaluations and analyses of the emissivity products over homogeneous snow-free areas are presented, including application to retrieval of soil temperature profiles. Spatial inhomogeneities are the largest in the vicinity of large water bodies due to the large water/land emissivity contrast and give rise to large apparent temporal variability in the retrieved emissivities when satellite footprint locations vary over time. This issue will be dealt with in the future by

  16. A Round Robin evaluation of AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelbach, Heidi; Hirschi, Martin; Nicolai-Shaw, Nadine; Gruber, Alexander; Dorigo, Wouter; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Jones, Lucas A.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale and long-term soil moisture observations based on remote sensing are promising data sets to investigate and understand various processes of the climate system including the water and biochemical cycles. Currently, the ESA Climate Change Initiative for soil moisture develops and evaluates a consistent global long-term soil moisture data set, which is based on merging passive and active remotely sensed soil moisture. Within this project an inter-comparison of algorithms for AMSR-E and ASCAT Level 2 products was conducted separately to assess the performance of different retrieval algorithms. Here we present the inter-comparison of AMSR-E Level 2 soil moisture products. These include the public data sets from University of Montana (UMT), Japan Aerospace and Space Exploration Agency (JAXA), VU University of Amsterdam (VUA; two algorithms) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). All participating algorithms are applied to the same AMSR-E Level 1 data set. Ascending and descending paths of scaled surface soil moisture are considered and evaluated separately in daily and monthly resolution over the 2007-2011 time period. Absolute values of soil moisture as well as their long-term anomalies (i.e. removing the mean seasonal cycle) and short-term anomalies (i.e. removing a five weeks moving average) are evaluated. The evaluation is based on conventional measures like correlation and unbiased root-mean-square differences as well as on the application of the triple collocation method. As reference data set, surface soil moisture of 75 quality controlled soil moisture sites from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) are used, which cover a wide range of vegetation density and climate conditions. For the application of the triple collocation method, surface soil moisture estimates from the Global Land Data Assimilation System are used as third independent data set. We find that the participating algorithms generally display a better

  17. Long Term Global Surface Soil Moisture Fields Using an SMOS-Trained Neural Network Applied to AMSR-E Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to retrieve soil moisture (SM from Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer—Earth Observing System Sensor (AMSR-E observations using Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS Level 3 SM as a reference is discussed. The goal is to obtain longer time series of SM with no significant bias and with a similar dynamical range to that of the SMOS SM dataset. This method consists of training a neural network (NN to obtain a global non-linear relationship linking AMSR-E brightness temperatures ( T b to the SMOS L3 SM dataset on the concurrent mission period of 1.5 years. Then, the NN model is used to derive soil moisture from past AMSR-E observations. It is shown that in spite of the different frequencies and sensing depths of AMSR-E and SMOS, it is possible to find such a global relationship. The sensitivity of AMSR-E T b ’s to soil temperature ( T s o i l was also evaluated using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Interim/Land re-analysis (ERA-Land and Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications-Land (MERRA-Land model data. The best combination of AMSR-E T b ’s to retrieve T s o i l is H polarization at 23 and 36 GHz plus V polarization at 36 GHz. Regarding SM, several combinations of input data show a similar performance in retrieving SM. One NN that uses C and X bands and T s o i l information was chosen to obtain SM in the 2003–2011 period. The new dataset shows a low bias (<0.02 m3/m3 and low standard deviation of the difference (<0.04 m3/m3 with respect to SMOS L3 SM over most of the globe’s surface. The new dataset was evaluated together with other AMSR-E SM datasets and the Climate Change Initiative (CCI SM dataset against the MERRA-Land and ERA-Land models for the 2003–2011 period. All datasets show a significant bias with respect to models for boreal regions and high correlations over regions other than the tropical and boreal forest. All of the global SM datasets including AMSR-E NN were also

  18. A COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO ALGORITHMS FOR THE RETRIEVAL OF SOIL MOISTURE USING AMSR-E DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta ePaloscia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A comparison between two algorithms for estimating soil moisture with microwave satellite data was carried out by using the datasets collected on the four Agricultural Research Service (ARS watershed sites in the US from 2002 to 2009. These sites collectively represent a wide range of ground conditions and precipitation regimes (from natural to agricultural surfaces and from desert to humid regions and provide long-term in-situ data. One of the algorithms is the artificial neural network-based algorithm developed by the Institute of Applied Physics of the National Research Council (IFAC-CNR (HydroAlgo and the second one is the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA developed by USDA-ARS (US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. Both algorithms are based on the same radiative transfer equations but are implemented very differently. Both made use of datasets provided by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA, within the framework of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR-E and Global Change Observation Mission–Water GCOM/AMSR-2 programs. Results demonstrated that both algorithms perform better than the mission specified accuracy, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE ≤0.06 m3/m3 and Bias <0.02 m3/m3. These results expand on previous investigations using different algorithms and sites. The novelty of the paper consists of the fact that it is the first intercomparison of the HydroAlgo algorithm with a more traditional retrieval algorithm, which offers an approach to higher spatial resolution products.

  19. Results from Assimilating AMSR-E Soil Moisture Estimates into a Land Surface Model Using an Ensemble Kalman Filter in the Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Clay B.; Crosson, William L.; Case, Jonathan L.; Hale, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Improve simulations of soil moisture/temperature, and consequently boundary layer states and processes, by assimilating AMSR-E soil moisture estimates into a coupled land surface-mesoscale model Provide a new land surface model as an option in the Land Information System (LIS)

  20. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature through Blending MODIS and AMSR-E Data with the Bayesian Maximum Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaokang Kou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land surface temperature (LST plays a major role in the study of surface energy balances. Remote sensing techniques provide ways to monitor LST at large scales. However, due to atmospheric influences, significant missing data exist in LST products retrieved from satellite thermal infrared (TIR remotely sensed data. Although passive microwaves (PMWs are able to overcome these atmospheric influences while estimating LST, the data are constrained by low spatial resolution. In this study, to obtain complete and high-quality LST data, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME method was introduced to merge 0.01° and 0.25° LSTs inversed from MODIS and AMSR-E data, respectively. The result showed that the missing LSTs in cloudy pixels were filled completely, and the availability of merged LSTs reaches 100%. Because the depths of LST and soil temperature measurements are different, before validating the merged LST, the station measurements were calibrated with an empirical equation between MODIS LST and 0~5 cm soil temperatures. The results showed that the accuracy of merged LSTs increased with the increasing quantity of utilized data, and as the availability of utilized data increased from 25.2% to 91.4%, the RMSEs of the merged data decreased from 4.53 °C to 2.31 °C. In addition, compared with the filling gap method in which MODIS LST gaps were filled with AMSR-E LST directly, the merged LSTs from the BME method showed better spatial continuity. The different penetration depths of TIR and PMWs may influence fusion performance and still require further studies.

  1. Summer Sea Ice Motion from the 18 GHz Channel of AMSR-E and the Exchange of Sea Ice between the Pacific and Atlantic Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that sea ice motion in summer can be derived reliably from the 18GHz channel of the AMSR-E instrument on the EOS Aqua platform. The improved spatial resolution of this channel with its lower sensitivity to atmospheric moisture seems to have alleviated various issues that have plagued summer motion retrievals from shorter wavelength observations. Two spatial filters improve retrieval quality: one reduces some of the microwave signatures associated with synoptic-scale weather systems and the other removes outliers. Compared with daily buoy drifts, uncertainties in motion are approx.3-4 km/day. Using the daily motion fields, we examine five years of summer ice area exchange between the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. With the sea-level pressure patterns during the summer of 2006 and 2007 favoring the export of sea ice into the Atlantic Sector, the regional outflow is approx.21% and approx.15% of the total sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector.

  2. [The relationship between the variation rate of MODIS land surface temperature and AMSR-E soil moisture and its application to downscaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Qi; Xie, Chao; Shi, Jian-Cheng; Gong, Hui-Li

    2013-03-01

    Using AMSR-E soil moisture, MODIS land surface temperature (Ts) and vegetation index product, the authors discuss the relationship between the variation rate of land surface temperature and surface soil moisture. Selecting the plains region of central United States as the study area, the authors propose the distribution triangle of the variation rate of land surface temperature and soil moisture. In the present paper, temperature variation and vegetation index (TVVI), a new index containing the information of temperature variation and vegetation, is introduced. The authors prove that TVVI and soil moisture show a steady relationship of exponential function; and build a quantitative model of soil moisture(SM) and instantaneous surface temperature variation (VTs). The authors later achieve downscaling of AMSR-E soil moisture data, through the above stated functional relationships and high-resolution MODIS data. Comparison with measured data on ground surface indicates that this method of downscaling is of high precision

  3. Evaluation of Enhanced High Resolution MODIS/AMSR-E SSTs and the Impact on Regional Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiferl, Luke D.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Case, Jonathan L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been generating a 1-km sea surface temperature (SST) composite derived from retrievals of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for use in operational diagnostics and regional model initialization. With the assumption that the day-to-day variation in the SST is nominal, individual MODIS passes aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Terra satellites are used to create and update four composite SST products each day at 0400, 0700, 1600, and 1900 UTC, valid over the western Atlantic and Caribbean waters. A six month study from February to August 2007 over the marine areas surrounding southern Florida was conducted to compare the use of the MODIS SST composite versus the Real-Time Global SST analysis to initialize the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Substantial changes in the forecast heat fluxes were seen at times in the marine boundary layer, but relatively little overall improvement was measured in the sensible weather elements. The limited improvement in the WRF model forecasts could be attributed to the diurnal changes in SST seen in the MODIS SST composites but not accounted for by the model. Furthermore, cloud contamination caused extended periods when individual passes of MODIS were unable to update the SSTs, leading to substantial SST latency and a cool bias during the early summer months. In order to alleviate the latency problems, the SPoRT Center recently enhanced its MODIS SST composite by incorporating information from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) instruments as well as the Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis. These enhancements substantially decreased the latency due to cloud cover and improved the bias and correlation of the composites at available marine point observations. While these enhancements improved upon the modeled cold bias using the original MODIS SSTs

  4. Potentiel des donnees AMSR-E et RADARSAT-2 pour le suivi des cycles de gel/degel du sol dans des zones agricoles au Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    B-Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    Soil freezing and thawing processes are of particular importance for agricultural areas. For example, frozen soils can increase the runoff during snowmelt in the spring. Freezing and thawing also have a direct influence on the sowing and harvesting dates, as well as on the crop yield. A better understanding of those phenomena is therefore important, and several researchers focused on this topic in the past. Due to its sensitivity to changes in the state of water, microwave remote sensing is an appropriate tool for that purpose. The main objective of this study is to monitor soil freezing and thawing processes using AMSR-E and RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data acquired over an agricultural area located near Saskatoon (Saskatchewan). With AMSR-E data, the goals are to compare different combinations of frequencies for the spectral gradient's algorithm regarding their capacity for detecting frozen soils, and to analyze the temporal dynamics of the brightness temperature in order to find a new indicator of soil freezing. As for RADARSAT-2 data, several polarimetric parameters and techniques are tested in order to identify soil freezing. For the first part concerning AMSR-E data, a global precision for the discrimination of frozen and thawed soils higher than 90% was obtained with the spectral gradient's algorithm, for the combinations including high (18.7 and 36.5 GHz) and low (6.9 and 10.7 GHz) frequencies as well as for the one using only high frequencies. It is shown that, for the combination based on the 18.7 and 36.5 GHz frequencies, results are improved when a negative threshold is used for the spectral gradient. When high and low AMSR-E frequencies are combined, a null threshold is on the contrary appropriate, which constitutes an operational advantage. A new algorithm for detecting frozen soils, based on a thresholding approach applied to the spectral gradient of polarization difference and the brightness temperature at 36.5 GHz, was also proposed. The performances

  5. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  6. AMSRE_L3_SST_1DEG_1MO:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains sea surface temperature (SST) data on a monthly 1 degree grid from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua...

  7. Antarctic Iceberg Tracking Based on Time Series of Aqua AMSRE Microwave Brightness Temperature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Peterson, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Observations of icebergs are identified as one of the requirements for the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) in the area of reducing loss of life and property from natural and human-induced disasters. However, iceberg observations are not included among targets in the GEOSS 10-Year Implementation Plan, and thus there is an unfulfilled need for iceberg detection and tracking in the near future. Large Antarctic icebergs have been tracked by the National Ice Center and by the academic community using a variety of satellite sensors including both passive and active microwave imagers, such as SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) deployed on the DMSP (Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) spacecraft. Improvements provided in recent years by NASA and non-NASA satellite radars, scatterometers, and radiometers resulted in an increased number of observed icebergs and even prompted a question: Is The Number of Antarctic Icebergs Really Increasing? [D.G. Long, J. Ballantyne, and C. Bertoia, Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 83 (42): 469 & 474, 15 October 2002]. AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System) represents an improvement over SSM/I, its predecessor. AMSR-E has more measurement channels and higher spatial resolution than SSM/I. For example, the instantaneous field of view of the AMSR-E s 89-GHz channels is 6 km by 4 km versus 16 km by 14 km for SSM/I s comparable 85-GHz channels. AMSR-E, deployed on the Aqua satellite, scans across a 1450-km swath and provides brightness temperature measurements with nearglobal coverage every one or two days. In polar regions, overlapping swaths generate coverage up to multiple times per day and allow for creation of image time series with high temporal resolution. Despite these advantages, only incidental usage of AMSR-E data for iceberg tracking has been reported so far, none in an operational environment. Therefore, an experiment was undertaken in the RPC

  8. GHRSST Level 3P USA Remote Sensing Systems AMSRE SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on May 4, 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan...

  9. GHRSST Level 2P USA Remote Sensing Systems AMSRE SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on May 4, 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan...

  10. DisPATCh as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture using localized in situ measurements: Application to SMOS and AMSR-E data in Southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbéteau, Yoann; Merlin, Olivier; Molero, Beatriz; Rüdiger, Christoph; Bacon, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Validating coarse-scale satellite soil moisture data still represents a big challenge, notably due to the large mismatch existing between the spatial resolution (> 10 km) of microwave radiometers and the representativeness scale (several m) of localized in situ measurements. This study aims to examine the potential of DisPATCh (Disaggregation based on Physical and Theoretical scale Change) for validating SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth observation system) level-3 soil moisture products. The ∽40-50 km resolution SMOS and AMSR-E data are disaggregated at 1 km resolution over the Murrumbidgee catchment in Southeastern Australia during a one year period in 2010-2011, and the satellite products are compared with the in situ measurements of 38 stations distributed within the study area. It is found that disaggregation improves the mean difference, correlation coefficient and slope of the linear regression between satellite and in situ data in 77%, 92% and 94% of cases, respectively. Nevertheless, the downscaling efficiency is lower in winter than during the hotter months when DisPATCh performance is optimal. Consistently, better results are obtained in the semi-arid than in a temperate zone of the catchment. In the semi-arid Yanco region, disaggregation in summer increases the correlation coefficient from 0.63 to 0.78 and from 0.42 to 0.71 for SMOS and AMSR-E in morning overpasses and from 0.37 to 0.63 and from 0.47 to 0.73 for SMOS and AMSR-E in afternoon overpasses, respectively. DisPATCh has strong potential in low vegetated semi-arid areas where it can be used as a tool to evaluate coarse-scale remotely sensed soil moisture by explicitly representing the sub-pixel variability.

  11. Improving Simulated Soil Moisture Fields Through Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with an Ensemble Kalman Filter and a Mass Conservation Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Toll, David; Zhan, Xiwu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce model bias (at locations near the surface) through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce model bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate the actual value of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals to improve the mean of simulated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  12. Improving estimated soil moisture fields through assimilation of AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals with an ensemble Kalman filter and a mass conservation constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of near surface soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce bias of model estimates (at locations near the surface through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E soil moisture retrievals, as they are without any scaling or pre-processing, to improve the estimated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  13. SST, Aqua AMSR-E, 0.25 degrees, Global, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA OceanWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from microwave sensors, which can measure ocean temperatures even in the presence of clouds....

  14. Using machine learning to produce near surface soil moisture estimates from deeper in situ records at U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) locations: Analysis and applications to AMSR-E satellite validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Boyles, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    Surface soil moisture is a critical parameter for understanding the energy flux at the land atmosphere boundary. Weather modeling, climate prediction, and remote sensing validation are some of the applications for surface soil moisture information. The most common in situ measurement for these purposes are sensors that are installed at depths of approximately 5 cm. There are however, sensor technologies and network designs that do not provide an estimate at this depth. If soil moisture estimates at deeper depths could be extrapolated to the near surface, in situ networks providing estimates at other depths would see their values enhanced. Soil moisture sensors from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) were used to generate models of 5 cm soil moisture, with 10 cm soil moisture measurements and antecedent precipitation as inputs, via machine learning techniques. Validation was conducted with the available, in situ, 5 cm resources. It was shown that a 5 cm estimate, which was extrapolated from a 10 cm sensor and antecedent local precipitation, produced a root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) of 0.0215 m3/m3. Next, these machine-learning-generated 5 cm estimates were also compared to AMSR-E estimates at these locations. These results were then compared with the performance of the actual in situ readings against the AMSR-E data. The machine learning estimates at 5 cm produced an RMSE of approximately 0.03 m3/m3 when an optimized gain and offset were applied. This is necessary considering the performance of AMSR-E in locations characterized by high vegetation water contents, which are present across North Carolina. Lastly, the application of this extrapolation technique is applied to the ECONet in North Carolina, which provides a 10 cm depth measurement as its shallowest soil moisture estimate. A raw RMSE of 0.028 m3/m3 was achieved, and with a linear gain and offset applied at each ECONet site, an RMSE of 0.013 m3/m3 was possible.

  15. AMSR-E/Aqua Monthly Global Microwave Land Surface Emissivity, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a global land emissivity product using passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System...

  16. Past, Current and Future of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, M.; Maeda, T.; Ono, N.; Tomii, N.; Kasahara, M.; Mokuno, M.; Sobue, S.

    2017-12-01

    Due to its penetrating capability, passive microwave remote sensing provides all-weather observation of the Earth's surface through clouds, and has bulk sensitivity to atmospheric column and some land surface layers such as snow. The first AMSR series instrument on orbit was the AMSR for EOS (AMSR-E) provided to NASA's Aqua satellite launched in May 2002. AMSR-E had 1.6-m diameter antenna and 14 channels with V and H polarizations including surface-sensitive C-band (6.9-GHz) channels those were not available in previous passive microwave imagers. Instant Field Of View (IFOV) of AMSR-E is largely improved due to antenna size. This IFOV improvement mainly contribute to C-band channel since its IFOV is larger (75x43-km) even though bigger antenna size. The latest AMSR series instrument on orbit, AMSR-2, was launched in May 2012 on board the Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W) satellite. The GCOM-W satellite was injected to the A-train orbit to keep observation continuities to AMSR-E and seek synergies with the other A-train constellation satellites. Antenna size of AMSR-2 is 2.0-m diameter with 16 channels. Channel set is almost identical to that of AMSR-E, but new 7.3-GHz channels are added along with previous 6.9-GHz channels to mitigate influence of Radio Frequency Interferences (RFIs) in brightness temperature. IFOV of AMSR-2 is also improved from AMSR-E due to larger antenna size. AMSR-2 has completed its 5-year designed mission life in May 2017, and continues scientific observations without any serious problem. Besides the 10-month gaps between AMSR-E and AMSR2, the AMSR series provide long-term high-resolution and highly-frequent global observation of water-related parameters over 15-year. Upon the success of AMSR series, we have started discussion of possible follow-on mission with various user communities as well as expansion of application of AMSR-2 and follow-on data in new fields. Highest priority from users is gap-less, in terms of both

  17. AMSR-E/Aqua Weekly L3 Global Ascending/Descending .25x.25 deg Ocean Grids V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Level-3 daily product (AE_DyOcn), weekly product (AE_WkOcn), and monthly product (AE_MoOcn) include SST, near-surface wind speed, columnar water vapor, and...

  18. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Ascending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  19. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Descending Surface Soil Moisture, Ancillary Params, and QC V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) data set’s land surface parameters, surface soil moisture, land surface (skin) temperature, and vegetation water content, are derived from...

  20. Daily Global Land Surface Parameters Derived from AMSR-E

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  1. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AMSRE SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GHRSST-PP L2P data derived using Remote Sensing Systems BMAPS format AMSR-E SSTsub-skin data. Data are downloaded form Remote Sensing Systems every hour to capture...

  2. LPRM/AMSR-E/Aqua Daily L3 Descending and 2-Layer Palmer Water Balance Model Root Zone Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level 3 (gridded) root-zone soil moisture product is derived via the assimilation of Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM)/Advanced Microwave Scanning...

  3. AMSR-MODIS Boundary Layer Water Vapor L3 Daily 1 degree x 1 degree V1 (AMDBLWV) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides an estimate the marine boundary layer water vapor beneath uniform cloud fields. Microwave radiometry from AMSR-E and AMSR-2 provides the total...

  4. AMSR-MODIS Boundary Layer Water Vapor L3 Monthly 1 degree x 1 degree V1 (AMMBLWV) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides an estimate the marine boundary layer water vapor beneath uniform cloud fields. Microwave radiometry from AMSR-E and AMSR-2 provides the total...

  5. AMSR2 Soil Moisture Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.; Koike, T.; Fuiji, X.; de Jeu, R.; Chan, S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A.; Bosch, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is part of the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR2 fills the void left by the loss of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) after almost 10 years. Both missions provide brightness temperature observations that are used to retrieve soil moisture. Merging AMSR-E and AMSR2 will help build a consistent long-term dataset. Before tackling the integration of AMSR-E and AMSR2 it is necessary to conduct a thorough validation and assessment of the AMSR2 soil moisture products. This study focuses on validation of the AMSR2 soil moisture products by comparison with in situ reference data from a set of core validation sites. Three products that rely on different algorithms were evaluated; the JAXA Soil Moisture Algorithm (JAXA), the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), and the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA). Results indicate that overall the SCA has the best performance based upon the metrics considered.

  6. GPM AMSR-E on AQUA Common Calibrated Brightness Temperatures L1C 1.5 hours 10.5 km V05 (GPM_1CAQUAAMSRE) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — All 1C products have a common L1C data structure, simple and generic. Each L1C swath includes scan time, latitude and longitude, scan status, quality, incidence...

  7. A Preliminary Study toward Consistent Soil Moisture from AMSR2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parinussa, R.M.; Holmes, T.R.H.; Wanders, N.; Dorigo, W.A.; de Jeu, R.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study toward consistent soil moisture products from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is presented. Its predecessor, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), has providedEarth scientists with a consistent and continuous global

  8. Snow and Ice Products from the Aqua, Terra, and ICESat Satellites at the National Snow and Ice Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W. N.; Marquis, M.; Kaminski, M.; Armstrong, R.; Brodzik, M.

    2004-05-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado, Boulder - one of eight NASA Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) - archives and distributes several products from sensors on the suite of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. These include the sun-synchronous polar-orbiting Aqua (launched 4 May 2002) and Terra (launched 18 December 1999) platforms and the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) (launched 12 January 2003). The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) is a multi-channel passive microwave radiometer on Aqua (http://nsidc.org/daac/amsr/). AMSR-E Level 3 snow products are produced in EASE-Grid format for both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere and are available as daily, 5-day, and monthly fields. Daily AMSR-E Level 3 sea ice products are produced on a polar stereographic projection at gridded spatial resolutions of 6.25 km, 12.5 km and 25 km. Since April 2004, these products have been available for public distribution from NSIDC. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua is a 36-channel visible/infrared sensor that produces a consistent long-term time series of fully-automated, quality-controlled data. Level 2 swath products are available for both snow cover and sea ice. Daily and 8-day Level 3 gridded snow cover products are available with estimates of snow extent and albedo at 500m resolution, along with daily Level 3 gridded sea ice products with estimates for sea ice extent and ice surface temperature at 1 km resolution. These products are currently available from NSIDC (http://nsidc.org/daac/modis/). The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is the sole instrument on ICESat. The standard GLAS Level 2 ice sheet altimetry product contains the ice sheet elevation and elevation distribution calculated from algorithms fine-tuned for ice sheet returns. The standard GLAS Level 2 sea ice altimetry product contains the sea ice freeboard and sea ice

  9. Estimation of improved resolution soil moisture in vegetated areas using passive AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradizadeh, Mina; Saradjian, Mohammad R.

    2018-03-01

    Microwave remote sensing provides a unique capability for soil parameter retrievals. Therefore, various soil parameters estimation models have been developed using brightness temperature (BT) measured by passive microwave sensors. Due to the low resolution of satellite microwave radiometer data, the main goal of this study is to develop a downscaling approach to improve the spatial resolution of soil moisture estimates with the use of higher resolution visible/infrared sensor data. Accordingly, after the soil parameters have been obtained using Simultaneous Land Parameters Retrieval Model algorithm, the downscaling method has been applied to the soil moisture estimations that have been validated against in situ soil moisture data. Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS BT data in Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 region in the south and north of Oklahoma have been used to this end. Results illustrated that the soil moisture variability is effectively captured at 5 km spatial scales without a significant degradation of the accuracy.

  10. SMEX03 AMSR-E Daily Gridded Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperatures, Brazil, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  11. SMEX03 AMSR-E Daily Gridded Soil Moisture and Brightness Temperatures, Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  12. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 (SMEX04) Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer, AMSR-E and Heterogeneous Landscapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, T. J; Bindlish, R; Cosh, M; Gasiewski, A; Stankov, B; Klein, M; Weber, B; Zavorotny, V

    2005-01-01

    An unresolved issue in global soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave sensors is the spatial integration of heterogeneous landscape features to the nominal 50 km footprint observed by most satellite systems...

  13. Co-Registered AMSR-E, QuikSCAT, and WMO Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed, or...

  14. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  15. Enhanced-Resolution SSM/I and AMSR-E Daily Polar Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains enhanced-resolution brightness temperatures produced using the Scatterometer Image Reconstruction (SIR) algorithm developed by the Microwave...

  16. A comparison between two algorithms for the retrieval of soil moisture using AMSR-E data

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comparison between two algorithms for estimating soil moisture with microwave satellite data was carried out by using the datasets collected on the four Agricultural Research Service (ARS) watershed sites in the US from 2002 to 2009. These sites collectively represent a wide range of ground condit...

  17. CARVE: Daily Thaw State of Boreal and Arctic Alaska from AMSR-E and SSM/I, 2003-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides daily 10 km resolution maps of the Alaskan and Arctic Boreal land surface state as either frozen, melting, or thawed. These data are generated...

  18. An Intercomparison of ERS-Scat, AMSR-E Soil Moisture Observations with Model Simulations over France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudiger, C.; Calvet, J.C.; Gruhier, C.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Wagner, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a study undertaken in preparation of the work leading up to the assimilation of Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) observations into the land surface model (LSM) Interaction Soil Biosphere Atmosphere (ISBA) at Météo-France. This study consists of an intercomparison

  19. PODAAC-SST00-1D1M1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains sea surface temperature (SST) data on a monthly 1 degree grid from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua...

  20. PODAAC-GHAMS-2GR07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  1. PODAAC-GHAMS-3GR7A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) was launched on 4 May 2002, aboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)...

  2. Operational Implementation of Sea Ice Concentration Estimates from the AMSR2 Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter N.; Stewart, J. Scott; Liu, Yinghui; Key, Jeffrey; Miller, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    An operation implementation of a passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithm to support NOAA's operational mission is presented. The NASA team 2 algorithm, previously developed for the NASA advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the Earth observing system (AMSR-E) product suite, is adapted for operational use with the JAXA AMSR2 sensor through several enhancements. First, the algorithm is modified to process individual swaths and provide concentration from the most recent swaths instead of a 24-hour average. A latency (time since observation) field and a 24-hour concentration range (maximum-minimum) are included to provide indications of data timeliness and variability. Concentration from the Bootstrap algorithm is a secondary field to provide complementary sea ice information. A quality flag is implemented to provide information on interpolation, filtering, and other quality control steps. The AMSR2 concentration fields are compared with a different AMSR2 passive microwave product, and then validated via comparison with sea ice concentration from the Suomi visible and infrared imaging radiometer suite. This validation indicates the AMSR2 concentrations have a bias of 3.9% and an RMSE of 11.0% in the Arctic, and a bias of 4.45% and RMSE of 8.8% in the Antarctic. In most cases, the NOAA operational requirements for accuracy are met. However, in low-concentration regimes, such as during melt and near the ice edge, errors are higher because of the limitations of passive microwave sensors and the algorithm retrieval.

  3. Comparing the Accuracy of AMSRE, AMSR2, SSMI and SSMIS Satellite Radiometer Ice Concentration Products with One-Meter Resolution Visible Imagery in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E. R.; Stanton, T. P.

    2016-12-01

    Determining ice concentration in the Arctic is necessary to track significant changes in sea ice edge extent. Sea ice concentrations are also needed to interpret data collected by in-situ instruments like buoys, as the amount of ice versus water in a given area determines local solar heating. Ice concentration products are now routinely derived from satellite radiometers including the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI), and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS). While these radiometers are viewed as reliable to monitor long-term changes in sea ice extent, their accuracy should be analyzed, and compared to determine which radiometer performs best over smaller features such as melt ponds, and how seasonal conditions affect accuracy. Knowledge of the accuracy of radiometers at high resolution can help future researchers determine which radiometer to use, and be aware of radiometer shortcomings in different ice conditions. This will be especially useful when interpreting data from in-situ instruments which deal with small scale measurements. In order to compare these passive microwave radiometers, selected high spatial resolution one-meter resolution Medea images, archived at the Unites States Geological Survey, are used for ground truth comparison. Sea ice concentrations are derived from these images in an interactive process, although estimates are not perfect ground truth due to exposure of images, shadowing and cloud cover. 68 images are retrieved from the USGS website and compared with 9 useable, collocated SSMI, 33 SSMIS, 36 AMSRE, and 14 AMSR2 ice concentrations in the Arctic Ocean. We analyze and compare the accuracy of radiometer instrumentation in differing ice conditions.

  4. Using machine learning to produce near surface soil moisture estimates from deeper in situ records at U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) locations: Analysis and applications to AMSR-E satellite validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface soil moisture is critical parameter for understanding the energy flux at the land atmosphere boundary. Weather modeling, climate prediction, and remote sensing validation are some of the applications for surface soil moisture information. The most common in situ measurement for these purpo...

  5. Towards Year-round Estimation of Terrestrial Water Storage over Snow-Covered Terrain via Multi-sensor Assimilation of GRACE/GRACE-FO and AMSR-E/AMSR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Xue, Y.; Forman, B. A.; Girotto, M.; Reichle, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Gravity and Recovery Climate Experiment (GRACE) has revolutionized large-scale remote sensing of the Earth's terrestrial hydrologic cycle and has provided an unprecedented observational constraint for global land surface models. However, the coarse-scale (in space and time), vertically-integrated measure of terrestrial water storage (TWS) limits GRACE's applicability to smaller scale hydrologic applications. In order to enhance model-based estimates of TWS while effectively adding resolution (in space and time) to the coarse-scale TWS retrievals, a multi-variate, multi-sensor data assimilation framework is presented here that simultaneously assimilates gravimetric retrievals of TWS in conjunction with passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperature (Tb) observations over snow-covered terrain. The framework uses the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (Catchment) and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). A synthetic assimilation experiment is presented for the Volga river basin in Russia. The skill of the output from the assimilation of synthetic observations is compared with that of model estimates generated without the benefit of assimilating the synthetic observations. It is shown that the EnKF framework improves modeled estimates of TWS, snow depth, and snow mass (a.k.a. snow water equivalent). The data assimilation routine produces a conditioned (updated) estimate that is more accurate and contains less uncertainty during both the snow accumulation phase of the snow season as well as during the snow ablation season.

  6. The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, cloud fraction, and liquid water path on warm cloud effective radii from CERES-like Aqua MODIS retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Painemal

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of horizontal heterogeneities, liquid water path (LWP from AMSR-E, and cloud fraction (CF on MODIS cloud effective radius (re, retrieved from the 2.1 μm (re2.1 and 3.8 μm (re3.8 channels, is investigated for warm clouds over the southeast Pacific. Values of re retrieved using the CERES algorithms are averaged at the CERES footprint resolution (∼20 km, while heterogeneities (Hσ are calculated as the ratio between the standard deviation and mean 0.64 μm reflectance. The value of re2.1 strongly depends on CF, with magnitudes up to 5 μm larger than those for overcast scenes, whereas re3.8 remains insensitive to CF. For cloudy scenes, both re2.1 and re3.8 increase with Hσ for any given AMSR-E LWP, but re2.1 changes more than for re3.8. Additionally, re3.8–re2.1 differences are positive (Hσ 45 gm−2, and negative (up to −4 μm for larger Hσ. While re3.8–re2.1 differences in homogeneous scenes are qualitatively consistent with in situ microphysical observations over the region of study, negative differences – particularly evinced in mean regional maps – are more likely to reflect the dominant bias associated with cloud heterogeneities rather than information about the cloud vertical structure. The consequences for MODIS LWP are also discussed.

  7. AquaBuOY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinstein, Alla; Fredrikson, Göran; Claeson, Lennart

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes development of the mathematical model simulating ocean performance of an offshore wave energy point absorber device-AquaBuOY. The AquaBuOY is the next generation of the technology, based on the IPS point absorber system and the hose pump, both of Sweden. AquaEnergy Group Ltd......., USA, is developing the system in cooperation with RAMBOLL, Denmark. In March 2003 the Danish Energy Authority awarded a grant for a design study that includes development of the numerical model for the AquaBuOY operation, experimental testing and design optimisation. The scale model tests...... results from the model tests on mooring forces under survival conditions will be presented during the conference in conjunction with different footprint configurations and different mooring systems. Finally the performance data based on theoretical and experimental results will be presented for the AquaBu...

  8. Aqua Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, S. M.; Parkinson, C. L.; Chambers, L. H.; Ray, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Aqua satellite was launched on May 4, 2002, with six instruments designed to collect data about the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. Since the late 1990s, the Aqua mission has involved considerable education and public outreach (EPO) activities, including printed products, formal education, an engineering competition, webcasts, and high-profile multimedia efforts. The printed products include Aqua and instrument brochures, an Aqua lithograph, Aqua trading cards, NASA Fact Sheets on Aqua, the water cycle, and weather forecasting, and an Aqua science writers' guide. On-going formal education efforts include the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project, the MY NASA DATA Project, the Earth System Science Education Alliance, and, in partnership with university professors, undergraduate student research modules. Each of these projects incorporates Aqua data into its inquiry-based framework. Additionally, high school and undergraduate students have participated in summer internship programs. An earlier formal education activity was the Aqua Engineering Competition, which was a high school program sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Morgan State University, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry. The competition began with the posting of a Round 1 Aqua-related engineering problem in December 2002 and concluded in April 2003 with a final round of competition among the five finalist teams. The Aqua EPO efforts have also included a wide range of multimedia products. Prior to launch, the Aqua team worked closely with the Special Projects Initiative (SPI) Office to produce a series of live webcasts on Aqua science and the Cool Science website aqua.nasa.gov/coolscience, which displays short video clips of Aqua scientists and engineers explaining the many aspects of the Aqua mission. These video clips, the Aqua website, and numerous presentations have benefited from dynamic visualizations showing the Aqua launch

  9. Effects of dust storms on microwave radiation based on satellite observation and model simulation over the Taklamakan desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dust particles on microwave radiation over the Taklamakan desert are studied with use of measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E on the EOS Aqua satellite and a microwave radiation transfer model. Eight observed cases show that the signal from atmospheric dust can be separated from the surface radiation by the fact that the dust particles produce stronger scattering at high frequencies and depolarize the background desert signature. This result of satellite data is consistent with the model simulation.

  10. 78 FR 8684 - Twelfth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Inmarsat AMS(R)S. DATES: The meeting will be held February 20, 2013, from 1:00 p.m.--4:00 p.m. ADDRESSES...

  11. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nanda Kishore Reddy

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... Arabian Sea (AS), hereafter called as the North- ern Indian Ocean (NIO). In the tropics, the surface ... dated AMSR-2 data over the Atlantic and Pacific. Oceans and inferred that the data are in good ... Location of moored buoys in the North Indian Ocean. Latitude and longitude of each buoy is mentioned in ...

  12. Comparison of AMSR-2 wind speed and sea surface temperature ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nanda Kishore Reddy

    2018-02-14

    Feb 14, 2018 ... ditions and provides continuous data, which will be helpful to understand the desperate situations that occur in real time scenario. Availability of AMSR-2 low frequencies (6.93 and 10.65 GHz) is used for retrieval of sea surface wind (SSW) and SST even under the cloudy conditions. The microwave.

  13. NASA 3D Models: Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission is collecting about the Earth's water...

  14. NASA 3D Models: Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aqua carries six state-of-the-art instruments to observe the Earth's oceans, atmosphere, land, ice and snow covers, and vegetation, providing high measurement...

  15. 78 FR 31627 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The meeting will be held June 10-11 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting...

  16. 78 FR 61446 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Meeting Notice of RTCA Special Committee 222, Inmarsat AMS(R)S. SUMMARY: The FAA is..., Inmarsat AMS(R)S DATES: The meeting will be held November 19, 2013 from 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The...

  17. APR-2 Dual-frequency Airborne Radar Observations, Wakasa Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In January and February 2003, the Airborne Second Generation Precipitation Radar (APR-2) collected data in the Wakasa Bay AMSR-E validation campaign over the sea of...

  18. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  19. SMEX02 Iowa Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These data were collected as part of a validation study for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Data were collected in crop...

  20. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan, in January and February, 2003. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research...

  1. Wakasa Bay Weather Forecast Maps, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AMSR-E Wakasa Bay Field Campaign was conducted over Wakasa Bay, Japan. The Wakasa Bay Field Campaign includes joint research observations, such as precipitation...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Aqua MODIS-AMSRE Night North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  3. GHRSST Level 4 RTO Aqua MODIS-AMSRE Day North America Regional Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the JPL Physical...

  4. Multi-Sensor Imaging and Space-Ground Cross-Validation for 2010 Flood along Indus River, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq I. Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flood monitoring was conducted using multi-sensor data from space-borne optical, and microwave sensors; with cross-validation by ground-based rain gauges and streamflow stations along the Indus River; Pakistan. First; the optical imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS was processed to delineate the extent of the 2010 flood along Indus River; Pakistan. Moreover; the all-weather all-time capability of higher resolution imagery from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR is used to monitor flooding in the lower Indus river basin. Then a proxy for river discharge from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite and rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM are used to study streamflow time series and precipitation patterns. The AMSR-E detected water surface signal was cross-validated with ground-based river discharge observations at multiple streamflow stations along the main Indus River. A high correlation was found; as indicated by a Pearson correlation coefficient of above 0.8 for the discharge gauge stations located in the southwest of Indus River basin. It is concluded that remote-sensing data integrated from multispectral and microwave sensors could be used to supplement stream gauges in sparsely gauged large basins to monitor and detect floods.

  5. GPM, AMSR2 GCOMW1 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature V03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 1CAMSR2 contains common calibrated brightness temperature from the AMSR2 passive microwave instrument flown on the GCOMW1 satellite. This products contains 6 swaths....

  6. GPM, AMSR2 GCOMW1 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature VV03A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 1CAMSR2 contains common calibrated brightness temperature from the AMSR2 passive microwave instrument flown on the GCOMW1 satellite. This products contains 6 swaths....

  7. GPM, AMSR2 GCOMW1 Level 1C Common Calibrated Brightness Temperature VV02A

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 1CAMSR2 contains common calibrated brightness temperature from the AMSR2 passive microwave instrument flown on the GCOMW1 satellite. This products contains 6 swaths....

  8. NRT AMSR2 DAILY L3 GLOBAL SNOW WATER EQUIVALENT EASE-GRIDS V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) instrument on the Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1 (GCOM-W1) provides global passive microwave...

  9. AMSR/ADEOS-II L1A Raw Observation Counts V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) instrument on the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II)...

  10. Irrigation modeling with AquaCrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of UN-FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. AquaCrop attempts to balance accuracy, simplicity, an...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere BELMANIP Subsetting Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere BELMANIP subsetting Product (MYDBMSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over the Bench-mark...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere Aeronet Subsetting Product (MYDARNSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of...

  13. Aqua jogging-induced pulmonary oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, M; Russi, E W

    2007-12-01

    The present study reports the case of a 43-yr-old very sporty male, who developed shortness of breath and expectorated bloody froth during aqua jogging. Pulmonary oedema was diagnosed clinically and by computed tomography of the chest. The patient made a full recovery and his echocardiography was entirely normal. Pulmonary oedema occurring in healthy scuba-divers and swimmers has been reported previously. However, this is the first case where pulmonary oedema was observed during aqua jogging.

  14. A Prototype Hail Detection Algorithm and Hail Climatology Developed with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Ralph; Beauchamp, James; Cecil, Dan; Heymsfeld, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies published in the open literature, a strong relationship between the occurrence of hail and the microwave brightness temperatures (primarily at 37 and 85 GHz) was documented. These studies were performed with the Nimbus-7 SMMR, the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and most recently, the Aqua AMSR-E sensor. This lead to climatologies of hail frequency from TMI and AMSR-E, however, limitations include geographical domain of the TMI sensor (35 S to 35 N) and the overpass time of the Aqua satellite (130 am/pm local time), both of which reduce an accurate mapping of hail events over the global domain and the full diurnal cycle. Nonetheless, these studies presented exciting, new applications for passive microwave sensors. Since 1998, NOAA and EUMETSAT have been operating the AMSU-A/B and the MHS on several operational satellites: NOAA-15 through NOAA-19; MetOp-A and -B. With multiple satellites in operation since 2000, the AMSU/MHS sensors provide near global coverage every 4 hours, thus, offering a much larger time and temporal sampling than TRMM or AMSR-E. With similar observation frequencies near 30 and 85 GHz and additionally three at the 183 GHz water vapor band, the potential to detect strong convection associated with severe storms on a more comprehensive time and space scale exists. In this study, we develop a prototype AMSU-based hail detection algorithm through the use of collocated satellite and surface hail reports over the continental U.S. for a 12-year period (2000-2011). Compared with the surface observations, the algorithm detects approximately 40 percent of hail occurrences. The simple threshold algorithm is then used to generate a hail climatology that is based on all available AMSU observations during 2000-11 that is stratified in several ways, including total hail occurrence by month (March through September), total annual, and over the diurnal cycle. Independent comparisons are made compared to similar data sets derived from other

  15. Multi sensor validation and error characteristics of Arctic satellite sea surface temperature observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Jacob L.; Karagali, Ioanna; Tonbo, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    in the satellite products related to observation techniques, data processing and cloud masking. Temporal and spatial error scales are derived for all satellite products using the satellite versus in situ match-up dataset. Temporal error scales are typically between 1 and 2 days and the characteristic spatial error......Six of the operational global satellite sea surface temperature products from infrared and microwave sensors are validated in a consistent way in waters north of 60° N. The 15-month validation with drifting buoy in situ observations shows that data from the Advanced Along-Tracking Scanning...... Radiometer (AATSR) on-board the ENVISAT satellite and NAVOCEANO data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on-board the NOAA 18 satellite are superior in terms of bias and standard deviation. The observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) on-board the Aqua...

  16. Detection of radio frequency interference over ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxu

    The geostationary satellite television (TV) signals that are reflected off the ocean surfaces could enter the AMSR-E antenna, resulting in RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) contamination in AMSR-E 10.65 and 18.7 GHz channels. If not detected, the presence of RFI signals can result in false retrievals of oceanic environmental parameters (e.g., sea surface temperature, sea surface wind speed, rain water path) from microwave imaging radiance measurements. This study first examined the geometric relationship between the RFI source, geostationary TV satellite, and AMSR-E observation. Then a normalized Principal Component Analysis (NPCA) method is proposed and applied for RFI detection over oceans in Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR)-E observations. It is found that the RFI-contaminated observations on AMSR-E descending node at 10.65 and 18.7 GHz can be successively detected near coastal areas surrounding Europe and United States continents. The results yielded from the geometric examination at another angle verify those signals detected with NPCA. The proposed NPCA algorithm is applicable in an operational environment for fast data processing and data dissemination, and is different from earlier methods, which often require a priori information.

  17. NRT AMSR2 UNIFIED L2B HALF-ORBIT 25 KM EASE-GRID SURFACE SOIL MOISTURE V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) instrument on the Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1 (GCOM-W1) provides global passive microwave...

  18. NRT AMSR2 DAILY L3 25 KM TB AND SEA ICE CONCENTRATION POLAR GRIDS V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) instrument on the Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1 (GCOM-W1) provides global passive microwave...

  19. NRT AMSR2 DAILY L3 6.25 KM 89 GHZ BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE (TB) POLAR GRIDS V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) instrument on the Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1 (GCOM-W1) provides global passive microwave...

  20. On the synergy of SMAP, AMSR2 AND SENTINEL-1 for retrieving soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, E.; Paloscia, S.; Pettinato, S.; Brocca, L.; Ciabatta, L.; Entekhabi, D.

    2018-03-01

    An algorithm for retrieving soil moisture content (SMC) from synergic use of both active and passive microwave acquisitions is presented. The algorithm takes advantage of the integration of microwave data from SMAP, Sentinel-1 and AMSR2 for overcoming the SMAP radar failure and obtaining a SMC product at enhanced resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) and improved accuracy with respect to the original SMAP radiometric SMC product. A disaggregation technique based on the Smoothing filter based intensity modulation (SFIM) allows combining the radiometric and SAR data. Disaggregated microwave data are used as inputs of an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based algorithm, which is able to exploit the synergy between active and passive acquisitions. The algorithm is defined, trained and tested using the SMEX02 experimental dataset and data simulated by forward electromagnetic models based on the Radiative Transfer Theory. Then the algorithm is adapted to satellite data and tested using one year of SMAP, AMSR2 and Sentinel-1 co-located data on a flat agricultural area located in the Po Valley, in northern Italy. Spatially distributed SMC values at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution generated by the Soil Water Balance Model (SWBM) are considered as reference for this purpose. The synergy of SMAP, Sentinel-1 and AMSR2 allowed increasing the correlation between estimated and reference SMC from R ≅ 0.68 of the SMAP based retrieval up to R ≅ 0.86 of the combination SMAP + Sentinel-1 + AMSR2. The corresponding Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) decreased from RMSE ≅ 0.04 m3/m3 to RMSE ≅ 0.024 m3/m3.

  1. Comparison of snow depth retrieval algorithm in Northeastern China based on AMSR2 and FY3B-MWRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xintong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Zhou, Tingting

    2017-09-01

    Snow accumulation has a very important influence on the natural environment and human activities. Meanwhile, improving the estimation accuracy of passive microwave snow depth (SD) retrieval is a hotspot currently. Northeastern China is a typical snow study area including many different land cover types, such as forest, grassland and farmland. Especially, there is relatively stable snow accumulation in January every year. The brightness temperatures which are observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) on GCOM-W1 and FengYun3B Microwave Radiation Imager (FY3B-MWRI) in the same period in 2013 are selected as the study data in the research. The results of snow depth retrieval using AMSR2 standard algorithm and Jiang's FY operational algorithm are compared in the research. Moreover, to validate the accuracy of the two algorithms, the retrieval results are compared with the SD data observed at the national meteorological stations in Northeastern China. Furthermore, the retrieval SD is also compared with AMSR2 and FY standard SD products, respectively. The root mean square errors (RMSE) results using AMSR2 standard algorithms and FY operational algorithm are close in the forest surface, which are 6.33cm and 6.28cm, respectively. However, The FY operational algorithm shows a better result than the AMSR2 standard algorithms in the grassland and farmland surface. The RMSE results using FY operational algorithm in the grassland and farmland surface are 2.44cm and 6.13cm, respectively.

  2. Characterization of the Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of the Dengue Epidemic in Northern Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anno, S.; Imaoka, K.; Tadono, T.; Igarashi, T.; Sivaganesh, S.; Kannathasan, S.; Kumaran, V.; Surendran, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue outbreaks are affected by biological, ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that vary over time and space. These factors have been examined separately, with limited success, and still require clarification. The present study aimed to investigate the spatial and temporal relationships between these factors and dengue outbreaks in the northern region of Sri Lanka. Remote sensing (RS) data gathered from a plurality of satellites: TRMM TMI, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W AMSR2, DMSP SSM/I, DMSP SSMIS, NOAA-19 AMSU, MetOp-A AMSU and GEO IR were used to develop an index comprising rainfall. Humidity (total precipitable water, or vertically integrated water vapor amount) and temperature (surface temperature) data were acquired from the JAXA Satellite Monitoring for Environmental Studies (JASMES) portal which were retrieved and processed from the Aqua/MODIS and Terra/MODIS data. RS data gathered by ALOS/AVNIR-2 were used to detect urbanization, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analyzed RS data and databases were integrated into geographic information systems, enabling both spatial association analysis and spatial statistical analysis. Our findings show that the combination of ecological factors derived from RS data and socio-economic and demographic factors is suitable for predicting spatial and temporal patterns of dengue outbreaks.

  3. Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Angal, A.; Wu, A.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2016-01-01

    Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have produced an unprecedentedly large amount of high quality data products and supported a broad range of applications by the remote sensing science community and users worldwide. Constant and dedicated efforts have been made to continue instrument normal operation, to monitor and characterize changes in sensor responses, and to update calibration parameters to maintain the quality of MODIS data products. This paper provides an overview of instrument operation and calibration activities, and performance. On-orbit changes in sensor responses are illustrated. Also discussed are challenging issues, calibration strategies, and future efforts.

  4. Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, Luke A.; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-27

    To assist the University of Maine in demonstrating a clear pathway to project completion, PNNL has developed visualization models of the Aqua Ventus I project that accurately depict the Aqua Ventus I turbines from various points on Monhegain Island, ME and the surrounding area. With a hub height of 100 meters, the Aqua Ventus I turbines are large and may be seen from many areas on Monhegan Island, potentially disrupting important viewsheds. By developing these visualization models, which consist of actual photographs taken from Monhegan Island and the surrounding area with the Aqua Ventus I turbines superimposed within each photograph, PNNL intends to support the project’s siting and permitting process by providing the Monhegan Island community and various other stakeholders with a probable glimpse of how the Aqua Ventus I project will appear.

  5. Mapping global surface water inundation dynamics using synergistic information from SMAP, AMSR2 and Landsat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J.; Kimball, J. S.; Galantowicz, J. F.; Kim, S.; Chan, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Jones, L. A.; Watts, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    A method to monitor global land surface water (fw) inundation dynamics was developed by exploiting the enhanced fw sensitivity of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The L-band fw (fwLBand) retrievals were derived using SMAP H-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations and predefined L-band reference microwave emissivities for water and land endmembers. Potential soil moisture and vegetation contributions to the microwave signal were represented from overlapping higher frequency Tb observations from AMSR2. The resulting fwLBand global record has high temporal sampling (1-3 days) and 36-km spatial resolution. The fwLBand annual averages corresponded favourably (R=0.84, pretrievals showed favourable classification accuracy for water (commission error 31.84%; omission error 28.08%) and land (commission error 0.82%; omission error 0.99%) and seasonal wet and dry periods when compared to independent water maps derived from Landsat-8 imagery. The new fwLBand algorithms and continuing SMAP and AMSR2 operations provide for near real-time, multi-scale monitoring of global surface water inundation dynamics, potentially benefiting hydrological monitoring, flood assessments, and global climate and carbon modeling.

  6. AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km ascending V001 (LPRM_AMSR2_DS_A_SOILM3) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AMSR2/GCOM-W1 surface soil moisture (LPRM) L3 1 day 10 km x 10 km ascending V001 is a Level 3 (gridded) data set. Its land surface parameters, surface soil moisture,...

  7. Aqua/Aura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Thomas; Stezelberger, Shane

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the AquaAura Spring 2017 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series.

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Calibration subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level-1B calibration subset including clear cases, special calibration sites, random nadir spots, and high clouds. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)...

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 2G Precipitation Estimate V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere FluxNet Subsetting Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Atmosphere FluxNet Subsetting Product (MYDFNSS) consists of MODIS Atmosphere and Ancillary Products subsets that are generated over a number of...

  11. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  12. MODIS Airborne Simulator Terra-aqua eXperiment 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra-aqua eXperiment 2002 (TX-2002) was conducted from the former Kelly AFB in San Antonio, Texas from November 20 to December 13, 2002 to assess MODerate...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Granule Level 1B RGB Jpeg image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYBRGB is a thermal composit Jpeg image product generated using parameters from Aqua Level 1B Subsampled Calibrated Radiances product (MYD02SSH). For more...

  14. An optimal estimation algorithm to derive Ice and Ocean parameters from AMSR Microwave radiometer observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Tonboe, Rasmus T.; Høyer, Jacob

    .e. horizontal and vertical polarization at channels between 6 and 89 GHz as a function of a limited set of physical parameters, i.e. atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, wind speed, surface and air temperature. This type of model is ideal for optimal estimation applications because of its limited set...... channels as well as the combination of data from multiple sources such as microwave radiometry, scatterometry and numerical weather prediction. Optimal estimation is data assimilation without a numerical model for retrieving physical parameters from remote sensing using a multitude of available information....... The methodology is observation driven and model innovation is limited to the translation between observation space and physical parameter space Over open water we use a semi-empirical radiative transfer model developed by Meissner & Wentz that estimates the multispectral AMSR brightness temperatures, i...

  15. Global-scale assessment and combination of SMAP with ASCAT (active) and AMSR2 (passive) soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunglok; Parinussa, Robert; Konings, Alexandra G.; Wagner, Wolfgang; Cosh, Michael H.; Lakshmi, Venkat; Zohaib, Muhammad; Choi, Minha

    2018-01-01

    Global-scale surface soil moisture (SSM) products retrieved from active and passive microwave remote sensing provide an effective method for monitoring near-real-time SSM content with nearly daily temporal resolution. In the present study, we first inter-compared global-scale error patterns and combined the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) SSM products using a triple collocation (TC) analysis and the maximized Pearson correlation coefficient (R) method from April 2015 to December 2016. The Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) and global in situ observations were utilized to investigate and to compare the quality of satellite-based SSM products. The average R-values of SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2 were 0.74, 0.64, and 0.65 when they compared with in situ networks, respectively. The ubRMSD values were (0.0411, 0.0625, and 0.0708) m3 m- 3; and the bias values were (- 0.0460, 0.0010, and 0.0418) m3 m- 3 for SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2, respectively. The highest average R-values from SMAP against the in situ results are very encouraging; only SMAP showed higher R-values than GLDAS in several in situ networks with low ubRMSD (0.0438 m3 m- 3). Overall, SMAP showed a dry bias (- 0.0460 m3 m- 3) and AMSR2 had a wet bias (0.0418 m3 m- 3); while ASCAT showed the least bias (0.0010 m3 m- 3) among all the products. Each product was evaluated using TC metrics with respect to the different ranges of vegetation optical depth (VOD). Under vegetation scarce conditions (VOD 0.40) ASCAT showed comparatively better performance than did the other products. Using the maximized R method, SMAP, ASCAT, and AMSR2 products were combined one by one using the GLDAS dataset for reference SSM values. When the satellite products were combined, R-values of the combined products were improved or degraded depending on the VOD ranges produced, when compared with the results from the original products alone. The

  16. HIF evaluation of In-Situ Aqua TROLL 400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Evan F.

    2017-10-18

    The In-Situ Aqua TROLL 400 (Aqua TROLL 400) was tested at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) against known standards over the Aqua TROLL 400’s operating temperature to verify the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications and the USGS recommendations for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and specific conductance (SC). The Aqua TROLL 400 manufacturer’s specifications are within the USGS recommendations for all parameters tested, except for DO, which is outside the USGS recommendation at DO concentrations of 8.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L) and higher. The Aqua TROLL 400 was compliant with Serial Digital Interface at 1200 baud (SDI-12) version 1.3. During laboratory testing of pH, the Aqua TROLL 400 sonde met the U.S. Geological Survey “National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data” (NFM) recommendations for pH at all values tested, except at 4 degrees Celsius (°C) at pH 9.395 and pH 3.998. The Aqua TROLL 400 met the manufacturer specifications for pH at all values tested, except for pH buffers 3.998, 9.395, and 10.245 at 4 °C; pH 2.990 and 3.998 at 15 °C; and pH 3.040 at 40 °C. The Aqua TROLL 400 met the NFM recommendations at 93.7 percent of the SC values tested and met the manufacturer’s accuracy specifications at 56.3 percent of the SC values tested. During the laboratory testing for DO, the Aqua TROLL 400 met the manufacturer specifications, except at 5.55 mg/L, and met the NFM recommendations at all concentrations tested. An Aqua TROLL 400 was field tested at USGS Station 02492620, National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) Station, Mississippi, on the Pearl River for 6 weeks and showed good agreement with the well-maintained site sonde data for pH, DO, temperature, and SC.

  17. The impact of snow depth, snow density and ice density on sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.

    2015-01-01

    sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Warren climatology (Warren et al., 1999). We compare the different data sets in spatiotemporal scales where satellite radar altimetry yields meaningful results. An inter-comparison of the snow...

  18. Comparisons of Arctic In-Situ Snow and Ice Data with Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, T.; Cavalien, D. J.; Gasiewski, A.; Sturm, M.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.; Holmgren, J.; Irisov, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the AMSR-E sea ice validation campaign in March 2003, aircraft flights over the Arctic sea ice were coordinated with ground measurements of snow and sea ice properties. The surface-based measurements were in the vicinity of Barrow, AK, and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The NASA P-3 aircraft was equipped with the NOAA ETL PSR microwave radiometer that has the same frequencies as the AMSR-E sensor. The goal was to validate the standard AMSR-E products ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice. Ground measurements are the only way to validate these parameters. The higher spatial resolution of the PSR instrument (between 30 and 500 m, depending on altitude) enables a better comparison between ground measurements and microwave data because of the expected smaller spatial variability. Maps of PSR data can then be used for further down-scaling to AMSR-E pixel areas. Initial results show a good qualitative agreement between the in-situ snow depths and the PSR data. Detailed studies are underway and latest results will be presented.

  19. Estimating root mean square errors in remotely sensed soil moisture over continental scale domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jeu, R.A.M.; Draper, C.; Reichle, R.; Naeimi, V.; Parinussa, R.M.; Wagner, W.W.

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using

  20. "Clarifications on the “Comparison Between SMOS, VUA, ASCAT, and ECMWF Soil Moisture Products Over Four Watersheds in U.S.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.; Brocca, L; Naeimi, V.; Reichle, R.; Draper, C.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Ryu, D.; Chun-Hsu, S.; Western, A.; Calvet, J.C.; Kerr, Y.H.; Leroux, D.J.; Drusch, M.; Jackson, T.J.; Hahn, S.; Dorigo, W.; Paulik, C.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Leroux compared three satellite soil moisture data sets (SMOS, AMSR-E, and ASCAT) and ECMWF forecast soil moisture data to in situ measurements over four watersheds located in the United States. Their conclusions stated that SMOS soil moisture retrievals represent "an improvement

  1. PODAAC-SEAAM-L3X00

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SeaWinds on ADEOS-II Level 3 ocean vector winds on a 0.25 degree grid with AMSR-E contain daily data from ascending and descending passes from the SeaWinds...

  2. The Effect of Three Different Data Fusion Approaches on the Quality of Soil Moisture Retrievals from Multiple Passive Microwave Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin van der Schalie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term climate records of soil moisture are of increased importance to climate researchers. In this study, we aim to evaluate the quality of three different fusion approaches that combine soil moisture retrieval from multiple satellite sensors. The arrival of L-band missions has led to an increased focus on the integration of L-band-based soil moisture retrievals in climate records, emphasizing the need to improve our understanding based on its added value within a multi-sensor framework. The three evaluated approaches were developed on 10-year passive microwave data (2003–2013 from two different satellite sensors, i.e., SMOS (2010–2013 and AMSR-E (2003–2011, and are based on a neural network (NN, regressions (REG, and the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM. The ability of the different approaches to best match AMSR-E and SMOS in their overlapping period was tested using an inter-comparison exercise between the SMOS and AMSR-E datasets, while the skill of the individual soil moisture products, based on anomalies, was evaluated using two verification techniques; first, a data assimilation technique that links precipitation information to the quality of soil moisture (expressed as the Rvalue, and secondly the triple collocation analysis (TCA. ASCAT soil moisture was included in the skill evaluation, representing the active microwave-based counterpart of soil moisture retrievals. Besides a semi-global analysis, explicit focus was placed on two regions that have strong land–atmosphere coupling, the Sahel (SA and the central Great Plains (CGP of North America. The NN approach gives the highest correlation coefficient between SMOS and AMSR-E, closely followed by LPRM and REG, while the absolute error is approximately the same for all three approaches. The Rvalue and TCA show the strength of using different satellite sources and the impact of different merging approaches on the skill to correctly capture soil moisture anomalies. The

  3. Recent Improvements in Retrieving Near-Surface Air Temperature and Humidity Using Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent

    2010-01-01

    Detailed studies of the energy and water cycles require accurate estimation of the turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat across the atmosphere-ocean interface at regional to basin scale. Providing estimates of these latent and sensible heat fluxes over the global ocean necessitates the use of satellite or reanalysis-based estimates of near surface variables. Recent studies have shown that errors in the surface (10 meter)estimates of humidity and temperature are currently the largest sources of uncertainty in the production of turbulent fluxes from satellite observations. Therefore, emphasis has been placed on reducing the systematic errors in the retrieval of these parameters from microwave radiometers. This study discusses recent improvements in the retrieval of air temperature and humidity through improvements in the choice of algorithms (linear vs. nonlinear) and the choice of microwave sensors. Particular focus is placed on improvements using a neural network approach with a single sensor (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) and the use of combined sensors from the NASA AQUA satellite platform. The latter algorithm utilizes the unique sampling available on AQUA from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A). Current estimates of uncertainty in the near-surface humidity and temperature from single and multi-sensor approaches are discussed and used to estimate errors in the turbulent fluxes.

  4. Land surface phenologies and seasonalities using cool earthlight in mid-latitude croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemu, W G; Henebry, G M

    2013-01-01

    Phenology deals with timing of biotic phenomena and seasonality concerns temporal patterns of abiotic variables. Studies of land surface phenology (LSP) and land surface seasonality (LSS) have long been limited to visible to near infrared (VNIR) wavelengths, despite degradation by atmospheric effects and solar illumination constraints. Enhanced land surface parameters derived from passive microwave data enable improved temporal monitoring of agricultural land surface dynamics compared to the vegetation index data available from VNIR data. LSPs and LSSs in grain growing regions of the Volga River Basin of Russia and the spring wheat belts of the USA and Canada were characterized using AMSR-E enhanced land surface parameters for the period from April through October for 2003 through 2010. Growing degree-days (GDDs) were calculated from AMSR-E air temperature retrievals using both ascending and descending passes with a base of 0 ° C and then accumulated (AGDD) with an annual restart each 1 April. Tracking the AMSR-E parameters as a function of AGDD revealed the expected seasonal pattern of thermal limitation in mid-latitude croplands. Vegetation optical depth (VOD), a microwave analog of a vegetation index, was modeled as a function of AGDD with the resulting fitted convex quadratic models yielding both high coefficients of determination (r 2 > 0.90) and phenometrics that could characterize cropland differences between the Russian and North American sites. The AMSR-E data were also able to capture the effects of the 2010 heat wave that devastated grain production in European Russia. These results showed the potential of AMSR-E in monitoring and modeling cropland dynamics. (letter)

  5. Comparison and Downscale of AMSR2 Soil Moisture Products with In Situ Measurements from the SCAN–NRCS Network over Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Nuñez-Olivieri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A continuous spatio-temporal database of accurate soil moisture (SM measurements is an important asset for agricultural activities, hydrologic studies, and environmental monitoring. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2, which was launched in May 2012, has been providing SM data globally with a revisit period of two days. It is imperative to assess the quality of this data before performing any application. Since resources of accurate SM measurements are very limited in Puerto Rico, this research will assess the quality of the AMSR2 data by comparing it with ground-based measurements, as well as perform a downscaling technique to provide a better description of how the sensor perceives the surface soil moisture as it passes over the island. The comparison consisted of the evaluation of the mean error, root mean squared error, and the correlation coefficient. Two downscaling techniques were used, and their performances were studied. The results revealed that AMSR2 products tend to underestimate soil moisture. This is due to the extreme heterogeneous distributions of elevations, vegetation densities, soil types, and weather events on the island. This research provides a comprehensive study on the accuracy and potential of the AMSR2 products over Puerto Rico. Further studies are recommended to improve the AMSR2 products.

  6. Aqua/Aura Inclination Adjust Maneuver Series Spring 2018 Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholme, Elena; Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This will be presented at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting on December 6-8, 2017 to discuss the Aqua/Aura Spring 2018 Inclination Adjust Maneuver series planning. Presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  7. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  8. Kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of bromomethyl (aqua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 121; Issue 6. Kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of bromomethyl (aqua)cobaloxime with pyridines - Isolation characterization and DNA binding. Kotha Laxma Reddy K Ashwini Kumar N Ravi Kumar Reddy Penumaka Nagababu A Panasa Reddy S ...

  9. Remote Sensing of Climatic Anomalies and West Nile Virus Risk in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Chuang, T.; Henebry, G. M.; Kimball, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    associated with increased risk of WNV outbreaks, but moisture effects are more variable and are contingent upon regional differences in landscape hydrology and vector and host species. Although the AMSR-E sensor on Aqua ceased effective operations in October 2011 due to a sensor malfunction, similar satellite microwave observations from WindSat and AMSR2 sensors will enable the continuation of global land parameter retrievals and support future applications for modeling and forecasting WNV and other mosquito-borne diseases.

  10. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  11. Environmental factors that determine the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimasa YAMAMOTO

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the seasonal dynamics of two populations of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet & Flahault var. flos-aquae and four populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii Elenkin in eutrophic water bodies over 1 year from February 2006 to January 2007. The growth of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was promoted at high temperatures even if in one case the biomass development was very low when other co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp. and Microcystis spp. were abundant. In contrast, the highest density of the other population of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was observed in August when the population density of M. aeruginosa (Kützing Kützing reached an annual peak. A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae usually bloomed in summer but could also tolerate low temperatures in the winter, and was present in relatively high densities. The populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii observed in this study can be divided into three groups based on preferred temperature; three populations increased in winter, and the other increased in summer. Large biomasses of the low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae were observed mainly during winter when population densities of co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp., Microcystis spp. and Planktothrix raciborskii (Woloszynska Anagnostidis & Komárek were relatively low or almost absent. The increase in or existence of cooccurring cyanoprokaryotes during the summer resulted in a decrease of the A. flos-aquae population density. It was revealed that high temperatures (20-25 °C are suitable for maintaining A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii strains isolated from the study ponds, implying that low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae can grow over a wide range of water temperatures. The high-temperatureadapted A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii co-existed with M. aeruginosa during summer; however, its peak population density was significantly lower than those in previous years when M. aeruginosa was absent

  12. Evaluation of SMAP, SMOS, and AMSR2 soil moisture retrievals against observations from two networks on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Yang, Kun; Qin, Jun; Cui, Qian; Lu, Hui; La, Zhu; Han, Menglei; Tang, Wenjun

    2017-06-01

    Two soil moisture and temperature monitoring networks were established in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during recent years. One is located in a semihumid area (Naqu) of central TP and consists of 56 soil moisture and temperature measurement (SMTM) stations, the other is located in a semiarid area (Pali) of southern TP and consists of 21 SMTM stations. In this study, the station data are used to evaluate soil moisture retrievals from three microwave satellites, i.e., the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of NASA, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) of European Space Agency, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is found that the SMAP retrievals tend to underestimate soil moisture in the two TP networks, mainly due to the negative biases in the effective soil temperature that is derived from a climate model. However, the SMAP product well captures the amplitude and temporal variation of the soil moisture. The SMOS product performs well in Naqu network with acceptable error metrics but fails to capture the temporal variation of soil moisture in Pali network. The AMSR2 products evidently exaggerate the temporal variation of soil moisture in Naqu network but dampen it in Pali network, suggesting its retrieval algorithm needs further improvements for the TP.

  13. The anxiolytic effect of aqua aerobics in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    This study examined the anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) effects of exercise for elderly women engaging in a single bout of aqua aerobics. Volunteers (N=29) completed questionnaires immediately before and after participating in an aqua aerobics class. The average age of participants was 66.4 yr. A brief form of Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire on demographic items were administered prior to engagement in exercise, and the brief form of the State Anxiety Inventory was administered again immediately after the exercise session. There was a significant difference on a t test between participants' ratings of anxiety before exercise (M = 16.8) compared to after exercise (M= 13.9); participants' ratings of state anxiety were somewhat lower after exercising. Weaknesses of the present study and suggestions for research are presented.

  14. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

  15. Aqua/Aura Updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver Performance Prediction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Spencer

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the updated Inclination Adjust Maneuver (IAM) performance prediction model that was developed for Aqua and Aura following the 2017 IAM series. This updated model uses statistical regression methods to identify potential long-term trends in maneuver parameters, yielding improved predictions when re-planning past maneuvers. The presentation has been reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager.

  16. APLIKASI GESTALT PADA DESAIN LABEL KEMASAN PRODUK AQUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Kristiana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Dalam suatu produk, elemen Positioning, Differensiasi dan Brand merupakan tiga hal pokok yang harus dipertimbangkan dalam sebuah kemasan. Desain kemasan yang menarik mampu membuka ruang tersendiri di benak konsumen melalui komunikasi visual. Danone Perusahaan asal Perancis mengeluarkan desain kemasan yang khusus. Desain kemasan produk air mineral Aqua pada botol minuman ukuran 600ml, bertema ‘Temukan Indonesiamu”  dengan mengangkat tema budaya lokal Indonesia , terdiri dari 5 judul yaitu Berbagi, Santun, Ramah, Kekeluargaan, dan Gotong Royong. Dari kelima seri tersebut ada dua judul yaitu Santun dan Gotong-Royong yang dalam memvisualkannya menggunakan teori Gestalt. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Deskriptif kualitatif dimana teori Gestalt, selanjutnya dideskripsikan dan dianalisis secara kualitatif. Hasil dari penelitian ini yaitu adanya pesan yang mendalam dari kedua desain kemasan tersebut. Kata Kunci : Desain Kemasan, Gestalt, Aqua,. Abstract In a product, Positioning, Differentiation and Brand elements are the three key points to be considered in a package. An attractive packaging design is able to open its own space in the minds of consumers through visual communication. Danone Company from France issued a special packaging design. The design of Aqua mineral water product packaging at 600ml bottle beverage, themed 'Discover Indonesiamu' with the theme of Indonesian local culture, consists of 5 titles: Sharing, Politeness, Friendly, Kinship, and Cooperation. Of the five series there are two titles namely Politeness and Cooperation which in visualizing using the theory of Gestalt. This research uses qualitative descriptive method in which Gestalt theory, hereinafter described and analyzed qualitatively. The result of this research is the deep message of both packaging design. Keywords: Packaging Design, Gestalt, Aqua.

  17. Evaluation of Aqua crop Model to Predict Crop Water Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noor Hidayat Adenan; Faiz Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    Water and nutrient are critical inputs for crop production, especially in meeting challenges from increasing fertilizer cost and irregular water availability associated with climate change. The Land and Water Division of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed Aqua Crop, an integrated application software to simulate the interactions between plant, water and soil. Field management and irrigation management are the factors that need to be considered since it affects the interactions. Four critical components are needed in the Aqua Crop model, viz. climate, crop, field management and soil conditions. In our case study, climate data from rice field in Utan Aji, Kangar, Perlis was applied to run a simulation by using AquaCrop model. The rice crop was also assessed against deficit irrigation schedules and we found that use of water at optimum level increased rice yield. Results derived from the use of the model corresponded conventional assessment. This model can be adopted to help farmers in Malaysia in planning crop and field management to increase the crop productivity, especially in areas where the water is limited. (author)

  18. Explaining discrepancies in passive microwave cloud-radiation databases in microphysical context from two different cloud-resolving models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, A.; Smith, E. A.; Tripoli, G. J.; Dietrich, S.; Kotroni, V.; Lagouvardos, K.; Medaglia, C. M.

    2008-10-01

    Mesoscale Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs) are often used to generate descriptions of the microphysical properties of precipitating clouds for the purpose of guiding precipitation retrieval algorithms designed for satellite-borne passive microwave radiometers. However, CRMs were not originally designed for that purpose. Notably, individual CRMs have adopted different bulk microphysical schemes to optimize the dynamical evolution of storms and accumulated rainfall, rather than optimizing for simulations of radiative properties - which are greatly affected by the microphysical details and vertical distributions of liquid and frozen hydrometeors. Thus, in principle, the simulated upwelling passive microwave (PMW) brightness temperatures (TBs) and associated precipitation retrievals generated by means of different CRMs with different microphysical parameterizations may be significantly different - even when the different CRMs prognostically adhere to the main dynamical and precipitation characteristics of a given storm. We investigate this issue for two different mesoscale models run at CRM scales, each using different parameterizations for the ongoing microphysics. These are the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS) and the 5th generation version of the Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). These two models are used to simulate the same flood-producing storm that occurred over northern Italy during 24-26 November 2002. Model outputs that best reproduce the structure of the storm, as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) onboard the NASA AQUA satellite, are used to calculate upwelling PMW TBs. The simulated TBs are then used for retrieving the precipitation fields in conjunction with the AMSR-E observations. Finally, the two sets of results are intercompared in order to provide an indication of the expected uncertainties in CRM-based precipitation retrievals due to

  19. Comparison of soil moisture products obtained from active and passive microwave data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, L.; Vekerdy, Z.; de Jeu, R.

    2009-04-01

    Forty years of research on passive and active microwave observations have led so far to a better understanding of the sensitivity of satellite microwave observations to soil moisture and to a higher confidence in the possibility to retrieve reliable soil moisture from these sensors at small as well as large scale. This research forms the basis of two important new satellite missions: ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission (SMAP) whose main goal is the retrieval of soil moisture at global scale. In view of these missions, the research has been recently focussed more on the development of soil moisture retrieval methods which can be applied at global scale and on their application over the existing scatterometer (ERS scatterometer and Metop ASCAT) and radiometer (SMMR and AMSR-E) data to obtain long time series of global products. In this work, two global soil moisture products, one obtained from radiometer data and the other from scatterometer data, have been compared. The main objective of this comparison is to better understand the potential and limitations for soil moisture retrieval of both the data and the applied method and to investigate the possible complementarity of the different datasets. The two surface soil moisture datasets employed in this study are: the product obtained from AQUA AMSR-E data by the Department of Hydrology and Geo-Environmental Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam and the product retrieved from ERS-2 scatterometer data by the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing of the Vienna University of Technology. The temporal variability from 2003 to 2007, the seasonal trends, the anomalies, the autocorrelations and the correlation between the two global datasets have been analysed. Two in-situ datasets collected by large soil moisture monitoring networks in Oklahoma (Oklahoma Mesonet) and in Australia (OzNet) have been also included in this comparison

  20. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pratik

    climate forecasts. Aqua is a major mission of the Earth Observing System (EOS), an international program centered in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise to study the Earth in detail from the unique vantage point of space. Focused on key measurements identified by a consensus of U.S. and international scientists, EOS is further enabling studies of the complex interactions amongst the Earth's land, ocean, air, ice and biological systems. Aqua's contributions to monitoring water in the Earth's environment will involve all six of Aqua's instruments: the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), the Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System (AMSR-E), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). Frozen water in the oceans, in the form of sea ice, will be examined with both AMSR-E and MODIS data, the former allowing routine monitoring of sea ice at a coarse resolution and the latter providing greater spatial resolution but only under cloud-free conditions. Sea ice can insulate the underlying liquid water against heat loss to the often frigid overlying polar atmosphere and also reflects sunlight that would otherwise be available to warm the ocean. AMSR-E measurements will allow the routine derivation of sea ice concentrations in both polar regions, through taking advantage of the marked contrast in microwave emissions of sea ice and liquid water. This will continue, with improved resolution and accuracy, a 22-year satellite record of changes in the extent of polar ice. MODIS, with its finer resolution, will permit the identification of individual ice flows, when unobscured by clouds. AMSR-E and MODIS will also provide monitoring, the AIRS/AMSU/HSB combination will provide more-accurate space-based measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapor than have ever been obtained before, with the highest vertical

  1. NRT AMSR2 L2B GLOBAL SWATH GSFC PROFILING ALGORITHM 2010: SURFACE PRECIPITATION, WIND SPEED OVER OCEAN, WATER VAPOR OVER OCEAN AND CLOUD LIQUID WATER OVER OCEAN V0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) instrument on the Global Change Observation Mission - Water 1 (GCOM-W1) provides global passive microwave...

  2. Partial Molar Volumes of Aqua Ions from First Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktor, Julia; Bruneval, Fabien; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2017-08-08

    Partial molar volumes of ions in water solution are calculated through pressures obtained from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The correct definition of pressure in charged systems subject to periodic boundary conditions requires access to the variation of the electrostatic potential upon a change of volume. We develop a scheme for calculating such a variation in liquid systems by setting up an interface between regions of different density. This also allows us to determine the absolute deformation potentials for the band edges of liquid water. With the properly defined pressures, we obtain partial molar volumes of a series of aqua ions in very good agreement with experimental values.

  3. The new Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI: exploitation of the GPM observational database for operational applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinzia Marra, Anna; Casella, Daniele; Martins Costa do Amaral, Lia; Sanò, Paolo; Dietrich, Stefano; Panegrossi, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Two new precipitation retrieval algorithms for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and for the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) are presented. The algorithms are based on the Cloud Dynamics and Radiation Database (CDRD) Bayesian approach and represent an evolution of the previous version applied to Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) observations, and used operationally within the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF). These new products present as main innovation the use of an extended database entirely empirical, derived from coincident radar and radiometer observations from the NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Core Observatory (GPM-CO) (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar-DPR and GMI). The other new aspects are: 1) a new rain-no-rain screening approach; 2) the use of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) both in the screening approach, and in the Bayesian algorithm; 2) the use of new meteorological and environmental ancillary variables to categorize the database and mitigate the problem of non-uniqueness of the retrieval solution; 3) the development and implementations of specific modules for computational time minimization. The CDRD algorithms for AMSR2 and GMI are able to handle an extremely large observational database available from GPM-CO and provide the rainfall estimate with minimum latency, making them suitable for near-real time hydrological and operational applications. As far as CDRD for AMSR2, a verification study over Italy using ground-based radar data and over the MSG full disk area using coincident GPM-CO/AMSR2 observations has been carried out. Results show remarkable AMSR2 capabilities for rainfall rate (RR) retrieval over ocean (for RR > 0.25 mm/h), good capabilities over vegetated land (for RR > 1 mm/h), while for coastal areas the results are less certain. Comparisons with NASA GPM products, and with

  4. An unprecedented tetranuclear niobium aqua ion with a capping μ4-sulfido ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Bee Lean; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new niobium aqua ion, with an unprecedented metal-metal bonded tetranuclear Nb4(μ4-S)(μ2-O)54+ core, is obtained upon treatment of Zn-reduced ethanolic solutions of NbCl5 with HCl in the presence of a sulfide source. The red aqua ion, obtained upon cation-exchange chromatography, forms readily ...

  5. ELABORATION OF NOT LARGE MOBILE MODULAR INSTALLATION ''AQUA - EXPRESS'' (300 L/H) FOR LRW CLEANING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yurii; Dmitriev, Sergey; Iljin, Vadim; Ojovan, Mihail; Burcl, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Mobile modular installation ''Aqua-Express'' is a liquid low level and intermediate level radioactive waste (LL and ILRW) treatment facility, intended for not large research centers and other organizations, which activity causes the formation of a few quantity (up to 500 m3/year) of low and intermediate level radioactive waste water. Mobile modular installation ''Aqua-Express'' has the following features: (1) filtration, sorption and ultrafiltration units are used for LL and ILRW purification; (2) installation ''Aqua-Express'' consists of a cascade of three autonomous aqueous liquid waste-purifying installations; (3) installation ''Aqua-Express'' is a mobile installation; the installation can be transported by car, train, ship, or plane, as well as placed in a standard transport (sea or railway) container; (4) installation ''Aqua-Express'' does not includes any technological equipment for conditioning the secondary radioactive waste. Productivity of the installation ''Aqua-Express'' by purified water depends on composition of the initial liquid waste and makes up to 300 l/h. In present report is described the design of installation ''Aqua-Express'', theory of LRW purification in the installation ''Aqua-Express'' and some results of its use at cleaning real radioactive waters at State unitary enterprise - MosNPO ''Radon''

  6. Structural and Functional Characterization of a Novel Family of Cyclophilins, the AquaCyps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman P Jakob

    Full Text Available Cyclophilins are ubiquitous cis-trans-prolyl isomerases (PPIases found in all kingdoms of life. Here, we identify a novel family of cyclophilins, termed AquaCyps, which specifically occurs in marine Alphaproteobacteria, but not in related terrestric species. In addition to a canonical PPIase domain, AquaCyps contain large extensions and insertions. The crystal structures of two representatives from Hirschia baltica, AquaCyp293 and AquaCyp300, reveal the formation of a compact domain, the NIC domain, by the N- and C-terminal extensions together with a central insertion. The NIC domain adopts a novel mixed alpha-helical, beta-sheet fold that is linked to the cyclophilin domain via a conserved disulfide bond. In its overall fold, AquaCyp293 resembles AquaCyp300, but the two proteins utilize distinct sets of active site residues, consistent with differences in their PPIase catalytic properties. While AquaCyp293 is a highly active general PPIase, AquaCyp300 is specific for hydrophobic substrate peptides and exhibits lower overall activity.

  7. A Study on the Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-Acupuncture on Writhing Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun-Hee

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:In spite of the use of Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture in the clinics, the scientific evaluation on effects is not enough. Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture is used according to the stimulation of acupuncture point and the chemical effects of Bee Venom. The aims of this study is to investigate the analgegic effects of the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture, through the change of writhing reflex Materials and Methods:Pain animal model was used acetic acid method. The changes of writhing reflex of the mice which were derived pain by injecting acetic acid into the abdomen, after stimulating Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 and non acupuncture point on the backside were measured. Results:1. It showed that the writhing reflex were appeared on the groups which injected acetic acid only, and saline-acetic acid group(sample I, but not on the group bee venom-saline group(sample II. 2. The change of writhing reflex by Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the order of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group III(2.5×10-3g/kg, II(2.5×10-4g/kg, and I(2.5×10-5g/kg, compared with control group. There were significant decrease of number of writhing reflex in 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of Chung wan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group I, and in 0~5, 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of II and III, compared with control group. 3. The change of writhing reflex by non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the 0~5 and 5~10 minutes intervals and the total number of writhing reflex in 2.5×10-4g/kg group, compared with control group 4. The effects of writhing reflex of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group showed significant decrease, compared with non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group. Conclusion:This study shows that the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 decreases the numbers of writhing reflex. As the

  8. Retrieval of Aerosol Properties from MODIS Terra, MODIS Aqua, and VIIRS SNPP: Calibration Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Sawyer, Virginia; Kleidman, Richard; Patadia, Falguni; Zhou, Yaping; Gupta, Pawan; Shi, Yingxi; Remer, Lorraine; Holz, Robert

    2016-01-01

    MODIS-DT Collection 6 - Aqua/Terra level 2, 3; entire record processed - "Trending" issues reduced - Still a 15% or 0.02 Terra vs Aqua offset. - Terra/Aqua convergence improved with C6+, but bias remains. - Other calibration efforts yield mixed results. VIIRS-­-DT in development - VIIRS is similar, yet different then MODIS - With 50% wider swath, VIIRS has daily coverage - Ensures algorithm consistency with MODIS. - Currently: 20% NPP vs Aqua offset over ocean. - Only small bias (%) over land (2012-­-2016) - Can VIIRS/MODIS create aerosol CDR? Calibration for MODIS - VIIRS continues to fundamentally important. It's not just Terra, or just Aqua, or just NPP-­-VIIRS, I really want to push synergistic calibration.

  9. A Study on the Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-Acupuncture on Writhing Reflex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong Sun-Hee; Koh Hyung-kyun; Park Dong-Suk

    2000-01-01

    Introduction:In spite of the use of Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture in the clinics, the scientific evaluation on effects is not enough. Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture is used according to the stimulation of acupuncture point and the chemical effects of Bee Venom. The aims of this study is to investigate the analgegic effects of the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture, through the change of writhing reflex Materials and Methods:Pain animal model was used acetic acid method. The changes of writhing reflex of ...

  10. Evaluation of NASA GEOS-ADAS Modeled Diurnal Warming Through Comparisons to SEVIRI and AMSR2 SST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentemann, C. L.; Akella, S.

    2018-02-01

    An analysis of the ocean skin Sea Surface Temperature (SST) has been included in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) - Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS), Version 5 (GEOS-ADAS). This analysis is based on the GEOS atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) that simulates near-surface diurnal warming and cool skin effects. Analysis for the skin SST is performed along with the atmospheric state, including Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite radiance observations as part of the data assimilation system. One month (September, 2015) of GEOS-ADAS SSTs were compared to collocated satellite Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) SSTs to examine how the GEOS-ADAS diurnal warming compares to the satellite measured warming. The spatial distribution of warming compares well to the satellite observed distributions. Specific diurnal events are analyzed to examine variability within a single day. The dependence of diurnal warming on wind speed, time of day, and daily average insolation is also examined. Overall the magnitude of GEOS-ADAS warming is similar to the warming inferred from satellite retrievals, but several weaknesses in the GEOS-AGCM simulated diurnal warming are identified and directly related back to specific features in the formulation of the diurnal warming model.

  11. Shear and Stability at the Base of the Mixed Layer in the Arctic Ocean: The Role of Inertial Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    predictive models. Observations made in the Canadian Basin and the Transpolar Drift by high resolution Autonomous Ocean Flux Buoys (AOFBs), SSMI ...Ocean Flux Buoy, Ice-Tethered Profiler, SSMI , AMSR-E, ECMWF, Oceanic Forcing, Canada Basin, Beaufort Sea, Transpolar Drift. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 99...predictive models. Observations made in the Canadian Basin and the Transpolar Drift by high resolution Autonomous Ocean Flux Buoys (AOFBs), SSMI and

  12. Ross Sea Polynyas: Response of Ice Concentration Retrievals to Large Areas of Thin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.; Martin, S.; Drucker, R.

    2007-01-01

    For a 3-month period between May and July of 2005, we examine the response of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Enhanced NASA Team 2 (NT2) and AMSR-E Bootstrap (ABA) ice concentration algorithms to large areas of thin ice of the Ross Sea polynyas. Coincident Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) coverage of the region during this period offers a detailed look at the development of the polynyas within several hundred kilometers of the ice front. The high-resolution imagery and derived ice motion fields show bands of polynya ice, covering up to approximately 105 km(sup 2) of the Ross Sea, that are associated with wind-forced advection. In this study, ice thickness from AMSR-E 36 GHz polarization information serves as the basis for examination of the response. The quality of the thickness of newly formed sea ice (<10 cm) from AMSR-E is first assessed with thickness estimates derived from ice surface temperatures from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The effect of large areas of thin ice in lowering the ice concentration estimates from both NT2/ABA approaches is clearly demonstrated. Results show relatively robust relationships between retrieved ice concentrations and thin ice thickness estimates that differ between the two algorithms. These relationships define the approximate spatial coincidence of ice concentration and thickness isopleths. Using the 83% (ABA) and 91% (NT2) isopleths as polynya boundaries, we show that the computed coverage compares well with that using the estimated 10-cm thickness contour. The thin ice response characterized here suggests that in regions with polynyas, the retrieval results could be used to provide useful geophysical information, namely thickness and coverage.

  13. Kinerja Saham PT Aqua Golden Mississippi Tbk. Setelah Pembatalan Go Private dan Estimasi Harga Saham Aqua Tahun 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Wandita Putri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available PT Aqua Golden Mississippi is a company that plans to go private, but until today have not obtained approval from the shareholders. Failure may be caused from several things: the company offer price is too small, no quorum, shares held is still profitable for shareholders, and other factors. The existence of the company's plan to go private would affect the performance of the company stock. Stock performance can be analyzed with - average rate of profit, the level of risk, and sensitivity to the stock exchange. The method used in the calculation of stock performance in this paper is the GMR, STDEV, CAPM, and DDM for the calculation of estimated stock price. Through the conducted analysis, investors / shareholders are encouraged to pay attention to the news and information related to go private to be conducted by the company, stock performance, and perform estimate calculations. This is to find out what the right decision for private investors. 

  14. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ocean Color (OC) Regional Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km (MYD03) are calculated for each 1 km MODIS Instantaneous Field of Views (IFOV) for all orbits daily(in...

  16. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (11 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  17. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Chlorophyll (CHL) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  18. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Land Reflectance Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 2G Precipitation Estimate (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  20. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  1. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  3. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Burned Area Monthly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V051

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MCD45A1 is a monthly Level-3 gridded 500-meter product, which contains burning and quality information on a per-pixel basis. Produced from both the Terra and Aqua...

  4. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Burned Area Monthly L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MCD45A1 is a monthly Level-3 gridded 500-meter product, which contains burning and quality information on a per-pixel basis. Produced from both the Terra and Aqua...

  5. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  6. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Euphotic Depth (ZLEE) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  8. Aqua AIRS Level 2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V6 V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  10. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient for Downwelling Irradiance (KD) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  11. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  12. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  13. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, 0.125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OSU distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  14. Aqua AIRS Near Real Time (NRT) Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  15. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Pentad Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  16. Debris Likelihood, based on GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS, and GOES Imager, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Debris Likelihood Index (Estimated) is calculated from GhostNet, NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 250m (MYD02QKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 2 discrete bands located in...

  18. NAMMA MODIS/AQUA AND MODIS/TERRA DEEP BLUE PRODUCTS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA MODIS/AQUA and MODIS/TERRA Deep Blue Products dataset is a collection of images depicting the aerosol optical depth derived from the MODIS deep blue...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYD04_L2) product continues to provide full global coverage of aerosol properties from the Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue...

  20. A simple digestion method with a Lefort aqua regia solution for diatom extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huipin; Liu, Yan; Zhao, Jian; Hu, Sunlin; Wang, Yuzhong; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yanji

    2015-01-01

    Presence of diatoms in tissues has been considered as a significant sign of drowning. However, there are limitations in the present extraction methods. We developed a new digestion method using the Lefort aqua regia solution (3:1 nitric acid to hydrochloric acid) for diatom extraction and evaluated the digestive capability, diatom destruction, and diatoms' recovery of this new method. The kidney tissues from rabbit mixed with water rich in diatoms were treated by the Lefort aqua regia digestion method (n = 10) and the conventional acid digestion method (n = 10). The results showed that the digestive capability of Lefort aqua regia digestion method was superior to conventional acid digestion method (p 0.05). The Lefort aqua regia reagent is an improvement over the conventional acid digestion for recovery of diatoms from tissue samples. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Inherent Optical Properties (IOP) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  2. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  3. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  4. 77 FR 63801 - Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... the theories of statute of limitations, laches, estoppels, or similar theories, to any such civil or... and complete resolution between Staff and Aqua Leisure, and its parents, shareholders, divisions...

  5. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  6. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  7. SST, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, Night time (4 microns)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides SST data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carried aboard...

  8. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 500m (MYD02HKM) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 7 discrete bands located in...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km (MYD021KM) product contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in...

  10. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Raw Radiances in Counts 5-Min L1A Swath (MYD01) product contains reformatted and packaged raw instrument data. MODIS instrument data, in packetized...

  12. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  13. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Pentad Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  14. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  16. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly quantization in physical units (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  17. Aqua AIRS Pentad Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  18. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  19. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS-only) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  20. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  1. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Monthly Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  2. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Standard physical retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 Cloud-cleared infrared radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Infrared (IR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  5. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  6. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B HSB geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  8. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA) Global Mapped Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  9. Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA) Global Binned Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS (or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Terra's orbit around the Earth...

  10. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  11. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, East US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  12. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS and GOES Imager, 0.1 degrees, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a and NOAA GOES Imager SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific...

  13. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  14. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  15. Primary Productivity, NASA Aqua MODIS, 4.4 km, Global, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Primary Productivity is calculated from NASA Aqua MODIS Chl a SST data. THIS IS AN EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCT: intended strictly for scientific evaluation by professional...

  16. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  17. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, West US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  18. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, OSU DB, 0.0125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  19. Diffuse Attenuation Coef. K490, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA distributes Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient at 490 nm Wavelength data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 250m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09Q1 Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-2 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  1. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.05 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09CMG Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-7 resampled to 5600 m pixel resolution and corrected...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09A1 Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  4. Sounder PEATE Aqua AIRS Clear Calibration Subset Observations V10 (SPCSAQ1D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CalSub product files are constructed from calibrated radiance files (infrared and microwave) from either the SNPP, Aqua or MetOP-A/B. Nominally one logical file is...

  5. Sounder PEATE Aqua AIRS Cloud Calibration Subset Observations V10 (SPCSAQ2D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CalSub product files are constructed from calibrated radiance files (infrared and microwave) from either the SNPP, Aqua or MetOP-A/B. Nominally one logical file is...

  6. Sounder PEATE Aqua AIRS Random Calibration Subset Observations V10 (SPCSAQ4D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CalSub product files are constructed from calibrated radiance files (infrared and microwave) from either the SNPP, Aqua or MetOP-A/B. Nominally one logical file is...

  7. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua and Aura Space Weather Effects on Operational Collision Avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will describe recent EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance experience during periods of solar and geomagnetic storm activity. It will highlight challenges faced by the operations team during short-notice, high-risk predicted close approaches. The presentation will highlight the evolution of the operational collision avoidance process for the EOS Aqua and Aura missions. The presentation will highlight operational challenges that have occurred, process improvements that have been implemented and identify potential future challenges.

  8. Aqua-aerobik jako součást podpory zdraví

    OpenAIRE

    Jirušková, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    The thesis deals with aerobic water exercise - it is mainly focused on aqua-aerobics. The influence, advantages and limitations of this sports branch are discussed as well as its contribution to the health condition, especially to its psychical and social dimension. The issue of integrating aqua-aerobics into the various levels of school educational programs is considered. The methods of analysis, literature research, data collection and evaluation of questionnaires are used. Acquired researc...

  9. Inter-calibrating, Multi-instrument Microwave Ocean Data Records over Three Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. K.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite microwave radiometers have been in continuous operation since 1987. When inter-calibrated and consistently processed, the data from a series of DMSP SSM/I and SSMIS sensors, TRMM TMI, Coriolis WindSat, Aqua AMSR-E, GCOM-W1 AMSR2, and GPM GMI collectively result in a long-term high-quality ocean data set of surface winds, atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water content, rain rate, and for some instruments, sea surface temperature and wind direction. Slight variations in frequencies, design and satellite orbits stress the need for carefully implementing an inter-calibration method, so as not to introduce trends or jumps when new instruments begin or when old instruments drift and/or die. The authors have developed a robust inter-calibration method using a published, well-developed and validated radiative transfer model (RTM) as the calibration standard. Most of the sensor data for this nearly 30-year period are available as the Version-7 RTM standard. The GMI sensor, recently launched in 2014, has strict calibration accuracy requirements and was built to have greater precision than any previous microwave sensor. We have utilized the dual calibration and non-linearity-measurement systems built into GMI to improve the RTM, which is now Version-8. In this talk we will present an overview of our calibration procedures and outline the steps required to produce climate quality earth data records. We also intend to present the latest validation results and provide information on recent changes in distribution, format, and availability for these already-popular data products.

  10. Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.

  11. SPoRT - An End-to-End R2O Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral observational data applications from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently partners with several universities and other government agencies for access to real-time data and products, and works collaboratively with them and operational end users at 13 WFOs to develop and test the new products and capabilities in a "test-bed" mode. The test-bed simulates key aspects of the operational environment without putting constraints on the forecaster workload. Products and capabilities which show utility in the test-bed environment are then transitioned experimentally into the operational environment for further evaluation and assessment. SPoRT focuses on a suite of data and products from MODIS, AMSR-E, and AIRS on the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites, and total lightning measurements from ground-based networks. Some of the observations are assimilated into or used with various versions of the WRF model to provide supplemental forecast guidance to operational end users. SPoRT is enhancing partnerships with NOAA / NESDIS for new product development and data access to exploit the remote sensing capabilities of instruments on the NPOESS satellites to address short term weather forecasting problems. The VIIRS and CrIS instruments on the NPP and follow-on NPOESS satellites provide similar observing capabilities to the MODIS and AIRS instruments on Terra and Aqua. SPoRT will be transitioning existing and new capabilities into the AWIIPS II environment to continue the continuity of its activities.

  12. Acoustic Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, Jonathan M.; Hanna, Luke A.; DeChello, Nicole L.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-10-31

    The DeepCwind consortium, led by the University of Maine, was awarded funding under the US Department of Energy’s Offshore Wind Advanced Technology Demonstration Program to develop two floating offshore wind turbines in the Gulf of Maine equipped with Goldwind 6 MW direct drive turbines, as the Aqua Ventus I project. The Goldwind turbines have a hub height of 100 m. The turbines will be deployed in Maine State waters, approximately 2.9 miles off Monhegan Island; Monhegan Island is located roughly 10 miles off the coast of Maine. In order to site and permit the offshore turbines, the acoustic output must be evaluated to ensure that the sound will not disturb residents on Monhegan Island, nor input sufficient sound levels into the nearby ocean to disturb marine mammals. This initial assessment of the acoustic output focuses on the sound of the turbines in air by modeling the assumed sound source level, applying a sound propagation model, and taking into account the distance from shore.

  13. Plans for Assimilating AQUA data at NASA's DAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Donald; Joiner, Joanna; Atlas, Robert; Stajner, Ivanka

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is expanding its work with TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) to assimilate data from the advanced instruments which will fly on NASA's AQUA satellite in early 2002. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which has over 2000 channels, together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and the Humidity Sounder Brazil (HSB) will provide many technical challenges for data assimilation centers. One of the primary concerns is how best to subset the data in order to efficiently extract information about the Earth's atmosphere and surface. This includes static and dynamic channel selection as well as pixel thinning. The DAO is currently experimenting with simulated AIRS/AMSU/HSB radiances within the framework of our finite volume data assimilation system (NDAS) using the OPTRAN radiative transfer code developed as part of the NOAA/NASA Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation. The short-term goals include the assessment of the cost of processing various data subsets and preparation for near-real-time assimilation within a few months of launch. We will also discuss plans and tools for evaluating the quality of AIRS data including radiances and level 2 products from the AIRS science team.

  14. Polar low monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    passive microwave data make it possible to retrieve several important atmospheric and oceanic parameters inside the polar lows, such as sea surface wind speed, water vapour content in the atmosphere, total liquid water content in the clouds and others, providing not only qualitative image of a vortex, but also quantitative information about these severe events, constituting a promising tool for their study and monitoring. An approach for detection and tracking of polar lows is developed utilizing the data from two sensors: SSM/I onboard DMSP and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard Aqua satellite. This approach consists of two stages. At the first stage total atmospheric water vapor fields are retrieved from SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurement data using precise Arctic polar algorithms, developed at NIERSC. These algorithms are applicable over open water. They have high retrieval accuracies under a wide range of environmental conditions. Algorithms are based on numerical simulation of brightness temperatures and their inversion by means of Neural Networks. At the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, polar lows are identified and tracked and some of their parameters are calculated. A few case studies are comprehensively conducted based on SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurements and using other satellite data including visible, infrared and SAR images, QuickScat Scatterometer wind fields, surface analysis maps and re-analysis data, which demonstrated the advantages of satellite passive microwave data usage in the polar low studies.

  15. AquaCrop-OS: A tool for resilient management of land and water resources in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozovic, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Raes, Dirk; Steduto, Pasquale; Fereres, Elias; Hsiao, Theodore C.

    2017-04-01

    Water managers, researchers, and other decision makers worldwide are faced with the challenge of increasing food production under population growth, drought, and rising water scarcity. Crop simulation models are valuable tools in this effort, and, importantly, provide a means of quantifying rapidly crop yield response to water, climate, and field management practices. Here, we introduce a new open-source crop modelling tool called AquaCrop-OS (Foster et al., 2017), which extends the functionality of the globally used FAO AquaCrop model. Through case studies focused on groundwater-fed irrigation in the High Plains and Central Valley of California in the United States, we demonstrate how AquaCrop-OS can be used to understand the local biophysical, behavioural, and institutional drivers of water risks in agricultural production. Furthermore, we also illustrate how AquaCrop-OS can be combined effectively with hydrologic and economic models to support drought risk mitigation and decision-making around water resource management at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and highlight future plans for model development and training. T. Foster, et al. (2017) AquaCrop-OS: An open source version of FAO's crop water productivity model. Agricultural Water Management. 181: 18-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.11.015.

  16. Influence of cracking clays on satellite estimated and model simulated soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Liu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertisols are clay soils that are common in the monsoonal and dry warm regions of the world. One of the characteristics of these soil types is to form deep cracks during periods of extended dry, resulting in significant variation of the soil and hydrologic properties. Understanding the influence of these varying soil properties on the hydrological behavior of the system is of considerable interest, particularly in the retrieval or simulation of soil moisture. In this study we compare surface soil moisture (θ in m3 m−3 retrievals from AMSR-E using the VUA-NASA (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in collaboration with NASA algorithm with simulations from the Community Land Model (CLM over vertisol regions of mainland Australia. For the three-year period examined here (2003–2005, both products display reasonable agreement during wet periods. During dry periods however, AMSR-E retrieved near surface soil moisture falls below values for surrounding non-clay soils, while CLM simulations are higher. CLM θ are also higher than AMSR-E and their difference keeps increasing throughout these dry periods. To identify the possible causes for these discrepancies, the impacts of land use, topography, soil properties and surface temperature used in the AMSR-E algorithm, together with vegetation density and rainfall patterns, were investigated. However these do not explain the observed θ responses. Qualitative analysis of the retrieval model suggests that the most likely reason for the low AMSR-E θ is the increase in soil porosity and surface roughness resulting from cracking of the soil. To quantitatively identify the role of each factor, more in situ measurements of soil properties that can represent different stages of cracking need to be collected. CLM does not simulate the behavior of cracking soils, including the additional loss of moisture from the soil continuum during drying and the infiltration into cracks during rainfall events

  17. AQUA Cloning: A Versatile and Simple Enzyme-Free Cloning Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes M Beyer

    Full Text Available Assembly cloning is increasingly replacing conventional restriction enzyme and DNA-ligase-dependent cloning methods for reasons of efficiency and performance. Here, we describe AQUA (advanced quick assembly, a simple and versatile seamless assembly cloning approach. We demonstrate the applicability and versatility of AQUA Cloning in selected proof-of-principle applications including targeted insertion-, deletion- and site-directed point-mutagenesis, and combinatorial cloning. Furthermore, we show the one pot de novo assembly of multiple DNA fragments into a single circular plasmid encoding a complex light- and chemically-regulated Boolean A NIMPLY B logic operation. AQUA Cloning harnesses intrinsic in vivo processing of linear DNA fragments with short regions of homology of 16 to 32 bp mediated by Escherichia coli. It does not require any kits, enzymes or preparations of reagents and is the simplest assembly cloning protocol to date.

  18. Enrichment of ammonia concentration from aqua-ammonia vapors by using 3A molecular sieve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, J.S.; Lin, T.M.; She, K.Y.; Chen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In aqua-ammonia refrigeration systems, the ammonia is the refrigerant and the water is the absorbent, the vapor produced in the generator always contains a small fraction of water. The removed of this residual water is a crucial issue in order to guarantee a reliable and efficient operation of these systems. Currently, the thermal distillation methods (via a rectifier and/or an analyzer) are used to further separate the water from aqua-ammonia mixtures. In this study, a molecular sieve module is used for ammonia purification. A thermal system with a 3A molecular sieve module was set up, and the conditions of working fluid entering into the sieve module is similar to that entering into the rectifier tower of a typical aqua-ammonia absorption system. Results from ammonia enrichment tests indicate the concentration of ammonia can be raised from about 80% up to about 99% if siever installation was properly arranged.

  19. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km (MYD07_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_E3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  1. Evidence for bacterial chemotaxis to cyanobacteria from a radioassay technique. [Lyngbya birgei; Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Aeromonas hydrophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangatharalingam, N.; Wang, Lizhu; Priscu, J.C. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Lyngbya birgei and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae elicited a significant chemotactic attraction of Aeromonas hydrophila compared with controls lacking cyanobacteria. There was a positive exponential relationship between biomass (chlorophyll a) of L. birgei and A. flos-aquae and chemotactic attraction of A. hydrophila. The assay equipment was simple and reliable and could be used to study bacterial chemotaxis in other species in situ.

  2. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_M3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  3. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG (MYD08_D3). MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator...

  4. Assessment of MODIS-Aqua chlorophyll-a algorithms in coastal and shelf waters of the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilstone, G.H.; Lotliker, A.A; Miller, P.I.; Ashraf, P.M.; SrinivasaKumar, T.; Suresh, T.; Ragavan, B.R; Menon, H.B.

    applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on Aqua (MODIS-Aqua) data against in situ measurements. Ocean Colour 3 band ratio (OC3M), Garver-Siegel-Maritorena Model (GSM) and Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) Chl-a algorithms were...

  5. Stable Failure-Inducing Micro-Silica Aqua Epoxy Bonding Material for Floating Concrete Module Connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Ho Jay Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies in the development of floating concrete structures focused on a connection system made of modules. In the connection system, the modules are designed to be attached by pre-stressing (PS while floating on the water, which exposes them to loads on the surface of the water. Therefore, the development of a pre-connection material becomes critical to ensure successful bonding of floating concrete modules. Micro-silica mixed aqua-epoxy (MSAE was developed for this task. To find the proper MSAE mix proportion, 0% to 4% micro-silica was mixed in a standard mixture of aqua-epoxy for material testing. Also, the effect of micro-silica on the viscosity of the aqua epoxy was evaluated by controlling the epoxy silane at proportions of 0%, ±5%, and ±10%. After completion of the performance tests of the MSAE, we evaluated the effect of MSAE in a connected structure. The plain unreinforced concrete module joint specimens applied with MSAE at thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 mm were prepared to be tested. Finally, we evaluated the performance of MSAE-applied reinforced concrete (RC module specimens connected by PS tendons, and these were compared with those of continuous RC and non-MSAE-applied beams. The results showed that the mix of micro-silica in the aqua-epoxy changed the performance of the aqua-epoxy and the mix ratio of 2% micro-silica gave a stable failure behavior. The flexural capacity of concrete blocks bonded with MSAE changed according to the bond thickness and was better than that of concrete blocks bonded with aqua-epoxy without micro-silica. Even though MSAE insignificantly increases the load-carrying capacity of the attached concrete module structure, the stress concentration reduction effect stabilized the failure of the structure.

  6. Cross-Calibration of the Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) with Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Brinkmann, Jake; Kumar, A. Senthil; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) sensor on-board the Oceansat-2 spacecraft has been operational since its launch in September, 2009. The Oceansat 2 OCM primary design goal is to provide continuity to Oceansat-1 OCM to obtain information regarding various ocean-colour variables. OCM acquires Earth scene measurements in eight multi-spectral bands in the range from 402 to 885 nm. The MODIS sensor on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft has been successfully operating for over a decade collecting measurements of the earth's land, ocean surface and atmosphere. The MODIS spectral bands, designed for land and ocean applications, cover the spectral range from 412 to 869 nm. This study focuses on comparing the radiometric calibration stability of OCM using near-simultaneous TOA measurements with Terra and Aqua MODIS acquired over the Libya 4 target. Same-day scene-pairs from all three sensors (OCM, Terra and Aqua MODIS) between August, 2014 and September, 2015 were chosen for this analysis. On a given day, the OCM overpass is approximately an hour after the Terra overpass and an hour before the Aqua overpass. Due to the orbital differences between Terra and Aqua, MODIS images the Libya 4 site at different scan-angles on a given day. Some of the high-gain ocean bands for MODIS tend to saturate while viewing the bright Libya 4 target, but bands 8-10 (412 nm - 486 nm) provide an unsaturated response and are used for comparison with the spectrally similar OCM bands. All the standard corrections such as bidirectional reflectance factor (BRDF), relative spectral response mismatch, and impact for atmospheric water-vapor are applied to obtain the reflectance differences between OCM and the two MODIS instruments. Furthermore, OCM is used as a transfer radiometer to obtain the calibration differences between Terra and Aqua MODIS reflective solar bands.

  7. An unprecedented tetranuclear niobium aqua ion with a capping μ4-sulfido ligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Bee Lean; Søtofte, Inger

    2005-01-01

    A new niobium aqua ion, with an unprecedented metal-metal bonded tetranuclear Nb4(μ4-S)(μ2-O)54+ core, is obtained upon treatment of Zn-reduced ethanolic solutions of NbCl5 with HCl in the presence of a sulfide source. The red aqua ion, obtained upon cation-exchange chromatography, forms readily ...... the thiocyanate complex which have been crystallized as Cs4.67Na1.33[¬Nb4SO5(NCS)10]∙2.33H2O and structurally characterized....

  8. Pola Sebaran Konsentrasi Klorofil-a Di Selat Bangka Dengan Menggunakan Citra Aqua-Modis

    OpenAIRE

    Prianto; Ulqodry, Tengku Zia; Aryawaty, Riris

    2013-01-01

    Bangka Strait is a narrow strait between the islands of Bangka and Sumatra, and predicted has high nutrients content. Nutrient can stimulate the growth of phytoplankton. The presence of phytoplankton can be detected of chlorophyll-a by using Aqua-Modis image. the purpose of this study were to describe the concentration of chlorophyll-a waters of Bangka Strait in 2009 by Aqua-Modis image data, and also to know the distribution patterns and concentrations of chlorophyll-a in the waters of Bangk...

  9. Deca(hydroxo)-23-aqua-hexa(lanthanum(III)) iodide octahydrate and deca(hydroxo)-23-aqua-hexa(neodymium(III)) iodide octahydrate: synthesis and structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukk, N.S.; Skryabina, A.Yu.; Osipov, R.A.; Alikberova, L.Yu.; Al'bov, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    New hexanuclear lanthanum and neodymium iodide complexes [La 6 (H 2 O) 23 (OH) 10 ]I 8 ·8H 2 O (I) and [Nd 6 (H 2 O) 23 (OH) 10 ]I 8 ·8H 2 (II) have been synthesized. Complexes were analyzed by X-ray structural analysis. Isostructural crystals I and II are formed orthorhombic lattices, a=13.197(4), b=15.152(3), c=15.302(4) A and a=13.060(4), b=14.967(5), c=15.098(4) A; Z=2, sp. gr. Pnnm. Lanthanum (neodymium) atoms are coordinated with aqua- and hydroxoligands, and they are part of Ln 6 -containing complex cations. Coordinating polyhedron (without central oxygen atom) of every complex-comprising atom serves as slightly perverted square antiprism, in top of which aqua- and hydroxoligands are located. Four bridge ligands connect this complex-comprising atom with four neighbouring ones

  10. Aqua-Aura QuickDAM (QDAM) 2.0 Ops Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhiry, John

    2015-01-01

    The presentation describes the Quick Debris Avoidance Maneuver (QDAM) 2.0 process used the Aqua and Aura flight teams to (a) reduce the work load and dependency on staff and systems; (b) reduce turn-around time and provide emergency last minute capabilities; and (c) increase burn parameter flexibility. The presentation also compares the QDAM 2.0 process to previous approaches.

  11. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  12. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  13. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution SST Anomaly Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  14. MODIS-Aqua Reveals Evolving Phytoplankton Community Structure During the Arabian Sea Northeast Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Roesler, Collin S.; Goes, Joaquim I.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a bio-optical model designed to identify the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca miliaris to MODIS-Aqua revealed (1) patterns in its spatial distribution not previously seen (including its appearance in places not previously sampled), and (2) the surprising disassociation of total chlorophyll biomass with the presence of N. miliaris.

  15. AquaEnv: an aquatic acid–base modelling environment in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, A.F.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Middelburg, J.J.; Meysman, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    AquaEnv is an integrated software package for aquatic chemical model generation focused on ocean acidification and antropogenic CO2 uptake. However, the package is not restricted to the carbon cycle or the oceans: it calculates, converts, and visualizes information necessary to describe pH, related

  16. Evaluation of aqua crop simulation of early season evaporation and water flux in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AquaCrop model of crop growth, water use, yield and water use efficiency (WUE) is intended for use by extension personnel, farm and irrigation managers, planners and other less advanced users of simulation models in irrigation planning and scheduling. It could be useful in estimating changes in ...

  17. Use of the FAO AquaCrop model in developing sowing guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a procedure in which the water-driven water productivity model AquaCrop was fine-tuned and validated for maize for the local conditions in Zimbabwe and then applied to develop sowing management options for decision support. Data from experiments of 2 seasons in Harare and from 5 other sites ...

  18. U.S. West Coast MODIS Aqua High Resolution CHLA Climatology Fields (July 2002 - March 2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This suite of CHLA and SST climatology and anomaly data products are derived from daily, 0.0125 degree x 0.0125 degree, MODIS Aqua CHLA and SST fields that cover the...

  19. Terra and Aqua MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands On-Orbit Calibration and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian N.; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Chen, Na; Barnes, William L.; Salomonson, Vincent V.

    2015-01-01

    Since launch, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft have operated successfully for more than 14 and 12 years, respectively. A key instrument for National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Observing System missions, MODIS was designed to make continuous observations for studies of Earth's land, ocean, and atmospheric properties and to extend existing data records from heritage Earth observing sensors. The 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) (3.75-14.24 micrometers) are calibrated on orbit using a temperature controlled blackbody (BB). Both Terra and Aqua MODIS BBs have displayed minimal drift over the mission lifetime, and the seasonal variations of the BB temperature are extremely small in Aqua MODIS. The long-term gain and noise equivalent difference in temperature performance of the 160 TEB detectors on both MODIS instruments have been well behaved and generally very stable. Small but noticeable variations of Aqua MODIS bands 33-36 (13.34-14.24 micrometer) response in recent years are primarily due to loss of temperature control margin of its passive cryoradiative cooler. As a result, fixed calibration coefficients, previously used by bands when the BB temperature is above their saturation temperatures, are replaced by the focal-plane-temperature-dependent calibration coefficients. This paper presents an overview of the MODIS TEB calibration, the on-orbit performance, and the challenging issues likely to impact the instruments as they continue operating well past their designed lifetime of six years.

  20. The Effects of Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-Acupuncture on Liver Injury of Rats Induced by CCI4 (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park, Hee-Soo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the study of the effects of Aqua-acupuncture with Gardeniae Fructus on thc recovery of rat's liver which was damaged by 0.3ml/ea of CCI4. Rats were divided into 4 groups; Normal-group(None treated group, Control-group(Not treated after CCI4-intoxicated, Exp. I(Treated with Saline Aqua-acupuncture after CCI4-intoxicated and Exp. ll(Treated with Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture after CCI4-intoxicated. Biochemical assays for each serum enzyme activities of AST, ALT, Albumin, LDH, γ-GT, TG and Total cholesterol were performed. The results were summarized as follows: 1. AST activities in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In companson with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group *The professor of Dept. of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, 2. At T activities in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In com pan son with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated worked effectively to rat's damaged liver. 3. Albumin in serum increased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupurkture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. 4. LDH in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated. In comparison with Saline-treated group after CClcintox icated, the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated worked highly effectively to rat's damaged liver. 5. γ-GT In serum significantly decreased In the Gardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture trea ted group after CCI4-intoxicated. In compan son with Saline-treated group after CCI4-intoxicated, the Crardeniae Fructus Aqua-acupuncture treated group after CCI4-intoxicated was not recognized significantly. 6. TG in serum significantly decreased in the Gardeniae Fructus

  1. Aqua ammonia 15 N obtaining and application with vainness for sugar-cane fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, Andre Cesar; Trivellin, Paulo Cesar O.; Oliveira, Claudineia R. de; Bendassoli, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen compounds marked with the isotope 15 N are continuously being used in agronomic studies and, when associated to the isotopic dilution technique, they constitute an important tool in clarifying the N cycle. At the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), it was obtained ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms, by means of the ionic exchange chromatography technique, which made possible to produce aqua ammonia ( 15 NH 3 aq). Four repetitions were taken to the aqua ammonia production process to use the nitrogen compound in the field experiment. In each process 150g of ammonium sulfate enhanced at 3,5% of 15 N atoms was used, obtaining 31,0 ± 1,6 g of aqua ammonia on the average (80% yield), with the same enhancement. The incidence of isotopic dilution has not been observed during the procedure, what made the use of such methodology possible. After obtaining the aqua ammonia 15 N through this procedure, it was added to the vinasse (an equivalent to 50 m 3 ha -1 ) in doses that corresponded to 70 kg ha -1 of N-NH 3 aq. The mixture was applied to the sugar-cane straw on the soil's surface, aimed to the crop's fertilization. The compound's isotopic composition was analyzed by means of a spectrometer of masses ANCA-SL Europe Scientific, while the total-N volatilized, by the micro-Kjeldahl. Method. In accordance to the low NH 3 (6,4 ± 1,9 kg ha -1 ) volatilization results, it could be concluded that the application of vinasse and aqua ammonia mixture to the straw on the soil's surface was efficient, due to the vinasse's acid character, which allowed the NH 3 , in presence of the ion H + , to stay in the NH 4 + form in solution. (author)

  2. Aqua and Terra MODIS RSB Calibration Comparison Using BRDF Modeled Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu

    2017-01-01

    The inter-comparison of MODIS reflective solar bands onboard Aqua and Terra is very important for assessment of each instrument's calibration. One of the limitations is the lack of simultaneous nadir overpasses. Their measurements over a selected Earth view target have significant differences in solar and view angles, which magnify the effects of atmospheric scattering and Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). In this work, an intercomparison technique is formulated after correction for site's BRDF and atmospheric effects. The reflectance measurements over Libya desert sites 1, 2, and 4 from both the Aqua and Terra MODIS are regressed to a BRDF model with an adjustable coefficient accounting for calibration difference. The ratio between Aqua and Terra reflectance measurements are derived for bands 1 to 9 and the results from different sites show good agreement. For year 2003, the ratios are in the range of 0.985 to1.010 for band 1 to 9. Band 3 shows the lowest ratio 0.985 and band 1 shows the highest ratio 1.010. For the year 2014, the ratio ranges from approximately 0.983 for bands 2 and 1.012 for band 8. The BRDF corrected reflectance for the two instruments are also derived for every year from 2003 to 2014 for stability assessment. Bands 1 and 2 show greater than 1 differences between the two instruments. Aqua bands 1 and 2 show downward trends while Terra bands 1 and 2 show upward trends. Bands 8 and 9 of both Aqua and Terra show large variations of reflectance measurement over time.

  3. International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group September 27-29, 2016 Aqua Spring 2017 IAM Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This Aqua Spring 2017 IAM Series powerpoint presentation will be presented at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque, NM. Topics to be discussed are: recap Aqua 2016 IAM campaign maneuver results and post 2016 IAM MLT evolution; current DMU strategy; 2017 IAM campaign dates and planning; Aqua latest lifetime MLT team predictions. Susan Good is a contractor who supports David Tracewell in code 595 therefore this is being routed through 595. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical has reviewed and approved this presentation.

  4. COMPARISON OF Sr ISOTOPIC RATIOS FROM TWO SOILS NEAR RAVENNA (ITALY USING AQUA REGIA AND TWO-STEP SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Castorina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sr-isotope ratios of several samples from a natural and an agricultural soil from Ravenna were determined using aqua regia and the two-step sequential extraction. Results indicate that the two-step extraction can provide the researcher with wider and more precise information on Sr sources, thus being a more suitable methodology for achieving scientific goals than the aqua regia extraction. Lastly, the extracts of hydrochloric acid and aqua regia display similar ranges of δ87Sr, indicating that the two procedures provide comparable information on Sr sources.

  5. The NOAA Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MiRS): Recent Science Improvements and Validation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassotti, C.; Zhan, X.; Boukabara, S. A.; Chattopadhyay, M.; Smith, C. K.; Islam, T.; Davies, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Microwave Integrated Retrieval System (MiRS) has been the NOAA official operational microwave retrieval algorithm since 2007 and is currently run operationally on microwave data from NOAA-18, NOAA-19, MetopA, MetopB/AMSU-MHS, DMSP F-17, F-18/SSMIS, Suomi-NPP/ATMS, and Megha-Tropics/SAPHIR. It has also been run experimentally on data from TRMM/TMI, Aqua/AMSR-E, GCOM-W1/AMSR2, and GPM/GMI. Future plans include operational processing of JPSS-1/ATMS, DMSP F-19/SSMIS, and GPM/GMI data. The inversion within MiRS follows a 1D-variational methodology, in which the fundamental physical attributes affecting the microwave observations are retrieved physically, including the profile of atmospheric temperature, water vapor, liquid and frozen hydrometeors, as well as surface emissivity and temperature. The community radiative transfer model (CRTM) is used as the forward and Jacobian operator to simulate the radiances at each iteration prior to fitting the measurements to within the noise level. The retrieved surface properties are then used to determine surface physical characteristics, including, when appropriate, cryospheric parameters such as sea ice concentration, ice age, and snow water amount, using pre-determined relationships that link emissivity and effective skin temperature to these parameters. We present a review of science improvements included in the recently released MiRS v11.1 that have led to higher quality atmospheric and surface parameter retrievals, with the improvements quantified by comparison with relevant atmospheric and surface reference data.

  6. Use of satellite-derived data for characterization of snow cover and simulation of snowmelt runoff through a distributed physically based model of runoff generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kuchment

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A technique of using satellite-derived data for constructing continuous snow characteristics fields for distributed snowmelt runoff simulation is presented. The satellite-derived data and the available ground-based meteorological measurements are incorporated in a physically based snowpack model. The snowpack model describes temporal changes of the snow depth, density and water equivalent (SWE, accounting for snow melt, sublimation, refreezing melt water and snow metamorphism processes with a special focus on forest cover effects. The remote sensing data used in the model consist of products include the daily maps of snow covered area (SCA and SWE derived from observations of MODIS and AMSR-E instruments onboard Terra and Aqua satellites as well as available maps of land surface temperature, surface albedo, land cover classes and tree cover fraction. The model was first calibrated against available ground-based snow measurements and then applied to calculate the spatial distribution of snow characteristics using satellite data and interpolated ground-based meteorological data. The satellite-derived SWE data were used for assigning initial conditions and the SCA data were used for control of snow cover simulation. The simulated spatial distributions of snow characteristics were incorporated in a distributed physically based model of runoff generation to calculate snowmelt runoff hydrographs. The presented technique was applied to a study area of approximately 200 000 km2 including the Vyatka River basin with catchment area of 124 000 km2. The correspondence of simulated and observed hydrographs in the Vyatka River are considered as an indicator of the accuracy of constructed fields of snow characteristics and as a measure of effectiveness of utilizing satellite-derived SWE data for runoff simulation.

  7. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C3.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 20, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  8. AIRS/Aqua L2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006 (AIRH2RET) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  9. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C2.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  10. Aqua AIRS-MODIS Matchup Indexes V1.0 (AIRS_MDS_IND) at GES_DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is Aqua AIRS-MODIS collocation indexes, in netCDF-4 format. These data map AIRS profile indexes to those of MODIS. The basic task is to bring together...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Monthly Vegetation Indices Global 1x1 degree V005 (MYDVI) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The global monthly gridded MODIS vegetation indices product is derived from the standard 0.05 CMG MODIS Aqua Vegetation Indices Monthly product MYD13C2 (Huete et al,...

  12. AIRS/Aqua L1B Infrared (IR) quality assurance subset V005 (AIRIBQAP) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11B1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 27, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  14. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance Daily L3 Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) MCD43A4N, MODIS Combined Aqua and Terra Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance is the daily L3 16-day composite global gridded tiled product...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua version-041 (V41) products use a modified version-4 (V4) LST algorithm and version-5 (V5) data inputs. The V41 products primarily address...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua version-041 (V41) products use a modified version-4 (V4) LST algorithm and version-5 (V5) data inputs. The V41 products primarily address...

  17. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra plus Aqua Nadir BRDF-Adjusted Reflectance 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Nadir BRDF Adjusted...

  18. AIRS/Aqua L1B HSB geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005 (AIRHBRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  19. Aqua AIRS-MLS Matchup Indexes V1.0 (AIRS_MLS_IND) at GES_DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is part of MEaSUREs 2012 Program, and represent Aqua/AIRS-Aura/MLS collocation indexes, in netCDF-4 format. These data map AIRS profile indexes to those...

  20. AIRS/Aqua L2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2SPC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  1. AIRS/Aqua L2 Support Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006 (AIRS2SUP) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  2. AIRS/Aqua L2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006 (AIRX2SUP) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  3. AIRS/Aqua L2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V005 (AIRX2SPC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  4. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km (MYDCSR_G) provides a variety of statistical measures that characterize observed...

  5. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C2.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 20, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  6. MODIS/Aqua Clear Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min L2 Swath 10km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is data set "MODIS/AQUA Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Indexed to Global Grid 5-Min 2 Swath 10 km" See the MODIS Science Team homepage for more dataset...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clear Sky Radiance Statistics Daily L3 Global 25km Equal Area (MYDCSR_D) product contains global, 25-km resolution, daily average data composited from...

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  9. Aqua AIRS Level 2 CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V6 V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. AIRS/Aqua L2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) V006 (AIRX2RET) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  11. AIRS/Aqua L1B Infrared (IR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005 (AIRIBRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua version-041 (V41) products use a modified version-4 (V4) LST algorithm and version-5 (V5) data inputs. The V41 products primarily address...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 18, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  14. AIRS/Aqua L2 Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) V006 (AIRS2RET) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m, Version 006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Snow Cover 5-Min L2 Swath 500m (MYD10_L2) data set contains snow cover and Quality Assessment (QA) data, latitudes and longitudes...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11C1.041 dataset was decommissioned as of March 1, 2018. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily L3...

  17. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) level-2 Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity (LST/E) data (Shortname: MYD11_L2) incorporate 1 km pixels, which are produced...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD11A1.004 dataset was decommissioned as of October 24, 2017. Users are encouraged to use Version 6 of MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Daily...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone 8-Day L3 Global 1Deg CMG V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  3. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Surface Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A1 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Downward Shortwave Radiation (DSR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution with...

  4. MODIS/Terra+Aqua Photosynthetically Active Radiation Daily/3-Hour L3 Global 5km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MCD18A2 Version 6 is a MODIS Terra and Aqua combined Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) gridded L3 product produced daily at 5 kilometer pixel resolution...

  5. MODIS/Aqua 24-hour Spacecraft ephemeris/orbit data files to be read via SDP Toolkit Binary Format - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PM1EPHND is the Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) daily spacecraft definitive ephemeris data file in native format. This is MODIS Ancillary Data. The data collection...

  6. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Infrared (IR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  7. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  8. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  9. AIRS/Aqua Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  10. Aqua AIRS Level 2 Near Real Time (NRT) Cloud-Cleared Infrared Radiances (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  11. AIRS/Aqua L1C Infrared (IR) resampled and corrected radiances V006 (AIRICRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  12. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Daily L3 Global 1Deg CMG V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol Cloud Water Vapor Ozone Monthly L3 Global 1Deg CMG V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua version-041 (V41) products use a modified version-4 (V4) LST algorithm and version-5 (V5) data inputs. The V41 products primarily address...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V041

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua version-041 (V41) products use a modified version-4 (V4) LST algorithm and version-5 (V5) data inputs. The V41 products primarily address...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Temperature and Water Vapor Profiles 5-Min L2 Swath 5km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  17. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Daily L3 Global 500m SIN Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) MCD43A1N, MODIS Combined Aqua and Terra Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameters is a...

  18. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) MCD43C1N, MODIS Combined Aqua and Terra Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function and Albedo (BRDF/Albedo) Model Parameters is a...

  19. AIRS/Aqua L2 Support Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V006 (AIRH2SUP) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Surface Reflectance Daily L2G Global 1km and 500m SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYD09GA Version 6 product provides an estimate of the surface spectral reflectance of AQUA MODIS Bands 1-7 corrected for atmospheric conditions such as gasses,...

  1. MODIS/Aqua Ocean Reflectance Daily L2G-Lite Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MYDOCGA Version 6 Level 2 Gridded (L2G) ocean reflectance product consists of 1 kilometer reflectance data from Aqua MODIS bands 8–16. The product is referred to...

  2. Sounder PEATE Aqua AIRS Fixed Site Calibration Subset Observations V10 (SPCSAQ3D) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CalSub product files are constructed from calibrated radiance files (infrared and microwave) from either the SNPP, Aqua or MetOP-A/B. Nominally one logical file is...

  3. Parameterization of L-, C- and X-band Radiometer-based Soil Moisture Retrieval Algorithm Using In-situ Validation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Colliander, A.; Burgin, M. S.; Walker, J. P.; Chae, C. S.; Dinnat, E.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.

    2017-12-01

    Passive microwave remote sensing has become an important technique for global soil moisture estimation over the past three decades. A number of missions carrying sensors at different frequencies that are capable for soil moisture retrieval have been launched. Among them, there are Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA's) Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) launched in May 2002 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aqua satellite (ceased operation in October 2011), European Space Agency's (ESA's) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission launched in November 2009, JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) onboard the GCOM-W satellite launched in May 2012, and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission launched in January 2015. Therefore, there is an opportunity to develop a consistent inter-calibrated long-term soil moisture data record based on the availability of these four missions. This study focuses on the parametrization of the tau-omega model at L-, C- and X-band using the brightness temperature (TB) observations from the four missions and the in-situ soil moisture and soil temperature data from core validation sites across various landcover types. The same ancillary data sets as the SMAP baseline algorithm are applied for retrieval at different frequencies. Preliminary comparison of SMAP and AMSR2 TB observations against forward-simulated TB at the Yanco site in Australia showed a generally good agreement with each other and higher correlation for the vertical polarization (R=0.96 for L-band and 0.93 for C- and X-band). Simultaneous calibrations of the vegetation parameter b and roughness parameter h at both horizontal and vertical polarizations are also performed. Finally, a set of model parameters for successfully retrieving soil moisture at different validation sites at L-, C- and X-band respectively are presented. The research described in this paper is supported by the Jet Propulsion

  4. Simulation of potato yield in temperate condition by the AquaCrop model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2017-01-01

    Potato production ranks fourth in the world after rice, wheat, and maize and it is highly sensitive to water stress. It is thus very important to implement irrigation management strategies to minimize the effects of water stress under different climate conditions. The use of modelling tools...... to calculate the soil water balance on a daily basis has become widespread in the last decades. Therefore, this study was performed to simulate potato yield, dry matter and soil water content under different water stress condition using the AquaCrop model. Three levels of irrigation comprising full irrigated...... was simulated using the AquaCrop model. Data from full irrigated treatment of 2014 was used for model calibration and data from 2013 (If, Id, and I0 treatments), 2014 (Id, and I0 treatments) and 2015 (If, Id, and I0 treatments) were used for model validation. The sensitivity analysis of different parameters...

  5. Robust aqua material. A pressure-resistant self-assembled membrane for water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Erez; Weissman, Haim; Rybtchinski, Boris [Department of Organic Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel); Shimoni, Eyal; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat [Department of Chemical Research Support, Weizmann Institute of Science, 234 Herzl Street, Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel); Werle, Kai; Wohlleben, Wendel [Department of Material Physics, Materials and Systems Research, BASF SE, 67056, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2017-02-13

    ''Aqua materials'' that contain water as their major component and are as robust as conventional plastics are highly desirable. Yet, the ability of such systems to withstand harsh conditions, for example, high pressures typical of industrial applications has not been demonstrated. We show that a hydrogel-like membrane self-assembled from an aromatic amphiphile and colloidal Nafion is capable of purifying water from organic molecules, including pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals in a very wide range of concentrations. Remarkably, the membrane can sustain high pressures, retaining its function. The robustness and functionality of the water-based self-assembled array advances the idea that aqua materials can be very strong and suitable for demanding industrial applications. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Preparation of shrimp waste as aqua feedstuff: a study of physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karun Thongprajukeaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different preparation methods (boiling, microwave irradiation, oven-drying, soaking, and sun-drying for improving the protein quality of shrimp waste (SW when used as aqua feedstuff were observed. The findings from this study indicate that microwave irradiation maintained both the chemical composition and total carotenoid concentration of the SW. This method controlled the appropriate physicochemical characteristics thus promoting proteolytic digestion, as indicated by measurement of changes in pH, water solubility, microstructures, and thermal transition. The protein digestibility based on the use of digestive enzymes from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus also increased after preparation with microwave irradiation. Based on this study, improvement in the protein quality in SW may be achieved by microwave irradiation and this method may be used as an alternative method for preparing aqua feedstuff.

  7. Mathematical and numerical modeling of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacher, A.; Nielsen, K.

    2008-12-15

    We have introduced a mathematical model of the vertical dynamics of the AquaBuOY's IPS buoy and hose-pump power take off system. The numerical results obtained proved to be very accurate as compared to real life data of Finavera's fiftieth and tenth scales of the AquaBuOY. The numerical implementation of the model is extremely fast for the regular wave regime and nearly real time for the irregular wave regime, however the results in the irregular wave regime are far more accurate than for regular waves. The model and method have proved to be robust, efficient and accurate however future work is recommended in the time integration scheme used to solve the ordinary differential equations in the irregular wave regime as it would be useful for optimization over many variables to make the numerical integration faster. (Author)

  8. Corrosion Behavior of Aqua-Blasted and Laser-Engraved Type 316L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, B.; Cook, P.; Hobbs, J.; Engelberg, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of aqua blasting and laser engraving on surface microstructure development, residual stress and corrosion resistance of type 316L stainless steel has been investigated. Aqua blasting resulted in a deformed near-surface microstructure containing compressive residual stresses. Subsequent laser engraving produced a surface layer with tensile residual stresses reaching to a depth of 200 microns. Changes of surface roughness topography were accompanied by the development of a thick oxide/hydroxide film after laser engraving. The atmospheric corrosion behavior of all surfaces with MgCl2-laden droplets was compared to their electrochemical response in 1M NaCl and 0.7 M HCl aqueous solutions. The measured total volume loss after atmospheric corrosion testing was similar for all investigated surface conditions. Laser-engraved surface exhibited the smallest number of corrosion sites, but the largest mean corrosion depth.

  9. catena-Poly[[μ2-aqua-diaquabis(μ4-pyridazine-3,6-dicarboxylatotetralithium] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Leciejewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the polymeric structure of the title compound {[Li2(C6H2N2O42Li(H2O2Li(H2O]·H2O}n, the coordination of two independent LiI ions is distorted trigonal–bipyramidal and that of the other two independent LiI ions is distorted tetrahedral. The former two LiI ions are bridged by hetero-ring N atoms of two independent pyridazine-3,6-dicarboxylate ligands, making a dimeric moiety. The carboxylato-O atoms of both bidentate ligands bridge the dimers to adjacent independent aqua-coordinated LiI ions, forming molecular ribbons. The latter are bridged by ligand carboxylato and aqua O atoms, forming molecular layers parallel to (100 which are held together by an extended system of O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  10. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. Ali; I. Abustan

    2013-01-01

    Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigati...

  11. Complex formation constant and hydration number change of aqua-rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: It is now well established that the inner-sphere hydration number of aqua-rare earth ions changes from nine to eight in the middle of the rare earth series. This hydration number change greatly affects the complex formation of rare earth ions as we observe irregular variations in most series behaviours of the complex formation constant (K) in aqueous solution systems when K being plotted against 1/r or r (r is ionic radius of rare earth ion). Furthermore, it shows very anomalous concentration dependence in the sense that nona-aqua Ln 3+ ion increases in number with increase in salt concentration in aqueous rare earth salt solution (salt chloride, perchlorate). In this report, a theoretical derivation of the formation constant (K) for the inner-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with a monodentate ligand was made by taking account of both the hydration number change in the middle of the series and its anomalous salt concentration dependence. The series behaviour of the formation constant against 1/r (or r) is successfully explained with using the empirical finding that K varies almost linearly with 1/r (or r) in the region where only one hydration number dominates. This success is also taken as evidence that the anomalous salt concentration dependence of the hydration number change is caused by the outer-sphere complex formation of rare earth ions with the condition that nona-aqua rare earth ions form outer-sphere complexes more easily than octa-aqua ions

  12. EFFECTS OF AQUA AEROBICS AND FLOOR AEROBICS ON BREATH HOLDING TIME AMONG SCHOOL GIRLS

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Shelvam; S. Arunadevi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the effects of aqua aerobics and floor aerobics on breath holding time among school girls. To achieve this purpose of the study, ninety school girls were selected as subjects who were studied Cornation Higher Secondary School, Sivakasi. The selected subjects were aged between 15 to 17 years. The selected subjects were randomly divided into three groups of 30 subjects each group. Group one acted as experimental group I and group two acted as experimenta...

  13. Biomonitoring and Risk Assessment on Earth and during Exploratory Missions using AquaHab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.

    Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems CELSS will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human s themselves in detail Additionally there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale Current standardized test systems are mono species tests and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat facility called AquaHab which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application The AquaHab module can be the home of several fish species snails plants amphipods and bacteria The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab in different fields Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic and ecosystem levels guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity e g general biological and water chemical

  14. EFFECTS OF AQUA-AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR FITNESS AND WEIGHT LOSS AMONG OBESE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Hossein Abadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence revealed that aquatic exercises are safer than land-based exercises and it allows increased movement amplitude and energy expenditure for obese, middle-aged, or elderly people, it is important to ascertain the physiological effects of aqua aerobic exercise on health among the obese students. This study aimed to determine the effects of aqua aerobics exercise on cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and resting HR and weight loss (weight, BMI, and WHR among obese students. Methods: Fifty healthy obese college students (22.28±1.83 years with minimum BMI value of 28 kg.m-², voluntarily took part in this study. They have been divided randomly into an exercising group (n=25 and BMI=33.11±5.32kg.m-2 and control group (n=25 and BMI=33.64±3.12kg.m-2. The exercising group participated in an aqua aerobic exercise at 60-75% of maximum HR for 60 minutes, three times per week for 12 weeks. The changes (by pre and post-test in weight, WHR, resting HR and VO2max were measured for both groups via In Body Scan 370, Polar heart rate monitor and Bleep test, respectively. Results: There was a significant (p≤0.001 improved in weight loss (-8.78±3.61kg, and the changes of BMI (-3.24±1.1kg.m-2, WHR (-0.056±0.035, resting HR (-1.48±1.004 bmp, and VO2max (4.43±2.51 ml.kg-1. min-1 in the exercising group, compared to the control group. The results indicate that the aqua aerobic exercise is an effective way to enhance cardiovascular fitness and weight loss among obese students. Conclusion: Aqua aerobic exercise as a favorable exercise environment for the obese can be advised such a significant intervention strategy for weight loss and improvement in cardiovascular fitness.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Clouds Observed by MODIS Onboard the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Menzel, W. Paul; Ackerman, Steven A.; Hubanks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched aboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. A comprehensive set of remote sensing algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties have enabled over twelve years of continuous observations of cloud properties from Terra and over nine years from Aqua. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. In addition to an extensive cloud mask, products include cloud-top properties (temperature, pressure, effective emissivity), cloud thermodynamic phase, cloud optical and microphysical parameters (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path), as well as derived statistics. Results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as latitudinal distributions of cloud top pressure and cloud top temperature. MODIS finds the cloud fraction, as derived by the cloud mask, is nearly identical during the day and night, with only modest diurnal variation. Globally, the cloud fraction derived by the MODIS cloud mask is approx.67%, with somewhat more clouds over land during the afternoon and less clouds over ocean in the afternoon, with very little difference in global cloud cover between Terra and Aqua. Overall, cloud fraction over land is approx.55%, with a distinctive seasonal cycle, whereas the ocean cloudiness is much higher, around 72%, with much reduced seasonal variation. Cloud top pressure and temperature have distinct spatial and temporal patterns, and clearly reflect our understanding of the global cloud distribution. High clouds are especially prevalent over the northern hemisphere continents between 30 and 50 . Aqua and Terra have comparable zonal cloud top pressures, with Aqua having somewhat higher clouds (cloud top pressures lower by 100 hPa) over land due to

  16. Four Decades of Microwave Satellite Soil Moisture Observations: Product validation and inter-satellite comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanka, K.; Pan, M.; Wanders, N.; Kumar, D. N.; Wood, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    The satellite based passive and active microwave sensors enhanced our ability to retrieve soil moisture at global scales. It has been almost four decades since the first passive microwave satellite sensor was launched in 1978. Since then soil moisture has gained considerable attention in hydro-meteorological, climate, and agricultural research resulting in the deployment of two dedicated missions in the last decade, SMOS and SMAP. Signifying the four decades of microwave remote sensing of soil moisture, this work aims to present an overview of how our knowledge in this field has improved in terms of the design of sensors and their accuracy of retrieving soil moisture. We considered daily coverage, temporal performance, and spatial performance to assess the accuracy of products corresponding to eight passive sensors (SMMR, SSM/I, TMI, AMSR-E, WindSAT, AMSR2, SMOS and SMAP), two active sensors (ERS-Scatterometer, MetOp-ASCAT), and one active/passive merged soil moisture product (ESA-CCI combined product), using 1058 ISMN in-situ stations and the VIC LSM soil moisture simulations (VICSM) over the CONUS. Our analysis indicated that the daily coverage has increased from 30 % during 1980s to 85 % (during non-winter months) with the launch of dedicated soil moisture missions SMOS and SMAP. The temporal validation of passive and active soil moisture products with the ISMN data place the range of median RMSE as 0.06-0.10 m3/m3 and median correlation as 0.20-0.68. When TMI, AMSR-E and WindSAT are evaluated, the AMSR-E sensor is found to have produced the brightness temperatures with better quality, given that these sensors are paired with same retrieval algorithm (LPRM). The ASCAT product shows a significant improvement during the temporal validation of retrievals compared to its predecessor ERS, thanks to enhanced sensor configuration. The SMAP mission, through its improved sensor design and RFI handling, shows a high retrieval accuracy under all-topography conditions

  17. Sonochemical Preparation and Subsequent Fixation of Oxygen-Free Graphene Sheets at N,N-Dimethyloctylamine-Aqua Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Trusova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the syntheses of oxygen-free graphene sheets and the method of its fixation at an oil-aqua interface were presented. The graphene sheets were prepared by exfoliation of synthetic graphite powder in an aqua-organic medium under ultrasound irradiation. N,N-Dimethyloctylamine- (DMOA- aqua emulsion was used as the liquid medium, and pH was equal to 3. The obtained graphene nanosuspension was fractionated by sedimentation and decanted according to the weight. The graphene nanoparticle fractions, differing in configuration and number of layers, have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. It was found that using a DMOA-aqua mixture as the liquid medium in ultrasonic treatment of synthetic graphite leads to the formation of oxygen-free 1-2-layer graphene sheets attached to the DMOA-aqua interface. The proposed method differs from known ones by using a small amount of more environmentally friendly organic substances. It allows to obtain large quantities of oxygen-free graphene, and finally unconverted graphite can be directed for reuse. The proposed method allows to obtain both 2D graphene sheets with micron linear dimensions and 3D packages with a high content of defects. Both these species are in demand in areas related to the development of new materials with unique electrophysical properties.

  18. De-noising of microwave satellite soil moisture time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chun-Hsu; Ryu, Dongryeol; Western, Andrew; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    The use of satellite soil moisture data for scientific and operational hydrologic, meteorological and climatological applications is advancing rapidly due to increasing capability and temporal coverage of current and future missions. However evaluation studies of various existing remotely-sensed soil moisture products from these space-borne microwave sensors, which include AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer) on Aqua satellite, SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission and ASCAT (Advanced Scatterometer) on MetOp-A satellite, found them to be significantly different from in-situ observations, showing large biases and different dynamic ranges and temporal patterns (e.g., Albergel et al., 2012; Su et al., 2012). Moreover they can have different error profiles in terms of bias, variance and correlations and their performance varies with land surface characteristics (Su et al., 2012). These severely impede the effort to use soil moisture retrievals from multiple sensors concurrently in land surface modelling, cross-validation and multi-satellite blending. The issue of systematic errors present in data sets should be addressed prior to renormalisation of the data for blending and data assimilation. Triple collocation estimation technique has successfully yielded realistic error estimates (Scipal et al., 2008), but this method relies on availability of large number of coincident data from multiple independent satellite data sets. In this work, we propose, i) a conceptual framework for distinguishing systematic periodic errors in the form of false spectral resonances from non-systematic errors (stochastic noise) in remotely-sensed soil moisture data in the frequency domain; and ii) the use of digital filters to reduce the variance- and correlation-related errors in satellite data. In this work, we focus on the VUA-NASA (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam with NASA) AMSR-E, CATDS (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, CNES) SMOS and TUWIEN (Vienna University of

  19. Drought Prediction for Socio-Cultural Stability Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa; Eylander, John B.; Koster, Randall; Narapusetty, Balachandrudu; Kumar, Sujay; Rodell, Matt; Bolten, John; Mocko, David; Walker, Gregory; Arsenault, Kristi; hide

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to answer the question: "Can existing, linked infrastructures be used to predict the onset of drought months in advance?" Based on our work, the answer to this question is "yes" with the qualifiers that skill depends on both lead-time and location, and especially with the associated teleconnections (e.g., ENSO, Indian Ocean Dipole) active in a given region season. As part of this work, we successfully developed a prototype drought early warning system based on existing/mature NASA Earth science components including the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System Version 5 (GEOS-5) forecasting model, the Land Information System (LIS) land data assimilation software framework, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM), remotely sensed terrestrial water storage from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and remotely sensed soil moisture products from the Aqua/Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E). We focused on a single drought year - 2011 - during which major agricultural droughts occurred with devastating impacts in the Texas-Mexico region of North America (TEXMEX) and the Horn of Africa (HOA). Our results demonstrate that GEOS-5 precipitation forecasts show skill globally at 1-month lead, and can show up to 3 months skill regionally in the TEXMEX and HOA areas. Our results also demonstrate that the CLSM soil moisture percentiles are a goof indicator of drought, as compared to the North American Drought Monitor of TEXMEX and a combination of Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) data and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS)'s Normalizing Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomalies over HOA. The data assimilation experiments produced mixed results. GRACE terrestrial water storage (TWS) assimilation was found to significantly improve soil moisture and evapotransportation, as well as drought monitoring via soil moisture percentiles, while AMSR-E soil moisture

  20. Optimizing available water capacity using microwave satellite data for improving irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2015-04-01

    This work addresses the improvement of available water capacity by developing a technique for estimating soil hydraulic parameters through the utilization of satellite-retrieved near surface soil moisture. The prototype involves the usage of Monte Carlo analysis to assimilate historical remote sensing soil moisture data available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) within the hydrological model. The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately In the method followed in this study the hydraulic parameters are derived directly from information on the soil moisture state at the AMSR-E footprint scale and the available water capacity is derived for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically-based hydrological model. The available capacity water, which refers to difference between the field capacity and wilting point of the soil and represent the soil moisture content at 0.33 bar and 15 bar respectively is estimated from the soil hydraulic parameters using the van Genuchten equation. The initial ranges of soil hydraulic parameters are taken in correspondence with the values available from the literature based on Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database within the particular AMSR-E footprint. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, the ranges are narrowed in the region where simulation shows a good match between predicted and near-surface soil moisture from AMSR-E. In this study, the uncertainties in accurately determining the parameters of the nonlinear soil water retention function for large-scale hydrological modeling is the focus of the development of the Bayesian framework. Thus, the model forecasting has been combined with the observational information to optimize the model state and the soil hydraulic parameters simultaneously. The optimization process is divided into

  1. Coordinated aqua vs methanol substitution kinetics in fac-Re(I) tricarbonyl tropolonato complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Marietjie; Roodt, Andreas; Visser, Hendrik G

    2012-11-05

    Water-soluble fac-[Re(CO)(3)(L,L'-Bid)(X)] (L,L'-Bid = tropolonato, X = H(2)O, methanol) complexes have been synthesized, and the aqua and methanol substitution reactions were investigated in water (pH range 6.3-10.0) and methanol, respectively, and compared. Thiocyanate ions were used as monodentate entering ligand. The complexes were characterized by UV-vis, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of the complexes [NEt(4)] fac-[Re(Trop)(CO)(3)(H(2)O)].NO(3).H(2)O (reactant) and fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(Py)], a substitution product, are reported. Overall it was found that the aqua substitution of fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(H(2)O)] is about 10 times faster than the methanol substitution reaction for fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(MeOH)], with forward and reverse rate and stability constants [k(1) (M(-1) s(-1)), k(-1) (s(-1)), K(1), (M(-1))] for thiocyanate as monodentate entering ligand as follows: fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(H(2)O)] = 2.54 ± 0.03, 0.0077 ± 0.0005, 330 ± 22/207 ± 14 and fac-[Re(CO)(3)(Trop)(MeOH)] = 0.268 ± 0.002, 0.0044 ± 0.0002, (61 ± 3)/(52 ± 4). The activation parameters [ΔH(‡)(k1) (kJ mol(-1)), ΔS(‡)(k1) (J K(-1) mol(-1))] for the aqua and methanol complex respectively are 56.1 ± 0.7, -49 ± 2 and 64 ± 1, -43 ± 5.

  2. Evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in stony soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Campi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a water balance model is also based on the ability to correctly perform simulations in heterogeneous soils. The objective of this paper is to test CRITERIA and AquaCrop models in order to evaluate their suitability in estimating evapotranspiration at the field scale in two types of soil in the Mediterranean region: non-stony and stony soil. The first step of the work was to calibrate both models under the non-stony conditions. The models were calibrated by using observations on wheat crop (leaf area index or canopy cover, and phenological stages as a function of degree days and pedo-climatic measurements. The second step consisted in the analysing the impact of the soil type on the models performances by comparing simulated and measured values. The outputs retained in the analysis were soil water content (at the daily scale and crop evapotranspiration (at two time scales: daily and crop season. The model performances were evaluated through four statistical tests: normalised difference (D% at the seasonal time scale; and relative root mean square error (RRMSE, efficiency index (EF, coefficient of determination (r2 at the daily scale. At the seasonal scale, values of D% were less than 15% in stony and on-stony soils, indicating a good performance attained by both models. At the daily scale, the RRMSE values (<30% indicate that the evapotranspiration simulated by CRITERIA is acceptable in both soil types. In the stony soil conditions, 3 out 4 statistical tests (RRMSE, EF, r2 indicate the inadequacy of AquaCrop to simulate correctly daily evapotranspiration. The higher performance of CRITERIA model to simulate daily evapotranspiration in stony soils, is due to the soil submodel, which requires the percentage skeleton as an input, while AquaCrop model takes into account the presence of skeleton by reducing the soil volume.

  3. Leaching of Metal Ions from Blast Furnace Slag by Using Aqua Regia for CO2 Mineralization

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Hwan Bang; Seung-Woo Lee; Chiwan Jeon; Sangwon Park; Kyungsun Song; Whan Joo Jo; Soochun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) was selected as the source of Ca for CO2 mineralization purposes to store CO2 as CaCO3. BFS was dissolved using aqua regia (AR) for leaching metal ions for CO2 mineralization and rejecting metal ions that were not useful to obtain pure CaCO3 (as confirmed by XRD analysis). The AR concentration, as well as the weight of BFS in an AR solution, was varied. Increasing the AR concentration resulted in increased metal ion leaching efficiencies. An optimum concentration of 2...

  4. Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.

    2008-12-01

    Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere, waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates. During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential, it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human's themselves in detail. Additionally, there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale. Current standardized test systems are mono species tests, and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance. The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat/facility, called AquaHab ® which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application. The AquaHab ® module can be the home of several fish species, snails, plants, amphipods and bacteria. The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab ® in different fields. Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic levels and ecosystem levels; guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment. Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity (e.g. general biological and water chemical parameters, activity of biotransforming enzymes) result in broad spectra of sensitivity. Combined with residual analyses (including all metabolites), this leads to an extended prospective risk assessment of a chemical on Earth and in a closed Life Support System. The possibility to measure also sensitive "online" parameters (e.g. behavior, respiration/photosynthetic activity) enables a quick and

  5. Tetra?aqua?bis?[2-(2-nitro?phen?yl)acetato-?O]cobalt(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iftikhar, Sana; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The mol?ecule of the title compound, [Co(C8H6NO4)2(H2O)4], is centrosymmetric. It is a cobalt(II) complex, bearing two (2-nitro?phen?yl)acetate and four aqua ligands. The coordination around the CoII atom is distorted octa?hedral, defined by four O atoms of water mol?ecules in the equatorial plane and by two carboxyl?ate O atoms at axial positions. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the acetate and nitro groups are 61.90?(10) and 19.21?(11)?, respectively. The water mol?ecules f...

  6. Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, Radiometry, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, radiometry, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near

  7. Use of LST images from MODIS/AQUA sensor as an indication of frost occurrence in RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de S. Simões

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAlthough frost occurrence causes severe losses in agriculture, especially in the south of Brazil, the data of minimum air temperature (Tmin currently available for monitoring and predicting frosts show insufficient spatial distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the MDY11A1 (LST – Land Surface Temperature product, from the MODIS sensor on board the AQUA satellite as an estimator of frost occurrence in the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LST images from the nighttime overpass of the MODIS/AQUA sensor for the months of June, July and August from 2006 to 2012, and data from three conventional weather stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET were used. Consistency was observed between Tmin data measured in weather stations and LST data obtained from the MODIS sensor. According to the results, LSTs below 3 ºC recorded by the MODIS/AQUA sensor are an indication of a favorable scenario to frost occurrence.

  8. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.

    to four input ports and output control via two digital and two analogue ports. In addition AquaResp can read one COM-port if the oxygen analyser has a RS-232 output signal. The present version of the program has options for parsing data strings generated by two major fibre optic oxygen electrode......AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up...... manufacturers. AquaResp was developed with the intention of automating data acquisition and control by programming in commonly-available software (Microsoft Excel) and allowing customization by the user without restrictions. The program has been tested in different laboratories for an extended period...

  9. A Blended Global Snow Product using Visible, Passive Microwave and Scatterometer Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James L.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Eylander, John B.; Riggs, George A.; Nghiem, Son V.; Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward; Montesano, Paul M.; Kelly, Richard E. J.; Casey, Kimberly A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    A joint U.S. Air Force/NASA blended, global snow product that utilizes Earth Observation System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) and QuikSCAT (Quick Scatterometer) (QSCAT) data has been developed. Existing snow products derived from these sensors have been blended into a single, global, daily, user-friendly product by employing a newly-developed Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Snow Algorithm (ANSA). This initial blended-snow product uses minimal modeling to expeditiously yield improved snow products, which include snow cover extent, fractional snow cover, snow water equivalent (SWE), onset of snowmelt, and identification of actively melting snow cover. The blended snow products are currently 25-km resolution. These products are validated with data from the lower Great Lakes region of the U.S., from Colorado during the Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX), and from Finland. The AMSR-E product is especially useful in detecting snow through clouds; however, passive microwave data miss snow in those regions where the snow cover is thin, along the margins of the continental snowline, and on the lee side of the Rocky Mountains, for instance. In these regions, the MODIS product can map shallow snow cover under cloud-free conditions. The confidence for mapping snow cover extent is greater with the MODIS product than with the microwave product when cloud-free MODIS observations are available. Therefore, the MODIS product is used as the default for detecting snow cover. The passive microwave product is used as the default only in those areas where MODIS data are not applicable due to the presence of clouds and darkness. The AMSR-E snow product is used in association with the difference between ascending and descending satellite passes or Diurnal Amplitude Variations (DAV) to detect the onset of melt, and a QSCAT product will be used to

  10. Snow Radiance Data Assimilation over High Mountain Asia Using the NASA Land Information System and a Well-Trained Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Y.; Forman, B. A.; Yoon, Y.; Kumar, S.

    2017-12-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) has been progressively losing ice and snow in recent decades, which could negatively impact regional water supply and native ecosystems. One goal of this study is to characterize the spatiotemporal variability of snow (and ice) across the HMA region. In addition, modeled snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates will be enhanced through the assimilation of passive microwave brightness temperatures (TB) collected by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) as part of a radiance assimilation system. The radiance assimilation framework includes the NASA Land Information System (LIS) in conjunction with a well-trained support vector machine (SVM) that acts as the observation operator. The Noah Land Surface Model with multi-parameterization options (Noah-MP) is used as the prior model for simulating snow dynamics. Noah-MP is forced by meteorological fields from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2) atmospheric reanalysis for the periods 01 Sep. 2002 to 01 Sep. 2011. The radiance assimilation system requires two separate phases: 1) training and 2) assimilation. During the training phase, a nonlinear SVM is generated for three different AMSR-E frequencies - 10.65, 18.7, and 36.5 GHz - at both vertical and horizontal polarization. The trained SVM is then used to predict TB during the assimilation phase. An ensemble Kalman filter will be used to condition the model on AMSR-E brightness temperatures not used during SVM training. The performance of the Noah-MP (with and without radiance assimilation) will be assessed via comparison to in-situ measurements, remotely-sensing geophysical retrievals, and other reanalysis products.

  11. STUDY ON THE RETRIEVAL OF SNOW DEPTH FROM FY3B/MWRI IN THE ATCTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available temperatures. Given the high albedo and low thermal conductivity, snow is regarded as one of the key reasons for the amplification of the warming in polar regions. The distributions of sea ice and snow depth are essential to the whole thermal conduction in the Arctic. This study focused on the retrieval of snow depth on sea ice from brightness temperatures of the MicroWave Radiometer Imager (MWRI onboard the FengYun (FY-3B satellite during the period from December 1, 2010 to April 30, 2011. After cross calibrated to the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–EOS (AMSR-E Level 2A data, the MWRI brightness temperatures were applied to calculate the sea ice concentrations based on the Arctic Radiation and Turbulence Interaction Study Sea Ice (ASI algorithm. According to the proportional relationship between the snow depth and the surface scattering in 18.7 and 36.5 GHz, the snow depths were derived. In order to eliminate the influence of uncertainties in grain sizes of snow as well as sporadic weather effects, the seven-day averaged snow depths were calculated. Then the results were compared with the snow depths from the AMSR-E Level 3 Sea Ice products. The bias of differences between the MWRI and the AMSR-E Level 3 products are ranged between −1.09 and −0.32 cm,while the standard deviations and the correlation coefficients are ranged from 2.47 to 2.88 cm and from 0.78 to 0.90 for different months. As a result, it could be summarized that FY3B/MWRI showed a promising prospect in retrieving snow depth on sea ice.

  12. Space-based passive microwave soil moisture retrievals and the correction for a dynamic open water fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Gouweleeuw

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The large observation footprint of low-frequency satellite microwave emissions complicates the interpretation of near-surface soil moisture retrievals. While the effect of sub-footprint lateral heterogeneity is relatively limited under unsaturated conditions, open water bodies (if not accounted for cause a strong positive bias in the satellite-derived soil moisture retrieval. This bias is generally assumed static and associated with large, continental lakes and coastal areas. Temporal changes in the extent of smaller water bodies as small as a few percent of the sensor footprint size, however, can cause significant and dynamic biases. We analysed the influence of such small open water bodies on near-surface soil moisture products derived from actual (non-synthetic data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System (AMSR-E for three areas in Oklahoma, USA. Differences between on-ground observations, model estimates and AMSR-E retrievals were related to dynamic estimates of open water fraction, one retrieved from a global daily record based on higher frequency AMSR-E data, a second derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and a third through inversion of the radiative transfer model, used to retrieve soil moisture. The comparison demonstrates the presence of relatively small areas (<0.05 of open water in or near the sensor footprint, possibly in combination with increased, below-critical vegetation density conditions (optical density <0.8, which contribute to seasonally varying biases in excess of 0.2 (m3 m−3 soil water content. These errors need to be addressed, either through elimination or accurate characterisation, if the soil moisture retrievals are to be used effectively in a data assimilation scheme.

  13. The Effect of the Redox Potential of Aqua Regia and Temperature on the Au, Cu, and Fe Dissolution from WPCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heini Elomaa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Constant growth in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE levels necessitates the development of new, commercially viable recycling processes. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs are a sub-group of WEEE that are of increasing interest due to their relatively high level of valuable metal content including Au, Ag, and platinum group metals (PGMs. Currently, precious metals like gold are mainly recycled from WEEE streams through copper smelting/refining; however, the possibility to peel gold from WPCBs prior to smelting, could offer advantages for recycling. In this study, the suitability of aqua regia for selective or partially selective gold leaching from un-crushed WPCBs was investigated. The redox potential of aqua regia solutions and the dissolution efficiencies of Au, Cu, and Fe from WPCBs were investigated at different temperatures (40–80 °C and concentrations (2–32% in batch leaching tests. The redox potential of aqua regia solution was found to depend on concentration and temperature. It is suggested that Au dissolution in aqua regia requires dissolved Cu2+ ions originating from the WPCB material to work. Au extraction (>50% was shown to require a redox potential >700 mV with [Cu2+] > 2500 ppm, as a potential >850 mV alone was insufficient without cupric ions. Significant amounts of Au and Cu could be dissolved with only minor Fe dissolution at ≥8% aqua regia at 80 °C. Results suggest that leaching of uncrushed WPCBs in 8% aqua regia (T = 80 °C can provide the opportunity for partial Au recovery prior to further processing.

  14. Simulation Of Aqua-Ammonia Refrigeration System Using The Cape-Open To Cape-Open COCO Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janavi Gohil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have simulated a flow sheet of aqua ammonia refrigeration system using Cape Open simulator. The main aim of writing this paper is to compare the results obtained from thermodynamic simulation of aqua ammonia refrigeration system and the results obtained from the flow sheet simulation in Cape-Open to Cape-Open COCO simulator. The corresponding COP values obtained from both the sources are calculated and compared. With the error being very minute the calculations using simulator prove to be more efficient and timesaving when compared to the results obtained by calculations done using tedious thermodynamic simulations and constant mass balance for different process conditions.

  15. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kantyka Joanna; Herman Damian; Roczniok Robert; Kuba Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg) that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165...

  16. PENGARUH SIKAP KONSUMEN TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN MINUMAN MEREK AQUA BERKAITAN DENGAN PENERAPAN PROGRAM CSR (CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Sarwoko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was purposed to explain the influence of consumers’ attitude toward their decision to purchase related to the application of CSR program. Consumers’ attitude toward the application of CSR program done by Aqua. Has been observed over cognitive and affective component. Analysis technique their used was in this research multiple regression technique analysis. The result of this research concluded that consumer had a positive attitude toward the application of Aqua CSR program. From this research, it could be proved that consumers’ attitude related to the application of CSR program significant effect toward consumers’ purchase decision

  17. AquaResp® — free open-source software for measuring oxygen consumption of resting aquatic animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Bushnell, Peter G.

    AquaResp® is a free open-source software program developed to measure the oxygen consumption of aquatic animals using intermittent flow techniques. This free program is based on Microsoft Excel, and uses the MCC Universal Library and a data acquisition board to acquire analogue readings from up...... to four input ports and output control via two digital and two analogue ports. In addition AquaResp can read one COM-port if the oxygen analyser has a RS-232 output signal. The present version of the program has options for parsing data strings generated by two major fibre optic oxygen electrode...

  18. Assessments and Applications of Terra and Aqua MODIS On-Orbit Electronic Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Na; Li, Yonghong; Wilson, Truman

    2016-01-01

    MODIS has 36 spectral bands located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs), covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 micrometers. MODIS bands 1-30 collect data using photovoltaic (PV) detectors and, therefore, are referred to as the PV bands. Similarly, bands 31-36 using photoconductive (PC) detectors are referred to as the PC bands.The MODIS instrument was built with a set of on-board calibrators (OBCs) in order to track on-orbit changes of its radiometric, spatial, and spectral characteristics. In addition, an electronic calibration (ECAL) function can be used to monitor on-orbit changes of its electronic responses (gains). This is accomplished via a series of stair step signals generated by the ECAL function. These signals, in place of the FPA detector signals, are amplified and digitized just like the detector signals. Over the entire mission of both Terra and Aqua MODIS,the ECAL has been performed for the PV bands and used to assess their on-orbit performance. This paper provides an overview of MODIS on-orbit calibration activities with a focus on the PV ECAL, including its calibration process and approaches used to monitor the electronic performance. It presents the results derived and lessons learned from Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit ECAL. Also discussed are some of the applications performed with the information provided by the ECAL data.

  19. Dinuclear ru-aqua complexes for selective epoxidation catalysis based on supramolecular substrate orientation effects

    KAUST Repository

    Di Giovanni, Carlo

    2014-03-03

    Ru-aqua complex {[RuII(trpy)(H2O)] 2(μ-pyr-dc)}+ is a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes. High turnover numbers (TNs), up to 17000, and turnover frequencies (TOF), up to 24120 h-1 (6.7 s -1), have been obtained using PhIO as oxidant. This species presents an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides. In addition, it shows different reactivity to cis and trans olefins due to a substrate orientation supramolecular effect transmitted by its ligand scaffold. This effect together with the impressive reaction rates are rationalized using electrochemical techniques and DFT calculations. A new Ru-aqua complex that behaves as a powerful epoxidation catalyst for a wide range of linear and cyclic alkenes is reported. High turnover numbers and frequencies are obtained by using PhIO as oxidant. The complex shows an outstanding stereospecificity for both cis and trans olefins towards the formation of their corresponding cis and trans epoxides (see figure). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Lutetium(III) aqua ion: On the dynamical structure of the heaviest lanthanoid hydration complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessa, Francesco; D’Angelo, Paola, E-mail: p.dangelo@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” P. le A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Spezia, Riccardo [CNRS, UMR 8587, Laboratoire Analyse et Modelisation Pour la Biologie et l’Environnement, Université d’Evry Val d’Essonne, Blvd. F. Mitterrand, 91025 Evry Cedex (France)

    2016-05-28

    The structure and dynamics of the lutetium(III) ion in aqueous solution have been investigated by means of a polarizable force field molecular dynamics (MD). An 8-fold square antiprism (SAP) geometry has been found to be the dominant configuration of the lutetium(III) aqua ion. Nevertheless, a low percentage of 9-fold complexes arranged in a tricapped trigonal prism (TTP) geometry has been also detected. Dynamic properties have been explored by carrying out six independent MD simulations for each of four different temperatures: 277 K, 298 K, 423 K, 632 K. The mean residence time of water molecules in the first hydration shell at room temperature has been found to increase as compared to the central elements of the lanthanoid series in agreement with previous experimental findings. Water exchange kinetic rate constants at each temperature and activation parameters of the process have been determined from the MD simulations. The obtained structural and dynamical results suggest that the water exchange process for the lutetium(III) aqua ion proceeds with an associative mechanism, in which the SAP hydration complex undergoes temporary structural changes passing through a 9-fold TTP intermediate. Such results are consistent with the water exchange mechanism proposed for heavy lanthanoid atoms.

  1. Sistem Monitoring Proses Produksi pada Mesin Bardi di PT. Tirta Investama (Danone Aqua Sukabumi Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Haryanto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses produksi pengisian air Aqua galon menggunakan mesin Bardi di PT. Tirta Investama Aqua Danone Sukabumi memiliki parameter-parameter proses yang harus selalu dipantau, sehingga jika terjadi nilai parameter yang melebihi atau kurang dari batas toleransi yang diberikan dapat segera dilakukan tidakan intervensi untuk menghindari terjadi kerusakan atau hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan. Sistem monitoring parameter proses produksi berbasis web dapat dimanfaatkan untuk memantau parameter-parameter pada mesin Bardi. Sistem ini terdiri atas perangkat keras dan perangkat lunak. Perangkat keras terdiri atas sensor-sensor yang dipasang pada mesin Bardi yang menghasilkan sinyal analog yang kemudian oleh PLC Allen Bradley data akan dikonversi menjadi data digital. Data akan dikirimkan secara real-time dan disimpan pada database server komputer dan disinkronisasikan dengan web server. Perangkat lunak pada pemograman website menggunakan Adobe Dreamweaver CS6 sebagai kontrol visual dan tampilan data menggunakan bahasa pemograman PHP dan database MySQL. Sistem monitoring proses produksi dapat memantau parameter-parameter mesin Bardi serta mentransmisikan data perubahan parameter proses produksi yang ditampilkan melalui aplikasi web.

  2. AquaPathogen X--A template database for tracking field isolates of aquatic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmenegger, Evi; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    AquaPathogen X is a template database for recording information on individual isolates of aquatic pathogens and is available for download from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) website (http://wfrc.usgs.gov). This template database can accommodate the nucleotide sequence data generated in molecular epidemiological studies along with the myriad of abiotic and biotic traits associated with isolates of various pathogens (for example, viruses, parasites, or bacteria) from multiple aquatic animal host species (for example, fish, shellfish, or shrimp). The simultaneous cataloging of isolates from different aquatic pathogens is a unique feature to the AquaPathogen X database, which can be used in surveillance of emerging aquatic animal diseases and clarification of main risk factors associated with pathogen incursions into new water systems. As a template database, the data fields are empty upon download and can be modified to user specifications. For example, an application of the template database that stores the epidemiological profiles of fish virus isolates, called Fish ViroTrak (fig. 1), was also developed (Emmenegger and others, 2011).

  3. Lunar calibration improvements for the short-wave infrared bands in Aqua and Terra MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Truman; Angal, Amit; Shrestha, Ashish; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key sensors among a suite of remote sensing instruments on board the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. Since the beginning of each mission, regularly scheduled lunar observations have been used in order to track the on-orbit gain changes of the reflective solar bands. However, for the short-wave infrared bands, 5-7 and 26, the measured signal is contaminated by both electronic crosstalk and an out-of-band response due to transmission through the MODIS filters at undesired wavelengths. These contaminating signals cause significant oscillations in the derived gain from lunar observations for these bands, which limits their use in determining the scan mirror response versus scan angle at these wavelengths. In this paper, we show a strategy for correcting the electronic crosstalk contamination using lunar observations, where the magnitude and the source of the contaminating signal is clear. For Aqua MODIS, we find that the magnitude of the electronic crosstalk contamination is small, and the lunar calibration remains relatively unaffected. For Terra MODIS, the contamination is more significant, and the electronic crosstalk correction shows a significant reduction in the oscillations of the lunar calibration results.

  4. Recent Progress on Cross-Comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS Calibration Using Dome C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Wenny, B.

    2009-01-01

    For the past few years, the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC has continued to evaluate the Terra and Aqua MODIS calibration long-term stability and their calibration consistency using sensor observations over the Dome Concordia, Antarctica. Early results from Dome C observations show that the calibration of bands I and 2 (0.65 and 0.86 micron) is consistent within 1-2% and bands 31 and 32 (11 and 12 micron) differences are less than a couple of tenths of Kelvin, demonstrating that this site can provide a useful calibration reference for a wide range of Earth-observing sensors from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Recently, the Dome C area has been endorsed by the CEOS as a reference standard site for sensor cross-comparison. This, as a result, has led to an invitation to the broad community to participate in a CEOS comparison of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance/reflectance over Dome C. In this paper, we provide a brief description of the methodologies and report our recent progress on cross-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS spectral bands using observations over this area, including data provided in support of the upcoming CEOS comparison. Emphasis of this paper is on the long-term data records of MODIS instruments, their calibration consistency, and challenging issues.

  5. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Parinussa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve soil moisture from the Earth's surface. Low frequency observations have the most sensitivity to soil moisture, therefore the current Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS and future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP satellite missions observe the Earth's surface in the L-band frequency. In the past, several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E and WindSat have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture using multi-channel observations obtained at higher microwave frequencies. While AMSR-E and WindSat lack an L-band channel, they are able to leverage multi-channel microwave observations to estimate additional land surface parameters. In particular, the availability of Ka-band observations allows AMSR-E and WindSat to obtain coincident surface temperature estimates required for the retrieval of surface soil moisture. In contrast, SMOS and SMAP carry only a single frequency radiometer and therefore lack an instrument suited to estimate the physical temperature of the Earth. Instead, soil moisture algorithms from these new generation satellites rely on ancillary sources of surface temperature (e.g. re-analysis or near real time data from weather prediction centres. A consequence of relying on such ancillary data is the need for temporal and spatial interpolation, which may introduce uncertainties. Here, two newly-developed, large-scale soil moisture evaluation techniques, the triple collocation (TC approach and the Rvalue data assimilation approach, are applied to quantify the global-scale impact of replacing Ka-band based surface temperature retrievals with Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA surface temperature output on the accuracy of WindSat and AMSR-E based surface soil moisture retrievals. Results demonstrate that under sparsely vegetated conditions, the use of

  6. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 Km Grid (Short name: MYD11A1) products incorporate 1-km pixels, which are produced daily using the generalized split-window LST...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E Monthly L3 Global CMG product (Short name: MYD11C3) is a monthly composited average, derived from the MYD11C1 daily global product, and stored...

  8. Instrumentation of the model in scaled 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter

    The objective of this report is to provide guidelines for the instrumentation of a model in scale 1:10 to prototype of the AquaBuOY wave energy converter. The model will be located in Nissum Bredning area: this is an important waterway already used by Aalborg University for real sea tests of wave...

  9. Challenges of linking scientific knowledge to river basin management policy: AquaTerra as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob, A.; Rijnveld, M.

    2007-01-01

    The EU Project AquaTerra generates knowledge about the river-soil-sediment-groundwater system and delivers scientific information of value for river basin management. In this article, the use and ignorance of scientific knowledge in decision making is explored by a theoretical review. We elaborate

  10. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD05_L2). MODIS was launched aboard the Terra satellite on December 18, 1999 (10:30 am equator...

  11. MODIS/Aqua L2 Surface Reflectance, 5-Min Swath 250m, 500m, and 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua L2 Surface Reflectance, 5-Min Swath 250m, 500m, and 1km (MYD09). This product is computed from the MODIS Level 1B land bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7...

  12. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alunno-Bruscia, M.; v.d. Veer, H.; Kooijman, S.A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5. years' project,

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 6km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global 1 km Grid (Short name: MYD11B1) products incorporate 6 km pixels (4.63 km pixels for versions prior to V005), which are produced daily...

  14. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/Emissivity Daily L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua LST/E L3 Global CMG (Short name: MYD11C1) products incorporate 0.05 degree (5600 meters at the equator) pixels, which are derived from the MOD11B1...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  16. Respiratory toxicity of cyanobacterial aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 in the zebrafish gill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, De Lu, E-mail: deluzh@163.com [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Si Yi [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Jing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhang, Jian Kun [Department of Lifescience and Biotechnology, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hu, Chun Xiang, E-mail: cxhu@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Liu, Yong Ding [Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Aphantoxin causes physiological and histological changes in zebrafish gills. • Changes in gill enzymes (ALT, AST) and ultrastructure demonstrate injury. • Reduced AChE and MAO activity suggest altered neurotransmitter inactivation. - Abstract: Aphantoxins from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are frequently identified in eutrophic waterbodies worldwide. These toxins severely endanger environmental safety and human health due to the production of paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs). Although the molecular mechanisms of aphantoxin neurotoxicity have been studied, many questions remain to be resolved such as in vivo alterations in branchial histology and neurotransmitter inactivation induced by these neurotoxins. Aphantoxins extracted from a naturally isolated strain of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The basic components of the isolated aphantoxins identified were gonyautoxin 1 (GTX1), gonyautoxin 5 (GTX5), and neosaxitoxin (neoSTX), which comprised 34.04, 21.28, and 12.77% of the total, respectively. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) was administrated 5.3 or 7.61 mg STX equivalents (eq)/kg (low and high doses, respectively) of the A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins by intraperitoneal injection. Histological alterations and changes in neurotransmitter inactivation in the gills of zebrafish were investigated for 24 h following exposure. Aphantoxin exposure significantly increased the activities of gill alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and resulted in histological alterations in the gills during the first 12 h of exposure, indicating the induction of functional and structural damage. Gill acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities were inhibited significantly, suggesting an alteration of neurotransmitter inactivation in zebrafish gills. The observed alterations in gill structure and function followed a time- and dose-dependent pattern. The results demonstrate that

  17. Numerical simulation study of polar lows in Russian Arctic: dynamical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verezemskaya, Polina; Baranyuk, Anastasia; Stepanenko, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Polar Lows (hereafter PL) are intensive mesoscale cyclones, appearing above the sea surface, usually behind the arctic front and characterized by severe weather conditions [1]. All in consequence of the global warming PLs started to emerge in the arctic water area as well - in summer and autumn. The research goal is to examine PLs by considering multisensory data and the resulting numerical mesoscale model. The main purpose was to realize which conditions induce PL development in such thermodynamically unusual season and region as Kara sea. In order to conduct the analysis we used visible and infrared images from MODIS (Aqua). Atmospheric water vapor V, cloud liquid water Q content and surface wind fields W were resampled by examining AMSR-E microwave radiometer data (Aqua)[2], the last one was additionally extracted from QuickSCAT scatterometer. We have selected some PL cases in Kara sea, appeared in autumn of 2007-2008. Life span of the PL was between 24 to 36 hours. Vortexes' characteristics were: W from 15m/s, Q and V values: 0.08-0.11 kg/m2 and 8-15 kg/m2 relatively. Numerical experiments were carried out with Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), which was installed on supercomputer "Lomonosov" of Research Computing Center of Moscow State University [3]. As initial conditions was used reanalysis data ERA-Interim from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Numerical experiments were made with 5 km spatial resolution, with Goddard center microphysical parameterization and explicit convection simulation. Modeling fields were compared with satellite observations and shown good accordance. Than dynamic characteristics were analyzed: evolution of potential and absolute vorticity [4], surface heat and momentum fluxes, and CAPE and WISHE mechanisms realization. 1. Polar lows, J. Turner, E.A. Rasmussen, 612, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 2003. 2. Zabolotskikh, E. V., Mitnik, L. M., & Chapron, B. (2013). New approach for severe marine

  18. Evaluation and Inter-Comparison of Satellite Soil Moisture Products Using In Situ Observations over Texas, U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram L. Ray

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to evaluate four major remote sensing soil moisture (SM products over the state of Texas. These remote sensing products are: (i the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System (AMSR-E (2002–September 2011; (ii the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity system (SMOS, 2010–present; (iii AMSR2 (2012–present; and (iv the Soil Moisture Active Passive system (SMAP, 2015–present. The quality of the generated SM data is influenced by the accuracy and precision of the sensors and the retrieval algorithms used in processing raw data. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the quality of these satellite SM products using in situ measurements and/or by inter-comparing their data during overlapping periods. In this study, these two approaches were used where we compared each satellite SM product to in situ soil moisture measurements and we also conducted an inter-comparison of the four satellite SM products at 15 different locations in Texas over six major land cover types (cropland, shrub, grassland, forest, pasture and developed and eight climate zones along with in situ SM data from 15 Mesonet, USCRN and USDA-NRCS Scan stations. Results show that SM data from SMAP had the best correlation coefficients range from 0.37 to 0.92 with in situ measurements among the four tested satellite surface SM products. On the other hand, SM data from SMOS, AMSR2 and AMSR-E had moderate to low correlation coefficients ranges with in situ data, respectively, from 0.24–0.78, 0.07–0.62 and 0.05–0.52. During the overlapping periods, average root mean square errors (RMSEs of the correlations between in situ and each satellite data were 0.13 (AMSR-E and 0.13 (SMOS cm3/cm3 (2010–2011, 0.16 (AMSR2 and 0.14 (SMOS cm3/cm3 (2012–2016 and 0.13, 0.16, 0.14 (SMAP, AMSR2, SMOS cm3/cm3 (2015–2016, respectively. Despite the coarser spatial resolution of all four satellite products (25–36 km, their SM measurements are

  19. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigation sequences using 10 years daily weather data. The simulation results suggest that “2 irrigation frequency” is the most water-efficient schedule for wheat under the prevailing climatic and soil conditions. The results also indicate decreasing yield trend under late sowing. The normal/recommended sequence of irrigation performed better than the seven-days shifting from the normal. The results will help to formulate irrigation management plan based on the resource availability (water, and land availability from previous crop.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Deflation in Covariance and Resultant Pc Values for AQUA, AURA and TERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed O.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will display statistical analysis performed for raw conjunction CDMs received for the EOS Aqua, Aura and Terra satellites within the period of February 2015 through July 2016. The analysis performed indicates a discernable deflation in covariance calculated at the JSpOC after the utilization of the dynamic drag consider parameter was implemented operationally in May 2015. As a result, the overall diminution in the conjunction plane intersection of the primary and secondary objects appears to be leading to reduced probability of collision (Pc) values for these conjunction events. This presentation also displays evidence for this theory with analysis of Pc trending plots using data calculated by the SpaceNav CRMS system.

  1. Poly[aqua(μ3-pyridazine-4-carboxylato-κ2O:O:O′lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Starosta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H3N2O2(H2O]n, is composed of centrosymmetric dimers in which two LiI ions are bridged by a carboxylate O atom, each donated by a ligand, acting in a bidentate mode. The second carboxylato O atoms bridge the dimers to LiI ions in adjacent dimers, forming molecular layers parallel to (001. Each LiI ion is coordinated by two bridging carboxylate O atoms, a bridging carboxylate O atom donated by the adjacent dimer and an aqua O atom, resulting in a distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry. The layers are held together by O—H...N hydrogen bonds in which coordinated water O atoms act as donors and ligand hetero-ring N atoms as acceptors.

  2. Terra, Aqua, and Aura Direct Broadcast - Providing Earth Science Data for Realtime Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Coronado, Patrick L.; Case, Warren F.; Franklin, Ameilia

    2010-01-01

    The need for realtime data to aid in disaster management and monitoring has been clearly demonstrated for the past several years, e.g., during the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, the hurricane Katrina in 2005, fires, etc. Users want (and often require) the means to get earth observation data for operational regional use as soon as they are generated by satellites. This is especially true for events that can cause loss of human life and/or property. To meet this need, NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites, Terra and Aqua, provide realtime data useful to disaster management teams. This paper describes the satellites, their Direct Broadcast (DB) capabilities, the data uses, what it takes to deploy a DB ground station, and the future of the DB.

  3. Assessment of diverse algorithms applied on MODIS Aqua and Terra data over land surfaces in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, P.; Tesche, M.

    2012-04-01

    Beside an increase of greenhouse gases (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) human activities (for instance fossil fuel and biomass burning) have lead to perturbation of the atmospheric content of aerosol particles. Aerosols exhibits high spatial and temporal variability in the atmosphere. Therefore, aerosol investigation for climate research and environmental control require the identification of source regions, their strength and aerosol type, which can be retrieved based on space-borne observations. The aim of the present study is to validate and evaluate AOT (aerosol optical thickness) and Ångström exponent, obtained with the SAER (Satellite AErosol Retrieval) algorithm for MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra calibrated level 1 data (1 km horizontal resolution at ground), against AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) observations and MODIS Collection 5 (c005) standard product retrievals (10 km), respectively, over land surfaces in Europe for the seasons; early spring (period 1), mid spring (period 2) and summer (period 3). For several of the cases analyzed here the Aqua and Terra satellites passed the investigation area twice during a day. Thus, beside a variation in the sun elevation the satellite aerosol retrievals have also on a daily basis been performed with a significant variation in the satellite-viewing geometry. An inter-comparison of the two algorithms has also been performed. The validation with AERONET shows that the MODIS c005 retrieved AOT is, for the wavelengths 0.469 and 0.500 nm, on the whole within the expected uncertainty for one standard deviation of the MODIS retrievals over Europe (Δτ = ±0.05 ± 0.15τ). The SAER estimated AOT for the wavelength 0.443 nm also agree reasonable well with AERONET. Thus, the majority of the SAER AOT values are within the MODIS expected uncertainty range, although somewhat larger RMSD (root mean square deviation) occurs compared to the results obtained with the

  4. Tetra-aqua-bis-[2-(2-nitro-phen-yl)acetato-κO]cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Iftikhar, Sana; Raza, Muhammad Asam; Ashfaq, Muhammad

    2015-03-01

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, [Co(C8H6NO4)2(H2O)4], is centrosymmetric. It is a cobalt(II) complex, bearing two (2-nitro-phen-yl)acetate and four aqua ligands. The coordination around the Co(II) atom is distorted octa-hedral, defined by four O atoms of water mol-ecules in the equatorial plane and by two carboxyl-ate O atoms at axial positions. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the acetate and nitro groups are 61.90 (10) and 19.21 (11)°, respectively. The water mol-ecules form O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds with the nitro and carboxyl-ate groups, leading to a layered structural arrangement parallel to (001).

  5. Poly[μ2-aqua-μ2-(pyrazine-2-carboxylato-lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Starosta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, [Li(C5H3N2O2(H2O]n, contains an LiI ion with a distorted trigonal–bipyramidal coordination environment involving the N and O atoms of pyrazine-2-carboxylate ligands with a bridging carboxylate group, and two aqua O atoms also in a bridging mode. The symmetry-related LiI ions bridged by a carboxylate O atom and a coordinating water O atom form an Li2O2 unit with an Li...Li distance of 3.052 (4 Å, which generates molecular ribbons propagating in the c-axis direction. The ribbons are held together by a network of O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the coordinating water molecules act as donors and the carboxylate O atoms as acceptors.

  6. The MODIS cloud optical and microphysical products: Collection 6 updates and examples from Terra and Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry G.; King, Michael D.; Wind, Galina; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Marchant, Benjamin; Arnold, G. Thomas; Zhang, Zhibo; Hubanks, Paul A.; Holz, Robert E.; Yang, Ping; Ridgway, William L.; Riedi, Jérôme

    2018-01-01

    The MODIS Level-2 cloud product (Earth Science Data Set names MOD06 and MYD06 for Terra and Aqua MODIS, respectively) provides pixel-level retrievals of cloud-top properties (day and night pressure, temperature, and height) and cloud optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, and water path for both liquid water and ice cloud thermodynamic phases–daytime only). Collection 6 (C6) reprocessing of the product was completed in May 2014 and March 2015 for MODIS Aqua and Terra, respectively. Here we provide an overview of major C6 optical property algorithm changes relative to the previous Collection 5 (C5) product. Notable C6 optical and microphysical algorithm changes include: (i) new ice cloud optical property models and a more extensive cloud radiative transfer code lookup table (LUT) approach, (ii) improvement in the skill of the shortwave-derived cloud thermodynamic phase, (iii) separate cloud effective radius retrieval datasets for each spectral combination used in previous collections, (iv) separate retrievals for partly cloudy pixels and those associated with cloud edges, (v) failure metrics that provide diagnostic information for pixels having observations that fall outside the LUT solution space, and (vi) enhanced pixel-level retrieval uncertainty calculations. The C6 algorithm changes collectively can result in significant changes relative to C5, though the magnitude depends on the dataset and the pixel’s retrieval location in the cloud parameter space. Example Level-2 granule and Level-3 gridded dataset differences between the two collections are shown. While the emphasis is on the suite of cloud optical property datasets, other MODIS cloud datasets are discussed when relevant. PMID:29657349

  7. Aqua Cycling Does Not Affect Recovery of Performance, Damage Markers, and Sensation of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Sanno, Maximilian; Ellenberg, Karoline; Frick, Hosea; Böhm, Ezra; Haiduck, Björn; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Achtzehn, Silvia; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Mester, Joachim; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Wahl, P, Sanno, M, Ellenberg, K, Frick, H, Böhm, E, Haiduck, B, Goldmann, J-P, Achtzehn, S, Brüggemann, G-P, Mester, J, and Bloch, W. Aqua cycling does not affect recovery of performance, damage markers, and sensation of pain. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 162-170, 2017-To examine the effects of aqua cycling (AC) vs. passive recovery (P) on performance, markers of muscle damage, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), and the persons perceived physical state (PEPS) after 300 countermovement jumps (CMJs). Twenty male participants completed 300 CMJs. Afterward, they were randomly assigned to either the P group or the AC group, the latter performing 30 minutes of AC. Before, directly after the 300 CMJs, after the recovery session, and up to 72 hours post, performance of leg extensor muscles, damage markers, the PEPS, and DOMS were measured. Jumping height during 300 CMJs significantly decreased in both groups (AC: 13.4% and P: 14.6%). Maximal isometric strength (AC: 21% and P: 22%) and dynamic fatigue test (AC: 35% and P: 39%) of leg extensor muscles showed significant decreases in both groups. Myoglobin, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased over time in both groups. Each of the 4 dimensions of the PEPS and DOMS showed significant changes over time. However, no significant differences between both groups were found for any of the parameters. Coaches and athletes should be aware that vertical jumping-induced fatigue decreases the ability to generate maximal isometric and submaximal dynamic force for more than 3 days after training. A single 30-minute session of AC was not able to attenuate the effects on muscular performance, markers of muscle damage, DOMS, or the PEPS compared with passive rest.

  8. Launching the AquaMAV: bioinspired design for aerial–aquatic robotic platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, R; Kovač, M

    2014-01-01

    Current Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) are greatly limited by being able to operate in air only. Designing multimodal MAVs that can fly effectively, dive into the water and retake flight would enable applications of distributed water quality monitoring, search and rescue operations and underwater exploration. While some can land on water, no technologies are available that allow them to both dive and fly, due to dramatic design trade-offs that have to be solved for movement in both air and water and due to the absence of high-power propulsion systems that would allow a transition from underwater to air. In nature, several animals have evolved design solutions that enable them to successfully transition between water and air, and move in both media. Examples include flying fish, flying squid, diving birds and diving insects. In this paper, we review the biological literature on these multimodal animals and abstract their underlying design principles in the perspective of building a robotic equivalent, the Aquatic Micro Air Vehicle (AquaMAV). Building on the inspire–abstract–implement bioinspired design paradigm, we identify key adaptations from nature and designs from robotics. Based on this evaluation we propose key design principles for the design of successful aerial–aquatic robots, i.e. using a plunge diving strategy for water entry, folding wings for diving efficiency, water jet propulsion for water takeoff and hydrophobic surfaces for water shedding and dry flight. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of the water jet propulsion by building a proof-of-concept water jet propulsion mechanism with a mass of 2.6 g that can propel itself up to 4.8 m high, corresponding to 72 times its size. This propulsion mechanism can be used for AquaMAV but also for other robotic applications where high-power density is of use, such as for jumping and swimming robots. (topical review)

  9. STUDI PERSEBARAN TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLID (TSS MENGGUNAKAN CITRA AQUA MODIS DI LAUT SENUNU, NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maya Andini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Laut Senunu adalah wilayah perairan laut yang masuk ke dalam kawasan Coral Triangle (Segitiga Terumbu Karang yang  terletak di Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara Barat. Kawasan Segitiga Terumbu Karang ini merupakan kawasan terkaya akan kehidupan laut di antara semua laut di Planet Bumi. Perairan laut Indonesia selalu berada dalam pengaruh berat baik dari aktifitas, perusahaan, minyak, transportasi laut serta aktifitas warga di daerah pesisir maupun daerah aliran sungai yang bermuara ke laut tersebut. Aktifitas tersebut membawa banyak penyebab resiko terjadinya kerusakan alam dan dapat berakibat merusak sumber daya laut.Data yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan persebaran TSS adalah data ground truth, hasil pengolahan citra Aqua MODIS. Data ground truth merupakan hasil pengambilan sampel berupa air laut yang selanjutnya dilakukan pengolahan di laboratorium. Proses pengolahan citra satelit menggunakan prinsip remote sensing, dimana citra menggunakan algoritma Ocean Color 4 (OC4 – V4Hasil dalam penelitian ini adalah peta persebaran TSS di Laut Senunu, Nusa Tenggara Barat dan analisa beberapa data diantaranya data citra terhadap ground truth, analisa data lapangan, analisa konsentrasi klorofil-a secara temporal, dan analisa parameter yang dapat mempengaruhi nilai dan sebaran TSS. Berdasarkan pada proses analisa dapat disimpulkan bahwa Aqua MODIS memiliki korelasi yang lemah terhadap data ground truth dengan nilai koefisien korelasi sebesar R² = 81,3%. Secara temporal, konsentrasi TSS di laut Senunu berada pada rentang konsentrasi rendah yaitu sekitar 0,5 – 38 mg/l (tahun 2003 dan 2009, 0,06 – 0,1 (tahun 2013, sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa kualitas air di laut Senunu tergolong bersih. Persebaran konsentrasi TSS di laut Senunu pada setiap stasiun tidak merata dan cenderung berubah-ubah. Hal ini dikarenakan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi seperti arus perairan, angin, waktu pengambilan data dan kondisi fisik perairan.

  10. MODIS/Aqua Cloud Mask and Spectral Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath 250m and 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 4, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  11. MODIS/Aqua Cld Mask Spect. Test Results 5-Min L2 Swath Subset along MLS V002 (MAM35S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  12. MODIS/Aqua Geolocation Fields 1km 5-Min 1A Swath Subset along MLS V002 (MAM03S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Temp and Water Vapor Profile 5-Min L2 Swath Subset 5km subset along MLS V002 (MAM07S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  14. MODIS/Aqua Aerosol 5-Min L2 Swath Subset 10km along MLS V002 (MAM04S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  15. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 1km and 5km 5-Min L2 Swath Subset along MLS V002 (MAM06S0) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the MODIS/Aqua subset along MLS field of view track. The goal of the subset is to select and return MODIS data that are within +-100 km across the MLS track....

  16. AquaScan: A miniaturized UV/VIS/IR hyperspectral imager for autonomous airborne and underwater imaging spectroscopy of coastal & oceanic environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AquaScan, a miniaturized UV/VIS/NIR hyperspectral imager will be built for deployment on a UAV or small manned aircraft for ocean coastal remote sensing...

  17. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRS3STM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  18. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRX3STM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  19. AIRS/Aqua L3 Daily Support Daily Product (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRH3SPD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  20. AIRS/Aqua L3 8-day Support Multiday Product (AIRS+AMSU) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRX3SP8) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  1. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS-only) 5 degrees x 5 degrees V006 (AIRS3QPM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  2. AIRS/Aqua L3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRX3STD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 support retrieval (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2SPC) at GES DISC) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) 5 degrees x 5 degrees V006 (AIRX3QPM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  5. AIRS/Aqua L3 5-day Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) 5 degrees x 5 degrees V006 (AIRX3QP5) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  6. AIRS/Aqua L3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRS3STD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  7. AIRS/Aqua L3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRX3ST8) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  8. AIRS/Aqua L3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRH3ST8) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  9. AIRS/Aqua L3 8-day Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS-only) 1 degree X 1 degree V006 (AIRS3ST8) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  10. AIRS/Aqua L3 Daily Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRH3STD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  11. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  12. OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km V003 (OMMYDCLD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura and MODIS/Aqua Merged Cloud Product 1-Orbit L2 Swath 13x24 km (OMMYDCLD) is a Level-2 orbital product that combines cloud parameters retrieved by the...

  13. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  14. AIRS/Aqua L2 CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2STC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  15. AIRS/Aqua Level 2 CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005 (AIRS2STC) at GES DISC V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  16. AIRS/Aqua L2 CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005 (AIRX2STC) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  17. AIRS/Aqua L3 Monthly Standard Physical Retrieval (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRH3STM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  18. AIRS/Aqua L1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005 (AIRABRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the NASA Aqua satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a scientific instrument (radiometer) launched by NASA in 2002 on board the Aqua satellite platform (a...

  20. Harmful Algal Blooms in the Mississippi Sound and Mobile Bay: Using MODIS Aqua and In Situ Data for HABs in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holiday, Dan; Carter, Gregory; Gould, Richard W; MacIntyre, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    ... 2006 along wi concurrent MODIS Aqua weekly composite or same-day imagery. In situ or satellite-derived water properties included surface temperature, salinity, Chla, TSS, CDOM, and nutrient levels...

  1. Model of recreational and training sessions based on the use of funds aqua professionally applied in the preparation of students of economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Petrenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study, develop and test a model of health-training exercises with the use of aqua. Material: in the experiment involved 69 students aged 17-18 years. Results : It was found that the developed model has a positive effect on physical performance of students promotes adaptive processes to the future professional activity and improve the learning process. Should consider the following: 1 the means and methods should be adequate aqua morphofunctional features and enhance the activity of the cardiovascular system, general endurance, power capabilities, flexibility, neurobehavioral performance, and 2 as a means of aqua aerobic exercise is advisable to use orientation and moderate intensity, and 3 use tools and techniques aqua should foster interest in a systematic and independent physical activities. Conclusions : the model promotes the development and improvement of the skills and abilities necessary to the future experts in economics.

  2. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) 24-hour Spacecraft ephemeris/orbit data files to be read via SDP Toolkit Binary Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PM1EPHND is the Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) daily spacecraft definitive ephemeris data file in native format. This is MODIS Ancillary Data. The data collection...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) geolocated and calibrated radiances V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  4. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B AMSU (A1/A2) geolocated and calibrated brightness temperatures V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  5. AIRS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Level 1B Visible/Near Infrared (VIS/NIR) quality assurance subset V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a facility instrument aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In combination...

  6. AIRS/Aqua L3 8-day Support Multiday Product (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) 1 degree x 1 degree V006 (AIRH3SP8) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a grating spectrometer (R = 1200) aboard the second Earth Observing System (EOS) polar-orbiting platform, EOS Aqua. In...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Total Precipitable Water Vapor 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  8. AquaDiva: Understanding the Link between the Surface and Subsurface Biogeosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, S.; Küsel, K.; Totsche, K. U.; Schwab, V.; Herrmann, M.; Nowak, M. E.; Gleixner, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the collaborative research project AquaDiva, we combine hydrogeochemical, metagemonic and biogeochemical tools to understand how the complex interactions between geologic setting and surface land use influence the function and biodiversity of the subsurface, especially ground water ecosystems. At the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory in central Germany, we investigate soil and seepage waters in recharge areas and aquifers in a fractured limestone setting characterized by a dynamic water infiltration regime. Within the Exploratory, we have so far identified three distinct biogeochemical zones in which land use and lithologic differences combine to give rise to surprisingly different biotic communities and hydrogeochemical properties with different degrees of connection to the surface. Here we will focus on how we have combined carbon isotopic, organic biomarkers such as phospholipid fatty acids, and `omics' approaches to determine (i) how deep soil-borne microorganisms can be traced into the subsurface, and (ii) which energy sources sustain microbial life in oligotrophic limestone aquifers. With increasing travel distance to the surface, there is a decline in the abundance of microbes, with less than 5% of the taxa identified overlapping with those identified in the soils. Dissolved organic matter also is altered as it passes through soils, demonstrating an overall increase in molecular weight and a change in molecular makeup as well as radiocarbon content. Using the radiocarbon signature (corrected for the influence of carbonate dissolution), as a way to identify if organic C is being supplied recently by plants, atmosphere sources of energy for communities within the aquifer differ for the identified biogeochemical zones and include (i) dominance of inputs of fresh organic carbon from the surface feeding heterotrophy in oxygenic environments; (ii) CO2 fixation linked to nitrogen and sulfur cycling in anoxic environments and (iii) rock-derived organic matter

  9. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  10. Impact of High Resolution SST Data on Regional Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Case, Jonathon; LaFontaine, Frank; Vazquez, Jorge; Mattocks, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown that the use of coarse resolution SST products such as from the real-time global (RTG) SST analysis[1] or other coarse resolution once-a-day products do not properly portray the diurnal variability of fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean that drive the formation of low level clouds and precipitation over the ocean. For example, the use of high resolution MODIS SST composite [2] to initialize the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) (ARW) [3] has been shown to improve the prediction of sensible weather parameters in coastal regions [4][5}. In an extend study, [6] compared the MODIS SST composite product to the RTG SST analysis and evaluated forecast differences for a 6 month period from March through August 2007 over the Florida coastal regions. In a comparison to buoy data, they found that that the MODIS SST composites reduced the bias and standard deviation over that of the RTG data. These improvements led to significant changes in the initial and forecasted heat fluxes and the resulting surface temperature fields, wind patterns, and cloud distributions. They also showed that the MODIS composite SST product, produced for the Terra and Aqua satellite overpass times, captured a component of the diurnal cycle in SSTs not represented in the RTG or other one-a-day SST analyses. Failure to properly incorporate these effects in the WRF initialization cycle led to temperature biases in the resulting short term forecasts. The forecast impact was limited in some situations however, due to composite product inaccuracies brought about by data latency during periods of long-term cloud cover. This paper focuses on the forecast impact of an enhanced MODIS/AMSR-E composite SST product designed to reduce inaccuracies due data latency in the MODIS only composite product.

  11. Global Space-Based Inter-Calibration System Reflective Solar Calibration Reference: From Aqua MODIS to S-NPP VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Butler, James; Cao, Changyong; Doelling, Daivd; Wu, Aisheng; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-01-01

    The MODIS has successfully operated on-board the NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft for more than 16 and 14 years, respectively. MODIS instrument was designed with stringent calibration requirements and comprehensive on-board calibration capability. In the reflective solar spectral region, Aqua MODIS has performed better than Terra MODIS and, therefore, has been chosen by the Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) operational community as the calibration reference sensor in cross-sensor calibration and calibration inter-comparisons. For the same reason, it has also been used by a number of earth observing sensors as their calibration reference. Considering that Aqua MODIS has already operated for nearly 14 years, it is essential to transfer its calibration to a follow-on reference sensor with a similar calibration capability and stable performance. The VIIRS is a follow-on instrument to MODIS and has many similar design features as MODIS, including their on-board calibrators (OBC). As a result, VIIRS is an ideal candidate to replace MODIS to serve as the future GSICS reference sensor. Since launch, the S-NPP VIIRS has already operated for more than 4 years and its overall performance has been extensively characterized and demonstrated to meet its overall design requirements. This paper provides an overview of Aqua MODIS and S-NPP VIIRS reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration methodologies and strategies, traceability, and their on-orbit performance. It describes and illustrates different methods and approaches that can be used to facilitate the calibration reference transfer, including the use of desert and Antarctic sites, deep convective clouds (DCC), and the lunar observations.

  12. Validation of JAXA/MODIS Sea Surface Temperature in Water around Taiwan Using the Terra and Aqua Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research vessel-based Conductivity Temperature Depth profiler (CTD provides underwater measurements of the bulk sea surface temperature (SST at the depths of shallower than 5 m. The CTD observations of the seas around Taiwan provide useful data for comparison with SST of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers aboard Aqua and Terra satellites archived by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. We produce a high-resolution (1 km MODIS SST by using Multi-Channel SST (MCSST algorithm. There were 1516 cloud-free match-up data pairs of MODIS SST and in situ measurements during the period from 2003 - 2005. The difference of the root mean square error (RMSE of satellite observations from each platform during the day and at night was: 0.88°C in Aqua daytime, 0.71°C in Aqua nighttime, 0.71°C in Terra daytime, and 0.60°C in Terra nighttime. The total analysis of MODIS-derived SST shows good agreement with a bias of 0.03°C and RMSE of 0.75°C. The analyses indicate that the bias of Aqua daytime was always positive throughout the year and the large RMSE should be attributed to the large positive bias (0.45°C under diurnal warming. It was also found that the bias of Terra daytime was usually negative with a mean bias of -0.41°C; its large RMSE should be treated with care because of low solar radiation in the morning.

  13. Microbiology of healing mud (fango) from Roman Thermae Aquae Iasae Archaeological Site (Varaždinske Toplice, Croatia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mulec, J.; Krištůfek, Václav; Chroňáková, Alica; Oarga, A.; Scharfen, J.; Šestauberová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2015), s. 293-306 ISSN 0095-3628 Grant - others:Slovenian Research Agency(SI) J6-0152; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) P6-0119; Slovenian Research Agency(SI) L1-5453 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : microbiology * healing mud * Roman Thermae Aquae Iasae Archaeological Site * Varaždinske Toplice Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2015

  14. Use of LST images from MODIS/AQUA sensor as an indication of frost occurrence in RS

    OpenAIRE

    Débora de S. Simões; Denise C. Fontana; Matheus B. Vicari

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTAlthough frost occurrence causes severe losses in agriculture, especially in the south of Brazil, the data of minimum air temperature (Tmin) currently available for monitoring and predicting frosts show insufficient spatial distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the MDY11A1 (LST – Land Surface Temperature) product, from the MODIS sensor on board the AQUA satellite as an estimator of frost occurrence in the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LST images from ...

  15. Use of LST images from MODIS/AQUA sensor as an indication of frost occurrence in RS

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Débora de S.; Fontana, Denise C.; Vicari, Matheus B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTAlthough frost occurrence causes severe losses in agriculture, especially in the south of Brazil, the data of minimum air temperature (Tmin) currently available for monitoring and predicting frosts show insufficient spatial distribution. This study aimed to evaluate the MDY11A1 (LST – Land Surface Temperature) product, from the MODIS sensor on board the AQUA satellite as an estimator of frost occurrence in the southeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. LST images from the ni...

  16. Volatile organic compounds released from Microcystis flos-aquae under nitrogen sources and their toxic effects on Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghuan; Yang, Lin; Yang, Wangting; Bai, Yan; Hou, Ping; Zhao, Jingxian; Zhou, Lv; Zuo, Zhaojiang

    2017-01-01

    Eutrophication promotes massive growth of cyanobacteria and algal blooms, which can poison other algae and reduce biodiversity. To investigate the differences in multiple nitrogen (N) sources in eutrophicated water on the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cyanobacteria, and their toxic effects on other algal growth, we analyzed VOCs emitted from Microcystis flos-aquae with different types and concentrations of nitrogen, and determined the effects under Normal-N and Non-N conditions on Chlorella vulgaris. M. flos-aquae released 27, 22, 20, 27, 19, 25 and 17 compounds, respectively, with NaNO 3 , NaNO 2 , NH 4 Cl, urea, Ser, Lys and Arg as the sole N source. With the reduction in N amount, the emission of VOCs was increased markedly, and the most VOCs were found under Non-N condition. C. vulgaris cell propagation, photosynthetic pigment and Fv/Fm declined significantly following exposure to M. flos-aquae VOCs under Non-N condition, but not under Normal-N condition. When C. vulgaris cells were treated with two terpenoids, eucalyptol and limonene, the inhibitory effects were enhanced with increasing concentrations. Therefore, multiple N sources in eutrophicated water induce different VOC emissions from cyanobacteria, and reduction in N can cause nutrient competition, which can result in emissions of more VOCs. Those VOCs released from M. flos-aquae cells under Non-N for nutrient competition can inhibit other algal growth. Among those VOCs, eucalyptol and limonene are the major toxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Möhler, O.; Saathoff, H.; Schiller, C.; Ebert, V.; Krämer, M.; Peter, T.; Amarouche, N.; Avallone, L. M.; Bauer, R.; Bozóki, Z.; Christensen, L. E.; Davis, S. M.; Durry, G.; Dyroff, C.; Herman, R. L.; Hunsmann, S.; Khaykin, S. M.; Mackrodt, P.; Meyer, J.; Smith, J. B.; Spelten, N.; Troy, R. F.; Vömel, H.; Wagner, S.; Wienhold, F. G.

    2014-09-01

    The AquaVIT-1 intercomparison of atmospheric water vapor measurement techniques was conducted at the aerosol and cloud simulation chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, in October 2007. The overall objective was to intercompare state-of-the-art and prototype atmospheric hygrometers with each other and with independent humidity standards under controlled conditions. This activity was conducted as a blind intercomparison with coordination by selected referees. The effort was motivated by persistent discrepancies found in atmospheric measurements involving multiple instruments operating on research aircraft and balloon platforms, particularly in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, where water vapor reaches its lowest atmospheric values (less than 10 ppm). With the AIDA chamber volume of 84 m3, multiple instruments analyzed air with a common water vapor mixing ratio, by extracting air into instrument flow systems, by locating instruments inside the chamber, or by sampling the chamber volume optically. The intercomparison was successfully conducted over 10 days during which pressure, temperature, and mixing ratio were systematically varied (50 to 500 hPa, 185 to 243 K, and 0.3 to 152 ppm). In the absence of an accepted reference instrument, the absolute accuracy of the instruments was not established. To evaluate the intercomparison, the reference value was taken to be the ensemble mean of a core subset of the measurements. For these core instruments, the agreement between 10 and 150 ppm of water vapor is considered good with variation about the reference value of about ±10% (±1σ). In the region of most interest between 1 and 10 ppm, the core subset agreement is fair with variation about the reference value of ±20% (±1σ). The upper limit of precision was also derived for each instrument from the reported data. The implication for atmospheric measurements is that the

  18. AquaSAXS: a web server for computation and fitting of SAXS profiles with non-uniformally hydrated atomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Frédéric; Orland, Henri; Doniach, Sebastian; Koehl, Patrice; Delarue, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) techniques are becoming more and more useful for structural biologists and biochemists, thanks to better access to dedicated synchrotron beamlines, better detectors and the relative easiness of sample preparation. The ability to compute the theoretical SAXS profile of a given structural model, and to compare this profile with the measured scattering intensity, yields crucial structural informations about the macromolecule under study and/or its complexes in solution. An important contribution to the profile, besides the macromolecule itself and its solvent-excluded volume, is the excess density due to the hydration layer. AquaSAXS takes advantage of recently developed methods, such as AquaSol, that give the equilibrium solvent density map around macromolecules, to compute an accurate SAXS/WAXS profile of a given structure and to compare it to the experimental one. Here, we describe the interface architecture and capabilities of the AquaSAXS web server (http://lorentz.dynstr.pasteur.fr/aquasaxs.php). PMID:21665925

  19. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  20. Assessment of FAO AquaCrop Model for Simulating Maize Growth and Productivity under Deficit Irrigation in a Tropical Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneille E. Greaves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop simulation models have a pivotal role to play in evaluating irrigation management strategies for improving agricultural water use. The objective of this study was to test and validate the AquaCrop model for maize under deficit irrigation management. Field observations from three experiments consisting of four treatments were used to evaluate model performance in simulating canopy cover (CC, biomass (B, yield (Y, crop evapotranspiration (ETc, and water use efficiency (WUE. Statistics for root mean square error, model efficiency (E, and index of agreement for B and CC suggest that the model prediction is good under non-stressed and moderate stress environments. Prediction of final B and Y under these conditions was acceptable, as indicated by the high coefficient of determination and deviations <10%. In severely stressed conditions, low E and deviations >11% for B and 9% for Y indicate a reduction in the model reliability. Simulated ETc and WUE deviation from observed values were within the range of 9.5% to 22.2% and 6.0% to 32.2%, respectively, suggesting that AquaCrop prediction of these variables is fair, becoming unsatisfactory as plant water stress intensifies. AquaCrop can be reliably used for evaluating the effectiveness of proposed irrigation management strategies for maize; however, the limitations should be kept in mind when interpreting the results in severely stressed conditions.

  1. Effect of MODIS Terra Radiometric Calibration Improvements on Collection 6 Deep Blue Aerosol Products: Validation and Terra/Aqua Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.; Meister, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Blue (DB) algorithm's primary data product is midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD). DB applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements provides a data record since early 2000 for MODIS Terra and mid-2002 for MODIS Aqua. In the previous data version (Collection 5, C5), DB production from Terra was halted in 2007 due to sensor degradation; the new Collection 6 (C6) has both improved science algorithms and sensor radiometric calibration. This includes additional calibration corrections developed by the Ocean Biology Processing Group to address MODIS Terra's gain, polarization sensitivity, and detector response versus scan angle, meaning DB can now be applied to the whole Terra record. Through validation with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data, it is shown that the C6 DB Terra AOD quality is stable throughout the mission to date. Compared to the C5 calibration, in recent years the RMS error compared to AERONET is smaller by approximately 0.04 over bright (e.g., desert) and approximately 0.01-0.02 over darker (e.g., vegetated) land surfaces, and the fraction of points in agreement with AERONET within expected retrieval uncertainty higher by approximately 10% and approximately 5%, respectively. Comparisons to the Aqua C6 time series reveal a high level of correspondence between the two MODIS DB data records, with a small positive (Terra-Aqua) average AOD offset Terra DB AOD data remain stable (to better than 0.01 AOD) throughout the mission to date, suitable for quantitative scientific analyses.

  2. Joint DEnKF-albedo assimilation scheme that considers the common land model subgrid heterogeneity and a snow density-based observation operator for improving snow depth simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianhui; Zhang, Feifei; Zhao, Yi; Shu, Hong; Zhong, Kaiwen

    2016-07-01

    For the large-area snow depth (SD) data sets with high spatial resolution in the Altay region of Northern Xinjiang, China, we present a deterministic ensemble Kalman filter (DEnKF)-albedo assimilation scheme that considers the common land model (CoLM) subgrid heterogeneity. In the albedo assimilation of DEnKF-albedo, the assimilated albedos over each subgrid tile are estimated with the MCD43C1 bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters product and CoLM calculated solar zenith angle. The BRDF parameters are hypothesized to be consistent over all subgrid tiles within a specified grid. In the SCF assimilation of DEnKF-albedo, a DEnKF combining a snow density-based observation operator considers the effects of the CoLM subgrid heterogeneity and is employed to assimilate MODIS SCF to update SD states over all subgrid tiles. The MODIS SCF over a grid is compared with the area-weighted sum of model predicted SCF over all the subgrid tiles within the grid. The results are validated with in situ SD measurements and AMSR-E product. Compared with the simulations, the DEnKF-albedo scheme can reduce errors of SD simulations and accurately simulate the seasonal variability of SD. Furthermore, it can improve simulations of SD spatiotemporal distribution in the Altay region, which is more accurate and shows more detail than the AMSR-E product.

  3. Validation and Algorithms Comparative Study for Microwave Remote Sensing of Snow Depth over China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, C J; Qiu, Y B; Shi, L J

    2014-01-01

    In this study, five different snow algorithms (Chang algorithm, GSFC 96 algorithm, AMSR-E SWE algorithm, Improved Tibetan Plateau algorithm and Savoie algorithm) were selected to validate the accuracy of snow algorithms over China. These algorithms were compared for the accuracy of snow depth algorithms with AMSR-E brightness temperature data and ground measurements on February 10-12, 2010. Results showed that the GSFC 96 algorithm was more suitable in Xinjiang with the RMSE range from 6.85cm to 7.48 cm; in Inner Mongolia and Northeast China. Improved Tibetan Plateau algorithm is superior to the other four algorithms with the RMSE of 5.46cm∼6.11cm and 6.21cm∼7.83cm respectively; due to the lack of ground measurements, we couldn't get valid statistical results over the Tibetan Plateau. However, the mean relative error (MRE) of the selected algorithms was ranging from 37.95% to 189.13% in four study areas, which showed that the accuracy of the five snow depth algorithms is limited over China

  4. Evaluation of the ESA Sea Ice CCI (SICCI) project sea ice concentration data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kern, Stefan; Bell, Louisa; Ivanova, Natalia

    was computed from brightness temperatures (TB) measured at 19.4 GHz [18.7 GHz] and 37.0 GHz [36.5 GHz] by the space-borne microwave radiometer Special Sensor Microwave / Imager (SSM/I) [Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E)] in both polar hemispheres. The product has daily temporal and 25...... km x 25 km grid resolution and is available for the period 1992-2008 (SSM/I) and 2002-2011 (AMSR-E) from, e.g., http://icdc.zmaw.de. Each data file contains a limited (to the range 0% … 100%) and an unlimited (see below) SIC, SIC retrieval uncertainty, SIC smearing uncertainty from the gridding...... process, and SIC total uncertainty. A flag layer allows to identify where SIC may be less reliable. The unlimited SIC contains the full range of SIC values retrieved. The natural variability of the measured TBs around the typical TBs at 0% and 100% SIC (the so-called tie points) causes SIC to spread...

  5. Hydrological Evaluation of Satellite Soil Moisture Data in Two Basins of Different Climate and Vegetation Density Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate soil moisture information is very important for real-time flood forecasting. Although satellite soil moisture observations are useful information, their validations are generally hindered by the large spatial difference with the point-based measurements, and hence they cannot be directly applied in hydrological modelling. This study adopts a widely applied operational hydrological model Xinanjiang (XAJ as a hydrological validation tool. Two widely used microwave sensors (SMOS and AMSR-E are evaluated, over two basins (French Broad and Pontiac with different climate types and vegetation covers. The results demonstrate SMOS outperforms AMSR-E in the Pontiac basin (cropland, while both products perform poorly in the French Broad basin (forest. The MODIS NDVI thresholds of 0.81 and 0.64 (for cropland and forest basins, resp. are very effective in dividing soil moisture datasets into “denser” and “thinner” vegetation periods. As a result, in the cropland, the statistical performance is further improved for both satellites (i.e., improved to NSE = 0.74, RMSE = 0.0059 m and NSE = 0.58, RMSE = 0.0066 m for SMOS and AMER-E, resp.. The overall assessment suggests that SMOS is of reasonable quality in estimating basin-scale soil moisture at moderate-vegetated areas, and NDVI is a useful indicator for further improving the performance.

  6. Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Dynamics: Observations, Analysis and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay; Ringerud, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity affects remote sensing of both the atmosphere and the land surface. The dynamical behavior of microwave emissivity over a very diverse sample of land surface types is studied. With seven years of satellite measurements from AMSR-E, we identified various dynamical regimes of the land surface emission. In addition, we used two radiative transfer models (RTMs), the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and the Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform (CMEM), to simulate land surface emissivity dynamics. With both CRTM and CMEM coupled to NASA's Land Information System, global-scale land surface microwave emissivities were simulated for five years, and evaluated against AMSR-E observations. It is found that both models have successes and failures over various types of land surfaces. Among them, the desert shows the most consistent underestimates (by approx. 70-80%), due to limitations of the physical models used, and requires a revision in both systems. Other snow-free surface types exhibit various degrees of success and it is expected that parameter tuning can improve their performances.

  7. Clarifications on the "Comparison Between SMOS, VUA, ASCAT, and ECMWF Soil Moisture Products Over Four Watersheds in U.S."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Luca, Brocca; Naeimi, Vahid; Reichle, Rolf; Draper, Clara; de Jeu, Richard; Ryu, Dongryeol; Su, Chun-Hsu; Western, Andrew; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; hide

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Leroux et al. compared three satellite soil moisture data sets (SMOS, AMSR-E, and ASCAT) and ECMWF forecast soil moisture data to in situ measurements over four watersheds located in the United States. Their conclusions stated that SMOS soil moisture retrievals represent "an improvement [in RMSE] by a factor of 2-3 compared with the other products" and that the ASCAT soil moisture data are "very noisy and unstable." In this clarification, the analysis of Leroux et al. is repeated using a newer version of the ASCAT data and additional metrics are provided. It is shown that the ASCAT retrievals are skillful, although they show some unexpected behavior during summer for two of the watersheds. It is also noted that the improvement of SMOS by a factor of 2-3 mentioned by Leroux et al. is driven by differences in bias and only applies relative to AMSR-E and the ECWMF data in the now obsolete version investigated by Leroux et al.

  8. Assessment of SNPP VIIRS VIS NIR Radiometric Calibration Stability Using Aqua MODIS and Invariant Surface Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Cao, Changyong; Chiang, Kwo-Fu

    2016-01-01

    The first Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite. As a primary sensor, it collects imagery and radiometric measurements of the land, atmosphere, cryosphere, and oceans in the spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared. NASA's National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) VIIRS Characterization Support Team has been actively involved in the VIIRS radiometric and geometric calibration to support its Science Team Principal Investigators for their independent quality assessment of VIIRS Environmental Data Records. This paper presents the performance assessment of the radiometric calibration stability of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands using measurements from SNPP VIIRS and Aqua MODIS simultaneous nadir overpasses and over the invariant surface targets at the Libya-4 desert and Antarctic Dome Concordia snow sites. The VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) used in this paper are reprocessed by the NASA SNPP Land Product Evaluation and Analysis Tool Element. This paper shows that the reprocessed VIIRS SDRs have been consistently calibrated from the beginning of the mission, and the calibration stability is similar to or better than MODIS. Results from different approaches indicate that the calibrations of the VIIRS VIS and NIR spectral bands are maintained to be stable to within 1% over the first three-year mission. The absolute calibration differences between VIIRS and MODIS are within 2%, with an exception for the 0.865-m band, after correction of their spectral response differences.

  9. MODIS Aqua Optical Throughput Degradation Impact on Relative Spectral Response and Calibration on Ocean Color Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shihyan; Meister, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua's launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the systems optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its impacts on sensor radiometric calibration for the ocean science. Our results show that the calibration bias could be up to 1.8 % for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the calibration biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.

  10. Surface Energy Balance of Fresh and Saline Waters: AquaSEBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelrady

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Current earth observation models do not take into account the influence of water salinity on the evaporation rate, even though the salinity influences the evaporation rate by affecting the density and latent heat of vaporization. In this paper, we adapt the SEBS (Surface Energy Balance System model for large water bodies and add the effect of water salinity to the evaporation rate. Firstly, SEBS is modified for fresh-water whereby new parameterizations of the water heat flux and sensible heat flux are suggested. This is achieved by adapting the roughness heights for momentum and heat transfer. Secondly, a salinity correction factor is integrated into the adapted model. Eddy covariance measurements over Lake IJsselmeer (The Netherlands are carried out and used to estimate the roughness heights for momentum (~0.0002 m and heat transfer (~0.0001 m. Application of these values over the Victoria and Tana lakes (freshwater in Africa showed that the calculated latent heat fluxes agree well with the measurements. The root mean-square of relative-errors (rRMSE is about 4.1% for Lake Victoria and 4.7%, for Lake Tana. Verification with ECMWF data showed that the salinity reduced the evaporation at varying levels by up to 27% in the Great Salt Lake and by 1% for open ocean. Our results show the importance of salinity to the evaporation rate and the suitability of the adapted-SEBS model (AquaSEBS for fresh and saline waters.

  11. Coupling LMDZ physics in WRF model: Aqua-planet configuration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, Lluís; Hourdin, Frédéric; Fairhead, Laurent; Drobinski, Phlippe

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays advances in climatological sciences, pose different challenges for the current global climate models (GCM). One of them is related to the resolution. In some exercises, GCMs are started to be used to that resolutions to which they were not designed for, or in advance of future uses, they have to be tested in order to know their limitations. With the mid term perspective in mind of future uses of the Laboratorie de Météorologie Dynamique Zoom (LMDZ) model, a framework has been designed in order to use the physical parameterizations of the LMDZ model coupled to the dynamical core of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. This framework will allow the analysis of different aspects such as: resolution thresholds of the LMDZ physics set, skill of LMDZ physics in comparison with cloud resolving simulations, impact of the primitive equations fully compressible dynamics from WRF in global runs among others. The design and implementation of the framework keeps almost all the original capabilities of both models. As a first step, results of an ensemble of 1-year low-resolution global aqua-planet runs performed with the original models using different physical configurations, and the new framework will be presented. These initial results show the correct performance of the new framework, and the sensitivity of the global circulation due to different dynamical atmospheric cores and physical parameterizations.

  12. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Chris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of ‘natural’ breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m, yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  13. Breast Support Garments are Ineffective at Reducing Breast Motion During an Aqua Aerobics Jumping Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Chris; Ayres, Bessie; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    The buoyant forces of water during aquatic exercise may provide a form of 'natural' breast support and help to minimise breast motion and alleviate exercise induced breast pain. Six larger-breasted females performed standing vertical land and water-based jumps, whilst wearing three breast support conditions. Underwater video cameras recorded the motion of the trunk and right breast. Trunk and relative breast kinematics were calculated as well as exercised induced breast pain scores. Key results showed that the swimsuit and sports bra were able to significantly reduce the superioinferior breast range of motion by 0.04 and 0.05 m, respectively, and peak velocity by 0.23 and 0.33 m/s, respectively, during land-based jumping when compared to the bare-breasted condition, but were ineffective at reducing breast kinematics during water-based jumping. Furthermore, the magnitude of the swimsuit superioinferior breast range of motion during water-based jumping was significantly greater than land-based jumping (0.13 m and 0.06 m), yet there were no significant differences in exercise induced breast pain, thus contradicting previously published relationships between these parameters on land. Furthermore, the addition of an external breast support garment was able to reduce breast kinematics on land but not in water, suggesting the swimsuit and sports bras were ineffective and improvements in swimwear breast support garments may help to reduce excessive breast motion during aqua aerobic jumping exercises.

  14. Molecular Biological Study of Anti-cancer Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chan-Yol

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available To study anti-cancer effect and molecular biological mechanism of bee venom for aqua-acupuncture, the effects of bee venom on cell viability and apoptosis were analyzed using MTT assay, tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, flow cytometric analysis, and activity of caspase-3 protease activity assay. To explore whether anti-cancer effects of bee venom are associated with the transcriptional control of gene expression, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of apoptosis-related genes was performed. The obtained results are summarized as follows: 1. The MTT assay demonstrated that cell viability was decreased by bee venom in a dose-dependant manner. 2. Significant induction of apoptosis was identified using tryphan blue assay, [3H]thymidine release assay, and flow cytometric analysis of sub G1 fraction. 3. In analysis of caspase-3 protease activity, the activity had increased significantly, in a dose-dependant manner. 4. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the apoptosis-related genes showed that Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were down-regulated whereas Bax was up-regulated by bee venom treatment.

  15. Strengthening of the Walker circulation under globalwarming in an aqua-planet general circulation model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tim; Zhang, Lei; Murakami, Hiroyuki

    2015-11-01

    Most climate models project a weakening of theWalker circulation under global warming scenarios. It is argued, based on a global averaged moisture budget, that this weakening can be attributed to a slower rate of rainfall increase compared to that of moisture increase, which leads to a decrease in ascending motion. Through an idealized aqua-planet simulation in which a zonal wavenumber-1 SST distribution is prescribed along the equator, we find that the Walker circulation is strengthened under a uniform 2-K SST warming, even though the global mean rainfall-moisture relationship remains the same. Further diagnosis shows that the ascending branch of the Walker cell is enhanced in the upper troposphere but weakened in the lower troposphere. As a result, a "double-cell" circulation change pattern with a clockwise (anti-clockwise) circulation anomaly in the upper (lower) troposphere forms, and the upper tropospheric circulation change dominates. The mechanism for the formation of the "double cell" circulation pattern is attributed to a larger (smaller) rate of increase of diabatic heating than static stability in the upper (lower) troposphere. The result indicates that the future change of the Walker circulation cannot simply be interpreted based on a global mean moisture budget argument.

  16. Trends and variability of water quality in Lake Tana, Ethiopia using MODIS-Aqua

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, N. M.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Monger, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Determining long-term water quality trends and variability in remote inland lakes has been challenging due to a lack of continuous in situ measurements. Utilizing ocean color remote sensing techniques for these lakes is difficult due to their sizes, shapes, and optically complex waters. Lake Tana is the largest body of water in Ethiopia, and is located in the country's northwestern highlands. The lake is quite shallow, averaging at about 8 meters depth, and is characteristically turbid due to nearby land degradation and high soil erosion rates. Lake Tana is an important source of accessible water for the rapidly growing population of Ethiopia and serves as the headwaters for the Blue Nile. Therefore, understanding water quality trends and seasonal variation over the past decade is essential to better preparing for future water needs. Here we use MODIS-Aqua data spanning years 2002-2016 to investigate these trends and variability in Lake Tana, where in situ measurements are limited. Daily water quality products were first processed using SeaDAS and then aggregated by month and year for analyses. Frequent cloud cover in the June, July, and August (JJA) rainy season due to monsoon and zonal dynamics presents an obstacle for obtaining mean lake values during these months. We also performed analyses on targeted regions of Lake Tana to determine whether some of the major tributaries and their corresponding watersheds have more influence on observed trends than others.

  17. Comparison of chlorophyll in the Red Sea derived from MODIS-Aqua and in vivo fluorescence

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J W

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine environment but relatively unexplored. The only available long-term biological dataset at large spatial and temporal scales is remotely-sensed chlorophyll observations (an index of phytoplankton biomass) derived using satellite measurements of ocean colour. Yet such observations have rarely been compared with in situ data in the Red Sea. In this paper, satellite chlorophyll estimates in the Red Sea from the MODIS instrument onboard the Aqua satellite are compared with three recent cruises of in vivo fluorometric chlorophyll measurements taken in October 2008, March 2010 and September to October 2011. The performance of the standard NASA chlorophyll algorithm, and that of a new band-difference algorithm, is found to be comparable with other oligotrophic regions in the global ocean, supporting the use of satellite ocean colour in the Red Sea. However, given the unique environmental conditions of the study area, regional algorithms are likely to fare better and this is demonstrated through a simple adjustment to the band-difference algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Condition of red tide appearance in Wakasa Bay based on Terra, Aqua/MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Oya, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    Since June, 2004, studies on triggering factors of the red tide have been carried out in Awara Space Radio Observatory (ASRO), Fukui University of Technology utilizing directly received data of MODIS on the Terra and Aqua satellites which have been acquired in ASRO. Preliminary results of the data analyses for the period from July, 2001 to April, 2005 indicate conditions, for the appearance of the red tide bloom in Wakasa bay as follows: (1) the threshold amount of chlorophyll-a is close to 1.5mg/m 3, (2) the range of sea surface temperature (SST) is limited in a range from 12 to 20 °C and (3) the period of sunlit time in spring is also a significantly sensitive factor. We propose here to utilize MODIS band1 images corresponding to a red band with spatial resolution of 250m together with NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) images which has also spatial resolution of 250m, for the confirmation of the red tide. The problem of coincidence between colored region due to SS (Suspended Sediment) and red tide region using only band1 of MODIS, has been solved by using NDVI images in addition to band1 images together as two dimensional diagram.

  19. Cross comparison of the Collection 6 and Collection 6.1 Terra and Aqua MODIS Bands 1 and 2 using AVHRR N15 and N19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Wu, Aisheng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.; Chen, Na

    2017-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key scientific instrument that was launched into Earth orbit by NASA in 1999 on board the Terra (EOS AM) satellite and in 2002 on board the Aqua (EOS PM) satellite. Terra and Aqua MODIS collect the entire Earth's images every 1 to 2 days in 36 spectral bands. MODIS band 1 (0.620- 0.670 μm) and band 2 (0.841-0.876 μm) have nadir spatial resolution of 250 m and their measurements are crucial to derive key land surface products. This study evaluates the performance of the Collection 6 (C6, and C6.1) L1B of both Terra and Aqua MODIS bands 1 and 2 using Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) data to compare with AVHRR/3 sensors. We examine the relative stability between Terra and Aqua MODIS in reference to NOAA N15 and N19 the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3). The comparisons for MODIS to AVHRR/3 are over a fifteenyear period from 2002 to 2017. Results from this study provide a quantitative assessment of Terra and Aqua MODIS band 1 and band 2 calibration stability and the relative differences through the NOAA N15 and N19 AVHRR/3 sensors.

  20. Topological aspects of lanthanide–adipate–aqua compounds: Close packed and open framework structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhuri, Durga Sankar; Kumar Jana, Swapan; Hazari, Debdoot [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India); Zangrando, Ennio, E-mail: ezangrando@units.it [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Via L. Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalai, Sudipta, E-mail: sudipta@mail.vidyasagar.ac.in [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721 102, West Bengal (India)

    2013-07-15

    A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) for lanthanide complexes with adipate [OOC(CH{sub 2}){sub 4}COO]{sup 2−} and aqua ligands retrieved a fair number of compounds. To this dataset a new lanthanum metal–organic framework, ([La{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (1) (adipH{sub 2}=adipic acid), synthesised and structurally characterized in these labs, was included. The crystal structures of these coordination polymers, of general formulation [Ln{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub x}], exhibit a variety of topologies and dimensionality, which were clustered in different classes and described in detail. It was explored that the majority of these evidences the presence of metal chains or dinuclear Ln{sub 2} entities (separated in both cases by 4.0–4.8 Å), where lanthanide ions are differently connected by carboxylate groups with chelating or oxygen-bridging mode. The different amount of coordinated water molecules appear to affect the solid state networks. Moreover the crystal packing of these compounds shows peculiar aspects and examples were reported in the literature where the long alkyl chain of adipate connectors give rise to interpenetrated structures, or to porous material where lattice water or neutral larger molecules are clathrated. - Graphical abstract: A survey of structures and topologies of lanthanide adipate compounds is presented. A newly synthesized lanthanium adipate complex ([La{sub 2}(adip){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (adipH{sub 2}=adipic acid) is also reported. - Highlights: • The use of lanthanide and adipic acid demonstrate the possibility to construct coordination polymer of different dimensionality. • The number of coordination and adipate conformation influence the different topologies. • The ionic radii of the rare earth cations seem also to affect the architecture observed.

  1. Snail shell as coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of malachite green from aqua system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladoja, Nurudeen A., E-mail: bioladoja@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko (Nigeria); Aliu, Yekini D. [Department of Chemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko (Nigeria)

    2009-05-30

    The ability of snail shell (SS) to act as coagulant aid in the alum precipitation of a basic dye (MG) was investigated. The proximate physicochemical characterization of the SS showed the pH{sub solution} to be 8.01, high fraction of the inorganic constituents (ash content = 93.76%), the presence of Ca{sup 2+} (99.74%) as the major metal ion present and the point zero charge (PZC) found at pH 7.9. The X-ray diffractometric analysis revealed the presence of aragonite. The stability and leaching of the SS, tested in different aqua medium (acidic, basic and neutral solutions) showed that the SS was less stable in the acidic medium. Both the alum and the SS were used, differently, for the dye precipitation. The alum alone had no precipitating effect on the MG dye molecules while SS alone was able to reduce the intensity of the dye. When the SS was used as coagulant aid in alum precipitation, the percentage of the MG molecule removed was enhanced. The effects of some process variables (coagulant/coagulant aid dosage, pH and flocculation time) were optimized by method of continuous variation. The optimum pH for the MG removal was found to range between 4 and 5 but the amount of MG removed was appreciable at all the pH studied. Studies on the effect of time on the flocculation of the precipitated MG molecule showed that the problem of redispersion and restabilisation encountered in alum precipitation could be overcome using alum-SS combination. The settling characteristics of the sludge obtained from the use of SS alone and alum-SS combination was studied by measuring the sludge volume index (SVI, mg/g) over time. The value of the SVI (mg/g) showed that the sludge produced from the alum-SS combination had better settling characteristics than the sludge got from the use of SS alone.

  2. Exploring the differences in cloud properties observed by the Terra and Aqua MODIS Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aerosol-cloud interaction in different parts of the globe is examined here using multi-year statistics of remotely sensed data from two MODIS sensors aboard NASA's Terra (morning and Aqua (afternoon satellites. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol loadings and cloud properties by the MODIS sensor allowed us to explore morning-to-afternoon variation of liquid cloud fraction (CF and optical thickness (COT for clean, moderately polluted and heavily polluted clouds in different seasons. Data analysis for seven-years of MODIS retrievals revealed strong temporal and spatial patterns in morning-to-afternoon variation of cloud fraction and optical thickness over different parts of the global oceans and the land. For the vast areas of stratocumulus cloud regions, the data shows that the days with elevated aerosol abundance were also associated with enhanced afternoon reduction of CF and COT pointing to the possible reduction of the indirect climate forcing. A positive correlation between aerosol optical depth and morning-to-afternoon variation of trade wind cumulus cloud cover was also found over the northern Indian Ocean, though no clear relationship between the concentration of Indo-Asian haze and morning-to-afternoon variation of COT was established. Over the Amazon region during wet conditions, aerosols are associated with an enhanced convective process in which morning shallow warm clouds are organized into afternoon deep convection with greater ice cloud coverage. Analysis presented here demonstrates that the new technique for exploring morning-to-afternoon variability in cloud properties by using the differences in data products from the two daily MODIS overpasses is capable of capturing some of the major features of diurnal variations in cloud properties and can be used for better understanding of aerosol radiative effects.

  3. "Newer, bigger, older" with NASA GIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; De Cesare, C.; De Luca, A. P.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; King, J.; Plesea, L.; Pressley, N. N.; Roberts, J. T.; Rodriguez, J. D.; Thompson, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    The year 2015 witnessed a vast expansion of NASA's Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) in a number of dimensions. Near real time imagery was added from a slew of additional sensors including GPM, SMAP, AMSR2, VIIRS, CERES, MOPITT, SSMI, and Aquarius, many of these representing measurements that had not been available in GIBS previously. The SMAP layers are also pioneering a new capability for GIBS to display individual granules. Higher resolution imagery, up to 30m/pixel, is now available in GIBS for some sensors, including ASTER GDEM and L1T and Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD). The imagery record is being extended into the past with the entire record of data from MODIS and AMSR-E reprocessing campaigns.

  4. BRDF Characterization and Calibration Inter-Comparison between Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS, and S-NPP VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng

    2016-01-01

    The inter-comparison of reflective solar bands (RSB) between Terra MODIS, Aqua MODIS, and SNPP VIIRS is very important for assessment of each instrument's calibration and to identify calibration improvements. One of the limitations of using their ground observations for the assessment is a lack of the simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs) over selected pseudo-invariant targets. In addition, their measurements over a selected Earth view target have significant difference in solar and view angles, and these differences magnify the effects of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF). In this work, an inter-comparison technique using a semi-empirical BRDF model is developed for reflectance correction. BRDF characterization requires a broad coverage of solar and view angles in the measurements over selected pseudo-invariant targets. Reflectance measurements over Libya 1, 2, and 4 desert sites from both the Aqua and Terra MODIS are regressed to a BRDF model with an adjustable coefficient accounting for the calibration difference between the two instruments. The BRDF coefficients for three desert sites for MODIS bands 1 to 9 are derived and the wavelength dependencies are presented. The analysis and inter-comparison are for MODIS bands 1 to 9 and VIIRS moderate resolution radiometric bands (M bands) M1, M2, M4, M5, M7, M8, M10 and imaging bands (I bands) I1-I3. Results show that the ratios from different sites are in good agreement. The ratios between Terra and Aqua MODIS from year 2003 to 2014 are presented. The inter-comparison between MODIS and VIIRS are analyzed for year 2014.

  5. Applications of NASA Earth Observation Imagery in Google Earth Engine to Estimate Glacier Trends and Water Availability in Chile's Aconcagua Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M. J.; Babis, B.; Deland, S.; McGurk, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Aconcagua basin of Central Chile, just north of the capital city of Santiago, is characterized by the glaciated Andes to the east, which supply meltwater runoff to the lower fertile river valleys. Known for the production of fruit and vegetable crops, the region is experiencing stressed hydrologic resources as a result of anomalous climate conditions and anthropogenic water consumption. Traditionally, the wet and cool winter months account for 80 percent of Aconcagua's total annual precipitation, while dry and warm conditions prevail during the summer months. Consequently, the basin depends on seasonal glacial accumulation to provide water storage for the dry season when up to 67 percent of water is derived from glacial runoff. Overall, 70 percent of regional water is consumed by agricultural practices, specifically the fruit and vegetable farming that thrives in Aconcagua's Mediterranean-type climate. Globally, weather intensification and the rising zero-degree isotherm are poised to threaten the stability and longevity of glacial water resources. In recent years, Chile has experienced periods of prolonged drought as well as glacier shrinkage. The Aconcagua basin is especially vulnerable to these changes as a consequence of its agricultural economies and reliance on sub-tropical glaciers for water resources. Aconcagua is among the top three regions contributing to Chile's gross domestic product (GDP). Furthermore, in 2011 the Chilean government announced plans to increase the national land under irrigation by 57 percent by 2022. In partnership with the Chilean Ministry of Agriculture, the objective of this research was to integrate NASA Earth observations in conjunction with in situ river discharge measurements into Google Earth Engine to enhance regional understanding of current and future climate conditions in Chile. The remotely-sensed datasets included Landsat TM/OLI derived glacial extent, Terra MODIS snow cover and surface temperature, and Aqua AMSR-E

  6. Increasing Arctic sea ice export driven by stronger winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorteberg, A.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sirevaag, A.; Kloster, K.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic sea ice area has decreased steadily over the last three decades. A thinner and more seasonal Arctic ice cover, related to increased long wave radiation, has become evident. Changes in circulation, including drift patterns of the Arctic pack ice, have been less obvious. Arctic sea ice export estimates have been hampered by low resolution spatial and temporal satellite imagery, especially during summer, making accurate detection difficult. Here we present a new ice area export dataset calculated from sea ice motion and concentration profiles along 79N. Ice drift vectors are calculated from ice feature displacement using Envisat ASAR WideSwath images every 3 days from 2004 while ice concentration is based on DMSP F13 SSMI and AQUA AMSR-E brightness temperature data. The two data sets are combined to give the ice-area flux in consecutive 3-day periods, uninterrupted year-round coverage along 79N. It is shown that sea ice export variability is closely linked to the geostrophic wind in the Fram Strait (correlation of 0.84). Using geostrophic winds from reanalysis back to the 1950s as a proxy for ice export indicates that the Arctic sea ice has annually lost an increasing area since the 1950's driven by stronger winds. Ice concentration has decreased slightly, but does not contribute significantly. The ice export has overall increased by ~25% over the period. Using cyclone tracking the changes in winds seems directly related to a higher low pressure activity in the Nordic Seas. Our results demonstrate that the changes in atmospheric circulation over the Arctic and sub-Arctic have contributed to a trend in the Fram Strait ice export. The Fram Strait between Greenland and Svalbard with average sea ice concentration for summer (red, June through August) and winter (black, January through March). Solid lines are 50%, dashed lines are 15%. Above mean southward ice drift across 79N from August 2004 to July 2010 in 1 degree bins based on SAR imagery, and mean ice

  7. Modeling Snow Aggregates and their Single Scattering Properties: Implications to Snowfall Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, H.; Liu, G.

    2012-12-01

    With the advent of satellites, we can now observe areas of the globe that have sparse to no ground data coverage. Both active and passive satellite sensors aboard satellites including CloudSat's Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), Aqua's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement's (GPM) Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) study ice and snow particles. A good retrieval algorithm for these satellite sensors can only be developed when the single scattering properties of the snowflakes are accurately calculated in radiative transfer models. This becomes crucial at frequencies at and above the W-band when aggregate ice crystals become detectable by satellite radiometers. Snowflakes are often modeled as spheres or oblate spheroids to ease the complexity of calculations, despite the fact that they are typically aggregates of crystals. For improved accuracy in satellite remote sensing, it is important to model snowflakes as close to nature as possible. Several recent studies model flakes as pristine crystal types [Liu, 2008], generate aggregate flakes as fractals [Ishimoto, 2008] or via the Monte Carlo method [Maruyama and Fujioshi, 2005]. Modeling snowflakes as pristine crystals, however, has the drawback of not accurately reflecting snowflakes as most tend to be aggregates of different crystal types. Other studies where aggregates are generated tend to overlook size-density relationships of aggregate flakes or other studied statistical parameters such as aspect ratio. In an effort to improve available single-scattering properties of aggregate flakes, we developed a new method of generating flakes. Starting out with a six-bullet rosette crystal of accurate size and density, aggregate flakes are generated with two different bullet rosette crystal sizes of 200 and/or 400 microns in maximum dimension. The flakes similarly follow size-density relationships of aggregate as determined from

  8. Features of Changing Microwave Radiation from Loaded Rock in Elastic Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lixin; Mao, Wenfei; Huang, Jianwei; Liu, Shanjun; Xu, Zhongying

    2017-04-01

    Since the discovery of satellite infrared anomaly occurred before some earthquake by Russian geo-scientists in 1980's, both satellite remote sensing on seismic activities and experimental infrared detection on rock physics in process of rock loading were undertaken in many counties including China, Japan, Europe nations and United States. Infrared imager and spectrum instruments were applied to detect the changed infrared radiation from loaded rock to fracturing, which lead to the development of Remote Sensing Rock Mechanics. However, the change of microwave radiation from loaded rock was not so much studied, even if abnormal changes of microwave brightness temperature (MBT) preceding some large earthquakes were observed by satellite sensors such as AMSR-E on boarded Aqua. To monitor rock hazards, seismic activities, and to make earthquake precautions by via of microwave detection or microwave remote sensing, it is fairly demanded to explore the laws of microwave radiation variation with changed stress and to uncover the rock physics. We developed a large scale rock loading system with capability of 500 tons and 10 tons of load, respectively, at two horizontal loading head, and designed a group of microwave detectors in C, K, and Ka bands. To investigate the changed microwave radiation from loaded granite and sandstone in its elastics deformation phase, the first horizontal stress was circularly applied on rock samples of size 10×30×60cm3 at a constant second horizontal stress, and the changes microwave radiation was detected by the detectors hanged overhead the rock sample. The experiments were conducted outdoor at nighttime to keep off environmental radiation and to simulate the satellite observation conditions in background of cool sky. The first horizontal stress and the microwave radiations were synchronically detected and recorded. After reducing the random noise of detected microwave signals with wavelet method, we found the MBT increase with stress rising

  9. AquaTrace” The development of tools for tracing and evaluating the genetic impact of fish from aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte; Svåsand, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Aquaculture represents a key solution to meet the escalating demand for fish. Accordingly, development of appropriate legislation within the European Union aquaculture sector underpinned by cutting‐edge research and technology is required. This necessitates implementation of breeding programmes...... and farming technologies which are economically viable, environmentally friendly, and perceived as socially acceptable. Here we present the objectives, implementation, and potential impact of a new EU FP7 project. The rationale behind AquaTrace is development of reliable and cost‐effective molecular tools...

  10. Optimal model-based deficit irrigation scheduling using AquaCrop: a simulation study with cotton, potato and tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linker, Raphael; Ioslovich, Ilya; Sylaios, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    variables are the irrigation amounts for each day of the season. The objective function is the expected yield calculated with the use of a model. In the present work we solved this optimization problem for three crops modeled by the model AquaCrop. This optimization problem is non-trivial due to the non......-smooth behavior of the objective function and the fact that it involves multiple integer variables. We developed an optimization scheme for generating sub-optimal irrigation schedules that take implicitly into account the response of the crop to water stress, and used these as initial guesses for a full...

  11. The EOS Aqua/Aura Experience: Lessons Learned on Design, Integration, and Test of Earth-Observing Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and NOAA earth observing satellite programs are flying a number of sophisticated scientific instruments which collect data on many phenomena and parameters of the earth's environment. The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Program originated the EOS Common Bus approach, which featured two spacecraft (Aqua and Aura) of virtually identical design but with completely different instruments. Significant savings were obtained by the Common Bus approach and these lessons learned are presented as information for future program requiring multiple busses for new diversified instruments with increased capabilities for acquiring earth environmental data volume, accuracy, and type.

  12. Poly[[μ-aqua-tetraaquabis(μ-2-hydroxy-4-oxocyclobut-1-ene-1,3-diolatostrontium] hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Bouhali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, {[Sr(C4HO42(H2O5]·0.5H2O}n, the Sr2+ ion is coordinated by three monodentate hydrogensquarate (hsq anions and six aqua ligands in a distorted SrO9 monocapped square-antiprismatic geometry. The hsq anions and water molecules bridge the metal ions into infinite sheets lying parallel to (100. The O atom of the uncoordinated water molecule lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The packing is stabilized by numerous O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  13. The AquaDEB project: Physiological flexibility of aquatic animals analysed with a generic dynamic energy budget model (phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; van der Veer, Henk W.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2011-11-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Sea Research on development and applications of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory concludes the European Research Project AquaDEB (2007-2011). In this introductory paper we summarise the progress made during the running time of this 5 years' project, present context for the papers in this volume and discuss future directions. The main scientific objectives in AquaDEB were (i) to study and compare the sensitivity of aquatic species (mainly molluscs and fish) to environmental variability within the context of DEB theory for metabolic organisation, and (ii) to evaluate the inter-relationships between different biological levels (individual, population, ecosystem) and temporal scales (life cycle, population dynamics, evolution). AquaDEB phase I focussed on quantifying bio-energetic processes of various aquatic species ( e.g. molluscs, fish, crustaceans, algae) and phase II on: (i) comparing of energetic and physiological strategies among species through the DEB parameter values and identifying the factors responsible for any differences in bioenergetics and physiology; (ii) considering different scenarios of environmental disruption (excess of nutrients, diffuse or massive pollution, exploitation by man, climate change) to forecast effects on growth, reproduction and survival of key species; (iii) scaling up the models for a few species from the individual level up to the level of evolutionary processes. Apart from the three special issues in the Journal of Sea Research — including the DEBIB collaboration (see vol. 65 issue 2), a theme issue on DEB theory appeared in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (vol 365, 2010); a large number of publications were produced; the third edition of the DEB book appeared (2010); open-source software was substantially expanded (over 1000 functions); a large open-source systematic collection of ecophysiological data and DEB parameters has been set up; and a series of DEB

  14. Bis(μ-naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylatobis[aqua(2,2′-bipyridinezinc(II] tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hang Wen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The title complex, [Zn2(C12H6O42(C10H8N22(H2O2]·4H2O, is a binuclear complex with two independent ZnII ions in a slightly disorted trigonal bipyramidal environment, coordinated by one aqua ligand, two naphthalene-1,8-dicarboxylate ligands and one 2,2′-bipyridine ligand. π–π Interactions [centroid–centroid distance of 3.8489 (5 Å] and O—H...O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  15. Zebrafish neurotoxicity from aphantoxins--cyanobacterial paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang; Wang, Gaohong; Li, Dunhai; Li, Genbao; Liu, Yongding

    2013-05-01

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae), a cyanobacterium frequently encountered in water blooms worldwide, is source of neurotoxins known as PSPs or aphantoxins that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Although the molecular mechanism of PSP action is well known, many unresolved questions remain concerning its mechanisms of toxicity. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the major component toxins were the gonyautoxins1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5, 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). The LD50 of the aphantoxin preparation was determined to be 11.33 μg/kg (7.75 μg saxitoxin equivalents (STXeq) per kg) following intraperitoneal injection of zebrafish (Danio rerio). To address the neurotoxicology of the aphantoxin preparation, zebrafish were injected with low and high sublethal doses of A. flos-aquae DC-1 toxins 7.73 and 9.28 μg /kg (5.3 and 6.4 μg STXeq/kg, respectively) and brain tissues were analyzed by electron microscopy and RT-PCR at different timepoints postinjection. Low-dose aphantoxin exposure was associated with chromatin condensation, cell-membrane blebbing, and the appearance of apoptotic bodies. High-dose exposure was associated with cytoplasmic vacuolization, mitochondrial swelling, and expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. At early timepoints (3 h) many cells exhibited characteristic features of both apoptosis and necrosis. At later timepoints apoptosis appeared to predominate in the low-dose group, whereas necrosis predominated in the high-dose group. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA levels of the apoptosis-related genes encoding p53, Bax, caspase-3, and c-Jun were upregulated after aphantoxin exposure, but there was no evidence of DNA laddering; apoptosis could take place by pathways independent of DNA fragmentation. These results demonstrate that aphantoxin exposure can cause cell death in zebrafish

  16. On-Orbit Performance and Calibration Improvements For the Reflective Solar Bands of Terra and Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Amit; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Chen, Hongda; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Li, Yonghong; Wald, Andrew; Brinkmann, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is the keystone instrument for NASAs EOS Terra and Aqua missions, designed to extend and improve heritage sensor measurements and data records of the land, oceans and atmosphere. The reflective solar bands (RSB) of MODIS covering wavelengths from 0.41 micrometers to 2.2 micrometers, are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) changes tracked using a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). MODIS is a scanning radiometer using a two-sided paddle-wheel mirror to collect earth view (EV) data over a range of (+/-)55 deg. off instrument nadir. In addition to the solar calibration provided by the SD and SDSM system, lunar observations at nearly constant phase angles are regularly scheduled to monitor the RSB calibration stability. For both Terra and Aqua MODIS, the SD and lunar observations are used together to track the on-orbit changes of RSB response versus scan angle (RVS) as the SD and SV port are viewed at different angles of incidence (AOI) on the scan mirror. The MODIS Level 1B (L1B) Collection 6 (C6) algorithm incorporated several enhancements over its predecessor Collection 5 (C5) algorithm. A notable improvement was the use of the earth-view (EV) response trends from pseudo-invariant desert targets to characterize the on-orbit RVS for select RSB (Terra bands 1-4, 8, 9 and Aqua bands 8, 9) and the time, AOI, and wavelength-dependent uncertainty. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) has been maintaining and enhancing the C6 algorithm since its first update in November, 2011 for Aqua MODIS, and February, 2012 for Terra MODIS. Several calibration improvements have been incorporated that include extending the EV-based RVS approach to other RSB, additional correction for SD degradation at SWIR wavelengths, and alternative approaches for on-orbit RVS characterization. In addition to the on-orbit performance of the MODIS RSB, this paper

  17. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. NCA-LDAS land analysis: Development and performance of a multisensory, multivariate land data assimilation for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Jasinski, M. F.; Mocko, D. M.; Rodell, M.; Borak, J.; Li, B.; Beaudoing, H. K.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe one of the first successful examples of multisensor, multivariate land data assimilation, encompassing a large suite of soil moisture, snow depth, snow cover and irrigation intensity environmental data records (EDRs) from Scanning Multi-channel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT), the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E and AMSR2), the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The analysis is performed using the NASA Land Information System (LIS) as an enabling tool for the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA). The performance of NCA Land Data Assimilation System (NCA-LDAS) is evaluated by comparing to a number of hydrological reference data products. Results indicate that multivariate assimilation provides systematic improvements in simulated soil moisture and snow depth, with marginal effects on the accuracy of simulated streamflow and ET. An important conclusion is that across all evaluated variables, assimilation of data from increasingly more modern sensors (e.g. SMOS, SMAP, AMSR2, ASCAT) produces more skillful results than assimilation of data from older sensors (e.g. SMMR, SSM/I, AMSR-E). The evaluation also indicates high skill of NCA-LDAS when compared with other land analysis products. Further, drought indicators based on NCA-LDAS output suggest a trend of longer and more severe droughts over parts of Western U.S. during 1979-2015, particularly in the Southwestern U.S.

  19. Global Cross-Comparison of Suomi NPP VIIRS Vegetation Index EDR with Aqua MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.; Kato, A.; Vargas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor series is slated to continue the highly calibrated data stream initiated with Earth Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A number of geophysical products, termed Environmental Data Records (EDRs), are being produced from VIIRS data, including Vegetation Index (VI) EDR. VIIRS VI EDR is a daily, 375 m resolution product and includes the "Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA)" Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the "Top-of-Canopy (TOC)" Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The TOC NDVI is being added to the product. In this study, we cross-compared VI EDR from the first VIIRS sensor onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite platform with the Aqua MODIS counterparts in global scale with the aim of developing a thorough understanding of radiometric compatibility between the two VI datasets. VIIRS VI products from April 2014 through June 2014 were obtained along with MODIS daily products. They were all reprojected and spatially-aggregated into a 4 km sinusoidal grid while screening for cloud and aerosol contaminations using quality flags. We then masked VIIRS-MODIS observation pairs for near-identical observation geometry: (1) view zenith angle (VZA) computed for each VZA bin and for all bins at once for quantitative evaluation. VIIRS and MODIS TOA NDVI had a very small overall MD of 0.005 NDVI units, whereas TOC EVI had a fairly large overall MD of -0.04 EVI units. These systematic differences were consistent across the 2-month period examined in this study. TOC NDVI, on the other hand, had largely fluctuating MD across this period, ranging from 0.005 to 0.01 NDVI units, an indication of inconsistent atmospheric correction or cloud mask results. With respect to VZA, inconsistent MDs were always obtained for the 55-62.5 degree VZA bin for all the three indices. Overall, VIIRS and MODIS VI products are subject to systematic differences, which

  20. AquaUsers: Improving access to remotely sensed data for non-specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Oliver; Walker, Peter; Calton, Ben; Miller, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In recent years more and more complex remotely sensed data have been made available to the public by national and international agencies. These data are also reprocessed by different organisations to produce secondary products that are of specific need to a community. For instance the production of chlorophyll concentration maps from ocean colour data provided by NASA for the marine community. Providing access to such data has normally been focused on simply making the data available with appropriate metadata so that domain specialists can make use of it. One area that has seen significant investment, both of time and money, has been in the production of web based data portals. Primarily these have focused on spatial data. By providing a web map visualisation users are able to quickly assess both spatial coverage and data values. Data portal improvements have been possible thanks to advancements in back end data servers such as Thredds and ncWMS as well as improvements in front-end libraries for data visualisation including OpenLayers and D3. Data portals that make use of these technological advancements have aimed at improving the access and use of data by trained scientific domain specialists. There is now a push to improve access to these systems by non-scientific domain specialists through several European Commission funded projects, including OPEC and AquaUsers. These projects have improved upon an open source web GIS portal created by Plymouth Marine Laboratory [https://github.com/pmlrsg/GISportal]. We will present the latest version of our GIS portal, discuss the designs steps taken to achieve the latest build and share user stories as to how non-domain specialists are now able to utilise the system and get benefits from remotely sensed data. A first version was produced and disseminated to end users for feedback. At this stage the end users included government advisors, fish farmers and scientific groups with no specific GIS training or knowledge. This