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Sample records for ams-02 transition radiation

  1. The AMS-02 transition radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kirn, Th

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS02 will be equipped with a large transition radiation detector (TRD) to achieve a proton background suppression necessary for dark matter searches. The AMS02 TRD consists of 20 layers of fleece radiator each with Xe/CO//2 proportional wire straw tubes read out by a dedicated low-power data- acquisition system. A space-qualified TRD design will be presented. The performance of a 20-layer prototype was tested at CERN with electron, myon and pion beams up to l00 GeV and with protons up to 250 GeV. The beam-test results will be compared to Geant3 MC predictions. The detector is under construction at RWTH Aachen; the gas system will be built at MIT, slow-control at MIT and INFN Rome and DAQ at TH Karlsruhe. This project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR, the US Department of Energy DOE and NASA.

  2. Performance of the AMS-02 Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Document Server

    von Doetinchem, P.; Karpinski, W.; Kirn, T.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Orboeck, J.; Schael, S.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Siedenburg, T.; Siedling, R.; Wallraff, W.; Becker, U.; Burger, J.; Henning, R.; Kounine, A.; Koutsenko, V.; Wyatt, J.

    2006-01-01

    For cosmic particle spectroscopy on the International Space Station the AMS experiment will be equipped with a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to improve particle identification. The TRD has 20 layers of fleece radiator with Xe/CO2 proportional mode straw tube chambers. They are supported in a conically shaped octagon structure made of CFC-Al-honeycomb. For low power consumption VA analog multiplexers are used as front-end readout. A 20 layer prototype built from final design components has achieved proton rejections from 100 to 2000 at 90% electron efficiency for proton beam energies up to 250 GeV with cluster counting, likelihood and neural net selection algorithms.

  3. The AMS-02 experiment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a high-energy physics experiment built to operate in space. The prototype of the AMS detector was AMS-01, fown in1998 on-board of the space shuttle Discovery (missionSTS-91). Starting from the experience acquired in the high successful AMS-01 mission the detector AMS-02 has been designed improving the AMS-01 energetic range, geometric acceptance and particle identifcation capabilities. In 2010 the AMS-02 detector has been validated for the space/scientifc operations by means of a wide test campaign(including beam tests, TVT test and EMI test). A major change in the design of AMS-02 has been decided after the thermo-vacuum test to extend as much aspossible the endurance of the experiment, profiting also of the extended endurance of the International Space Station (ISS) program toward 2020. The final AMS-02 configuration has been integrated during summer 2010, then tested on the H8 beam-line at CERN, and finally delivered to the launch site (Kennedy Space Center, Florida) at the end of August. AMS-02 is planned to be installed on the International Space Station in 2011 by the space shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-134).

  4. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  5. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  6. Anomalous Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Framework of AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiali, Behrouz [National Central University (NCU), ChungLi, Tao Yuan, 32054, Taiwan (China); Haino, Sadakazu; Feng, Jie, E-mail: behrouz.khiali@cern.ch [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    The cosmic-ray (CR) energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei, which are the most abundant components of cosmic radiation, exhibit a remarkable hardening at energies above 100 GeV/nucleon. Recent data from AMS-02 confirm this feature with a higher significance. These data challenge the current models of CR acceleration in Galactic sources and propagation in the Galaxy. Here, we explain the observed break in the spectra of protons and helium nuclei in light of recent advances in CR diffusion theories in turbulent astrophysical sources as being a result of a transition between different CR diffusion regimes. We reconstruct the observed CR spectra using the fact that a transition from normal diffusion to superdiffusion changes the efficiency of particle acceleration and causes the change in the spectral index. We find that calculated proton and helium spectra match the data very well.

  7. Towards direction dependent fluxes with AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeissler, Stefan; Andeen, Karen; Boer, Wim de; Gebauer, Iris; Merx, Carmen; Nikonov, Nikolay; Vagelli, Valerio [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector designed to operate as an external module on the International Space Station (ISS). In the unique space environment cosmic particles can be measured with high precision over an energy range from GeV up to TeV. In 2014 electron and positron flux measurements where published which indicate an additional source of positrons among the various cosmic particles. The arrival directions of energetic positrons and electrons convey fundamental information on their origin. We evaluate the AMS-02 detector acceptance for each incoming particle direction and show preliminary results of a direction dependent measurement of the AMS-02 lepton flux.

  8. Indirect and inclusive search for dark matter with AMS02 space spectrometer; Recherche indirecte et inclusive de matiere noire avec le spectrometre spatial AMS02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, Pierre [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-vieux de Physique des Particules, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    AMS02 is a particle physics detector designed for 3 years of data taking aboard the International Space Station. Equipped with a superconducting magnet, it will allow to measure gamma and cosmic ray fluxes in the GeV to TeV region with high particle identification capabilities. Its performance is based on the redundancy of measurements in specific sub-detectors: a Time-Of-Flight counter, a Transition Radiation Detector, a Silicon Tracker, a Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter and an Electromagnetic calorimeter (Ecal). The Ecal is studied in details, in particular with the qualification of a stand-alone trigger devoted to gamma ray astronomy. This system allows to increase the AMS02 sensitivity to photons, and to improve the reconstruction of electromagnetic events. The analog part of the trigger system has been tested with test benches and in-beam at CERN. The in-orbit calibration of the Ecal is studied, it may proceed in two steps. First, the Ecal cells responses have to be equalized with minimum ionizing particles data. Then an absolute calibration can be performed with cosmic electrons. For both the relative and the absolute calibration, possible procedures are defined and realistic calibration times are estimated. The second part deals with the indirect searches for dark matter and the study of the AMS02 sensitivity. Dark matter stands for 84% of the Universe mass and could consist in new particles. Dark matter particles are expected to surround our Galaxy and annihilate in high density regions. These annihilations could become observable exotic primary cosmic ray sources. Searches for anomalous excesses in (p-bar, e{sup +}, D-bar) and {gamma} ray fluxes will be performed by AMS02. A numerical tool allowing to perform predictions for these exotic fluxes within supersymmetry or extra-dimension is developed and is presented in details. Phenomenological studies regarding possible enhancements of these signals by over-dense regions of the halo have also been performed

  9. Constraints on Leptophilic Dark Matter from the AMS-02 Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavasonza, Leila Ali; Gast, Henning; Schael, Stefan; Krämer, Michael; Pellen, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    The annihilation of dark matter particles in the Galactic halo of the Milky Way may lead to cosmic ray signatures that can be probed by the AMS-02 experiment, which has measured the composition and fluxes of charged cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. Given the absence of characteristic spectral features in the electron and positron fluxes measured by AMS-02, we derive upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section for leptophilic dark matter models. Our limits are based on a new background model that describes all recent measurements of the energy spectra of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons. For thermal dark matter relics, we can exclude dark matter masses below about 100 GeV. We include the radiation of electroweak gauge bosons in the dark matter annihilation process and compute the antiproton signal that can be expected within leptophilic dark matter models.

  10. Constraints on Leptophilic Dark Matter from the AMS-02 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavasonza, Leila Ali; Gast, Henning; Schael, Stefan [I. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Krämer, Michael [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology, RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Pellen, Mathieu, E-mail: cavasonza@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-04-10

    The annihilation of dark matter particles in the Galactic halo of the Milky Way may lead to cosmic ray signatures that can be probed by the AMS-02 experiment, which has measured the composition and fluxes of charged cosmic rays with unprecedented precision. Given the absence of characteristic spectral features in the electron and positron fluxes measured by AMS-02, we derive upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section for leptophilic dark matter models. Our limits are based on a new background model that describes all recent measurements of the energy spectra of cosmic-ray positrons and electrons. For thermal dark matter relics, we can exclude dark matter masses below about 100 GeV. We include the radiation of electroweak gauge bosons in the dark matter annihilation process and compute the antiproton signal that can be expected within leptophilic dark matter models.

  11. Recent results from the AMS-02 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchi Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. Precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons and electrons are presented in this document, based on 41×109 events collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  12. Indirect and inclusive search for dark matter with AMS02 space spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    AMS02 is a particle physics detector designed for 3 years of data taking aboard the International Space Station. Equipped with a superconducting magnet, it will allow to measure gamma and cosmic ray fluxes in the GeV to TeV region with high particle identification capabilities. Its performance is based on the redundancy of measurements in specific sub-detectors: a Time-Of-Flight counter, a Transition Radiation Detector, a Silicon Tracker, a Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter and an Electromagnetic calorimeter (Ecal). The Ecal is studied in details, in particular with the qualification of a stand-alone trigger devoted to gamma ray astronomy. This system allows to increase the AMS02 sensitivity to photons, and to improve the reconstruction of electromagnetic events. The analog part of the trigger system has been tested with test benches and in-beam at CERN. The in-orbit calibration of the Ecal is studied, it may proceed in two steps. First, the Ecal cells responses have to be equalized with minimum ionizing particles data. Then an absolute calibration can be performed with cosmic electrons. For both the relative and the absolute calibration, possible procedures are defined and realistic calibration times are estimated. The second part deals with the indirect searches for dark matter and the study of the AMS02 sensitivity. Dark matter stands for 84% of the Universe mass and could consist in new particles. Dark matter particles are expected to surround our Galaxy and annihilate in high density regions. These annihilations could become observable exotic primary cosmic ray sources. Searches for anomalous excesses in (p-bar, e + , D-bar) and γ ray fluxes will be performed by AMS02. A numerical tool allowing to perform predictions for these exotic fluxes within supersymmetry or extra-dimension is developed and is presented in details. Phenomenological studies regarding possible enhancements of these signals by over-dense regions of the halo have also been performed. The

  13. Indirect and inclusive search for dark matter with AMS02 space spectrometer; Recherche indirecte et inclusive de matiere noire avec le spectrometre spatial AMS02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, P

    2007-06-15

    AMS02 is a particle physics detector designed for 3 years of data collecting aboard the International Space Station. Equipped with a superconducting magnet, it will allow to measure gamma and cosmic ray fluxes in the GeV to TeV region with high particle identification capabilities. Its performance is based on the redundancy of measurements in specific sub-detectors: a Time-Of-Flight counter, a Transition Radiation Detector, a Silicon Tracker, a Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter and an Electromagnetic calorimeter (Ecal). The Ecal is studied in details, in particular with the qualification of a stand-alone trigger devoted to gamma ray astronomy. This system allows the increase of the AMS02 sensitivity to photons, and the improvement of the reconstruction of electromagnetic events. The analog part of the trigger system has been tested with test benches and with a beam at CERN. The in-orbit calibration of the Ecal is studied, it may proceed in two steps. First, the Ecal cells responses have to be equalized with minimum ionizing particles data. Then an absolute calibration can be performed with cosmic electrons. For both the relative and the absolute calibration, possible procedures are defined and realistic calibration times are estimated. The second part deals with the indirect searches for dark matter and the study of the AMS02 sensitivity. Dark matter stands for 84% of the Universe mass and could consist in new particles. Dark matter particles are expected to surround our Galaxy and annihilate in high density regions. These annihilations could become observable exotic primary cosmic ray sources. Searches for anomalous excesses in (p-bar, e{sup +}, D-bar) and {gamma} ray fluxes will be performed by AMS02. A numerical tool allowing us to perform predictions for these exotic fluxes within supersymmetry or extra-dimension is developed and is presented in details. Phenomenological studies regarding possible enhancements of these signals by over-dense regions of the halo

  14. Cosmic ray anisotropy searches with AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeissler, Stefan; Gebauer, Iris; Trumpf, Ricarda [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state-of-the-art particle detector designed to operate as an external module on the International Space Station (ISS). In this unique space environment cosmic particles can be measured with high precision over an energy range from GeV up to TeV. The AMS collaboration provided precise measurements of the electron and positron fluxes, which indicate an additional source of positrons among the various cosmic particles. Possible candidates for this source are local pulsars, a local source of positrons produced in proton-gas interactions or dark matter annihilation. In the first two cases a possible anisotropy in the electrons and positrons incoming direction at Earth might be detectable. To determine the level of isotropy the measured data is compared to reference maps, which simulate the measurement of an isotropic sky. A common choice of reference maps are proton count maps or shuffled maps, which redistribute measured incoming directions over the whole measuring time. Both choices lead to difficulties in the reconstruction of a marginal signal with a big expansion over the galactic sky as it would be the case for charged cosmic particles. We developed a method to construct reference maps based on fundamental detector characteristics such as the lifetime and the geometric acceptance. Using this we are able to reconstruct the isotropic sky as it would be seen by the detector. We demonstrate the performance of the method using AMS-02 data.

  15. Performance in space of the AMS-02 RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovacchini, F., E-mail: francesca.giovacchini@cern.ch

    2014-12-01

    AMS-02 was successfully installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in May 2011, to perform precise measurements of galactic cosmic rays in the 100 MV to few TV magnetic rigidity range. Among several specialized sub-detectors, AMS-02 includes a Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH), which provides a precise measurement of the particle charge and velocity. The Cherenkov light is produced in a radiator made of silica aerogel and sodium fluoride and collected by means of an array of photomultiplier tubes. Since its launch to space, the detector has been taking data without failures; its functionality and data integrity are monitored and show stable response. In order to achieve the optimal detector performance, calibrations have been performed to account for the dependence of the photodetectors response on temperature and for effective non-uniformities in the detector. The knowledge gathered of the photon yield at the percent level resulted in a charge resolution of 0.3 charge units for He and 0.5 charge units for Si ions. The required precision in the measurements of the particle velocity at the per mil level demanded a more accurate determination of the aerogel refractive index. A map of the aerogel radiator refractive index has been directly inferred from in-flight high statistics data with a precision of Δn/n<2×10{sup −5} on average and its stability with time has also been checked. Finally, a velocity resolution of ∼0.8×10{sup −3} for He and ∼0.5×10{sup −3} for Z>5 ions has been obtained. - Highlights: • AMS-02 RICH detector is fully operational in space and monitored from ground. • Detector calibration for t-dependent and t-independent effects is performed. • Aerogel refractive index fine map has been obtained and its stability checked. • Charge and velocity resolution fulfill design requirements.

  16. Indirect and inclusive search for dark matter with AMS02 space spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, P.

    2007-06-01

    AMS02 is a particle physics detector designed for 3 years of data collecting aboard the International Space Station. Equipped with a superconducting magnet, it will allow to measure gamma and cosmic ray fluxes in the GeV to TeV region with high particle identification capabilities. Its performance is based on the redundancy of measurements in specific sub-detectors: a Time-Of-Flight counter, a Transition Radiation Detector, a Silicon Tracker, a Ring Imaging Cherenkov counter and an Electromagnetic calorimeter (Ecal). The Ecal is studied in details, in particular with the qualification of a stand-alone trigger devoted to gamma ray astronomy. This system allows the increase of the AMS02 sensitivity to photons, and the improvement of the reconstruction of electromagnetic events. The analog part of the trigger system has been tested with test benches and with a beam at CERN. The in-orbit calibration of the Ecal is studied, it may proceed in two steps. First, the Ecal cells responses have to be equalized with minimum ionizing particles data. Then an absolute calibration can be performed with cosmic electrons. For both the relative and the absolute calibration, possible procedures are defined and realistic calibration times are estimated. The second part deals with the indirect searches for dark matter and the study of the AMS02 sensitivity. Dark matter stands for 84% of the Universe mass and could consist in new particles. Dark matter particles are expected to surround our Galaxy and annihilate in high density regions. These annihilations could become observable exotic primary cosmic ray sources. Searches for anomalous excesses in (p-bar, e + , D-bar) and γ ray fluxes will be performed by AMS02. A numerical tool allowing us to perform predictions for these exotic fluxes within supersymmetry or extra-dimension is developed and is presented in details. Phenomenological studies regarding possible enhancements of these signals by over-dense regions of the halo have also

  17. Mass of decaying wino from AMS-02 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Univ. Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Univ. Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    We revisit the decaying wino dark matter scenario in the light of the updated positron fraction, electron and positron fluxes in cosmic ray recently reported by the AMS-02 collaboration. We show the AMS-02 results favor the mass of the wino dark matter at around a few TeV, which is consistent with the prediction on the wino mass in the pure gravity mediation model.

  18. Mass of decaying wino from AMS-02 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, Masahiro, E-mail: ibe@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), Theory Group, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Matsumoto, Shigeki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

    2015-02-04

    We revisit the decaying wino dark matter scenario in the light of the updated positron fraction, electron and positron fluxes in cosmic ray recently reported by the AMS-02 collaboration. We show the AMS-02 results favor the mass of the wino dark matter at around a few TeV, which is consistent with the prediction on the wino mass in the pure gravity mediation model.

  19. Mass of decaying wino from AMS-02 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    We revisit the decaying wino dark matter scenario in the light of the updated positron fraction, electron and positron fluxes in cosmic ray recently reported by the AMS-02 collaboration. We show the AMS-02 results favor the mass of the wino dark matter at around a few TeV, which is consistent with the prediction on the wino mass in the pure gravity mediation model.

  20. Charge determination of nuclei with the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Alpat, B; Azzarello, P; Battiston, R; Bene, P; Bertucci, B; Bizzaglia, S; Bizzarri, M; Blasko, S; Bourquin, M; Bouvier, P; Burger, W J; Capell, M; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Cortina, E; Dinu, N; Esposito, G; Fiandrini, E; Haas, D; Hakobyan, H; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Kounine, A; Koutsenko, V F; Lebedev, A; Lechanoine-Leluc, C; Lin, C H; Masciocchi, F; Menichelli, M; Natale, S; Paniccia, M; Papi, A; Pauluzzi, M; Perrin, E; Pohl, M; Rapin, D; Richeux, J P; Wallraff, W; Willenbrock, M; Zuccon, P

    2005-01-01

    The silicon tracker of the AMS-02 detector measures the trajectory in three dimensions of electrons, protons and nuclei to high precision in a dipole magnetic field and thus measures their rigidity (momentum over charge) and the sign of their charge. In addition, it measures the specific energy loss of charged particles to determine the charge magnitude. Ladders from the AMS-02 tracker have been exposed to ion beams at CERN and GSI to study their response to nuclei from helium up to the iron group. The longest ladder, 72 multiplied by 496mm2, verified in the tests contains 12 sensors. Good charge resolution is observed up to iron.

  1. Charge determination of nuclei with the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Alpat, B.; G. Ambrosi; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R.; Bene, P.; Bertucci, B.; Bizzaglia, S.; Bizzarri, M.; Blasko, S.; Bourquin, M.; Cortina Gil, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    The silicon tracker of the AMS-02 detector measures the trajectory in three dimensions of electrons, protons and nuclei to high precision in a dipole magnetic field and thus measures their rigidity (momentum over charge) and the sign of their charge. In addition, it measures the specific energy loss of charged particles to determine the charge magnitude. Ladders from the AMS-02 tracker have been exposed to ion beams at CERN and GSI to study their response to nuclei from helium up to the iron ...

  2. AMS-02 in space: physics results, overview, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Nicola; AMS Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a state of the art particle detector measuring cosmic rays (CRs) on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 19th 2011. AMS-02 identifies CR leptons and nuclei in the energy range from hundreds MeV to few TeV per nucleon. Several sub-detector systems allow for redundant particle identification with unprecedented precision, a powerful lepton-hadron separation, and a high purity of the antimatter signal. The new AMS-02 leptonic data from 1 to 500 GeV are presented and discussed. These new data indicate that new sources of CR leptons need to be included to describe the observed spectra at high energies. Explanations of this anomaly may be found either in dark-matter particles annihilation or in the existence of nearby astrophysical sources of e±. Future data at higher energies and forthcoming measurements on the antiproton spectrum and the boron-to-carbon ratio will be crucial in providing the discrimination among the different scenario.

  3. The AMS-02 Experiment and the Dark Matter Search

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, Nicolo

    AMS-02 is running after great scientific goals since one year and a half: a final setting up for dark matter searches has been achieved, allowing to study the so important antiparticle to particle ratios, which will probably be the first dark matter signals ever corroborated. Even if primary cosmic rays fluxes are subjected to a lot of uncertainties sources, some statements can be done and have been written down about dark matter properties: DM should be a heavy Majorana fermion or Spin 0 or 1 boson, with a mass from about 1 TeV to 10 TeV - unveiling a new TeV-ish search age - which could be able to originate antiparticle fluxes enhancements at high energies, both for positrons and antiprotons. All the observations, direct and indirect, point to these new paradigms or can be traced back to them quite easily. These enhancements perfectly fall into the research window of AMS-02, allowing the experiment to attack each today credible theory. Also an investigation of the Sommerfeld effect-associated dark boson wil...

  4. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  5. Dark matter for excess of AMS-02 positrons and antiprotons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hung Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a dark matter explanation to simultaneously account for the excess of antiproton-to-proton and positron power spectra observed in the AMS-02 experiment while having the right dark matter relic abundance and satisfying the current direct search bounds. We extend the Higgs triplet model with a hidden gauge symmetry of SU(2X that is broken to Z3 by a quadruplet scalar field, rendering the associated gauge bosons stable weakly-interacting massive particle dark matter candidates. By coupling the complex Higgs triplet and the SU(2X quadruplet, the dark matter candidates can annihilate into triplet Higgs bosons each of which in turn decays into lepton or gauge boson final states. Such a mechanism gives rise to correct excess of positrons and antiprotons with an appropriate choice of the triplet vacuum expectation value. Besides, the model provides a link between neutrino mass and dark matter phenomenology.

  6. SOLAR MODULATION OF THE LOCAL INTERSTELLAR SPECTRUM WITH VOYAGER 1 , AMS-02, PAMELA , AND BESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corti, C.; Bindi, V.; Consolandi, C.; Whitman, K., E-mail: corti@hawaii.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    In recent years, the increasing precision of direct cosmic rays measurements opened the door to high-sensitivity indirect searches of dark matter and to more accurate predictions for radiation doses received by astronauts and electronics in space. The key ingredients in the study of these phenomena are the knowledge of the local interstellar spectrum (LIS) of galactic cosmic rays and the understanding of how the solar modulation affects the LIS inside the heliosphere. Voyager 1 , AMS-02, PAMELA , and BESS measurements of proton and helium fluxes provide valuable information, allowing us to shed light on the shape of the LIS and the details of the solar modulation during solar cycles 22-24. A new parametrization of the LIS is presented, based on the latest data from Voyager 1 and AMS-02. Using the framework of the force-field approximation, the solar modulation parameter is extracted from the time-dependent fluxes measured by PAMELA and BESS . A modified version of the force-field approximation with a rigidity-dependent modulation parameter is introduced, yielding better fits than the force-field approximation. The results are compared with the modulation parameter inferred by neutron monitors.

  7. Construction and qualification of the Power Supply system of the AMS-02 Tracker detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menichelli, M.; Accardo, L.; Ambrosi, G.; Battiston, R.; Bizzarri, M.; Blasko, S.; Cosson, D.; Fiori, E.M.; Maris, O.; Papi, A.; Scolieri, G.

    2007-01-01

    The AMS-02 Tracker power supply system, described in this paper, has been designed optimizing noise performances, modularity and efficiency. The power is distributed starting from a 28V line coming from the power distribution system is converted into the needed voltages by means of DC-DC converters, and for bias supply and front-end voltages is post-regulated by means of linear regulators. Components Off The Shelf (COTS) have been extensively used in the construction of this power supply, however various radiation test campaigns have been performed in order to verify the reliability of these components. The power supply architecture developed for the tracker detector has been used as a guideline for the development of the power supplies for the other detectors in the experiment

  8. AMS_02 Particle Physics Detector Technologies Orbiting the Earth (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    AMS-02 has taken the high performance technologies used in particle physics and implemented them for use in low Earth orbit. Safety aspects for the Space Shuttle flight, that carried AMS_02 to the International Space Station, Space environment and inaccessibility during the life of AMS_02 are some of the aspects which have driven the design of the experiment. The technical challenges to build such a detector have been surmounted through the close collaboration amongst the AMS scientists and industries around the world. Their efforts have resulted in the development of new technologies and higher standards of precision.

  9. AMS_02 Particle Physics Detector Technologies Orbiting the Earth (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    AMS-02 has taken the high performance technologies used in particle physics and implemented them for use in low Earth orbit. Safety aspects for the Space Shuttle flight, that carried AMS_02 to the International Space Station, Space environment and inaccessibility during the life of AMS_02 are some of the aspects which have driven the design of the experiment. The technical challenges to build such a detector have been surmounted through the close collaboration amongst the AMS scientists and industries around the world. Their efforts have resulted in the development of new technologies and higher standards of precision.

  10. Operation of the Electronics for the AMS-02RICH Detector Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo, P.; Aguilar, M.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Fernandez, C.; Garcia-Tabares, L.; Lanciotti, E.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Palomares, C.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Torrento, A.; Wilmott, C.; Yanez, J.

    2002-07-01

    The operation and behaviour of the RICH prototype electronics developed for the AMS-02 experiment is presented. It includes results and conclusions obtained from experimental tests data with cosmic rays. (Author)

  11. Fermi-LAT kills dark matter interpretations of AMS-02 data. Or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belotsky, Konstantin; Budaev, Ruslan; Kirillov, Alexander; Laletin, Maxim, E-mail: k-belotsky@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: AAKirillov@mephi.ru, E-mail: maxim.laletin@ulg.ac.be [Department of Elementary Particle Physics, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 115409 Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-01

    A number of papers attempt to explain the positron anomaly in cosmic rays, observed by PAMELA and AMS-02, in terms of dark matter (DM) decays or annihilations. However, the recent progress in cosmic gamma-ray studies challenges these attempts. Indeed, as we show, any rational DM model explaining the positron anomaly abundantly produces final state radiation and Inverse Compton gamma rays, which inevitably leads to a contradiction with Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background measurements. Furthermore, the Fermi-LAT observation of Milky Way dwarf satellites, supposed to be rich in DM, revealed no significant signal in gamma rays. We propose a generic approach in which the major contribution to cosmic rays comes from the dark matter disc and prove that the tension between the DM origin of the positron anomaly and the cosmic gamma-ray observations can be relieved. We consider both a simple model, in which DM decay/annihilate into charged leptons, and a model-independent minimal case of particle production, and we estimate the optimal thickness of DM disk. Possible mechanisms of formation and its properties are briefly discussed.

  12. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  13. In-flight operations and status of the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R.; Bertucci, B.; Choumilov, E.; Choutko, V.; Crispoltoni, M.; Delgado, C.; Duranti, M.; Donnini, F.; D'Urso, D.; Fiandrini, E.; Formato, V.; Graziani, M.; Habiby, M.

    2016-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating on the International Space Station since May 2011. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument as of today. One of the key subdetectors of AMS-02 is the microstrip silicon Tracker, designed to precisely measure the trajectory and absolute charge of cosmic rays in the GeV-TeV energy range. In addition, with the magnetic field, is also measuring the particle magnetic rigidity, defined as R = pc/Ze, a...

  14. AMS-02 data confront acceleration of cosmic ray secondaries in nearby sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the model proposed earlier to account for the observed increase in the positron fraction in cosmic rays with increasing energy, in the light of new data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) experiment. The model accounts for the production and acceleration of secondary electrons...

  15. Simplified dark matter models in the light of AMS-02 antiproton data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tong

    2017-01-01

    In this work we perform an analysis of the recent AMS-02 antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the framework of simplified dark matter models. To predict the AMS-02 observables we adopt the propagation and injection parameters determined by the observed fluxes of nuclei. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Dirac fermionic dark matter, with leptophobic pseudoscalar or axialvector mediator that couples only to Standard Model quarks and dark matter particles. We find that the AMS-02 observations are consistent with the dark matter framework within the uncertainties. The antiproton data prefer a dark matter (mediator) mass in the 700 GeV–5 TeV region for the annihilation with pseudoscalar mediator and greater than 700 GeV (200 GeV–1 TeV) for the annihilation with axialvector mediator, respectively, at about 68% confidence level. The AMS-02 data require an effective dark matter annihilation cross section in the region of 1×10 −25 –1×10 −24 (1×10 −25 –4×10 −24 ) cm 3 /s for the simplified model with pseudoscalar (axialvector) mediator. The constraints from the LHC and Fermi-LAT are also discussed.

  16. Revisiting simplified dark matter models in terms of AMS-02 and Fermi-LAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong

    2018-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the simplified dark matter models in the light of cosmic ray observables by AMS-02 and Fermi-LAT. We assume fermion, scalar or vector dark matter particle with a leptophobic spin-0 mediator that couples only to Standard Model quarks and dark matter via scalar and/or pseudo-scalar bilinear. The propagation and injection parameters of cosmic rays are determined by the observed fluxes of nuclei from AMS-02. We find that the AMS-02 observations are consistent with the dark matter framework within the uncertainties. The AMS-02 antiproton data prefer 30 (50) GeV - 5 TeV dark matter mass and require an effective annihilation cross section in the region of 4 × 10-27 (7 × 10-27) - 4 × 10-24 cm3/s for the simplified fermion (scalar and vector) dark matter models. The cross sections below 2 × 10-26 cm3/s can evade the constraint from Fermi-LAT dwarf galaxies for about 100 GeV dark matter mass.

  17. Simplified dark matter models in the light of AMS-02 antiproton data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University,Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2017-04-19

    In this work we perform an analysis of the recent AMS-02 antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the framework of simplified dark matter models. To predict the AMS-02 observables we adopt the propagation and injection parameters determined by the observed fluxes of nuclei. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Dirac fermionic dark matter, with leptophobic pseudoscalar or axialvector mediator that couples only to Standard Model quarks and dark matter particles. We find that the AMS-02 observations are consistent with the dark matter framework within the uncertainties. The antiproton data prefer a dark matter (mediator) mass in the 700 GeV–5 TeV region for the annihilation with pseudoscalar mediator and greater than 700 GeV (200 GeV–1 TeV) for the annihilation with axialvector mediator, respectively, at about 68% confidence level. The AMS-02 data require an effective dark matter annihilation cross section in the region of 1×10{sup −25}–1×10{sup −24} (1×10{sup −25}–4×10{sup −24}) cm{sup 3}/s for the simplified model with pseudoscalar (axialvector) mediator. The constraints from the LHC and Fermi-LAT are also discussed.

  18. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Pachmayer, Y

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

  19. In-flight operations and status of the AMS-02 silicon tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, G; Battiston, R; Bertucci, b B; Choumilov, E; Choutko, V; Crispoltoni, M; Delgado, C; Duranti, M; Donnini, F; D'Urso, D; Fiandrini, cE; Formato, V; Graziani, M; Habiby, M; Haino, S; Ionica, M; Kanishchev, K; Nozzoli, F; Oliva, c A; Paniccia, M; Pizzolotto, C; Pohl, c M; Qin, X; Rapin, d D; Saouter, P; Tomassetti, N; Vitale, V; Vitillo, c S; Wu, X; Zhang, Z; Zuccon, P

    2016-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating on the International Space Station since May 2011. More than 60 billion events have been collected by the instrument as of today. One of the key subdetectors of AMS-02 is the microstrip silicon Tracker, designed to precisely measure the trajectory and absolute charge of cosmic rays in the GeV-TeV energy range. In addition, with the magnetic field, is also measuring the particle magnetic rigidity, defined as R = pc/Ze, and the sign of the charge. This report presents the Tracker on-line operations and calibration during the first four years of data taking in space. The track reconstruction efficiency and the resolution will be also reviewed.

  20. AMS02 Ecal γ trigger performance measured at the October 2004 CERN test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Pierre; Rosier-Lees, Sylvie

    2006-01-01

    Test beam data collected in October 2004 at CERN PS to validate the AMS 02 Ecal Inter- mediate Board (EIB) are analyzed. After describing the experimental setup and the event samples, results concerning noise measurement, trigger efficiency and threshold accuracy are presented. They demonstrate that the EIB fulfills the physics requirements. Therefore the analog part of the trigger is validated, and hardware choices are also made towards the final device. (authors)

  1. Precise measurement of cosmic ray fluxes with the AMS-02 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchi, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.vecchi@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 369, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-12-17

    The AMS-02 detector is a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer operating onboard the International Space Station since May 2011. The main goals of the detector are the search for antimatter and dark matter in space, as well as the measurement of cosmic ray composition and flux. In this document we present precise measurements of cosmic ray positrons, electrons and protons, collected during the first 30 months of operations.

  2. Dark matter vs. astrophysics in the interpretation of AMS-02 electron and positron data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Vittino, Andrea, E-mail: mattia.dimauro@to.infn.it, E-mail: donato@to.infn.it, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: vittino@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    We perform a detailed quantitative analysis of the recent AMS-02 electron and positron data. We investigate the interplay between the emission from primary astrophysical sources, namely Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, and the contribution from a dark matter annihilation or decay signal. Our aim is to assess the information that can be derived on dark matter properties when both dark matter and primary astrophysical sources are assumed to jointly contribute to the leptonic observables measured by the AMS-02 experiment. We investigate both the possibility to set robust constraints on the dark matter annihilation/decay rate and the possibility to look for dark matter signals within realistic models that take into account the full complexity of the astrophysical background. Our results show that AMS-02 data enable to probe efficiently vast regions of the dark matter parameter space and, in some cases, to set constraints on the dark matter annihilation/decay rate that are comparable or even stronger than the ones derived from other indirect detection channels.

  3. Dark matter vs. astrophysics in the interpretation of AMS-02 electron and positron data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Vittino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We perform a detailed quantitative analysis of the recent AMS-02 electron and positron data. We investigate the interplay between the emission from primary astrophysical sources, namely Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae, and the contribution from a dark matter annihilation or decay signal. Our aim is to assess the information that can be derived on dark matter properties when both dark matter and primary astrophysical sources are assumed to jointly contribute to the leptonic observables measured by the AMS-02 experiment. We investigate both the possibility to set robust constraints on the dark matter annihilation/decay rate and the possibility to look for dark matter signals within realistic models that take into account the full complexity of the astrophysical background. Our results show that AMS-02 data enable to probe efficiently vast regions of the dark matter parameter space and, in some cases, to set constraints on the dark matter annihilation/decay rate that are comparable or even stronger than the ones derived from other indirect detection channels.

  4. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Foam radiators for transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Gavrilenko, I.; Potekhin, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of foam radiators, potentially useful in the design of a transition radiation detector, the possible particle identification tool in collider experiments, have been tested in the beam. Various characteristics of these radiators are compared, and the conclusion is reached that certain brands of polyethylene foam are best suited for use in the detector. Comparison is made with a 'traditional' radiator, which is a periodic structure of plastic foils. (orig.)

  6. Research on transition undulator radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shuzhuang; Dai Zhimin; Zhao Xiaofeng

    2000-01-01

    The theory of transition undulator radiation was described first, then the properties of infrared and far-infrared transition undulator radiation of SSRF U9.0 were explored by the methods of analytical treatment and numerical simulation, and the influence of beam energy spread, emittance, and magnetic field errors on transition undulator radiation was given also. It was shown that the flux density of the infrared and far-infrared transition undulator radiation of the SSRF U9.0 was high (e.g., the maximum flux density might reach 35 x 10 13 photons/(s·mrad 2 ·BW), collecting angle φ = 0.23 mrad, and the effects of beam energy spread, emittance and magnetic field errors on the radiation flux density were small

  7. Late decaying 2-component dark matter scenario as an explanation of the AMS-02 positron excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buch, Jatan; Ralegankar, Pranjal; Rentala, Vikram, E-mail: jatan_buch@brown.edu, E-mail: pranjal6@illinois.edu, E-mail: rentala@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2017-10-01

    The long standing anomaly in the positron flux as measured by the PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments could potentially be explained by dark matter (DM) annihilations. This scenario typically requires a large 'boost factor' to be consistent with a thermal relic dark matter candidate produced via freeze-out. However, such an explanation is disfavored by constraints from CMB observations on energy deposition during the epoch of recombination. We discuss a scenario called late-decaying two-component dark matter (LD2DM), where the entire DM consists of two semi-degenerate species. Within this framework, the heavier species is produced as a thermal relic in the early universe and decays to the lighter species over cosmological timescales. Consequently, the lighter species becomes the DM which populates the universe today. We show that annihilation of the lighter DM species with an enhanced cross-section, produced via such a non-thermal mechanism, can explain the observed AMS-02 positron flux while avoiding CMB constraints. The observed DM relic density can be correctly reproduced as well with simple s -wave annihilation cross-sections. We demonstrate that the scenario is safe from CMB constraints on late-time energy depositions during the cosmic 'dark ages'. Interestingly, structure formation constraints force us to consider small mass splittings between the two dark matter species. We explore possible cosmological and particle physics signatures in a toy model that realizes this scenario.

  8. Wino dark matter in light of the AMS-02 2015 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Shirai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The AMS-02 collaboration has recently reported the antiproton to proton ratio with improved accuracy. In view of uncertainties of the production and the propagation of the cosmic rays, the observed ratio is still consistent with the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio. However, it is nonetheless enticing to examine whether the observed spectrum can be explained by a strongly motivated dark matter, the wino dark matter. As we will show, we find that the antiproton flux from the wino annihilation can explain the observed spectrum well for its mass range 2.5-3 TeV. The fit to data becomes particularly well compared to the case without the annihilation for the thermal wino dark matter case with a mass about 3 TeV. The ratio is predicted to be quickly decreased at the energy several hundreds of GeV, if this possibility is true, and it will be confirmed or ruled out in near future when the AMS-02 experiment accumulates enough data at this higher energy region.

  9. Late decaying 2-component dark matter scenario as an explanation of the AMS-02 positron excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Jatan; Ralegankar, Pranjal; Rentala, Vikram

    2017-01-01

    The long standing anomaly in the positron flux as measured by the PAMELA and AMS-02 experiments could potentially be explained by dark matter (DM) annihilations. This scenario typically requires a large 'boost factor' to be consistent with a thermal relic dark matter candidate produced via freeze-out. However, such an explanation is disfavored by constraints from CMB observations on energy deposition during the epoch of recombination. We discuss a scenario called late-decaying two-component dark matter (LD2DM), where the entire DM consists of two semi-degenerate species. Within this framework, the heavier species is produced as a thermal relic in the early universe and decays to the lighter species over cosmological timescales. Consequently, the lighter species becomes the DM which populates the universe today. We show that annihilation of the lighter DM species with an enhanced cross-section, produced via such a non-thermal mechanism, can explain the observed AMS-02 positron flux while avoiding CMB constraints. The observed DM relic density can be correctly reproduced as well with simple s -wave annihilation cross-sections. We demonstrate that the scenario is safe from CMB constraints on late-time energy depositions during the cosmic 'dark ages'. Interestingly, structure formation constraints force us to consider small mass splittings between the two dark matter species. We explore possible cosmological and particle physics signatures in a toy model that realizes this scenario.

  10. AMS-02 positron excess and indirect detection of three-body decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Huang, Wei-Chih [Fakultät für Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Huang, Xiaoyuan [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Low, Ian [High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming [Kavli IPMU (WPI), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Yuan, Qiang, E-mail: cheng@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: wei-chih.huang@tu-dortmund.de, E-mail: huangxiaoyuan@gmail.com, E-mail: ilow@northwestern.edu, E-mail: smingtsai@gmail.com, E-mail: yuanq@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-03-01

    We consider indirect detection of meta-stable dark matter particles decaying into a stable neutral particle and a pair of standard model fermions. Due to the softer energy spectra from the three-body decay, such models could potentially explain the AMS-02 positron excess without being constrained by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data and the cosmic ray anti-proton measurements. We scrutinize over different final state fermions, paying special attention to handling of the cosmic ray background and including various contributions from cosmic ray propagation with the help of the LIKEDM package. It is found that primary decays into an electron-positron pair and a stable neutral particle could give rise to the AMS-02 positron excess and, at the same time, stay unscathed against the gamma-ray and anti-proton constraints. Decays to a muon pair or a mixed flavor electron-muon pair may also be viable depending on the propagation models. Decays to all other standard model fermions are severely disfavored.

  11. Possible Dark Matter Annihilation Signal in the AMS-02 Antiproton Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming-Yang; Yuan, Qiang; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2017-05-12

    Using the latest AMS-02 cosmic-ray antiproton flux data, we search for a potential dark matter annihilation signal. The background parameters about the propagation, source injection, and solar modulation are not assumed a priori but based on the results inferred from the recent B/C ratio and proton data measurements instead. The possible dark matter signal is incorporated into the model self-consistently under a Bayesian framework. Compared with the astrophysical background-only hypothesis, we find that a dark matter signal is favored. The rest mass of the dark matter particles is ∼20-80  GeV, and the velocity-averaged hadronic annihilation cross section is about (0.2-5)×10^{-26}  cm^{3} s^{-1}, in agreement with that needed to account for the Galactic center GeV excess and/or the weak GeV emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies Reticulum 2 and Tucana III. Tight constraints on the dark matter annihilation models are also set in a wide mass region.

  12. Galactic cosmic-ray model in the light of AMS-02 nuclei data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jia-Shu; Li, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) physics has entered a precision-driven era. With the latest AMS-02 nuclei data (boron-to-carbon ratio, proton flux, helium flux, and antiproton-to-proton ratio), we perform a global fitting and constrain the primary source and propagation parameters of cosmic rays in the Milky Way by considering 3 schemes with different data sets (with and without p ¯ /p data) and different propagation models (diffusion-reacceleration and diffusion-reacceleration-convection models). We find that the data set with p ¯/p data can remove the degeneracy between the propagation parameters effectively and it favors the model with a very small value of convection (or disfavors the model with convection). The separated injection spectrum parameters are used for proton and other nucleus species, which reveal the different breaks and slopes among them. Moreover, the helium abundance, antiproton production cross sections, and solar modulation are parametrized in our global fitting. Benefited from the self-consistence of the new data set, the fitting results show a little bias, and thus the disadvantages and limitations of the existed propagation models appear. Comparing to the best fit results for the local interstellar spectra (ϕ =0 ) with the VOYAGER-1 data, we find that the primary sources or propagation mechanisms should be different between proton and helium (or other heavier nucleus species). Thus, how to explain these results properly is an interesting and challenging question.

  13. Particle identification via transition radiation and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorytchev, V.; Saveliev, V.; Aplin, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors show great promise for the purposes of lepton identification in existing and future experiments in high-energy physics such as HERA-B, ATLAS, ALICE in high-luminosity environment. More high performance can be expected in low-luminosity conditions - neutrino experiments (NOMAD), and ideal condition for the use of transition radiation detectors in flying and space high-energy experiments (AMS). This paper discusses the practical theory of transition radiation, basic equation and algorithm suitable for detailed analysis of transition radiation and optimization of transition radiation detectors in the area of experimental high-energy physics. The results are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation introduced in GEANT and experimental results

  14. Particle identification via transition radiation and detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Egorytchev, V; Aplin, S J

    2000-01-01

    Transition radiation detectors show great promise for the purposes of lepton identification in existing and future experiments in high- energy physics such as HERA-B, ATLAS, ALICE in high-luminosity environment. More high performance can be expected in low-luminosity conditions-neutrino experiments (NOMAD), and the ideal condition for the use of transition radiation detectors in flying and space high- energy experiments (AMS). This paper discusses the practical theory of transition radiation, basic equation and algorithm suitable for detailed analysis of transition radiation and optimization of transition radiation detectors in the area of experimental high- energy physics. The results are based on detailed Monte Carlo simulation of transition radiation introduced in GEANT and experimental results. (12 refs).

  15. The construction and space qualification of the control electronics for the tracker detector cooling system of the AMS-02 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menichelli, M.; Accardo, L.; Alberti, G.; Bardet, M.; Battiston, R.; Blasko, S.; He, Z.; Koutsenko, V.; Lebedev, A.; Ni, J.; Papi, A.; Pauw, A.; Van Ess, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zwartbol, T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the control electronics for the silicon tracker cooling system in the AMS-02 apparatus. It also contains a brief description of the cooling system itself necessary for the description of the electronics. The tracker cooling system includes a set of various sensors and actuators which are necessary for bringing the tracker detector to a uniform temperature at which it can operate correctly. In order to test the system performing the various qualification activities we have built also an Electronic Ground support equipment (EGSE). The EGSE should simulate the behaviour of all sensors and actuators previously mentioned.

  16. Stable and self-adaptive performance of mechanically pumped CO2 two-phase loops for AMS-02 tracker thermal control in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.-H.; Tong, G.-N.; Huang, Z.-C.; He, Z.-H.; Pauw, A.; Es, J. van; Battiston, R.; Borsini, S.; Laudi, E.; Verlaat, B.; Gargiulo, C.

    2011-01-01

    A mechanically pumped CO 2 two-phase loop cooling system was developed for the temperature control of the silicon tracker of AMS-02, a cosmic particle detector to work in the International Space Station. The cooling system (called TTCS, or Tracker Thermal Control System), consists of two evaporators in parallel to collect heat from the tracker's front-end electronics, two radiators in parallel to emit the heat into space, and a centrifugal pump that circulates the CO 2 fluid that carries the heat to the radiators, and an accumulator that controls the pressure, and thus the temperature of the evaporators. Thermal vacuum tests were performed to check and qualify the system operation in simulated space thermal environment. In this paper, we reported the test results which show that the TTCS exhibited excellent temperature control ability, including temperature homogeneity and stability, and self-adaptive ability to the various external heat flux to the radiators. Highlights: → The active-pumped CO 2 two-phase cooling loop passed the thermal vacuum test. → It provides high temperature homogeneity and stability thermal boundaries. → Its working temperature is controllable in vacuum environment. → It possesses self-adaptive ability to imbalanced external heat fluxes.

  17. Measurement of the cosmic positrons' spectrum with the experiment AMS-02 and search for exotic signals; Mesure du spectre de positons cosmiques avec l'experience AMS-02 et recherche de signaux exotiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochon, J

    2005-06-15

    The AMS-02 experiment is a particle detector that will be installed on the international space station (ISS) in 2008 for at least 3 years. The physics motivations are cosmic ray measurements (e-, e+, p, p-bar, {gamma}, He, C,...), antimatter search for Z>2 and gamma ray studies from GeV to TeV. The HEAT experiment has measured positron spectrum up to 30 GeV, and shown a possible distortion around 8 GeV, which can be interpreted as a dark matter signal. The cosmic positrons spectrum measurement needs positron/proton separation close to 10{sup 5}, which will be obtained combining all AMS-02 sub-detectors. A neural network analysis has been developed on test beam data taken in 2002, to estimate the electron/proton rejection for the electromagnetic calorimeter. This technique, based on discriminant variables and which was tuned on data, was used to determine the positron acceptance combining other sub-detectors information. The number of conventional positrons can be estimated and AMS ability to detect cold dark matter signals has been determined. This study was presented for signal from supersymmetric neutralinos and from Kaluza-Klein stable particles. Fluxes are naturally too low to be detected. Signal can be enhanced thanks to local dark matter over-densities which appear naturally in galaxy formation models. A model for those over-densities has been tuned and presented. (author)

  18. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  19. Time dependence of electron and positron fluxes measured with the AMS-02 spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081963; Duranti, Matteo

    The electrons (e-) and positrons (e+) are a rare component of Cosmic Rays (CRs) since they constitute respectively only a 1% and 0.1% of cosmic radiation. However, the correct detection of e+- covers a great importance in the astrophysics field since, unlike the hadronic component, they are subjected to strong energy losses through the interaction with Interstellar Medium. As consequence e with energies above GeV that reach the Earth are galactic, with the source inside Kpc and through the study of their primary spectra it is possible to probe the local interstellar medium (LIS) and to indirectly detect new possible sources like pulsar or dark matter. However, these spectra, when measured near Earth, are significantly affected by the solar activity and we have the so-called solar modulation of CRs (SM). The solar activity has a cycle which period is ~11 years, during which it increases reaching a maximum and then decreases again. The intensity of cosmic ray radiation is correlated (or rather anticorrelated...

  20. Pneumatic radiator of transition radiation for large working area arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhlyarov, K.K.; Gavalyan, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    An unconventional approach to the constructions of large area regular radiator of X-rays transition radiation is proposed based on the use of a pack of hermetically sealed bags, in which elastic helium layers are formed. A prototype of such a radiator of about 1m 2 area was made for test of the proposed device. 9 refs

  1. Transition undulator radiation as bright infrared sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Undulator radiation contains, in addition to the usual component with narrow spectral features, a broad-band component in the low frequency region emitted in the near forward direction, peaked at an angle 1/{gamma}, where {gamma} is the relativistic factor. This component is referred to as the transition undulator radiation, as it is caused by the sudden change in the electron`s longitudinal velocity as it enters and leaves the undulator. The characteristic of the transition undulator radiation are analyzed and compared with the infrared radiation from the usual undulator harmonics and from bending magnets.

  2. Energy balance in processes of transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The authors consider the transition radiation arising when a charged particle crosses an interface between two nonabsorbing media. It is shown that energy balance is observed under these circumstances. The fulfillment of energy balance in transition radiation for nonabsorbing media is rigorously demonstrated. This allows one to find the energy of the transition radiation from the change in the energy of the intrinsic field of the charge and the work of forces for volume waves, which in a number of cases of complicated configurations may prove to be considerably simpler than a direct calculation of the radiation power. For surface waves, a calculation of the work of forces enables one to determine the radiation power directly

  3. Transition radiation and diffraction radiation. Similarities and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potylitsyn, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristics of diffraction radiation (DR), i.e. radiation of the charged particle moving near conducting target have been considered for an ultrarelativistic case. The simple expressions for DR fields for the semi-infinite ideal conducting target have been derived. The close connection between transition radiation (TR) and DR has been shown. The effect of finite transversal sizes of target on TR characteristics has been evaluated. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Transition radiation in EELS and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stöger-Pollach, Michael, E-mail: stoeger@ustem.tuwien.ac.at; Kachtík, Lukáš; Miesenberger, Bernhard; Retzl, Philipp

    2017-02-15

    The excitation probability of transition radiation is measured for varying beam energies in a transmission electron microscope once using optical spectrometry of the emitted light and second using electron energy loss spectrometry. In both cases similar results are found being in good agreement with theory. The knowledge about this probability enables us to judge whether or not transition radiation has to be considered in EELS and CL data interpretation. Additionally it is shown that the emission of transition radiation happens at the sample surfaces only, when the electron passes the vacuum/sample interface and thus feeling the change of its dielectric environment. We demonstrate that in the case of aluminum the influence of transition radiation on the low loss EELS spectrum is only minor and conclude that it might be negligible for many other materials. - Highlights: • We determine the probability for the excitation of transition radiation at a large variety of beam energies in TEM. • We use a GATAN VULCAN system for optical spectrometry in the TEM. • We do angular resolved EELS experiments in a standard TEM with an angular resolution of 7.57 μrad.

  5. Combination of e+/e- ratio from AMS-02 and gamma ray line from Fermi-LAT with implication for Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan; Luo, Yonggang

    2013-01-01

    The precise AMS-02 data provide definite information for the e+/e- ratio in 100 - 350 GeV region. Assuming that the recent gamma ray line observed by Fermi-LAT experiment is product of dark matter in space and taken as input. We make a global fit for the AMS-02 e+/e- spectrum with both dark matter and pulsar contribution. For this spectrum over 130 GeV, pulsar is the dominant contribution. We also investigate the constrains on hadron production from dark matter annihilation.

  6. Radiative transitions in quarkonjum and quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjamirian, A.Yu.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach to the radiative transitions in quarkonium (c, anti c, b anti b, ...) based on the asymptotic freedom of QCD and on the analyticity is proposed. This approach consists in derivation of dispersion sum rules relating the transition amplitudes with triangle quark diagrams. In this way, a possibility emerges to estimate these amplitudes in a model-independent way. The sum rules are obtained in zeroth order of QCD for transitions between C-even levels 0 ++ , 1 ++ , 2 ++ , 0 -+ and vector (1 -- ) levels. The influence of gluon corrections is discussed and the optimum moments of sum rules are chosen for which these corrections are expected to be at the level of O(αsub(s)) approximately 20%. The widths of radiative transitions in charmonium calculated by means of sum rules turn out to be in agreement with available experimental data. The estimates for analogous transitions in b-quarkonium are also presented. The suggested approach is compared with nonrelativistic models of radiative transitions [ru

  7. Practical applications of coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The predictable nature of transition radiation (TR) emissions has been demonstrated under a wide variety of experimental conditions. The reliable character of TR allows the design of specific practical applications that use emissions from the optical to the x-ray spectral regions. Applications often can be enhanced by the spatial coherence of TR, and some have become highly developed. New applications may be developed through the use of other related radiation mechanisms. 20 refs., 3 figs

  8. Charmonium meson and hybrid radiative transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng [Indiana U., JLAB; Yépez-Martínez, Tochtli [Indiana U.; Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana U., JLAB

    2014-06-01

    We consider the non-relativistic limit of the QCD Hamiltonian in the Coulomb gauge, to describe radiative transitions between conventional charmonium states and from the lowest multiplet of cc¯ hybrids to charmonium mesons. The results are compared to potential quark models and lattices calculations.

  9. Transition radiation of ultrarelativistic neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1994-10-01

    We perform a quantum theoretical calculation of transition radiation by neutral particles with spin 1/2 equipped with magnetic moments and/or electric dipole moments. The limit of vanishing masses is treated exactly for arbitrary refraction index. Finally we apply our result to the solar neutrino flux. (author)

  10. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker - large piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  11. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker - small piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  12. Last ATLAS transition radiation tracker module installed

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker consists of 96 modules and will join the pixel detector and silicon tracker at the heart of the experiment to map the trajectories of particles and identify electrons produced when proton beams collide. In the last image the team responsible for assembly are shown from left to right: Kirill Egorov (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute), Pauline Gagnon (Indiana University), Ben Legeyt (University of Pennsylvania), Chuck Long (Hampton University), John Callahan (Indiana University) and Alex High (University of Pennsylvania).

  13. Revisit of cosmic ray antiprotons from dark matter annihilation with updated constraints on the background model from AMS-02 and collider data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ming-Yang; Pan, Xu; Yuan, Qiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-06-01

    We study the cosmic ray antiprotons with updated constraints on the propagation, proton injection, and solar modulation parameters based on the newest AMS-02 data near the Earth and Voyager data in the local interstellar space, and on the cross section of antiproton production due to proton-proton collisions based on new collider data. We use a Bayesian approach to properly consider the uncertainties of the model predictions of both the background and the dark matter (DM) annihilation components of antiprotons. We find that including an extra component of antiprotons from the annihilation of DM particles into a pair of quarks can improve the fit to the AMS-02 antiproton data considerably. The favored mass of DM particles is about 60~100 GeV, and the annihilation cross section is just at the level of the thermal production of DM (langleσvrangle ~ O(10‑26) cm3 s‑1).

  14. Fermi/LAT observations of dwarf galaxies highly constrain a dark matter interpretation of excess positrons seen in AMS-02, HEAT, and PAMELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Alejandro [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, University of Michigan – Ann Arbor, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor (United States); Savage, Christopher [Nordita (Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics), KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm (Sweden); Spolyar, Douglas; Adams, Douglas Q., E-mail: aolopez@umich.edu, E-mail: chris@savage.name, E-mail: dspolyar@gmail.com, E-mail: doug.q.adams@gmail.com [Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-01

    It is shown that a Weakly Interacting Massive dark matter Particle (WIMP) interpretation for the positron excess observed in a variety of experiments, HEAT, PAMELA, and AMS-02, is highly constrained by the Fermi/LAT observations of dwarf galaxies. In particular, this paper examines the annihilation channels that best fit the current AMS-02 data (Boudaud et al., 2014), specifically focusing on channels and parameter space not previously explored by the Fermi/LAT collaboration. The Fermi satellite has surveyed the γ-ray sky, and its observations of dwarf satellites are used to place strong bounds on the annihilation of WIMPs into a variety of channels. For the single channel case, we find that dark matter annihilation into (b b-bar ,e{sup +}e{sup -}, μ{sup +}μ{sup -}, τ{sup +}τ{sup -},4-e or 4-τ ) is ruled out as an explanation of the AMS positron excess (here b quarks are a proxy for all quarks, gauge and Higgs bosons). In addition, we find that the Fermi/LAT 2σ upper limits, assuming the best-fit AMS-02 branching ratios, exclude multichannel combinations into b b-bar and leptons. The tension between the results might relax if the branching ratios are allowed to deviate from their best-fit values, though a substantial change would be required. Of all the channels we considered, the only viable channel that survives the Fermi/LAT constraint and produces a good fit to the AMS-02 data is annihilation (via a mediator) to 4-μ, or mainly to 4-μ in the case of multichannel combinations.

  15. Cosmic gamma ray detection and discovery potential with the AMS-2 spectrometer; Detection de rayons {gamma} cosmiques et potentiel de decouvertes avec le spectrometre AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, L

    2004-12-15

    Yet designed to measure charged component of the cosmic rays, the foreseen Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) could also release {gamma}-ray studies, in the energy range from GeV to TeV, using the tracker system, for {gamma}-rays converted in e{sup +}e{sup -} pair, and the electromagnetic calorimeter. In the first part of the thesis are described the calibrations and the performances of the engineering model of the calorimeter, obtained from the analysis of data taken during a test-beam performed at CERN in July 2002. In the second part of the thesis, the AMS-02 discovery potential for {gamma}-astrophysics is presented. While exposure maps of the {gamma}--sky are computed for one year of data taking with the {gamma}--detectors, the acceptance of the calorimeter is obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. The AMS-02 potential is then estimated for signals from the Vela pulsar and for some supersymmetric signals from the Galactic Center. (author)

  16. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2006-01-17

    Radiative transitions between charmonium states offer an insight into the internal structure of heavy-quark bound states within QCD. We compute, for the first time within lattice QCD, the transition form-factors of various multipolarities between the lightest few charmonium states. In addition, we compute the experimentally unobservable, but physically interesting vector form-factors of the {eta}{sub c}, J/{psi} and {chi}{sub c0}. To this end we apply an ambitious combination of lattice techniques, computing three-point functions with heavy domain wall fermions on an anisotropic lattice within the quenched approximation. With an anisotropy {xi} = 3 at a{sub s} {approx} 0.1 fm we find a reasonable gross spectrum and a hyperfine splitting {approx}90 MeV, which compares favorably with other improved actions. In general, after extrapolation of lattice data at non-zero Q{sup 2} to the photopoint, our results agree within errors with all well measured experimental values. Furthermore, results are compared with the expectations of simple quark models where we find that many features are in agreement; beyond this we propose the possibility of constraining such models using our extracted values of physically unobservable quantities such as the J/{psi} quadrupole moment. We conclude that our methods are successful and propose to apply them to the problem of radiative transitions involving hybrid mesons, with the eventual goal of predicting hybrid meson photoproduction rates at the GlueX experiment.

  17. Calibration of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost charged particle tracking device of the ATLAS Inner Detector. The TRT has about 300,000 straws, each of which is a proportional drift tube with a diameter of 4 mm. For a precise measurement of the trajectory of a charged particle (track), the relation between the measured time of the start of the signal and the distance of closest approach between the track and the anode wire needs to be calibrated. In this note, we present the calibration of the TRT detector during the first year of 7 TeV collision data-taking.

  18. PAMELA Space Mission: The Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2003-07-01

    PAMELA telescope is a satellite-b orne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific objectives of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) in the cosmic rays, and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is currently under integration and is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time of flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD detector is composed of 9 sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD detector characteristics will be described along with its performance studied exposing the detector to particle beams of electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities.

  19. Transition radiation electron beam diagnostic study at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have started a program to develop transition radiation based electron beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss a technique to estimate the lower limit in electron beam divergence measurement with single foil transition radiation and two-foil transition radiation interferometer. Preliminary experimental data from 4.5 MeV electron beam will be presented

  20. The AMS-02 RICH Imager Prototype - In-Beam Tests with 20 GeV/c per Nucleon Ions -

    CERN Document Server

    Buenerd, M.; Aguilar Benitez, M.; Arruda, L.; Barao, F.; Barrau, A.; Baret, B.; Belmont, E.; Berdugo, J.; Boudoul, G.; Borges, J.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Delgado, C.; Diaz, C.; Derome, L.; Eraud, L.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Giovacchini, F.; Goncalves, P.; Lanciotti, E.; Laurenti, G.; Malinine, A.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Palomares, C.; Pimenta, M.; Protasov, K.; Sanchez, E.; Seo, E-S.; Sevilla, I.; Torrento, A.; Vargas-Trevino, M.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of the AMS Cherenkov imager (RICH) has been tested at CERN by means of a low intensity 20 GeV/c per nucleon ion beam obtained by fragmentation of a primary beam of Pb ions. Data have been collected with a single beam setting, over the range of nuclear charges 2radiators. The charge Z and velocity beta resolutions have been measured.

  1. Stimulated transition radiation in the far-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settakorn, C.; Hernandez, M.; Wiedemann, H.

    1997-08-01

    Stimulated transition radiation is generated by recycling coherent far-infrared light pulses of transition radiation in a special cavity. The cavity length is designed to be adjustable. At specific intervals the light of a previous bunch coincides at the radiator with the arrival of a subsequent bunch. In this situation, the external electromagnetic field stimulates the emission of higher intensity transition radiation. It is expected that the extracted energy from the cavity will be about 17 times more than would be possible without recycling

  2. Radiative transitions from the psi (3095) to ordinary hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharre, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Preliminary results from the Mark II and Crystal Ball experiments on radiative transitions from the psi to ordinary hadrons are presented. In additon to the previously observed transitions to the eta, eta'(958), and f(1270), both groups observe a transition to a state which is tentatively identified as the E(1420).

  3. Some aspects of transition radiation and scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1978-01-01

    Some aspects of transition radiation and transition scattering theory are considered. The transition radiation in vacuum is analysed in the presence of a strong magnetic field. It is shown, that the constant electro-magnetic field makes vacuum similar to the uniaxial ferrodielectric. The appearance of the transition radiation in the nonstationary medium is discussed when its properties in the medium change abruptly in time. It is obtained, that both types of the transition radiation for nonrelativistic particles (on an abrupt boundary of the two media interface and under an abrupt change in time of the medium properties) differ quantitatively (on the order of the value). The role of the radiation transition and scattering in plasma physics has been elucidated from different points. Four most important features of these processes are pointed out. Particularly, essential is shown to be the type of the transition scattering when one plasma wave, being the dielectric constant wave transforms into another one also a plasma wave. In the processes of the transition scattering an essential part is played by the effects of the space dispersion, particularly when the scattering takes place on the small velocity particles. Finally besides transition scattering there exists in plasma or in some cases prevails a Thomson scattering. In this case an important role in plasma is played by the interference between the Thomson and the transition scattering

  4. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S.

    1999-01-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  5. Identification of high-energetic particles by transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struczinski, W.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis gives a comprehensive survey on the application of the transition radiation for the particle identification. After a short historical review on the prediction and the detection of the transition radiation its theoretical foundations are more precisely explained. They form the foundations for the construction of an optimal transition radiation detector the principal construction of which is described. The next chapter shows some experiments by which the main predictions of the transition-radiation theory are confirmed. Then the construction and operation of two transition-radiation detectors are described which were applied at the ISR respectively SPS in the CERN in Geneva in complex experiments. The detector applied at the ISR served for the e ± identification. With two lithium radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers an e/π separation of ≅ 10 -2 could be reached. The transition-radiation detector applied in the SPS was integrated into the European Hybrid Spectrometer. It served for the identification of high-energetic pions (> or approx. 90 GeV) against kaons and protons. With twenty units of carbon-fiber radiators which were followed by xenon-filled proportional chambers a π/K, p separation of better than 1:20 for momenta above 100 GeV could be reached. The cluster-counting method is then presented. Finally, a survey on the contemporary status in the development of transition-radiation detectors for the e/π separation is given. It is shown that by an about half a meter long detector the radiators of which consist of carbon fibers an e/π separation in the order of magnitude of ≅ 10 -2 can be reached. (orig./HSI) [de

  6. Radiative transitions in mesons within a non relativistic quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaz, R.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gignoux, C.

    2002-01-01

    An exhaustive study of radiative transitions in mesons is performed in a non relativistic quark model. Three different types of mesons wave functions are tested. The effect of some usual approximations is commented. Overall agreement with experimental data is obtained

  7. Practical prototype of a cluster-counting transition radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabjan, C W; Willis, W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Gavrilenko, I; Maiburov, S; Shmeleva, A; Vasiliev, P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.; Chernyatin, V; Dolgoshein, B; Kantserov, V; Nevski, P [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-06-15

    A transition radiation detector using a method of cluster counting measurements has been tested. The performance is considerably better than with the usual method of total charge measurements, as well as offering advantages in simplicity of construction and operation.

  8. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  9. Several problems of the theory of transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.; Tsytovich, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    The process of transition radiation is a very general one. It appears if some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example a point charge, multipole etc), is moving with a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and/or nonstationary medium. In the case of a periodic medium the transition radiation has some special peculiarities and is called the resonance transition radiation or transition scattering. Transition scattering occurs particularly in the case when some wave of dielectric permittivity acts on a nonmoving (fixed) charge. The processes of transition radiation and transition scattering have analogies outside electrodynamics similarly to the Vavilov-Cherenkov emission. The latter occurs also for a source moving with a constant velocity but in a homogeneous medium (and only if the velocity of the source exceeds the wave phase velocity in the medium). The present review is dealing with several problems of the theory of transition radiation and transition scattering. Attention is paid mainly to the formulation of the problems and to revealing characterisic features and peculiarities of the phenomena described. (Auth.)

  10. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier

  11. Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr., E-mail: childh@kenyon.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Road, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.

  12. Transition and synchrotron radiation produced by electrons and particle discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, B.; Repellin, J.-P.; Sauvage, G.; Chollet, J.C.; Dialinas, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hrisoho, A.; Jean, P.

    1976-01-01

    Transition radiation from a radiator of 650 lithium foils has been studied in a multiwire proportional chamber filled with a Xenon-CO 2 mixture for two experimental configurations. With the chamber immediately after the radiator, particle discrimination comparable to those reported in the litterature (90% efficiency for electrons, 10% for hadrons) have been observed. With magnetic bending between the radiator and the xenon chamber typical efficiencies of 87% for electrons and less than 0.4% for hadrons have been measured. The discrimination obtained is at least a factor 20 better than for the more conventional configuration. In the latter case, synchrotron radiation has also been observed

  13. The discrimination between cosmic positrons and protons with the Transition Radiation Detector of the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millinger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the development and validation of a particle identification method with the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 to allow for the determination of the positron fraction in the cosmic lepton flux. Independent measurements indicate that a significant amount of about 23% of the energy density in the universe consists of an unknown mass contribution, the so-called Dark Matter. The Neutralino, as the most popular Dark Matter particle candidate, may produce an additional signal in the spectrum of cosmic rays. The fraction of positrons in the cosmic lepton flux possibly contains such a Dark Matter signal at high particle momenta. The currently most precise measurements in the region of this excess are provided by the satellite-borne PAMELA and Fermi detectors. Momentumdependent systematic uncertainties, especially the mis-identification of protons as positrons, could imitate the signal. However, if this positron excess is produced by Dark Matter the fraction should decrease above a theoretical energy threshold to the expectations, based on particle propagation. The energy region measured up to now does not show such a progress. Due to its significantly increased event statistics and its capability to measure up to higher particle energies, this signature could be observed with AMS-02. The number of events, which can be recorded by a detector, is limited by the combination of aperture and observable solid angle, quantified by the geometrical acceptance, and the observation time. As the cosmic particle flux follows a power-law in particle momentum with exponent γ ∼ -3, the observable momentum interval is thus constrained by statistics. Due to its large geometrical acceptance of about 0.5 m 2 sr, its long observation time of at least 9 years and its high proton suppression factor of >or similar 10 6 AMS-02 will record large and clean lepton samples and thus provide a precise measurement of the cosmic

  14. The discrimination between cosmic positrons and protons with the Transition Radiation Detector of the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millinger, Mark

    2012-10-08

    The aim of this thesis is the development and validation of a particle identification method with the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS-02 to allow for the determination of the positron fraction in the cosmic lepton flux. Independent measurements indicate that a significant amount of about 23% of the energy density in the universe consists of an unknown mass contribution, the so-called Dark Matter. The Neutralino, as the most popular Dark Matter particle candidate, may produce an additional signal in the spectrum of cosmic rays. The fraction of positrons in the cosmic lepton flux possibly contains such a Dark Matter signal at high particle momenta. The currently most precise measurements in the region of this excess are provided by the satellite-borne PAMELA and Fermi detectors. Momentumdependent systematic uncertainties, especially the mis-identification of protons as positrons, could imitate the signal. However, if this positron excess is produced by Dark Matter the fraction should decrease above a theoretical energy threshold to the expectations, based on particle propagation. The energy region measured up to now does not show such a progress. Due to its significantly increased event statistics and its capability to measure up to higher particle energies, this signature could be observed with AMS-02. The number of events, which can be recorded by a detector, is limited by the combination of aperture and observable solid angle, quantified by the geometrical acceptance, and the observation time. As the cosmic particle flux follows a power-law in particle momentum with exponent {gamma} {approx} -3, the observable momentum interval is thus constrained by statistics. Due to its large geometrical acceptance of about 0.5 m{sup 2}sr, its long observation time of at least 9 years and its high proton suppression factor of >or similar 10{sup 6} AMS-02 will record large and clean lepton samples and thus provide a precise measurement

  15. Transition radiation spectra of electrons from 1 to 10 GeV/c in regular and irregular radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronic, A.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Bailhache, R.; Baumann, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bucher, D.; Busch, O.; Catanescu, V.; Chernenko, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Fateev, O.; Freuen, S.; Garabatos, C.; Gottschlag, H.; Gunji, T.; Hamagaki, H.; Herrmann, N.; Hoppe, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Morino, Y.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Petridis, A.; Petrovici, M.; Rusanov, I.; Sandoval, A.; Saito, S.; Schicker, R.; Soltveit, H.K.; Stachel, J.; Stelzer, H.; Vassiliou, M.; Vulpescu, B.; Wessels, J.P.; Wilk, A.; Yurevich, V.; Zanevsky, Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We present measurements of the spectral distribution of transition radiation generated by electrons of momentum 1-10 GeV/c in different radiator types. We investigate periodic foil radiators and irregular foam and fiber materials. The transition radiation photons are detected by prototypes of the drift chambers to be used in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at CERN, which are filled with a Xe, CO 2 (15%) mixture. The measurements are compared to simulations in order to enhance the quantitative understanding of transition radiation production, in particular the momentum dependence of the transition radiation yield

  16. Theory of K-MM radiative-Auger transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    Presently available calculations of transition probabilities for radiative-Auger and double-Auger processes are based on shake-off theory. In this theory, such processes are thought of as being due to electron core rearrangement associated with de-excitation of an inner shell vacancy. It is suggested that radiative-Auger processes result from the interaction of two electrons with one another and the radiation field in the presence of an inner shell vacancy, while double-Auger processes result from the interaction of an electron with two electrons in the presence of a similar vacancy. Expressions for the transition probabilities of these processes are derived in second order time dependent perturbation theory. The interaction is taken as the sum of the Coulomb interaction and electron-field interaction of the electrons involved. This approach allows calculation of the detailed photon or electron energy distribution resulting from such processes, as well as the relative and absolute transition rates involved. As a specific example of this approach the transition probability for the K-MM radiative-Auger effect in argon is calculated and compared with available experimental data. Scaled Thomas-Fermi wavefunctions are used to calculate the total transition probability which is found to be 2.68 x 10 -4 eV/h-bar In addition, the spectral distribution of emitted photons is obtained, and agreement both in magnitude and with the general features of the experimental data is excellent

  17. Blackbody radiation shift of the Ga+ clock transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yongjun; Mitroy, J

    2013-01-01

    The blackbody radiation shift of the Ga + clock transition is computed to be −0.0140 ± 0.0062 Hz at 300 K. The small shift is consistent with the blackbody radiation shifts of the clock transitions of other group III ions which are of a similar size. The polarizabilities of the Ga + states were computed using the configuration interaction method with an underlying semi-empirical core potential. Quadrupole and non-adiabatic dipole polarizabilities were also computed. A byproduct of the analysis involved calculations of the low-lying spectrum and oscillator strengths, including polarizabilities, of the Ga 2+ ion. (paper)

  18. Radiative transitions from Υ(5S) to molecular bottomonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    The heavy quark spin symmetry implies that in addition to the recently observed Z(10610) and Z(10650) molecular resonances with I G =1 + , there should exist two or four molecular bottomonium-like states with I G =1 - . Properties of these G-odd states are considered, including their production in the radiative transitions from Υ(5S), by applying the same symmetry to the Υ(5S) resonance and the transition amplitudes. The considered radiative processes can provide a realistic option for observing the yet hypothetical states.

  19. Longitudinal Electron Bunch Diagnostics Using Coherent Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Daniel; Happek, Uwe; Regis-Guy Piot, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The longitudinal charge distribution of electron bunches in the Fermilab A0 photo-injector was determined by using the coherent transition radiation produced by electrons passing through a thin metallic foil. The auto-correlation of the transition radiation signal was measured with a Michelson type interferometer. The response function of the interferometer was determined from measured and simulated power spectra for low electron bunch charge and maximum longitudinal compression. Kramers-Kroning technique was used to determine longitudinal charge distribution. Measurements were performed for electron bunch lengths in the range from 0.3 to 2 ps (rms).

  20. On the pair creation effect in radiative bottonium transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, K.; Motz, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    The contributions from internal b-quark pair creation to the radiative transition rates of the processes Y(2S) → X b 1 +γ and X b 2 → Y(1S)+γ have been estimated in a quasilocal approximation preserving the time-dependence of the antiquark propagator and found to be smaller than 10%. Although relatively small, the pair creation correction depends sensitively on quark masses and photon energies and thus cannot be ignored in quantitative investigations of radiative quarkonium transitions

  1. Transition-radiation detectors for cosmic-ray research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Chicago Univ., Ill.

    1975-01-01

    Transition-radiation detectors for cosmic-ray work are described which consist of plastic foam of multiple plastic foil radiators, followed by proportional chambers. A summary of the properties of such detectors is given, and the detection and discrimination efficiencies for energetic particles are discussed. Several possible applications of such devices for studies of cosmic-ray particles in the energy region γ=E/mc 2 >10 3 are advertised

  2. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassompierre, G.; Bermond, M.; Berthet, M.; Bertozzi, T.; Détraz, C.; Dubois, J.-M.; Dumps, L.; Engster, C.; Fazio, T.; Gaillard, G.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gouanère, M.; Manola-Poggioli, E.; Mossuz, L.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Nédélec, P.; Palazzini, E.; Pessard, H.; Petit, P.; Petitpas, P.; Placci, A.; Sillou, D.; Sottile, R.; Valuev, V.; Verkindt, D.; Vey, H.; Wachnik, M.

    1998-02-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  3. A large area transition radiation detector for the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bassompierre, Gabriel; Berthet, M; Bertozzi, T; Détraz, C; Dubois, J M; Dumps, Ludwig; Engster, Claude; Fazio, T; Gaillard, G; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gouanère, M; Manola-Poggioli, E; Mossuz, L; Mendiburu, J P; Nédélec, P; Palazzini, E; Pessard, H; Petit, P; Petitpas, P; Placci, Alfredo; Sillou, D; Sottile, R; Valuev, V Yu; Verkindt, D; Vey, H; Wachnik, M

    1997-01-01

    A transition radiation detector to identify electrons at 90% efficiency with a rejection factor against pions of 10 3 on an area of 2.85 × 2.85 m 2 has been constructed for the NOMAD experiment. Each of its 9 modules includes a 315 plastic foil radiator and a detector plane of 176 vertical straw tubes filled with a xenon-methane gas mixture. Details of the design, construction and operation of the detector are given.

  4. Branching ratios of radiative transitions in O VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Rajat K

    2007-01-01

    We study the branching ratios of the allowed and forbidden radiative transitions among the first few (9) fine structure levels of O VI using relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We find irregular patterns for a number of transitions within n-complexes with n ≤ 4. We have used the existing values of the allowed electric dipole (E1) transition as a benchmark of our theory. Good agreement with the existing values establish accuracies of not only the theoretical method but the basis function as well. In general, the electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are greater in magnitude than magnetic dipole (M1) transition probabilities, whereas for medium atomic transition frequencies they are of the same order of magnitude. On the other hand, if the transitions involved are in between two fine-structure components of the same term, then the M1 transition probability is more probable than that of E2. The results presented here in tabular and graphical form are compared with the available theoretical and observed data. Graphical analysis helps to understand the trends of electric and magnetic transitions for the decay channels presented here. Our calculated values of the lifetimes of the excited states are in very good agreement with the available results

  5. Particle identification using three angular distribution of transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschmann, M; Struczinski, W [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentalphysik 3B und 3. Physikalisches Inst.; Fabjan, C W; Willis, W [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Gavrilenko, I; Maiburov, S; Shmeleva, A; Vasiliev, P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fiziki; Tchernyatin, V; Dolgoshein, B [Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1981-04-01

    An electronic detector has been built which measures the angle of emission of transition radiation photons, as well as the energy deposit. A significant gain in the efficiency of particle identification is obtained for ..gamma.. approx. equal to 10/sup 3/.

  6. Recent progress with the Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Multimedia

    Froidevaux, D

    Start-up of end-cap assembly in Russia On July 2nd at PNPI (first photo) and on August 1st at JINR Dubna (second photo), the first straws were inserted into the first 4-plane end-cap wheels, each containing 3072 straws. The straws were glued, the radiator stacks were installed and the PNPI wheel was tested for gas leaks. An initial large leak rate was observed and fixed by increasing somewhat the amount of glue around each straw end-piece and improving the leak-tightness of the testing equipment itself. PNPI will assemble a total of 48 4-plane wheels of type A using two assembly lines. JINR Dubna will assemble a total of 32 4-plane wheels of type B using a single assembly line. The next steps are the gluing of the so-called active webs (printed circuit boards connecting high voltage and signal lines from straw/wire to HV supply and front-end boards), followed by wiring, and will take place in November. PNPI and JINR Dubna should start mass production in February-March next year. Barrel module produc...

  7. Ultrabroadband terahertz source and beamline based on coherent transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Casalbuoni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent transition radiation (CTR in the THz regime is an important diagnostic tool for analyzing the temporal structure of the ultrashort electron bunches needed in ultraviolet and x-ray free-electron lasers. It is also a powerful source of such radiation, covering an exceptionally broad frequency range from about 200 GHz to 100 THz. At the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH we have installed a beam transport channel for transition radiation (TR with the intention to guide a large fraction of the radiation to a laboratory outside the accelerator tunnel. The radiation is produced on a screen inside the ultrahigh vacuum beam pipe of the linac, coupled out through a diamond window and transported to the laboratory through an evacuated tube equipped with five focusing and four plane mirrors. The design of the beamline has been based on a thorough analysis of the generation of TR on metallic screens of limited size. The optical propagation of the radiation has been computed taking into account the effects of near-field (Fresnel diffraction. The theoretical description of the TR source is presented in the first part of the paper, while the design principles and the technical layout of the beamline are described in the second part. First experimental results demonstrate that the CTR beamline covers the specified frequency range and preserves the narrow time structure of CTR pulses emitted by short electron bunches.

  8. High power beam profile monitor with optical transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denard, J.C.; Piot, P.; Capek, K.; Feldl, E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple monitor has been built to measure the profile of the high power beam (800 kW) delivered by the CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab. The monitor uses the optical part of the forward transition radiation emitted from a thin carbon foil. The small beam size to be measured, about 100 μm, is challenging not only for the power density involved but also for the resolution the instrument must achieve. An important part of the beam instrumentation community believes the radiation being emitted into a cone of characteristic angle 1/γ is originated from a region of transverse dimension roughly λγ; thus the apparent size of the source of transition radiation would become very large for highly relativistic particles. This monitor measures 100 μm beam sizes that are much smaller than the 3.2 mm λγ limit; it confirms the statement of Rule and Fiorito that optical transition radiation can be used to image small beams at high energy. The present paper describes the instrument and its performance. The authors tested the foil in, up to 180 μA of CW beam without causing noticeable beam loss, even at 800 MeV, the lowest CEBAF energy

  9. The transition radiation. 2. experimental study of the optical transition radiation; Le rayonnement de transition: 2. etude experimentale du rayonnement de transition optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.; Seguin, S.; Striby, S

    1999-07-01

    Optical-transition-radiation-based diagnostics have been widely used for many years on electron accelerators in order to measure beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. These diagnostics are very attractive for high brightness electron beams used as drivers for radiation sources. Such diagnostics have been performed on the ELSA facility (18 MeV electron energy, 100 A peak current) using both a single interface and an OTR-Wartski interferometer. We present the accelerator, the experimental set-up and the method for analyzing the OTR angular distribution. Then, the experimental results are described and compared with those from the three gradient method. In addition, we present a beam energy measurement using OTR interferogram analysis. (author)

  10. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: Construction, operation, and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Hladký, Jan; Horák, D.; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Lavička, R.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Šumbera, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 881, č. 2 (2018), s. 88-127 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : fibre/foam sendwich radiator * transition radiation detector * multi-wire proportional drift chamber * Xenon-based gas micture * tracking * lonisation energy loss Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics ; Particles and field physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  11. L-shell radiative transition rates by selective synchrotron ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetto, R D; Carreras, A C; Trincavelli, J; Castellano, G

    2004-01-01

    Relative L-shell radiative transition rates were obtained for a number of decays in Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta and Re by means of a method for refining atomic and experimental parameters involved in the spectral analysis of x-ray irradiated samples. For this purpose, pure samples were bombarded with monochromatic synchrotron radiation tuning the incident x-ray energy in order to allow selective ionization of the different atomic shells. The results presented are compared to experimental and theoretical values published by other authors. A good general agreement was found and some particular discrepancies are discussed

  12. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Shreyasi; Adam, Jaroslav; Ahmad, Nazeer; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Bhom, Jihyun

    2018-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 G...

  13. Successful beam tests for ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Another round of beam tests of prototypes for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for ALICE has been completed and there are already some good results. Mass production of the components of the detector will start early next year.   Top view of the setup for the Transition Radiation Detector prototype tests at CERN.On the left, can be seen the full-scale TRD prototype together with four smaller versions. These are busy days for the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector) team of ALICE. Twenty people - mainly from Germany, but also from Russia and Japan - were working hard during the beam tests this autumn at CERN to assess the performance of their detector prototypes. Analysis of the data shows that the TRD can achieve the desired physics goal even for the highest conceivable multiplicities in lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In its final configuration in the ALICE experiment, the TRD will greatly help in identifying high-momentum electrons, which are 'needles in a haystack' that consists mostly of...

  14. A transition radiation tracker (TRT) for the Atlas experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, W.

    1995-05-01

    The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) foresees two general purpose detectors, CMS and ATLAS. The inner ATLAS detector will make use of a Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT), which consists of a barrel TRT and a forward TRT. The TRT will provide additional rejection power in order to reduce the jet background to less than 10 % of the inclusive isolated electron signal. Transition Radiation (TR) is generated by charged particles when they cross an interface of changing dielectric behaviour (radiator). The intensity of TR produced is proportional to the γ-factor (γ=E/mc 2 ). A short introduction of TR theory is followed by optimization studies of the radiator and the working gas mixture. TR is detected by gas proportional counters (straws). The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the straws were studied. Furthermore, the straw's operation at the presence of the 2 T magnetic field was investigated. Any signal corresponds to a heat load which has to be cooled in order to provide stable conditions. A cooling system is presented. The induced signal exhibits a long lasting component (ion tail). This ion tail tends to influence signals which are closely spaced in time. A filter was designed which suppresses the ion tail (pole/zero network). The physics performance of some prototypes was studied, in particular the hadron rejection and the tracking capability. A full-scale prototype (9600 channels) was designed and manufactured. A summary of the machinery and tooling involved is presented. (author)

  15. Oscillator strengths and radiative rates for transitions in neutral sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present accurate oscillator strengths and radiative rates for 2173 E1 transitions among the 120 levels belonging to 3s 2 3p 4 , 3s3p 5 , and 3s 2 3p 3 ( 4 S o , 2 D o , 2 P o )nl configurations where nl=4s,5s,6s,4p,5p,6p,3d,4d,4f,5f. A configuration interaction approach is employed through the standard CIV3 program. The 114 LS states included in the present calculation generate 250 fine-structure levels belonging to the above configurations below 100,000 cm -1 . However, results of only 120 fine-structure levels are presented due to the absence of experimental energy values for the remaining levels. Tabulations of oscillator strengths and radiative rates, and their comparison with other calculations, are presented in the first two tables. In a separate table the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, in length and velocity gauges, are presented for 2173 E1 transitions, and are arranged in ascending order of wavelength

  16. On the pair creation effect in radiative charmonium transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, K.

    1985-01-01

    Contribution to radiative charmonium decay amplitudes which come from Feynman diagrams containing creation of internal c anti c quark pair is investigated. The a im of the paper is calulation of this pair creation correction to the wave function overlap integral of the transition amplitude in a quasilocal semirelativistic approximation which works for charmed and heavier quark pairs. The application to the decay width of the spin flip transition psi(3685) → γchi(3415) givesa 12% correction to the nopair term using a meson radius near 0.5 Fm and a scale parameter Λ=400 MeV taken from fits inchar=monium spectroscopy. The error of the approximation is estimated to be smaller than 50%. The investigation indicates that also in the case of electroweak meson decays quatitative results cannot be expected from the no-pair contribution alone

  17. New developments on transition radiation detectors using superconducting granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L.C.L.

    1977-01-01

    By raising slightly either the temperature or the magnetic field to above that of the critical temperature or the critical magnetic field, the type I superconducting granules would still remain in the superconducting state which becomes a metastable state and is called the superheated superconducting state. If a relativistic charged particle incident on such a granule which is located in a colloidal suspension has imported to it an energy that is above the threshold energy (for state flipping) of the granule then it would flip to the normal state. The threshold energy of a granule is a function of the square of its radius, whereas the energy loss of a charged particle due to ionization is linearly proportional to the radius. The size of the granule can be pre-determined to be such that its threshold energy is slightly above the ionization loss of a relativistic charged particle. Then the traversal of the charged particle through such a granule would not affect the superconducting state of the granule unless a transition x-ray radiation is emitted at the surface of the granule by the traversing particle and the x-ray transition radiation is immediately absorbed either in total or partially by the metallic granule causing it to flip to the normal state. The total intensity of the x-ray transition radiation is linearly proportional to the Lorentz factor γ of the traversing particle, and the number of granules flipped would also be a measure of γ. Three methods for detecting the flipping of granules from the superconducting state to the normal state are described. They include the frequency measuring method, the SQUID method, and the pulse method with low noise amplifier system

  18. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-01

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-μm length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  19. Glass transition near the free surface studied by synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikorski, M.

    2008-06-15

    A comprehensive picture of the glass transition near the liquid/vapor interface of the model organic glass former dibutyl phthalate is presented in this work. Several surface-sensitive techniques using x-ray synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the formation of the glassy state from the supercooled liquid. The amorphous nature of dibutyl phthalate close to the free surface was confirmed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies. Results from X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a uniform electron density distribution close to the interface excluding the possibility of surface freezing down to 175 K. Dynamics on sub-{mu}m length-scales at the surface was studied with coherent synchrotron radiation via x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. From the analysis of the dispersion relation of the surface modes, viscoelastic properties of the dibutyl phthalate are deduced. The Kelvin-Voigt model of viscoelastic media was found to describe well the properties of the liquid/vapor interface below room temperature. The data show that the viscosity at the interface matches the values reported for bulk dibutyl phthalate. The scaled relaxation rate at the surface agrees with the bulk data above 210 K. Upon approaching the glass transition temperature the free surface was observed to relax considerably faster close to the liquid/vapor interface than in bulk. The concept of higher relaxation rate at the free surface is also supported by the results of the quasielastic nuclear forward scattering experiment, during which dynamics on molecular length scales around the calorimetric glass transition temperature is studied. The data were analyzed using mode-coupling theory of the glass transition and the model of the liquid(glass)/vapor interface, predicting inhomogeneous dynamics near the surface. The quasielastic nuclear forward scattering data can be explained when the molecular mobility is assumed to decrease with the increasing

  20. A New Transition Radiation Detector for the CREAM experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Malinin, A; Angelaszek, D

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to investigate the source, propagation and acceleration mechanism of high energy cosmic-ray nuclei, by directly measuring their energy and charge. Incorporating a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) provides a model independent energy measurement complementary to the calorimeter, as well as additional track reconstruction capability. A new TRD design provides a compact, robust, reliable, low density detector to measure incident nucleus energy for 3 < Z < 26 nuclei in the Lorentz gamma factor range of 10 2 -10 5. The TRD design, R&D;, construction milestones, beam test results and a progress of the final TRD integration in the CREAM instrument are reported.

  1. A Study of Radiative Bottomonium Transitions using Converted Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors use (111 ± 1) million Υ(3S) and (89 ± 1) million Υ(2S) events recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B-factory at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions betwen bottomonium states using photons that have been converted to e + e - pairs by the detector material. They observe Υ(3S) → γχ b0,2 (1P) decay, make precise measurements of the branching fractions for χ b1,2 (1P, 2P) → γΥ(1S) and χ b1,2 (2P) → γΥ(2S) decays, and search for radiative decay to the η b (1S) and η b (2S) states.

  2. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-04-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta.

  3. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-01-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta

  4. Optical transition radiation interferometry for A0 photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, G.; Novosibirsk, IYF; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Lebedev, V.; Nagaitsev, S.; Santucci, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Fermilab; Piot, P.; Fermilab; Northern Illinois U.; Li, J.; Tikhoplav, R.; UCLA

    2007-01-01

    A charged particle passing through the boundary of two medias with different permittivity values generates Transition Radiation (TR), [1]. The TR is caused by a variation of the particle electric field with variation of the permittivity. The TR for relativistic particles has a wide spectrum with a significant portion in the optical range. The Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) is widely used for a beam profile monitoring and measurements of a beam size. Moreover, OTR can be used to characterize the energy, energy spread and transverse angles in the beam by employing the interference of the OTR from two thin films [2] inserted in the beam trajectory. This method has been applied in number of works [3-5] demonstrating high results and good coincidence in measurements and calculations. In this paper we present and discuss in details a simulation of the interference pattern in several experimental setups. We consider the main optical effects, for diagnostics for the beam properties at A0 Photoinjector and the ILC module test area (NML) in a wide range of electron beam energy. In this paper, we first derive the OTR intensity formula for a single film at 90 degrees to the beam, then for two films at normal incidence, and finally with films at 45 degree incidence to the beam. The last section illustrates application with beam parameters like those at the A0 Photoinjector (electron energy 15 MeV)

  5. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Ti VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K M; Keenan, F P; Msezane, A Z

    2013-01-01

    We report on calculations of energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths for transitions among the lowest 253 levels of the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d, 3s3p 5 3d, 3s 2 3p 3 3d 2 , 3s 2 3p 4 4s, 3s 2 3p 4 4p and 3s 2 3p 4 4d configurations of Ti VI. The general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package and flexible atomic code are adopted for the calculations. Radiative rates, oscillator strengths and line strengths are reported for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the 253 levels, although calculations have been performed for a much larger number of levels. Comparisons are made with existing available results and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Additionally, lifetimes for all 253 levels are listed, although comparisons with other theoretical results are limited to only 88 levels. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 1% (within 0.03 Ryd), whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20%. A reassessment of the energy level data on the National Institute of Standards and Technology website for Ti VI is suggested. (paper)

  6. The transition radiation detector of the CBM experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano [Institut fuer Kernphysik, WWU Muenster (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is a fixed target heavy-ion experiment at the future FAIR accelerator facility. The CBM Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is one of the key detectors to provide electron identification above momenta of 1 GeV/c and charged particle tracking. Due its capability to identify charged particles via their specific energy loss, the TRD in addition will provide valuable information for the measurement of fragments. These requirements can be fulfilled with a XeCO{sub 2} based Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) detector in combination with an adequate radiator. The default MWPC is composed of a symmetric amplification area of 7 mm thickness, followed by a 5 mm drift region to enhance the TR-photon absorption probability in the active gas volume. This geometry provides also efficient and fast signal creation, as well as read-out, of the order of 200 μs per charged particle track. The performance of this detector is maximized by reducing the material budget between the radiator and gas volume to a minimum. The full detector at SIS100 will be composed of 200 modules in 2 sizes. To limit cost and production time the number of various module types is limited to 6 types and 4 types of Front End Board (FEB) flavors are required. An overview of the design and performance of the TRD detector is given.

  7. Performance of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter of AMS-02 on the International Space Station ans measurement of the positronic fraction in the 1.5 – 350 GeV energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Basara, Laurent

    The AMS-02 experiment is a particle detector installed on the International Space Station (ISS) since May 2011, which measures the characteristics of the cosmic rays to bring answers to the problematics risen by the astroparticle physics since a few decades, in particular the study of dark matter and the search of antimatter. The phenomenological aspects of the physics of cosmic rays are reviewed in a first part. A second one describes the in-flight performances of the different subdetectors of AMS-02, in particular the electromagnetic calorimeter. It is shown, using particles at the ionizing minimum (MIPs), accounting for the main part of cosmic rays, that the calorimeter works as expected, and we find the same performances as on ground. This study is used to follow in time the evolution of the detector performances. It also allows to develop a charge estimator for the nuclei using the calorimeter. A third and final part, deals with the determination of the positronic fraction. The main difficulty of this me...

  8. Simulation of transition radiation and electron identification ability of the ATLAS TRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2013-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outer most tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment. In addition as functioning as atracking detector, it is capable of providing particle identification information through the emission and subsequent absorption and detection of transition radiation....... Below the effort of simulating transition radiation production and detector response is discussed, with emphasis on the data/simulation agreement and tuning. © 2012 CERN. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. The X-ray transition radiation; Le rayonnement de transition X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch

    2000-07-01

    The interest of producing high-energy radiation using a small-size electron accelerator is growing since many years. It appeared that such accelerators should drive x-ray sources to produce a high flux of radiation. The range of photon-energy available when using electron linacs, for example, is between a few tens of eV and the maximum electron kinetic energy. The transition radiation, which is produced when a charged particle crosses the interface between two media of different permittivities, is a very promising way due to its high production rate. We present here a study of this physical process involving moderate-energy relativistic electrons (20 MeV). We recall the main characteristics of the radiation when the interface is crossed at normal incidence and derive the analytical production yields when the interaction takes place at grazing incidence. The results for both geometries are compared. Finally, the scale laws allowing the optimization of the spectral source brilliance are presented. (author)

  10. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  11. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  12. Aging studies for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Åkesson, T; Bondarenko, V; Capéans-Garrido, M; Catinaccio, A; Cwetanski, Peter; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dolgoshein, B A; Dressnandt, N; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gavrilenko, I; Grichkevitch, Y; Gagnon, P; Hajduk, Z; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Konovalov, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Lundberg, B; Luehring, F C; Markina, I; Manara, A; McFarlane, K; Mitsou, V; Muraviev, S; Newcomer, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Peshekhonov, V D; Rembser, C; Romaniouk, A; Rhone, O; Rust, D R; Shchegelskii, V; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Smirnova, L N; Sosnovtsev, V V; Sutchkov, S; Tartarelli, F; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the aging and material validation studies carried out for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is presented. Particular emphasis is put on the different phenomena observed in straw tubes operating with the chosen Xe/CF//4/CO//2 mixture. The most serious effects observed are silicon deposition on the anode wire and damage of the anode wire gold plating. Etching phenomena and active radical effects are also discussed. With a careful choice of all materials and components, and with good control of the water contamination in the active gas, the ATLAS TRT will operate reliably for 10 years at the LHC design luminosity. To demonstrate this fully, more work is still needed on the gas system purification elements, in particular to understand their interplay with the active species containing fluorine created in the avalanche process under irradiation.

  13. Process guiding for the ZEUS transition-radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalksy, L.

    1993-03-01

    The Transition-Radiation-Detector (TRD) has been built to separate electrons from pions. It needs a complex gassystem which has to be controlled and monitored by a computer. To enable a test of the gassystem and the TRD's highvoltagesystem a stand-alone-version of the HWC/HWM (hardware-control and hardware-monitoring) had been developed. This stand-alone-version consists of an elementary computer- and software-system. VIP and MVME-147 computers have been selected for the computer-hardware. The computers for realtimeprocessing base on this processors, the VMEbus and digital to analog converters and analog to digital converters. The software-system based on OS/9 device-drivers. With this components monitoring and controlling software has been written. (orig.) [de

  14. Progress in the development of a tracking transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J.S.; Beatty, J.; Shank, J.T.; Wilson, R.J.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Radeka, V.; Stephani, D.; Beker, H.; Bock, R.K.; Botlo, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Pfennig, J.; Price, M.J.; Willis, W.J.; Akesson, T.; Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Nevsky, P.; Potekhin, M.; Romanjuk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Maiburov, S.; Muravjev, S.; Shmeleva, A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the TRD/Tracker is to provide charged particle tracking in the r-z plane and to provide particle identification capabilities that are independent of and complementary to calorimetric methods. The tracking goals include observation of the charged particle multiplicity and topology, reconstruction of the primary vertex or vertices, and assignment of charged particles to the correct vertex. Particle identification goals include the independent validation of electron candidates selected by calorimetric signatures, the rejection of false electron candidates that rise from accidental overlaps of low momentum charged particles with photon-induced electromagnetic showers in the calorimeter, and the identification of electrons arising from Dalitz decays or from photon conversions. The authors report on progress towards the development of an integrated transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker. Mechanical design and simulation of a detector has been pursued; a prototype device with 240 channels has been constructed and tested. Innovative construction techniques have been developed

  15. Optical transition radiation interferometry for the A0 photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakevich, G.; Novosibirsk, IYF; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Nagaitsev, S.; Ruan, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Optical Transition Radiation Interferometry (OTRI) is a promising diagnostic technique and has been successfully developed and used for investigation of relativistic beams. For mid-energy accelerators the technique is traditionally based on thin polymer films (the first one is being transparent for visible light), which causes beam multiple scattering of about 1 mrad. A disadvantage of those films is unacceptable vacuum properties for photoinjectors and accelerators using superconducting cavities. We have studied the application of thin mica sheets for the OTRI diagnostics at the A0 Photoinjector in comparison with 2.5 (micro)m thick Mylar films. This diagnostic is also applicable for the ILCTA-NML accelerator test facility that is planned at Fermilab. This report discusses the experimental setups of the OTR interferometer for the A0 Photoinjector and presents comparisons of simulations and measurements obtained using Mylar and mica-based interferometers

  16. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: Construction, operation, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/ c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet, light nuclei, and electron selection.

  17. Continuum radiation emitted from transition metals under ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Boujlaidi, A.; Kaddouri, A.; Ait El Fqih, M.; Hammoum, K.; Aouchiche, H.

    2012-01-01

    Optical emission of transition metals has been studied during 5 keV Kr + ions bombardment within and without oxygen atmosphere in the colliding chamber. The observed spectra consist of a series of discrete lines superimposed on a broad continuum. Generally, the emission intensity was influenced by the presence of oxygen giving rise to transient effects as well as to an increase in the line intensity. The behaviours of spectral lines were successfully explained in term of electron-transfer process between the excited sputtered atom and the solid surface. In this work, we have focused our study on the continuous radiation emitted during ion bombardment. The experimental results suggest that the continuum emission depends on the nature of metal and very probably related to its electronic structure. The collective deactivation of 3d-shell electrons appears to play a role in the emission of this radiation. The observed enhancement in the presence of oxygen is probably due to a significant contribution of the oxide molecules. (authors)

  18. Recent aging studies for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Capéans-Garrido, M; Anghinolfi, F; Arik, E; Baker, O K; Baron, S; Benjamin, D; Bertelsen, H; Bondarenko, V; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Catinaccio, A; Cetin, S A; Cwetanski, Peter; Dam, M; Danielsson, H; Dittus, F; Dologshein, B; Dressnandt, N; Driouichi, C; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, Paule Anna Mari; Farthouat, Philippe; Fedin, O; Froidevaux, D; Gagnon, P; Grichkevitch, Y; Grigalashvili, N S; Hajduk, Z; Hansen, P; Kayumov, F; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Khristatchev, A; Konovalov, S; Koudine, L; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T; Kramarenko, V A; Krüger, K; Laritchev, A; Lichard, P; Luehring, F C; Lundberg, B; Maleev, V; Markina, I; McFarlane, K W; Mialkovski, V; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Morozov, S; Munar, A; Muraviev, S; Nadtochy, A; Newcorner, F M; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Olszowska, J; Passmore, S; Patritchev, S; Peshekhonov, V D; Petti, R; Price, M; Rembser, C; Rohne, O; Romaniouk, A; Rust, D R; Ryabov, Yu; Ryzhov, V; Shchegelskii, V; Seliverstov, D M; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Smirnov, S; Sosnovtsev, V V; Soutchkov, V; Spiridenkov, E; Szczygiel, R; Tikhomirov, V; Van Berg, R; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vassilieva, L; Wang, C; Williams, H H; Zalite, A

    2004-01-01

    The transition radiation tracker (TRT) is one of the three subsystems of the inner detector of the ATLAS experiment. It is designed to operate for 10 yr at the LHC, with integrated charges of similar to 10 C/cm of wire and radiation doses of about 10 Mrad and 2 multiplied by 10**1**4 neutrons/cm**2. These doses translate into unprecedented ionization currents and integrated charges for a large-scale gaseous detector. This paper describes studies leading to the adoption of a new ionization gas regime for the ATLAS TRT. In this new regime, the primary gas mixture is 70%Xe-27%CO**2-3%O**2. It is planned to occasionally flush and operate the TRT detector with an Ar-based ternary mixture, containing a small percentage of CF**4, to remove, if needed, silicon pollution from the anode wires. This procedure has been validated in realistic conditions and would require a few days of dedicated operation. This paper covers both performance and aging studies with the new TRT gas mixture. 12 Refs.

  19. Terahertz Pulse Generation in Underdense Relativistic Plasmas: From Photoionization-Induced Radiation to Coherent Transition Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Déchard, J.; Debayle, A.; Davoine, X.; Gremillet, L.; Bergé, L.

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz to far-infrared emission by two-color, ultrashort optical pulses interacting with underdense helium gases at ultrahigh intensities (>1019 W /cm2 ) is investigated by means of 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The terahertz field is shown to be produced by two mechanisms occurring sequentially, namely, photoionization-induced radiation (PIR) by the two-color pulse, and coherent transition radiation (CTR) by the wakefield-accelerated electrons escaping the plasma. We exhibit laser-plasma parameters for which CTR proves to be the dominant process, providing terahertz bursts with field strength as high as 100 GV /m and energy in excess of 10 mJ. Analytical models are developed for both the PIR and CTR processes, which correctly reproduce the simulation data.

  20. LCLS-S1 optical transition radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.J.; Yang, B.; Erwin, L.L.; Shoaf, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a high- resolution optical transition radiation (OTR) imaging monitor for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) injection linac at SLAC. The imaging station,OTR-S1, will be located at the S1 spectrometer with a beam energy of 135 MeV. The system will be used to acquire 2-D transverse beam distributions of the accelerated photocathode-gun-generated electron beam. We anticipate an average beam current of 0.2 to 1 nC and nominal beam spot size of 130 mum (sigmax), 100 mum (sigmay). The imaging system was designed for a field of view x/y: 10 times 7.5 mm. The spatial resolution of ∼12 microns was verified over the central 5times4 mm region in the visible. A 12-bit digital camera acquires the image and a Mac-based digital frame-capturing system was employed for the initial lab-based performance testing of the device. We report on system development, testing methods, and data analysis.

  1. Multi Optical Transition Radiation System for ATF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, installation and first calibration tests of a Multi Optical Transition Radiation System in the beam diagnostic section of the Extraction (EXT) line of ATF2, close to the multi wire scanner system. This system will be a valuable tool for measuring beam sizes and emittances coming from the ATF Damping Ring. With an optical resolution of about 2 (micro)m an original OTR design (OTR1X) located after the septum at the entrance of the EXT line demonstrated the ability to measure a 5.5 (micro)m beam size in one beam pulse and to take many fast measurements. This gives the OTR the ability to measure the beam emittance with high statistics, giving a low error and a good understanding of emittance jitter. Furthermore the nearby wire scanners will be a definitive test of the OTR as a beam emittance diagnostic device. The multi-OTR system design proposed here is based on the existing OTR1X.

  2. Tracking properties of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00349845; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) are described for different data taking conditions in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These studies are performed using data collected during the first (Run 1) and the second (Run 2) periods of LHC operation and are compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with Xe-based (Xe-based) and Argon-based (Ar-based) gas mixtures and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. No significant degradation of position measurement accuracy was found up to occupancies of about 20\\% in Run 1. The relative number of reconstructed tracks in ID that also have a extension in the TRT was observed to be almost constant with the increase of occupancies up to 50\\%. Even in configurations where tracks are close to each other, the reconstruction algorithm is still able to find the correct TRT hits and properly reconstruct the tracks.

  3. Short review on contemporary state of X-ray transition radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibyan, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    The main properties of the X-ray transition radiation and the prehistory of the development of this phenomenon are given. The radiation produced when a charged particle passes through a regular and irregular stack of plates, the influence of the multiple scattering on the radiation as well as the microscopic theory of this phenomenon are considered

  4. Construction and performance of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emschermann, David

    2010-01-20

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) has been designed to identify electrons in the pion dominated background of heavy-ions collisions. As electrons do not interact strongly, they allow to probe the early phase of the interaction. As trigger on high-p{sub t} e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs within 6.5 {mu}s after collision, the TRD can initiate the readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TRD is composed of 18 super modules arranged in a barrel geometry in the central part of the ALICE detector. It offers almost 1.2 million readout channels on a total area of close to 700 m{sup 2}. The particle detection properties of the TRD depend crucially on details in the design of the cathode pad readout plane. The design parameters of the TRD readout pad plane are introduced and analysed regarding their physical properties. The noise patterns observed in the detector can be directly linked to the static pad capacitance distribution and corrected for it. A summary is then given of the TRD services infrastructure at CERN: a 70 kW low voltage system, a 1080 channel 2.5 kV high voltage setup and the Ethernet network serving more than 600 nodes. Two beam tests were conducted at the CERN PS accelerator in 2004 and 2007 using full sized TRD chambers from series production. Details on the setups are presented with particular emphasis on the custom tailored data acquisition systems. Finally the performance of the TRD is studied, focusing on the pion rejection capability and the excellent position resolution. (orig.)

  5. Construction and performance of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emschermann, David

    2010-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) has been designed to identify electrons in the pion dominated background of heavy-ions collisions. As electrons do not interact strongly, they allow to probe the early phase of the interaction. As trigger on high-p t e + e - pairs within 6.5 μs after collision, the TRD can initiate the readout of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TRD is composed of 18 super modules arranged in a barrel geometry in the central part of the ALICE detector. It offers almost 1.2 million readout channels on a total area of close to 700 m 2 . The particle detection properties of the TRD depend crucially on details in the design of the cathode pad readout plane. The design parameters of the TRD readout pad plane are introduced and analysed regarding their physical properties. The noise patterns observed in the detector can be directly linked to the static pad capacitance distribution and corrected for it. A summary is then given of the TRD services infrastructure at CERN: a 70 kW low voltage system, a 1080 channel 2.5 kV high voltage setup and the Ethernet network serving more than 600 nodes. Two beam tests were conducted at the CERN PS accelerator in 2004 and 2007 using full sized TRD chambers from series production. Details on the setups are presented with particular emphasis on the custom tailored data acquisition systems. Finally the performance of the TRD is studied, focusing on the pion rejection capability and the excellent position resolution. (orig.)

  6. AMS-02 on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spada Francesca R.

    2014-04-01

    During the first year in space, several billion events have been recorded. The flight operation, the detector performance, together with early results and perspective for physics measurements are reported.

  7. Interplay of radiative and nonradiative transitions in surface hopping with radiation-molecule interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, Juan José [Departamento de Química-Física I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Granucci, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.granucci@unipi.it; Persico, Maurizio [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-01-28

    We implemented a method for the treatment of field induced transitions in trajectory surface hopping simulations, in the framework of the local diabatization scheme, especially suited for on-the-fly dynamics. The method is applied to a simple one-dimensional model with an avoided crossing and compared with quantum wavepacket dynamics. The results show the importance of introducing a proper decoherence correction to surface hopping, in order to obtain meaningful results. Also the energy conservation policy of standard surface hopping must be revised: in fact, the quantum wavepacket energetics is well reproduced if energy absorption/emission is allowed for in the hops determined by radiation-molecule coupling. To our knowledge, this is the first time the issues of decoherence and energy conservation have been analyzed in depth to devise a mixed quantum-classical method for dynamics with molecule-field interactions.

  8. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated at a plasma-vacuum interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Leemans, Wim P.

    2003-06-26

    Transition radiation generated by an electron beam, produced by a laser wakefield accelerator operating in the self-modulated regime, crossing the plasma-vacuum boundary is considered. The angular distributions and spectra are calculated for both the incoherent and coherent radiation. The effects of the longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions on the differential energy spectra are examined. Diffraction radiation from the finite transverse extent of the plasma is considered and shown to strongly modify the spectra and energy radiated for long wavelength radiation. This method of transition radiation generation has the capability of producing high peak power THz radiation, of order 100 (mu)J/pulse at the plasma-vacuum interface, which is several orders of magnitude beyond current state-of-the-art THz sources.

  9. A gas monitoring facility with a quadrupole mass spectrometer for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, U.

    1988-07-01

    A gas analysis facility for the ZEUS transition-radiation chambers based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer is described. After a description of the spectrometer, the vacuum system, and the software, some test results are presented. (HSI)

  10. Theory of free-bound transitions in channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenz, A.W.; Nagl, A.; Uberall, H.

    1988-01-01

    On the basis of a single-string model, we derive formulas for the transition strengths of free-bound transitions of axially channeled electrons. We illustrate the theory by numerical calculations of these strengths for 3.5-MeV electrons in Si. Experimental evidence for such transitions has been obtained previously [J.U. Andersen et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 194, 209 (1982)] and is in good qualitative agreement with our calculations

  11. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-μm thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  12. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  13. Transition probabilities and radiative decay constants of the excited levels of Ne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wosinski, L.

    1981-01-01

    Transition probabilities for eight optical transitions between the 3p and 3d neon levels have been measured by the ''plasma transparency method''. The transitions probabilities are placed on an absolute scale by use of the recently reported values for the 4p→3s transitions. The measurements of induced changes in populations allowed the determination of the ratios of the radiative decay constants for the 4p and 3d levels. The experimental results are compared with the theoretically calculated transitions probabilities of Murphy and Lilly. (author)

  14. Finite temperature susy GUT phase transitions determined by radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripfganz, J.; Perlt, H.

    1983-02-01

    Studying the 2-loop perturbative contribution to the free energy of grand unified theories a sequence of phase transitions is found, with SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) being the prefered low temperature phase. The transition temperatures are still within the weak coupling regime. (author)

  15. Radiative transitions of new particles and the puzzle of cc-bar pseudoscalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafune, J.; Fukugita, M.; Oyanagi, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Radiative transitions between psi's and chi's are investigated in terms of a nonrelativistic quark model. When the level mixing is taken into account, no difficulties are met in M1 transitions, if the newly discovered chi (3454) is assigned to the ground state of the pseudoscalar meson

  16. On the optimal choice of the laminar medium substance for ultrarelativistic particle transition radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, A.L.; Garibian, G.M.; Yang, C.

    1975-01-01

    The dependence of the X-ray transition yield in the energy region 10-20keV produced by an ultrarelativistic charged particle in various laminar media on the substance of the plates is investigated in detail. It is shown that in this case beryllium is the most optimal substance. Other energy regions of transition radiation quanta are also considered. (Auth.)

  17. Test beam performance of a tracking TRD [Transition Radiation Detector] prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shank, J.T.; Whitaker, J.S.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Radeka, V.; Stephani, D.; Beker, H.; Bock, R.K.; Botlo, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Pfennig, J.; Price, M.J.; Willis, W.J.; Akesson, T.; Chernyatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Nevsky, P.; Potekhin, M.; Romanjuk, A.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Gavrilenko, I.; Muravjev, S.; Shmeleva, A.

    1990-01-01

    A Tracking Transition Radiation Detector prototype has been constructed and tested. It consists of 240 straw tubes, 4 mm in diameter, imbedded in a polyethylene block acting as the radiator. Its performance as an electron identifier as well as a tracking device for minimum ionizing particles has been determined. 2 refs., 6 figs

  18. Transition radiation on semi-infinite plate and Smith-Purcell effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shul'ga, N F; Syshchenko, V V

    2010-01-01

    The Smith-Purcell radiation is usually measured when an electron passes over the grating of metallic stripes. However, for high frequencies (exceeding the plasma frequency of the grating material) none material could be treated as a conductor, but ought to be considered as a dielectric with plasma-like permittivity. So for describing Smith-Purcell radiation in the range of high frequencies new theoretical approaches are needed. In the present paper we apply the simple variant of eikonal approximation developed earlier to the case of radiation on the set of parallel semi-infinite dielectric plates. The formulae obtained describe the radiation generated by the particles both passing through the plates (traditionally referred as 'transition radiation') and moving in vacuum over the grating formed by the edges of the plates (traditionally referred as 'diffraction radiation', and, taking into account the periodicity of the plates arrangement, as Smith-Purcell radiation).

  19. Description of radiative transitions in the relativistic string model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdnikov, E.B.; Nanobashvili, G.G.; Pron'ko, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    The transition operator for a straight-line string in the electromagnetic field has been built. It's matrix elements between the states of arbitrary spin are calculated in lowest order of perturbation theory. The consistensy conditions for the operator of interaction arising due to quantum constraints are also discussed. 12 refs

  20. Finite temperature susy GUT phase transitions determined by radiative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kripfganz, J.; Perlt, H.

    1983-01-01

    Studying the 2-loop perturbative contribution to the free energy of supersymmetric grand unified theories, SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) is found to be the prefered low temperature phase. The transition temperature is still within the weak coupling regime. (author)

  1. A relativized quark model for radiative baryon transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Schroeder, H.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper we investigate the electromagnetic form factors of baryons and their resonances using the framework of a relativized constituent quark model. Beyond the usual single-quark transition ansatz, we incorporate relativistic corrections which are well-determined by the intrinsic strong interaction and confinement forces between the quarks. Furthermore we separate off for the compound three-quark system the relativistic center-of-mass motion by an approximately Lorentz-invariant approach. In this way for the first time recoil effects could be explicitly studied. Using the harmonic oscillator wavefunctions with the configuration mixing as derived in the Isgur-Karl model, after restoring gauge invariance our relativized interaction hamiltonian can be used to calculate the transversely and longitudinally polarized photon transition form factors of the baryons. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of Sub-Picosecond Electron Bunches via Electro-Optic Sampling of Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Timothy John [Northern Illinois U.

    2012-01-01

    Future collider applications as well as present high-gradient laser plasma wakefield accelerators and free-electron lasers operating with picosecond bunch durations place a higher demand on the time resolution of bunch distribution diagnostics. This demand has led to significant advancements in the field of electro-optic sampling over the past ten years. These methods allow the probing of diagnostic light such as coherent transition radiation or the bunch wakefields with sub-picosecond time resolution. We present results on the single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of coherent transition radiation from bunches generated at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector laboratory. A longitudinal double-pulse modulation of the electron beam is also realized by transverse beam masking followed by a transverse-to-longitudinal phase-space exchange beamline. Live profile tuning is demonstrated by upstream beam focusing in conjunction with downstream monitoring of single-shot electro-optic spectral decoding of the coherent transition radiation.

  3. A transition radiation detector for RHIC featuring accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B. [Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering, (Russian Federation); Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1991-12-31

    We describe the results of a test ran involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions which momenta greater titan 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most, efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is-better than 5 {times} 10{sup 2}. The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is {approximately}230 {mu}m.

  4. A transition radiation detector which features accurate tracking and dE/dx particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, E.; Lissauer, D.; McCorkle, S.; Polychronakos, V.; Takai, H.; Chi, C.Y.; Nagamiya, S.; Sippach, W.; Toy, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.F.; Wiggins, C.; Willis, W.; Cherniatin, V.; Dolgoshein, B.; Bennett, M.; Chikanian, A.; Kumar, S.; Mitchell, J.T.; Pope, K.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the results of a test run involving a Transition Radiation Detector that can both distinguish electrons from pions with momenta greater than 0.7 GeV/c and simultaneously track particles passing through the detector. The particle identification is accomplished through a combination of the detection of Transition Radiation from the electron and the differences in electron and pion energy loss (dE/dx) in the detector. The dE/dx particle separation is most efficient below 2 GeV/c while particle ID utilizing Transition Radiation is effective above 1.5 GeV/c. Combined, the electron-pion separation is better than 5 x l0 2 . The single-wire, track-position resolution for the TRD is ∼230μm

  5. Pulse shape and spectrum of coherent diffraction-limited transition radiation from electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-12-20

    The electric field in the temporal and spectral domain of coherent diffraction-limited transition radiation is studied. An electron bunch, with arbitrary longitudinal momentum distribution, propagating at normal incidence to a sharp metal-vacuum boundary with finite transverse dimension is considered. A general expression for the spatiotemporal electric field of the transition radiation is derived, and closed-form solutions for several special cases are given. The influence of parameters such as radial boundary size, electron momentum distribution, and angle of observation on the waveform (e.g., radiation pulse length and amplitude) are discussed. For a Gaussian electron bunch, the coherent radiation waveform is shown to have a single-cycle profile. Application to a novel THz source based on a laser-driven accelerator is discussed.

  6. Coherent transition radiation from a laser wakefield accelerator as an electron bunch diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilborg, J. van; Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, C.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Martin, M.C.; Hao, Z.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    The observation and modeling of coherent transition radiation from femtosecond laser accelerated electron bunches is discussed. The coherent transition radiation, scaling quadratically with bunch charge, is generated as the electrons transit the plasma-vacuum boundary. Due to the limited transverse radius of the plasma boundary, diffraction effects will strongly modify the angular distribution and the total energy radiated is reduced compared to an infinite transverse boundary. The multi-nC electron bunches, concentrated in a length of a few plasma periods (several tens of microns), experience partial charge neutralization while propagating inside the plasma towards the boundary. This reduces the space-charge blowout of the beam, allowing for coherent radiation at relatively high frequencies (several THz). The charge distribution of the electron bunch at the plasma-vacuum boundary can be derived from Fourier analysis of the coherent part of the transition radiation spectrum. A Michelson interferometer was used to measure the coherent spectrum, and electron bunches with duration on the order of 50 fs (rms) were observed

  7. Nonlinear narrow Doppler-free resonances for optical transitions and annihilation radiation of a positronium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.; Minogin, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of obtaining narrow resonances without the Doppler broadening for transition between the fine structure levels of the ground and first excited states of a positronium atom are considered. An analysis is carried out of the conditions required for observation of the narrow resonances of saturation of single quantum absorption in the 1S-2P transitions and observation of narrow two-photon absorption resonances in the 1S-2S transitions. It is shown that narrow 2γ annihilation radiation lines of a positronium atom may be obtained with a width much smaller than the Doppler one

  8. Vavilov-Cherenkov and transition radiations on the dielectric and metallic spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, G.N.; Kartavenko, V.G.; Stepanovsky, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    Closed expressions are obtained for angular and frequency radiation intensities produced by a charge moving inside the dielectric sphere S, with observations made outside S (in fact, this is a typical experimental situation when a charge moves in one medium while measurements are made in the other one). It is shown that the difference in media properties inside and outside S drastically affects angular and frequency distributions. Also, a charge motion is considered which begins and terminates in medium 2 and which passes either through the dielectric sphere filled with medium 1 or through the metallic one. The energy flux in medium 2 involves the Vavilov-Cherenkov, transition radiation and the one arising from the charge instantaneous beginning and termination of motion. The evaluated angular and frequency distributions for various charge velocities and medium properties inside and outside S show that the standard identification of the charge velocity by its radiation on the part of the charge trajectory where βn>1 is not always valid. We analyze also the frequently used interpretation of the transition radiation in terms of instantaneous charge deceleration in one medium and its sudden acceleration in another one, and find them as to be insufficient. On the other hand, attempts to interpret the transition radiation in terms of semi-infinite motions terminating in one medium and beginning in the other one turn out to be correct if one takes into account the terms corresponding to the Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation

  9. Spatial resolution in optical transition radiation (OTR) beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, M.; Verzilov, V. A.

    1998-06-01

    An evaluation of the OTR single particle image dimension is obtained using diffraction theory based on a realistic description of the radiation source. This approach allows the analysis of the effect of the finite size of the emitting screen and of the imaging system. The role of practical experimental conditions in treating the intensity tail problem is estimated. It is shown that by exploiting the polarization properties of OTR, a considerable enhancement in the spatial resolution can be achieved, which becomes very similar to that of a standard point source

  10. Transitions between Andean and Amazonian centers of endemism in the radiation of some arboreal rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The tropical Andes and Amazon are among the richest regions of endemism for mammals, and each has given rise to extensive in situ radiations. Various animal lineages have radiated ex situ after colonizing one of these regions from the other: Amazonian clades of dendrobatid frogs and passerine birds may have Andean ancestry, and transitions from the Amazon to Andes may be even more common. To examine biogeographic transitions between these regions, we investigated the evolutionary history of three clades of rodents in the family Echimyidae: bamboo rats (Dactylomys-Olallamys-Kannabateomys), spiny tree-rats (Mesomys-Lonchothrix), and brush-tailed rats (Isothrix). Each clade is distributed in both the Andes and Amazonia, and is more diverse in the lowlands. We used two mitochondrial (cyt-b and 12S) and three nuclear (GHR, vWF, and RAG1) markers to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. Tree topologies and ancestral geographic ranges were then used to determine whether Andean forms were basal to or derived from lowland radiations. Results Four biogeographic transitions are identified among the generic radiations. The bamboo rat clade unambiguously originated in the Amazon ca. 9 Ma, followed by either one early transition to the Andes (Olallamys) and a later move to the Amazon (Dactylomys), or two later shifts to the Andes (one in each genus). The Andean species of both Dactylomys and Isothrix are sister to their lowland species, raising the possibility that highland forms colonized the Amazon Basin. However, uncertainty in their reconstructed ancestral ranges obscures the origin of these transitions. The lone Andean species of Mesomys is confidently nested within the lowland radiation, thereby indicating an Amazon-to-Andes transition ca. 2 Ma. Conclusions Differences in the timing of these biogeographic transitions do not appear to explain the different polarities of these trees. Instead, even within the radiation of a single family, both Andean and

  11. Detecting part of the transition radiation detector for the GINES installation at UNK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikhliarov, K.K.; Gavalian, V.G.; Aginian, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The detecting part of an X-ray transition radiation detector based on thin-walled mylar straws is considered in this paper. The performance of xenon-filled straws in the self-quenching mode is studied in detail. The measurements have been carried out both with radioactive sources and under the electron beam of the Yerevan synchrotron. (orig.)

  12. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Chudoba, Jiří; Hejbal, Jiří; Hladík, Ondřej; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, May (2017), s. 1-42, č. článku P05002. ISSN 1748-0221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : particle tracking detectors (Gaseous detectors) * transition radiation detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  13. Transition radiation excited by a load moving over the interface of two elastic layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.; Tsouvalas, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transition radiation is emitted when a perturbation source (e.g., electric charge, mechanical load), which does not possess an inherent frequency, moves along a straight line at a constant velocity in or near an inhomogeneous medium. The phenomenon was described for the first time in

  14. Biedenharn transformation in the theory of H ion. Probabilities of radiative transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapryagaev, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The solution of the Dirac equation in the Coulomb field is investigated by means of an anti-unitary transformation, reducing the set of relativistic equations to a non-relativistic equation. The obtained solutions are used to calculate probabilities of radiational transitions between fine-structure and hyperfine-structure levels of the H ion with an arbitrary nuclear charge

  15. Radiation-Induced Fluidity and Glass-Liquid Transition in Irradiated Amorphous Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the fluidity behaviour of continuously irradiated glasses using the Congruent Bond Lattice model in which broken bonds 'configurons' facilitate the flow. Irradiation breaks the bonds creating configurons which at high concentrations provide the transition of material from the glassy to liquid state. An explicit equation of viscosity has been derived which gives results in agreement with experimental data. This equation provides correct viscosity data for non-irradiated materials and shows a significant increase of fluidity in radiation fields. It demonstrates a decrease of activation energy of flow for irradiated glasses. A simple equation for glass-transition temperature was also obtained which shows that irradiated glasses have lower glass transition temperatures and are readily transformed from glassy to liquid state e.g. fluidized in strong radiation fields. (authors)

  16. Report on the Radiation Effects Testing of the Infrared and Optical Transition Radiation Camera Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Presented in this report are the results tests performed at Argonne National Lab in collaboration with Los Alamos National Lab to assess the reliability of the critical 99Mo production facility beam monitoring diagnostics. The main components of the beam monitoring systems are two cameras that will be exposed to radiation during accelerator operation. The purpose of this test is to assess the reliability of the cameras and related optical components when exposed to operational radiation levels. Both X-ray and neutron radiation could potentially damage camera electronics as well as the optical components such as lenses and windows. This report covers results of the testing of component reliability when exposed to X-ray radiation. With the information from this study we provide recommendations for implementing protective measures for the camera systems in order to minimize the occurrence of radiation-induced failure within a ten month production run cycle.

  17. Quasimonochromatic x-ray source using photoabsorption-edge transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Harris, J.L.; Maruyama, X.K.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.; Silzer, R.M.; Skopik, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    By designing transition radiators to emit x rays at the foil material's K-, L-, or M-shell photoabsorption edge, the x-ray spectrum is narrowed. The source is quasimonochromatic, directional, and intense and uses an electron beam whose energy is considerably lower than that needed for synchrotron sources. Depending upon the selection of foil material, the radiation can be produced wherever there is a photoabsorption edge. In this paper we report the results of the measurement of the x-ray spectrum from a transition radiator composed of 10 foils of 2-μm titanium and exposed to low-current, 90.2-MeV electrons. The measured band of emission was from 3.2 to 5 keV. In addition, a measurment was performed of the total power from a transition radiator composed of 18 foils of 2.0-μm copper exposed to a high-average-current electron beam of 40 μA and at energies of 135, 172, and 200 MeV. The maximum measured power was 4.0 mW. The calculated band of emission was from 4 to 9 keV

  18. Health transitions, fast and nasty: the case of Marshallese exposure to nuclear radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Nancy J

    2002-09-01

    The concept of health transitions assumes that health status improves with the introduction of western medicine. In this paper I demonstrate that the health of the people of Rongelap, Marshall Islands, has undergone serious damage as a result of nuclear testing, and that women in particular have suffered unduly. Exposure to nuclear radiation over a period of almost fifty years has been recognised by US authorities as a major contributory cause to the high rates of cancers and birth defects suffered by the Rongelap people. Women's reproduction has been severely affected, as evidenced by the many stillbirths and small stature of children born alive. Two generations have been exposed to both background radiation and to radiation ingested with the local foods on which they rely in the absence of other food sources. Clean up has commenced only after this and other communities sought compensation from the United States. The Rongelap people will live with the effects of radiation for generations to come. This transition to ongoing health problems is thus a negative outcome of modern health transition.

  19. Large enhancement of radiative strength for soft transitions in the quasicontinuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voinov, A; Algin, E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Schiller, A; Siem, S

    2004-10-01

    Radiative strength functions (RSFs) for the (56,57)Fe nuclei below the separation energy are obtained from the 57Fe(3He,alphagamma)56Fe and 57Fe(3He,3He'gamma)57Fe reactions, respectively. An enhancement of more than a factor of 10 over common theoretical models of the soft (E(gamma) less than or approximately equal 2 MeV) RSF for transitions in the quasicontinuum (several MeV above the yrast line) is observed. Two-step cascade intensities with soft primary transitions from the 56Fe(n,2gamma)57Fe reaction confirm the enhancement.

  20. Study of a transition radiation detector for the DO experiment at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinstein, F.

    1988-06-01

    The DZero experiment will study proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV in the center of mass produced at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (USA). The main features of the detector are an excellent hermetical calorimeter and a very good identification of muons and electrons. The Transition Radiation Detector contributes to electron/jet discrimination. Transition radiation is emitted when a charge particle crosses the interface between two media of different refraction indices. A N foils radiator produces about N/137 soft X rays when the Lorentz factor gamma of the particle is greater than a threshold of the order of 1000. The radiated energy saturates when gamma goes to infinity. These properties allow to separate electrons from pions until 140 GeV. This study presents the results of a test on a 5 GeV electron and pion beam of a prototype of chamber and of three radiators made of lithium foils, polypropylene foils, and polyethylene fibers. The detector response to pions and electrons is compared to theoretical predictions. Different statistical methods of electron/pion separation are compared on the experimental data. A method has been performed using likelihood functions which obtains a pion rejection greater than 50 for an electron efficiency of 90%. The performances are compared to those of other TRDs [fr

  1. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO 2 film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management

  2. Effects of correlation in transition radiation of super-short electron bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, D. K.; Tishchenko, A. A.; Strikhanov, M. N.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of correlations between electrons in transition radiation is investigated. The correlation function is obtained with help of the approach similar to the Debye-Hückel theory. The corrections due to correlations are estimated to be near 2-3% for the parameters of future projects SINBAD and FLUTE for bunches with extremely small lengths (∼1-10 fs). For the bunches with number of electrons about ∼ 2.5 ∗1010 and more, and short enough that the radiation would be coherent, the corrections due to correlations are predicted to reach 20%.

  3. Multilevel radiative thermal memory realized by the hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Kota, E-mail: kotaito@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Thermal information processing is attracting much interest as an analog of electronic computing. We experimentally demonstrated a radiative thermal memory utilizing a phase change material. The hysteretic metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) allows us to obtain a multilevel memory. We developed a Preisach model to explain the hysteretic radiative heat transfer between a VO{sub 2} film and a fused quartz substrate. The transient response of our memory predicted by the Preisach model agrees well with the measured response. Our multilevel thermal memory paves the way for thermal information processing as well as contactless thermal management.

  4. Beam diagnostics using transition radiation produced by a 100 Mev electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonka, M.; Leroy, J.; Hanus, X.; Derost, J.C.; Wartski, L.

    1991-01-01

    We report on several experiments using the optical transition radiation (OTR) produced by a 100 MeV electron beam. In using a sensitive video camera coupled with a digital image processing system an accurate and simple beam profile monitor has been devised. In measuring with a photo-multiplier the radiation emitted in a small solid angle around the direction of the OTR emission, a signal very sensitive to beam energy variations has been obtained. These experiments have been carried out on the Saclay ALS linac

  5. Radiative transitions from Rydberg states of lithium atoms in a blackbody radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glukhov, I. L.; Ovsiannikov, V. D.

    2012-05-01

    The radiative widths induced by blackbody radiation (BBR) were investigated for Rydberg states with principal quantum number up to n = 1000 in S-, P- and D-series of the neutral lithium atom at temperatures T = 100-3000 K. The rates of BBR-induced decays and excitations were compared with the rates of spontaneous decays. Simple analytical approximations are proposed for accurate estimations of the ratio of thermally induced decay (excitation) rates to spontaneous decay rates in wide ranges of states and temperatures.

  6. Recombination of charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in silicon doped by transition metals impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakevich, L A

    2003-01-01

    It has been studied the peculiarities of recombination of nonequilibrium charge carriers on radiation-induced defects in received according to Czochralski method p-silicon (p approx 3 - 20 Ohm centre dot cm), doped by one of the impurities of transition metals of the IV-th group of periodic table (titanium, zirconium, hafnium). Experimental results are obtained out of the analysis of temperature and injection dependence of the life time of charge carriers. The results are explained taking into consideration the influences of elastic stress fields created by the aggregates of transition metals atoms on space distribution over the crystal of oxygen and carbon background impurities as well as on the migration of movable radiation-induced defects during irradiation. (authors).

  7. A Novel Highly Ionizing Particle Trigger using the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Penwell, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is an important part of the experiment’s charged particle tracking system. It also provides the ability to discriminate electrons from pions efficiently using large signal amplitudes induced in the TRT straw tubes by transition radiation. This amplitude information can also be used to identify heavily ionizing particles, such as monopoles, or Q-balls, that traverse the straws. Because of their large ionization losses, these particles can range out before they reach the ATLAS calorimeter, making them difficult to identify by the experiment’s first level trigger. Much of this inefficiency could be regained by making use of a feature of the TRT electronics that allows fast access to information on whether large-amplitude signals were produced in regions of the detector. A modest upgrade to existing electronics could allow triggers sensitive to heavily ionizing particles at level-1 to be constructed by counting such large-amplitude signals in roads corresponding to...

  8. Radiative d–d transitions at tungsten centers in II–VI semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushakov, V. V., E-mail: ushakov@lebedev.ru; Krivobok, V. S.; Pruchkina, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The luminescence spectra of W impurity centers in II–VI semiconductors, specifically, ZnSe, CdS, and CdSe, are studied. It is found that, if the electron system of 5d (W) centers is considered instead of the electron system of 3d (Cr) centers, the spectral characteristics of the impurity radiation are substantially changed. The electron transitions are identified in accordance with Tanabe–Sugano diagrams of crystal field theory. With consideration for the specific features of the spectra, it is established that, in the crystals under study, radiative transitions at 5d W centers occur between levels with different spins in the region of a weak crystal field.

  9. Particle identification using the time-over-threshold method in the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akesson, T.; Arik, E.; Assamagan, K.; Baker, K.; Barberio, E.; Barberis, D.; Bertelsen, H.; Bytchkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Catinaccio, A.; Danielsson, H.; Dittus, F.; Dolgoshein, B.; Dressnandt, N.; Ebenstein, W.L.; Eerola, P.; Farthouat, P.; Froidevaux, D.; Grichkevitch, Y.; Hajduk, Z.; Hansen, J.R.; Keener, P.T.; Kekelidze, G.; Konovalov, S.; Kowalski, T.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Krivchitch, A.; Laritchev, A.; Lichard, P.; Lucotte, A.; Lundberg, B.; Luehring, F.; Mailov, A.; Manara, A.; McFarlane, K.; Mitsou, V.A.; Morozov, S.; Muraviev, S.; Nadtochy, A.; Newcomer, F.M.; Olszowska, J.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S.H.; Peshekhonov, V.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.R.; Schegelsky, V.; Sapinski, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnova, L.N.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Soutchkov, S.; Spiridenkov, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V.; Wang, C.; Williams, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Test-beam studies of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) straw tube performance in terms of electron-pion separation using a time-over-threshold method are described. The test-beam data are compared with Monte Carlo simulations of charged particles passing through the straw tubes of the TRT. For energies below 10 GeV, the time-over-threshold method combined with the standard transition-radiation cluster-counting technique significantly improves the electron-pion separation in the TRT. The use of the time-over-threshold information also provides some kaon-pion separation, thereby significantly enhancing the B-physics capabilities of the ATLAS detector

  10. The numerical evaluation on non-radiative multiphonon transition rate from different electronic bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bangfen.

    1985-10-01

    A numerical calculation on the non-radiative multiphonon transition probability based on the adiabatic approximation (AA) and the static approximation (SA) has been accomplished in a model of two electronic levels coupled to one phonon mode. The numerical results indicate that the spectra based on different approximations are generally different apart from those vibrational levels which are far below the classical crossing point. For large electron-phonon coupling constant, the calculated transition rates based on AA are more reliable; on the other hand, for small transition coupling the transition rates near or beyond the cross region are quite different for two approximations. In addition to the diagonal non-adiabatic potential, the mixing and splitting of the original static potential sheets are responsible for the deviation of the transition rates based on different approximations. The relationship between the transition matrix element and the vibrational level shift, the Huang-Rhys factor, the separation of the electronic levels and the electron-phonon coupling is analysed and discussed. (author)

  11. Glass transition in thaumatin crystals revealed through temperature-dependent radiation-sensitivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, Matthew, E-mail: maw64@cornell.edu; Thorne, Robert E. [Physics Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Radiation damage to protein crystals exhibits two regimes of temperature-activated behavior between T = 300 and 100 K, with a crossover at the protein glass transition near 200 K. These results have implications for mechanistic studies of proteins and for structure determination when cooling to T = 100 K creates excessive disorder. The temperature-dependence of radiation damage to thaumatin crystals between T = 300 and 100 K is reported. The amount of damage for a given dose decreases sharply as the temperature decreases from 300 to 220 K and then decreases more gradually on further cooling below the protein-solvent glass transition. Two regimes of temperature-activated behavior were observed. At temperatures above ∼200 K the activation energy of 18.0 kJ mol{sup −1} indicates that radiation damage is dominated by diffusive motions in the protein and solvent. At temperatures below ∼200 K the activation energy is only 1.00 kJ mol{sup −1}, which is of the order of the thermal energy. Similar activation energies describe the temperature-dependence of radiation damage to a variety of solvent-free small-molecule organic crystals over the temperature range T = 300–80 K. It is suggested that radiation damage in this regime is vibrationally assisted and that the freezing-out of amino-acid scale vibrations contributes to the very weak temperature-dependence of radiation damage below ∼80 K. Analysis using the radiation-damage model of Blake and Phillips [Blake & Phillips (1962 ▶), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation at the Molecular Level, pp. 183–191] indicates that large-scale conformational and molecular motions are frozen out below T = 200 K but become increasingly prevalent and make an increasing contribution to damage at higher temperatures. Possible alternative mechanisms for radiation damage involving the formation of hydrogen-gas bubbles are discussed and discounted. These results have implications for mechanistic studies of proteins and for

  12. Experimental observation of IFEL micro-bunching using coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cline, D.B.; Wang, X.J.; Babzien, M.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam bunching in the optical wavelength was observed experimentally for the first time at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) using the Inverse Free Electron (IFEL) accelerator. The micro-bunched electron beam has been studied by measuring the coherent transition radiation (CTR). The authors have experimentally observed a quadratic dependency of the CTR signal with the charge of the electron beam and the observation distance

  13. Method of detection of transition radiation by wire chambers operating in self-quenching streamer mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopdzhanov, G.A.; Bityukov, S.I.; Dzhelyadin, R.I.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Lapin, V.V.; Saraikin, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    A method for detecting X-ray transition radiation against the background of the signal from relativistic charged particles is suggested that is based on the use of peculiarities of the development of self-queenching streamer mode. The self-qunching streamer discharge in the Xe + isobutane mixture is experimentally registered. The effect of separation of signals from the relativistic particle and from soft X-ray, is obtained

  14. Combined performance tests before installation of the ATLAS Semiconductor and Transition Radiation Tracking Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abat, E.; Abdesselam, A.; Andy, T.N.; Böhm, Jan; Šťastný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2008), P08003/1-P08003/67 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08032; GA MŠk 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : solid state detectors * particle tracking detectors * large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * transition radiation detectors Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2008

  15. Determination of electron bunch shape using transition radiation and phase-energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosson, E.R.; Berryman, K.W.; Richman, B.A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We present data comparing microbunch temporal information obtained from electron beam phase-energy measurements with that obtained from transition radiation auto-correlation measurements. The data was taken to resolve some of the ambiguities in previous transition radiation results. By measuring the energy spectrum of the electron beam as a function of its phase relative to the accelerating field, phase-energy information was extracted. This data was analyzed using tomographic techniques to reconstruct the phase-space distribution assuming an electron energy dependence of E({var_phi}) = E{sub o} + E{sub acc}cos({var_phi}), where E{sub o} is the energy of an electron entering the field, E{sub acc} is the peak energy gain, and {var_phi} is the phase between the crest of the RF wave and an electron. Temporal information about the beam was obtained from the phase space distribution by taking the one dimensional projection along the time axis. We discuss the use of this technique to verify other transition radiation analysis methods.

  16. Determination of electron bunch shape using transition radiation and phase-energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosson, E.R.; Berryman, K.W.; Richman, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    We present data comparing microbunch temporal information obtained from electron beam phase-energy measurements with that obtained from transition radiation auto-correlation measurements. The data was taken to resolve some of the ambiguities in previous transition radiation results. By measuring the energy spectrum of the electron beam as a function of its phase relative to the accelerating field, phase-energy information was extracted. This data was analyzed using tomographic techniques to reconstruct the phase-space distribution assuming an electron energy dependence of E(var-phi) = E o + E acc cos(var-phi), where E o is the energy of an electron entering the field, E acc is the peak energy gain, and var-phi is the phase between the crest of the RF wave and an electron. Temporal information about the beam was obtained from the phase space distribution by taking the one dimensional projection along the time axis. We discuss the use of this technique to verify other transition radiation analysis methods

  17. Energy levels and radiative transition rates for Ge XXXI, As XXXII, and Se XXXIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, J.; Jha, A. K. S.; Mohan, Man

    2014-07-01

    Fine-structure energies of the 67 levels belonging to the 1s2, 1s 2l, 1s3l, 1s4l, 1s5l, and 1s6l configurations of Ge XXXI, As XXXII, and Se XXXIII have been calculated using the General-Purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package. In addition, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, transition wavelengths, and line strengths have been calculated for all electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among these levels. Lifetimes are also presented for all excited levels of these three ions. We have compared our results with the results available in the literature and the accuracy of the data is assessed. We predict new energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities where no other theoretical or experimental results are available, which will form the basis for future experimental work.

  18. An Algorithm to Compress Line-transition Data for Radiative-transfer Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubillos, Patricio E.

    2017-11-01

    Molecular line-transition lists are an essential ingredient for radiative-transfer calculations. With recent databases now surpassing the billion-line mark, handling them has become computationally prohibitive, due to both the required processing power and memory. Here I present a temperature-dependent algorithm to separate strong from weak line transitions, reformatting the large majority of the weaker lines into a cross-section data file, and retaining the detailed line-by-line information of the fewer strong lines. For any given molecule over the 0.3-30 μm range, this algorithm reduces the number of lines to a few million, enabling faster radiative-transfer computations without a significant loss of information. The final compression rate depends on how densely populated the spectrum is. I validate this algorithm by comparing Exomol’s HCN extinction-coefficient spectra between the complete (65 million line transitions) and compressed (7.7 million) line lists. Over the 0.6-33 μm range, the average difference between extinction-coefficient values is less than 1%. A Python/C implementation of this algorithm is open-source and available at https://github.com/pcubillos/repack. So far, this code handles the Exomol and HITRAN line-transition format.

  19. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G.

    1999-01-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  20. Radiative transitions in InGaN quantum-well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Noad Asaf [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    InGaN based light emitting devices demonstrate excellent luminescence properties and have great potential in lighting applications. Though these devices are already being produced on an industrial scale, the nature of their radiative transition is still not well understood. In particular, the role of the huge (>1MV/cm), built-in electric field in these transitions is still under debate. The luminescence characteristics of InGaN quantum well structures were investigated as a function of excitation power, temperature, and biaxial strain, with an intent of discerning the effects of the electric field and inhomogeneous indium distribution in the QW on the radiative transition. It was found that the luminescence energy did not scale only with the indium concentration but that the QW thickness must also be taken into account. The thickness affects the transition energy due to quantum confinement and carrier separation across a potential drop in the QW. The luminescence peak width was shown to increase with increased indium fraction, due to increased indium inhomogeneity. The carrier lifetime increased exponentially with QW thickness and luminescence wavelength, due to increased carrier separation. Measuring the luminescence energy and carrier lifetime as a function of excitation density showed that the electric field can be screened by strong excitation and, as a consequence, the carrier separation reduced. The temperature dependence of the luminescence showed evidence for bandtails in the density of states, a phenomenon that has been previously related to transition in indium-rich nano-clusters, yet could be accounted for by fluctuations in other parameters that affect the transition energy. Room temperature luminescence efficiency was shown to weakly decrease with increased QW thickness. The application of biaxial strain resulted in either a redshift or blueshift of the luminescence, depending on the sample. The direction and magnitude of the shift in luminescence

  1. Energy levels, radiative rates, and lifetimes for transitions in W XL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.

    2014-01-01

    Energy levels and radiative rates are reported for transitions in Br-like tungsten, W XL, calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP). Configuration interaction (CI) has been included among 46 configurations (generating 4215 levels) over a wide energy range up to 213 Ryd. However, for conciseness results are only listed for the lowest 360 levels (with energies up to ∼43 Ryd), which mainly belong to the 4s 2 4p 5 ,4s 2 4p 4 4d,4s 2 4p 4 4f,4s4p 6 ,4p 6 4d,4s4p 5 4d,4s 2 4p 3 4d 2 , and 4s 2 4p 3 4d4f configurations, and provided for four types of transitions, E1, E2, M1, and M2. Comparisons are made with existing (but limited) results. However, to fully assess the accuracy of our data, analogous calculations have been performed with the flexible atomic code, including an even larger CI than in GRASP. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 0.02 Ryd, whereas results for radiative rates (and lifetimes) should be accurate to better than 20% for a majority of the strong transitions

  2. Transition radiation detectors for electron identification beyond 1 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appuhn, R.D.; Heinloth, K.; Lange, E.; Oedingen, R.; Schloesser, A.

    1987-07-01

    Transition radiation detectors (TRDs) have been tested for the separation of electrons from pions in the momentum range between 1 GeV/c and 6 GeV/c. Foams as well as fibres and foils served as radiator materials while two types of chambers, a longitudinal drift chamber (DC) and a multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC), both of 16 mm depth and dominantly filled with xenon, were used for detecting the transition radiation photons with a setup of four chambers. Analyzing the data we compared the methods of mean, truncated mean and of maximum likelihood of the total charge measurements and several methods of cluster analysis. As a result of the total charge measurements performed at test beams at CERN and DESY we obtained about 1% pion contamination at 90% electron efficiency for the polypropylene materials in the configuration of four modules with a total length of 40 cm. An improvement by a factor of about two for the electron/pion discrimination can be obtained in case of a detailed analysis of the clusters. (orig.)

  3. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: status and perspectives for Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector contributes to the tracking, particle identification, and triggering capabilities of the experiment. It is composed of six layers of multi-wire proportional chambers, each of which is preceded by a radiator and a Xe/CO$_2$-filled drift volume. The signal is sampled in timebins of 100~ns over the drift length which allows for the reconstruction of chamber-wise track segments, both online and offline. The particle identification is based on the specific energy loss of charged particles and additional transition radiation photons, the latter being a signature for electrons. The detector is segmented into 18 sectors, of which 13 were installed in Run I. The TRD was included in data taking since the LHC start-up and was successfully used for electron identification and triggering. During the Long Shutdown 1, the detector was completed and now covers the full azimuthal acceptance. Furthermore, the readout and trigger components were upgraded. When data taking was started for ...

  4. How Models Simulate the Radiative Effect in the Transition Zone of the Aerosol-Cloud Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo Angrill, J.; González, J. A.; Long, C. N.; McComiskey, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies have pointed towards dealing with clouds and aerosols as two manifestations of what is essentially the same physical phenomenon: a suspension of tiny particles in the air. Although the two extreme cases (i.e., pure aerosol and well-defined cloud) are easily distinguished, and obviously produce different radiative effects, there are many situations in the transition (or "twilight") zone. In a recent paper [Calbó et al., Atmos. Res. 2017, j.atmosres.2017.06.010], the authors of the current communication estimated that about 10% of time there might be a suspension of particles in the air that is difficult to distinguish as either cloud or aerosol. Radiative transfer models, however, simulate the effect of clouds and aerosols with different modules, routines, or parameterizations. In this study, we apply a sensitivity analysis approach to assess the ability of two radiative transfer models (SBDART and RRTM) in simulating the radiative effect of a suspension of particles with characteristics in the boundary between cloud and aerosol. We simulate this kind of suspension either in "cloud mode" or in "aerosol mode" and setting different values of optical depth, droplet size, water path, aerosol type, cloud height, etc. Irradiances both for solar and infrared bands are studied, both at ground level and at the top of the atmosphere, and all analyses are repeated for different solar zenith angles. We obtain that (a) water clouds and ice clouds have similar radiative effects if they have the same optical depth; (b) the spread of effects regarding different aerosol type/aerosol characteristics is remarkable; (c) radiative effects of an aerosol layer and of a cloud layer are different, even if they have similar optical depth; (d) for a given effect on the diffuse component, the effect on the direct component is usually greater (more extinction of direct beam) by aerosols than by clouds; (e) radiative transfer models are somewhat limited when simulating the

  5. Feasibility of Optical Transition Radiation Imaging for Laser-driven Plasma Accelerator Electron-Beam Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Rule, D. W. [Unlisted, US, MD; Downer, M. C. [Texas U.

    2017-10-09

    We report the initial considerations of using linearly polarized optical transition radiation (OTR) to characterize the electron beams of laser plasma accelerators (LPAs) such as at the Univ. of Texas at Austin. The two LPAs operate at 100 MeV and 2-GeV, and they currently have estimated normalized emittances at ~ 1-mm mrad regime with beam divergences less than 1/γ and beam sizes to be determined at the micron level. Analytical modeling results indicate the feasibility of using these OTR techniques for the LPA applications.

  6. A fast high-voltage current-peak detection system for the ALICE transition radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verclas, Robert [Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    During LHC operation in run 1, the gaseous detectors of ALICE occasionally experienced simultaneous trips in their high voltage which affected the majority of the high voltage channels. These trips are caused by large anode currents in the detector and are potentially related to LHC machine operations. We developed and installed a fast current-peak detection system for the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector. This system is based on FPGA technology and monitors 144 out 522 high voltage channels minimally invasively at a maximum readout rate of 2 MHz. It is an integral part of the LHC beam monitoring system. We report on the latest status.

  7. Effect of γ-radiation on glass transition temperature of Poly(Bisphenol A carbonate) (PC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkar, A.K.; Kundagol, S.

    1988-01-01

    Thin films of pure Poly(Bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) were γ-irradiated at room temperature from Co 60 source for varied doses, for the systematic study of γ-radiation on glass transition temperature (Tsub(g)) of PC. It was found that Tsub(g) of PC decreases with increasing doses. Irradiation of γ-rays on PC results in evolution of CO, CO 2 and H 2 from carbonate linkage and methyl group and which results in lowering of average mol.wt. of bul k polymer. Hence, overall increase in free volume increases chain mobility and thus reduces the Tsub(g). (author)

  8. A transition radiation detector for positron identification in a balloon-borne particle astrophysics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; Circella, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Mongelli, M.; Marangelli, B.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have built and tested a transition radiation detector of about 76x80 cm 2 active surface to discriminate positrons from protons in an experiment performed on a balloon flight to search for primordial antimatter. The TRD is made of ten modules each consisting of a carbon fiber radiator followed by a multiwire proportional chamber. In order to achieve a proton-electron rejection factor of the order of 10 -3 with a strict limitation on power consumption to about 40 mW per chamber channel, as required by experimental constraints, we have developed a low power consumption ''cluster counting'' electronics. Different analysis procedures of calibration data are shown. In addition, comparisons of the performances of this detector are also made with a previous similar prototype equipped with standard fast electronics and similar detectors from other authors. ((orig.))

  9. Observation of coherently enhanced tunable narrow-band terahertz transition radiation from a relativistic sub-picosecond electron bunch train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piot, P.; Maxwell, T. J.; Sun, Y.-E; Ruan, J.; Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Rihaoui, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the production of narrow-band (δf/f≅20% at f≅0.5THz) transition radiation with tunable frequency over [0.37, 0.86] THz. The radiation is produced as a train of sub-picosecond relativistic electron bunches transits at the vacuum-aluminum interface of an aluminum converter screen. The bunch train is generated via a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space exchange technique. We also show a possible application of modulated beams to extend the dynamical range of a popular bunch length diagnostic technique based on the spectral analysis of coherent radiation.

  10. First determination of the e/π separation efficiency of the ZEUS transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengel, S.

    1995-12-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector of the ZEUS experiment at DESY is one of its main instruments for electron identification. It started to operate partly in 1993 and for the first time with its four modules in 1994. One of its main features is a Time Expansion Chamber to detect the transition radiation of electrons together with the ionisation energy loss of the particle tracks. The first data taken under realistic environmental conditions served as tool to find appropriate running conditions and procedures for data treatment. The main aim however was to show that the detector is sensitive to electrons and to evaluate its rejection power. This analysis describes the on-line and off-line data processing required to exploit the information contained in the raw data. Concepts for detector cross channel calibration and signal recombination are presented. The effect of different running conditions is discussed. To determine the rejection power a data selection was performed extracting electrons and hadrons using all means except the TRD. The response of the TRD to these data samples was compared and a clear sensitivity for electrons was found. Using different likelihood methods values for separation power are derived. The hadron suppression obtained at 90% electron efficiency is - for momenta from 1 to 3 GeV/c - between 27% to 10%, which is already close to the design/test chamber results of 9% to 1.7%. As a projection for close-to-optimum running conditions a hadron suppression from 12% to 2% was obtained. (orig.)

  11. Straw Performance Studies and Quality Assurance for the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Cwetanski, Peter; Orava, Risto

    2006-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is part of the Inner Detector. It is designed as a robust and powerful gaseous detector that provides tracking through individual drift-tubes (straws) as well as particle identification via transition radiation (TR) detection. The straw tubes are operated with Xe-CO2-O2 70/27/3, a gas that combines the advantages of efficient TR absorption, a short electron drift time and minimum ageing effects. The modules of the barrel part of the TRT were built in the United States while the end-cap wheels are assembled at two Russian institutes. Acceptance tests of barrel modules and end-cap wheels are performed at CERN before assembly and integration with the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) and the Pixel Detector. This thesis first describes simulations the TRT straw tube. The argon-based acceptance gas mixture as well as two xenon-based operating gases are examined for its properties. Drift velocities and Townsend coefficients are computed with the he...

  12. Radiative parameters for some transitions in Cu(II) and Ag(II) spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemont, E.; Blagoev, K.; Campos, J.; Mayo, R.; Malcheva, G.; Ortiz, M.; Quinet, P.

    2005-01-01

    Radiative parameters for transitions depopulating the levels belonging to the 3d 8 4s 2 configuration of Cu(II) and 4d 9 6s and 4d 9 5d configurations of Ag(II) have been obtained both theoretically and experimentally. On the experimental side, a laser-produced plasma was used as a source of Cu(II) and Ag(II) spectra. The light emitted by the plasma was focused on the input slit of a grating monochromator coupled with a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer system. Spectral response calibration of the experimental system was made using a deuterium lamp in the wavelength range extending from 200 to 400-bar nm, and a standard tungsten lamp in the range from 350 to 600-bar nm. The transition probabilities were obtained using measured branching fractions and available radiative lifetimes of the corresponding states. On the theoretical side, a relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) approach, including core-polarization effects, has been used for the calculations. A reasonable agreement theory-experiment has been observed

  13. Excited meson radiative transitions from lattice QCD using variationally optimized operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shultz, Christian J. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Dudek, Jozef J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Edwards, Robert G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-06-02

    We explore the use of 'optimized' operators, designed to interpolate only a single meson eigenstate, in three-point correlation functions with a vector-current insertion. These operators are constructed as linear combinations in a large basis of meson interpolating fields using a variational analysis of matrices of two-point correlation functions. After performing such a determination at both zero and non-zero momentum, we compute three-point functions and are able to study radiative transition matrix elements featuring excited state mesons. The required two- and three-point correlation functions are efficiently computed using the distillation framework in which there is a factorization between quark propagation and operator construction, allowing for a large number of meson operators of definite momentum to be considered. We illustrate the method with a calculation using anisotopic lattices having three flavors of dynamical quark all tuned to the physical strange quark mass, considering form-factors and transitions of pseudoscalar and vector meson excitations. In conclusion, the dependence on photon virtuality for a number of form-factors and transitions is extracted and some discussion of excited-state phenomenology is presented.

  14. The influence of gamma radiation on the molecular weight and glass transition of PLLA and HAp/PLLA nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milicevic, D.; Trifunovic, S.; Dojcilovic, J.; Ignjatovic, N.; Suljovrujic, E.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the molecular weight and glass transition behaviour of poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide (HAp/PLLA) nanocomposite has been studied. Since PLLA exposed to high-energy radiation in the presence of air is prone to chain scission reactions and large degradation, changes in molecular weight were obtained by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Alterations in the glass transition behaviour were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The apparent activation energy (ΔH*) for glass transition was determined on the basis of the heating rate dependence of the glass transition temperature (T g ). Our findings support the fact that chain scission is the main reason for the decrease of T g and ΔH* with the absorbed dose. Furthermore, more intensive chain scission degradation of PLLA was observed in HAp/PLLA and can only be ascribed to the presence of HAp nanoparticles. Consequently, initial differences in the glass transition temperature and/or apparent activation energy of PLLA and HAp/PLLA became more pronounced with absorbed dose. This study reveals that radiation-induced changes in molecular weight and glass transition temperature occur in a predictable and fairly accurate manner. Therefore, gamma radiation can be used not only for sterilization but also for tailoring desirable end-use properties of these biomaterials.

  15. Development and Transition of the Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Zank, G.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a plan to develop and transition a physics based predictive toolset called The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) to describe the interplanetary energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including magnetic field structure and transients, within 10 Astronomical Units; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements. The described transition plan is based on a well established approach developed in the Earth Science discipline that ensures that the customer has a tool that meets their needs

  16. Detection of coherent X-ray transition radiation and its application to beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Li Qiang; Moran, M.J.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.; Silzer, R.M.; Skopik, D.M.; Rothbart, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the use of coherent X-ray transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. This can be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The research also has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charged particle energies. We have constructed three coherent radiators and tested them at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft X-ray emission (1-3 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5-9.0 mrad. The angle of peak emission was found to increase with electron-beam energy, in contrast to the incoherent case for which the angle of emission varies inversely with electron-beam energy. (orig.)

  17. Results of a Direct Search Using Synchrotron Radiation for the Low-Energy (229)Th Nuclear Isomeric Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeet, Justin; Schneider, Christian; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-06-26

    We report the results of a direct search for the (229)Th (I(π)=3/2(+)←5/2(+)) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing (229)Th-doped LiSrAlF(6) crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between 7.3 eV and 8.8 eV with transition lifetime (1-2) s≲τ≲(2000-5600)  s. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

  18. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  19. Measurement of energy transitions for the decay radiations of 75Ge and 69Ge in a high purity germanium detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Güral; Usta, Metin; Oktay, Adem

    2018-06-01

    Photoactivation experiments have a wide range of application areas in nuclear, particle physics, and medical physics such as measuring energy levels and half-lifes of nuclei, experiments for understanding imaging methods in medicine, isotope production for patient treatment, radiation security and transportation, radiation therapy, and astrophysics processes. In this study, some energy transition values of the decay radiations of 75Ge and 69Ge, which are the products of photonuclear reactions (γ, n) with germanium isotopes (75Ge and 69Ge), were measured. The gamma spectrum as a result of atomic transitions were analysed by using a high purity semiconductor germanium detector and the energy transition values which are presented here were compared with the ones which are the best in literature. It was observed that the results presented are in agreement with literature in error range and some results have better precisions.

  20. Observation of multiphase magnetic state of hematite crystal during Morin transition by the method of section topography of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchetinkin, S.A.; Kvardakov, V.V.; Viler, Eh.; Barushel', Zh.; Shlenker, M.

    2005-01-01

    The boundaries between weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases in hematite crystals during Morin transition are detected by the section topography method by synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these boundaries are parallel to (111) surface hence magnetic phases during Morin transition separate the crystal by layers. Change of layer depth in dependence on temperature and magnetic field, and interaction interphase boundaries with crystal defects are observed [ru

  1. Interference effects in angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation from Relativistic Heavy Ions crossing a radiator: Influence of absorption and slowing-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiks, E.I.; Pivovarov, Yu.L.

    2015-07-15

    Theoretical analysis and representative calculations of angular and spectral distributions of X-ray Transition Radiation (XTR) by Relativistic Heavy Ions (RHI) crossing a radiator are presented taking into account both XTR absorption and RHI slowing-down. The calculations are performed for RHI energies of GSI, FAIR, CERN SPS and LHC and demonstrate the influence of XTR photon absorption as well as RHI slowing-down in a radiator on the appearance/disappearance of interference effects in both angular and spectral distributions of XTR.

  2. Observation of coherent Smith-Purcell and transition radiation driven by single bunch and micro-bunched electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yifan; Du, Yingchao; Su, Xiaolu; Wang, Dan; Yan, Lixin; Tian, Qili; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Dong; Huang, Wenhui; Gai, Wei; Tang, Chuanxiang; Konoplev, I. V.; Zhang, H.; Doucas, G.

    2018-01-01

    Generation of coherent Smith-Purcell (cSPr) and transition/diffraction radiation using a single bunch or a pre-modulated relativistic electron beam is one of the growing research areas aiming at the development of radiation sources and beam diagnostics for accelerators. We report the results of comparative experimental studies of terahertz radiation generation by an electron bunch and micro-bunched electron beams and the spectral properties of the coherent transition and SP radiation. The properties of cSPr spectra are investigated and discussed, and excitations of the fundamental and second harmonics of cSPr and their dependence on the beam-grating separation are shown. The experimental and theoretical results are compared, and good agreement is demonstrated.

  3. Radiation-induced structural transitions in composite materials with strong interaction of polymer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Koztaeva, U.P.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier papers the internal friction (IF) method was applied to studies of structural relaxation in different types of polymer-based composite materials (glass-cloth, paper-based and foiled laminates impregnated by epoxy and phenolic resins) irradiated by 2 MeV electrons in the dose range of 0.1-50.0 MGy. Selectivity and high sensibility of the internal friction method allowed to distinguish glassy transitions in different structural components of the composites. The relaxation processes observed were identified and attributed to structural alterations in the polymer filler, the binder and the boundary layers. It was shown that changes in the parameters of relaxation maximums during irradiation can be considered as quantitative characteristics for the degree of radiation-induced degradation or cross-linking of polymer molecules. This paper deals with specific features of IF spectra in paper-based laminates where both the filler fibers and the binder are strongly interacting polymers. Anisotropy of viscous and elastic properties is very weak for this kind of materials, so that IF measurements give nearly the same result independently on the filler fiber orientation in the sample. The main reasons for it are the rigid chain structure of fillers (polyethylene-terephthalate and cellulose) and the good adhesion strengthened by diffusion of the epoxy or phenolic binder to defect regions of the filler.The IF temperature dependence observed in paper-based laminates is represented by superposition of two very broad relaxation maximums associated with transitions from glassy to high-elastic state in structural components, each based on one of the polymers. The inflection points characteristic for IF temperature dependence in paper-based laminates give a reason to treat them as a superposition of α-peaks associated with transitions from glassy to high-elastic state in structural components of a composite based on the binder and the filler, respectively. Another

  4. Influence of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions in highly charged ions★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhan-Bin; Chen, Wen-Cong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Fu, Nian; Wang, Kai

    2017-11-01

    Considering the quantum effects of diffraction and the collective screening effects, the potential of test charge in semiclassical plasmas is derived. It is generalized exponential screened Coulomb potential. Using the Ritz variational method incorporating this potential, the effects of semiclassical plasma on the energy levels and radiative transitions are investigated systematically, taking highly charged H-like ion as an example. The Debye plasma model is also employed for comparison purposes. Comparisons and analysis are made between these two sets of results and the differences are discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  5. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions in Fe X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Energies of the 54 levels belonging to the (1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) 3s 2 3p 5 , 3s3p 6 , 3s 2 3p 4 3d and 3s3p 5 3d configurations of Fe X have been calculated using the GRASP code of Dyall and colleagues (1989). Additionally, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for all electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among these levels. Comparisons are made with results available in the literature, and the accuracy of the data is assessed. Our energy levels are estimated to be accurate to better than 3%, whereas results for other parameters are probably accurate to better than 20% . Additionally, the agreement between measured and calculated lifetimes is better than 10%. (authors)

  6. Studies on the prototype of the transition-radiation detector for the Zeus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munde, A.

    1991-04-01

    The Zeus detector is currently being built for HERA at Hamburg. One part of the inner detector is the transition radiation detector (TRD). It will identify single electrons inside hadronic jets of deep inelastic ep-collisions. To test the chamber performance and to improve mechanical tools, a prototype of the smallest detector modul (TRD-1) was built. The gasgain of this prototype was measured under several high voltage conditions. The gasgain is about 1.5x10 3 up to 8x10 3 in Argon/Methane 90/10. To test the function of this prototype, the test beam facility at the Bonn 2.5 GeV electron synchrotron was used. The same relative amplification was measured by comparing the beam results with those obtained with a Fe 55 -source. (orig.) [de

  7. A transition radiation detector interleaved with low-density targets for the NOE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, K V; Bernardini, P; Brigida, M; Campana, D; Candela, A M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Ceres, A; D'Aquino, B; De Cataldo, G; De Mitri, I; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Lamanna, E; Lauro, A; Leone, A; Loparco, F; Mancarella, G; Martello, D; Mazziotta, M N; Mikheyev, S P; Mongelli, M; Osteria, G; Palladino, Vittorio; Passeggio, G; Perchiazzi, M; Pontoniere, G; Rainó, A; Rocco, R; Romanucci, E; Rubizzo, U; Sacchetti, A; Scapparone, E; Spinelli, P; Tikhomirov, V; Vaccina, A; Vanzanella, E; Weber, M

    2001-01-01

    The NOE Collaboration has proposed a transition radiation detector (TRD) interleaved with marble targets to tag the electron decay channel of tau leptons produced by nu /sub tau /, eventually originated by nu /sub mu / oscillations in a long base line experiment. A reduced scale TRD detector prototype has been built and exposed to an electron/pion beam at the CERN PS. Discrimination capabilities between electrons and both charged and neutral pions, representing the main source of background for our measurement, have been determined obtaining rejection factors of the order of the tenth of percent for charged pions, and of a few percent for the neutral pion, matching the experiment requirements. The capabilities of this detector to measure the energy released by particles that start showering inside the targets are shown. A momentum resolution sigma /sub p//P

  8. Further time-resolved electron-beam characterizations with optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Div.; Wilke, M.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Time-resolved characterizations of electron beams using optical transition radiation (OTR) as a prompt conversion mechanism have recently been extended on the Los Alamos Free-electron Laser (FEL) facility 40-MeV linac. Two key timescales for rf-linac driven FELs are the micropulse (10 ps) and the macropulse (5 {mu}s to 1 ms). In the past we have used gated, intensified cameras to select a single or few micropulses (25 to 400 ns gate width) out of the pulse train to evaluate submacropulse effects. Recently, we have obtained some of the first measurements of micropulse bunch length (7 to 10 ps) and submacropulse spatialposition and profile using OTR and a Hamamatsu streak camera. Additionally, micropulse elongation effects and head-to-tail transverse kick effects are reported as a function of charge.

  9. Further time-resolved electron-beam characterizations with optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source Accelerator Systems Div.); Wilke, M.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved characterizations of electron beams using optical transition radiation (OTR) as a prompt conversion mechanism have recently been extended on the Los Alamos Free-electron Laser (FEL) facility 40-MeV linac. Two key timescales for rf-linac driven FELs are the micropulse (10 ps) and the macropulse (5 [mu]s to 1 ms). In the past we have used gated, intensified cameras to select a single or few micropulses (25 to 400 ns gate width) out of the pulse train to evaluate submacropulse effects. Recently, we have obtained some of the first measurements of micropulse bunch length (7 to 10 ps) and submacropulse spatialposition and profile using OTR and a Hamamatsu streak camera. Additionally, micropulse elongation effects and head-to-tail transverse kick effects are reported as a function of charge.

  10. Optical transition radiation measurements for the Los Alamos and Boeing Free-Electron Laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Feldman, R.B.; Feldman, D.W.; Apgar, S.A.; Calsten, B.E.; Fiorito, R.B.; Rule, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) measurements of the electron-beam emittance have been performed at a location just before the wiggler in the Los Alamos Free-Electron Laser (FEL) experiment. Beam profiles and beam divergence patterns from a single macropulse were recorded simultaneously using two intensified charge-injection device (CID) television cameras and an optical beamsplitter. Both single-foil OTR and two-foil OTR interference experiments were performed. Preliminary results are compared to a reference variable quadrupole, single screen technique. New aspects of using OTR properties for pointing the e-beam on the FEL oscillator axis, as well as measuring e-beam emittance are addressed. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Time-resolved electron-beam characterizations with optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Wilke, M.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved characterizations of electron beams using optical transition radiation (OTR) as a prompt conversion mechanism have recently been extended on the Los Alamos Free-electron Laser (FEL) facility 40-MeV linac. Two key timescales for rf-linac driven FELs are the micropulse (10 ps) and the macropulse (5 {mu}s to 1 ms). In the past we have used gated, intensified cameras to select a single or few micropulses (25 to 400 ns gate width) out of the pulse train to evaluate submacropulse effects. Recently, we have obtained some of the first measurements of micropulse bunch length (7 to 10 ps) and submacropulse spatial position and profile using OTR and a Hamamatsu streak camera. Additionally, micropulse elongation effects and head-to-tail transverse kicks are reported as a function of charge.

  12. Time-resolved electron-beam characterizations with optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Wilke, M.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Time-resolved characterizations of electron beams using optical transition radiation (OTR) as a prompt conversion mechanism have recently been extended on the Los Alamos Free-electron Laser (FEL) facility 40-MeV linac. Two key timescales for rf-linac driven FELs are the micropulse (10 ps) and the macropulse (5 {mu}s to 1 ms). In the past we have used gated, intensified cameras to select a single or few micropulses (25 to 400 ns gate width) out of the pulse train to evaluate submacropulse effects. Recently, we have obtained some of the first measurements of micropulse bunch length (7 to 10 ps) and submacropulse spatial position and profile using OTR and a Hamamatsu streak camera. Additionally, micropulse elongation effects and head-to-tail transverse kicks are reported as a function of charge.

  13. Low-lying nuclear levels and radiative transitions in hadronic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.S.; Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Lisin, V.I.; Mur, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    The analytic theory of nuclear level shifts permit the position of the nuclear level perturbing the Coulomb spectrum to be calculated on the basis of the magnitude of the level shift of a hadron atom. As an example the K -4 He atom is discussed. The experimental data on the 2p-level shift indicate that a weakly bound p-state with a binding energy and width epsilon approximately γ approximately 0.5 MeV may exist in the system. The probabilities for radiative transitions to this level and the cross section for its creation in a nuclear reaction with 6 Li are calculated. The possible existence of weakly coupled K - and anti p states for other light nuclei is discussed. An exact solution of the model Coulomb problem with short range interaction is obtained and this permits the limits of validity of the initial approximations to be determined

  14. Performance studies of the ATLAS transition radiation tracker barrel using SR1 cosmics data

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, R

    The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to measure Nature at the energy scale often associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. When it comes online in 2008, the LHC and ATLAS will work to discover, among other things, the Higgs boson and any other signatures for physics beyond the Standard Model. As part of the ATLAS Inner Detector, the Transition Radiation Tracker will be an important part of ATLAS’s ability to make precise measurements of particle properties. This paper summarizes work done to study and categorize the performance of the TRT, using a combination of cosmic ray test data from the SR1 facility and Monte Carlo. In general, it was found that the TRT is working well, with module-level eciencies around 90 % and module-level noise just above 2 %. Reasonably good agreement was observed with Monte Carlo, though there are some apparently pathological dierences between the two that deserve further attention.

  15. Radiation and penetration matrix elements for magnetic quadrupole transitions between Nilsson states in odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feresin, A.P.; Guseva, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    Single-particle matrix elements for magnetic quadrupole gamma radiation in odd deformed nuclei, calculated with the aid of Nilsson-potential wave functions, are presented. Also given are the internal conversion penetration matrix elements, calculated in the same manner. The penetration matrix elements are needed to estimate the nuclear penetration parameter, which determines the deviation of experimental internal conversion coefficients from their standard values given in tables. Matrix elements are given for transitions between all pairs of Nilsson single-particle states with ΔN = 1 and ΔK = 0, 1, and 2 for the nuclear shells with 4< or =N< or =7 and for the two deformation values epsilon = 0.2 and 0.3

  16. Integrated High-Rate Transition Radiation Detector and Tracking Chamber for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % RD-6 \\\\ \\\\Over the past five years, RD-6 has developed a transition radiation detector and charged particle tracker for high rate operation at LHC. The detector elements are based on C-fibre reinforced kapton straw tubes of 4~mm diameter filled with a Xenon gas mixture. Detailed measurements with and without magnetic field have been performed in test beams, and in particular have demonstrated the possibility of operating straw tubes at very high rate (up to 20~MHz) with accurate drift-time measurement accuracy. A full-scale engineering prototype containing 10~000 straws is presently under assembly and will be accurately measured with a powerful X-ray tube. Integrated front-end electronics with fast readout have been designed and successfully operated in test beam. \\\\ \\\\Finally extensive simulations performed for ATLAS have shown that such a detector will provide powerful pattern recognition, accurate momentum measurements, efficient level-2 triggering and excellent electron identification, even at the highe...

  17. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the beam profile will be described

  18. Time-Resolved Emittance Characterization of an Induction Linac Beam using Optical Transition Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Sage, G P

    2002-01-01

    An induction linac is used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to perform radiographic testing at the Flash X-ray Radiography facility. Emittance characterization is important since x-ray spot size impacts the resolution of shadow-graphs. Due to the long pulse length, high current, and beam energy, emittance measurement using Optical Transition Radiation is an attractive alternative for reasons that will be described in the text. The utility of OTR-based emittance measurement has been well demonstrated for both RF and induction linacs. We describe the time-resolved emittance characterization of an induction linac electron beam. We have refined the optical collection system for the induction linac application, and have demonstrated a new technique for probing the divergence of a subset of the beam profile. The experimental apparatus, data reduction, and conclusions will be presented. Additionally, a new scheme for characterizing the correlation between beam divergence and spatial coordinates within the b...

  19. Resonance effects of transition radiation emitted from thin foil stacks using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awata, Takaaki; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; and others

    1997-03-01

    Transition Radiation(TR) X rays are expected to be a high brilliant X-ray source because the interference among TR X rays emitted from many thin foils placed periodically in vacuum can increase their intensity and make them quasi-monochromatic. In order to study the interference (resonance) effects of TR, we measured the energy spectra of TR for several sets of thin-foil stacks at various emission angles. It was found that the resonance effects of TR are classified into intrafoil and interfoil resonances and the intensity of TR X rays increases nonlinearly with increasing foil number, attributing to the interfoil resonance. It became evident that the brilliance of TR is as high as that of SR. (author)

  20. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher; Koevener, Toke; Hass, Eugen; Casalbuoni, Sara

    2018-03-01

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  1. Longitudinal bunch diagnostics using coherent transition radiation spectroscopy. Physical principles, multichannel spectrometer, experimental results, mathematical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bernhard; Wesch, Stephan; Behrens, Christopher [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Koevener, Toke [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Hass, Eugen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany); Casalbuoni, Sara [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Beam Physics and Technology; Schmueser, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany)

    2018-03-15

    The generation and properties of transition radiation (TR) are thoroughly treated. The spectral energy density, as described by the Ginzburg-Frank formula, is computed analytically, and the modifications caused by the finite size of the TR screen and by near-field diffraction effects are carefully analyzed. The principles of electron bunch shape reconstruction using coherent transition radiation are outlined. Spectroscopic measurements yield only the magnitude of the longitudinal form factor but not its phase. Two phase retrieval methods are investigated and illustrated with model calculations: analytic phase computation by means of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation, and iterative phase retrieval. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguities which are unavoidable in the reconstruction of longitudinal charge density profiles from spectroscopic data. The origin of these ambiguities has been identified and a thorough mathematical analysis is presented. The experimental part of the paper comprises a description of our multichannel infrared and THz spectrometer and a selection of measurements at FLASH, comparing the bunch profiles derived from spectroscopic data with those determined with a transversely deflecting microwave structure. A rigorous derivation of the Kramers-Kronig phase formula is presented in Appendix A. Numerous analytic model calculations can be found in Appendix B. The differences between normal and truncated Gaussians are discussed in Appendix C. Finally, Appendix D contains a short description of the propagation of an electromagnetic wave front by two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation. This is the basis of a powerful numerical Mathematica trademark code THzTransport, which permits the propagation of electromagnetic wave fronts through a beam line consisting of drift spaces, lenses, mirrors and apertures.

  2. Regimes of radiative and nonradiative transitions in transport through an electronic system in a photon cavity reaching a steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Vidar; Jonsson, Thorsteinn H.; Bernodusson, Maria Laura; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    We analyze how a multilevel many-electron system in a photon cavity approaches the steady state when coupled to external leads. When a plunger gate is used to lower cavity photon dressed one- and two-electron states below the bias window defined by the external leads, we can identify one regime with nonradiative transitions dominating the electron transport, and another regime with radiative transitions. Both transitions trap the electrons in the states below the bias bringing the system into a steady state. The order of the two regimes and their relative strength depends on the location of the bias window in the energy spectrum of the system and the initial conditions.

  3. Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, F.; Spieser, M.; Riel, H.; Gotsmann, B., E-mail: bgo@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research-Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Dittberner, M. [IBM Research-Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Photonics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Novotny, L. [Photonics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Passarello, D.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States)

    2016-04-25

    The thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide at submicron distances is expected to exhibit a strong dependence on the state of vanadium dioxide which undergoes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature. We report the measurement of near field thermal transport between a heated silicon oxide micro-sphere and a vanadium dioxide thin film on a titanium oxide (rutile) substrate. The temperatures of the 15 nm vanadium dioxide thin film varied to be below and above the metal-insulator-transition, and the sphere temperatures were varied in a range between 100 and 200 °C. The measurements were performed using a vacuum-based scanning thermal microscope with a cantilevered resistive thermal sensor. We observe a thermal conductivity per unit area between the sphere and the film with a distance dependence following a power law trend and a conductance contrast larger than 2 for the two different phase states of the film.

  4. Experience of combined cisplatin and radiation therapy for advanced urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Utsunomiya, Masato; Itoh, Hiroshi; Itatani, Hiroaki; Namiki, Mikio.

    1987-01-01

    Since March, 1981, 13 patients with locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma were treated by combined cisdiamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) and full dose radiotherapy. They were 10 men and 3 women. The patient ages ranged from 42 to 79 years, with a median of 59.5 years. The primary sites of transitional cell carcinoma were bladder in 5, ureter in 6, renal pelvis in 1 and prostate in 1. Radiotherapy consisted of a mean tumor dose of 48.7 gray, with a range of 40 to 66.4 gray, was administered with cobalt 60. Cisplatin was infused 5 days a week with a daily dose of 20 to 30 mg. 4 patients recieved 2 courses of cisplatin infusion and others 1 or less. Of the 4 evaluable patients 3 (75 %) achieved a complete response. Toxicity was evaluated for the 13 patients. Mainly gastrointestinal toxicity was noted: appetite loss in 9 (69.2 %), nausea and/or vomiting in 5 (38.5 %) and diarrhea in 5 (38.5 %). Leukocytopenia was noted in 7 patients (53.9 %), but in no one leukocyte count was less than 2000/mm 3 . Mild thrombocytopenia was noted only in 3 patients (23.1 %). All of these toxicities were mild, and the patients recovered soon after the therapy. Herein it is discussed about future problems such as solution of interaction mechanism, detection of practical dose and administering method of cisplatin and radiation. (author)

  5. Interference of diffraction and transition radiation and its application as a beam divergence diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Fiorito

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We have observed the interference of optical diffraction radiation (ODR and optical transition radiation (OTR produced by the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a micromesh foil and a mirror. The production of forward directed ODR from electrons passing through the holes and wires of the mesh and their separate interactions with backward OTR from the mirror are analyzed with the help of a simulation code. By careful choice of the micromesh properties, mesh-mirror spacing, observation wavelength, and filter band pass, the interference of the ODR produced from the unperturbed electrons passing through the open spaces of the mesh and OTR from the mirror are observable above a broad incoherent background from interaction of the heavily scattered electrons passing through the mesh wires. These interferences (ODTRI are sensitive to the beam divergence and can be used to directly diagnose this parameter. We compare experimental divergence values obtained using ODTRI, conventional OTRI, for the case when front foil scattering is negligible, and computed values obtained from transport code calculations and multiple screen beam size measurements. We obtain good agreement in all cases.

  6. Aging and Gas Filtration Studies in the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Sprachmann, Gerald; Störi, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is one of three particle tracking detectors of the ATLAS Inner Detector whose goal is to exploit the highly exciting new physics potential at CERN's next accelerator, the so-called Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The TRT consists of 370000 straw proportional tubes of 4 mm diameter with a 30 micron anode wire, which will be operated with a Xe/CO2/O2 gas mixture at a high voltage of approximately 1.5 kV. This detector enters a new area that requires it to operate at unprecedented high rates and integrated particle fluxes. Full functionality of the detector over the lifetime (10 years) of the experiment is demanded. Aging of gaseous detectors is a term for the degradation of detector performance during exposure to ionizing radiation. This phenomenon involves very complex physical and chemical processes that are induced by pollution originating from very small amounts of silicon-based substances in some components of the gas system. This work presents a review of previous aging...

  7. Construction of an end-cap module prototype for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Danielsson, H

    2000-01-01

    We have designed, built and tested an 8-plane module prototype for the end-cap of the ATLAS TRT (Transition Radiation Tracker). The overall mechanics as well as the detailed design of individual components are presented. The prototype contains over 6000 straw tubes with a diameter of 4 mm, filled with an active gas mixture of 70% Xe, 20% CF4 and 10% CO//2. Very tight requirements on radiation hardness (10 Mrad and 2 multiplied by l0**1**4 neutrons per cm**2) straw straightness (sagitta less than 300 m), wire positions and leak tightness put great demands upon design and assembly. In order to verify the design, the stability of the wire tension, straw straightness, high-voltage performance and total leak rate have been measured and the results are presented. Some examples of dedicated assembly tooling and testing procedures are also given. Finally, the results of the calculations and measurements of both mechanical behaviour and wire offset are presented. 6 Refs.

  8. Transition to turbulence and noise radiation in heated coaxial jet flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gloor, Michael, E-mail: gloor@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Bühler, Stefan; Kleiser, Leonhard [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    Laminar-turbulent transition and noise radiation of a parametrized set of subsonic coaxial jet flows with a hot primary (core) stream are investigated numerically by Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) and direct noise computation. This study extends our previous research on local linear stability of heated coaxial jet flows by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of initially laminar flows disturbed by a superposition of small-amplitude unstable eigenmodes. First, a baseline configuration is studied to shed light on the flow dynamics of coaxial jet flows. Subsequently, LESs are performed for a range of Mach and Reynolds numbers to systematically analyze the influences of the temperature and the velocity ratios between the primary and the secondary (bypass) stream. The results provide a basis for a detailed analysis of fundamental flow-acoustic phenomena in the considered heated coaxial jet flows. Increasing the primary-jet temperature leads to an increase of fluctuation levels and to an amplification of far-field noise, especially at low frequencies. Strong mixing between the cold bypass stream and the hot primary stream as well as the intermittent character of the flow field at the end of the potential core lead to a pronounced noise radiation at an aft angle of approximately 35{sup ∘}. The velocity ratio strongly affects the shear-layer development and therefore also the noise generation mechanisms. Increasing the secondary-stream velocity amplifies the dominance of outer shear-layer perturbations while the disturbance growth rates in the inner shear layer decrease. Already for r{sub mic} > 40R{sub 1}, where r{sub mic} is the distance from the end of the potential core and R{sub 1} is the core-jet radius, a perfect 1/r{sub mic} decay of the sound pressure amplitudes is observed. The potential-core length increases for higher secondary-stream velocities which leads to a shift of the center of the dominant acoustic radiation in the downstream direction.

  9. Optimization of a transition radiation detector for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arend, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR has to provide electron-pion separation as well as charged-particle tracking. Within this work, thin and symmetric Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) without additional drift region were proposed. the proposed prototypes feature a foil-based entrance window to minimize the material budget and to reduce the absorption probability of the generated TR photon. Based on the conceptual design of thin and symmetric MWPCs without drift region, multiple prototypes were constructed and their performance presented within this thesis. With the constructed prototypes of generations II and III the geometries of the wire and cathode planes were determined to be 4+4 mm and 5+5 mm. Based on the results of a performed test beam campaign in 2011 with this prototypes new prototypes of generation IV were manufactured and tested in a subsequent test beam campaign in 2012. Prototypes of different radiators were developed together with the MWPC prototypes. Along with regular foil radiators, foam-based radiator types made of polyethylene foam were utilized. Also radiators constructed in a sandwich design, which used different fiber materials confined with solid foam sheets, were used. For the prototypes without drift region, simulations of the electrostatic and mechanical properties were performed. The GARFIELD software package was used to simulate the electric field and to determine the resulting drift lines of the generated electrons. The mean gas amplification depending on the utilized gas and the applied anode voltage was simulated and the gas-gain homogeneity was verified. Since the thin foil-based entrance window experiences a deformation due to pressure differences inside and outside the MWPC, the variation on the gas gain depending on the deformation was simulated. The mechanical properties focusing on the stability of the entrance window was determined with a finiteelement

  10. Optimization of a transition radiation detector for the compressed baryonic matter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arend, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the compressed baryonic matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR has to provide electron-pion separation as well as charged-particle tracking. Within this work, thin and symmetric Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) without additional drift region were proposed. the proposed prototypes feature a foil-based entrance window to minimize the material budget and to reduce the absorption probability of the generated TR photon. Based on the conceptual design of thin and symmetric MWPCs without drift region, multiple prototypes were constructed and their performance presented within this thesis. With the constructed prototypes of generations II and III the geometries of the wire and cathode planes were determined to be 4+4 mm and 5+5 mm. Based on the results of a performed test beam campaign in 2011 with this prototypes new prototypes of generation IV were manufactured and tested in a subsequent test beam campaign in 2012. Prototypes of different radiators were developed together with the MWPC prototypes. Along with regular foil radiators, foam-based radiator types made of polyethylene foam were utilized. Also radiators constructed in a sandwich design, which used different fiber materials confined with solid foam sheets, were used. For the prototypes without drift region, simulations of the electrostatic and mechanical properties were performed. The GARFIELD software package was used to simulate the electric field and to determine the resulting drift lines of the generated electrons. The mean gas amplification depending on the utilized gas and the applied anode voltage was simulated and the gas-gain homogeneity was verified. Since the thin foil-based entrance window experiences a deformation due to pressure differences inside and outside the MWPC, the variation on the gas gain depending on the deformation was simulated. The mechanical properties focusing on the stability of the entrance window was determined with a finiteelement

  11. The transition radiation. I: numerical study of the angular and spectral distributions; Le rayonnement de transition optique. I: etude numerique des distributions angulaires et spectrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couillaud, Ch.; Haouat, G

    1999-07-01

    The optical transition radiation (OTR) is extensively used since many years as a beam visualisation tool on electron accelerators and serves to monitor the beam during its transport adjustment. Its spatial and temporal characteristics make it very attractive as a diagnostic tool and allow measurements of the beam energy and transverse and longitudinal emittances. We present a numerical study of the transition radiation process in the optical region of the radiated spectrum (OTR) and in the higher part (XTR). Spatial and spectral properties are described. They are used to describe experimental observations performed on the ELSA electron-beam facility. An analytical description of the angular distributions of visible radiation emitted by birefringent targets, used as OTR sources, is also proposed. We also analyze interference phenomena between two OTR sources and show the advantage of using this interferometer as a diagnostic tool for tenth MeV electron accelerators. At last, we present an analytical model allowing to design a soft X-ray source to be installed on the ELSA facility and using either a multi-foil stack or a multilayer of two materials of different permittivities. (authors)

  12. Measurement of the unaccompanied pion-proton flux ratio at 2,900 meters using a transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, R.W.; Ito, A.S.; MacFall, J.R.; Siohan, F.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Tonwar, S.C.; Yodh, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    A transition radiation dedector and an ionization calorimeter have been used to measure the unaccompanied pion to proton flux ratio for energies greater than 400 and 600 GeV at an altitude of 2,900 meters. (orig./BJ) [de

  13. Radiative Rates for Forbidden Transitions in Doubly-Ionized Fe-Peak Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivet, Vanessa; Quinet, P.; Bautista, M.

    2012-05-01

    Accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly-ionized Fe-peak species (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) are of paramount importance for the analysis of the high resolution astrophysical spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources like Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula [1] and stars like Eta Carinae [2]. However, forbidden transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly-ionized iron-peak ions have been very little investigated so far and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or inexistent. We are carrying out a systematic study of the electronic structure of doubly-ionized iron-peak elements. The magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are computed using the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan [3] and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE [4]. This multi-platform approach allows for consistency checks and intercomparison and has proven very successful in the study of the complex Fe-peak species where many different effects contribute [5]. References [1] A. Mesa-Delgado et al., MNRAS 395 (2009) 855 [2] S. Johansson et al., A&A 361 (2000) 977 [3] R.D. Cowan, The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Berkeley: Univ. California Press (1981) [4] N.R. Badnell, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30 (1997) 1 [5] M. Bautista et al., ApJ 718 (2010) L189

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with Comic Rays and First High Energy Collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Degenhardt, J D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 130 μm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. The custom-made radiation-hard front-end electronics implements two thresholds to discriminate the signals: a low threshold (< 300 eV) for registering the passage of minimum ionizing particles, and a high threshold (> 6 keV) to flag the absorption of transition radiation X-rays. The TRT was successfully commissioned with data collected from several million cosmic ray muons. A specia...

  15. Parametric X-rays and diffracted transition radiation in perfect and mosaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artru, X.; Rullhusen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The amplitude of X-ray emission by relativistic electrons in a single crystal, calculated in the kinematical approach, is decomposed unambiguously in Diffracted Transition Radiation (DTR) and Parametric X-rays (PXR). DTR becomes significant for γ > or similar to ω P ,γ being the Lorentz factor and ω P the plasma frequency. It is more collimated than PXR and, above threshold, its flux increases logarithmically with γ. However, it saturates with thickness at the Bragg primary extinction length l e . This saturation is accounted for only in the dynamical approach, the formulas of which are compared to the kinematical ones. The respective contributions of DTR and PXR are calculated for a simple model of mosaic crystal, taking into account saturation of DTR with thickness. The PXR flux is basically the same as in a perfect crystal. If the size of the domains is larger than l e , the DTR flux is multiplied by the number of domains crossed by the electron. For domains smaller than l e and γ > or similar to ω P , the DTR and PXR fluxes are of the same order of magnitude, up to logarithmic factors. In any case, mosaicity increases the total yield of X-ray photons. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Transition Radiation Tracker calibration, searches beyond the Standard Model and multiparticle correlations in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Alejandro; Torsten, Akesson

    This thesis contains two different aspects of my research work towards physics in proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The first part is focused on the understanding and developing of a calibration system to obtain the best possible charged particle reconstruction in the Transition Radiation Tracker. The method explained in this thesis is the current calibration technique used in the TRT and it is applied to all the data collected by ATLAS. Thanks to the method developed, the detector design resolution is achieved, and even improved in the central region of the TRT. In the second part, three different analyses are presented. Due to my interest in tracking and thanks to the new energy range available at the LHC, the first analysis is the study of multiparticle correlations at 900 GeV and 7 TeV. This analysis is performed with the first ATLAS data collected during 2010. Two different aspects are studied: the high order moments and an attempt to measure the normalized factorial moments ...

  17. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Freund, Benjamin; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gui, Bin; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Köhler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kravchenko, Anton; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez, Jorge; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Mikael; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McNamara, Peter Charles; McPherson, Robert; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paris; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasner, Jacob Martin; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Pluth, Daniel; Podberezko, Pavel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puri, Akshat; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauch, Daniel; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resseguie, Elodie Deborah; Rettie, Sebastien; Reynolds, Elliot; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Roberts, Rhys Thomas; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Roloff, Jennifer; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sopczak, Andre; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallier, Alexis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Qing; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, Georgios; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2017-05-03

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS inner detector are described in this paper for different data-taking conditions in proton--proton, proton--lead and lead--lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected for different data-taking conditions in proton--proton, proton--lead and lead--lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected during the first period of LHC operation (Run 1) and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with two different gas mixtures (xenon-based and argon-based) and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. These studies show that the tracking performance of the TRT is similar for the two gas mixtures and that a significant contribution to the particle momentum resolution is made by the TRT up to high particle densities.

  18. Transverse phase space mapping of relativistic electron beams using optical transition radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Le Sage

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical transition radiation (OTR has proven to be a versatile and effective diagnostic for measuring the profile, divergence, and emittance of relativistic electron beams with a wide range of parameters. Diagnosis of the divergence of modern high brightness beams is especially well suited to OTR interference (OTRI techniques, where multiple dielectric or metal foils are used to generate a spatially coherent interference pattern. Theoretical analysis of measured OTR and OTRI patterns allows precise measurement of electron beam emittance characteristics. Here we describe an extension of this technique to allow mapping of divergence characteristics as a function of transverse coordinates within a measured beam. We present the first experimental analysis of the transverse phase space of an electron beam using all optical techniques. Comparing an optically masked portion of the beam to the entire beam, we measure different angular spread and average direction of the particles. Direct measurement of the phase-space ellipse tilt angle has been demonstrated using this optical masking technique.

  19. $W$ mass measurement and simulation of the transition radiation tracker at the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2008-01-01

    At the time of writing, the final preparation toward LHC startup is ongoing. All the magnets of the machine have been installed and are currently being cooled. Most sub-detectors of the four experiments situated at the LHC ring are installed in their final positions and are being integrated into their respective data acquisition systems. This thesis concerns itself with the ATLAS experiment, focusing on a sub-detector called the Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). Some attention is given to the hardware testing of the detector modules, but the main focus lies on the simulation of the detector and the comparison of the simulation with test-beam data, as well as with data collected during the commissioning phase using cosmic muons. There is little doubt that LHC will bring insight with respect to the understanding of the universe on the fundamental level. In particular, it is anticipated that light will be shed on the origin of mass which according to our current understanding proceeds via the Higgs mechanism. ...

  20. A novel coaxial Ku-band transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Junpu, E-mail: lingjunpu@163.com; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao; Jiang, Tao [College of Photoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-02-15

    A novel coaxial transit radiation oscillator without external guiding magnetic field is designed to generate high power microwave at Ku-band. By using a coaxial structure, the space-charge potential energy is suppressed significantly, that is good for enhancing efficient beam-wave interaction. In order to improve the transmission stability of the unmagnetized intense relativistic electron beam, a Pierce-like cathode is employed in the novel device. By contrast with conventional relativistic microwave generators, this kind of device has the advantages of high stability, non-guiding magnetic field, and high efficiency. Moreover, with the coaxial design, it is possible to improve the power-handing capacity by increasing the radial dimension of the Ku-band device. With a 550 keV and 7.5 kA electron beam, a 1.25 GW microwave pulse at 12.08 GHz has been obtained in the simulation. The power conversion efficiency is about 30%.

  1. Linac-beam characterizations at 600 MeV using optical transition radiation diagnostics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H.

    1998-05-27

    Selected optical diagnostics stations were upgraded in anticipation of low-emittance, bright electron beams from a thermionic rf gun or a photoelectric rf gun on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac. These upgrades include installation of optical transition radiation (OTR) screens, transport lines, and cameras for use in transverse beam size measurements and longitudinal profile measurements. Using beam from the standard thermionic gun, tests were done at 50 MeV and 400 to 650 MeV. Data were obtained on the limiting spatial ({sigma} {approximately} 200 {micro}m) and temporal resolution (300 ms) of the Chromox (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} : Cr) screen (250-{micro}n thick) in comparison to the OTR screens. Both charge-coupled device (CCD) and charge-injection device (CID) video cameras were used as well as the Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera operating at a vertical deflection rate of 119.0 MHz (the 24th subharmonic of the S-band 2856-MHz frequency). Beam transverse sizes as small as {sigma}{sub x} = 60 {micro}m for a 600-MeV beam and micropulse bunch lengths of {sigma}{sub {tau}}<3 ps have been recorded for macropulse-averaged behavior with charges of about 2 to 3 nC per macropulse. These techniques are applicable to linac-driven, fourth-generation light source R and D experiments including the APS's SASE FEL experiment.

  2. Impact of AMS-02 Measurements on Reducing GCR Model Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, T. C.; O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Norbury, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    For vehicle design, shield optimization, mission planning, and astronaut risk assessment, the exposure from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant and complex problem both in low Earth orbit and in deep space. To address this problem, various computational tools have been developed to quantify the exposure and risk in a wide range of scenarios. Generally, the tool used to describe the ambient GCR environment provides the input into subsequent computational tools and is therefore a critical component of end-to-end procedures. Over the past few years, several researchers have independently and very carefully compared some of the widely used GCR models to more rigorously characterize model differences and quantify uncertainties. All of the GCR models studied rely heavily on calibrating to available near-Earth measurements of GCR particle energy spectra, typically over restricted energy regions and short time periods. In this work, we first review recent sensitivity studies quantifying the ions and energies in the ambient GCR environment of greatest importance to exposure quantities behind shielding. Currently available measurements used to calibrate and validate GCR models are also summarized within this context. It is shown that the AMS-II measurements will fill a critically important gap in the measurement database. The emergence of AMS-II measurements also provides a unique opportunity to validate existing models against measurements that were not used to calibrate free parameters in the empirical descriptions. Discussion is given regarding rigorous approaches to implement the independent validation efforts, followed by recalibration of empirical parameters.

  3. Cosmic ray and gamma astrophysics with the AMS-02 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to operate on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum period of three years. The aim of AMS is the direct detection of charged particles in the rigidity range from 0.5 GV to few TV to perform high statistics studies of cosmic rays in space and a search for antimatter and dark matter. AMS will provide precise gamma measurements in the GeV range. In addition, the good angular resolution and identification capabilities of the detector will allow clean studies of galactic and extra-galactic sources, the diffuse gamma background and gamma ray bursts

  4. First results of the AMS-02 experiment on the ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaus, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer has recently released a first set of precise measurements on the cosmic rays detected from the International Space Station. The results on the positron fraction in the energy range from 0.5 to 350 GeV and the search for positron anisotropy are summarized. The very accurate data show that the positron fraction is steadily increasing from 10 to ∼250 GeV. The positron fraction spectrum shows no fine structure and the positron to electron ratio shows no observable anisotropy. This is not consistent with only the secondary production of positrons. The parametrization of the positron fraction and the e + +e − flux measurements within the framework of a minimal model provides a complete description of the positron source contribution. The predictions for different scenarios accounting for the positron source component can thus be directly compared to this measurement.

  5. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions (Kr XXXII XXVIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, K. M.; Keenan, F. P.; Lawson, K. D.

    2008-05-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions, Kr XXXIII-XXVIII. For the calculations, the fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Kr XXXII, Kr XXXI, Kr XXX, Kr XXIX, and Kr XXVIII, respectively, belonging to the n ⩽ 3 configurations. Comparisons are made with earlier available theoretical and experimental results, and some discrepancies have been noted and explained.

  6. Radiative Decay Rates for Electric Dipole, Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in Triply Ionized Thulium (Tm IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnin Enzonga Yoca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of radiative decay parameters (oscillator strengths, transition probabilities for spectral lines in triply ionized thulium (Tm IV has been obtained within the framework of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR approach. The effects of configuration interaction and core-polarization have been investigated in detail and the quality of the results has been assessed through a comparison between different HFR physical models. The spectroscopic data listed in the present paper cover electric dipole as well as magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in a wide range of wavelengths from extreme ultraviolet to near infrared.

  7. Bottomonium spectroscopy and radiative transitions involving the chi(bJ)(1P, 2P) states at BABAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Schroeder, T.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; So, R. Y.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Dey, B.; Gary, J. W.; Long, O.; Campagnari, C.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Lockman, W. S.; Vazquez, W. Panduro; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Roehrken, M.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Pushpawela, B. G.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Martellotti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, M.; Dauncey, P. D.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Prell, S.; Ahmed, H.; Gritsan, A. V.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Cowan, G.; Bougher, J.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Schubert, K. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Lafferty, G. D.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Cowan, R.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Feltresi, E.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Pegna, D. Lopes; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Gioi, L. Li; Pilloni, A.; Piredda, G.; Buenger, C.; Dittrich, S.; Gruenber, O.; Hess, M.; Leddig, T.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Vasseur, G.; Anulli, F.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Fulsom, B. G.; Graham, M. T.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kim, P.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindemann, D.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va'vra, J.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wulsin, H. W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; De Mori, F.; Filippi, A.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Beaulieu, A.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Lueck, T.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.

    2014-01-01

    We use (121±1) million Υ(3S) and (98±1) million Υ(2S) mesons recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e+e− collider at SLAC to perform a study of radiative transitions involving the χbJ(1P,2P) states in exclusive decays with μ+μ−γγ final states. We reconstruct twelve channels in four cascades

  8. Single window for issuing licenses for export and import of ionizing radiation sources and transit of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandev, T.; Stamenov, R.; Misevska, A.; Georgievska-Dimitrevski, B.; Angelovski, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present the electronic system for application and issuing licenses for export, import and transit of goods (EXIM), particularly for ionizing radiation sources, in the Republic of Macedonia. This system is a modern and helpful tool for simple issuing licenses, for establishing a unique database and it represents a harmonized system for exchanging information between the governmental, public and private legal persons in the Republic of Macedonia. (author)

  9. Development of a transition radiation detector and reconstruction of photon conversions in the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein-Boesing, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. In addition, the usage of the TRD in the measurement of direct photons is investigated. CBM will be a fixed-target heavy-ion experiment, which investigates collisions in the beam energy range of 5-35 AGeV and aims to investigate the regime of high baryon densities where the phase transition is expected to be of first order. It will be a multipurpose experiment with the ability to measure leptons, hadrons, and photons. Therein, a TRD will provide the electron identification and - together with a Silicon Tracking System (STS) - the tracking of charged particles. In conjunction with a ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector and a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement, the TRD is to provide a sufficient electron identification for the measurements of charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. For the TRD, the required pion suppression is a factor of about 100 at 90% electron efficiency, and the position resolution has to be of the order of 300 to 500 um. Moreover, the material budget in terms of radiation length has to be kept at a minimum in order to minimize multiple scattering and conversions which would limit the precise measurement in following TRD stations and other detectors. The largest and up to now unrivaled challenge for the TRD design is that both (PID and tracking) have to be fulfilled in the context of very high particle rates (event rates of up to 10MHz are envisaged) and at the same time large charged-particle multiplicities of up to 600 per event in the CBM detector acceptance. Small prototypes of the TRD based on multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) with pad readout were developed and tested. The tracking performance and the electron-pion separation were determined for particle rates of up to 200 kHz/cm 2 . The TRD layout and the detector responses

  10. Development of a transition radiation detector and reconstruction of photon conversions in the CBM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein-Boesing, Melanie

    2009-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. In addition, the usage of the TRD in the measurement of direct photons is investigated. CBM will be a fixed-target heavy-ion experiment, which investigates collisions in the beam energy range of 5-35 AGeV and aims to investigate the regime of high baryon densities where the phase transition is expected to be of first order. It will be a multipurpose experiment with the ability to measure leptons, hadrons, and photons. Therein, a TRD will provide the electron identification and - together with a Silicon Tracking System (STS) - the tracking of charged particles. In conjunction with a ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector and a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement, the TRD is to provide a sufficient electron identification for the measurements of charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. For the TRD, the required pion suppression is a factor of about 100 at 90% electron efficiency, and the position resolution has to be of the order of 300 to 500 um. Moreover, the material budget in terms of radiation length has to be kept at a minimum in order to minimize multiple scattering and conversions which would limit the precise measurement in following TRD stations and other detectors. The largest and up to now unrivaled challenge for the TRD design is that both (PID and tracking) have to be fulfilled in the context of very high particle rates (event rates of up to 10MHz are envisaged) and at the same time large charged-particle multiplicities of up to 600 per event in the CBM detector acceptance. Small prototypes of the TRD based on multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) with pad readout were developed and tested. The tracking performance and the electron-pion separation were determined for particle rates of up to 200 kHz/cm{sup 2}. The TRD layout and the detector

  11. A MONOLITHIC PREAMPLIFIER-SHAPER FOR MEASUREMENT LOSS AND TRANSITION RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KANDASAMY, A.

    1999-01-01

    A custom monolithic circuit has been developed for the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) of the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This detector identifies particles by sampling their ionization energy loss (dE/dx) over a 3 cm drift space and by detecting associated transition radiation (TR) photons. The requirement of being simultaneously sensitive to dE/dx and TR events requires a dual-gain system. We have developed a compact solution featuring an octal preamplifier/shaper (P/S) IC with a split gain stage. The circuit, fabricated in 1.2 microm CMOS process, incorporates a trans-impedance preamplifier and a 70 ns unipolar CR-RC 4 shaper with ion tail compensation and active DC offset cancellation. Digitally selectable gain, peaking time, and tail cancellation as well as channel-by-channel charge injection and disable can be configured in the system via a 3-wire interface. The 3.5 x 5 mm 2 die is packaged in a fine-pitch 64-pin PQFP. Equivalent input noise is less than 1500 rms electrons at a power dissipation of 30 mW per channel. On a sample of 2400 chips, the DC offset was 2.3 ± 3 mV rms without trimming. A chamber-mounted TEC-PS Printed Circuit Board (PCB) houses four PIS chips, on-board calibration circuit, and 64 analog differential line drivers which transmit the shaped pulses to crate-mounted flash ADC's. 7 m apart An RS-422 link provides digital configuration downloading and read back, and supplies the calibration strobe. The 24.6 cm x 9.5 cm board dissipates 8.5 W

  12. A MONOLITHIC PREAMPLIFIER-SHAPER FOR MEASUREMENT LOSS AND TRANSITION RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KANDASAMY,A.

    1999-11-08

    A custom monolithic circuit has been developed for the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) of the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This detector identifies particles by sampling their ionization energy loss (dE/dx) over a 3 cm drift space and by detecting associated transition radiation (TR) photons. The requirement of being simultaneously sensitive to dE/dx and TR events requires a dual-gain system. We have developed a compact solution featuring an octal preamplifier/shaper (P/S) IC with a split gain stage. The circuit, fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m CMOS process, incorporates a trans-impedance preamplifier and a 70 ns unipolar CR-RC{sup 4} shaper with ion tail compensation and active DC offset cancellation. Digitally selectable gain, peaking time, and tail cancellation as well as channel-by-channel charge injection and disable can be configured in the system via a 3-wire interface. The 3.5 x 5 mm{sup 2} die is packaged in a fine-pitch 64-pin PQFP. Equivalent input noise is less than 1500 rms electrons at a power dissipation of 30 mW per channel. On a sample of 2400 chips, the DC offset was 2.3 {+-} 3 mV rms without trimming. A chamber-mounted TEC-PS Printed Circuit Board (PCB) houses four PIS chips, on-board calibration circuit, and 64 analog differential line drivers which transmit the shaped pulses to crate-mounted flash ADC's. 7 m apart An RS-422 link provides digital configuration downloading and read back, and supplies the calibration strobe. The 24.6 cm x 9.5 cm board dissipates 8.5 W.

  13. A Concept for z-Dependent Microbunching Measurements with Coherent X-ray Transition Radiation in a SASE FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H

    2004-01-01

    Previously, measurements in the visible to VUV regimes of z-dependent microbunching in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) have provided important information about the fundamental mechanisms. In those experiments a thin metal foil was used to block the more intense SASE radiation and to generate coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) as one source in a two-foil interferometer. However, for the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the intense SASE emission is either too strongly transmitted at 1.5 angstroms or the needed foil thickness for blocking scatters the electron beam too much. Since coherent x-ray transition radiation (CXTR) is emitted in an annulus with opening angle 1/γ = 36 µrad for 14.09-GeV electrons, one could use a thin foil or foil stack to generate the XTR and CXTR and an annular crystal to wavelength sort the radiation. The combined selectivity will favor the CXTR over SASE by about eight orders of magnitude. Time-dependent GINGER si...

  14. Combination transition radiation in a medium excited by an electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation emitted by a uniformly moving charged particle in a medium excited by an electromagnetic field is considered by taking into account the interaction between the electromagnetic waves and optical phonon wave. The frequencies are found, in the vicinity of which the two-wave approximation should be applied in order to determine the radiation field. It is shown that in the vicinity of these frequencies the radiation considerably differs from the Cherenkov radiation

  15. Radiation environmental impact assessment of radioactive substances of an airport transit storage construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baozeng; Xia Zitong; Zou Zhaozhuang

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive substances belong to dangerous goods transport aviation. Radioactive substances impoundments construction purpose is to ensure that the radioactive material during transport to transport and the public to achieve full or isolation, the effects of radiation on the human body, property and the environment caused by the control to an acceptable level. According to the relevant national standards and norms, for radiation protection evaluation of project construction of an airport radioactive impoundments, feasibility of the construction project radiation environment. (authors)

  16. Measurements of energetic particle radiation in transit to Mars on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C; Hassler, D M; Cucinotta, F A; Ehresmann, B; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F; Brinza, D E; Kang, S; Weigle, G; Böttcher, S; Böhm, E; Burmeister, S; Guo, J; Köhler, J; Martin, C; Posner, A; Rafkin, S; Reitz, G

    2013-05-31

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, containing the Curiosity rover, was launched to Mars on 26 November 2011, and for most of the 253-day, 560-million-kilometer cruise to Mars, the Radiation Assessment Detector made detailed measurements of the energetic particle radiation environment inside the spacecraft. These data provide insights into the radiation hazards that would be associated with a human mission to Mars. We report measurements of the radiation dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer spectra. The dose equivalent for even the shortest round-trip with current propulsion systems and comparable shielding is found to be 0.66 ± 0.12 sievert.

  17. Magnitude of Solar Radiation Torque in the Transition Region from the Umbra to the Dark Shadow of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabette, R E S; Kolesnikov, I; Zanardi, M C

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of solar radiation pressure force and its influence on the motion of artificial satellites has been developed by researchers. Accurate models to describe the influence of the Earth's shadow on the torque and force due to solar radiation pressure have been presented. In this work the solar radiation torque (SRT) and its influence on the attitude of an artificial satellite are taken into account by the introduction of the Earth's shadow function in the equations of motion. This function assumes a unitary value when the satellite is in the fully illuminated region of its orbit, and the value zero for the full shade region. The main objective of this study is to analyze the magnitude of SRT using the equations described by quaternions during a 35 day period and to compare the results with the satellite transition through the shadow region and the time interval in this region. The duration and transition through the shadow region were obtained using the software 'Shadow Conditions of Earth Satellites'. The formulation is applied to the Brazilian Data Collection Satellites SCD1 and SCD2, and the torque model is presented in terms of the satellite attitude quaternion, distance of the satellite to the Sun, orbital elements, right ascension and declination of the Sun. (paper)

  18. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw Tubes for Tracking and Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Mindur, Bartosz; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of 300000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides 30 space points with 130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c. The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in a Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher center of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. We will present TRT modifications made for Run 2 for in areas: to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Radiation-induced gain changes in ...

  19. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua; Guo, Renfeng; Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

  20. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Guo, Renfeng [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhu, Maoxiang, E-mail: zhumx@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Performance of the transition radiation detector flown on the NMSU/WIZARD TS93 balloon-borne instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aversa, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy); Basini, G.; Brancaccio, F.M. [INFN, Laboratori nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bellotti, R. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Bidoli, V. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Bronzini, F. [Rome Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `La Sapienza` Rome (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    It is built and tested a transition radiation detector (TRD) to discriminate positrons from protons in the balloon flight TS 93 experiment. It is presented the TRD performance using flight data obtaining a proton-positron rejection factor of the order of 10{sup -3}. During the 24 hour flight, the data in the momentum range 4-50 GeV/c are collected. Using the TRD together with the Silicon calorimeter, it is achieved an overall rejection factor of about 10{sup -5} of positron against the proton background over the entire momentum range.

  2. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  3. Radiative ΩQ∗→ΩQγ and ΞQ∗→ΞQ′γ transitions in light cone QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T. M.; Azizi, K.; Sundu, H.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments associated with the radiative Ω Q ∗ →Ω Q γ and Ξ Q ∗ →Ξ Q ′ γ transitions with Q=b or c in the framework of light cone QCD sum rules. It is found that the corresponding quadrupole moments are negligibly small, while the magnetic dipole moments are considerably large. A comparison of the results of the considered multipole moments as well as corresponding decay widths with the predictions of the vector dominance model is performed

  4. Eigenstates and radiative transition probabilities for Tm3+(4f12) in phosphate and tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, N.; Reisfeld, R.; Boehm, L.

    1977-01-01

    Electronic wavefunctions of Tm 3+ in intermediate coupling were obtained and used to calculate the Usup((lambda)) matrix elements between all possible states of the 4f 12 configuration. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωsub(lambda) obtained for Tm 3+ in phosphate and tellurite glasses were used in conjunction with the Usup((lambda))'s to calculate the forced electric dipole line strengths. The total electric and magnetic radiative transition probabilities are calculated. The entire theoretical spectrum involving the ground and excited levels (from 129 nm to 16447 nm) is given. (Auth.)

  5. A large area transition radiation detector to measure the energy of muons in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Castellano, M.; De Cataldo, G.; De Marzo, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fusco, P.; Giglietto, N.; Guarnaccia, P.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Perchiazzi, M.; Raino, A.; Sacchetti, A.; Spinelli, P.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and built a transition radiation detector of 36 m 2 area in order to measure the residual energy of muons penetrating in the Gran Sasso cosmic ray underground laboratory up to the TeV region. It consists of three adjacent modules, each of 2x6 m 2 area. Polystyrene square tubes, filled with a argon-carbon dioxide gas mixture, and polyethylene foam layers are used as proportional detectors and radiators respectively. We cover such a large surface with only 960 channels that provide adequate energy resolution and particle tracking for the astroparticle physics items to investigate. The detector has been calibrated using a reduced size prototype in a test beam. Results from one module exposed to cosmic rays at sea level are shown. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of solid-state samples of a transition metal coordination compound for synchrotron radiation photoemission studies

    CERN Document Server

    Crotti, C; Celestino, T; Fontana, S

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research was to identify a sample preparation method suitable for the study of transition metal complexes by photoemission spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation as the X-ray source, even in the case where the compound is not evaporable. Solid-phase samples of W(CO) sub 4 (dppe) [dppe=1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane] were prepared according to different methods and their synchrotron radiation XPS spectra measured. The spectra acquired from samples prepared by spin coating show core level peaks only slightly broader than the spectrum recorded from UHV evaporated samples. Moreover, for these samples the reproducibility of the binding energy values is excellent. The dependence of the spin coating technique on parameters such as solvent and solution concentration, spinning speed and support material was studied. The same preparation method also allowed the acquisition of valence band spectra, the main peaks of which were clearly resolved. The results suggest that use of the spin coating techniqu...

  7. Test beam studies of possibilities to separate particles with gamma factors above 103 with straw based Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, N.; Cherry, M. L.; Doronin, S. A.; Filippov, K.; Fusco, P.; Konovalov, S.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Kramarenko, V.; Loparco, F.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Ponomarenko, D.; Pyatiizbyantseva, D.; Radomskii, R.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Savchenko, A.; Shulga, E.; Smirnov, S.; Smirnov, Yu; Sosnovtsev, V.; Spinelli, P.; Teterin, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Vorobev, K.; Zhukov, K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of hadron production in the TeV energy range are one of the tasks of the future studies at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The main goal of these experiments is a study of the fundamental QCD processes at this energy range, which is very important not only for probing of the Standard Model but also for ultrahigh-energy cosmic particle physics. One of the key elements of these experiments measurements are hadron identification. The only detector technology which has a potential ability to separate hadrons in this energy range is Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) technology. TRD prototype based on straw proportional chambers combined with a specially assembled radiator has been tested at the CERN SPS accelerator beam. The test beam results and comparison with detailed Monte Carlo simulations are presented here.

  8. An assessment of radiation modeling strategies in simulations of laminar to transitional, oxy-methane, diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Sater, Hassan; Krishnamoorthy, Gautham

    2013-01-01

    Twenty four, laboratory scale, laminar to transitional, diffusion oxy-methane flames were simulated employing different radiation modeling options and their predictions compared against experimental measurements of: temperature, flame length and radiant fraction. The models employed were: gray and non-gray formulations of a recently proposed weighted-sum-of-gray gas model, non-adiabatic extension of the equilibrium based mixture fraction model and investigations into the effects of: the thermal boundary conditions, soot and turbulence radiation interactions (TRI). Predictions of gas, wall temperatures and flame lengths were in good agreement with experimental measurements. Flame lengths determined through the axial profiles of OH confirmed with the experimental trends by increasing with increase in fuel-inlet Reynolds numbers and decreasing with the increase in O 2 composition in oxidizer. The temperature and flame length predictions were not sensitive to the radiative property model employed. There were significant variations between the gray and non-gray model radiant fraction predictions with the variations in general increasing with decrease in Reynolds numbers possibly attributed to shorter flames and steeper temperature gradients. The inclusion of soot model and TRI model did not affect our predictions as a result of low soot volume fractions and the radiation emission enhancement to the temperature fluctuations being localized to the flame sheet. -- Highlights: • Twenty four, lab scale, laminar to transitional, diffusion, oxy-methane flames were simulated. • Equilibrium model adequately predicted the temperature and flame lengths. • The experimental trends in radiant fractions were replicated. • Gray and non-gray model differences in radiant fractions were amplified at low Re. • Inclusion of soot and TRI models did not affect our predictions

  9. Lack of Radiation Dose or Quality Dependence of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Costes, Sylvain V.; Fernandez-Garcia, Ignacio; Chou, William S.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Park, Howard; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenotype that alters cell morphology, disrupts morphogenesis, and increases motility. Our prior studies have shown that the progeny of human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) irradiated with 2 Gy undergoes transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-mediated EMT. In this study we determined whether radiation dose or quality affected TGF-β-mediated EMT. Methods and Materials: HMECs were cultured on tissue culture plastic or in Matrigel (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) and exposed to low or high linear energy transfer (LET) and TGF-β (400 pg/mL). Image analysis was used to measure membrane-associated E-cadherin, a marker of functional epithelia, or fibronectin, a product of mesenchymal cells, as a function of radiation dose and quality. Results: E-cadherin was reduced in TGF-β-treated cells irradiated with low-LET radiation doses between 0.03 and 2 Gy compared with untreated, unirradiated cells or TGF-β treatment alone. The radiation quality dependence of TGF-β-mediated EMT was determined by use of 1 GeV/amu (gigaelectron volt / atomic mass unit) 56 Fe ion particles at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Radiation Laboratory. On the basis of the relative biological effectiveness of 2 for 56 Fe ion particles' clonogenic survival, TGF-β-treated HMECs were irradiated with equitoxic 1-Gy 56 Fe ion or 2-Gy 137 Cs radiation in monolayer. Furthermore, TGF-β-treated HMECs irradiated with either high- or low-LET radiation exhibited similar loss of E-cadherin and gain of fibronectin and resulted in similar large, poorly organized colonies when embedded in Matrigel. Moreover, the progeny of HMECs exposed to different fluences of 56 Fe ion underwent TGF-β-mediated EMT even when only one-third of the cells were directly traversed by the particle. Conclusions: Thus TGF-β-mediated EMT, like other non-targeted radiation effects, is neither radiation dose nor quality dependent at the doses examined.

  10. Synchrotron radiation topography studies of the phase transition in LaGaO3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, G.D.; Dudley, M.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.; Liebermann, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the orthorhombic to rhombohedral phase transformation occurring at 145degC in lanthanum gallate has been conducted using white beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT). The existence of the first order transition was confirmed by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometer powder analysis. Subsequent to this, synchrotron white beam Laue patterns were recorded in situ as a function of temperature, during the transition. Before the transition point was reached, (112) orth type reflection twinning was found to be dominant although a small amount of (110) orth type twinning was also observed in the same crystal. Beyond the transition point, not only did the structural change become evident but also reflection twinning on the (110) rhom planes was observed. The scale of this twinning became finer as the temperature was increased beyond the transition temperature. The twinning observed in both the low and high temperature phases gives rise to deformation of the (011) rhom surface plane which creates problems for the potential use of this material as a substrate for growing high Tc superconducting epitaxial layers. (orig.)

  11. Synchrotron radiation topography studies of the phase transition in LaGaO sub 3 crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, G.D.; Dudley, M. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (USA)); Wang, Y.; Liu, X.; Liebermann, R.C. (Dept. of Earth and Space Sciences, SUNY at Stony Brook, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    An investigation of the orthorhombic to rhombohedral phase transformation occurring at 145degC in lanthanum gallate has been conducted using white beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT). The existence of the first order transition was confirmed by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometer powder analysis. Subsequent to this, synchrotron white beam Laue patterns were recorded in situ as a function of temperature, during the transition. Before the transition point was reached, (112){sub orth} type reflection twinning was found to be dominant although a small amount of (110){sub orth} type twinning was also observed in the same crystal. Beyond the transition point, not only did the structural change become evident but also reflection twinning on the (110){sub rhom} planes was observed. The scale of this twinning became finer as the temperature was increased beyond the transition temperature. The twinning observed in both the low and high temperature phases gives rise to deformation of the (011){sub rhom} surface plane which creates problems for the potential use of this material as a substrate for growing high Tc superconducting epitaxial layers. (orig.).

  12. Synchrotron radiation topography studies of the phase transition in LaGaO 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, G.-D.; Dudley, M.; Wang, Y.; Liu, X.; Liebermann, R. C.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation of the orthorhombic to rhombohedral phase transformation occurring at 145°C in lanthanum gallate has been conducted using white beam synchrotron X-ray topography (WBSXRT). The existence of the first order transition was confirmed by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometer powder analysis. Subsequent to this, synchrotron white beam Laue patterns were recorded in situ as a function of temperature, during the transition. Before the transition point was reached, (112) orth type reflection twinning was found to be dominant although a small amount of (110) orth type twinning was also observed in the same crystal. Beyond the transition point, not only did the structural change become evident but also reflection twinning on the (110) rhom planes was observed. The scale of this twinning became finer as the temperature was increased beyond the transition temperature. The twinning observed in both the low and high temperature phases gives rise to deformation of the (011) rhom surface plane which creates problems for the potential use of this material as a substrate for growing high Tc superconducting epitaxial layers.

  13. Transition in occupational radiation exposure monitoring methods in diagnostic and interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennroth, N.; Hirvonen-Kari, M.; Timonen, M.; Savolainen, S.; Kortesniemi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure monitoring is a traditional keystone of occupational radiation safety measures in medical imaging. The aim of this study was to review the data on occupational exposures in a large central university hospital radiology organisation and propose changes in the radiation worker categories and methods of exposure monitoring. An additional objective was to evaluate the development of electronic personal dosimeters and their potential in the digitised radiology environment. The personal equivalent dose of 267 radiation workers (116 radiologists and 151 radiographers) was monitored using personal dosimeters during the years 2006-2010. Accumulated exposure monitoring results exceeding the registration threshold were observed in the personal dosimeters of 73 workers (59 radiologists' doses ranged from 0.1 to 45.1 mSv; 14 radiographers' doses ranged from 0.1 to 1.3 mSv). The accumulated personal equivalent doses are generally very small, only a few angiography radiologists have doses >10 mSv per 5 y. The typical effective doses are -1 and the highest value was 0.3 mSv (single interventional radiologist). A revised categorisation of radiation workers based on the working profile of the radiologist and observed accumulated doses is justified. Occupational monitoring can be implemented mostly with group dosimeters. An active real-time dosimetry system is warranted to support radiation protection strategy where optimisation aspects, including improving working methods, are essential. (authors)

  14. NUSTART: A PC code for NUclear STructure And Radiative Transition analysis and supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, G.L.; Gardner, D.G.; Gardner, M.A.

    1990-10-01

    NUSTART is a computer program for the IBM PC/At. It is designed for use with the nuclear reaction cross-section code STAPLUS, which is a STAPRE-based CRAY computer code that is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NUSTART code was developed to handle large sets of discrete nuclear levels and the multipole transitions among these levels; it operates in three modes. The Data File Error Analysis mode analyzes an existing STAPLUS input file containing the levels and their multipole transition branches for a number of physics and/or typographical errors. The Interactive Data File Generation mode allows the user to create input files of discrete levels and their branching fractions in the format required by STAPLUS, even though the user enters the information in the (different) format used by many people in the nuclear structure field. In the Branching Fractions Calculations mode, the discrete nuclear level set is read, and the multipole transitions among the levels are computed under one of two possible assumptions: (1) the levels have no collective character, or (2) the levels are all rotational band heads. Only E1, M1, and E2 transitions are considered, and the respective strength functions may be constants or, in the case of E1 transitions, the strength function may be energy dependent. The first option is used for nuclei closed shells; the bandhead option may be used to vary the E1, M1, and E2 strengths for interband transitions. K-quantum number selection rules may be invoked if desired. 19 refs

  15. Electron beam bunch length characterizations using incoherent and coherent transition radiation on the APS SASE FEL project

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H; Berg, W J; Lewellen, J W; Sereno, N S; Happek, U

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) injector linac has been reconfigured with a low-emittance RF thermionic gun and a photocathode (PC) RF gun to support self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron laser (FEL) experiments. One of the most critical parameters for optimizing SASE performance (gain length) is the electron beam peak current, which requires a charge measurement and a bunch length measurement capability. We report here initial measurements of the latter using both incoherent optical transition radiation (OTR) and coherent transition radiation (CTR). A visible light Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera was used to measure the thermionic RF gun beam's bunch length (sigma approx 2-3 ps) via OTR generated by the beam at 220 MeV and 200 mA macropulse average current. In addition, a CTR monitor (Michelson Interferometer) based on a Golay cell as the far-infrared (FIR) detector has been installed at the 40-MeV station in the beamline. Initial observations of CTR signal strength variation wi...

  16. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT): Straw tubes for tracking and particle identification at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220535; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three inner detector tracking subsystems and consists of ∼300,000 thin-walled drift tubes (“straw tubes”) that are 4 mm in diameter. The TRT system provides ∼30 space points with ∼130 micron resolution for charged tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV/c . The TRT also provides electron identification capability by detecting transition radiation (TR) X-ray photons in an Xe-based working gas mixture. Compared to Run 1, the LHC beams now provide a higher centre of mass energy (13 TeV), more bunches with a reduced spacing (25 ns), and more particles in each bunch leading to very challenging, higher occupancies in the TRT. Significant modifications of the TRT detector have been made for LHC Run 2 mainly to improve response to the expected much higher rate of hits and to mitigate leaks of the Xe-based active gas mixture. The higher rates required changes to the data acquisition system and introduction of validity gate to reject out-of-time hits. Man...

  17. Excitation of hybridized Dirac plasmon polaritons and transition radiation in multi-layer graphene traversed by a fast charged particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Kamran; Mišković, Zoran L.; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-06-01

    We analyze the energy loss channels for a fast charged particle traversing a multi-layer graphene (MLG) structure with N layers under normal incidence. Focusing on a terahertz (THz) range of frequencies, and assuming equally doped graphene layers with a large enough separation d between them to neglect interlayer electron hopping, we use the Drude model for two-dimensional conductivity of each layer to describe hybridization of graphene’s Dirac plasmon polaritons (DPPs). Performing a layer decomposition of ohmic energy losses, which include excitation of hybridized DPPs (HDPPs), we have found for N = 3 that the middle HDPP eigenfrequency is not excited in the middle layer due to symmetry constraint, whereas the excitation of the lowest HDPP eigenfrequency produces a Fano resonance in the graphene layer that is first traversed by the charged particle. While the angular distribution of transition radiation emitted in the far field region also shows asymmetry with respect to the traversal order by the incident charged particle at supra-THz frequencies, the integrated radiative energy loss is surprisingly independent of both d and N for N ≤ 5, which is explained by a dominant role of the outer graphene layers in transition radiation. We have further found that the integrated ohmic energy loss in optically thin MLG scales as ∝1/N at sub-THz frequencies, which is explained by exposing the role of dissipative processes in graphene at low frequencies. Finally, prominent peaks are observed at supra-THz frequencies in the integrated ohmic energy loss for MLG structures that are not optically thin. The magnitude of those peaks is found to scale with N for N ≥ 2, while their shape and position replicate the peak in a double-layer graphene (N = 2), which is explained by arguing that plasmon hybridization in such MLG structures is dominated by electromagnetic interaction between the nearest-neighbor graphene layers.

  18. role of some transition metals and metalloproteins on oxidative stress formation among ionizing radiation exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    this study was established to evaluate the role of working in radiation field for different prolonged periods on some oxidant/antioxidant parameters and to estimate the role of other additional factors such as age, smoking and inflammation on the progress of oxidative stress on the chosen volunteers. one hundred and twenty six male volunteers working in the nuclear research center and hot laboratories center were assessed in the present study, they were arranged as 70 radiation exposed workers and 56 control individuals. the radiation exposed workers were rearranged into 50 non-smokers, non-hypertensive and non-diabetics; 10 individuals were smokers, non-hypertensive, non-diabetic and other 10 volunteers with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (esr), non-smokers, non-hypertensive and non-diabetics

  19. Irradiation aging of the electronics of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Talk for a workshop on April 23, 2018 about Radiation effects at the LHC experiments and impact on operation and performance. Plots show the threshold drift over 2 years as is seen in the TRT and ATLAS, showing saturation of threshold drift after run 1. Other slides are studies done in 2013/2014 showing the effects of a Co-60 source on the thresholds, showing threshold drift effects at 30 kRad (effective dose in ATLAS after Run 1) and beyond. The take away from these slides is that the radiation effects saturate and stabilize after around 30 kRads

  20. Transition of radiation protection standards in ICRP recommendations and Japan's response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirabe, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiation protection standards are the standards set for the purpose of preventing radiation hazard and other damage. This paper confirm what the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended against the standard value on public exposure in Japan's laws and regulations, and how the Japanese government responded in introducing it into Japan's laws and regulations. There were delays of 6 to 12 years for the introduction of ICRP recommendations into the laws and regulations. Compared with response to the copyright treaty, which was extremely quick with the delays of only 1 to 2 years, these delays were very large. In Japan's laws and regulations, there are no regulations on the standard value for public exposure, and introduction of the recommended standard value of 1 mSv/year from ICRP has been avoided by the government. It is supposed that the reason for not introducing radiation dose limit and dose constraint value of public exposure was due to the lobbying of electric companies. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, the former Nuclear Safety Commission set the reference level for emergency exposure situation at 20 mSv/year. Although there is the long-term target of 1 mSv/year for existing exposure, no reference level has been set yet. Due to these delays or avoidances, the rights of people suffering from radiation exposure are restricted, while perhaps the benefits of electric companies are being protected. (A.O.)

  1. Radiation-induced tetramer-to-dimer transition of Esterichia coli lactose repressor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goffinont, S.; Davídková, Marie; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 386, č. 2 (2009), s. 300-304 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : protein * DNA * radiation * oxidation * tetramer * dimer * lactose repressor Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.548, year: 2009

  2. Interventional Radiation Oncology (IRO): Transition of a magnetic resonance simulator to a brachytherapy suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Roberta; Armour, Elwood; Beeckler, Courtney; Briner, Valerie; Choflet, Amanda; Cox, Andrea; Fader, Amanda N; Hannah, Marie N; Hobbs, Robert; Huang, Ellen; Kiely, Marilyn; Lee, Junghoon; Morcos, Marc; McMillan, Paige E; Miller, Dave; Ng, Sook Kien; Prasad, Rashmi; Souranis, Annette; Thomsen, Robert; DeWeese, Theodore L; Viswanathan, Akila N

    2018-03-13

    As a core component of a new gynecologic cancer radiation program, we envisioned, structured, and implemented a novel Interventional Radiation Oncology (IRO) unit and magnetic resonance (MR)-brachytherapy environment in an existing MR simulator. We describe the external and internal processes required over a 6-8 month time frame to develop a clinical and research program for gynecologic brachytherapy and to successfully convert an MR simulator into an IRO unit. Support of the institution and department resulted in conversion of an MR simulator to a procedural suite. Development of the MR gynecologic brachytherapy program required novel equipment, staffing, infrastructural development, and cooperative team development with anesthetists, nurses, therapists, physicists, and physicians to ensure a safe and functional environment. Creation of a separate IRO unit permitted a novel billing structure. The creation of an MR-brachytherapy environment in an MR simulator is feasible. Developing infrastructure includes several collaborative elements. Unique to the field of radiation oncology, formalizing the space as an Interventional Radiation Oncology unit permits a sustainable financial structure. Copyright © 2018 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Search for Dimuon Decays of a Light Scalar Boson in Radiative Transitions Upsilon ->gamma A(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Petigura, E.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Fulsom, B. G.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Winstrom, L. O.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolku, P.; Piatenko, T.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Wilson, J. R.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Volk, A.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Klose, V.; Lacker, H. M.; Bard, D. J.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Bequilleux, J.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Pruvot, S.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Bauer, J. M.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; De Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; LoSecco, J. M.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Regensburger, J. J.; Sekula, S. J.; Wong, Q. K.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Gioi, L. Li; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Schroeder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Esteve, L.; de Monchenault, G. Hamel; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yeche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'vra, J.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.

    2009-01-01

    We search for evidence of a light scalar boson in the radiative decays of the Υ(2S) and Υ(3S) resonances: Υ(2S,3S)→γA0, A0→μ+μ−. Such a particle appears in extensions of the standard model, where a light CP-odd Higgs boson naturally couples strongly to b quarks. We find no evidence for such

  4. Study of performance of the ATLAS transition radiation tracker in run 1 of the LHC: Tracking characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, N.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Smirnov, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) contains more than 350000 large straw tubes and it is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The TRT contributes substantially to the ATLAS ID resolution for the tracks of high-energy particles, providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. Basic performance parameters of the TRT related to its tracking function are described in this paper. The data used in this study were collected during the first period of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation in 2012 with a proton collision energy of 8 TeV. The tracking performance of the TRT has been studied in the case of operating with a Xe-based gas mixture and as a function of the straw occupancy. Special attention was paid to investigation of tracking parameters inside hadronic jets. The experimental data and simulation are in reasonable agreement, even within the dense cores of the most energetic jets.

  5. Standard Guide for Predicting Radiation-Induced Transition Temperature Shift in Reactor Vessel Materials, E706 (IIF)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents a method for predicting reference transition temperature adjustments for irradiated light-water cooled power reactor pressure vessel materials based on Charpy V-notch 30-ftlbf (41-J) data. Radiation damage calculative procedures have been developed from a statistical analysis of an irradiated material database that was available as of May 2000. The embrittlement correlation used in this guide was developed using the following variables: copper and nickel contents, irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence. The form of the model was based on current understanding for two mechanisms of embrittlement: stable matrix damage (SMD) and copper-rich precipitation (CRP); saturation of copper effects (for different weld materials) was included. This guide is applicable for the following specific materials, copper, nickel, and phosphorus contents, range of irradiation temperature, and neutron fluence based on the overall database: 1.1.1 MaterialsA 533 Type B Class 1 and 2, A302 Grade B, A302 G...

  6. Erosion of the 4-6- and 8 group transition metals under intense laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, G.V.; Verkhoturov, A.D.; Roshchina, A.I.; Vasil'ev, A.V.; Klimenko, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The erosion resistance is studied of transition metals of Groups 4-6 and 8 at laser emission of approximately 6x1O 7 W/cm 2 . It is shown that as the emission power increases from 10 6 to 6x10 7 W/cm 2 the erosion values show an increase over tenfold without any subsequent filling of the craters. The growth of the metallic erosion is largely caused by a greater crater diameter. The erosion resistance of metals enhances in the following series: Ti-Zr-Co-Ni-Fe, Hf-V-Nb-Mo-Cr-Ta-W-Cu

  7. Properties of light transition radiation of 660 MeV proton inclined incidence (γ=1.7) on a thick nickel plate. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrelov, V.P.; Pavlovic, P.; Ruzicka, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic properties of transition radiation in the visible fraction of the spectrum have been calculated for 660 MeV protons (γ=1.7) obliquely incident on a thick nickel plate in vacuum. The angular distributions of the summary radiation (i.e. the sums of radiations of various polarizations) both 'forward' and 'backward' for different azimuthal planes are presented in tables and diagrams for different particle inclination angles to the separation boundary. The examples of angular distributions of radiation having various polarizations (at the inclination angle of 45 0 ) show that they differ considerably. The spectra of summary radiation are of a monotonous character. The calculations have shown that in a relativistic case the forward radiation is concentrated near the direction of particle motion and backward radiation moves in an opposite direction with respect to that of the particle inclination. The dependence of the total yield of forward and backward transition radiations upon the particle inclination angle is approximately cos 2 psi. (Auth.)

  8. A systematic and detailed investigation of radiative rates for forbidden transitions of astrophysical interest in doubly ionized iron peak elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinet, Pascal; Fivet, Vanessa; Bautista, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge of accurate and reliable atomic data for lowly ionized iron peak elements, from scandium to copper, is of paramount importance for the analysis of the high resolution spectra currently available. The third spectra of several iron group elements have been observed in different galactic sources like Herbig-Haro objects in the Orion Nebula [1] and stars like Eta Carinae [2]. However, forbidden transitions between low-lying metastable levels of doubly ionized species have been little investigated so far and radiative rates for those lines remain sparse or inexistent.In the present contribution, we report on the recent study we have performed concerning the determination of magnetic dipole (M1) and electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities in those ions. For the calculations, we have extensively used the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) code of Cowan [3] and the central Thomas-Fermi-Dirac potential approximation implemented in AUTOSTRUCTURE [4]. This multi-platform approach allowed us to check the consistency and to assess the accuracy of the results obtained.[1] Mesa-Delgado A. et al., MNRAS 395, 855 (2009)[2] Johansson S. et al., A&A 361, 977 (2000)[3] Cowan R.D., The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra, Univ. California Press, Berkeley (1981)[4] Badnell N.R., J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 30, 1 (1997)

  9. Gamma radiation and temperature influence on the chemical effect produced by isomeric transition in the telluric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muriel G, M.

    1976-01-01

    When the gamma radiation due to the isomeric transition is internally converted an autoionization is produced. For atoms with a high atomic number this autoionization can be a large one and produce a fragmentation in a molecule. In the specific case of the solid state these fragments remain trapped in different places of the crystalline system. This can be considered as chemical change in the original molecule. These damages produced by the nuclear transformation can be measured by different methods: heating, gamma rays, pressure, etc. In this work the results of an experimental measurement of the behavior of the crystalline telluric acid molecule fragments under gamma radiation (0 to 20 Mrads) with controlled temperature of 2 0 C (-196 0 C to 50 0 C) it is presented. It was observed that the values of the mentioned behavior vary rapidly at first for relatively low doses and that for larger doses these values remained constant. Besides with a lower temperature these variation are progressively lower. (author)

  10. Progress in the development of the DTMROC time measurement chip for the ATLAS transition radiation tracker (TRT)

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, C; Dressnandt, N; Ekenberg, T; Farthouat, Philippe; Keener, P T; Lam, N; La Marra, D; Mann, J; Newcomer, F M; Ryzhov, V; Söderberg, M; Szczygiel, R; Van Berg, R; Williams, H H

    2001-01-01

    A 16-channel digital time-measurement readout chip (DTMROC) has been fabricated in the TEMIC/DM1LL left bracket 1 right bracket BI- CMOS radiation-hard process for the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) Transition Radiation Tracker (ATLAS/TRT) at CERN left bracket 2 right bracket . The chip receives discriminated straw-drift-tube signals from bipolar amplifier-shaper-discriminator chips (ASDBLR). measures the arrival time in 3.125 ns increments ( plus or minus 1 ns), and stores the data in a pipeline for 3.3mus. A trigger signal (L1A) causes the data to be tagged with a time stamp and stored for readout- Up to 13 events may be stored in an on-chip buffer while data is being clocked out in a 40 MHz serial stream. The chip has been designed to function after exposure to 1x10**1**4 protons/cm**2 and 1 Mrad total dose. System beam-tests have demonstrated measurement of track positions with a resolution of 165mum and 85% efficiency at rates up to 18MHz. 6 Refs.

  11. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta–Mediated Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yongchun; Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie; Xu Yuqiao; Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong; Su Xiaoming; Mei Shi; Guo Guozhen

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-β)–mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by 60 Co γ-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-β in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-β signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with γ-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-β were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-β signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-β plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  12. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  13. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  14. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of transitions in YbI using UV and deep-UV cw laser light and the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, R.T.; van Duijn, E.J.; Witte, S.; Hogervorst, W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the third harmonic of a cw titanium:sapphire laser, the hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) of three deep-UV transitions of neutral Yb have been measured for the first time. By exploiting the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation, accurate and complete results are

  15. Studies of nematic to smectic-A phase transitions using synchrotron radiation. Experimental techniques and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, F.

    1981-10-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction on liquid crystals, with a triple-axis spectrometer, was initiated 4-5 years ago, using rotating-anode sources. The triple-axis spectrometer, built at Risoe, is permanently positioned at the DORIS storage ring. Triple-axis X-ray spectrometer work in general and especially at the synchrotron source is a new field and a description of the techniques used is given. The experiments described are studies of the nematic to smectic-A phase transition in liquid crystals. The first is a study of the monomolecular liquid crystal 8-barS5 (C 8 H 17 O-phi-COS-phi-C 5 H 11 , where phi denotes a benzene ring). The second experimental study is one of the reentrance phenomenon in the ternary mixture: 5CTsub(.09):7CBsub(.x):80CBsub(.91-x); where 5CT(C 5 H 11 -phi-phi-phi-CN) and 7CB(C 7 H 15 -phi-phi-CN) have only a nematic phase and not the smectic-A phase. The results are interpreted in terms of Landau theory. Finally, a frame is given for discussing the nature of the smectic-A phase and an experiment is proposed to explore the nature of the smectic-A phase together with detailed calculations of (001)- and (002)-lineshapes for the smectic-A phase. (Auth.)

  16. Transition radiation detector of the experience NOMAD for the τ identification in the channel: τ- → e-ν-bare ντ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, T.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a work included in an experiment of research concerning neutrino oscillations in the channel ν μ → ν τ at CERN (NOMAD-WA96). This experiments need several detectors, and particularly a transition radiation detector with specific characteristics. The work consists, in a first part, in the study of neutrino physic and of the NOMAD detector. In a second part, the report presents how was implemented the transition radiation detector and how works the simulation of a such radiation. Then, the detector is optimised by comparing experiments and simulations; the thesis also presents how to control the detector. The last part talks about algorithms of pions-electrons separation. (TEC). 95 refs., 78 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M; Keenan, Francis P

    2013-01-01

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV. The grasp (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. For determining the collision strengths, and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (darc) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are provided for all 49 levels of the above five ions. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 10 8 K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained using the flexible atomic code (fac) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calculations with darc, in the determination of effective collision strengths. Discrepancies between the collision strengths from darc and fac, particularly for some forbidden transitions, are also discussed. Finally, discrepancies between the present results for effective collision strengths with the darc code and earlier semi-relativistic R-matrix data are noted over a wide range of electron temperatures for many transitions in all ions. (paper)

  18. Energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.

    2013-04-01

    We report calculations of energy levels, radiative rates and electron impact excitation cross sections and rates for transitions in He-like Ga XXX, Ge XXXI, As XXXII, Se XXXIII and Br XXXIV. The grasp (general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package) is adopted for calculating energy levels and radiative rates. For determining the collision strengths, and subsequently the excitation rates, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (darc) is used. Oscillator strengths, radiative rates and line strengths are reported for all E1, E2, M1 and M2 transitions among the lowest 49 levels of each ion. Additionally, theoretical lifetimes are provided for all 49 levels of the above five ions. Collision strengths are averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution and the effective collision strengths obtained listed over a wide temperature range up to 108 K. Comparisons are made with similar data obtained using the flexible atomic code (fac) to highlight the importance of resonances, included in calculations with darc, in the determination of effective collision strengths. Discrepancies between the collision strengths from darc and fac, particularly for some forbidden transitions, are also discussed. Finally, discrepancies between the present results for effective collision strengths with the darc code and earlier semi-relativistic R-matrix data are noted over a wide range of electron temperatures for many transitions in all ions.

  19. Design and construction of the prototype synchrotron radiation detector

    CERN Document Server

    Anderhub, H; Baetzner, D; Baumgartner, S; Biland, A; Camps, C; Capell, M; Commichau, V; Djambazov, L; Fanchiang, Y J; Flügge, G; Fritschi, M; Grimm, O; Hangarter, K; Hofer, H; Horisberger, Urs; Kan, R; Kaestli, W; Kenney, G P; Kim, G N; Kim, K S; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Kuipers, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, M W; Lee, S C; Lewis, R; Lustermann, W; Pauss, Felicitas; Rauber, T; Ren, D; Ren, Z L; Röser, U; Son, D; Ting, Samuel C C; Tiwari, A N; Viertel, Gert M; Gunten, H V; Wicki, S W; Wang, T S; Yang, J; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD) is a small-scale experiment designed to measure the rate of low-energy charged particles and photons in near the Earth's orbit. It is a precursor to the Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), a proposed addition to the upgraded version of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). The SRD will use the Earth's magnetic field to identify the charge sign of electrons and positrons with energies above 1 TeV by detecting the synchrotron radiation they emit in this field. The differential energy spectrum of these particles is astrophysically interesting and not well covered by the remaining components of AMS-02. Precise measurements of this spectrum offer the possibility to gain information on the acceleration mechanism and characteristics of all cosmic rays in our galactic neighbourhood. The SRD will discriminate against protons as they radiate only weakly. Both the number and energy of the synchrotron photons that the SRD needs to detect are small. The identificat...

  20. Development of a signal-analysis algorithm for the ZEUS transition-radiation detector under application of a neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollschlaeger, U.

    1992-07-01

    The aim of this thesis consisted in the development of a procedure for the analysis of the data of the transition-radiation detector at ZEUS. For this a neural network was applied and first studied, which results concerning the separation power between electron an pions can be reached by this procedure. It was shown that neural nets yield within the error limits as well results as standard algorithms (total charge, cluster analysis). At an electron efficiency of 90% pion contaminations in the range 1%-2% were reached. Furthermore it could be confirmed that neural networks can be considered for the here present application field as robust in relatively insensitive against external perturbations. For the application in the experiment beside the separation power also the time-behaviour is of importance. The requirement to keep dead-times small didn't allow the application of standard method. By a simulation the time availabel for the signal analysis was estimated. For the testing of the processing time in a neural network subsequently the corresponding algorithm was implemented into an assembler code for the digital signal processor DSP56001. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Coherent optical transition radiation and self-amplified spontaneous emission generated by chicane-compressed electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of strongly enhanced optical transition radiation (OTR following significant bunch compression of photoinjector beams by a chicane have been reported during the commissioning of the Linac Coherent Light Source accelerator and recently at the Advanced Photon Source (APS linac. These localized transverse spatial features involve signal enhancements of nearly a factor of 10 and 100 in the APS case at the 150-MeV and 375-MeV OTR stations, respectively. They are consistent with a coherent process seeded by noise and may be evidence of a longitudinal space charge microbunching instability which leads to coherent OTR emissions. Additionally, we suggest that localized transverse structure in the previous self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE free-electron laser (FEL data at APS in the visible regime as reported at FEL02 may be attributed to such beam structure entering the FEL undulators and inducing the SASE startup at those “prebunched” structures. Separate beam structures 120 microns apart in x and 2.9 nm apart in wavelength were reported. The details of these observations and operational parameters will be presented.

  2. "Species" radiations of symbiotic dinoflagellates in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific since the Miocene-Pliocene transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajeunesse, Todd C

    2005-03-01

    Endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, or "zooxanthellae," are required for the survival of a diverse community of invertebrates that construct and dominate shallow, tropical coral reef ecosystems. Molecular systematics applied to this once understudied symbiont partner, Symbiodinium spp., divide the group into divergent lineages or subgeneric "clades." Within each clade, numerous closely related "types," or species, exhibit distinctive host taxon, geographic, and/or environmental distributions. This diversity is greatest in clade C, which dominates the Indo-Pacific host fauna and shares dominance in the Atlantic-Caribbean with clade B. Two "living" ancestors in this group, C1 and C3, are common to both the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic-Caribbean. With these exceptions, each ocean possesses a diverse clade C assemblage that appears to have independently evolved (adaptively radiated) through host specialization and allopatric differentiation. This phylogeographic evidence suggests that a worldwide selective sweep of C1/C3, or their progenitor, must have occurred before both oceans separated. The probable timing of this event corresponds with the major climactic changes and low CO(2) levels of the late Miocene and/or early Pliocene. Subsequent bursts of diversification have proceeded in each ocean since this transition. An ecoevolutionary expansion to numerous and taxonomically diverse hosts by a select host-generalist symbiont followed by the onset of rapid diversification suggests a radical process through which coral-algal symbioses respond and persist through the vicissitudes of planetary climate change.

  3. Novel digital K-edge imaging system with transition radiation from an 855-MeV electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Hagenbuck, F; Clawiter, N; Euteneuer, H; Görgen, F; Holl, P; Johann, K; Kiser, K H; Kemmer, J; Kerschner, T; Kettig, O; Koch, H; Kube, G; Lauth, W; Mauhay, H; Schütrumpf, M; Stotter, R; Strüder, L; Walcher, T; Wilms, A; von Zanthier, C; Zemter, M

    2001-01-01

    A novel K-edge imaging method has been developed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI aiming at a very efficient use of the transition radiation (TR) flux generated by the external 855-MeV electron beam in a foil stack. A fan-like quasi-monochromatic hard X-ray beam is produced from the +or-1-mrad-wide TR cone with a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) crystal. The absorption of the object in front of a 30 mm*10 mm pn charge-coupled device (pn-CCD) photon detector is measured at every pixel by a broad-band energy scan around the K-absorption edge. This is accomplished by a synchronous variation of the lateral crystal position and the electron beam direction which defines also the direction of the TR cone. The system has been checked with a phantom consisting of a 2.5- mu m thick molybdenum sample embedded in a 136- or 272- mu m-thick copper bulk foil. A numerical analysis of the energy spectrum for every pixel demonstrates that data as far as +or-0.75 keV away from the K edge of molybdenum at 20 keV still improv...

  4. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions (Xe L-XLVI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, K.M.; Keenan, F.P.; Lawson, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Xe ions, Xe L-XLVI. For the calculations, a fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole, electric quadrupole, magnetic dipole, and magnetic quadrupole transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Xe L, Xe XLIX, Xe XLVIII, Xe XLVII, and Xe XLVI, respectively, belonging to the n ≤ 3 configurations.

  5. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5 + basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egede, U.

    1998-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H→WW→lvjj, H→ZZ→llvv and H→ZZ→lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated

  7. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV.

  8. The search for a standard model Higgs at the LHC and electron identification using transition radiation in the ATLAS tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egede, U.

    1998-01-01

    The large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be ready for proton-proton collisions in the year 2005 and the ATLAS detector will be one of the two experiments at the LHC which will explore a new and higher energy range for particle physics. In this thesis, an analysis of the power of the ATLAS detector to detect a Standard Model Higgs boson has been performed. It is shown that it will be possible to discover a Higgs particle across the complete mass range from the lower limit defined by the reach of the LEP2 collider experiments to the upper theoretical limit around 1 TeV. The role of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS for the detection of conversions and the identification of the primary vertex in the detection of a Higgs particle in the Higgs to two photon decay channel is demonstrated with a detailed detector simulation. The identification of a 1 TeV Higgs particle requires a good understanding of both the signal and the backgrounds. The related uncertainties are covered in detail and it is shown that the Higgs can be identified in the H{yields}WW{yields}lvjj, H{yields}ZZ{yields}llvv and H{yields}ZZ{yields}lljj decay channels. The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a combined tracking and electron identification device which will be a part of the inner tracking detector of ATLAS. For a prototype of the TRT the electron identification performance is analysed and it is shown that the full scale TRT together with the calorimeters will provide the electron identification power required for a clean electron and photon signal at the LHC. For the prototype a rejection factor of 100 against pions was achieved with an electron efficiency of 90%. the importance of the TRT for a clear detection of a Higgs particle is demonstrated. 82 refs, figs, tabs.

  9. Thermodynamics phase transition and Hawking radiation of the Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and a deficit solid angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, Kamiko Kouemeni Jean; Saleh, Mahamat; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of Schwarzschild black hole with quintessence-like matter and deficit solid angle. From the metric of the black hole, we derive the expressions of temperature and specific heat using the laws of black hole thermodynamics. Using the null geodesics method and Parikh-Wilczeck tunneling method, we derive the expressions of Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for the black hole. The behaviors of the temperature, specific heat, Boltzmann factor and the change of Bekenstein entropy versus the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter (ρ 0) were explicitly plotted. The results show that, when the deficit solid angle (ɛ 2) and the density of static spherically symmetric quintessence-like matter at r=1 (ρ 0) vanish (ρ 0=ɛ =0), these four thermodynamics quantities are reduced to those obtained for the simple case of Schwarzschild black hole. For low entropies, the presence of quintessence-like matter induces a first order phase transition of the black hole and for the higher values of the entropies, we observe the second order phase transition. When increasing ρ 0, the transition points are shifted to lower entropies. The same thing is observed when increasing ɛ 2. In the absence of quintessence-like matter (ρ 0=0), these transition phenomena disappear. Moreover the rate of radiation decreases when increasing ρ 0 or (ɛ ^2).

  10. 30 March 2009 - Representatives of the Danish Council for Independent Research Natural Sciences visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Former Spokesperson P. Jenni and Transition Radiation Tracker Project Leader C. Rembser.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    30 March 2009 - Representatives of the Danish Council for Independent Research Natural Sciences visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti, Former Spokesperson P. Jenni and Transition Radiation Tracker Project Leader C. Rembser.

  11. Synchrotron radiation studies of local structure and bonding in transition metal aluminides and rare earth transition metal magnetic nitrides. Final report, August 1, 1990--July 14, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnick, J.I.; Pease, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    The following areas of study are reported on: bonding and near neighbor force constants in NiAl, CoAl, FeAl via temperature dependent EXAFS; alloys formed when Fe or Ga is microalloyed into a NiAl matrix; EXAFS studies of nitrided versus non nitrided Y 2 Fe 17 ; and transition metal x-ray spectra as related to magnetic moments

  12. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  13. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  14. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  15. Structural transition induced by charge-transfer in RbMn[Fe(CN) sub 6]. Investigation by synchrotron-radiation X-ray powder analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moritomo, Y; Sakata, M; Kato, K; Kuriki, A; Tokoro, H; Ohkoshi, S I; Hashimoto, K

    2002-01-01

    Temperature dependence of atomic coordinates is determined for RbMn[Fe(CN) sub 6] by means of synchrotron-radiation (SR) X-ray powder structural analysis. We observed a structural transition from the cubic (F4-bar3m; Z=4) to the tetragonal (I4-barm2; Z=2) phase at approx. =210K in the cooling run and at approx. =300K in the warming run. In the low-temperature tetragonal phase, we found Jahn-Tellar type distortion of the MnN sub 6 octahedra and compression of the averaged Fe-C bond distance. These structural data suggest that the structural transition is triggered by the inter-metallic charge-transfer from the Mn(II) site to the Fe(III) site.

  16. Investigations of the phase transition in V3O5 using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation white beam X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbrink, S.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The reversible first order phase transition in V 3 O 5 at T t =155 0 C has been studied using a specially constructed oven, where the temperature can be kept constant within a few hundredths of a degree for several hours. Energy dispersive diffraction measurements have beem made in a temperature region around the phase transition with the fixed crystal method and the θ/2θ scanning method. White beam X-ray topographs have been obtained from the same crystal in the same temperature region using synchrotron radiation. The integrated intensities of the strong h 0 0 reflections show anomalies that are correlated with the corresponding X-ray topographs. Thus, an unexpected increase of crystal perfection is observed a few hundredths of a degree below T t . The energy dependence of the intensity maximum at T t for strong reflections has been determined and semi-quantitatively explained on the basis of extinction theory. (orig.)

  17. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T.

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries

  18. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J; Cederlund, T; Drake, P; Finne, I E; Glansholm, A; Jaworska, A; Paile, W; Rahola, T [eds.

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  19. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T. (eds.)

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  20. Preliminary results of the experiment on the identification of cosmic hadrons usinq the X-ray transition radiation XTR-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakyan, R.A.; Avakyan, K.M.; Alikhanyan, A.I.

    1974-01-01

    The spectrum of cosmic hadrons with an energy of 300 GeV or more at the height of 3250 m above the sea level has been studied. The objective has been to determine the Nsub(π)/Nsub(p) ratio at the given energies. The device consists of a 830 g/cm 2 scintillation calorimeter and an X-ray transition radiation detector, comprising three sections of laminated medium each having 200 layers, and multi-filament proportional counters. The lower limit of the Nsub(π)/Nsub(p) ratio has been obtained, it is equal to 0.37+-0.16

  1. Theoretical search for optimal pump parameters for observing spontaneous radiation amplification on the λ=41.8-nm transition of Xe IX in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, E P; Ivanov, Arkadii L

    2004-01-01

    Based on a collisional-radiative model, an atomic-kinetic calculation of the gains on the 41.8-nm transitions of Pd-like xenon was performed for the plasma produced due to the interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse with gaseous xenon. The gains g(z,τ) averaged over the spatial and temporal coordinates were compared with the known gains which had been measured experimentally in Xe 8+ . The amplification was shown to occur under the conditions of ionisation of the working ions, and the time of output radiation saturation depends on the time of Xe 8+ transformation to higher-ionised ions. Our theoretical investigation enables determining the optimal pump parameters, at which the product of the gain g by the active medium length L is about 20, which exceeds the experimental gL value. (active media)

  2. Radiative transition probabilities for the main diatomic electronic systems of N2, N2+, NO, O2, CO, CO+, CN, C2 and H2 produced in plasma of atmospheric entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate radiative transition probabilities of diatomic electronic systems are required to calculate the discrete radiation of plasmas. However, most of the published transition probabilities are obtained using older spectroscopic constants and electronic transition moment functions (ETMFs), some of which deviates greatly from experimental data. Fortunately, a lot of new spectroscopic constants that include more anharmonic correction terms than the earlier ones have been published over the past few years. In this work, the Einstein coefficients, Franck-Condon factors and absorption band oscillator strengths are calculated for important diatomic radiative transition processes of N2-O2, CO2-N2 and H2 plasmas produced in entering into the atmosphere of Earth, Mars and Jupiter. The most up-to-date spectroscopic constants are selected to reconstruct the potential energy curves by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method. Then the vibrational wave functions are calculated through the resolution of the radial Schrödinger equation for such potential energy curves. These results, together with the latest "ab-initio" ETMFs derived from the literature are used to compute the square of electronic-vibrational transition moments, Einstein coefficients and absorption band oscillator strengths. Moreover, the Franck-Condon factors are determined with the obtained vibrational wave functions. In the supplementary material we present tables of the radiative transition probabilities for 40 band systems of N2, N2+, NO, O2, CO, CO+, CN, C2 and H2 molecules. In addition, the calculated radiative lifetimes are systematically validated by available experimental results.

  3. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellar, S.A.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f 7/5 core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 ± 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 ± 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 ± 0.02 A and 0.30 ± 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed

  4. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  5. Radiation pre-vulcanization effect on properties of the truck tyre's transition layer and the truck tyre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Zhu Jun; Li Kunhao; Guo Dongquan; Zhang Hongna; Zhang Benshang; Li Zhaopeng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the natural rubber is chosen as the main constituents for the transition layer of all-steel load radial tyre, which is pre-vulcanized by 500-keV E-beam irradiation of up to 60 kGy. The results show that the green strength of transitional layer increases with the dose, reaching four times as much as the control (without irradiation) at 60 kGy. The final mechanical properties do not differ significantly from those of the control except that the aging and fatigue performance increased. However, thickness of the natural rubber transitional layer for an average single tyre can be reduced by 1 mm (or 1.5 kg) without obvious adverse effect on tyre performance. (authors)

  6. Design of a trigger layout and the corresponding implementation of a 200 GB/s readout network for the ALICE transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of modern information technology, intelligent trigger systems are gaining more and more importance in high-energy physics. Particularly in heavy ion experiments, the large number of generated particles results in an enormous amount of data. By filtering the data at an early stage and discarding irrelevant events, the efficiency of the entire system can be raised significantly. The ALICE experiment at CERN breaks new ground in this respect. With the Transition Radiation Detector, the acquired signals are processed parallel right on the detector using more than 65 000 multi-chip modules. Via a readout network, the preprocessed data arrives at a global track reconstruction unit, which contributes to the decision whether an event is discarded or further processed. In this thesis, a trigger concept for the Transition Radiation Detector is developed and the readout network is implemented. A special challenge is to achieve an efficient interaction of the above processing stages. By means of simulations and analyses, the entire system is optimized in this regard. It turns out that the read-out process plays a decisive role. In this context, a design flow for the used ASIC is developed. The analyses show that through optimizations the extremely high demands made on this complex system can be met. During a beam time, first prototypes have successfully been tested. The entire system is currently being assembled and will be brought on line in 2008. (orig.)

  7. Dose rate, mitotic cycle duration, and sensitivity of cell transitions from G1 → S and G2 → M to protracted gamma radiation in root meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, L.S.; Hof, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were designed to determine the relative radiosensitivity of the cell transition points of G1 → S and G2 → M in root meristems of several plant species. Label and mitotic indices and microspectrophotometry were used to measure the proportions of cells in each mitotic cycle stage in root meristems after protracted gamma radiation. The criterion of radiosensitivity was the dose rate needed to produce a tissue with less than 1 percent cells in S and none in M after 3 days of continuous exposure. The results show that DNA is the primary radiation target in proliferative root meristems and that the cycle duration stipulates the time interval of vulnerability. In each species, nonrandom reproducible cell proportions were established with 2C:4C:8C amounts of nuclear DNA after 3 days of exposure. Roots of Helianthus annuus, Crepis capillaris, and Tradescantia clone 02 had 80 percent cells with a 2C amount of DNA and 20 percent had a 4C amount of DNA. In these species the transition point of G1 → S was more radiosensitive than G2 → M. Roots of Pisum sativum and Triticum aestivum had cell proportions at 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA in frequencies of 0.10 to 0.20:0.40 to 0.60:0.30 to 0.40. In these two species 0.30 to 0.40 cells underwent radiation-induced endoreduplication that resulted from a rapid inhibition of cell transit from G2 → M and a slower impairment of G1 → S. Cells increased from 2C to 4C and from 4C to 8C amounts of DNA during irradiation. The proportions of nuclei with 2C:4C:8C amounts of DNA were dependent in part upon the relative radiosensitivity of the G1 → S and G2 → M control points. The data show the relative radiosensitivity of the transition points from G1 → S and from G2 → M was species specific and unrelated to the cycle duration and mean nuclear DNA content of the plant species

  8. Transition of some type of integrated circuits into latch-up mode under effect of ionizing radiation of large dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdichevskij, B.E.; Madzharova, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    Some types of integrated circuits (IC) are almost short-circuit, i.e. they transit to the latch-up regime under the effect of ionizing radiation pulses of large dose rate. The results of investigation into IC under their transition into the latch-up regime at supply voltage of 10 V are presented. It is shown that IC stably transit to the latch-up regime if the dinistor current becomes at least equal to the photocurrent. At bias reduction from 15 to 6 V the dose rate at which the latch-up arises grows from 2.5x10 9 to 3.5x10 9 rad (Si)/s. Burn-out of supply busbar is the usual type of IC failure at latch-up arising. Measures for IC protection from latch-up are shown. In some IC the latch-up is formed beginning from a certain critical value of dose rate, the so-called ''windows'' of latch-up

  9. Numerical simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition – Part 2: Impact of initial ice crystal number, radiation, stratification, secondary nucleation and layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Unterstrasser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition were performed with an LES model. In Part 1 the impact of relative humidity, temperature and vertical wind shear was explored in a detailed parametric study. Here, we study atmospheric parameters like stratification and depth of the supersaturated layer and processes which may affect the contrail evolution. We consider contrails in various radiation scenarios herein defined by the season, time of day and the presence of lower-level cloudiness which controls the radiance incident on the contrail layer. Under suitable conditions, controlled by the radiation scenario and stratification, radiative heating lifts the contrail-cirrus and prolongs its lifetime. The potential of contrail-driven secondary nucleation is investigated. We consider homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores released from sublimated contrail ice crystals. In our model the contrail dynamics triggered by radiative heating does not suffice to force homogeneous freezing of ambient liquid aerosol particles. Furthermore, our model results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores is unimportant. Contrail evolution is not controlled by the depth of the supersaturated layer as long as it exceeds roughly 500 m. Deep fallstreaks however need thicker layers. A variation of the initial ice crystal number is effective during the whole evolution of a contrail. A cut of the soot particle emission by two orders of magnitude can reduce the contrail timescale by one hour and the optical thickness by a factor of 5. Hence future engines with lower soot particle emissions could potentially lead to a reduction of the climate impact of aviation.

  10. Process for Transition of Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title II Disposal Sites to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This document presents guidance for implementing the process that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) will use for assuming perpetual responsibility for a closed uranium mill tailings site. The transition process specifically addresses sites regulated under Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) but is applicable in principle to the transition of sites under other regulatory structures, such as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program.

  11. New technique for a simultaneous estimation of the level density and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions at E sub e sub x<=B sub n -0.5 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khitrov, V A

    2001-01-01

    The new, model-independent method to estimate simultaneously the level densities excited in the (n,gamma) reaction and the radiative strength functions of dipole transitions is developed. The method can be applied for any nucleus and reaction followed by cascade gamma-emission. It is just necessary to measure the intensities of two-step gamma-cascades depopulating one or several high-excited states and determine the quanta ordering in the main portion of the observed cascades. The method provides a sufficiently narrow interval of most probable densities of levels with given J suppi and radiative strength functions of dipole transitions populating them.

  12. Development of a coherent transition radiation-based bunch length monitor with application to the APS RF thermionic gun beam optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H; Berg, W J; Borland, M; Happek, U; Lewellen, J W; Sereno, N S

    2001-01-01

    We report further development of an EPICS-compatible bunch length monitor based on the autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (CTR). In this case the monitor was used to optimize the beam from the S-band thermionic RF gun on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. Bunch lengths of 400-500 fs (FWHM) were measured in the core of the beam, which corresponded to about 100-A peak current in each micropulse. The dependence of the CTR signal on the square of the beam charge for the beam core was demonstrated. We also report the first use of the beam accelerated to 217 MeV for successful visible wavelength SASE FEL experiments.

  13. Measurement of K-line transition rates for Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, A.; Stutz, G.; Castellano, G.

    2003-01-01

    Transition rates were obtained from spectra for pure metallic samples of atomic number ranging from 22 to 27, measured with monochromatic incident X-ray beams from a synchrotron source. The experimental setup for this consisted of an energy dispersive spectrometer in a conventional 45-45 deg. geometry, mounted in an evacuated chamber. Absorption, detector efficiency and multiple scattering were taken into account. The results obtained are compared with recent theoretical and experimental data as well as with the well-known theoretical predictions from Scofield

  14. Measurement of K-line transition rates for Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreras, A. E-mail: alejo@quechua.fis.uncor.edu; Stutz, G.; Castellano, G

    2003-08-01

    Transition rates were obtained from spectra for pure metallic samples of atomic number ranging from 22 to 27, measured with monochromatic incident X-ray beams from a synchrotron source. The experimental setup for this consisted of an energy dispersive spectrometer in a conventional 45-45 deg. geometry, mounted in an evacuated chamber. Absorption, detector efficiency and multiple scattering were taken into account. The results obtained are compared with recent theoretical and experimental data as well as with the well-known theoretical predictions from Scofield.

  15. Extrapolation of radiation thermometry scales for determining the transition temperature of metal-carbon points. Experiments with the Co-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Girard, F.; Florio, M.

    2009-02-01

    Four independent radiation temperature scales approximating the ITS-90 at 900 nm, 950 nm and 1.6 µm have been realized from the indium point (429.7485 K) to the copper point (1357.77 K) which were used to derive by extrapolation the transition temperature T90(Co-C) of the cobalt-carbon eutectic fixed point. An INRIM cell was investigated and an average value T90(Co-C) = 1597.20 K was found with the four values lying within 0.25 K. Alternatively, thermodynamic approximated scales were realized by assigning to the fixed points the best presently available thermodynamic values and deriving T(Co-C). An average value of 1597.27 K was found (four values lying within 0.25 K). The standard uncertainties associated with T90(Co-C) and T(Co-C) were 0.16 K and 0.17 K, respectively. INRIM determinations are compatible with recent thermodynamic determinations on three different cells (values lying between 1597.11 K and 1597.25 K) and with the result of a comparison on the same cell by an absolute radiation thermometer and an irradiance measurement with filter radiometers which give values of 1597.11 K and 1597.43 K, respectively (Anhalt et al 2006 Metrologia 43 S78-83). The INRIM approach allows the determination of both ITS-90 and thermodynamic temperature of a fixed point in a simple way and can provide valuable support to absolute radiometric methods in defining the transition temperature of new high-temperature fixed points.

  16. Thermostimulated transitions of radiation colour centers in fiber light guides on the base of pure quartz glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, A.V.; Dianov, E.M.; Karpechev, V.N.; Kornienko, L.S.; Rybaltovskij, A.O.; Chernov, P.V.

    1987-01-01

    Study on properties and characteristics of induced absorption (IA) in glass fiber light guides (GFLG) with a pure quartz glass core is continued. Effect of thermal-stimulated construction of colour radiation centers (CRC) giving induced absorption bands at 670, 550, and 380 nm has been detected. Effective temperatures of these IA band annealings have been determined as well as bands at 340 nm and induced absorption IR edge. Positions of IA band halfwidths and maxima on the assumption that IA bands have the Gauss form. It is assumed that CRC photo- and thermostimulated construction may occur with participation of physically dissolved in a glass grid gases or their radiolysis products

  17. Development of the control system of the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Pérez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE.

  18. Development of the control system of the ALICE transition radiation detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado Perez, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE. (orig.)

  19. Development of the control system of the ALICE transition radiation detector and of a test environment for quality-assurance of its front-end electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Perez, Jorge

    2008-11-10

    Within this thesis, the detector control system (DCS) for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has been developed. The TRD DCS is fully implemented as a detector oriented hierarchy of objects behaving as finite state machines. It controls and monitors over 65 thousand front-end electronics (FEE) units, a few hundred low voltage and one thousand high voltage channels, and other sub-systems such as cooling and gas. Commissioning of the TRD DCS took place during several runs with ALICE using cosmic events. Another part of this thesis describes the development of a test environment for large-scale production quality-assurance of over 4 thousand FEE read-out boards containing in total about 1.2 million read-out channels. The hardware and software components are described in detail. Additionally, a series of performance studies were carried out earlier including radiation tolerance tests of the TRAP chip which is the core component of the TRD FEE. (orig.)

  20. The far infrared radiation characteristics for Li2O.Al2O3.4SiO2(LAS) glass-ceramics and transition-metal oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Nam Jung; Yang, Joong Sik

    1991-01-01

    The far infrared radiation characteristic for Li 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .4SiO 2 (LAS) glass, the LAS glass-ceramic and sintered transition metal oxides such as CuO, Fe 2 O 3 and Co 3 O 4 , were investigated. LAS glass and LAS glass-ceramic was higher than that of the LAS glass. Heat-treated CuO and Co 3 o 4 had radiation characteristic of high efficiency infrared radiant, and heat-treated Fe 2 O 3 had radiation characteristic that infrared emissivity decreased in higher was length above 15μm. (Author)

  1. Low energy gamma induced radiation damage in YBCO: electrical resistivity and the induced metal - insulator transition behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Carlos M.; Pinnera, Ibrahin; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Sirgado, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution the superconducting YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior on the irradiation dose and accumulative time are studied for gamma quanta of E γ = 132 keV ( 57 Co) and 1,25 MeV ( 60 Co) at room temperature. In both cases, possible radiation effects on grain boundary and intragrain zones are evaluated by means of different gamma ray microscopic interaction models. It was conclude that 57 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 132 keV) modules YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior through enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion motions which collapse the electron percolative conduction paths in the grain boundary zones, effects which are not observed by irradiation with 60 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 1,25 MeV), in which case main irradiation effects on the electrical conduction mechanisms are limited to the intragrain zones. (Author)

  2. Generation of global hourly radiation sequences using a Transition Markov matrix for Madrid. Generacion de secuencias horarias de radiacion global utilizando matrices de transicion de Markov, para la localidad de Madrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Ll

    1989-11-01

    The aim of this work is the generation of sequences of hourly global radiation which have similar statistically characteristics of real sequences for the city of Madrid (Spain). For this generation, a first order Markov model has been proposed. The input parameters of simulation method are the following: The maximum value of hourly radiation and the average monthly value of the transparency normalized index. The maximum value of hourly radiation has been calculated as a function of the solar height by an empirical expression. The transparency normalized index has been defined as the ratio among the measured hourly global radiation to the maximum value for the corresponding solar height. The method is based on the following observations: -The transparency normalized index shows a significant correlation only for two consecutive hours. -The months with the same average transparency normalized indies have similar probability density function. Global solar radiation, time series, simulation, Markov transition matrix, solar energy.

  3. Comment on AMS02 results support the secondary origin of cosmic ray positrons

    OpenAIRE

    Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple calculation of the flux of secondary positrons produced in the ISM that is based only on priors. Our calculated ISM flux agrees very well with that calculated with the elaborate GALPROP code. It confirms that secondary production of positrons in the ISM by the primary cosmic rays cannot explain the observed sub-TeV flux of CR positrons. Moreover, we show that once energy loss of positrons in source and in the ISM are included, secondary production inside the CR sources plu...

  4. Snail-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 breast cancer cells: systems analysis of molecular changes and their effect on radiation and drug sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezencev, Roman; Matyunina, Lilya V.; Jabbari, Neda; McDonald, John F.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been associated with the acquisition of metastatic potential and the resistance of cancer cells to therapeutic treatments. MCF-7 breast cancer cells engineered to constitutively express the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor gene Snail (MCF-7-Snail cells) have been previously shown to display morphological and molecular changes characteristic of EMT. We report here the results of a comprehensive systems level molecular analysis of changes in global patterns of gene expression and levels of glutathione and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in MCF-7-Snail cells and the consequence of these changes on the sensitivity of cells to radiation treatment and therapeutic drugs. Snail-induced changes in global patterns of gene expression were identified by microarray profiling using the Affymetrix platform (U133 Plus 2.0). The resulting data were processed and analyzed by a variety of system level analytical methods. Levels of ROS and glutathione (GSH) were determined by fluorescent and luminescence assays, and nuclear levels of NF-κB protein were determined by an ELISA based method. The sensitivity of cells to ionizing radiation and anticancer drugs was determined using a resazurin-based cell cytotoxicity assay. Constitutive ectopic expression of Snail in epithelial-like, luminal A-type MCF-7 cells induced significant changes in the expression of >7600 genes including gene and miRNA regulators of EMT. Mesenchymal-like MCF-7-Snail cells acquired molecular profiles characteristic of triple-negative, claudin-low breast cancer cells, and displayed increased sensitivity to radiation treatment, and increased, decreased or no change in sensitivity to a variety of anticancer drugs. Elevated ROS levels in MCF-7-Snail cells were unexpectedly not positively correlated with NF-κB activity. Ectopic expression of Snail in MCF-7 cells resulted in morphological and molecular changes previously associated with EMT. The results underscore the

  5. Preparative Radiation Chemistry of Transition Metal Complexes; Radiosynthese de complexes de metaux de transition; Radiatsionno-khimicheskij sintez kompleksnykh soedinenij perekhodnykh metallov; Radiosintesis de complejos de los metales de transicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustorf, E. Koerner Von; Jun, M. -J.; Koller, H.; Schenck, G. O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Abteilung Strahlenchemie, Muelheim-Ruhr, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-11-15

    {pi}-complexes and carbonyl compounds of transition metals have a technical importance because of their special reactivity and catalytic activity. The following investigations have been made by us: 1. Radiation chemical synthesis of transition metal {pi}- complexes Examples are the preparation of maleic-acid-anhydride-iron-tetracarbonyl, fumaric-acid-dimethylesteriron- tetracarbonyl, methacrylic-acid-methylester-iron-tetracarbonyl, vinylacetate-iron-tetiacarbonyl, etc. by Co{sup 60} {gamma}-irradiation of Fe(CO){sub 5} and the corresponding unsaturated compounds. 2. Chemical reactions with radiation-chemically formed {pi}-complexes Examples are the polymerization of vinyl compounds at room temperature by the action of organic halogen compounds on complexes such as methacryl-acid-methylester-iron-tetracarbonyl, vinylacetate-iron- tetracarbonyl, etc. 3. Synthesis of {pi}-complexes and carbonyl compounds of transition metals by irradiation Examples are the Co{sup 60} {gamma}-irradiation of [(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}Fe], [(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2N}i], CH{sub 3}C{sub 5}H{sub 4}Mn(CO){sub 3}, (C{sub 5}H{sub 5})TiCl{sub 2},Fe(CO){sub 5}, Ni(CO){sub 4} , in halogen hydrocarbons. (author) [French] Les complexes {pi} et les composes carbonyles des metaux de transition ont une importance du point de vue technique en raison de leur reactivite speciale et de leur activite catalytique. L'auteur a fait des experiences sur les questions suivantes: 1. Radiosynthese de complexes {pi} de metaux de transition. Exemple: preparation d'anhydride maleique-fer tetracarbonyle, de fumarate de dimethyle-fer tetracarbonyle, de methacrylate de methyle-fer tetracarbonyl, d'acetate de vinyle-fer tetracarbonyle, etc., par exposition de Fe(CO){sub 5} et des composes non satures correspondant aux rayons gamma du cobalt-60. 2. Reactions chimiques avec des complexes n formes par voie radiochimique. Exemple: polymerisation de composes vinyliques a temperature ambiante en presence de composes organiques

  6. Generation of second-harmonic radiations of a self-focusing laser from a plasma with density-transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Gupta, Devki Nandan; Suk, Hyyong

    2011-01-01

    A Gaussian laser-beam resonantly generates a second-harmonic wave in a plasma in the presence of a wiggler magnetic-field of suitable period. The self-focusing of the fundamental pulse enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse. An introduction of an upward plasma-density ramp strongly enhances the self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse. The laser pulse attains a minimum spot size and propagates up to several Rayleigh lengths without divergence. Due to the strong self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse, the second-harmonic intensity enhances significantly. A considerable enhancement of the intensity of the second-harmonic is observed from the proposed mechanism. -- Highlights: → An upward plasma-density ramp is very important for laser propagation in plasmas. → As the plasma density increases, effect of self-focusing becomes stronger. → We utilize this self-focused laser to generate second-harmonic radiations. → The self-focusing laser enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse.

  7. Generation of second-harmonic radiations of a self-focusing laser from a plasma with density-transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144 402, Punjab (India); Gupta, Devki Nandan, E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    A Gaussian laser-beam resonantly generates a second-harmonic wave in a plasma in the presence of a wiggler magnetic-field of suitable period. The self-focusing of the fundamental pulse enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse. An introduction of an upward plasma-density ramp strongly enhances the self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse. The laser pulse attains a minimum spot size and propagates up to several Rayleigh lengths without divergence. Due to the strong self-focusing of the fundamental laser pulse, the second-harmonic intensity enhances significantly. A considerable enhancement of the intensity of the second-harmonic is observed from the proposed mechanism. -- Highlights: → An upward plasma-density ramp is very important for laser propagation in plasmas. → As the plasma density increases, effect of self-focusing becomes stronger. → We utilize this self-focused laser to generate second-harmonic radiations. → The self-focusing laser enhances the intensity of the second-harmonic pulse.

  8. Investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow in transitional regime inside a channel with staggered plates heated by radiation for PV/T system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Ahmed Hamza H.; Ahmed, Mahmoud; Abdel-Gaied, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates experimentally and theoretically the effects of operating and configuration parameters on convection heat transfer process and fluid flow characteristics for air flowing in transitional regimes through parallel plate channels with staggered plates segments heated by radiant heat flux. This configuration is to be utilized in air heater solar collectors and/or in a combined photovoltaic and air heater solar collector systems (PV/T). The operating parameters tested were Reynolds number (Re) values ranging from 2580 to 4650 with a combination of incident radiation heat flux (q inc ) values of 400, 700, and 1000 W/m 2 , respectively. The experimental results show that the local Nusselt number (Nu x ) is not unique function of the axial distance, in addition, a linear relationship between Re and apparent friction factor (f) was observed. Moreover, the model results show that combination of Re values in the laminar flow regime with proper selection of both plate's length and thickness can lead to enhancement in the heat transfer from the plate segments to the air stream. This is due to self-oscillatory flow mixer in wake zone behind each plate segment. Consequently, this will lead to avoid the need of more pumping power for the case of the flow falling within the transitional regime in the channel. - Highlights: • The local heat transfer coefficient is not unique function in the axial distance. • A linear relationship between Reynolds number and apparent friction factor is observed for Re > 3500. • The plate thickness is the dominant parameter affects both values of the heat transfer and friction factor. • Shorter plates' length, at any plate thickness, leads to periodic boundary layers interruption mechanisms

  9. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10{sup 4}, in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10{sup 7} Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm{sup 2} in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO{sub 2} gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain

  10. Development, simulation and test of transition radiation detector prototypes for the compressed baryonic matter experiment at the facility for antiproton and ion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Cyrano S.H.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is the development of a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR. The TRD sub-detector will contribute to the global particle identification and track reconstruction of charged particles. The technical design goal for the TRD is to identify 90% electrons with a maximum pion contamination of 1%. The TRD and Ring Image CHerenkov (RICH) detector should reach a common pion rejection of 10 4 , in order to measure charmonium and low-mass vector mesons. The position resolution should be between 200 and 300 μm in the anode wire direction. The most demanding aspect of the CBM TRD design is the high interaction rate of up to 10 7 Hz resulting in a charged particle rate of up to 100 kHz/cm 2 in the central part of the detector planes at SIS300 conditions. It is crucial to find the optimal radiator detector combination with a minimum material budget to limit scattering and background due to conversions and at the same time reach a sufficient pion rejection and position resolution. In this thesis it is confirmed that a Multi-Wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) with a Xe/CO 2 gas thickness of 12mm provides sufficient absorption probability for TR-photons in combination with self-supporting low density PE foam or micro-structured foil radiators. A continuous investigation aiming at an optimal wire and pad-plane geometry, as well as a minimization of the material budget between active gas and radiator has been presented in hard- and software. A minimum photon absorption cross-section of the entrance window was realized with a thermally stretched aluminized Kapton foil, glued to a G11 support grid support frame. This structure limits the mechanical deformation of the entire window to 1mm/mbar. All MWPC prototypes include two wire planes. A symmetric amplification region of 2 x (3, 3.5 or 4)mm is followed by a short drift region of 6, 5 or 4 mm. The drift region reduces the gain variation due to

  11. Apoptosis, proliferation and p53, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma gene expression in relation to radiation response in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, Luc; Ong, Francisca; Gallee, Maarten; Verheij, Marcel; Horenblas, Simon; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Bartelink, Harry

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the apoptotic index, the Ki67 index, and the expression of the p53, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma genes correlate with local control, overall survival, and time to distant metastases in invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded pretreatment biopsies from 83 patients with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were scored morphologically for apoptosis and immunohistochemically for Ki67, p53, cyclin D1, and retinoblastoma gene expression. Survival analysis methods were used to assess overall survival, local control, and freedom from distant metastases. A multiple proportional hazard (PH) regression analysis was performed to study the prognostic value of the above mentioned biologic parameters (all divided into two categories, except Ki67) in addition to classical prognostic factors such as T stage, histologic grade, multifocality of the tumor, and completeness of transurethral resection. All patients were treated with external beam radiation as sole treatment. Median follow-up for the 19 patients still living was 7.5 years. Results: Apoptotic index varied from 0% to 3.4% with a mean of 0.8% and a median of 0.6%. Ki67 index varied from 0% to 60% with a mean of 14% and a median of 12%. P53 protein was detectable in 61% of the tumors. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was observed in 39% of the tumors and loss of retinoblastoma protein in 23% of the tumors. High Ki67 index was found to be significantly associated with p53 expression (p=0.04) and cyclin D1 overexpression (p=0.023). Cyclin D1 overexpression was found more often in Rb-positive tumors than in Rb-negative tumors (p=0.006). Other associations between the markers are less clear. Biologic markers were not correlated with T stage or grade. In the PH analysis local control was found to be significantly better for tumors with wild-type p53 (p=0.028). Also, tumors with an apoptotic index above the median value (0

  12. The LENS Facilities and Experimental Studies to Evaluate the Modeling of Boundary Layer Transition, Shock/Boundary Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Layer Interaction, Real Gas, Radiation and Plasma Phenomena in Contemporary CFD Codes Michael S. Holden, PhD CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CUBRC , Inc. 4455 Genesee Street Buffalo, NY 14225, USA 8. PERFORMING...HyFly Navy EMRG Reentry-F Slide 2 X-43 HIFiRE-2 Figure 17: Transition in Hypervelocity Flows: CUBRC Focus – Fully Duplicated Ground Test

  13. Calibration of the ALICE transition radiation detector and a study of Z{sup 0} and heavy quark production in pp colissions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailhache, Raphaelle

    2009-01-28

    The ALICE Experiment is one of the four experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One of its detector-systems, the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), is a gas detector designed for electron identification and charged particle tracking. The charged particle ionizes the gas along its path and electrons drift in an uniform field of 700 V/cm over 3 cm before being amplified. We implemented procedures to calibrate the drift velocity of the electrons, the time-offset of the signal, the amplification factor and the width of the Pad Response Function (PDF) characterizing the sharing of the deposited charge over adjacent pads. Physics events (pp and PbPb collisions) will be used. The performances of the algorithms were tested on simulated pp collisions at {radical}(s)=14 TeV and on first real data taken with cosmic-rays in the ALICE setup. The calibration software was installed on the Data Acquisition System at CERN and executed continuously during the cosmic-ray data taking in 2008, providing a first determination of the calibration constants. This thesis presents also a study on the capability of the ALICE central barrel to detect the Z{sup 0} boson through the decay Z{sup 0}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} in pp collisions at 14 TeV. We demonstrated that the Z{sup 0}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} is characterized by a very clean signal in the dielectron reconstructed invariant mass spectrum. At such high transverse momentum (about 45 GeV/c), the electrons from Z{sup 0} are identified with the Transition Radiation Detector. The remaining background from misidentified pions and electrons from heavy-flavored decays are rejected by the requirement of two isolated reconstructed tracks. The main challenge comes from the very small production rate. Therefore we estimated the efficiency of a trigger based on a low p{sub T} cut and electron identification with the TRD and showed that about 100 Z{sup 0}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} can be reconstructed per year employing such a

  14. Calibration of the ALICE transition radiation detector and a study of Z0 and heavy quark production in pp collisions at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailhache, Raphaelle

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Experiment is one of the four experiments installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One of its detector-systems, the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), is a gas detector designed for electron identification and charged particle tracking. The charged particle ionizes the gas along its path and electrons drift in an uniform field of 700 V/cm over 3 cm before being amplified. We implemented procedures to calibrate the drift velocity of the electrons, the time-offset of the signal, the amplification factor and the width of the Pad Response Function (PDF) characterizing the sharing of the deposited charge over adjacent pads. Physics events (pp and PbPb collisions) will be used. The performances of the algorithms were tested on simulated pp collisions at √(s)=14 TeV and on first real data taken with cosmic-rays in the ALICE setup. The calibration software was installed on the Data Acquisition System at CERN and executed continuously during the cosmic-ray data taking in 2008, providing a first determination of the calibration constants. This thesis presents also a study on the capability of the ALICE central barrel to detect the Z 0 boson through the decay Z 0 →e + e - in pp collisions at 14 TeV. We demonstrated that the Z 0 →e + e - is characterized by a very clean signal in the dielectron reconstructed invariant mass spectrum. At such high transverse momentum (about 45 GeV/c), the electrons from Z 0 are identified with the Transition Radiation Detector. The remaining background from misidentified pions and electrons from heavy-flavored decays are rejected by the requirement of two isolated reconstructed tracks. The main challenge comes from the very small production rate. Therefore we estimated the efficiency of a trigger based on a low p T cut and electron identification with the TRD and showed that about 100 Z 0 →e + e - can be reconstructed per year employing such a trigger. Another physics topics investigated in this thesis is the measurement

  15. Charged particles radiation measurements with Liulin-MO dosimeter of FREND instrument aboard ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter during the transit and in high elliptic Mars orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkova, Jordanka; Koleva, Rositza; Benghin, Victor; Dachev, Tsvetan; Matviichuk, Yuri; Tomov, Borislav; Krastev, Krasimir; Maltchev, Stephan; Dimitrov, Plamen; Mitrofanov, Igor; Malahov, Alexey; Golovin, Dmitry; Mokrousov, Maxim; Sanin, Anton; Litvak, Maxim; Kozyrev, Andrey; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Nikiforov, Sergey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Fedosov, Fedor; Grebennikova, Natalia; Zelenyi, Lev; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Drobishev, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    ExoMars is a joint ESA-Rosscosmos program for investigating Mars. Two missions are foreseen within this program: one consisting of the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), that carries scientific instruments for the detection of trace gases in the Martian atmosphere and for the location of their source regions, plus an Entry, Descent and landing demonstrator Module (EDM), launched on March 14, 2016; and the other, featuring a rover and a surface platform, with a launch date of 2020. On October 19, 2016 TGO was inserted into high elliptic Mars' orbit. The dosimetric telescope Liulin-MO for measuring the radiation environment onboard the ExoMars 2016 TGO is a module of the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutron Detector (FREND). Here we present first results from measurements of the charged particle fluxes, dose rates, Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and estimation of dose equivalent rates in the interplanetary space during the cruise of TGO to Mars and first results from dosimetric measurements in high elliptic Mars' orbit. A comparison is made with the dose rates obtained by RAD instrument onboard Mars Science Laboratory during the cruise to Mars in 2011-2012 and with the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) count rates provided by other particle detectors currently in space. The average measured dose rate in Si from GCR during the transit to Mars for the period April 22-September 15, 2016 is 372 ± 37 μGy d-1 and 390 ± 39 μGy d-1 in two perpendicular directions. The dose equivalent rate from GCR for the same time period is about 2 ± 0.3 mSv d-1. This is in good agreement with RAD results for radiation dose rate in Si from GCR in the interplanetary space, taking into account the different solar activity during the measurements of both instruments. About 10% increase of the dose rate, and 15% increase of the dose equivalent rate for 10.5 months flight is observed. It is due to the increase of Liulin-MO particle fluxes for that period and corresponds to the overall GCR intensity

  16. Radiation amorphization of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Chernyaeva, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical research on radiation amorphization are presented in this analytical review. Mechanism and driving forces of radiation amorphization are described, kinetic and thermodynamic conditions of amorphization are formulated. Compositional criteria of radiation amorphization are presented, that allow to predict irradiation behaviour of materials, their tendency to radiation amorphization. Mechanism of transition from crystalline state to amorphous state are considered depending on dose, temperature, structure of primary radiation damage and flux level. (author). 134 refs., 4 tab., 25 fig

  17. Radiation pre-vulcanization of transitional layer of all-steel load meridian tyre and performance tests of the tyre products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Benshang; Zhu Chengshen; Ying Shizhou; Liu Kebo; Li Zhaopeng; Li Kunhao; Zhang Hongna; Zhao Meihong; Yang Mingcheng

    2012-01-01

    In this article, natural rubber is chosen as transitional layer of all-steel load meridian tyre, which is pre-vulcanized by 500 keV E-beam irradiation of up to 60 kGy. The results show that the Green strength of transitional layer increases with the dose, reaching four times at 60 kGy as much as the control (without irradiation). The viscosity of transitional layer increases rapidly below about 29 kGy, but changes little at higher doses. The final mechanical properties do not differ significantly from those of the control. However, thickness of the natural rubber transitional layer for an average single tire can be reduced by 1 mm (or 1.5 kg), without obvious adverse effect on the tyre performance. (authors)

  18. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  19. Weak transitions in 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Marques, A.

    1972-01-01

    Energy levels and gamma radiation transitions of Ca 44 are experimentally determined, mainly the weak transition at 564 KeV and 728 KeV. The decay scheme and the method used (coincidence with Ge-Li detector) are also presented [pt

  20. The management of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Results of definitive and preoperative radiation therapy in 390 patients treated at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mameghan, H; Fisher, R J; Watt, W H; Meagher, M J; Rosen, I M; Mameghan, J; Brook, S; Tynan, A P; Korbel, E I; Millard, R J

    1992-06-01

    The treatment results for invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were assessed in a series of 390 patients referred to the Department of Radiation Oncology at the Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia, during the period 1977 to 1988. These patients were managed by one of two strategies: cystectomy (87 patients) and radiation therapy (303 patients). Actuarial survival rates (death from any cause) were determined and comparisons were made using log-rank tests and Cox regression analyses. The mean follow-up time was 7.6 years. Independent prognostic factors for shorter survival were: the presence of a ureteric obstruction (P less than 0.001), increasing clinical stage (P less than 0.001), increasing patient age (P = 0.003), and earlier year of presentation (P = 0.008). Comparison of the two strategies indicated no significant difference in overall survival after adjusting for imbalances in prognostic factors (P = 0.007 unadjusted; P = 0.29 adjusted). The slightly longer survival of 46 patients from 1983 onward who received primary systemic chemotherapy (compared with 149 patients not given chemotherapy) was not statistically significant (P = 0.12 unadjusted; P = 0.56 adjusted for prognostic factors). The 5-year actuarial rates of severe complications were 8.0% after cystectomy and 5.3% after radiation therapy. In 303 patients treated by definitive radiation therapy, the 5-year actuarial rate of freedom from bladder failure for all clinical tumor stages was 44% (Tx, 67%; T1, 45%; T2, 56%; T3, 39%; and T4, 39%). These results suggest that definitive radiation therapy is a viable alternative to radical cystectomy for patients with invasive TCC of the bladder.

  1. Locally preserved α  →  β phase transition in natural radiation-damaged titanite (CaTiSiO5): evidence from laser-induced photoluminescence and dielectric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirau, Tobias; Murawski, Dawid; Behrens, Harald; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Groat, Lee A.; Kaden, Ronny; Pöllmann, Herbert; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    In situ temperature-dependent laser-induced photoluminescence and dielectric measurements provide new evidence for the local occurrence of the α  →  β phase transition near 500 K in the preserved crystalline parts of natural radiation-damaged titanite (sample E2335 with ~24% amorphous fraction, containing Fe and Al impurities). Photoluminescence spectroscopic measurements show an anomaly in the vicinity of 500 K. The temperature-dependent evolution of the real part of the electrical conductivity (σ) and the real (ɛ‧) and the imaginary (ɛ″) part of the complex dielectric permittivity (ɛ *) of titanite have been measured at various AC frequencies (~1.2-96.8 kHz). Despite the masking and smearing effect of impurities and defects, the temperature-dependent behaviour of ɛ‧ and ɛ″ around the transition temperature of the investigated natural titanite E2335 shows a remarkable similarity to that of the synthetic end-member material (see Zhang et al (1995 Phys. Chem. Miner. 22 41-9)). This study indicates the suitability of photoluminescence and impedance spectroscopy for the detection of phase transitions, even in heavily disordered systems.

  2. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  3. Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer Simulations of the Scattering Polarization of the Hydrogen Lyalpha Line in a Magnetohydrodynamic Model of the Chromosphere-Corona Transition Region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpán, Jiří; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Leenaarts, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 803, č. 2 (2015), 65/1-65/15 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP209/12/P741 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : polarization * radiative transfer * scattering Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  4. Ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The law covering ionising radiation in Luxembourg is summarised under the headings: introduction (the outline law of 25 March 1963, and the Grand-Ducal Decree of 8 February 1967); the control of establishments (the authorisation procedure; emergency measures, suspension and withdrawal of the authorisation; alterations to the establishment); the importation, distribution and transit of radioactive substances; the transport of radioactive substances; the protection and safety of the population as a whole; sanctions; international conventions. (U.K.)

  5. Guidelines for radiation oncology centres in AFRA Member States intending to make a transition from 2-D to 3-D treatment planning and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, A.

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA Regional Technical Cooperation Project RAF/6/031 on Medical Physics in Support of Cancer Management aims to strengthen national and regional medical physics capabilities to sustain radiotherapy treatments in the AFRA1 Member States. In particular, it aims at increasing the number of qualified medical physicists in the region as well as improving the level of medical physics by establishing regional training and continuous development programmes. Eighteen National Project Coordinators (NPCs) nominated by participating AFRA Member States are engaged in the project. RAF/6/031 was approved by the IAEA in 2005 for an initial five year duration. A coordination meeting is held every two years where the NPCs and IAEA Technical and Project Management Officers establish the project's training and development programmes. During the first coordination meeting at Cape Town in November 2005, it was decided to convene a Task Force Meeting to review the status of treatment planning in radiotherapy in AFRA Member States and prepare a guidance document on the transition from 2-D to 3-D treatment planning. This Task Force Meeting took place at the IAEA's Headquarters in Vienna on 23-26 April 2007. The resulting guidance document highlights the milestones that have to be achieved by radiotherapy centres routinely implementing 2-D computerized treatment planning before making a transition to 3-D treatment planning and delivery. The implementation of 3-D planning by radiotherapy centres that have not yet met these milestones could lead to serious mistakes in treatments. A self-assessment questionnaire was also prepared during the Task Force Meeting. Member States that are planning to make a transition to 3-D planning are advised to assess their existing capabilities through this questionnaire. The same questionnaire could also be useful for the IAEA staff and external experts when assessing the readiness of a radiotherapy centre to make a safe and effective transition to 3-D

  6. Inhibition of G1-phase arrest induced by ionizing radiation in hematopoietic cells by overexpression of genes involved in the G1/S-phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epperly, M.; Berry, L.; Halloran, A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    D-type cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk-4) are likely involved in regulating passage of cells through the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. A decrease in the proportion of cells in G 1 , a relatively radiation-sensitive phase of the cell cycle, should result in increased resistance to ionizing radiation; however, the effect of such overexpression on X-ray-induced G 1 -phase arrest is not known. Radiation survival curves were obtained at a dose rate of either 8 cGy/min or 1 Gy/min for subclones of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic progenitor cell line 32D cl 3 expressing transgenes for either cyclin-D1, D2 or D3 or cdk-4. We compared the results to those with overexpression of the transgene for Bcl-2, whose expression enhances radiation survival and delays apoptosis. Cells overexpressing transgenes for each D-type cyclin or Bcl-2 had an increased number of cells in S phase compared to parent line 32D cl 3; however, overexpression of cdk-4 had no effect on cell cycle distribution. Cell death resulting from withdrawal of IL-3 was not affected by overexpression of D2, cdk-4 or Bcl-2. Flow cytometry 24 h after 5 Gy irradiation demonstrated that overexpression of each G 1 -phase regulatory transgene decreased the proportion of cells at the G 1 /S-phase border. Western analysis revealed induction of cyclin-D protein levels by irradiation, but no change in the D O , but a significant increase in the rvec n for cyclin-D or cdk-4 transgene-overexpressing clones at 1 Gy/min (P 1 /S-phase arrest. 31 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Origin of the opalescence at the α-β transition of quartz: Role of the incommensurate phase studied by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolino, G.; Bastie, P.; Capelle, B.; Chamard, V.; Haertwig, J.; Guzzo, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The origin of the light scattering observed at the α-β transition of quartz is still a subject of controversy. We present structural studies performed during the coexistence of the α and the intermediate incommensurate (inc) phases using simultaneously synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical techniques. The small and large angle light scatterings are due, respectively, to the orientation domains of the 3q inc phase and to the α phase twins revealed by diffuse x-ray scattering. In the vicinity of the interphase boundary, the two light scattering regions, both with perturbed properties, form a complex multiscale structure

  8. Origin of the Opalescence at the α-β Transition of Quartz: Role of the Incommensurate Phase Studied by Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolino, G.; Bastie, P.; Capelle, B.; Chamard, V.; Härtwig, J.; Guzzo, P. L.

    2005-04-01

    The origin of the light scattering observed at the α-β transition of quartz is still a subject of controversy. We present structural studies performed during the coexistence of the α and the intermediate incommensurate (inc) phases using simultaneously synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical techniques. The small and large angle light scatterings are due, respectively, to the orientation domains of the 3q inc phase and to the α phase twins revealed by diffuse x-ray scattering. In the vicinity of the interphase boundary, the two light scattering regions, both with perturbed properties, form a complex multiscale structure.

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of concurrent weekly low dose cisplatin during radiation treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder transitional cell carcinoma: A report of two sequential Phase II studies from the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogna, Nirdosh Kumar; Matthews, John H.L.; Turner, Sandra L.; Mameghan, Heidi; Duchesne, Gillian M.; Spry, Nigel; Berry, Martin P.; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the feasibility, toxicity, and clinical effectiveness of concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive radiation in the treatment of localised muscle invasive bladder cancer. Patients and methods: In January 1997 the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group embarked on a Phase II study (TROG 97.01) of weekly cisplatin (35 mg/m 2 x 7 doses) plus radiation to a dose of 63 Gy over 7 weeks. Following an interim toxicity analysis, the dose intensity of cisplatin was reduced to 6 cycles and the radiation schedule changed to 64 Gy over 6.5 weeks leading to the second study (TROG 99.06). A total of 113 patients were enrolled. Results: Acute grade 3 urinary toxicity occurred in 23% of the patients. Acute grade 4 pelvic toxicity was not seen. Thirty-eight patients (33%) experienced grade 3 or 4 cisplatin related toxicities with 15 patients (12%) requiring significant dose modification. The reduced dose intensity in Study 99.06 improved tolerability. Incidence of significant late morbidity was low (6%). Seventy-nine patients (70%) achieved complete remission at the 6 month cystoscopic assessment. Local invasive recurrence was seen in 11 of the 79 patients (14%). In 18 patients (16%) isolated superficial TCC/CIS were detected (6 months and beyond).The local control rate was 45% with a functional bladder being retained in 69 of the 113 patients (61%). RFS and DSS at 5 years were 33% and 50%, respectively. Conclusion: Our two sequential Phase II studies have shown that concurrent chemoradiation using weekly cisplatin in the management of localised invasive bladder TCC is feasible and reasonably well tolerated. This approach is currently being investigated further in a randomised study

  10. Energy Levels and Radiative Rates for Transitions in F-like Sc XIII and Ne-like Sc XII and Y XXX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanti M. Aggarwal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes are reported for F-like Sc XIII and Ne-like Sc XII and Y XXX for which the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP has been adopted. For all three ions, limited data exist in the literature but comparisons have been made wherever possible to assess the accuracy of the calculations. In the present work, the lowest 102, 125 and 139 levels have been considered for the respective ions. Additionally, calculations have also been performed with the flexible atomic code (FAC to (particularly confirm the accuracy of energy levels.

  11. Energy Levels and Radiative Rates for Transitions in F-like Sc XIII and Ne-like Sc XII and Y XXX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kanti

    2018-05-01

    Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes are reported for F-like Sc~XIII and Ne-like Sc~XII and Y~XXX for which the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}) has been adopted. For all three ions limited data exist in the literature but comparisons have been made wherever possible to assess the accuracy of the calculations. In the present work the lowest 102, 125 and 139 levels have been considered for the respective ions. Additionally, calculations have also been performed with the flexible atomic code ({\\sc fac}) to (particularly) confirm the accuracy of energy levels.

  12. Radiative rates for E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions in the Br-like ions Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, Francis P.

    2015-01-01

    Energies and lifetimes are reported for the lowest 375 levels of five Br-like ions, namely Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII, and Mo VIII, mostly belonging to the 4s 2 4p 5 , 4s 2 4p 4 4ℓ, 4s4p 6 , 4s 2 4p 4 5ℓ, 4s 2 4p 3 4d 2 , 4s4p 5 4ℓ, and 4s4p 5 5ℓ configurations. Extensive configuration interaction has been included and the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package (GRASP) has been adopted for the calculations. Additionally, radiative rates are listed among these levels for all E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions. From a comparison with the measurements, the majority of our energy levels are assessed to be accurate to better than 2%, although discrepancies between theory and experiment for a few are up to 6%. An accuracy assessment of the calculated radiative rates (and lifetimes) is more difficult, because no prior results exist for these ions

  13. THE EMISSION, LIFETIMES, AND FORMATION THRESHOLD OF THE VEGARD–KAPLAN TRANSITION OF SOLID NITROGEN EXPOSED TO FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard–Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200–440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ∼ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  14. THE EMISSION, LIFETIMES, AND FORMATION THRESHOLD OF THE VEGARD–KAPLAN TRANSITION OF SOLID NITROGEN EXPOSED TO FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming, E-mail: bmcheng@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, No. 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2016-11-20

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard–Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200–440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ∼ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  15. The Emission, Lifetimes, and Formation Threshold of the Vegard-Kaplan Transition of Solid Nitrogen Exposed to Far-ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Cheng, Bing-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Irradiation of solid nitrogen at 4 K with far-ultraviolet light from a synchrotron caused excitation to the upper state of the Vegard-Kaplan (VK) system; the emission in that system was simultaneously recorded in wavelength region 200-440 nm. The lifetimes of emission lines for VK (0, 1) to (0, 12) transitions were measured in the range of 2.12 ˜ 2.65 s. The threshold wavelength to observe the VK emission was 175.0 ± 3.5 nm, corresponding to energy 7.08 ± 0.14 eV. This investigation of the generation of icy VK nitrogen enhances our understanding of its photochemistry in space.

  16. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  17. The Influence of Radiation on Pit Solution Chemistry as it Pertains to the Transition from Metastable to Stable Pitting in Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galuszka-Muga, Barbara; Muga, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    Previous work relevant to current efforts is summarized. A description of an improved version of a new electrochemical probe, the ArtPit, is given. The distinct feature of the probe for investigating metastable pitting of carbon steels is specified and compared to other approaches. The electrochemical response of the ArtPit under the gamma irradiation and elevated temperature conditions that occur at high level waste (HLW) storage tanks is presented. In particular, the Tafel slope determinations and chemical analyses of the ArtPit confined volume electrolyte are described. Based on results a possible approach for reducing the corrosion rate of HLW tank walls is suggested. Additional statistical analysis of the occurrence of short duration (passivated pits) and long term (stable pitting) electrochemical pulses (current surges) during exposure confirm that radiation enhances the occurrence of both more and smaller sized pits due to increased likelihood of repassivation

  18. Observation of a new $\\chi_b$ state in radiative transitions to $\\Upsilon(1S)$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)$ at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; 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Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    The $\\chi_b$(nP) quarkonium states are produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb$^{-1}$, these states are reconstructed through their radiative decays to $\\Upsilon$(1S,2S) with $\\Upsilon \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. In addition to the mass peaks corresponding to the decay modes $\\chi_b(1P,2P) \\to \\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$, a new structure centered at a mass of 10.539+/-0.004 (stat.)+/-0.008 (syst.) GeV is also observed, in both the $\\Upsilon(1S)\\gamma$ and $\\Upsilon(2S)\\gamma$ decay modes. This is interpreted as the $\\chi_b$(3P) system.

  19. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. II. Spatially resolved analysis of O V 62.97 nm transition region emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, A.; Warren, H.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Global relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and the extreme ultraviolet emission integrated over active region area have been studied in a previous paper by Fludra & Ireland (2008, A&A, 483, 609). Spatially integrated EUV line intensities are tightly correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux, and yet these global power laws have been shown to be insufficient for accurately determining the coronal heating mechanism owing to the mathematical ill-conditioning of the inverse problem. Aims: Our aim is to establish a relationship between the EUV line intensities and the photospheric magnetic flux density on small spatial scales in active regions and investigate whether it provides a way of identifying the process that heats the coronal loops. Methods: We compare spatially resolved EUV transition region emission and the photospheric magnetic flux density. This analysis is based on the O V 62.97 nm line recorded by the SOHO Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and SOHO MDI magnetograms for six solar active regions. The magnetic flux density ϕ is converted to a simulated O V intensity using a model relationship I(ϕ, L) = Cϕδ Lλ, where the loop length L is obtained from potential magnetic field extrapolations. This simulated spatial distribution of O V intensities is convolved with the CDS instrument's point spread function and compared pixel by pixel with the observed O V line intensity. Parameters δ and λ are derived to give the best fit for the observed and simulated intensities. Results: Spatially-resolved analysis of the transition region emission reveals the complex nature of the heating processes in active regions. In some active regions, particularly large, local intensity enhancements up to a factor of five are present. When areas with O V intensities above 3000 erg cm-2 s-1 sr-1 are ignored, a power law has been fitted to the relationship between the local O V line intensity and the photospheric magnetic flux density in each

  20. Microwave-assisted synthesis of transition metal phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-12-30

    A method of synthesizing transition metal phosphide. In one embodiment, the method has the steps of preparing a transition metal lignosulfonate, mixing the transition metal lignosulfonate with phosphoric acid to form a mixture, and subjecting the mixture to a microwave radiation for a duration of time effective to obtain a transition metal phosphide.

  1. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 07: Transitioning from extended-distance total body irradiation to optimized VMAT total marrow irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherpak, Amanda; Chytyk-Praznik, Krista; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Schella, Jason; Davis, Carol-Anne; Day, Allan; DeGiobbi, Jennifer; McAloney, Dave; Mulroy, Liam [Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: TMI targets only the bone marrow, with the intent of sparing normal tissues. The NSCC has recently implemented a TMI protocol which includes VMAT fields to treat the bone marrow from head to mid-thigh and extended SSD POP fields to treat the lower legs. This work describes the commissioning and initial clinical results of the first reported VMAT TMI treatments in Canada. Methods: Detailed CT simulation, imaging, planning and treatment procedures were developed by a multi-disciplinary team. Patients have 1 cm of bolus over the lower legs and 0.5 cm of bolus around the lower arms. The PTV includes all bone, except mandible, facial bones and hands, with the objective of V(12 Gy) > 90%. Detailed analysis of the influence of field overlap was performed to determine optimal field placement and image-guidance tolerances. Results: PTV coverage was achieved for all cases as V(12 Gy) ranged from 90.4–96.3%. The minimum dose to the PTV, D(99%), ranged from 91.4–97.87% and V(90%Rx=10.8 Gy) ranged from 99.1–100.0%. The lungs, liver and heart had an average D{sub mean} of (7.8±0.3)Gy/(65±2)%, (7.6±0.7)Gy/(63±5)%, and (6.8±0.4)Gy/(56±4)% respectively. Conclusions: Commissioning required input and collaboration from all team members. Transitioning from TBI to TMI requires additional time for contouring, treatment planning, QA, and treatment. Patient benefit can however be seen in the quality of OAR sparing.

  2. Sci-Fri PM: Radiation Therapy, Planning, Imaging, and Special Techniques - 07: Transitioning from extended-distance total body irradiation to optimized VMAT total marrow irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherpak, Amanda; Chytyk-Praznik, Krista; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Schella, Jason; Davis, Carol-Anne; Day, Allan; DeGiobbi, Jennifer; McAloney, Dave; Mulroy, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: TMI targets only the bone marrow, with the intent of sparing normal tissues. The NSCC has recently implemented a TMI protocol which includes VMAT fields to treat the bone marrow from head to mid-thigh and extended SSD POP fields to treat the lower legs. This work describes the commissioning and initial clinical results of the first reported VMAT TMI treatments in Canada. Methods: Detailed CT simulation, imaging, planning and treatment procedures were developed by a multi-disciplinary team. Patients have 1 cm of bolus over the lower legs and 0.5 cm of bolus around the lower arms. The PTV includes all bone, except mandible, facial bones and hands, with the objective of V(12 Gy) > 90%. Detailed analysis of the influence of field overlap was performed to determine optimal field placement and image-guidance tolerances. Results: PTV coverage was achieved for all cases as V(12 Gy) ranged from 90.4–96.3%. The minimum dose to the PTV, D(99%), ranged from 91.4–97.87% and V(90%Rx=10.8 Gy) ranged from 99.1–100.0%. The lungs, liver and heart had an average D mean of (7.8±0.3)Gy/(65±2)%, (7.6±0.7)Gy/(63±5)%, and (6.8±0.4)Gy/(56±4)% respectively. Conclusions: Commissioning required input and collaboration from all team members. Transitioning from TBI to TMI requires additional time for contouring, treatment planning, QA, and treatment. Patient benefit can however be seen in the quality of OAR sparing.

  3. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  4. Cyclotron transitions of bound ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchastnov, Victor G.; Pavlov, George G.

    2017-06-01

    A charged particle in a magnetic field possesses discrete energy levels associated with particle rotation around the field lines. The radiative transitions between these levels are the well-known cyclotron transitions. We show that a bound complex of particles with a nonzero net charge displays analogous transitions between the states of confined motion of the entire complex in the field. The latter bound-ion cyclotron transitions are affected by a coupling between the collective and internal motions of the complex and, as a result, differ from the transitions of a "reference" bare ion with the same mass and charge. We analyze the cyclotron transitions for complex ions by including the coupling within a rigorous quantum approach. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the transition energies and oscillator strengths to those of the bare ion. Selection rules based on integrals of collective motion are derived for the bound-ion cyclotron transitions analytically, and the perturbation and coupled-channel approaches are developed to study the transitions quantitatively. Representative examples are considered and discussed for positive and negative atomic and cluster ions.

  5. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-01-01

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F v /F m , DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F v /F m and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte-based UV

  6. Spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds in an aquatic liverwort and their usefulness as biomarkers of current and past UV radiation: A case study in the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monforte, Laura; Tomás-Las-Heras, Rafael; Del-Castillo-Alonso, María-Ángeles; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier, E-mail: javier.martinez@unirioja.es; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2015-06-15

    The spatial variability of ultraviolet-absorbing compounds (UVACs) in the freshwater liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia subsp. cordifolia was studied in mid-latitudes (the Atlantic–Mediterranean transition) across a wide lati-altitudinal gradient, with the aim of testing the usefulness of UVACs as biomarkers of current ambient levels of UV radiation. We analysed 17 samples from streams located in the main mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula, differentiating methanol-soluble (SUVACs, mainly located in the vacuoles) and methanol-insoluble (IUVACs, bound to cell walls) compounds, since they represent different manners to cope with UV radiation. In both fractions, the bulk level of UVACs and the concentrations of several individual compounds were measured. In addition, we measured F{sub v}/F{sub m}, DNA damage and sclerophylly index (SI) as possible additional UV biomarkers. UVACs showed a high variability, probably due not only to the gradients of macroenvironmental factors (UV radiation, PAR, and water temperature), but also to microenvironmental factors inherent to the dynamic nature of mountain streams. Two soluble coumarins were positively correlated with UV levels and could be used for ambient UV biomonitoring in the spatial scale. In contrast to the variability in UVACs, the relatively homogeneous values of F{sub v}/F{sub m} and the lack of any DNA damage made these variables useless for ambient UV biomonitoring, but suggested a strong acclimation capacity of this liverwort to changing environmental conditions (in particular, to UV levels). Finally, UVACs of fresh samples of the liverwort were compared to those of herbarium samples collected in the same lati-altitudinal gradient. SUVACs were significantly higher in fresh samples, whereas IUVACs generally showed the contrary. Thus, IUVACs were more stable than SUVACs and hence more adequate for retrospective UV biomonitoring. In conclusion, UVAC compartmentation should be taken into account for bryophyte

  7. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  8. Generation of sequences of daily radiation values using a library of Markov transition matrices. Application of weather station in tre University od Vigo; Generacion de secuencias de radiacion diaria utilizando librerias de matrices de Markov. Aplicacion a la estacion meteorologica de la Universidad de Vigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieres, J. A.; Vazquez, M.; Fernandez-Seara, J.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the generation of sequences of daily radiation values using a library of Markov transition matrices is analysed. The paper describes the fundamentals of the method employed and how sequences of daily radiation can be generated using as input monthly averaged values of the clearness index. The method is applied to the location where the Solar Energy Lab Weather Station of the University of Vigo (longitude 8 degree 41' 18'' O, latitude 42 degree 10' 9'' N) is placed. Radiation sequences are generated for the years 2002 and 2003 and the results are compared with measured radiation values. Results of statistical tests show a bad performance of the generation method for the location studied. (Author)

  9. Radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landfermann, H.H.; Solbach, C.

    1992-11-01

    The brochure explains the major types of radiation, the radiation sources, effects, uses, and risks, as well as the regulatory system adopted by the government in order to keep the risks as low as possible. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light

  11. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  12. Transition Dipole Moments and Transition Probabilities of the CN Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the transition probabilities of electric dipole transitions between 10 low-lying states of the CN radical. These states are X2Σ+, A2Π, B2Σ+, a4Σ+, b4Π, 14Σ‑, 24Π, 14Δ, 16Σ+, and 16Π. The potential energy curves are calculated using the CASSCF method, which is followed by the icMRCI approach with the Davidson correction. The transition dipole moments between different states are calculated. To improve the accuracy of potential energy curves, core–valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections, as well as the extrapolation of potential energies to the complete basis set limit are included. The Franck–Condon factors and Einstein coefficients of emissions are calculated. The radiative lifetimes are determined for the vibrational levels of the A2Π, B2Σ+, b4Π, 14Σ‑, 24Π, 14Δ, and 16Π states. According to the transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes, some guidelines for detecting these states spectroscopically are proposed. The spin–orbit coupling effect on the spectroscopic and vibrational properties is evaluated. The splitting energy in the A2Π state is determined to be 50.99 cm‑1, which compares well with the experimental ones. The potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, spectroscopic parameters, and transition probabilities reported in this paper can be considered to be very reliable. The results obtained here can be used as guidelines for detecting these transitions, in particular those that have not been measured in previous experiments or have not been observed in the Sun, comets, stellar atmospheres, dark interstellar clouds, and diffuse interstellar clouds.

  13. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  14. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  15. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1975-01-01

    Physical and radiological terms, quantities, and units. Basic principles of radiation protection (ICRP, IAEA, EURATOM, FRG). Biological effects of ionizing radiation. Objectives of practical radiation protection. (HP) [de

  16. Radiation effects on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references

  17. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  18. Molecular-nuclear transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.B.; Miller, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    the high-excited levels is necessary for creating a so-called inverse population, or the active medium. The role of the active medium in this case belongs to the initial molecular system in its ground state (which is stable contrary to the case of the active medium in the quantum optics). Now, if we irradiate the system of these molecules by electromagnetic radiation with the energy in keV range, the coherent molecular-nuclear transitions can be induced. Hence, this phenomenon can be observable in coincidence experiments: one should look for the coincidences between keV-range molecular-nuclear radiation and γ-radiation in MeV-energy range in final nuclei. For example, in the process H 2 O → 18 Ne γ-quanta with the energy E γ =4.522 MeV will be emitted, and for the case of 6 LiD→ 8 Be two α-particles with the energy E α =11.2 MeV each are expected. Then one will observe an effect like the 'molecular-nuclear laser', in which the low energy electromagnetic radiation (x-rays or hard UV radiation) is transformed into the high energy radiation: γ-quanta or α-particles, depending on the decay mode of the final nuclei. Later it can in principle be considered as a new way of obtaining the nuclear energy

  19. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  20. Electromagnetic transitions in the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulehla, I.; Suk, M.; Trka, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Methods to achieve excitation of atoms are outlined and conditions necessary for the occurrence of electromagnetic transitions in the atomic shell are given. Radiative transitions between the energy states of the atom include stimulated absorption, spontaneous emission, and stimulated emission. Selection rules applying to the majority of observed transitions are given. The parity concept is explained. It is shown how the electromagnetic field and its interaction with the magnetic moment of the atom lead to a disturbance of the energy states of the atom and the occurrence of various electro-optical and magneto-optical phenomena. The Stark effect and electron spin resonance are described. X-rays and X-ray spectra, the Auger effect and the internal photoeffect are also dealt with. The principle of the laser is explained. (M.D.). 22 figs., 1 tab

  1. DNA sequence analysis of spontaneous and γ-radiation (anoxic)-induced lacId mutations in Escherichia coli umuC122::Tn5: Differential requirement for umuC at G·C vs. A·T sites and for the production of transversions vs. transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargentini, Neil J.; Smith, Kendric C.

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli umuC122::Tn5 cells were γ-irradiated ( 137 Cs, 750 Gy, under N 2 ), and lac-constitutive mutants were produced at 36% of the wild-type level. The specific nature of the umuC strain's partial radiation mutability was determined by sequencing 325 radiation-induced lacI d mutations. The yields of radiation-induced mutation classes in the umuC strain (as a percentage of the wild-type yield) were: 80% for A·T approaches G·C transitions, 70% for multi-base additions, 60% for single-base deletions, 53% for A·T approaches C·G transversions, 36% for G·C approaches A·T transitions, 25% for multi-base deletions, 21% for A·T approaches T·A transversions, 11% for G·C approaches C·G transversions, 9% for G·C approaches T·A transversions, and 0% for multiple mutations. Based on these deficiencies and other factors, it is concluded that the umuC strain is near-normal for A·T approaches G·C transitions, single-base deletions and possibly A·T approaches C·G transversions; is generally deficient for mutagenesis at G·C sites and for transversions, and is grossly deficient in multiple mutations. Damage at G·C sites seems more difficult for translesion DNA synthesis to bypass than damage at A·T sites, and especially when trying to produce a transversion. The yield of G·C approaches A·T transitions in the umuC strain (36% of the wild-type level) argues that abasic sites are involved in no more than 64% of γ-radiation-induced base substitutions in the wild-type strain. Altogether, these data suggest that the UmuC and UmuD' proteins facilitate, rather than being absolutely required for, translesion DNA synthesis; with the degree of facilitation being dependent both on the nature of the non-coding DNA damage, i.e., at G·C vs. A·T sites, and on the nature of the mis-incorporated base, i.e., whether it induces transversions or transitions

  2. Study of the phase transition dynamics of the L to H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, R.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rettig, C.L.

    1997-12-01

    A highly radiating zone (MARFE) just above the divertor X-point has been used to access the marginal transition regime P sep ∼ P thres to study the existence of a critical point for the L to H transition. Phase transition models predict that at the critical point, the transition duration increases and the plasma parameters vary continuously between L-mode and H-mode. In these experiments, the L to H transition duration increased 50--100 times over fast transitions. However, the evolution of E r shear, edge density gradient, H-mode pedestal, and fluctuations is essentially unchanged from that in fast transitions. The only difference is in the speed with which and the degree to which the fluctuation amplitudes are transiently reduced. This difference is understandable in terms of the time scales for fluctuation amplitude reduction (≤ 100 micros) and edge pressure gradient increase (several ms), provided the edge fluctuations are pressure-gradient driven

  3. Alignment of the ALICE transition radiation detector as well as two particle intensity interferometry of identical pions from p+p collisions at LHC energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This PhD thesis deals with results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) is one of the four major detectors at the LHC and the only one dedicated to heavy ion physics. It is divided into 13 subsystems. One of these is the ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), which is installed around the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) at a distance of 3 m to the beam pipe. The acceptance in φ covers the complete 360 . This subsystems concept is intentionally modular, being composed of 18 supermoduls, each containing 30 chambers. Always 6 such small units in a row (in r direction) are called a stack. Altogether the TRD is made up of 522 chambers, each of them being able to work as a self-sustaining small Transition Radiation Detector. Aim of the alignment of the TRD is the minimization of the geometrical uncertainties while the conversion of the detector signals into digital position informations, the so called reconstruction. For this purpose the AliROOT alignment framework was developed. As a result one receives six correction parameters (alignment parameters) for each alignable module of the TRD (supermoduls and chambers) in the chosen reference frame. These parameters are the three shifts along the axis in the local frame - z shift, rφ-shift and r-shift, as well as the three rotations or tilts around these axis - z-tilt, φ-tilt and r-tilt. The extracted correction parameters are stored in the of Offline Condition Data Base (OCDB) and used when doing a new reconstruction cycle. In the end the efficiency and resolution of the TRD are monitored. The final position uncertainty of the supermoduls concerning the TPC was below 1000 μm. The position uncertainty of the chambers within their stacks appears to be around 300 μm. The data of ALICE where analysed with this method. The systems for intensity interferometry of identical pions (π + π + und π - π - ) which we analysed were p+p at √(s NN )=900 GeV as well as 7 TeV, and heavy

  4. Ionizing radiation, radiation sources, radiation exposure, radiation effects. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.

    1985-01-01

    Part 2 deals with radiation exposure due to artificial radiation sources. The article describes X-ray diagnosis complete with an analysis of major methods, nuclear-medical diagnosis, percutaneous radiation therapy, isotope therapy, radiation from industrial generation of nucler energy and other sources of ionizing radiation. In conclusion, the authors attempt to asses total dose, genetically significant dose and various hazards of total radiation exposure by means of a summation of all radiation impacts. (orig./WU) [de

  5. Theory of edge radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Kocharyan, V.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2008-08-15

    We formulate a complete theory of Edge Radiation based on a novel method relying on Fourier Optics techniques. Similar types of radiation like Transition UndulatorRadiation are addressed in the framework of the same formalism. Special attention is payed in discussing the validity of approximations upon which the theory is built. Our study makes consistent use of both similarity techniques and comparisons with numerical results from simulation. We discuss both near and far zone. Physical understanding of many asymptotes is discussed. Based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique, we also discuss an analytical model to describe the presence of a vacuum chamber. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Finally, we consider the use of Edge Radiation as a tool for electron beam diagnostics. We discuss Coherent Edge Radiation, Extraction of Edge Radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of Edge Radiation on XFEL setups and we discuss recent results. (orig.)

  6. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  7. The Near-Earth Space Radiation for Electronics Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; LaBel, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    The earth's space radiation environment is described in terms of: a) charged particles as relevant to effects on spacecraft electronics, b) the nature and distribution of trapped and transiting radiation, and c) their effect on electronic components.

  8. Natural radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feliciano, Vanusa Maria Delage

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic radiation, as well as cosmogenic radiation, terrestrial radiation, radon and thorium are introduced in this chapter 3. The distribution of natural radiation sources is treated, where the percentage distribution of the contribution relative to exposure to radiation from natural and artificial sources is also included

  9. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  10. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions

  11. Comments on the electroweak phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; Huet, P.; Linde, A.; Linde, D.

    1992-01-01

    We report on an investigation of various problems related to the theory of the electroweak phase transition. This includes a determination of the nature of the phase transition, a discussion of the possible role of higher order radiative corrections and the theory of the formation and evolution of the bubbles of the new phase. We find in particular that no dangerous linear terms appear in the effective potential. However, the strength of the first-order phase transition is 2/3 times less than what follows from the one-loop approximation. This rules out baryogenesis in the minimal version of the electroweak theory with light Higgs bosons. (orig.)

  12. Radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsner, S.F.; Head, L.H.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive review of radiation enteritis is presented. Experience in clinical radiation therapy has indicated that the small bowel is the segment of the alimentary tract that is most susceptible to radiation damage. (U.S.)

  13. Radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, C.T.; Green, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    A system for indicating radiation from a radioactive fluid such as a gas wherein simultaneous indications of the activity concentration of radioactivity of the gas, the radiation dose rate and average energy of the radiation are provided

  14. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures Pantazi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This work define procedures and controls about ionizing radiations. Between some definitions it found the following topics: radiation dose, risk, biological effects, international radioprotection bodies, workers exposure, accidental exposure, emergencies and radiation protection

  15. Radiation sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposure to ionizing radiation. There are two main types of radiation: nonionizing and ionizing. Nonionizing radiation comes in the form of light, radio waves, microwaves and radar. These forms usually don't cause tissue damage. ...

  16. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  17. Electronic transitions of fluorene, dibenzofuran, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duy Duc; Trunk, John; Nakhimovsky, Lina

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of the electronic transitions of fluorene and its hetero-analogues dibenzofuran, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene was performed in a wide energy range. Gas phase, crystal phase, and linear dichroism electronic transmittance spectra were measured with synchrotron radiation...

  18. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram deals with all aspects of radiation carcinogenesis. The term radiation here includes U-V radiation and the entire electromagnetic spectrum, electron and other charged particle beams, neutrons, and alpha and beta radiation from radioactive substances. Abstracts included concern relationships between radiation and carcinogenesis in humans, experimental induction of tumors in animals by irradiation, studies on the mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis at the cellular level, studies of RBE, dose response or dose threshold in relation to radiation carcinogenesis, and methods and policies for control of radiation exposure in the general population. In general, this Cancergram excludes abstracts on radio-therapy, radiologic diagnosis, radiation pathology, and radiation biology, where these articles have no bearing on radiation carcinogenesis

  19. Design of a trigger layout and the corresponding implementation of a 200 GB/s readout network for the ALICE transition radiation detector; Entwicklung des Triggerkonzepts und die entsprechende Implementierung eines 200-GB/s-Auslesenetzwerks fuer den ALICE-Uebergangsstrahlungsdetektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rolf

    2008-05-19

    Through the use of modern information technology, intelligent trigger systems are gaining more and more importance in high-energy physics. Particularly in heavy ion experiments, the large number of generated particles results in an enormous amount of data. By filtering the data at an early stage and discarding irrelevant events, the efficiency of the entire system can be raised significantly. The ALICE experiment at CERN breaks new ground in this respect. With the Transition Radiation Detector, the acquired signals are processed parallel right on the detector using more than 65 000 multi-chip modules. Via a readout network, the preprocessed data arrives at a global track reconstruction unit, which contributes to the decision whether an event is discarded or further processed. In this thesis, a trigger concept for the Transition Radiation Detector is developed and the readout network is implemented. A special challenge is to achieve an efficient interaction of the above processing stages. By means of simulations and analyses, the entire system is optimized in this regard. It turns out that the read-out process plays a decisive role. In this context, a design flow for the used ASIC is developed. The analyses show that through optimizations the extremely high demands made on this complex system can be met. During a beam time, first prototypes have successfully been tested. The entire system is currently being assembled and will be brought on line in 2008. (orig.)

  20. Radiation monitoring network of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melicherova, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2000 Centre of Partial monitoring system 'Radioactivity of environment' was established on Slovak Hydrometeorology Institute (SHMI). Radiation monitoring network is one part of Radiation monitoring network of the Slovak Republic. At present SHMI operates in its monitoring network 23 detectors GammaTracer fy Genitron, one mobile detector and one stan by detector. All active detectors are placed in the professional meteorological stations in the selected parts of Slovakia. First one of these detectors was installed in 1999 and they replaced former type of detector (FAG). Last two detectors were installed in 2002. Detector GammaTracer has range of measurement from 20 nSv/h to 10 Sv/h. The detectors are calibrated every 2 years in the Slovak Institute of Metrology in compliance with the calibration plan. SHMI operates 4 aerosol monitors in Hurbanovo, Lucenec, Stropkov and Liesek. Filter 8 from these monitors are analysed in the Institute of Public Health (Cs-137, Be-7). On the base of bilateral agreement between the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water-Management and the Slovak Ministry of Environment Austrian side gave into the ownership of the Slovak side an automatic aerosol monitor AMS-02 including container and weather station. This monitor was installed in meteorological station Jaslovske Bohunice on 4-th October 2001. The Slovak Ministry of Environment provides the Austrian Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water-Management with the readings of this monitor, free of charge, for at least 3 years and vice versa, the Austrian side gives the readings of the Austrian aerosol monitors to the Slovak Ministry of Environment free of charge. At present national monitoring center in Bratislava-Koliba is connected via ISDN line with Jaslovske Bohunice and Austrian center providing the data exchange. Radiation data (dose rate in the unit nSv/h) are collected via the Institute network to the MSS (message switch system) in the

  1. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  2. Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in natural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, J.

    1974-01-01

    Mechanisms of radionuclide transition in various elements of the environment have been dealt with in an ecological aspect. The knowledge of the radionuclide propagation tracks will make possible to ascertain precisely causes and effects of the radiation and to reduce the contamination value. Particular attention has been paid to test methods. (author)

  3. Radiative transitions for the Cs2NaErCl6 elpasolite crystal. I.- Vibronic intensities for the emissions |(4115/2)Γk]≤| (4I13/2)Γl] in the Cs2NaErCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, R.; Escudero, M; Navarro, G; Meruane, T

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report explicit calculations for the spectral intensities of the seventy-five emissions |( 4 I 1372 )Γ k ]→ ( 4 I 15/2 )Γ l ] +v m ; m=3,4,6, where the irreducible representations labels are chosen as: (Γ k ; Γ l )=(Γ 6 ,2Γ 7 ,2Γ 8 ; Γ 6 , Γ 7 ,3Γ 8 , of the ErCl 3- 6 clusters in the Cs 2 NaErCl 6 crystal. The details of the spectrum suggest that in an energy range of about 400cm -1 , a substantial number of transitions [25 magnetic dipole (MD) and 75 vibronic electric dipole (VED) excitations] may be observed and also that a number of super positions of these transitions is most likely to occur. This experimental evidence is rather complicated to analyze and there is a need for more theoretical backup to gain understanding in both radiative and non-radiative processes in these materials. In this paper, we have taken a broader view of the intensity mechanisms associated with vibronically allowed electronic transitions and have decided to further test our current calculation models (VCF-LP) with reference to the |( 4 I 13/2 )Γ k ]→|( 4 I 15/2 )Γl]+v m , emissions for this crystal. It is interesting to realize that, although the intrinsic limitations of our models and methods to estimate spectral intensities, the final output (calculated oscillator strengths) indicate a fair and sensible agreement between our theoretical predictions and experimental data. As a further test of our vibronic intensity model, in a forthcoming paper, we will examine the rather unusual high intensity associated with the |( 4 S 3/ ) Γ l →|( 4 I 15/2 )Γ k ] emissions for this elpasolite (author)

  4. Search for positron anisotropies in cosmic rays with AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machate, Fabian [1. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station has observed a significant excess of cosmic ray positrons over the background expected from secondary production at energies above 10 GeV. Nearby pulsars and annihilating dark matter particles as a primary source of electrons and positrons have been discussed as an explanation. A possible way of distinguishing between pulsar and dark matter origin is the measurement of dipole anisotropies in the positron flux or the positron to electron ratio. Any anisotropy will be reduced by diffusion in galactic magnetic fields to below the percent level. AMS-02 is the leading space-based experiment for cosmic ray detection and well suited for this search. A new analysis procedure for anisotropies using an event sample with large acceptance is presented. It relies on the ability of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to separate positrons from the proton background.

  5. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori [Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 HigashiOhi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  6. Radiation practices and radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The guide presents the principal requirements on accuracy of radiation measurements and on the approval, calibration and operating condition inspections of radiation meters, together with requirements for dosimetric services measuring the individual radiation doses of workers engaged in radiation work (approved dosimetric services). The Guide also sets out the definitions of quantities and units used in radiation measurements. The radiation protection quantities used for assessing the harmful effects of radiation and for expressing the maximum values for radiation exposure (equivalent dose and effective dose) are set out in Guide ST 7.2. This Guide concerns measurements of ionizing radiation involved in radiation practices, the results of which are used for determining the radiation exposure of workers engaged in radiation work and members of the public, and of patients subject to the use of radiation in health services, or upon the basis of which compliance with safety requirements of appliances currently in use and of their premises of use or of the workplaces of workers is ensured. The Guide also concerns measurements of the radon concentration of inhaled air in both workplaces and dwellings. The Guide does not apply to determining the radiation exposure of aircrews, determination of exposure caused by internal radiation, or measurements made to protect the public in the event of, or in preparation for abnormal radiation conditions

  7. Radiative transfer in silylidene molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to search for silylidene (H2CSi in the interstellar medium, Izuha et al. (1996 recorded microwave spectrum of H2CSi in laboratory and made an unsuccessful attempt of its identification in IRC +10216, Ori KL, Sgr B2, through its 717-616 transition at 222.055 GHz. For finding out if there are other transitions of H2CSi which may help in its identification in the interstellar medium, we have considered 25 rotational levels of ortho-H2CSi connected by collisional transitions and 35 radiative transitions, and solved radiative transfer problem using the LVG approximation. We have found that the brightness temperatures of 919-818, 918-817, 101,10-919, 1019-918, 111,11-101,10, 111,10-1019 and 121,12-111,11 transition are larger than that of 717-616 transition. Thus, these transitions may help in detection of H2CSi in the interstellar medium.

  8. Radiative width of molecular-cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Gai, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular states are characterized by enhanced electromagnetic deexcitations of many different multipolarities. The expected enhancement of E1, E2, and E3 transitions is examined by deriving molecular sum rules for radiative deexcitation widths and via a dimensionality approach. The enhancement of the E1 transitions is the most striking

  9. Infrared Radiation and Blackbody Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut present graph Tutorial Presentation Graph Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial covers the following: How infrared radiation was discovered., The regions of infrared radiation and their relations to temperature., The nature of blackbody radiation and Planck's radiation law., The relationship between temperature and the power emitted by radiation.The interactions in this tutorial include clicking to reveal new information, and questions that help students...

  10. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  11. System Geometries and Transit/Eclipse Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets provide access to data to study the mass-radius relation and internal structure of extrasolar planets. Long-period transiting planets allow insight into planetary environments similar to the Solar System where, in contrast to hot Jupiters, planets are not constantly exposed to the intense radiation of their parent stars. Observations of secondary eclipses additionally permit studies of exoplanet temperatures and large-scale exo-atmospheric properties. We show how transit and eclipse probabilities are related to planet-star system geometries, particularly for long-period, eccentric orbits. The resulting target selection and observational strategies represent the principal ingredients of our photometric survey of known radial-velocity planets with the aim of detecting transit signatures (TERMS.

  12. Radiation of ultrarelativistic particles passing through ideal and mosaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    When a charged particle passes through an ideal crystal, then besides the transition radiation, a new kind of radiation, connected with the periodic structure of the crystal is produced. The influence of mosaic structure of a crystal on the intensity of this radiation is considered. Simple analytical expressions for the integral intensity of this radiation for the case of an ideal crystal are obtained. The results show, that the integral radiation intensity depends weakly on the degree of crystal perfection

  13. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation sources is a privilege; in order to retain the privilege, all persons who use sources of radiation must follow policies and procedures for their safe and legal use. The purpose of this poster is to describe the policies and procedures of the Radiation Protection Program. Specific conditions of radiation safety require the establishment of peer committees to evaluate proposals for the use of radionuclides, the appointment of a radiation safety officer, and the implementation of a radiation safety program. In addition, the University and Medical Centre administrations have determined that the use of radiation producing machines and non-ionizing radiation sources shall be included in the radiation safety program. These Radiation Safety policies are intended to ensure that such use is in accordance with applicable State and Federal regulations and accepted standards as directed towards the protection of health and the minimization of hazard to life or property. It is the policy that all activities involving ionizing radiation or radiation emitting devices be conducted so as to keep hazards from radiation to a minimum. Persons involved in these activities are expected to comply fully with the Canadian Nuclear Safety Act and all it. The risk of prosecution by the Department of Health and Community Services exists if compliance with all applicable legislation is not fulfilled. (author)

  14. Radiation embrittlement of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Three types of radiation embrittlement are identified: (1) radiation embrittlement in nominally ductile metals, (2) radiation embrittlement in metals that undergo a ductile-brittle transition, and (3) high-temperature grain boundary embrittlement. This paper deals with type (1) and, more briefly, type (2) radiation embrittlement. Radiation embrittlement in nominally ductile metals is characterized by the premature onset of plastic instability, which causes a sharp decrease in the macroscopic plastic strain that the material can sustain before necking (uniform strain) and breaking (fracture strain). Dislocation channeling seems to be largely responsible and experimental results are reviewed. The origin of dislocation channeling is discussed. Irradiated metals that exhibit a ductile-brittle transition show an increase in the transition temperature but the nature of the transition (shear to cleavage fracture) does not appear to be greatly altered. A key factor is the temperature dependence of yielding and how it is affected upon irradiation. Impurities exert an influence on the stability of radiation-produced defect clusters and thus can alter the amount of radiation embrittlement experienced upon irradiation at somewhat elevated temperatures. In general, radiation embrittlement appears to stem mostly from changes in plastic properties (particularly in the trend toward more dynamic and inhomogeneous plastic deformation) rather than from changes in the inherent fracture process. 63 references, 10 figures

  15. Radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Sections include: dose units, dose limits, dose rate, potential hazards of ionizing radiations, control of internal and external radiation exposure, personal dosemeters, monitoring programs and transport of radioactive material (packaging and shielding)

  16. Synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallmeier, K.H.; Meisel, A.; Ranft, J.

    1982-01-01

    The physical background and the properties of synchrotron radiation are described. The radiation offers many useful applications in the fields of spectroscopy and structural investigations. Some examples are given

  17. Search for time-dependent fluctuations in cosmic ray flux with the AMS-01 detector and construction of the AMS-02 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Paniccia, Mercedes

    La découverte au début du vingtième siècle de l’existence d’un flux de particules énergétiques provenant de l’espace a engendré un vif intérêt auprès de la communauté scientifique de l’époque, donnant naissance à de nouvelles branches d’étude, dont la physique des particules est l’exemple le plus éclatant. La formulation d’un modèle pouvant expliquer l’origine et le spectre du rayonnement cosmique et aussi décrire les mécanismes de propagation et d’accélération dans l’espace interstellaire et interplanétaire, a nécessité l’effort conjoint de différents domaines: la physique des particules, la physique des plasmas, l’astrophysique, la physique solaire et la géophysique. L’analyse de l’enorme quantité de données collectées au sujet de rayons cosmiques au moyen de détecteurs au sol, en ballon et dans l’espace, combinée avec les observations des événements astrophysiques, solaires et géophysiques, a permis d’expliquer la plupart des propriétés des...

  18. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  19. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  20. Radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.Eh.; B'yuli, D.K.; Karmikel, Dzh.Kh.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation monitoring of personnel, used medical ionizing radiation source, are given. The necessity to carry out radiation monitoring of situation at medical personnel's positions and personnel dosimetry is marked. It is convenient to subdivide radiation monitoring into 3 types: usual, surgical and special. Usual monitoring is connected with current work; surgical monitoring is carried out to receive information during a concrete operation; special monitoring is used to detect possible deviation from standard conditions of work or when suspecting them

  1. Medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series describes the medical use of X-rays, how X-rays help in diagnosis, radiation protection of the patient, staff protection, how radioactive materials in nuclear medicine examinations help in diagnosis and the use of radiation in radiotherapy. Magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic technique involving no ionizing radiation, is also briefly examined. The role of the NRPB in the medical use of radiation is outlined. (UK)

  2. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: characteristics of ionizing radiations; biological effects; comparison of radiation and other industrial risks; principles of protection; cost-benefit analysis; dose limits; the control and monitoring of radiation; reference levels; emergency reference levels. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation watchdog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, R.

    1984-01-01

    Designated by WHO as a Collaborating Centre, the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee provides assistance to all countries of the Americas in radiation accidents including human contamination or overexposure. It also conducts courses in radiation emergency response for health professionals from throughout the world

  4. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  5. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  6. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  7. Modeling for transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  8. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  9. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  10. Transit manager's handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This handbook provides an overview of public transit in Iowa and how to do business with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) Office of Public Transit (OPT). It is intended to be a tool to assist transit managers navigate through the many...

  11. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  12. Transition: Preschool to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…

  13. Electromagnetic Radiation of Electrons in Periodic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich

    2011-01-01

    Periodic magnetic structures (undulators) are widely used in accelerators to generate monochromatic undulator radiation (UR) in the range from far infrared to the hard X-ray region. Another periodic crystalline structure is used to produce quasimonochromatic polarized photon beams via the coherent bremsstrahlung mechanism (CBS). Due to such characteristics as monochromaticity, polarization and adjustability, these types of radiation is of large interest for applied and basic research of accelerator-emitted radiation. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental principles behind electromagnetic radiation emitted from accelerated charged particles (e.g. UR, CBS, radiation of fast electrons in Laser flash fields) as well as a unified description of relatively new radiation mechanisms which attracted great interest in recent years. This are the so-called polarization radiation excited by the Coulomb field of incident particles in periodic structures, parametric X-rays, resonant transition radiation a...

  14. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, W.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to simplify some of the relevant points of legislation, biological effects and protection for the benefit of the occupational health nurse not familiar with the nuclear industries. The subject is dealt with under the following headings; Understanding atoms. What is meant by ionizing radiation. Types of ionizing radiation. Effects of radiation: long and short term somatic effects, genetic effects. Control of radiation: occupational exposure, women of reproductive age, medical aspects, principles of control. The occupational health nurse's role. Emergency arrangements: national arrangements for incidents involving radiation, action to be taken by the nurse. Decontamination procedures: external and internal contamination. (U.K.)

  15. Radiation imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmayne, I.

    1986-05-21

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed.

  16. Radiation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmayne, Ian.

    1986-01-01

    A detector for the detection of radiation such as X-ray radiation comprises an array of scintillation elements embedded in a sheet of radiation absorbing material. The scintillation elements are monitored individually, for example by a corresponding array of photodiodes, to build up a picture of the incident radiation. The front face of the sheet and the inner walls of the bores may be coated with a reflective material. The detector finds particular application in weld radiography. The detector may be stepped relative to the radiation source, the signals produced by the rows of the detector as they pass a predetermined point being summed. (author)

  17. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  18. Absolute transition probabilities for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)

    2009-07-07

    Absolute radiative transition probabilities are reported for 559 strong lines of neutral cerium covering the wavelength range 340-880 nm. These transition probabilities are obtained by scaling published relative line intensities (Meggers et al 1975 Tables of Spectral Line Intensities (National Bureau of Standards Monograph 145)) with a smaller set of published absolute transition probabilities (Bisson et al 1991 J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8 1545). All 559 new values are for lines for which transition probabilities have not previously been available. The estimated relative random uncertainty of the new data is +-35% for nearly all lines.

  19. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  20. Radiative transitions for the Cs2NaErCl6 elpasolite crystal. II.- Vibronic intensities for the emissions |(4S3/2Γ8]→4I15/2Γ] in the Cs2NaErCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, R.; Escudero, M; Navarro, G; Meruane, T

    2002-01-01

    We have recently reported explicit vibronic intensity calculations for the emissions |( 4 I 15/ ) Γ k ]→|( 4 I 13/2 )Γ l ] of Er 3+ in the Cs 2 NaErCl 6 elpasolite system. The experimental evidence indicates than over an energy range of about 400cm -1 , a substantial number of transitions take place (about one hundred excitations; twenty five of them are magnetic dipole allowed whereas the remaining seventy five are vibronically allowed in character). The spectrum is very complex indeed and the superposition of various spectral features is most likely to occur and this represents a serious challenge to theoreticians. For this system, there is solid evidence which indicates that for the |( 4 S 3/2 )Γ 8 ]→|( 4 I 15/2 )Γ] transitions, where Γ=Γ 6 , Γ 7 , Γ 8 a , Γ 8 b , Γ 8 c , the most intense features of the spectrum are assigned to one photon electric-dipole vibronic excitations, involving the v 3 (stretching; τ 1u ), v 4 (bending; τ 1u ) and v 6 (bending; τ 2u ) moiety modes of the ErCl 3- 6 clusters in the crystal. It is the aim of this paper to explain on both a qualitative and a quantitative basis the rather unexpected high intensity with these type of transitions for which the static selection rule ΔJ=6 is operative. To achieve our goals, we introduce an intensity path and/or mechanism, according to the following radiative decay cascade: |( S 3/2 )Γ 8 ]→|( 4 I 11/2 )Γ']→|( 4 I 15/2 )]. It is shown that when this mechanism is adopted, then the calculated overall spectral intensity due to the three false origins (v 3 , v 4 , v 6 ) is in a fairly good agreement with experiment (author)

  1. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Aman; Sharma, Shivam; Parasher, Abhishek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation dose measurement, field of radiobiology, is considered to be critical factor for optimizing radiation protection to the health care practitioners, patients and the public. This lead to equipment that has dose - area product meters permanently installed. In many countries and even institution, the range of equipment is vast and with the opportunity for radiation protection and dose recording varies considerably. Practitioners must move with the changed demands of radiation protection but in many cases without assistance of modern advancements in technology Keeping the three basic safety measures Time, Dose and Shielding we can say 'Optimum dose is safe dose' instead of 'No dose is safe dose'. The purpose enclosed within the title 'Radiation Protection'. The use of radiation is expanding widely everyday around the world and crossing boundaries of medical imaging, diagnostic and. The way to get the ''As low as reasonably achievable' is only achievable by using methodology of radiation protection and to bring the concern of general public and practitioners over the hazards of un-necessary radiation dose. Three basic principles of radiation protection are time, distance and shielding. By minimizing the exposure time increasing the distance and including the shielding we can reduce the optimum range of dose. The ability of shielding material to attenuate radiation is generally given as half value layer. This is the thickness of the material which will reduce the amount of radiation by 50%. Lab coat and gloves must be worn when handling radioactive material or when working in a labeled radiation work area. Safety glasses or other appropriate splash shields should be used when handling radioactive material. 1. Reached to low dose level to occupational workers, public as per prescribed dose limit. 2. By mean of ALARA principle we achieved the protection from radiation besides us using the radiation for our benefit

  2. Gifts from Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for transiting planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from transiting planets and introduce previous studies.

  3. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  4. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with the design and measurement of physical parameters used in theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and uses the theoretical developments for experimental design, and provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  5. Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation dosimetry and radiation biophysics are two closely integrated programs whose joint purpose is to explore the connections between the primary physical events produced by radiation and their biological consequences in cellular systems. The radiation dosimetry program includes the theoretical description of primary events and their connection with the observable biological effects. This program also is concerned with design and measurement of those physical parameters used in the theory or to support biological experiments. The radiation biophysics program tests and makes use of the theoretical developments for experimental design. Also, this program provides information for further theoretical development through experiments on cellular systems

  6. Experimental study of coherent radiation in the millimeter-wave region at the KURRI-LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Toshiharu [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1996-07-01

    Coherent radiation, i.e., synchrotron radiation, transition radiation, Cherenkov radiation, or Smith-Purcell radiation emitted by short bunches of electrons has been observed in the millimeter-wave region. Properties of coherent radiation are characterized by the coherence effect and the relativistic one. The intensity of coherent radiation is enormously enhanced by several orders of magnitude in comparison with the incoherent radiation and the flux of radiation concentrates around the direction of the electron beam. Coherent radiation is useful as the intense light source in the millimeter-wave region. (author)

  7. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  8. Cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capdevielle, J N

    1984-01-01

    First, the different instruments and techniques of cosmic particle detection are presented. Then the passage of the cosmic particles through the atmosphere is studied: electrons, photons, muons. The collective behavior of the different categories is also studied, the electromagnetic cascade is distinguished from the hadron cascade. Through the principal physical properties of the radiation and the medium, the ''mean'' aspects of the radiation are then successively dealt with out of the atmosphere, at different altitudes until the sea level, then at great depths. A chapter is devoted to cosmic radiation of more than 10,000 GeV, studied separately. Then solar radiation in universe is studied through their propagation in solar system and their origin. At last, the cosmic radiation effects are studied in environment (cosmic biophysics) and some applications of cosmic radiation are presented.

  9. Radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of iatrogenic tumors with