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Sample records for amputated rabbit forelimb

  1. A quantitative evaluation of gross versus histologic neuroma formation in a rabbit forelimb amputation model: potential implications for the operative treatment and study of neuromas

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    Kuiken Todd A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical treatment of neuromas involves excision of neuromas proximally to the level of grossly "normal" fascicles; however, proximal changes at the axonal level may have both functional and therapeutic implications with regard to amputated nerves. In order to better understand the retrograde "zone of injury" that occurs after nerve transection, we investigated the gross and histologic changes in transected nerves using a rabbit forelimb amputation model. Methods Four New Zealand White rabbits underwent a forelimb amputation with transection and preservation of the median, radial, and ulnar nerves. After 8 weeks, serial sections of the amputated nerves were then obtained in a distal-to-proximal direction toward the brachial plexus. Quantitative histomorphometric analysis was performed on all nerve specimens. Results All nerves demonstrated statistically significant increases in nerve cross-sectional area between treatment and control limbs at the distal nerve end, but these differences were not observed 10 mm more proximal to the neuroma bulb. At the axonal level, an increased number of myelinated fibers were seen at the distal end of all amputated nerves. The number of myelinated fibers progressively decreased in proximal sections, normalizing at 15 mm proximally, or the level of the brachial plexus. The cross-sectional area of myelinated fibers was significantly decreased in all sections of the treatment nerves, indicating that atrophic axonal changes proceed proximally at least to the level of the brachial plexus. Conclusions Morphologic changes at the axonal level extend beyond the region of gross neuroma formation in a distal-to-proximal fashion after nerve transection. This discrepancy between gross and histologic neuromas signifies the need for improved standardization among neuroma models, while also providing a fresh perspective on how we should view neuromas during peripheral nerve surgery.

  2. Amputation

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    ... of illnesses and disabilities Your health Everyday living Parenting Your rights Women veterans with disabilities Caregiver support ... partially cut off due to an accident or violence. With surgical amputation, a limb or part of ...

  3. Amputation - traumatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic amputation is the loss of a body part -- usually a finger, toe, arm, or leg -- that occurs as ... If an accident or trauma results in complete amputation (the body part is totally severed), the part ...

  4. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  5. Forelimb muscle activity during equine locomotion.

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    Harrison, Simon M; Whitton, R Chris; King, Melissa; Haussler, Kevin K; Kawcak, Chris E; Stover, Susan M; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-09-01

    Few quantitative data exist to describe the activity of the distal muscles of the equine forelimb during locomotion, and there is an incomplete understanding of the functional roles of the majority of the forelimb muscles. Based on morphology alone it would appear that the larger proximal muscles perform the majority of work in the forelimb, whereas the smaller distal muscles fulfil supplementary roles such as stabilizing the joints and positioning the limb for impact with the ground. We measured the timing and amplitude of the electromyographic activity of the intrinsic muscles of the forelimb in relation to the phase of gait (stance versus swing) and the torque demand placed on each joint during walking, trotting and cantering. We found that all forelimb muscles, except the extensor carpi radialis (ECR), were activated just prior to hoof-strike and deactivated during stance. Only the ECR was activated during swing. The amplitudes of muscle activation typically increased as gait speed increased. However, the amplitudes of muscle activation were not proportional to the net joint torques, indicating that passive structures may also contribute significantly to torque generation. Our results suggest that the smaller distal muscles help to stabilize the forelimb in early stance, in preparation for the passive structures (tendons and ligaments) to be stretched. The distal forelimb muscles remain active throughout stance only during canter, when the net torques acting about the distal forelimb joints are highest. The larger proximal muscles activate in a complex coordination to position and stabilize the shoulder and elbow joints during ground contact. PMID:22875767

  6. Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention

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    ... Prevention Text Size Print Bookmark Diabetic Complications and Amputation Prevention People with diabetes are prone to having ... complication is so severe that surgery, and occasionally amputation, may become necessary. Poor blood flow. In diabetes, ...

  7. Muscle blood flow after amputation with special reference to the influence of osseous plugging of the medullary cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The muscle blood flow (MBF) in rabbits, subjectd to amputation of the crus was assessed by means of 133 Xenon and Histamine. It was shown that after the operation the flow in the amputation stump was initially reduced. MBF in the stump increased more rapidly and stayed at a higher level after closure by myoplasty than after amputation without myoplasty, and it was still further stimulated after osseous plugging of the medullary cavity. (author)

  8. Epidemiology of leg amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebskov, L B; Schroeder, T V; Holstein, P E

    1994-01-01

    The number of amputations performed for vascular disease in Denmark has decreased from 1777 (34.5 per 100,000 population) in 1983 to 1288 (25.0 per 100,000) in 1990, a reduction of 28 per cent. This decline coincided with an increase in vascular surgical activity of up to 100 per cent, including ...

  9. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  10. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

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    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  11. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

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    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  12. Forelimb lameness in the young patient.

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    Cook, J L

    2001-01-01

    Forelimb lameness is a common problem in young dogs and can be caused by a wide variety of problems. Accurate and comprehensive diagnosis and treatment must be provided for these patients. Differential diagnoses for forelimb lameness in the young patient fall into the categories of congenital abnormalities; developmental disorders; trauma; and infectious, nutritional, metabolic, and neoplastic causes. The etiopathogeneses of many of these disorders are still unknown, and treatment options and prognoses vary tremendously. Until definitive causes are determined, it is the responsibility of veterinarians to address the factors that contribute to the development and progression of these disorders. These areas primarily involve weight and nutritional management as well as breeding programs. PMID:11787264

  13. Replantation vs revision amputation in single digit zone II amputations.

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    El-Diwany, M; Odobescu, A; Bélanger-Douet, M; Berbiche, D; Arsenault, J; Bou-Merhi, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of zone II amputations treated with either replantation or revision amputation at our institution to better aid patients in their decision making process regarding these treatment options. We conducted a comparative retrospective study. All cases of single digit amputations received at our replantation center between 2007 and 2011 were screened for single digit zone II injuries. These patients were stratified based on the treatment received: replantation vs revision amputation. Patients were called and invited to participate in the research project. Those who accepted to enter the study were asked to complete the Quick-DASH, the Beck Depression Inventory-short form, and a custom made questionnaire. There were seventeen patients with single digit zone II replantation and fourteen patients with similar injuries who underwent revision amputation and agreed to take part in the study. Our data revealed that the duration of sick leave, occupation after injury, professional and social reintegration, discontinued activities, and self-confidence were not statistically different between the two groups. The average hospital stay and the follow-up period of replanted individuals were longer. The replantation group did not have higher levels of pain or cold intolerance, and the global functional and esthetic satisfaction levels were similar between the two groups. Also, Beck Depression Inventory and Quick-DASH scores were not statistically different. Yet, significantly more patients in the replantation group would opt to repeat the replantation than revised patients would opt for revision amputation. From a functional viewpoint, our study suggests that revision amputation is not superior to replantation in zone II single digit amputations. This is valuable information that should be given to patients when deciding on the treatment process and to insure a proper informed consent. PMID:25858276

  14. Phantom pain after eye amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie L R; Prause, Jan U; Toft, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the quality of phantom pain, its intensity and frequency following eye amputation. Possible triggers and relievers of phantom pain are investigated. Methods: The hospital database was searched using surgery codes for patients who received ocular evisceration, enucleation...... conducted by a trained interviewer. Results: Of the 173 patients in the study, 39 experienced phantom pain. The median age of patients who had experienced phantom pain was 45 years (range: 19–88). Follow-up time from eye amputation to participation in the investigation was 4 years (range: 2–46). Phantom...... scale, ranging from 0 to 100, was 36 (range: 1–89). One-third of the patients experienced phantom pain every day. Chilliness, windy weather and psychological stress/fatigue were the most commonly reported triggers for pain. Conclusions: Phantom pain after eye amputation is relatively common. The pain...

  15. Pain Management: Post-Amputation Pain

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    Pain Management Post-Amputation Pain Volume 8 · Issue 2 · March/April 1998 Text size Larger text Smaller text Java Required Print page Save and share ... by G. Edward Jeffries, MD, FACS Post-Amputation Pain Post-amputation pain is one of the most ...

  16. 38 CFR 4.68 - Amputation rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amputation rule. 4.68... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.68 Amputation rule. The combined rating for disabilities of an extremity shall not exceed the rating for the amputation at the elective level,...

  17. Distal amputations for the diabetic foot

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    Aziz Nather

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Minor amputations in diabetic patients with foot complications have been well studied in the literature but controversy still remains as to what constitutes successful or non-successful limb salvage. In addition, there is a lack of consensus on the definition of a minor or distal amputation and a major or proximal amputation for the diabetic population. In this article, the authors review the existing literature to evaluate the efficacy of minor amputations in this selected group of patients in terms of diabetic limb salvage and also propose several definitions regarding diabetic foot amputations.

  18. Replantation of ring avulsion amputations

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    Sabapathy R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Replantation of ring avulsion injuries is a challenge because of the long segment damage to the vessels and intrinsic damage caused to soft tissues at the proximal edge of the amputation. Eight patients with total ring avulsion amputations underwent microsurgical replantation in the period 1994 to 2002. Arterial repair was done by direct vessel suture in three patients, interposition vein grafts in two and cross anastomosis of the digital arteries in three patients. Venous anastomosis was carried out by mobilization and direct suture in seven patients and vessel transfer from the adjacent finger in one patient. Seven of the eight replantations were successful, while one patient had a partial failure. At a minimum follow-up of one year, these patients showed good functional and cosmetic recovery. All successful patients were happy with the outcome and none have requested for amputation, even those whose results were not functionally adequate. However, in addition to technical factors, it is important to evaluate the patient's motivation to undergo not only the long surgery, but also multiple secondary procedures and regular supervised physiotherapy. We also describe a simple method which prevents the soft tissues inside the degloved digit from becoming wrapped around the K wire during bony fixation, thus making one step of this technically challenging procedure a little easier.

  19. Forelimb training drives transient map reorganization in ipsilateral motor cortex.

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    Pruitt, David T; Schmid, Ariel N; Danaphongse, Tanya T; Flanagan, Kate E; Morrison, Robert A; Kilgard, Michael P; Rennaker, Robert L; Hays, Seth A

    2016-10-15

    Skilled motor training results in reorganization of contralateral motor cortex movement representations. The ipsilateral motor cortex is believed to play a role in skilled motor control, but little is known about how training influences reorganization of ipsilateral motor representations of the trained limb. To determine whether training results in reorganization of ipsilateral motor cortex maps, rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated motor task that requires skilled forelimb use. After either 3 or 6 months of training, intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping was performed to document motor representations of the trained forelimb in the hemisphere ipsilateral to that limb. Motor training for 3 months resulted in a robust expansion of right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex, demonstrating that skilled motor training drives map plasticity ipsilateral to the trained limb. After 6 months of training, the right forelimb representation in the right motor cortex was significantly smaller than the representation observed in rats trained for 3 months and similar to untrained controls, consistent with a normalization of motor cortex maps. Forelimb map area was not correlated with performance on the trained task, suggesting that task performance is maintained despite normalization of cortical maps. This study provides new insights into how the ipsilateral cortex changes in response to skilled learning and may inform rehabilitative strategies to enhance cortical plasticity to support recovery after brain injury. PMID:27392641

  20. Therapeutic intraspinal microstimulation improves forelimb function after cervical contusion injury

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    Kasten, M. R.; Sunshine, M. D.; Secrist, E. S.; Horner, P. J.; Moritz, C. T.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for activating the spinal cord distal to an injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the ability of chronically implanted stimulating wires within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly produce forelimb movements, and (2) assess whether ISMS stimulation could improve subsequent volitional control of paretic extremities following injury. Approach. We developed a technique for implanting intraspinal stimulating electrodes within the cervical spinal cord segments C6-T1 of Long-Evans rats. Beginning 4 weeks after a severe cervical contusion injury at C4-C5, animals in the treatment condition received therapeutic ISMS 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for the following 12 weeks. Main results. Over 12 weeks of therapeutic ISMS, stimulus-evoked forelimb movements were relatively stable. We also explored whether therapeutic ISMS promoted recovery of forelimb reaching movements. Animals receiving daily therapeutic ISMS performed significantly better than unstimulated animals during behavioural tests conducted without stimulation. Quantitative video analysis of forelimb movements showed that stimulated animals performed better in the movements reinforced by stimulation, including extending the elbow to advance the forelimb and opening the digits. While threshold current to elicit forelimb movement gradually increased over time, no differences were observed between chronically stimulated and unstimulated electrodes suggesting that no additional tissue damage was produced by the electrical stimulation. Significance. The results indicate that therapeutic intraspinal stimulation delivered via chronic microwire implants within the cervical spinal cord confers benefits extending beyond the period of stimulation, suggesting future strategies for neural devices to promote sustained recovery after injury.

  1. Amputations

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    ... in the workplace? Yes. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has the following standards in Title 29 ... gov. U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2002

  2. Forelimb-hindlimb developmental timing changes across tetrapod phylogeny

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    Selwood Lynne

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tetrapods exhibit great diversity in limb structures among species and also between forelimbs and hindlimbs within species, diversity which frequently correlates with locomotor modes and life history. We aim to examine the potential relation of changes in developmental timing (heterochrony to the origin of limb morphological diversity in an explicit comparative and quantitative framework. In particular, we studied the relative time sequence of development of the forelimbs versus the hindlimbs in 138 embryos of 14 tetrapod species spanning a diverse taxonomic, ecomorphological and life-history breadth. Whole-mounts and histological sections were used to code the appearance of 10 developmental events comprising landmarks of development from the early bud stage to late chondrogenesis in the forelimb and the corresponding serial homologues in the hindlimb. Results An overall pattern of change across tetrapods can be discerned and appears to be relatively clade-specific. In the primitive condition, as seen in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, the forelimb/pectoral fin develops earlier than the hindlimb/pelvic fin. This pattern is either retained or re-evolved in eulipotyphlan insectivores (= shrews, moles, hedgehogs, and solenodons and taken to its extreme in marsupials. Although exceptions are known, the two anurans we examined reversed the pattern and displayed a significant advance in hindlimb development. All other species examined, including a bat with its greatly enlarged forelimbs modified as wings in the adult, showed near synchrony in the development of the fore and hindlimbs. Conclusion Major heterochronic changes in early limb development and chondrogenesis were absent within major clades except Lissamphibia, and their presence across vertebrate phylogeny are not easily correlated with adaptive phenomena related to morphological differences in the adult fore- and hindlimbs. The apparently conservative nature of this

  3. Naturally-occurring forelimb lameness in the horse results in significant compensatory load redistribution during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliye, Sylvia; Voute, Lance C; Marshall, John F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to quantify the compensatory response to naturally-occurring forelimb lameness on load redistribution. Data from lameness investigations using an inertial sensor based system to monitor the response to forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia were reviewed. Horses with primary forelimb lameness were grouped for analysis as (1) all horses combined (n= 28), (2) forelimb-only lameness (n= 8/28), (3) forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness (n= 14/28), (4) forelimb-ipsilateral hindlimb lameness (n= 6/28). The effect of diagnostic anaesthesia on measures of head and pelvic movement asymmetry was determined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed between forelimb and hindlimb variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia resulted in a decrease in pelvic movement asymmetry among all horses and the forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness groups. Pelvic movement asymmetry associated with the contralateral hindlimb decreased by a median of 38% (interquartile range [IQR] 10-65%), 43% (IQR 28-60%) and 28% (IQR 12-67%) in all horses, forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb groups respectively (P< 0.05). Maximum pelvic height difference (PDMax) significantly decreased in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness group by a median of 66% (IQR 24-100%) and 78% (IQR 27-100%, P< 0.01), respectively. Change in head movement asymmetry and vector sum was significantly positively correlated with PDMax in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb group (P< 0.05). Forelimb lameness had a significant effect on hindlimb and pelvic movement in horses with clinical lameness resulting in compensatory load redistribution and decreased push-off from the contralateral hindlimb. PMID:25862395

  4. CT scanning in patients with amputated legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scanning after above-knee amputation and below-knee amputation helps to determine the calcium salt content of the examined bones, and to differentiate changes in the surrounding soft parts. By comaring the sides, it is quite easy to detect osteoporotic changes shortly after amputation which would otherwise remain undetected by X-ray film examination. It is equally easy to verify muscular changes, whereas characteristic changes in density allow to determine the share of vacant fat in muscular atrophy. Initial examinations proved the usefulness of CT diagnosis for early detection of dystrophic osseous and muscular changes and also show the possibilities of early therapy control of dystrophy treatment. (orig.)

  5. Diabetic foot resulting in amputation: our experience

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    K. G. Patel

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: Foot ulceration in diabetic patients is a resource consuming, disabling morbidity that often is the first step towards lower extremity amputation. Prevention is the best treatment. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 210-214

  6. Disposable rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Leroy C.; Trammell, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A disposable rabbit for transferring radioactive samples in a pneumatic transfer system comprises aerated plastic shaped in such a manner as to hold a radioactive sample and aerated such that dissolution of the rabbit in a solvent followed by evaporation of the solid yields solid waste material having a volume significantly smaller than the original volume of the rabbit.

  7. Dermatological changes of amputation stump

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    Arora P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological changes of stumps of 174 amputees are presented. The commonest dermatological change recorded at the site of amputation stump was hyperpigmentation in 46 (26.4% followed by callosities in 32 (18.3%, scaling in 29 (16.7%, cutaneous atrophy in 20 (11.5%, lichenification in 19(10.9%, traumatic ulcer and bacterial infections in 18 (10.3% each, hypertrophic scar in 14 (8.1%, hypopigmentation and corns in 13 (7.4% each, verrucous hypertrophy of stump in 12 (6.9%, dermatophytic infection in 5(2.9%, stump oedema and phantom limb in 4 (2.3% each, intertriginous dermatitis in 3( 1.7%, allergic contact dermatitis (resin and frictional eczema in 2(1.1% each. Epidermoid cyst, keloid formation, anaesthesia, gangrene and cutaneous horn were recorded in 1 (0.6% each. Atrophy (epidermal and derma, anaesthesia, alopecia and elephantiasis of the stump have not been documented in the literature earlier.

  8. Marked increase in the rate of ocular lens and forelimb regeneration in the newt. Cynops pyrrhogaster, following partial body exposure to low dose X-rays

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    Okamoto, T.; Kanao, T.; Miyachi, Y.

    2004-07-01

    In recent years, concern over the stimulating effects of low-dose X-rays has been growing. Therefore the effects of low-dose X-irradiation on lens and forelimb regeneration in the newt were examined. Newts were subjected to s harm or whole-body X-ray exposure at a dose of 0.05, 0.2 or 0.4Gy, delivered at a rate of 0.43Gy/min. The eyeballs were fixed in formalin solution, embedded in paraffin and assessed histologically. On day 14 after lens removal, unexposed animals showed the formation of a hollow epithelial vesicle of depigmented cells continuous with the laminae of the iris corresponding to the expected regeneration stage (Reyer's regeneration stage II). In contrast, lenses from newts exposed to a 0.2Gy dose X-ray showed some formation of the primary lens fiber nucleus corresponding to the fiber differentiation stage (Reyer's regeneration stage III-early). Thus, low-dose X-irradiation induced well regeneration compared to the unexposed groups. However, when newts were injected with N-nitro-L-arginine, nitric oxide inhibitor, no radiation-induced effect could be observed. Furthermore, an acceleration from Reyer's stage II to III-early was also found on day 14 following irradiation of only the upper belly, including the spleen. Interestingly, well regeneration could be observed on forelimb stage. On 6 weeks after amputation, unexposed animal was showed the assembly of the condrogenesis of the radius and ulna. In contrast, forelimb from newts exposed to a 0.2Gy spleen portion was showed the onset of digit formation. The effects of low-dose X-irradiation on regeneration may be mediated by changes in immune activity. (Author)

  9. Quality of life of eye amputated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie L R; Ekholm, Ola; Prause, Jan U;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate eye-amputated patients’ health-related quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health, job separation because of illness or disability and socioeconomic position. Methods: Patients were recruited from a tertiary referral centre situated in Copenhagen. Inclusion criteria......-administered questionnaire containing health-related quality of life (SF-36), the perceived stress scale and answered questions about self-rated health, job changes because of illness or disability and socioeconomic status. These results were compared with findings from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. Results: The...... the study population has retired or changed to a part-time job because of eye disease. The percentage of eye amputated patients, who were divorced or separated, was twice as high as in the general population. Conclusion: The impact of an eye amputation is considerable. The quality of life, perceived...

  10. Amputation for tumor of the upper arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blåder, S; Gunterberg, B; Markhede, G

    1983-04-01

    In a 10-year period 35 patients underwent a proximal amputation of the upper limb because of a malignant tumor. In 27 patients a forequarter amputation was made, in one a humeroscapular disarticulation and in seven an amputation through the humerus. The observed 5-year survival was 23 per cent. Twelve out of 23 patients followed for at least 3 years also survived 3 years. Fifteen living patients were questioned concerning prosthetic use and social and psychologic factors. Only three patients used a functional (mechanical) prosthesis and only five used a cosmetic prosthesis. The other seven patients rejected the use of a prosthesis. Half of the patients had the same occupation postoperatively as preoperatively. Activities of daily living did not constitute any major problem. One of three housekeepers needed daily help. One patient seemed to have suffered obvious psychologic damage. PMID:6845999

  11. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

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    Sanchit Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V.

  12. Development of forelimb bones in indigenous sheep fetuses

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    N. S. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included detection of the sites of ossification centers and their sequence of appearance in the forelimb bones of indigenous sheep fetuses by using double staining method with younger specimens and radiography or maceration methods with old specimens, as well as, histological study with some ages. The results showed that the primary ossification centers of the forelimb in indigenous sheep fetuses appeared firstly in the diaphyses of radius and ulna, humerus, scapula, metacarpus, phalanges and lastly in the carpal bone at an estimated age of 43, 45, 46, 47, 49 - 56 and 90-118 days old respectively. The results of statistical analysis of the total lengths of scapula, humerus, radius, ulna and metacarpus with the lengths of their ossified parts through the 7th – 15th weeks of fetus age, showed presence of significant differences in the average of these measurements among most of studied weeks. Also there was a significant differences in the average of relative increase in the total length and length of ossified part of diaphysis of studied bones during the 7th week in comparison to the same average in the other studied weeks (8th-15th week of indigenous sheep fetuses age.

  13. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs.

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    Shiqiu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability.

  14. Computer Simulations Imply Forelimb-Dominated Underwater Flight in Plesiosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiqiu; Smith, Adam S; Gu, Yuting; Tan, Jie; Liu, C Karen; Turk, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Plesiosaurians are an extinct group of highly derived Mesozoic marine reptiles with a global distribution that spans 135 million years from the Early Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous. During their long evolutionary history they maintained a unique body plan with two pairs of large wing-like flippers, but their locomotion has been a topic of debate for almost 200 years. Key areas of controversy have concerned the most efficient biologically possible limb stroke, e.g. whether it consisted of rowing, underwater flight, or modified underwater flight, and how the four limbs moved in relation to each other: did they move in or out of phase? Previous studies have investigated plesiosaur swimming using a variety of methods, including skeletal analysis, human swimmers, and robotics. We adopt a novel approach using a digital, three-dimensional, articulated, free-swimming plesiosaur in a simulated fluid. We generated a large number of simulations under various joint degrees of freedom to investigate how the locomotory repertoire changes under different parameters. Within the biologically possible range of limb motion, the simulated plesiosaur swims primarily with its forelimbs using an unmodified underwater flight stroke, essentially the same as turtles and penguins. In contrast, the hindlimbs provide relatively weak thrust in all simulations. We conclude that plesiosaurs were forelimb-dominated swimmers that used their hind limbs mainly for maneuverability and stability. PMID:26683221

  15. Successful Replantation of Amputated Penile Shaft following Industrial Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ariafar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Penile amputation is an uncommon urological emergency. Although rare, traumatic amputation of penis is a challenging injury to treat. However, modern microsurgical reconstruction techniques have improved success rate of penile replantation and become the procedure of choice for managing these patients. Herein, we report on a case of penile amputation following an industrial accident.

  16. Contralateral Total Hip Arthroplasty After Hindquarter Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. M. Sommerville

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the management and outcome of a 62-year old lady who developed severe osteoarthritis of the hip, nine years after a hindquarter amputation for radiation-induced sarcoma of the contralateral pelvis. The difficulties of stabilising the pelvis intraoperatively and the problems of postoperative rehabilitation are outlined. The operation successfully relieved her pain and restored limited mobility.

  17. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality after Amputation Original article by Sandra Houston, PhD First Step - Volume 4, 2005 Translated into plain language by Helen Osborne of Health Literacy Consulting Text size Larger text Smaller text Java Required Print page Save and share ...

  18. Motor and postural asymmetries in marsupials: Forelimb preferences in the red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiezio, Caterina; Regaiolli, Barbara; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    In the last decades, several studies on mammal motor lateralization have been carried out. However, data on marsupials are still underrepresented in the literature, despite their importance in tracing the evolution of motor laterality and its functional value. This study aimed at investigating motor lateralization in a sample of captive red-necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), considering different daily unimanual activities and forelimb implication in postural support. Data on forelimb preference for food reaching, pulling food out of the mouth, self-scratching and starting locomotion from quadrupedal posture were collected; furthermore, to investigate the role of posture in determining the forelimb laterality of wallabies, data on forelimb use for postural support in tripedal stance were recorded. Our results revealed significant group-level left forelimb preferences for self-scratching and starting locomotion, as well as for providing postural support in tripedal stance. These results are discussed in the light of theories for a right hemisphere dominance for emotion processing and for postural influences on forelimb dominance throughout evolution. The reported left biases in forelimb use for different behaviours are in agreement with previous literature on macropods. PMID:27150458

  19. [Psychological adjustment following lower limb amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyi, Lilla Krisztina; Lábadi, Beatrix

    2015-09-27

    Rehabilitation of lower limb amputees and the fitting of their prosthesis depend highly on the psychological adjustment process and motivational state of the patient. The loss of a limb is extremely challenging and can cause various physical and psychological problems. Depression, anxiety, decreased well-being and quality of life, body image dissatisfaction and changes in self-concept and identity are frequent after lower limb amputation. In the interest of adjustment patients have to cope with the emerging changes and difficulties in their lifes as well as the problems in psychological functioning. It is important for them to accept the alterations in their body and identity, and integrate them in a new self-concept in which process motivation is a fundamental issue. The aim of this article is to review the literature on psychological consequences of lower limb amputation, and to propose an integrative way of rehabilitation for lower limb amputees. PMID:26550913

  20. Amputations in Sickle Cell Disease: Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximo, Claudia; Olalla Saad, Sara T; Thome, Eleonora; Queiroz, Ana Maria Mach; Lobo, Clarisse; Ballas, Samir K

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we describe four new patients with sickle cell disease who had limb amputations. Two of the patients had sickle cell anemia [Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) (β(S)/β(S))] with refractory leg ulcers that required amputations. The third patient had sickle cell trait with an extensive leg ulcer that was associated with epidermoid carcinoma. The fourth patient had amputations of both forearms and feet due to a misdiagnosis of dactylitis. Review of the literature showed that the indications for amputations in sickle cell disease included three distinct categories: mythical beliefs, therapeutic and malpractice. All therapeutic amputations were for severely painful, large, recalcitrant leg ulcers that failed non-interventional therapies. Amputation resulted in pain relief and better quality of life. Phantom neuropathic pain was not a major issue post-operatively. It was absent, transient or well controlled with antidepressants. Limb function was restored post-amputation with prosthetic artificial limbs, wheelchairs or crutches. Malpractice amputations were due to misdiagnosis or to cryotherapy by exposing the painful limb to ice water resulting in thrombosis, gangrene and amputation. We strongly suggest that leg amputations should be considered in the management of certain patients with severe extensive refractory leg ulcers, and topical cryotherapy should never be used to manage sickle cell pain. PMID:27117565

  1. PSYCHIATRIC SEQUELAE OF AMPUTATION : I IMMEDIATE EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mall, C.P.; Trivedi, J.K.; U.S. Mishra; Sharma, V. P.; Dalal, P.K.; Katiyar, M.; Srivastava, Shrikant; Sinha, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-five subjects, who had undergone amputation within last 6 weeks, were studied for psychiatric complications, including phantom limb phenomena. The patients were interviewed on SCID, HRSD and HARS. Out of a total of 25 subjects, 8 (34.6%) developed psychiatric disorders - PTSD and major depression. The whole sample was thus divided into 2 groups-sick and nonsick. Phantom limb was seen in 88% subjects. No significant difference was present between the two groups with regard to presence o...

  2. Rehabilitation for bilateral amputation of fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Stapanian, Adrienne M.P.; Staley, Keith E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe reconstructive surgeries, therapy, prostheses, and adaptations for a patient who experienced bilateral amputation of all five fingers of both hands through the proximal phalanges in January 1992. The patient made considerable progress in the use of his hands in the 10 mo after amputation, including nearly a 120% increase in the active range of flexion of metacarpophalangeal joints. In late 1992 and early 1993, the patient had "on-top plasty" surgeries, in which the index finger remnants were transferred onto the thumb stumps, performed on both hands. The increased web space and functional pinch resulting from these procedures made many tasks much easier. The patient and occupational therapists set challenging goals at all times. Moreover, the patient was actively involved in the design and fabrication of all prostheses and adaptations or he developed them himself. Although he was discharged from occupational therapy in 1997, the patient continues to actively find new solutions for prehension and grip strength 18 yr after amputation.

  3. Pirogow’s Amputation: A Modification of the Operation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bueschges, M.; Muehlberger, T.; Mauss, K. L.; Bruck, J. C.; Ottomann, C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Pirogow's amputation at the ankle presents a valuable alternative to lower leg amputation for patients with the corresponding indications. Although this method offers the ability to stay mobile without the use of a prosthesis, it is rarely performed. This paper proposes a modification regarding the operation method of the Pirogow amputation. The results of the modified operation method on ten patients were objectified 12 months after the operation using a patient questionnaire (...

  4. Forelimb preferences in human beings and other species: multiple models for testing hypotheses on lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eVersace

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Consistent preferences in the use of right/left forelimbs are not exclusively present in humans. Functional asymmetries in forelimb use have been widely documented in a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. A matter of debate is whether non-human species exhibit a degree and consistency of functional forelimb asymmetries comparable to human handedness. The comparison is made difficult by the variability in hand use in humans and the few comparable studies conducted on other species. In spite of this, interesting continuities appear in functions such as feeding, object manipulation and communicative gestures. Studies on invertebrates show how widespread forelimb preferences are among animals, and the importance of experience for the development of forelimb asymmetries. Vertebrate species have been extensively investigated to clarify the origins of forelimb functional asymmetries: comparative evidence shows that selective pressures for different functions have likely driven the evolution of human handedness. Evidence of a complex genetic architecture of human handedness is in line with the idea of multiple evolutionary origins of this trait.

  5. Amputation of extremity in patients with atherosclerotic gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva Yu.O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation — to analyze the results of treatment of patients with atherosclerotic gangrene of a limb, to identify the causes of adverse outcomes amputation. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of examination and treatment of 218 patients with atherosclerotic gangrene of the limb. Good outcome of amputation was considered the primary surgical wound healing of the stump. Suppuration, secondary healing, re-amputation and death we attributed to the adverse results of amputation. Results: The adverse outcomes of amputation due to technical errors in surgery, properly chosen level, inadequate drainage of the wound stump, an unsuccessful operation on the arteries of a limb, inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, patient's age, functional capabilities of myocardium, the duration of critical ischemia, as well as the lack of psychological adaptation of patients before amputation. Conclusion: To decide the need for amputation in patients with atherosclerotic gangrene follows the assessment of possible vascular reconstructive surgery. In determining the level of amputation is necessary to objectively assess the degree of disruption of regional blood flow using multilevel manometry and laser Dopplerflowmetry. In preparation for amputation should be paid special attention to the correction of rheological and coagulation properties of blood, normalization of the functional state of the myocardium, as well as specialized psychotherapeutic training for timely and adequate psychological adaptation of the patient

  6. [Role of different projection areas of the motor cortex in reorganization of the innate head-forelimb coordination in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, O G; Mats, V N

    2005-01-01

    Dogs were trained to perform the forelimb tonic flexion in order to lift a cup with meat from a bottom of the foodwell and hold it during eating with the head bent down to the cup. It is known that conditioning of the instrumental reaction is based on reorganization of the innate head-forelimb coordination into the opposite one. In untrained dogs, the forelimb flexion is accompanied by the anticipatory lifting of the head bent down to the foodwell. The following lowering of the head leads to an extension of the flexed forelimb. Tonic forelimb flexion is possible if the head is in the up position. Simultaneous holding of the flexed forelimb and lowered head providing food reinforcement is achieved only by learning. It was shown earlier that the lesion of the motor cortex contralateral to the "working" forelimb led to a prolonged disturbance of the elaborated coordination and reappearance of the innate coordination. In the present work we studied the influence of local lesions of the projection areas in the motor cortex, such as a "working" forelimb area, bilateral representation of the neck, and the medial part of the motor cortex, on the learned instrumental feeding reaction. It was found that only the lesion of the forelimb but not neck projection led to a disturbance of the learned head-forelimb movement coordination. PMID:16396488

  7. FROM CULTURAL IMPOTENCE TO CULTURAL AMPUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanov Vyacheslav Vladimirovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.

  8. Estimation of amputation level with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Jørgensen, J P; Vollmer-Larsen, B; Nielsen, S L; Alsbjørn, B

    1989-01-01

    Leg amputation levels were decided in 24 patients suffering from atherosclerosis, using the conventional techniques of segmental blood pressure and radioisotope skin clearance. The skin microcirculation was measured and recorded before operation with a laser doppler flowmeter. A high correlation...... was found between the successful amputation levels and the maximal blood perfusion of the skin measured in this way....

  9. [Amputation and prosthesis attachment of the lower extremities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, I; Beirau, M; Ekkernkamp, A; Matthes, G

    2015-06-01

    Approximately 61,000 amputations are performed in Germany per year. In most cases the lower limbs are affected. The reasons for amputations are arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, severe infections, tumors and complex trauma to the extremities. A decision must be made concerning whether a salvage procedure or amputation is appropriate, specially after trauma. In cases where the need for amputation is clear, the site of amputation needs to be planned in advance with the aim of creating a stump which allows sufficient prosthetic attachment. Adjuvant pain therapy is mandatory, especially in order to avoid subsequent phantom pain. The type of prosthetic restoration is influenced by the grade of mobility and personal requirements of patients. Moreover, aftercare and adjusted rehabilitation are recommended. PMID:26013390

  10. Differences in minor amputation rate in diabetic foot disease throughout Europe are in part explained by differences in disease severity at presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Battum, P; Schaper, N; Prompers, L;

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of minor amputation may vary significantly, and determinants of minor amputation have not been studied systematically. We evaluated minor amputation rate, the determinants of minor amputation and differences in amputation rate between European centres....

  11. Physical and social factors determining quality of life for veterans with lower-limb amputation(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Ipsen, Thomas; Doherty, Patrick; Langberg, Henning

    Purpose Most veterans live for many years after their war-related traumatic lower-limb amputation, which is why understanding which factors influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) remains important to their long-term management. The objective of this study was to perform a review of the......-limb amputation(s), HRQoL outcome and veterans. Physical and social factors that influence HRQoL were extracted. Results The literature search identified 2073 citations, leading to the inclusion of 10 studies in the systematic review. Physical activity level, sport participation, level of amputation, back pain......, years of education, as well as duration and severity of phantom pain were found to be determining factors for HRQoL among veterans with lower-limb amputation. Conclusions The identified physical and social determinants were similar to those found in civilian traumatic amputees. More high quality...

  12. FROM CULTURAL IMPOTENCE TO CULTURAL AMPUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вячеслав Владимирович Суханов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural space of any state is formed by a population that is within its borders. In this article, the author introduces a new cultural definitions «cultural impotence» and «cultural amputation», justifying their use, both in terms of population of the Russian Federation and the European Union and America. The article analyzes the state of society and the cultural factors that influence the development of society in Russia, there are options to bring the country out of a deep cultural crisis. Also established a close relationship between the domestic policy of the state and development of culture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-2-1

  13. Minor amputations for diabetic foot salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Y. Habel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulceration in diabetic patients is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM, necessitating hospitalization for control of infection, wound care and glycemic control. These patients are at risk for potential loss of the involved limb as well as for future loss of the contralateral limb. Diabetic foot is the consequence of peripheral neuropathy complicated by infrapopliteal peripheral vascular disease. Most of the patients present with chronic plantar ulceration and with cellulitis or an abscess. In a significant number of patients, it is observed that the frequency of life or limb threatening infection is less with an intact skin cover. Limb salvage employs the use of culture specific antibiotics, sharp debridement or a minor amputation, wound care and/or skin cover as the situation demands.

  14. Injury, nerve, and wound epidermis related electrophoretic and fluorographic protein patterns in forelimbs of adult newts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis and [35S]methionine fluorography were used to examine proteins in regenerating newt limbs, amputated denervated limbs, unamputated denervated limbs, and separated blastema mesodermal core and wound epidermis. A total of 27 protein electrophoretic bands were obtained from amputated limbs and 24 bands from unamputated limbs. Amputation resulted in the appearance of 4 new bands and the loss of 1 band as compared to unamputated limbs. These 5 banding differences were apparent on stained gels 3 days postamputation and were maintained through 10 weeks postamputation (complete regenerate stage). Only one band in unamputated limbs was always detectable on fluorographs, whereas virtually all of the stainable bands of amputated limbs were visible on fluorographs. Amputation clearly stimulated a marked, generalized increase in the synthesis of limb proteins. The 5 amputation induced changes were equally evident in stained gels of both innervated and denervated limbs. Amputated denervated limbs possessed a full set of fluorographic bands (including the 5 differences) through 18 days postamputation. However, denervation without amputation was not sufficient to alter the stainable banding pattern. Wound epidermis and mesodermal core both displayed the 5 banding differences and had identical banding patterns with the exception of one epidermal specific band. This band was also present in whole limb skin but was absent in unamputated mesodermal limb tissue. This was the only band of unamputated limbs that was consistently detectable by fluorography. It is concluded that amputation induces nerve independent changes in protein synthesis that are common to both mesodermal core and wound epidermis. These changes may represent preparation for cellular proliferation

  15. Pirogow’s Amputation: A Modification of the Operation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bueschges

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pirogow’s amputation at the ankle presents a valuable alternative to lower leg amputation for patients with the corresponding indications. Although this method offers the ability to stay mobile without the use of a prosthesis, it is rarely performed. This paper proposes a modification regarding the operation method of the Pirogow amputation. The results of the modified operation method on ten patients were objectified 12 months after the operation using a patient questionnaire (Ankle Score. Material and Methods. We modified the original method by rotating the calcaneus. To fix the calcaneus to the tibia, Kirschner wire and a 3/0 spongiosa tension screw as well as a Fixateur externe were used. Results. 70% of those questioned who were amputated following the modified Pirogow method indicated an excellent or very good result in total points whereas in the control group (original Pirogow’s amputation only 40% reported excellent or very good result. In addition, the level of pain experienced one year after the completed operation showed different results in favour of the group being operated with the modified way. Furthermore, patients in both groups showed differences in radiological results, postoperative leg length difference, and postoperative mobility. Conclusion. The modified Pirogow amputation presents a valuable alternative to the original amputation method for patients with the corresponding indications. The benefits are found in the significantly reduced pain, difference in reduced radiological complications, the increase in mobility without a prosthesis, and the reduction of postoperative leg length difference.

  16. Level selection in leg amputation for arterial occlusive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P

    1982-01-01

    In 102 leg amputations for arterial occlusion including 84 below-knee (BK), 16 above-knee (AD) and 2 through-knee (TK) amputations, the amputation level was determined by means of clinical criteria. The healing results and the selection of levels were then compared with sealed preoperative...... measurements of the skin perfusion pressure (SPP). Out of 62 BK amputations with an SPP above 30 mmHg wound healing failed in only 2 cases (3 per cent). Out of 13 BK amputations with an SPP between 20 and 30 mmHg 7 cases (54 per cent) failed and out of 9 BK amputations with an SPP below 20 mmHg no less than 8...... cases (89 per cent) failed to heal. The difference in failure rate is significant (P less than 0.0001). Out of the 15 failed BK amputations at low pressures (below 30 mmHg) only one case had local signs of ischaemia, which might have warned the surgeons. On the other hand, in 13 out of the 18 cases of...

  17. A modified scintigrafic technique for amputation level selection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified 123I-antipyrine cutaneous washout technique for the selection of amputation levels is described. The modifications imply a reduction of time needed for the examination by simultaneous recordings on different levels, and a better patient acceptance by reducing inconvenience. Furthermore, both skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and skin blood flow (SBF) are determined from each clearance curve. In a prospective study among 26 diabetic patients presenting with ulcers or gangrene of the foot, both SPP and SBF were determined preoperatively on the selected level of surgery and on adjacent amputation sites. These 26 patients underwent 12 minor foot amputations and 17 major lower limb amputations. Two of these amputations failed to heal. SBF values appeared indicative for the degree of peripheral vascular disease, as low SBF values were found with low SPP values. SPP determinations revealed good predictive values: All surgical procedures healed when SPP>20 mmHg, but 2 out of 3 failed when SPP<2 mmHg. If SPP values would have been decisive, the amputation would have been converted to a lower level in 6 out of 17 cases. This modified scintigrafic technique provides accurate objective information for amputation level selection. (orig.)

  18. Prospective comparison of noninvasive techniques for amputation level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study prospectively compared the following tests for their accuracy in amputation level selection: transcutaneous oxygen, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, transcutaneous oxygen-to-transcutaneous carbon dioxide, foot-to-chest transcutaneous oxygen, intradermal xenon-133, ankle-brachial index, and absolute popliteal artery Doppler systolic pressure. All metabolic parameters had a high degree of statistical accuracy in predicting amputation healing whereas none of the other tests had statistical reliability. Amputation site healing was not affected by the presence of diabetes mellitus nor were the test results for any of the metabolic parameters

  19. Estimation of amputation level with a laser Doppler flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Jørgensen, J P; Vollmer-Larsen, B;

    1989-01-01

    Leg amputation levels were decided in 24 patients suffering from atherosclerosis, using the conventional techniques of segmental blood pressure and radioisotope skin clearance. The skin microcirculation was measured and recorded before operation with a laser doppler flowmeter. A high correlation...

  20. Dilemmas in the indication for radiotherapy after breast amputation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article comments upon the decision to irradiate the chest-wall and regional glands after breast amputation. Ideas over the indications for radiotherapy by several medical centres are compared. (Auth.)

  1. The successful use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, B.; Melchiors, J.; Borglum, J.; Jensen, K.; Bech, B; Melchiors, J; Børglum, J; Jensen, K; Jensen, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report of four patients with severe cardiac insufficiency where peripheral nerve blocks guided by either nerve stimulation or ultrasonography were the sole anaesthetic for above-knee amputation. The patients were breathing spontaneously and remained haemodynamically stable during...... surgery. Thus, use of peripheral nerve blocks for femoral amputation in high-risk patients seems to be the technique of choice that can lower perioperative risk....

  2. Partial amputations of the foot for diabetic gangrene.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, A. R.; Chester, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    Over a 5-year period 68 diabetic patients underwent 102 primary partial amputations of the foot for infected diabetic gangrene. Seventy (69%) of these operations healed without further local surgery, but five patients needed seven femoropopliteal bypass grafts (two bilateral) to achieve healing. In total, 32 primary operations needed revision by further surgery to the foot or by leg amputation. Of the original operations 31% were carried out by a consultant surgeon; the rest (69%) were perfor...

  3. A Salvage Operation for Total Penis Amputation Due to Circumcision

    OpenAIRE

    Bilsev Ince; Ayse Ozlem Gundeslioglu

    2013-01-01

    Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocaut...

  4. Sciatic Neuroma Presenting Forty Years After Above-Knee Amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Kitcat, M; Hunter, J. E.; C.M. Malata

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a sciatic neuroma presenting forty years after above knee amputation. Patients developing neuroma following a limb amputation can present with stump pain which is commonly resistant to medical intervention. The length of interval from the initial injury to presentation is widely variable. Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and accurate assessment, radiological imaging and, if indicated, surgical exploration. MRI provides a better soft tissue definition than CT and is m...

  5. External leg amputation in conformal invariant three-point function

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    Amputation of external legs is carried out explicitly for the conformal invariant three-point function involving two spinors and one vector field. Our results are consistent with the general result that amputing an external leg in a conformal invariant Green function replaces a field by its conformal partner in the Green function. A star-triangle relation involving two spinors and one vector field, with general values of the scale dimensions, is derived and used for the calculation.

  6. Quality of Life of Nigerians with Unilateral Lower Limb Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Olusanjo Akosile

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the QoL of Nigerians with lower limb amputation and to investigate the influence of some clinical and socio-demographic variables on it. Method: Forty-seven individuals with lower limb amputation participated in this study. Participants’ age, gender, marital status, occupation, time since amputation, level of amputation, affected limb and use of prosthesis were recorded. Quality of life was then measured using the WHO QOL-BREF. Data were analysed using mean and standard deviation, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test at 0.05 alpha levels. Results: Participants’ overall health and QoL scores were 3.6(SD 0.9 and 3.9(SD 0.7 respectively. Male subjects had significantly higher scores than females in the domains of physical health (p = 0.007, social relationships (p = 0.024 and overall health (p = 0.012. Prosthesis-wearing subjects scored significantly higher in the domains of physical health (p = 0.015, psychological health (p = 0.008 and environment (p = 0.011 and overall health (0.033, than those not wearing prosthesis. Level of amputation, leg dominance and pre-amputation occupational category had no significant influence on participants’ QoL. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the QoL of individuals with lower limb amputation in Nigeria is moderate. The only factors which have significant influence on some QoL domains are gender and use of prosthesis.Implications: Individuals with lower limb amputation, particularly females and those not wearing prosthesis, require special attention. Clinicians should identify barriers to the use of prosthesis so as to enhance their quality of life.

  7. Kinetics of the forelimb in horses circling on different ground surfaces at the trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chateau, Henry; Camus, Mathieu; Holden-Douilly, Laurène; Falala, Sylvain; Ravary, Bérangère; Vergari, Claudio; Lepley, Justine; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    Circling increases the expression of distal forelimb lameness in the horse, depending on rein, diameter and surface properties of the circle. However, there is limited information about the kinetics of horses trotting on circles. The aim of this study was to quantify ground reaction force (GRF) and moments in the inside and outside forelimb of horses trotting on circles and to compare the results obtained on different ground surfaces. The right front hoof of six horses was equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe, allowing the measurement of 3-dimensional GRF, moments and trajectory of the centre of pressure. The horses were lunged at slow trot (3 m/s) on right and left 4 m radius circles on asphalt and on a fibre sand surface. During circling, the inside forelimb produced a smaller peak vertical force and the stance phase was longer in comparison with the outside forelimb. Both right and left circling produced a substantial transversal force directed outwards. On a soft surface (sand fibre), the peak transversal force and moments around the longitudinal and vertical axes of the hoof were significantly decreased in comparison with a hard surface (asphalt). Sinking of the lateral or medial part of the hoof in a more compliant surface enables reallocation of part of the transversal force into a proximo-distal force, aligned with the limb axis, thus limiting extrasagittal stress on the joints. PMID:24511634

  8. Vascular surgery reduces the frequency of lower limb major amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Bøvling, Søren; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W

    1994-01-01

    In June 1988 a Department of Vascular Surgery was established in the county of Viborg, Denmark. In this retrospective study of the periods 1986-87 and 1989-90, we have observed a significant rise in the number of patients evaluated by a vascular surgeon before amputation, from 19 to 49%. At the...... same time the number of major lower limb amputations significantly decreased. This reduction was most marked in 1990 probably due to a rise of 43% in the number of distal reconstructions. The distribution between below knee, through knee and mid-thigh amputation was unaffected by the increased vascular...... surgical activity. The frequency of major amputations in the county in 1986-87 of 40.9 per 100,000 per year declined by 25% to 30.9 per 100,000 per year in 1989-90. We conclude that vascular surgery reduces the number of major lower limb amputations and consequently all patients threatened with amputation...

  9. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) I: forelimb, cervical, and thoracic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    The body masses of cats (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) span a ~300-fold range from the smallest to largest species. Despite this range, felid musculoskeletal anatomy remains remarkably conservative, including the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at unusually large sizes. The forelimbs in felids are important for body support and other aspects of locomotion, as well as climbing and prey capture, with the assistance of the vertebral (and hindlimb) muscles. Here, we examine the scaling of the anterior postcranial musculature across felids to assess scaling patterns between different species spanning the range of felid body sizes. The muscle architecture (lengths and masses of the muscle-tendon unit components) for the forelimb, cervical and thoracic muscles was quantified to analyse how the muscles scale with body mass. Our results demonstrate that physiological cross-sectional areas of the forelimb muscles scale positively with increasing body mass (i.e. becoming relatively larger). Many significantly allometric variables pertain to shoulder support, whereas the rest of the limb muscles become relatively weaker in larger felid species. However, when phylogenetic relationships were corrected for, most of these significant relationships disappeared, leaving no significantly allometric muscle metrics. The majority of cervical and thoracic muscle metrics are not significantly allometric, despite there being many allometric skeletal elements in these regions. When forelimb muscle data were considered in isolation or in combination with those of the vertebral muscles in principal components analyses and MANOVAs, there was no significant discrimination among species by either size or locomotory mode. Our results support the inference that larger felid species have relatively weaker anterior postcranial musculature compared with smaller species, due to an absence of significant positive allometry of forelimb or vertebral muscle architecture. This difference in strength

  10. The lateral reticular nucleus; integration of descending and ascending systems regulating voluntary forelimb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bror Alstermark

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar control of movements is dependent on mossy fibre input conveying information about sensory and premotor activity in the spinal cord. While much is known about spino-cerebellar systems, which provide the cerebellum with detailed sensory information, much less is known about systems conveying motor information. Individual motoneurones do not have projections to spino-cerebellar neurons. Instead, the fastest route is from last order spinal interneurons. In order to identify the networks that convey ascending premotor information from last order interneurons, we have focused on the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, which provides the major mossy fibre input to cerebellum from spinal interneuronal systems. Three spinal ascending systems to the LRN have been investigated: the C3-C4 propriospinal neurones (PNs, the ipsilateral forelimb tract and the bilateral ventral flexor reflex tract. Voluntary forelimb movements involve reaching and grasping together with necessary postural adjustments and each of these three interneuronal systems likely contribute to specific aspects of forelimb motor control. It has been demonstrated that the command for reaching can be mediated via C3-C4 PNs, while the command for grasping is conveyed via segmental interneurons in the forelimb segments. Our results reveal convergence of ascending projections from all three interneuronal systems in the LRN, producing distinct combinations of excitation and inhibition. We have also identified a separate descending control of LRN neurons exerted via a subgroup of cortico-reticular neurones. The LRN projections to the deep cerebellar nuclei exert a direct excitatory effect on descending motor pathways via the reticulospinal, vestibulospinal, and other supraspinal tracts, and might play a key role in cerebellar motor control. Our results support the hypothesis that the LRN provides the cerebellum with highly integrated information, enabling cerebellar control of complex

  11. Awake behaving electrophysiological correlates of forelimb hyperreflexia, weakness and disrupted muscular synchronization following cervical spinal cord injury in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Patrick Daniel; Meyers, Eric Christopher; Sloan, Andrew Michael; Maliakkal, Reshma; Ruiz, Andrea; Kilgard, Michael Paul; Robert, LeMoine Rennaker

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury usually occurs at the level of the cervical spine and results in profound impairment of forelimb function. In this study, we recorded awake behaving intramuscular electromyography (EMG) from the biceps and triceps muscles of the impaired forelimb during volitional and reflexive forelimb movements before and after unilateral cervical spinal cord injury (cSCI) in rats. C5/C6 hemicontusion reduced volitional forelimb strength by more than 50% despite weekly rehabilitation for one month post-injury. Triceps EMG during volitional strength assessment was reduced by more than 60% following injury, indicating reduced descending drive. Biceps EMG during reflexive withdrawal from a thermal stimulus was increased by 500% following injury, indicating flexor withdrawal hyperreflexia. The reduction in volitional forelimb strength was significantly correlated with volitional and reflexive biceps EMG activity. Our results support the hypothesis that biceps hyperreflexia and descending volitional drive both significantly contribute to forelimb strength deficits after cSCI and provide new insight into dynamic muscular dysfunction after cSCI. The use of multiple automated quantitative measures of forelimb dysfunction in the rodent cSCI model will likely aid the search for effective regenerative, pharmacological, and neuroprosthetic treatments for spinal cord injury. PMID:27033345

  12. Treatment of Fingertip Amputation in Adults by Palmar Pocketing of the Amputated Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Jung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background First suggested by Brent in 1979, the pocket principle is an alternative methodfor patients for whom a microsurgical replantation is not feasible. We report the successfulresults of a modified palmar pocket method in adults.Methods Between 2004 and 2008, we treated 10 patients by nonmicrosurgical replantationusing palmar pocketing. All patients were adults who sustained a complete fingertip amputationfrom the tip to lunula in a digits. In all of these patients, the amputation occurred due to a crushor avulsion-type injury, and a microsurgical replantation was not feasible. We used the palmarpocketing method following a composite graft in these patients and prepared the pocket in thesubcutaneous layer of the ipsilateral palm.Results Of a total of 10 cases, nine had complete survival of the replantation and one had20% partial necrosis. All of the cases were managed to conserve the fingernails, which led toacceptable cosmetic results.Conclusions A composite graft and palmar pocketing in adult cases of fingertip injuryconstitute a simple, reliable operation for digital amputation extending from the tip to thelunula. These methods had satisfactory results.

  13. Forelimb Kinematics of Rats Using XROMM, with Implications for Small Eutherians and Their Fossil Relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Bonnan

    Full Text Available The earliest eutherian mammals were small-bodied locomotor generalists with a forelimb morphology that strongly resembles that of extant rats. Understanding the kinematics of the humerus, radius, and ulna of extant rats can inform and constrain hypotheses concerning typical posture and mobility in early eutherian forelimbs. The locomotion of Rattus norvegicus has been extensively studied, but the three-dimensional kinematics of the bones themselves remains under-explored. Here, for the first time, we use markerless XROMM (Scientific Rotoscoping to explore the three-dimensional long bone movements in Rattus norvegicus during a normal, symmetrical gait (walking. Our data show a basic kinematic profile that agrees with previous studies on rats and other small therians: rats maintain a crouched forelimb posture throughout the step cycle, and the ulna is confined to flexion/extension in a parasagittal plane. However, our three-dimensional data illuminate long-axis rotation (LAR movements for both the humerus and the radius for the first time. Medial LAR of the humerus throughout stance maintains an adducted elbow with a caudally-facing olecranon process, which in turn maintains a cranially-directed manus orientation (pronation. The radius also shows significant LAR correlated with manus pronation and supination. Moreover, we report that elbow flexion and manus orientation are correlated in R. norvegicus: as the elbow angle becomes more acute, manus supination increases. Our data also suggest that manus pronation and orientation in R. norvegicus rely on a divided system of labor between the ulna and radius. Given that the radius follows the flexion and extension trajectory of the ulna, it must rotate at the elbow (on the capitulum so that during the stance phase its distal end lies medial to ulna, ensuring that the manus remains pronated while the forelimb is supporting the body. We suggest that forelimb posture and kinematics in Juramaia, Eomaia, and

  14. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdala, Virginia; Manzano, Adriana S; Herrel, Anthony

    2008-08-01

    We compared the muscular anatomy of the distal front limb in terrestrial and aquatic chelonians to test whether observed differences between the two groups are associated with their divergent lifestyles and locomotor modes. Given the different use of the forelimb in the two environments (body support and propulsion on land vs. mainly propulsion in water) we expected that: (1) aquatic and terrestrial turtles would show differences in their muscular anatomy, with aquatic species having more individualized muscle bundlesto allow for the complex forearm movements observed during swimming, and (2) that terrestrial turtles would have more robust muscles to support their body weight against gravity. To address these questions, we examined the forelimb myology and associated tissues in six aquatic or semi-aquatic turtles (Phyrnops hilarii, Podocnemis unifilis, Trachemys scripta, Sacalia bealei, Cuora amboinensis and Mauremys caspica) and six terrestrial or semi-terrestrial turtles (Geochelone chilensis, Testudo graeca, Cuora galbinifrons, Glyptemys insculpta, Terrapene carolina and Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima). This paper describes the general structure of the forelimb musculature in all species, and quantifies muscle masses in those species with more than five specimens available (Ph. hilarii, Po. unifilis and Ge. chilensis). The general structure of the forelimb muscles in the strictly terrestrial species Ge. chilensis and Tes. graeca was found to be notably different from the pattern of the aquatic and semi-aquatic species examined, showing a distinct fusion of the different muscular bodies. Ter. carolina also show a distinctly terrestrial pattern, but a less extensive tendon development. R. pulcherrima and GI. insculpta were found to be morphologically intermediate; in the geoemydids the strictly terrestrial bauplan never appears. Quantitative differences in the robustness or mass of the distal forelimb muscles were also observed for the species investigated, supporting

  15. Major limb amputations: A tertiary hospital experience in northwestern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalya Phillipo L

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major limb amputation is reported to be a major but preventable public health problem that is associated with profound economic, social and psychological effects on the patient and family especially in developing countries where the prosthetic services are poor. The purpose of this study was to outline the patterns, indications and short term complications of major limb amputations and to compare our experience with that of other published data. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre between March 2008 and February 2010. All patients who underwent major limb amputation were, after informed consent for the study, enrolled into the study. Data were collected using a pre-tested, coded questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 computer software. Results A total of 162 patients were entered into the study. Their ages ranged between 2–78 years (mean 28.30 ± 13.72 days. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 2:1. The majority of patients (76.5% had primary or no formal education. One hundred and twelve (69.1% patients were unemployed. The most common indication for major limb amputation was diabetic foot complications in 41.9%, followed by trauma in 38.4% and vascular disease in 8.6% respectively. Lower limbs were involved in 86.4% of cases and upper limbs in 13.6% of cases giving a lower limb to upper limb ratio of 6.4:1 Below knee amputation was the most common procedure performed in 46.3%. There was no bilateral limb amputation. The most common additional procedures performed were wound debridement, secondary suture and skin grafting in 42.3%, 34.5% and 23.2% respectively. Two-stage operation was required in 45.4% of patients. Revision amputation rate was 29.6%. Post-operative complication rate was 33.3% and surgical site infection was the most common complication accounting for 21.0%. The mean length of hospital stay was 22.4 days and mortality

  16. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels. PMID:26478562

  17. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. PMID:23642871

  18. Always Contact a Vascular Interventional Specialist Before Amputating a Patient with Critical Limb Ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with severe critical limb ischemia (CLI) due to long tibial artery occlusions are often poor candidates for surgical revascularization and frequently end up with a lower limb amputation. Subintimal angioplasty (SA) offers a minimally invasive alternative for limb salvage in this severely compromised patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of SA in patients with CLI caused by long tibial occlusions who have no surgical options for revascularization and are facing amputation. We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients with CLI due to long tibial occlusions who were scheduled for amputation because they had no surgical options for revascularization and who were treated by SA. A total of 26 procedures in 25 patients (14 males; mean age, 70 ± 15 [SD] years) were evaluated. Technical success rate was 88% (23/26). There were four complications, which were treated conservatively. Finally, in 10 of 26 limbs, no amputation was needed. A major amputation was needed in 10 limbs (7 below-knee amputations and 3 above-knee amputations). Half of the major amputations took place within 3 months after the procedure. Cumulative freedom of major amputation after 12 months was 59% (SE = 11%). In six limbs, amputation was limited to a minor amputation. Seven patients (28%) died during follow-up. In conclusion, SA of the tibial arteries seem to be a valuable treatment option to prevent major amputation in patients with CLI who are facing amputation due to lack of surgical options.

  19. The transformation suppressor gene Reck is required for postaxial patterning in mouse forelimbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako Yamamoto

    2012-03-01

    The membrane-anchored metalloproteinase-regulator RECK has been characterized as a tumor suppressor. Here we report that mice with reduced Reck-expression show limb abnormalities including right-dominant, forelimb-specific defects in postaxial skeletal elements. The forelimb buds of low-Reck mutants have an altered dorsal ectoderm with reduced Wnt7a and Igf2 expression, and hypotrophy in two signaling centers (i.e., ZPA and AER that are essential for limb outgrowth and patterning. Reck is abundantly expressed in the anterior mesenchyme in normal limb buds; mesenchyme-specific Reck inactivation recapitulates the low-Reck phenotype; and some teratogens downregulate Reck in mesenchymal cells. Our findings illustrate a role for Reck in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions essential for mammalian development.

  20. Select forelimb muscles have evolved superfast contractile speed to support acrobatic social displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuxjager, Matthew J; Goller, Franz; Dirkse, Annika; Sanin, Gloria D; Garcia, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Many species perform rapid limb movements as part of their elaborate courtship displays. However, because muscle performance is constrained by trade-offs between contraction speed and force, it is unclear how animals evolve the ability to produce both unusually fast appendage movement and limb force needed for locomotion. To address this issue, we compare the twitch speeds of forelimb muscles in a group of volant passerine birds, which produce different courtship displays. Our results show that the two taxa that perform exceptionally fast wing displays have evolved 'superfast' contractile kinetics in their main humeral retractor muscle. By contrast, the two muscles that generate the majority of aerodynamic force for flight show unmodified contractile kinetics. Altogether, these results suggest that muscle-specific adaptations in contractile speed allow certain birds to circumvent the intrinsic trade-off between muscular speed and force, and thereby use their forelimbs for both rapid gestural displays and powered locomotion. PMID:27067379

  1. Is the left forelimb preference indicative of a stressful situation in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalchi, M; Padalino, B; Lusito, R; Quaranta, A

    2014-09-01

    Evidence for behavioural and brain lateralisation is now widespread among the animal kingdom; lateralisation of limb use (pawedness) occurs in several mammals including both feral and domestic horses. We investigated limb preferences in 14 Quarter Horse during different motor tasks (walking, stepping on and off a step, truck loading and unloading). Population lateralisation was observed in two tasks: horses preferentially used their left forelimb during truck loading and stepping off a step. The results also revealed that horses showed higher scores for anxious behaviours during truck loading suggesting that the use of the left forelimb in this task may reflect the main role of the right hemisphere in control of behaviour during stressful situation. PMID:25108052

  2. Preventing amputation in adults with diabetes: identifying the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eleanor

    2015-06-01

    Good management of diabetes can reduce the risk of complications of the disease. When not well managed, diabetes is associated with the complications of heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations. Diabetes can reduce the blood supply to the feet and cause a loss of feeling. As a result, foot injuries do not heal well and the person may not realise that their foot is sore or injured. Damage to the foot may lead to the development of foot ulcers, which if left untreated may result in amputation of the limb. Preventive care is a priority, but when complications occur the next step is to halt progression. Therefore, effective foot care and timely treatment of foot ulcers are important in preserving foot function and mobility, and preventing amputation in adults with diabetes. PMID:26036406

  3. Microneurovascular reimplantation in a case of total penile amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amputation of the penis is a rare condition reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases or small series of patients; the common aetiology is self-mutilating sharp amputation or an avulsion or crush injury in an industrial accident. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. We report here a single case of total amputation of the penis, which was successfully reattached by using a microsurgical technique. After surgery, near-normal appearance and function including a good urine flow and absence of urethral stricture, capabilities of erection and near normal sensitivity were observed.

  4. Transmetatarsal Amputation: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan McCallum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulceration is a major cause of morbidity amongst patients with diabetes. In severe cases of ulceration, osteomyelitis and amputation can ensue. A distinct lack of agreement exists on the most appropriate level of amputation in cases of severe foot ulceration/infection to provide predictable healing rates. This paper provides an overview of the transmetatarsal amputation (TMA as a limb salvage procedure and is written with the perspective and experiences of the Department of Podiatric Surgery at West Middlesex University Hospital (WMUH. We have reflected on the cases of 11 patients (12 feet and have found the TMA to be an effective procedure in the management of cases of severe forefoot ulceration and infection.

  5. Forelimb preferences in quadrupedal marsupials and their implications for laterality evolution in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Giljov, Andrey; Karenina, Karina; Malashichev, Yegor

    2013-01-01

    Background Acquisition of upright posture in evolution has been argued to facilitate manual laterality in primates. Owing to the high variety of postural habits marsupials can serve as a suitable model to test whether the species-typical body posture shapes forelimb preferences in non-primates or this phenomenon emerged only in the course of primate evolution. In the present study we aimed to explore manual laterality in marsupial quadrupeds and compare them with the results in the previously...

  6. Kinematic analysis of forelimb and hind limb joints in clinically healthy sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Luis G; Rahal, Sheila C; Agostinho, Felipe S; Minto, Bruno W; Matsubara, Lídia M; Kano, Washington T; Castilho, Maira S; Mesquita, Luciane R

    2014-01-01

    Background Variations associated with sex, age, velocity, breed and body geometry should be considered in the determination of kinematic parameters for a gait considered normal. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate kinematic patterns of forelimbs and hind limbs in clinically normal sheep from two different age groups walking at a constant velocity. The hypothesis was that the age may influence sagittal plane kinematic patterns. Fourteen clinically healthy female sheep were divided into Gro...

  7. Repair of a canine forelimb skin deficit by microvascular transfer of a caudal superficial epigastric flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, G A; Smith, J H

    2010-02-01

    Extensive skin loss from the forelimb of a Border collie was repaired by a microvascular caudal superficial epigastric flap, with secondary meshing of the flap to increase coverage. The caudal superficial epigastric artery and vein were anastomosed to the brachial artery and vein. End-to-end anastomosis to the brachial artery and vein did not compromise peripheral blood flow, and no flap necrosis was observed after subsequent limited meshing of the flap. PMID:20070493

  8. Enhanced function in the good forelimb of hemi-parkinson rats: Compensatory adaptation for contralateral postural instability?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodlee, Martin T.; Kane, Jacqueline R.; Chang, Jitsen; Cormack, Lawrence K.; Schallert, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present two new assays of rat motor behavior which can be used to assess function linked to postural stability in each forelimb independently. Postural instability is a major deficit in Parkinson's disease that is resistant to levodopa therapy and contributes to the risk of falling. We applied both tests, one forelimb at a time, to normal rats as well as rats extensively depleted of dopamine by unilateral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, given in the medial forebrain bu...

  9. The use of bone bridges in transtibial amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Auro Mitsuo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to describe the bone bridge technique in adults, and present a variation for use in children, as well as to present its applicability as an option in elective transtibial amputations. This paper presents a prospective study of 15 transtibial amputations performed between 1992 and 1995 in which the bone bridge technique was employed. The patients' ages ranged from 8 to 48 years, with an average of 22.5 years. This technique consisted of the preparation of a cylinder of periosteum extracted from the tibia and with cortical bone fragments attached to it to promote a tibiofibular synostosis on the distal extremity of the amputation stump. We noted that the cortical bone fragments were dispensable when the technique was employed in children, due to the increased osteogenic capacity of the periosteum. This led to a variation of the original technique, a bone bridge without the use of the cortical bone fragments. RESULTS: The average time spent with this procedure, without any significant variation between adults and children, was 171 minutes. The adaptation to the definitive prosthesis was accomplished between 20 and 576 days, with an average of 180 days. Revision of the procedure was necessary in 3 amputations. CONCLUSIONS: This technique may be employed in transtibial amputations in which the final length of the stump lies next to the musculotendinous transition of the gastrocnemius muscle, as well as in the revision of amputation stumps in children, where the procedure has been shown to be effective in the prevention of lesions due to excessive bone growth.

  10. In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riichiro eHira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between distinct motor cortical areas are essential for coordinated motor behaviors. In rodents, the motor cortical forelimb areas are divided into at least two distinct areas: the rostral forelimb area (RFA and the caudal forelimb area (CFA. The RFA is thought to be an equivalent of the premotor cortex in primates, whereas the CFA is believed to be an equivalent of the primary motor cortex. Although reciprocal connections between the RFA and the CFA have been anatomically identified in rats, it is unknown whether there are functional connections between these areas that can induce postsynaptic spikes. In this study, we used an in vivo Channelrhodopsin-2 photostimulation method to trace the functional connections between the mouse RFA and CFA. Simultaneous electrical recordings were utilized to detect spiking activities induced by synaptic inputs originating from photostimulated areas. This method, in combination with anatomical tracing, demonstrated that the RFA receives strong functional projections from layer 2/3 and/or layer 5a, but not from layer 5b, of the CFA. Further, the CFA receives strong projections from layer 5b neurons of the RFA. The onset latency of electrical responses evoked in remote areas upon photostimulation of the other areas was approximately 10 ms, which is consistent with the synaptic connectivity between these areas. Our results suggest that neuronal activities in the RFA and the CFA during movements are formed through asymmetric reciprocal connections.

  11. Factors related to successful job reintegration of people with a lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoppen, Tanneke; Boonstra, Antje; Groothoff, JW; van Sonderen, E; Goeken, LN; Eisma, Willem

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study demographically, amputation-, and employment-related factors that show a relationship to successful job reintegration of patients after lower limb amputation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University hospital. Patients: Subjects had an acquired unilateral major amputati

  12. PSYCHIATRIC SEQUELAE OF AMPUTATION : II LONG TERM EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, J.K.; Mall, C.P.; U.S. Mishra; Sharma, V. P.; Dalal, P.K.; Katiyar, M.; Srivastava, Shrikant; Sinha, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric sequelae present after 6 months to 2 years following amputation were studied in a group of 25 subjects. The subjects were screened on SCID, HRSD and HARS. The most common diagnoses were depressive disorder NOS (20.6%) and major depressive disorder (10.3%). Patients having right sided amputation were more psychiatrically ill than those with loss of a left limb. Phantom limb was seen in about two-thirds of the total sample-more in the sick group (about 88%) than in the non-sick grou...

  13. Amputated Lower Limb Fixation to the Fracture Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamulin, Axel; Farshad, Mazda

    2015-11-01

    Fractures of the proximal and diaphyseal femur are frequently internally fixed using a fracture table with fracture reduction obtained by traction and adequate rotation exerted on the slightly abducted extremity. Although rare, these fractures may occur on an amputated limb. If so, standard use of a fracture table is not possible. To address this situation, the authors describe a simple novel technique allowing rigid fixation of the amputated limb to the traction device of the fracture table that provides accurate control of reduction in all planes. PMID:26558660

  14. Traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children between 5 and 10 years old suffered traumatic amputation of the left lower renal pole following flank trauma. All patients were evaluated with excretory urography and isotope renography. The renal scan clearly demonstrated failure of perfusion of the lower renal pole and urinary extravasation, and was believed to be more valuable than the standard excretory urogram as a diagnostic tool. All children were managed similarly: delayed (72 to 96 hours) exploration, simple removal of the amputated segment and insertion of a Penrose drain. They all have done well. The patients were normotensive at followup and had excellent function of the remaining portion of the kidney

  15. Amputation and prosthesis implantation shape body and peripersonal space representations

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Canzoneri; Marilena Marzolla; Amedeo Amoresano; Gennaro Verni; Andrea Serino

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about whether and how multimodal representations of the body (BRs) and of the space around the body (Peripersonal Space, PPS) adapt to amputation and prosthesis implantation. In order to investigate this issue, we tested BR in a group of upper limb amputees by means of a tactile distance perception task and PPS by means of an audio-tactile interaction task. Subjects performed the tasks with stimulation either on the healthy limb or the stump of the amputated limb, while wearin...

  16. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  17. Combat-related bridge synostosis versus traditional transtibial amputation: comparison of military-specific outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Plucknette, Benjamin F.; Krueger, Chad A.; Rivera, Jessica C.; Wenke, Joseph C.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine military-specific outcomes for transtibial amputations of US Service members using either the traditional technique (Burgess) or the Ertl technique. All US Service members sustaining transtibial, combat-related amputation from September 2001 through July 2011 were reviewed. Amputation type, mechanism of injury, time interval to amputation, age, sex, branch of service, rank, force, nature, and injury severity score were recorded. Outcomes were determined b...

  18. Radioisotope washout technique as a routine method for selection of amputation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 36 amputations of the lower extremity the local skin perfusion pressure was measured preoperatively by an isotope washout technique. The result served as a guidance in the selection of amputation level. An overall healing rate of 94% was found with 64% of the amputations being below the knee. Thus, the isotope washout technique, used routinely, gives a reliable preoperative assessment of the chances of wound healing following below-knee and above-knee amputations. (author)

  19. Reduced incidence of lower-extremity amputations in a Danish diabetes population from 2000 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Almdal, T P; Faerch, K

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic foot disease and amputations severely reduce quality of life and have major economic consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate time trends in the incidence of lower-extremity amputations in Danish people with diabetes.......Diabetic foot disease and amputations severely reduce quality of life and have major economic consequences. The aim of this study was to estimate time trends in the incidence of lower-extremity amputations in Danish people with diabetes....

  20. Difficult to predict early failure after major lower-extremity amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Gebuhr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The successful outcome of a major amputation depends on several factors, including stump wound healing. The purpose of this study was to examine the criteria upon which the index amputation was based and to identify factors associated with early amputation failure after major non-tr...

  1. Affective Distress and Amputation-Related Pain Among Older Men with Long-Term, Traumatic Limb Amputations

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, Deirdre; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    Psychological distress and postamputation pain were investigated in a sample of 582 males with long-term limb amputations (mean time since amputation 639.3 months, standard deviation 166.1; range 240–784 months). Prevalence of significant depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]-D score ≥ 8) was 32.0%, and 34.0% of respondents met the screening criterion for clinical anxiety (HADS-A score ≥ 8). Nearly one quarter (24.6%) of respondents reported significant post-...

  2. Incidence of re-amputation following partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral sensory neuropathy: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Borkosky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus with peripheral sensory neuropathy frequently results in forefoot ulceration. Ulceration at the first ray level tends to be recalcitrant to local wound care modalities and off-loading techniques. If healing does occur, ulcer recurrence is common. When infection develops, partial first ray amputation in an effort to preserve maximum foot length is often performed. However, the survivorship of partial first ray amputations in this patient population and associated re-amputation rate remain unknown. Therefore, in an effort to determine the actual re-amputation rate following any form of partial first ray amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, the authors conducted a systematic review. Only studies involving any form of partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral sensory neuropathy but without critical limb ischemia were included. Our search yielded a total of 24 references with 5 (20.8% meeting our inclusion criteria involving 435 partial first ray amputations. The weighted mean age of patients was 59 years and the weighted mean follow-up was 26 months. The initial amputation level included the proximal phalanx base 167 (38.4% times; first metatarsal head resection 96 (22.1% times; first metatarsal-phalangeal joint disarticulation 53 (12.2% times; first metatarsal mid-shaft 39 (9% times; hallux fillet flap 32 (7.4% times; first metatarsal base 29 (6.7% times; and partial hallux 19 (4.4% times. The incidence of re-amputation was 19.8% (86/435. The end stage, most proximal level, following re-amputation was an additional digit 32 (37.2% times; transmetatarsal 28 (32.6% times; below-knee 25 (29.1% times; and LisFranc 1 (1.2% time. The results of our systematic review reveal that one out of every five patients undergoing any version of a partial first ray amputation will eventually require more proximal re-amputation. These results reveal that partial first ray

  3. Notes to Parents - When Your Child Has Undergone Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Margaret Hauser

    Designed to provide parents with basic information about the physical and emotional aspects of amputation, the booklet gives information about the grief response, body image, phantom limb sensation, stump care, and the prosthesis. The section on the grief process describes normal reactions to loss: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and…

  4. Pain Management in Four-Limb Amputation: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nafisseh S; Warner, Matthew A; Moeschler, Susan M; Hoelzer, Bryan C

    2015-09-01

    Acute pain following amputation can be challenging to treat due to multiple underlying mechanisms and variable clinical responses to treatment. Furthermore, poorly controlled preoperative pain is a risk factor for developing chronic pain. Evidence suggests that epidural analgesia and peripheral nerve blockade may decrease the severity of residual limb pain and the prevalence of phantom pain after lower extremity amputation. We present the perioperative analgesic management of a patient with gangrene of the bilateral upper and lower extremities as a result of septic shock and prolonged vasopressor administration who underwent four-limb amputation in a single procedure. A multimodal analgesic regimen was utilized, including titration of preoperative opioid and neuropathic pain agents, perioperative intravenous, epidural and peripheral nerve catheter infusions, and postoperative oral medication titration. More than 8 months postoperatively, the patient has satisfactory pain control with no evidence for phantom limb pain. To our knowledge, there have been no publications to date concerning analgesic regimens in four-limb amputation. PMID:26011696

  5. Case 6: amputation site on an ulcerated diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, José Neves Paulos

    2016-03-01

    A patient presented with diabetic gangrene on four toes and a moderately infected ulcer on the dorsum of the foot. Following amputation of the gangrenous toes, it was possible to salvage the remaining foot using a combination of antibiotics, octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution and Octiset. PMID:26949850

  6. Take Care of Yourself After an Amputation or Other Surgery

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This podcast provides health information for amputees on how to take care of yourself after an amputation or other surgery.  Created: 2/18/2010 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disability, Disability and Health Program.   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  7. The incidence of symptomatic neuroma in amputation and neurorrhaphy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Avoort, D. J. J. C.; Hovius, S. E. R.; Selles, R. W.; van Neck, J. W.; Coert, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of symptomatic neuroma in finger nerve injuries varies widely in the literature. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the incidence of symptomatic neuroma after repair of digital nerve injuries (neurorrhaphy) and after amputation of one or more fingers. We also determined

  8. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    amputation. A definitive cause could not be established because the placenta was not available. The most likely cause is strangulation of the neck. Such strangulation could be due to a defect of the allantoamnion with herniation of the foetal head or entanglement by amniotic constriction bands....

  9. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  10. Effect of primary and secondary wartime below-knee amputation on length of hospitalization and rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica; Topić Brano

    2002-01-01

    The results of below-knee amputations in 36 war wounded (mean age 35,42) were reviewed. The majority of the patients was wounded by land mines (94.4%). Most of them were between 25 and 35 years old. Bilateral amputation was done in 2.8% of cases. The amputation was performed on the day of wounding (primary below-knee amputation) in 30 (83.3%) amputees. Secondary amputation after the attempt to save the severely injured lower-limb was performed in 6 patients (16,7%) average 4.61 ± 11.67 days a...

  11. Substantial reduction in the number of amputations among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Benjamin S B; Yderstraede, Knud B; Carstensen, Bendix;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to describe the trends in rates of amputation among individuals with and without diabetes. METHODS: We studied amputation rates in the County of Funen (approximately 0.5 million residents) during the period 1996-2011. Amputations were identified from the...... hospital administrative system, diabetes status by linkage with the Danish National Diabetes Register, and mortality and population data by extraction from Statistics Denmark. Amputation rates were analysed using proportional hazard models. We analysed the incidence of the first amputation at each level as...

  12. Analysis of predictor factors of limb amputation in patients with high-voltage electrical burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo García Álvarez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Limb amputation is considered one of the most devastating consequences of electrical injury. Any factors that correlate with the degree of muscle damage can be used to predict the necessity of limb amputation. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that can be used to predict limb amputation in high-voltage electrically injured patients. Methods: Eighty-two high-voltage electrically injured patients were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Burns of National Arzobispo Loayza Hospital on a 5 year period. A retrospective analysis of the possible related risk factors between amputation and non-amputation patients was performed. Results: A total of 68 patients were enrolled for analysis. Thirteen patients underwent limb amputations. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors between amputation and non-amputation groups showed statistical significance for first 24 hour creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CKMB level. A serum CK-MB level above 14,955 U/L predicted high risk of limb amputation with high specificity (84% and sensitivity (77%. Only one patient with a remarkable decrease of creatine kinase (CPKt and CK-MB levels after fasciotomy avoided a major limb amputation. Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPK-MB level is an independent factor for prediction of limb amputation in patients with high-voltage electrical burns. We suggest that the addition of CPK-MB evaluation to clinical symptom screening may be a valuable method for early detection of muscle damage.

  13. Pattern of injury in those dying from traumatic amputation caused by bomb blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J B; Bowyer, G W; Cooper, G J; Crane, J

    1994-08-01

    Traumatic amputation of limbs caused by bomb blast carries a high risk of mortality. This paper describes 73 amputations in 34 deaths from bomb blast in Northern Ireland. The principal aim was to determine the sites of traumatic amputation to provide a biophysical basis for the development of protective measures. Few amputations were through joints; nearly all were through the bone shafts. The most common site in the tibia was the upper third. The distribution of femoral sites resulting from car bombs differed from that characterizing other types of explosion. For car bombs the principal site of amputation was the upper third; for other types of device it was the lower third. It is concluded that flailing is not a notable contributor to limb avulsion. The pattern of amputation is consistent with direct local pressure loads leading to bone fracture; the amputation itself is a secondary event arising from the flow of combustion products. PMID:7953338

  14. Parkinson's disease-like forelimb akinesia induced by BmK I, a sodium channel modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyan; Wang, Ziyi; Jin, Jiahui; Pei, Xiao; Zhao, Yuxiao; Wu, Hao; Lin, Weide; Tao, Jie; Ji, Yonghua

    2016-07-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and characterized by motor disabilities which are mostly linked with high levels of synchronous oscillations in the basal ganglia neurons. Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) play a vital role in the abnormal electrical activity of neurons in the globus pallidus (GP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in PD. BmK I, a α-like toxin purified from the Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, has been identified a site-3-specific modulator of VGSCs. The present study shows that forelimb akinesia can be induced by the injection of BmK I into the globus pallidus (GP) in rats. In addition, BmK I cannot produce neuronal damage in vivo and in vitro at 24h after treatment, indicating that the forelimb akinesia does not result from neuronal damage. Electrophysiological studies further revealed that the inactivated Na(+) currents were showed to be more vulnerably modulated by BmK I than the activated Na(+) currents in human neuron-like SHSY5Y cells. Furthermore, the modulation of BmK I on inactivation was preferentially attributed to fast inactivation rather than slow inactivation. Therefore, the PD-like forelimb akinesia may result from the modulation of sodium channels in neuron by BmK I. These findings not only suggest that BmK I may be an effective and novel molecule for the study of pathogenesis in PD but also support the idea that VGSCs play a crucial role in the motor disabilities in PD. PMID:27108049

  15. Location of motoneurones projecting to the cat distal forelimb. I. Deep radial motornuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, N; Illert, M; Saggau, P

    1986-02-15

    The position of the motornuclei projecting through the dorsal interosseus (DR) nerve to the distal forelimb muscles has been investigated in the cat. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and fluorescent (Fl) compounds have been used as retrograde tracers. They were either injected into forelimb muscles or applied to the proximal end of transected forelimb nerves. Limb muscles that were not investigated have been carefully denervated. HRP was used to trace the position and the architecture of the individual motornuclei. The topographical relations between the nuclei were established with application of up to three F compounds in the same animal. The position of the labeled motornuclei was reconstructed with a computer-assisted approach which is described in the appendix. The DR representation area extends from the caudal C5 to the caudal Th1 segments. In C6 it forms a dorsoventrally oriented narrow region at the lateral border of the ventral horn; in C7 and rostral C8 it forms a broad column in the dorsolateral corner of the ventral horn. In caudal C8 and Th1 this column is shifted into a ventral direction. The motoneurones projecting to the individual DR muscles are not randomly distributed in this area, but arranged in long, slender columns. These motornuclei occupy specific positions with only minimal interindividual variations. Three nuclei (brachioradialis, extensor carpi radialis, and supinator) are located in the C6 and C7 segments. They compose about one-third of the DR cell population. The nuclei to the other radial muscles are all located in C8 and Th1. Thus most of the DR motoneurones are located in these two segments. These results, together with those from the companion paper on the location of the median and ulnar motornuclei, provide important anatomical knowledge for the investigation of the cat brachial enlargement. PMID:3958228

  16. Do constraints associated with the locomotor habitat drive the evolution of forelimb shape? A case study in musteloid carnivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphael; Goswami, Anjali; Peigné, Stéphane

    2015-06-01

    Convergence in morphology can result from evolutionary adaptations in species living in environments with similar selective pressures. Here, we investigate whether the shape of the forelimb long bones has converged in environments imposing similar functional constraints, using musteloid carnivores as a model. The limbs of quadrupeds are subjected to many factors that may influence their shape. They need to support body mass without collapsing or breaking, yet at the same time resist the stresses and strains induced by locomotion. This likely imposes strong constraints on their morphology. Our geometric morphometric analyses show that locomotion, body mass and phylogeny all influence the shape of the forelimb. Furthermore, we find a remarkable convergence between: (i) aquatic and semi-fossorial species, both displaying a robust forelimb, with a shape that improves stability and load transfer in response to the physical resistance imposed by the locomotor environment; and (ii) aquatic and arboreal/semi-arboreal species, with both groups displaying a broad capitulum. This augments the degree of pronation/supination, an important feature for climbing as well as grasping and manipulation ability, behaviors common to aquatic and arboreal species. In summary, our results highlight how musteloids with different locomotor ecologies show differences in the anatomy of their forelimb bones. Yet, functional demands for limb movement through dense media also result in convergence in forelimb long-bone shape between diverse groups, for example, otters and badgers. PMID:25994128

  17. Lower limb amputations: differences between the genders and long-term survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, M; Saarinen, J; Suominen, V P; Virkkunen, J; Salenius, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate possible differences between genders in amputation incidence, revascularization activity before and survival after amputation. This population-based study was carried out in a well-defined geographical area, where all vascular surgical consultations and reconstructions are performed in one university hospital. All amputations performed in the region during 1990 - 1999 were identified from the hospital central registers. According to patient's identity codes, the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland provided death data. Amputation data were cross-linked with the local vascular registry using identity codes. Women were found to be 8 years older than men (p < 0.0001). Major amputations comprised 73.4% in males and 77.7% in females. The age-standardized amputation incidence among males was 338 and among females 226 (per 10(6) inhabitants/year) (p < 0.001). The most prominent difference was seen in amputations due to trauma, where the age-adjusted major amputation incidence was over three-fold among males compared to females. The proportion of patients who had undergone vascular procedure before amputation was 23% in both genders. Median survival after amputation was 943 days in men and 716 in women (p = 0.01). When the higher age of women was considered, there was no significant difference between the genders. Survival was poorer among diabetics in both genders and the difference was significant in males. The amputation incidence was found to be higher in men compared to women in all etiologic subgroups except malignant tumour. Almost one in 4 patients had undergone vascular surgical reconstruction before amputation in both genders. There was no significant difference between the genders in survival after amputation. Subjects with diabetes had a poorer survival after major amputation than those without diabetes. PMID:17979013

  18. Fore-Aft Ground Force Adaptations to Induced Forelimb Lameness in Walking and Trotting Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal f...

  19. Forelimb anatomy and the discrimination of the predatory behavior of carnivorous mammals: the thylacine as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Christine M; Figueirido, Borja

    2014-12-01

    Carnivorous mammals use their forelimbs in different ways to capture their prey. Most terrestrial carnivores have some cursorial (running) adaptations, but ambush predators retain considerable flexibility in their forelimb movement, important for grappling with their prey. In contrast, predators that rely on pursuit to run down their prey have sacrificed some of this flexibility for locomotor efficiency, in the greater restriction of the forelimb motion to the parasagittal plane. In this article, we measured aspects of the forelimb anatomy (44 linear measurements) in 36 species of carnivorous mammals of known predatory behavior, and used multivariate analyses to investigate how well the forelimb anatomy reflects the predatory mode (ambush, pursuit, or pounce-pursuit). A prime intention of this study was to establish morphological correlates of behavior that could then be applied to fossil mammals: for this purpose, five individuals of the recently extinct thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) were also included as unknowns. We show that the three different types of predators can be distinguished by their morphology, both in analyses where all the forelimb bones are included together, and in the separate analyses of each bone individually. Of particular interest is the ability to distinguish between the two types of more cursorial predators, pursuit and pounce-pursuit, which have previously been considered as primarily size-based categories. Despite a prior consideration of the thylacine as a "pounce-pursuit" or an "ambush" type of predator, the thylacines did not consistently cluster with any type of predatory carnivores in our analyses. Rather, the thylacines appeared to be more generalized in their morphology than any of the extant carnivores. The absence of a large diversity of large carnivorous mammals in Australia, past and present, may explain the thylacine's generalized morphology. PMID:24934132

  20. A novel approach to induction and rehabilitation of deficits in forelimb function in a rat model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica Mary LIVINGSTON-THOMAS; Andrew Wilson HUME; Tracy Ann DOUCETTE; Richard Andrew TASKER

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT),which forces use of the impaired arm following unilateral stroke,promotes functional recovery in the clinic but animal models of CIMT have yielded mixed results.The aim of this study is to develop a refined endothelin-1 (ET-1) model of focal ischemic injury in rats that resulted in reproducible,well-defined lesions and reliable upper extremity impairments,and to determine if an appetitively motivated form of rehabilitation (voluntary forced use movement therapy; FUMT)would accelerate post-ischemic motor recovery.Methods:Male Sprague Dawley rats (3 months old) were given multiple intracerebral microinjections of ET-1 into the sensorimotor cortex and dorsolateral striatum.Sham-operated rats received the same surgical procedure up to but not includingthe drill holes on the skull.Functional deficits were assessed using two tests of forelimb placing,a forelimb postural reflex test,a forelimb asymmetry test,and a horizontal ladder test.In a separate experiment ET-1 stroke rats were subjected to daily rehabilitation with FUMT or with a control therapy beginning on post-surgery d 5.Performance and post-mortem analysis of lesion volume and regional BDNF expression were measured.Results:Following microinjections of ET-1 animals exhibited significant deficits in contralateral forelimb function on a variety of tests compared with the sham group.These deficits persisted for up to 20 d with no mortality and were associated with consistent lesion volumes.FUMT therapy resulted in a modest but significantly accelerated recovery in the forelimb function as compared with the control therapy,but did not affect lesion size or BDNF expression in the ipsilesional hemisphere.Conclusion:We conclude that refined ET-1 microinjection protocols and forcing use of the impaired forelimb in an appetitively motivated paradigm may prove useful in developing strategies to study post-ischemic rehabilitation and neuroplasticity.

  1. Predictive factors for lower extremity amputations in diabetic foot infections

    OpenAIRE

    Keng Lin, Wong; Aziz, Zameer; Nather, Aziz; Huak, Chan Yiong

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs) and its predictive factors for lower extremity amputations. A prospective study of 100 patients with DFIs treated at the National University Hospital of Singapore were recruited in the study during the period of January 2005- June 2005. A protocol was designed to document patient’s demographics, type of DFI, presence of neuropathy and/or vasculopathy and its final outcome. Predictive factors for li...

  2. Epidemiological Study on Reasons for Leg Amputation in Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Yoshitaka; IMAKI, Masahide; Ogawa, Yukiko; FUCHOKA, Satoshi; OKUDA, Kuniharu

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted, with special reference to elucidating the causes for lower limb amputation, which would have the most significant effect on "locomotion", the basis of independence of the aged. The subjects were leg amputees for whom artificial limbs had been fitted financed by various insurance policies in Osaka prefecture. The survey was conducted on 3, 138 subjects, from whom acceptable responses were obtained from 1, 460 (recovery rate, 46.5%). Questionnaires were mailed to each ...

  3. Planar Covariation of Hindlimb and Forelimb Elevation Angles during Terrestrial and Aquatic Locomotion of Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catavitello, Giovanna; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The rich repertoire of locomotor behaviors in quadrupedal animals requires flexible inter-limb and inter-segmental coordination. Here we studied the kinematic coordination of different gaits (walk, trot, gallop, and swim) of six dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and, in particular, the planar covariation of limb segment elevation angles. The results showed significant variations in the relative duration of rearward limb movement, amplitude of angular motion, and inter-limb coordination, with gait patterns ranging from a lateral sequence of footfalls during walking to a diagonal sequence in swimming. Despite these differences, the planar law of inter-segmental coordination was maintained across different gaits in both forelimbs and hindlimbs. Notably, phase relationships and orientation of the covariation plane were highly limb specific, consistent with the functional differences in their neural control. Factor analysis of published muscle activity data also demonstrated differences in the characteristic timing of basic activation patterns of the forelimbs and hindlimbs. Overall, the results demonstrate that the planar covariation of inter-segmental coordination has emerged for both fore- and hindlimbs and all gaits, although in a limb-specific manner. PMID:26218076

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of the proximal digital annular ligament in the equine forelimb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonography was used with 6 normal cadaver forelimbs of Dutch Warmblood horses to delineate the ultrasonographic anatomy of the palmar pastern region, with emphasis on the proximal digital annular ligament. Using a 5.5 MHz sector scanner, the thin proximal digital annular ligament was not visible on offset sonograms. Only if the digital sheath in the normal limb was distended was the distal border of this ligament outlined. In all normal limbs the palmarodistal thickness of the combined skin-proximal digital annular ligament layer in the mid-pastern region was 2 mm. The flexor tendons and distal sesamoidean ligaments were easily identified as hyperechoic structures. Distension of the digital sheath in the normal limbs clearly outlined the anechoic digital sheath pouches. In 4 lame horses ultrasonography aided the diagnosis of functional proximal digital annular ligament constriction. In all 4 diseased forelimbs ultrasonography demonstrated thickening of the skin-proximal digital annular ligament layer and distension of the digital sheath. In one of these limbs the distended digital sheath was also thickened. The flexor tendons and distal sesamoidean ligaments were normal. There was no radiographic evidence of additional bone or joint lesions

  5. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Betty M; Friedrich, Tara; Mason, Mandy K; VanderMeer, Julia E; Zhao, Jingjing; Eckalbar, Walter L; Logan, Malcolm; Illing, Nicola; Pollard, Katherine S; Ahituv, Nadav

    2016-03-01

    The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs) that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing. PMID:27019019

  6. Three-dimensional Torques and Power of Horse Forelimb Joints at Trot

    CERN Document Server

    Clayton, H M; Mullineaux, D R

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for Performing Study: Equine gait analysis has focused on 2D analysis in the sagittal plane, while descriptions of 3D kinetics and ground reaction force could provide more information on the Equine gait analysis. Hypothesis or Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the 3D torques and powers of the forelimb joints at trotting. Methods: Eight sound horses were used in the study. A full 3D torque and power for elbow, carpus, fetlock, pastern and coffin joints of right forelimb in horses at trot were obtained by calculating the inverse kinetics of simplified link segmental model. Results: Over two third of energy (70%) generated by all joints come from stance phase, and most of energy generated was by elbow joint both in stance (77%) and sway (88%) phases. Energy absorbed by all joints during stance (40%) and sway (60%) phases respectively is not a big difference. During stance phase, all most two third of energy (65%) absorbed was by fetlock joint, while over two third of energy (74%) abso...

  7. Forelimb contractures and abnormal tendon collagen fibrillogenesis in fibulin-4 null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Dessislava Z; Pan, Te-Cheng; Zhang, Rui-Zhu; Zhang, Guiyun; Sasaki, Takako; Arita, Machiko; Birk, David E; Chu, Mon-Li

    2016-06-01

    Fibulin-4 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein essential for elastic fiber formation. Mice deficient in fibulin-4 die perinatally because of severe pulmonary and vascular defects associated with the lack of intact elastic fibers. Patients with fibulin-4 mutations demonstrate similar defects, and a significant number die shortly after birth or in early childhood from cardiopulmonary failure. The patients also demonstrate skeletal and other systemic connective tissue abnormalities, including joint laxity and flexion contractures of the wrist. A fibulin-4 null mouse strain was generated and used to analyze the roles of fibulin-4 in tendon fibrillogenesis. This mouse model displayed bilateral forelimb contractures, in addition to pulmonary and cardiovascular defects. The forelimb and hindlimb tendons exhibited disruption in collagen fibrillogenesis in the absence of fibulin-4 as analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Fewer fibrils were assembled, and fibrils were disorganized compared with wild-type controls. The organization of developing tenocytes and compartmentalization of the extracellular space was also disrupted. Fibulin-4 was co-localized with fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in limb tendons by using immunofluorescence microscopy. Thus, fibulin-4 seems to play a role in regulating tendon collagen fibrillogenesis, in addition to its essential function in elastogenesis. PMID:26711913

  8. Bat Accelerated Regions Identify a Bat Forelimb Specific Enhancer in the HoxD Locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty M Booker

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular events leading to the development of the bat wing remain largely unknown, and are thought to be caused, in part, by changes in gene expression during limb development. These expression changes could be instigated by variations in gene regulatory enhancers. Here, we used a comparative genomics approach to identify regions that evolved rapidly in the bat ancestor, but are highly conserved in other vertebrates. We discovered 166 bat accelerated regions (BARs that overlap H3K27ac and p300 ChIP-seq peaks in developing mouse limbs. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we show that five Myotis lucifugus BARs drive gene expression in the developing mouse limb, with the majority showing differential enhancer activity compared to the mouse orthologous BAR sequences. These include BAR116, which is located telomeric to the HoxD cluster and had robust forelimb expression for the M. lucifugus sequence and no activity for the mouse sequence at embryonic day 12.5. Developing limb expression analysis of Hoxd10-Hoxd13 in Miniopterus natalensis bats showed a high-forelimb weak-hindlimb expression for Hoxd10-Hoxd11, similar to the expression trend observed for M. lucifugus BAR116 in mice, suggesting that it could be involved in the regulation of the bat HoxD complex. Combined, our results highlight novel regulatory regions that could be instrumental for the morphological differences leading to the development of the bat wing.

  9. Tetanus following replantation of an amputated finger: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashida Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. Case presentation A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.

  10. Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus G. Pandy

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The equine distal forelimb is a common location of injuries related to mechanical overload. In this study, a two-dimensional model of the musculoskeletal system of the region was developed and applied to kinematic and kinetic data from walking and trotting horses. The forces in major tendons and joint reaction forces were calculated. The components of the joint reaction forces caused by wrapping of tendons around sesamoid bones were found to be of similar magnitude to the reaction forces between the long bones at each joint. This finding highlighted the importance of taking into account muscle-tendon wrapping when evaluating joint loading in the equine distal forelimb.

  11. Allergy to rabbits. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic techniques have been used to study the antigenic components found in extracts of dust collected from rabbit housing areas. To determine the possible source of these antigens, comparisons have been made to rabbit saliva, urine, fur and dander. Specific antisera for the rabbit extracts were raised in guinea pigs, One major component of the dust (Ag Rl) was also found in large amounts in saliva, slightly less in fur and in only minimal amounts in urine and dander. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) of the dust, performed with sera from 14 rabbit allergic individuals who were RAST positive to rabbit saliva, urine and dust identified four IgE-binding constituents. Individual responses varied but all sera reacted with Ag Rl, identifying this as a major rabbit allergen. Dust RAST inhibition studies with rabbit dust, saliva and urine indicated saliva to be closely related to the dust. Ag Rl is a glycoprotein which appears to be very heterogeneous in nature. It produced a broad biphasic precipitin peak on immunoelectrophoresis and eluted from Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration over the molecular weight range 30-50 Kd, although a molecular weight of 17 Kd was indicated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE) and gradient gel electrophoresis. The RAST inhibition results and the antigenic similarity of saliva to the dust suggest this to be the most likely sorce of the major rabbit allergen, Ag Rl. (author)

  12. Clinical effect and necessity of interventional treatment in diabetic foot before and after amputation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the clinical effect and necessity of interventional treatment in diabetic foot before and after amputation. Methods: Combined intravascular angioplasty with intraarterial medicine perfusing were carried out in fourteen patients with diabetic foot including 10 patients treated before amputation and 4 after amputation involving superficial femoral, deep femoral, tibial and fitular arteries. Among them seventeen vessels with irregular stenosis and obstruction were treated by intravascular angioplasty through balloon dilation. Results: The technical successful rate was 100%, no complication happened. The symptoms were relieved in all patients after treatment, including promotion of lower extremity arterial blood perfusion, reducing range of amputation and wound healing after amputation. Conclusions: Intravascular interventional treatment is safe, effective and valuable in diabetic foot before and after amputation. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of variations of neck to shaft of femur in amputations above knee

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi M; Hedayatpoor A

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we investigated variations of the angle between neck and shaft of femur after amputation of tigh above the knee. In amputated tigh the angle between neck and shaft of the femur is decreased than normal (nearly 90° degrees) (coax vara). The angle of the normal femur usually increases due to weight bearing (coax valga). In the patients that both tighs have been amputated the changes of the angle are equal.

  14. Evaluation of variations of neck to shaft of femur in amputations above knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraghi M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated variations of the angle between neck and shaft of femur after amputation of tigh above the knee. In amputated tigh the angle between neck and shaft of the femur is decreased than normal (nearly 90° degrees (coax vara. The angle of the normal femur usually increases due to weight bearing (coax valga. In the patients that both tighs have been amputated the changes of the angle are equal.

  15. Ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations in relation to the skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P

    1980-01-01

    Healing of the stumps in 59 above-knee amputations was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I-(-) or 125I-(-) antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mm...... ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations as has previously been shown to be the case in below-knee amputations....

  16. Surgical revascularization versus amputation for peripheral vascular disease in dialysis patients: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Nirupama

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical treatment of peripheral vascular disease (PVD in dialysis patients is controversial. Methods We examined the post-operative morbidity and mortality of surgical revascularization or amputation for PVD in a retrospective analysis of United States Renal Data System. Propensity scores for undergoing amputation were derived from a multivariable logistic regression model of amputation. Results Of the Medicare patients initiated on dialysis from Jan 1, 1995 to Dec 31, 1999, patients underwent surgical revascularization (n = 1,896 or amputation (n = 2,046 in the first 6 months following initiation of dialysis were studied. In the logistic regression model, compared to claudication, presence of gangrene had a strong association with amputation [odds ratio (OR 19.0, 95% CI (confidence interval 13.86–25.95]. The odds of dying within 30 days and within1 year were higher (30 day OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.45–2.36; 1 yr OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.25–1.71 in the amputation group in logistic regression model adjusted for propensity scores and other baseline factors. Amputation was associated with increased odds of death in patients with low likelihood of amputation (rd percentile of propensity score and moderate likelihood of amputation (33rd to 66th percentile but not in high likelihood group (>66th percentile. The number of hospital days in the amputation and revascularization groups was not different. Conclusion Amputation might be associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. Where feasible, revascularization might be preferable over amputation in dialysis patients.

  17. Analysis of predictor factors of limb amputation in patients with high-voltage electrical burns

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo García Álvarez; Guillermo Wiegering Cecchi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limb amputation is considered one of the most devastating consequences of electrical injury. Any factors that correlate with the degree of muscle damage can be used to predict the necessity of limb amputation. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that can be used to predict limb amputation in high-voltage electrically injured patients. Methods: Eighty-two high-voltage electrically injured patients were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surg...

  18. Quality of Life among Egyptian Patients with Upper and Lower Limb Amputation: Sex Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Salwa A.; Shebl, Amany M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Limb amputation is a life-changing event that can cause significant disruptions in many important areas of existence. Aim of this study. To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients with limb amputation and identify the factors affecting the quality of life of patients with limb amputation among Egyptian patients. Research Design. It was a descriptive exploratory design. Setting. The study was conducted in Orthopedics and Surgical Department in Emergency Hospital at Mansou...

  19. Effect of primary and secondary wartime below-knee amputation on length of hospitalization and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of below-knee amputations in 36 war wounded (mean age 35,42 were reviewed. The majority of the patients was wounded by land mines (94.4%. Most of them were between 25 and 35 years old. Bilateral amputation was done in 2.8% of cases. The amputation was performed on the day of wounding (primary below-knee amputation in 30 (83.3% amputees. Secondary amputation after the attempt to save the severely injured lower-limb was performed in 6 patients (16,7% average 4.61 ± 11.67 days after wounding. Reamputation was necessary in 6 cases (16.7%. Time period from the beginning of rehabilitation to the fitting of prosthesis, was 36.25 ± 14.97 days for primary amputations, 32 ± 17.8 days for secondary amputations and 68.66 ± 33.52 days for reamputations. There was no significant correlation between the duration of rehabilitation to prosthetic management and the period between wounding and amputation (r = -0.102. The attempt to save the limb after severe below-knee injuries and the secondary amputation afterwards, did not significantly influence the ensuing rehabilitation and prosthetic works.

  20. A Clinical and Histological Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Ischemia; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Peripheral Vascular Disease; Vascular Disease; Arterial Occlusive Disease; Arteriosclerosis; Atherosclerosis; Cardiovascular Disease; Pathologic Processes; Orthopedic Procedures; Amputation

  1. Chronic kidney disease predicts long-term mortality after major lower extremity amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Assi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite low peri-operative mortality after major lower extremity amputation, long-term mortality remains substantial. Metabolic syndrome is increasing in incidence and prevalence at an alarming rate in the USA. Aim: This study was to determine whether metabolic syndrome predicts outcome after major lower extremity amputation. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of charts between July 2005 and June 2010. Results: Fifty-four patients underwent a total of 60 major lower extremity amputations. Sixty percent underwent below-knee amputation and 40% underwent above-knee amputation. The 30-day mortality was 7% with no difference in level (below-knee amputation, 8%; above-knee amputation, 4%; P = 0.53. The mean follow-up time was 39.7 months. The 5-year survival was 54% in the whole group, and was independent of level of amputation (P = 0.24 or urgency of the procedure (P = 0.51. Survival was significantly decreased by the presence of underlying chronic kidney disease (P = 0.04 but not by other comorbidities (history of myocardial infarction, P = 0.79; metabolic syndrome, P = 0.64; diabetes mellitus, P = 0.56. Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome is not associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes after lower extremity amputation. However, patients with chronic kidney disease constitute a sub-group of patients at higher risk of postoperative long-term mortality and may be a group to target for intervention.

  2. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training enhances recovery of forelimb function after ischemic stroke in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Seth A; Ruiz, Andrea; Bethea, Thelma; Khodaparast, Navid; Carmel, Jason B; Rennaker, Robert L; Kilgard, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Advanced age is associated with a higher incidence of stroke and worse functional outcomes. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential method to improve recovery after brain injury but to date has only been evaluated in young rats. Here, we evaluated whether VNS paired with rehabilitative training would improve recovery of forelimb function after ischemic lesion of the motor cortex in rats 18 months of age. Rats were trained to perform the isometric pull task, an automated, quantitative measure of volitional forelimb strength. Once proficient, rats received an ischemic lesion of the motor cortex and underwent rehabilitative training paired with VNS for 6 weeks. VNS paired with rehabilitative training significantly enhances recovery of forelimb function after lesion. Rehabilitative training without VNS results in a 34% ± 19% recovery, whereas VNS paired with rehabilitative training yields a 98% ± 8% recovery of prelesion of forelimb function. VNS does not significantly reduce lesion size. These findings demonstrate that VNS paired with rehabilitative training enhances motor recovery in aged subjects in a model of stroke and may suggest that VNS therapy may effectively translate to elderly stroke patients. PMID:27255820

  3. Rabbit meat consumption in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mailu, S.K; Muhammad, L; Wanyoike, M.M; Mwanza, R.N.

    2012-01-01

    A survey was undertaken in 7 counties in Kenya covering a total of 300 rabbit farmers. Another 100 non rabbit keeping farmers was similarly interviewed for comparison purposes. Questions on the survey instrument sought to identify consumption patterns of rabbit meat among the sample farmers. Results were subjected to chi square test for association in an attempt to identify characteristics of respondents that might be pointers to rabbit meat consumption. Education, the number of rabbits kept—...

  4. Development of a three-dimensional electronic solids model of the lower forelimb of the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study uses computed tomography and computer aided design software (I-DEAS-TM) for the development of a three-dimensional electronic solids model of the lower limb of the horse. Data from two millimeter transverse contiguous slices of the distal forelimb of a yearling horse were acquired from a computed tomographic scanner and then transferred to a computer system via magnetic tape. Outline of the bony tissue for each scan slice was first obtained with a feature extraction algorithm. A solids model for each skeletal segment of the specimen was then reconstructed with I-DEAS-TM and subsequently displayed with various graphics options. The reconstructed electronic solids model would be useful for the study of 3D joint mechanics and finite element analysis of the bony structures, as well as for diagnostic purposes providing CT images could be obtained

  5. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  6. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. PMID:27147250

  7. Fore-aft ground force adaptations to induced forelimb lameness in walking and trotting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhadi, Jalal; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo; Schilling, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Animals alter their locomotor mechanics to adapt to a loss of limb function. To better understand their compensatory mechanisms, this study evaluated the changes in the fore-aft ground forces to forelimb lameness and tested the hypothesis that dogs unload the affected limb by producing a nose-up pitching moment via the exertion of a net-propulsive force when the lame limb is on the ground. Seven healthy Beagles walked and trotted at steady speed on an instrumented treadmill while horizontal force data were collected before and after a moderate lameness was induced. Peak, mean and summed braking and propulsive forces as well as the duration each force was exerted and the time to reach maximum force were evaluated for both the sound and the lame condition. Compared with the sound condition, a net-propulsive force was produced by the lame diagonal limbs due to a reduced braking force in the affected forelimb and an increased propulsive force in the contralateral hindlimb when the dogs walked and trotted. To regain pitch stability and ensure steady speed for a given locomotor cycle, the dogs produced a net-braking force when the sound diagonal limbs were on the ground by exerting greater braking forces in both limbs during walking and additionally reducing the propulsive force in the hindlimb during trotting. Consistent with the proposed mechanism, dogs maximize their double support phases when walking. Likely associated with the fore-aft force adaptations to lameness are changes in muscle recruitment that potentially result in short- and long-term effects on the limb and trunk muscles. PMID:23300614

  8. Population coding of forelimb joint kinematics by peripheral afferents in monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Umeda

    Full Text Available Various peripheral receptors provide information concerning position and movement to the central nervous system to achieve complex and dexterous movements of forelimbs in primates. The response properties of single afferent receptors to movements at a single joint have been examined in detail, but the population coding of peripheral afferents remains poorly defined. In this study, we obtained multichannel recordings from dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons in cervical segments of monkeys. We applied the sparse linear regression (SLiR algorithm to the recordings, which selects useful input signals to reconstruct movement kinematics. Multichannel recordings of peripheral afferents were performed by inserting multi-electrode arrays into the DRGs of lower cervical segments in two anesthetized monkeys. A total of 112 and 92 units were responsive to the passive joint movements or the skin stimulation with a painting brush in Monkey 1 and Monkey 2, respectively. Using the SLiR algorithm, we reconstructed the temporal changes of joint angle, angular velocity, and acceleration at the elbow, wrist, and finger joints from temporal firing patterns of the DRG neurons. By automatically selecting a subset of recorded units, the SLiR achieved superior generalization performance compared with a regularized linear regression algorithm. The SLiR selected not only putative muscle units that were responsive to only the passive movements, but also a number of putative cutaneous units responsive to the skin stimulation. These results suggested that an ensemble of peripheral primary afferents that contains both putative muscle and cutaneous units encode forelimb joint kinematics of non-human primates.

  9. Ketogenic diet improves forelimb motor function after spinal cord injury in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Streijger

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD are validated non-pharmacological treatments for some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Ketones reduce neuronal excitation and promote neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the efficacy of KD as a treatment for acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI in rats. Starting 4 hours following C5 hemi-contusion injury animals were fed either a standard carbohydrate based diet or a KD formulation with lipid to carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 3:1. The forelimb functional recovery was evaluated for 14 weeks, followed by quantitative histopathology. Post-injury 3:1 KD treatment resulted in increased usage and range of motion of the affected forepaw. Furthermore, KD improved pellet retrieval with recovery of wrist and digit movements. Importantly, after returning to a standard diet after 12 weeks of KD treatment, the improved forelimb function remained stable. Histologically, the spinal cords of KD treated animals displayed smaller lesion areas and more grey matter sparing. In addition, KD treatment increased the number of glucose transporter-1 positive blood vessels in the lesion penumbra and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of MCTs with 4-CIN (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate prevented the KD-induced neuroprotection after SCI, In conclusion, post-injury KD effectively promotes functional recovery and is neuroprotective after cervical SCI. These beneficial effects require the function of monocarboxylate transporters responsible for ketone uptake and link the observed neuroprotection directly to the function of ketones, which are known to exert neuroprotection by multiple mechanisms. Our data suggest that current clinical nutritional guidelines, which include relatively high carbohydrate contents, should be revisited.

  10. Predictive factors for lower extremity amputations in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zameer Aziz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of diabetic foot infections (DFIs and its predictive factors for lower extremity amputations. A prospective study of 100 patients with DFIs treated at the National University Hospital of Singapore were recruited in the study during the period of January 2005–June 2005. A protocol was designed to document patient's demographics, type of DFI, presence of neuropathy and/or vasculopathy and its final outcome. Predictive factors for limb loss were determined using univariate and stepwise logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the study population was 59.8 years with a male to female ratio of about 1:1 and with a mean follow-up duration of about 24 months. All patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common DFIs included abscess (32%, wet gangrene (29%, infected ulcers (19%, osteomyelitis (13%, necrotizing fasciitis (4% and cellulitis (3%. Thirteen patients were treated conservatively, while surgical debridement or distal amputation was performed in 59 patients. Twenty-eight patients had major amputations (below or above knee performed. Forty-eight percent had monomicrobial infections compared with 52% with polymicrobial infections. The most common pathogens found in all infections (both monomicrobial and polymicrobial were Staphylococcus aureus (39.7%, Bacteroides fragilis (30.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26.0% and Streptococcus agalactiae (21.0%. Significant univariate predictive factors for limb loss included age above 60 years, gangrene, ankle-brachial index (ABI <0.8, monomicrobial infections, white blood cell (WBC count ≥ 15.0×109/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥100 mm/hr, C-reactive protein ≥15.0 mg/dL, hemoglobin (Hb ≤10.0g/dL and creatinine ≥150 µmol/L. Upon stepwise logistic regression, only gangrene, ABI <0.8, WBC ≥ 15.0×109/L and Hb ≤10.0g/dL were significant.

  11. Traumatic Amputation of Finger From an Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert D; Nielsen, Cynthia L

    2016-06-01

    Legend states that the alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) should be handled with extreme caution as it has jaw strength powerful enough to bite a wooden broomstick in half. Tales of bite injuries from what is the largest freshwater turtle in North America exist anecdotally, yet there are few descriptions of medical encounters for such. The risk of infection from reptilian bites to the hand in an aquatic environment warrants thorough antibiotic treatment in conjunction with hand surgery consultation. We present the first case report of a near total amputation of an index finger in an adolescent boy who had been bitten by a wild "gator snapper." PMID:27116923

  12. A case of psychosis who amputated his finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Cemal Kaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-harm behavior is defined as the person’s intentional,direct injuring of some body tissue or the whole body mostoften done without suicidal intentions. Mild types of selfmutilationis seen frequently however more severe onesare rarely seen. Severe self-mutilation is generally a signof a serious psychiatric disorder and it can result in organand/or organ functionality loss. In this study we aimed topresent a schizophrenic patient with repetitive self-mutilation.As a conclusion, practicing clinicians should takeinto consideration the possibility of self-harm behavior inschizophrenia patients especially if they have high riskproperties.Key words: Schizophrenia, self-mutilation, amputation

  13. Rabbit production in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova Ivona; Dimitrov Tz.; Teneva A.; Tzvetkova H.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present the situation of rabbit production in Bulgaria. As a whole the rabbit production in Bulgaria is in extensive stage. To change it as intensive or semi intensive it need to improve selection and feeding systems, to concentrate the farm, and to build new more modern farms with control systems of microclimatic parameters and which covered veterinarian requirements.

  14. The effect of age, anatomical site and bone structure on osteogenesis in New Zealand White rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ravanetti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among animal models, rabbits are widely used in medical research, as they fill the gap between smaller models, commonly employed in basic science, and larger ones, which are better suited for preclinical trials. Given their rapid growth, rabbits provide a valuable system for the evaluation of bone implants for tissue regeneration. By means of a histomorphometric analysis, here we quantified the mineral apposition rates (MARs in osteonic, periosteum and endosteum osteogenic fronts, of skeletal elements within femur, tibia, radius, ulna, frontal and parietal bones in New Zealand White rabbits aged 6, 7 and 8 months. Our hypothesis is that the MAR varies according to the skeletal maturity of the animal, and also within the skeletal elements and the osteogenic fronts considered. In the present study we show that the MAR in both femur and tibia is significantly higher than in ulna and radius. We also demonstrate that the MAR in parietal bones is significantly higher compared to the MAR of both frontal and forelimb bones. Contrary to what was expected, the MARs of all the skeletal elements considered were not decreased following full skeletal maturity. Finally, the MAR of the osteonic-osteogenic front is the lowest in all of the skeletal elements considered. In conclusion, these results provide new important insights for the evaluation of bone implants, casting a light on the role of both age and osteogenic fronts on the bone MAR, and providing valuable information on the physiological bone turnover in New Zealand White rabbits.

  15. Novel bocaparvoviruses in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanave, G; Martella, V; Farkas, S L; Marton, S; Fehér, E; Bodnar, L; Lavazza, A; Decaro, N; Buonavoglia, C; Bányai, K

    2015-11-01

    Bocaparvovirus is a newly established genus within the family Parvoviridae and has been identified as a possible cause of enteric, respiratory, reproductive/neonatal and neurological disease in humans and several animal species. In this study, metagenomic analysis was used to identify and characterise a novel bocaparvovirus in the faeces of rabbits with enteric disease. To assess the prevalence of the novel virus, rectal swabs and faecal samples obtained from rabbits with and without diarrhoea were screened with a specific PCR assay. The complete genome sequence of the novel parvovirus was reconstructed. The virus was distantly related to other bocaparvoviruses; the three ORFs shared 53%, 53% and 50% nucleotide identity, respectively, to homologous genes of porcine bocaparvoviruses. The virus was detected in 8/29 (28%) and 16/95 (17%) samples of rabbits with and without diarrhoea, respectively. Sequencing of the capsid protein fragment targeted by the diagnostic PCR identified two distinct bocaparvovirus populations/sub-types, with 91.7-94.5% nucleotide identity to each other. Including these novel parvoviruses in diagnostic algorithms of rabbit diseases might help inform their potential pathogenic role and impact on rabbit production and the virological profiles of laboratory rabbits. PMID:26383859

  16. The eye amputated - consequences of eye amputation with emphasis on clinical aspects, phantom eye syndrome and quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed

    2010-01-01

    used with an increasing tendency until 2003. The Phantom eye syndrome is frequent among EA patients. Visual hallucinations were described by 42% of the patients. The content were mainly elementary visual hallucinations, with white or colored light as a continuous sharp light or as moving dots. The most...... limitations due to emotional problems and mental health. Patients with the indication painful blind eye are having lower scores in all aspects of health related quality of life and perceived stress than patients with the indication neoplasm and trauma. The percentage of eye amputated which is divorced...

  17. Risk Factors for Foot Amputation in Patients Hospitalized for Diabetic Foot Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrone Quilici, Maria Teresa; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Franzin Vieira, Alexandre Eduardo; Toledo, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for amputation in diabetic patients hospitalized for foot infections. This cross-sectional study comprised 100 patients with diabetic infectious complications in the lower limbs. The variables investigated were related to diabetes, infection, and treatment compliance. Multiple Cox regression analysis was performed to identify the variables independently associated with the outcome of amputation. The most prevalent chronic complications were neuropathy and hypertension. Most patients presented with a neuroischemic foot (86%). The Morisky test showed that 72% were not compliant with diabetes treatment. Regarding patient outcome, 61% progressed to amputation, 14% to debridement, and 9% to revascularization. The results showed a 42% higher risk for progression to amputation in patients with previous use of antimicrobials. Also, the amputation risk was 26% higher for those less compliant with diabetes treatment. An increase of one point in the Wagner ulcer classification criteria corresponded to a 65% increase in the risk of amputation. Undergoing conservative, nonsurgical procedures prior to admission provided a 63% reduction in the risk of amputation. Knowledge of these factors is critical to enable multidisciplinary teams to develop treatment plans for these patients so as to prevent the need for amputation. PMID:26998493

  18. Very low survival rates after non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors potentially influencing short- and long-term mortality in patients who had a non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a university hospital. A consecutive series of 93 amputations (16% toe/foot, 33% trans-tibial, 9% through knee and 42% tr...

  19. Surgical Management of Traumatic Penile Amputation: A Case Report and Review of the World Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer A. Raheem, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: We review the literature and case reports on penile amputation and its etiology, surgical management, variables effecting outcomes, and its complications. Raheem OA, Mirheydar HS, Patel ND, Patel SH, Suliman A, and Buckley JC. Surgical management of traumatic penile amputation: A case report and review of the world literature. Sex Med 2015;3:49–53.

  20. Spinal, pelvic, and hip movement asymmetries in people with lower-limb amputation: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemakumar Devan, MPhty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Following amputation, people with transfemoral amputation (TFA and transtibial amputation (TTA adapt with asymmetrical movements in the spinal and lower-limb joints. The aim of this review is to describe the trunk, lumbopelvic, and hip joint movement asymmetries of the amputated limb of people with TFA and TTA during functional tasks as compared with the intact leg and/or referent leg of nondisabled controls. Electronic databases were searched from inception to February 2014. Studies with kinematic data comparing (1 amputated and intact leg and (2 amputated and referent leg of nondisabled controls were included (26 articles. Considerable heterogeneity in the studies precluded data pooling. During stance phase of walking in participants with TFA, there is moderate evidence for increased trunk lateral flexion toward the amputated limb as compared with the intact leg and increased anterior pelvic tilt as compared with nondisabled controls. None of the studies investigated spinal kinematics during other functional tasks such as running, ramp walking, stair climbing, or obstacle crossing in participants with TFA or TTA. Overall, persons with TFA adapt with trunk and pelvic movement asymmetries at the amputated limb to facilitate weight transfer during walking. Among participants with TTA, there is limited evidence of spinal and pelvic asymmetries during walking.

  1. The place of radiotherapy after amputation in the treatment of mammacarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the decisions to irradiate the chest-wall and regional glands after mamma amputation. A scheme is given to indicate irradiation after mamma amputation for patients with a) 0-3 axillary gland metastases and b) over 3 axillary gland metastases. In this scheme special reference is made to the chest wall, axillary glands, parasternal glands and supraclavicular glands. (Auth.)

  2. Sexuality in people with a lower limb amputation : a topic too hot to handle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, J. E. A.; Enzlin, P.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Dijkstra, P. U.; Dekker, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whether, and by whom sexuality is discussed in amputation departments. The focus was on whether professionals received questions about sexuality from their patients with a lower limb amputation and whether they addressed sexuality themselves, as well

  3. A Salvage Operation for Total Penis Amputation Due to Circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsev Ince

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the most common rituals in Jewish and Islamic cultures. It may also be performed for phimosis correction or the treatment of recurrent balanitis. Although circumcision is considered to be a technically easy and safe surgical procedure with no significant risk, it may lead to severe complications such as necrotizing fasciitis or total penis amputation. In this report, we present a case of penis amputation at two levels occurring with third-degree burns due to electrocautery during circumcision. Although penile replantation was attempted, it was unsuccessful due to burn damage to the veins. After restoration of the functional structures, the penis was buried in the inguinal area by reepithelization to maintain blood circulation. The recovery of the penis was successful. This case is presented as a novel example of groin flap surgery to achieve a functionally and aesthetically acceptable outcome in a salvage operation for a penis with significant traumatic injury, which has not been previously reported in the literature.

  4. Surgical reimplantation of penile glans amputation in children during circumcision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouassida Khaireddine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumcision is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedures. Unfortunately, various complications may occur during circumcision, ranging from trivial to tragic such as penile amputation which is a serious complication and a challenging injury to treat. We describe two cases of non-microsurgical successful reattachment of a distal penile glans which were amputated during circumcision. In the first case, a 5-year-old child underwent circumcision by an urologist under local anesthesia. In the second one, a 3-year-old child underwent circumcision by a general practitioner who used to make circumcision. In this article, the literature is reviewed; results and potential complications of this surgery are also discussed. Glans sensation was present, early morning erection was maintained, and there was an erectile response during penile manipulation in both cases. Although circumcision is not technically difficult, it should be taken seriously. The use of microsurgical reattachment is not always possible, especially in pediatric cases; it also requires special equipment and training.

  5. Early interfaced neural activity from chronic amputated nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitija Garde

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct interfacing of transected peripheral nerves with advanced robotic prosthetic devices has been proposed as a strategy for achieving natural motor control and sensory perception of such bionic substitutes, thus fully functionally replacing missing limbs in amputees. Multi-electrode arrays placed in the brain and peripheral nerves have been used successfully to convey neural control of prosthetic devices to the user. However, reactive gliosis, micro hemorrhages, axonopathy and excessive inflammation, currently limit their long-term use. Here we demonstrate that enticement of peripheral nerve regeneration through a non-obstructive multi-electrode array, after either acute or chronic nerve amputation, offers a viable alternative to obtain early neural recordings and to enhance long-term interfacing of nerve activity. Non restrictive electrode arrays placed in the path of regenerating nerve fibers allowed the recording of action potentials as early as 8 days post-implantation with high signal-to-noise ratio, as long as 3 months in some animals, and with minimal inflammation at the nerve tissue-metal electrode interface. Our findings suggest that regenerative on-dependent multi-electrode arrays of open design allow the early and stable interfacing of neural activity from amputated peripheral nerves and might contribute towards conveying full neural control and sensory feedback to users of robotic prosthetic devices. .

  6. Kinematic analysis of males with transtibial amputation carrying military loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barri L. Schnall, MPT

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The biomechanical responses to load carriage, a common task for dismounted troops, have been well studied in nondisabled individuals. However, with recent shifts in the rehabilitation and retention process of injured servicemembers, there remains a substantial need for understanding these responses in persons with lower-limb amputations. Temporal-spatial and kinematic gait parameters were analyzed among 10 male servicemembers with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA and 10 uninjured male controls. Participants completed six treadmill walking trials in all combinations of two speeds (1.34 and 1.52 m/s and three loads (none, 21.8, and 32.7 kg. Persons with TTA exhibited biomechanical compensations to carried loads that are comparable to those observed in uninjured individuals. However, several distinct gait changes appear to be unique to those with TTA, notably, increased dorsiflexion (deformation of the prosthetic foot/ankle, less stance knee flexion on the prosthetic limb, and altered trunk forward lean/excursion. Such evidence supports the need for future work to assess the risk for overuse injuries with carried loads in this population in addition to guiding the development of adaptive prosthetic feet/components to meet the needs of redeployed servicemembers or veterans/civilians in physically demanding occupations.

  7. Reduced Incidence of Foot-Related Hospitalisation and Amputation amongst Persons with Diabetes in Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A Lazzarini

    Full Text Available To determine trends in the incidence of foot-related hospitalisation and amputation amongst persons with diabetes in Queensland (Australia between 2005 and 2010 that coincided with changes in state-wide ambulatory diabetic foot-related complication management.All data from cases admitted for the principal reason of diabetes foot-related hospitalisation or amputation in Queensland from 2005-2010 were obtained from the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patient Data Collection dataset. Incidence rates for foot-related hospitalisation (admissions, bed days used and amputation (total, minor, major cases amongst persons with diabetes were calculated per 1,000 person-years with diabetes (diabetes population and per 100,000 person-years (general population. Age-sex standardised incidence and age-sex adjusted Poisson regression models were also calculated for the general population.There were 4,443 amputations, 24,917 hospital admissions and 260,085 bed days used for diabetes foot-related complications in Queensland. Incidence per 1,000 person-years with diabetes decreased from 2005 to 2010: 43.0% for hospital admissions (36.6 to 20.9, 40.1% bed days (391 to 234, 40.0% total amputations (6.47 to 3.88, 45.0% major amputations (2.18 to 1.20, 37.5% minor amputations (4.29 to 2.68 (p < 0.01 respectively. Age-sex standardised incidence per 100,000 person-years in the general population also decreased from 2005 to 2010: 23.3% hospital admissions (105.1 to 80.6, 19.5% bed days (1,122 to 903, 19.3% total amputations (18.57 to 14.99, 26.4% major amputations (6.26 to 4.61, 15.7% minor amputations (12.32 to 10.38 (p < 0.01 respectively. The age-sex adjusted incidence rates per calendar year decreased in the general population (rate ratio (95% CI; hospital admissions 0.949 (0.942-0.956, bed days 0.964 (0.962-0.966, total amputations 0.962 (0.946-0.979, major amputations 0.945 (0.917-0.974, minor amputations 0.970 (0.950-0.991 (p < 0.05 respectively.There were significant

  8. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature. PMID:15585192

  9. Prospective use of xenon 133Xe clearance for amputation level selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xenon 133Xe clearance was used to select the most distal amputation level that would allow sufficient blood flow for healing. Capillary blood flow was first measured at the most distal potential amputation level, then at successive proximal levels until an amputation site was found that had a capillary skin blood flow rate greater than or equal to 2.6 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Xenon 133Xe in saline was injected intracutaneously at each level, and flow rates were determined using a gamma camera interfaced with a computer system programmed for the Ketty-Schmidt formula modified for capillary blood flow. There were 45 cases, including one toes, six transmetatarsal, five Syme's, 25 below-knee, four knee disarticulation, three above-knee, and one hip disarticulation amputation. All amputations in patients with flow rates exceeding 2.4 mL/min/100 g of tissue healed, with two exceptions

  10. Review of 345 eye amputations carried out in the period 1996-2003, at Rigshospitalet, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie Louise Roed; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Johnson, Martin; Kamper-Jørgensen, Finn; Toft, Peter Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the number of eye amputations, and the causative diagnoses, indications for surgery and surgical techniques applied, and to evaluate a possible change in surgical technique in a tertiary referral centre in Denmark. METHODS: The hospital database was...... screened using surgery codes for patients who had undergone bulbar evisceration, enucleation or orbital exenteration in the period 1996-2003. Patient records were reviewed for gender, age, time since surgery, causative diagnosis (the disease process leading to the indication for amputation), indication for...... eye amputation, type of surgery and whether an implant was applied. RESULTS: A total of 345 patients were identified as having undergone eye amputation during the 8-year period. Indications for eye amputation were: painful blind eye (127); neoplasm (119); infection (42); recent injury (25...

  11. Reconstruction of an Amputated Glans Penis With a Buccal Mucosal Graft: Case Report of a Novel Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Aboutaleb, Hamdy

    2014-01-01

    Penile amputation is a rare catastrophe and a serious complication of circumcision. Reconstruction of the glans penis may be indicated following amputation. Our report discusses a novel technique for reconfiguration of an amputated glans penis 1 year after a complicated circumcision. A 2-year-old male infant presented to us with glans penis amputation that had occurred during circumcision 1 year previously. The parents complained of severe meatal stenosis with disfigurement of the penis. Peni...

  12. Influence of Muscle-Tendon Wrapping on Calculations of Joint Reaction Forces in the Equine Distal Forelimb

    OpenAIRE

    Pandy, Marcus G.; Colin Burvill; Davies, Helen M. S.; Merritt, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    The equine distal forelimb is a common location of injuries related to mechanical overload. In this study, a two-dimensional model of the musculoskeletal system of the region was developed and applied to kinematic and kinetic data from walking and trotting horses. The forces in major tendons and joint reaction forces were calculated. The components of the joint reaction forces caused by wrapping of tendons around sesamoid bones were found to be of similar magnitude to the reaction forces betw...

  13. Decoding the rat forelimb movement direction from epidural and intracortical field potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutzky, Marc W.; Jordan, Luke R.; Lindberg, Eric W.; Lindsay, Kevin E.; Miller, Lee E.

    2011-06-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) use signals from the brain to control a device such as a computer cursor. Various types of signals have been used as BMI inputs, from single-unit action potentials to scalp potentials. Recently, intermediate-level signals such as subdural field potentials have also shown promise. These different signal types are likely to provide different amounts of information, but we do not yet know what signal types are necessary to enable a particular BMI function, such as identification of reach target location, control of a two-dimensional cursor or the dynamics of limb movement. Here we evaluated the performance of field potentials, measured either intracortically (local field potentials, LFPs) or epidurally (epidural field potential, EFPs), in terms of the ability to decode reach direction. We trained rats to move a joystick with their forepaw to control the motion of a sipper tube to one of the four targets in two dimensions. We decoded the forelimb reach direction from the field potentials using linear discriminant analysis. We achieved a mean accuracy of 69 ± 3% with EFPs and 57 ± 2% with LFPs, both much better than chance. Signal quality remained good up to 13 months after implantation. This suggests that using epidural signals could provide BMI inputs of high quality with less risk to the patient than using intracortical recordings.

  14. Patterns of extremity traumas leading to amputation in lran:results of Iranian National Trauma Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Moini; Mohammad R Rasouli; Ali Khaji; Farshad Farshidfar; Pedram Heidari

    2009-01-01

    Obiective: To determine the patterns of traumatic extremity injuries leading to amputation in Iran.Methotis: Data of Iranian National Trauma Project was used to identify patients with upper and lower extremity traumas undergoing amputation.This project was conducted in 8 major cities during 2000-2004.Results: of 17 753 traumatic Patients,164 (0.92%) had injuries to the extremities that resulted in the limb amputation.Of these,143 (87.2%) were men.The patient's mean age was 29.0 years±15.4 years and the highest incidence was seen in the age group of 21 to 30 years (34.1%).One hundred and four cases were occupational accidents (63.4%).Blunt trauma was in 54.9% of the cases.The most common reasons for amputation were respectively stabbings (37.8%) and crush injuries (31.7%).Amputation of hand fingers was the most frequent type of amputation (125 cases,76.2%).One patient died from severe associated injuries.Conclusions: This study shows the patterns of traumatic limb amputation in Iran,a developing country.Resuits of this study may be used in preventive strategic planning.

  15. An amputation resets positional information to a proximal identity in the regenerating zebrafish caudal fin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish has emerged as a powerful model organism to study the process of regeneration. This teleost fish has the ability to regenerate various tissues and organs like the heart, spinal cord, retina and fins. In this study, we took advantage of the existence of an excellent morphological reference in the zebrafish caudal fin, the bony ray bifurcations, as a model to study positional information upon amputation. We investigated the existence of positional information for bifurcation formation by performing repeated amputations at different proximal-distal places along the fin. Results We show that, while amputations performed at a long distance from the bifurcation do not change its final proximal-distal position in the regenerated fin, consecutive amputations done at 1 segment proximal to the bifurcation (near the bifurcation induce a positional reset and progressively shift its position distally. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of Shh and Fgf signalling pathways in the determination of the bifurcation position and observed that they do not seem to be involved in this process. Conclusions Our results reveal that, an amputation near the bifurcation inhibits the formation of the regenerated bifurcation in the pre-amputation position, inducing a distalization of this structure. This shows that the positional memory for bony ray bifurcations depends on the proximal-distal level of the amputation.

  16. Quality of Life among Egyptian Patients with Upper and Lower Limb Amputation: Sex Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa A. Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limb amputation is a life-changing event that can cause significant disruptions in many important areas of existence. Aim of this study. To evaluate the quality of life (QOL of patients with limb amputation and identify the factors affecting the quality of life of patients with limb amputation among Egyptian patients. Research Design. It was a descriptive exploratory design. Setting. The study was conducted in Orthopedics and Surgical Department in Emergency Hospital at Mansoura University Hospitals. Sample. A sample of convenience of 100 adult male and female patients who met the inclusion criteria was included. Tools. (a Structured interview questionnaire (SIQ was used to collect personal data, (b short form (36 health status questionnaires: this part was utilized to assess the quality of life among Egyptian patients with amputation. Results. The result of this study indicates that most participants experienced a change in the quality of life. There is a statistically significant difference between total QOL aspects and each of the following: age, gender, educational level, and type of work. Conclusion. Limb amputation tends to cause increased disability for those amputated patients. The age, gender, place of amputation, and marital status are found as statistically significant factors with physical component and psychological component.

  17. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shin Jeong Kang; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2011-01-01

    We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1 × 1 0 6 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under th...

  18. Rabbit monoclonal antibodies: generating a fusion partner to produce rabbit-rabbit hybridomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Spieker-Polet, H; Sethupathi, P; Yam, P C; Knight, K L

    1995-01-01

    During the last 15 years several laboratories have attempted to generate rabbit monoclonal antibodies, mainly because rabbits recognize antigens and epitopes that are not immunogenic in mice or rats, two species from which monoclonal antibodies are usually generated. Monoclonal antibodies from rabbits could not be generated, however, because a plasmacytoma fusion partner was not available. To obtain a rabbit plasmacytoma cell line that could be used as a fusion partner we generated transgenic...

  19. A developing world experience with distal foot amputations for diabetic limb salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Salahuddin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the functional outcome, morbidity, and viability of foot salvage in diabetic patients. Materials and methods: This prospective case series was conducted from March 2007 to December 2012 at the department of surgery Pakistan Ordnance Factories Hospital, Wah Cantt, Pakistan. 123 males and 26 female patients were included in the study. All the patients were treated after getting admitted in the hospital and wounds were managed with daily dressings, nursing care and debridement of necrotic tissue with adequate antibiotic coverage. Results: In total, 149 patients (mean age: 56±7.52 years with 171 amputations were included in the study. The mean duration of diabetes mellitus (DM was 9±4.43 years. Ninety-seven percent of the patients were diagnosed with type 2 DM. Wound debridement was performed under general anesthesia in 48 (33.2% patients, whereas local anesthesia was used for the rest of the patients after having good glycemic control and improvement in general health. The most common pathogen isolated from the infected wounds was Staphylococcus aureus in approximately 46% cases. Regarding the types of amputation, partial toe amputation was performed in 21 (12.2% cases, second-toe amputation in 60 (35% cases, hallux amputation in 41 (24% cases, multiple toe amputations in 29 (17% cases, bilateral feet involvement was observed in 16 (9.3% cases, and transmetatarsal amputation was performed in 4 (2.3% cases. The wounds healed well except in 19 cases where amputation had to be revised to a more proximal level. Thirty-nine patients died during the study period: 3 died of wound-related complications and 36 died of systemic complications. Conclusion: With the ever-increasing epidemic of DM, the number of patients with diabetic foot ulcers has also significantly risen. Early surgical management with good glycemic control and foot care with close monitoring can decrease amputations and thus foot salvage can be successfully

  20. A Canadian population-based description of the indications for lower-extremity amputations and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayssi, Ahmed; de Mestral, Charles; Forbes, Thomas L.; Roche-Nagle, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, there have been no previously published reports characterizing lower-extremity amputations in Canada. The objective of this study was to describe the indications and outcomes of lower-extremity amputations in the Canadian population. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of all adult patients who underwent lower-extremity amputation in Canada between 2006 and 2009. Patients were identified from the Canadian Institute for Health Information’s Discharge Abstract Database, which includes all hospital admissions across Canada with the exception of the province of Quebec. Pediatric, trauma, and outpatients were excluded. Results During the study period, 5342 patients underwent lower-extremity amputations in 207 Canadian hospitals. The mean age was 67 ± 13 years, and 68% were men. Amputations were most frequently indicated after admission for diabetic complications (81%), cardiovascular disease (6%), or cancer (3%). In total, 65% of patients were discharged to another inpatient or long-term care facility, and 26% were discharged home with or without extra support. Most patients were diabetic (96%) and most (65%) required a below-knee amputation. Predictors of prolonged (> 7 d) hospital stay included amputation performed by a general surgeon; cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, or hyperlipidemia; and undergoing the amputation in the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, or British Columbia. Conclusion There is variability in the delivery of lower-extremity amputations and postoperative hospital discharges among surgical specialists and regions across Canada. Future work is needed to investigate the reasons for this variability and to develop initiatives to shorten postoperative hospital stays. PMID:27007090

  1. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  2. Motor cortex changes after amputation are modulated by phantom limb motor control rather than pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle E.; Pascal, Giraux,; Karen, Reilly,; Nathalie, Richard,

    retains a residual M1-c activity when amputees perform phantom limb movements (4-5). Except a correlation between phantom limb pain and M1-c expansion of the face (2-3), the relationship between the ability to voluntary move the phantom hand, the level of phantom limb pain, the degree of M1-c......Amputation of a limb induces reorganization within the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1-c) (1-3). In the case of hand amputation, M1-c areas evoking movements in the face and the remaining part of the upper-limb expand toward the hand area. Despite this expansion, the amputated hand still...

  3. Therapy-Resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I: To Amputate or Not?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodde, M.I.; Dijkstra, P.U.; den Dunnen, W.F.A.; Geertzen, J. H. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) is controversial. An evidence-based decision regarding whether or not to amputate is not possible on the basis of current guidelines. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the literature and summarize the beneficial and adverse effects of an amputation for the treatment of long-standing, therapy-resistant CRPS-I. Methods: A literature search, using Me...

  4. A functional and psychosocial assessment of patients with post-Sudeck atrophy amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinberg-Arazi, D; Heim, M; Nadvorna, H; Ner, I Z; Szeinberg, A; Azaria, M

    1993-04-01

    Twelve patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy were referred to a comprehensive orthopaedic rehabilitation center after failure of conservative management. Ten underwent amputation of the affected limb and, although functional improvement occurred in the patients undergoing lower limb amputation, psychosocial dysfunction persisted. All the patients required psychological support. In cases of post-Sudeck amputation, early orthopaedic diagnosis and referral to a comprehensive treatment center are recommended. In the 12 cases described here, apart from the obvious limb pathology, severe psychological inadequacies were found to be present. PMID:7682058

  5. Radiotherapy preserves fingers in the management of subungual squamous cell carcinoma, obviating the need for amputation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective study of the use of radiotherapy in 12 patients with subungual squamous cell carcinoma of the finger was conducted at two radiotherapy departments in the Netherlands. This malignancy has little tendency to metastasize and is usually treated by amputation. Primary radiotherapy resulted in a permanent local control of 92% with only one serious adverse effect leading to an amputation of the initially involved digit. No regional or distant failure was seen during follow-up. Radiotherapy should be considered as an alternative for amputation to treat patients with subungual squamous cell carcinoma of the finger

  6. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  7. The Cutaneous Rabbit Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rudiger; Haggard, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    In the cutaneous rabbit effect (CRE), a tactile event (so-called attractee tap) is mislocalized toward an adjacent attractor tap. The effect depends on the time interval between the taps. The authors delivered sequences of taps to the forearm and asked participants to report the location of one of the taps. The authors replicated the original CRE…

  8. Rabbit manure composting

    OpenAIRE

    Llosera Vall, X.; Voltas Aguilar, Jordi; Pujolà Cunill, Montserrat; Soliva Torrentó, Montserrat

    1992-01-01

    Ten samples of rabbit manure representative of the different techniques of treatment and handling used by livestock farms in Catalonia have been characterized. Two of the materials with a different composition have been composted. The origin of materials influence the composting processes and the compost final characteristics. It seems to be relationated with the balance between humification and decomposition processes.

  9. Amputation-Free Survival after Crural Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Critical Limb Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, M; Konge, L; Lönn, L; Schroeder, T V; Rørdam, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the amputation-free survival after below the knee percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in a consecutive group of patients with critical ischemia of the lower extremity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 70 consecutive patients with critical ischemia were treated......-up clinical examinations were performed within 6 weeks and after 1 year. All medical records were crosschecked with the national vascular registry ensuring a valid 1-year status in 97% of the patients. RESULTS: A total of 15 major amputations were performed during follow-up, with 11 amputations performed...... within the first year. Complications after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty were rare. Cumulative mortality after 1 and 2 years was 22% and 34%, respectively. Amputation-free survival at 1 and 2 years of follow-up was 68% and 58%, respectively. There were no association between known risk factors...

  10. Predictors of lower-extremity amputation in patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickwell, Kirsty; Siersma, Volkert; Kars, Marleen;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Infection commonly complicates diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with a poor outcome. In a cohort of individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we aimed to determine independent predictors of lower-extremity amputation and the predictive value for amputation of the...... International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) classification system and to develop a risk score for predicting amputation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively studied 575 patients with an infected diabetic foot ulcer presenting to 1 of 14 diabetic foot clinics in 10 European countries...... IWGDF system (area under the ROC curves 0.80, 0.78, and 0.67, respectively). CONCLUSIONS For individuals with an infected diabetic foot ulcer, we identified independent predictors of amputation, validated the prognostic value of the IWGDF classification system, and developed a new risk score for...

  11. Physical rehabilitation of patients with amputation stump of thigh because of trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova O.V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is exposition essence of problem of renewal of ability to work of a problem of restoration after amputation at the hip. The analysis of the standard program of the standard in traumatology programs of physical rehabilitation of patients after amputation and presents the results of the developed physical rehabilitation of patients with amputating the thigh stumps due to injury. The authors propose to use the means of physical rehabilitation in accordance with the flow dynamics of the reparative processes after amputation and clinical features of injury. All this contributes to the development of compensatory own human capabilities, resulting in remission. Since these funds most physiological, their correct application does not cause complications.

  12. Psychological management, prevention and treatment of phantom pain after amputations for tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeno, B.; Anract, P.; Ouaknine, M.

    1998-01-01

    Amputation for tumours is rarely carried out nowadays and has few specific technical features, apart from the rare cases where ingenuity is required to gain a few centimetres in length of a stump. As far as possible, the decision for amputation should not be imposed; it is better that the patient himself should take the initiative. The prosthesis and its constraints should be described honestly to avoid subsequent disappointment. Prevention of a painful phantom limb must always be undertaken,...

  13. Leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Shalviri; Kheirollah Gholami; Naghmeh Javidnikou

    2015-01-01

    To inform healthcare professionals of a rare serious reaction leading to leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran and report comments for preventing such reactions.A case of leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran reported to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center was reviewed. Patient and reaction data was collected by assessing the reported yellow card, patient chart review and interviewing with patient and physicians. World Health Organization def...

  14. Intraoperative and pathological findings of intramedullary amputation neuroma associated with spinal ependymoma

    OpenAIRE

    Arishima, Hidetaka; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Tsunetoshi, Kenzo; Kodera, Toshiaki; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kikuta, Ken-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Amputation neuromas typically arise in injured peripheral nerves; rarely, however, they arise in the spinal cord. We report a rare case of intramedullary amputation neuroma associated with ependymoma in the cervical spinal cord. A 73-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of progressive gait disturbance. Neurological examination revealed complete motor deficit of her hands and legs. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an enhancing mass within the spinal cord at t...

  15. Painful neuroma requiring surgical excision after lower limb amputation caused by landmine explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sehirlioglu, Ali; Ozturk, Cagatay; Yazicioglu, Kamil; Tugcu, Ilknur; Yilmaz, Bilge; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim

    2007-01-01

    This article reports an analysis of 75 consecutive lower limb amputees who developed painful neuroma requiring surgical excision after lower limb amputation following landmine explosions. This retrospective study analyses the results of 75 patients who were treated for painful neuroma after lower limb amputation following landmine explosions between the years 2000 and 2006. The average time period from use of prosthesis to start of symptoms suggesting neuroma was 9.6 months. The average time ...

  16. Revisiting risks associated with mortality following initial transtibial or transfemoral amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara E. Bates, MD; Dawei Xie, PhD; Jibby E. Kurichi, MPH; Diane Cowper Ripley, PhD; Pui L. Kwong, MPH; Margaret G. Stineman, MD

    2013-01-01

    This study’s objective was to determine how treatment-, environmental-, and facility-level characteristics contribute to postdischarge mortality prediction. The study included 4,153 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation in Department of Veterans Affairs facilities during fiscal years 2003 and 2004. Veterans were followed 1 yr postamputation. A Cox regression identified characteristics associated with mortality risk after hospital discharge following amputation. Older age, higher amputa...

  17. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Nehete; Anita Nehete; Sandeep Singla; Harshad Adhav

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally s...

  18. Partial amputation of the tongue-self-inflicted or physical assault?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthal, S; Bayer, R; Doerre, A; Dreßler, J

    2016-05-01

    Injuries of the tongue are generally self-inflicted lesions and occur during different diseases or external incidents. The amputation of the tongue is a rare event. In this article, we report about a woman presenting with a complete amputation of the anterior third of the tongue. The morphological findings, which are essential for the differentiation of self-inflicted injuries and injuries caused by a third party, are demonstrated. PMID:26387091

  19. External leg amputation in conformal-invariant three-point function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Indrajit

    2011-04-01

    Amputation of external legs is carried out explicitly for the conformal-invariant three-point function involving two spinors and one vector field. Our results are consistent with the general result that amputating an external leg in a conformal-invariant Green function replaces a field by its conformal partner in the Green function. A new star-triangle relation, involving two spinors and one vector field, is derived and used for the calculation.

  20. External leg amputation in conformal-invariant three-point function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amputation of external legs is carried out explicitly for the conformal-invariant three-point function involving two spinors and one vector field. Our results are consistent with the general result that amputating an external leg in a conformal-invariant Green function replaces a field by its conformal partner in the Green function. A new star-triangle relation, involving two spinors and one vector field, is derived and used for the calculation. (orig.)

  1. External leg amputation in conformal-invariant three-point function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Indrajit [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)

    2011-04-15

    Amputation of external legs is carried out explicitly for the conformal-invariant three-point function involving two spinors and one vector field. Our results are consistent with the general result that amputating an external leg in a conformal-invariant Green function replaces a field by its conformal partner in the Green function. A new star-triangle relation, involving two spinors and one vector field, is derived and used for the calculation. (orig.)

  2. Hip Arthroplasty in a Patient with Transfemoral Amputation: A New Tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boussakri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Femoral fractures in amputation stump are challenging injuries to manage. The authors describe a case of a 51-year-old patient with a right above knee amputation, who had a right hip femoral neck fracture. In this technical note, we describe a technical and surgical procedure with intraoperative tips and tricks, in which we use commonly available materials, for the safe management in such clinical situations.

  3. Successful replantation of an amputated penis: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Riyach, Omar; El Majdoub, Aziz; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; El Ammari, Jalal Eddine; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Khallouk, Abdelhak; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Amputation of the penis is a rare traumatic injury reported from various parts of the world as isolated cases. A complete reconstruction of all penile structures should be attempted in one stage which provides the best chance for full rehabilitation of the patient. Case presentation We report the case of a 35-year-old Berber man who was admitted at the Emergency Department for incomplete criminal amputation of his penis, which was successfully reattached by using a macrosurgical ...

  4. Quality of Life Following Amputation or Limb Preservation in Patients with Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gary E Mason; Lele eAung; Sarah eGall; Meyers, Paul A; Robert eButler; Sarah eKrug; Mimi eKim; Healey, John H.; Richard eGorlick

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although functional differences have been described between patients with lower extremity bone sarcoma with amputation and limb preservation surgery, differences have not clearly been shown between the two groups related to quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference in overall quality of life in lower extremity bone sarcoma survivors related to whether they had an amputation or a limb preservation procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two lon...

  5. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly S. Eckard, MS, RD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p < 0.01. Over the 12 mo period, total fat mass and trunk fat mass increased in both unilateral and bilateral groups; however, these changes were not statistically significant over time. Muscle mass increased in both the unilateral and bilateral groups despite percent of lean mass decreasing. No changes in resting metabolism or walking energy expenditure were observed in any group. The results of this study conclude that weight significantly increased because of an increase in both fat mass and muscle mass in the first year following unilateral and bilateral amputation.

  6. The Plasticity of Brain Gray Matter and White Matter following Lower Limb Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangyao; Yin, Xuntao; Li, Chuanming; Li, Lei; Zhao, Lu; Evans, Alan C; Jiang, Tianzi; Wu, Jixiang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation induces functional reorganization in the sensory and motor cortices. However, the extent of structural changes after lower limb amputation in patients without phantom pain remains uncertain. We studied 17 adult patients with right lower limb amputation and 18 healthy control subjects using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM) were investigated. In amputees, a thinning trend was seen in the left premotor cortex (PMC). Smaller clusters were also noted in the visual-to-motor regions. In addition, the amputees also exhibited a decreased FA in the right superior corona radiata and WM regions underlying the right temporal lobe and left PMC. Fiber tractography from these WM regions showed microstructural changes in the commissural fibers connecting the bilateral premotor cortices, compatible with the hypothesis that amputation can lead to a change in interhemispheric interactions. Finally, the lower limb amputees also displayed significant FA reduction in the right inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, which is negatively correlated with the time since amputation. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the amputation of lower limb could induce changes in the cortical representation of the missing limb and the underlying WM connections. PMID:26587289

  7. Does unilateral transtibial amputation lead to greater metabolic demand during walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Russell Esposito, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature reports greater metabolic demand of walking following transtibial amputation. However, most research focuses on relatively older, less active, and often dysvascular amputees. Servicemembers with traumatic amputation are typically young, fit, and highly active before and often following surgical amputation of their lower limb. This study compared the metabolic demand of walking in young, active individuals with traumatic unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA and nondisabled controls. Heart rate (HR, rate of oxygen consumption, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were calculated as subjects walked at a self-selected velocity and at five standardized velocities based on leg length. The TTA group completed a Prosthetics Evaluation Questionnaire. Oxygen consumption (p = 0.89, net oxygen consumption (p = 0.32, and RPE (p = 0.14 did not differ between groups. Compared with controls, HR was greater in the TTA group and increased to a greater extent with velocity (p < 0.001. Overall, the TTA group rated their walking abilities as high (mean: 93% out of 100%. This is the first study to report equivalent metabolic demand between persons with amputation and controls walking at the same velocity. These results may reflect the physical fitness of the young servicemembers with traumatic amputations and may serve to guide outcome expectations in the future.

  8. The Plasticity of Brain Gray Matter and White Matter following Lower Limb Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangyao; Yin, Xuntao; Li, Chuanming; Li, Lei; Zhao, Lu; Evans, Alan C.; Jiang, Tianzi; Wu, Jixiang; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation induces functional reorganization in the sensory and motor cortices. However, the extent of structural changes after lower limb amputation in patients without phantom pain remains uncertain. We studied 17 adult patients with right lower limb amputation and 18 healthy control subjects using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM) were investigated. In amputees, a thinning trend was seen in the left premotor cortex (PMC). Smaller clusters were also noted in the visual-to-motor regions. In addition, the amputees also exhibited a decreased FA in the right superior corona radiata and WM regions underlying the right temporal lobe and left PMC. Fiber tractography from these WM regions showed microstructural changes in the commissural fibers connecting the bilateral premotor cortices, compatible with the hypothesis that amputation can lead to a change in interhemispheric interactions. Finally, the lower limb amputees also displayed significant FA reduction in the right inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, which is negatively correlated with the time since amputation. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the amputation of lower limb could induce changes in the cortical representation of the missing limb and the underlying WM connections. PMID:26587289

  9. The Plasticity of Brain Gray Matter and White Matter following Lower Limb Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyao Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has indicated that amputation induces functional reorganization in the sensory and motor cortices. However, the extent of structural changes after lower limb amputation in patients without phantom pain remains uncertain. We studied 17 adult patients with right lower limb amputation and 18 healthy control subjects using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA of white matter (WM were investigated. In amputees, a thinning trend was seen in the left premotor cortex (PMC. Smaller clusters were also noted in the visual-to-motor regions. In addition, the amputees also exhibited a decreased FA in the right superior corona radiata and WM regions underlying the right temporal lobe and left PMC. Fiber tractography from these WM regions showed microstructural changes in the commissural fibers connecting the bilateral premotor cortices, compatible with the hypothesis that amputation can lead to a change in interhemispheric interactions. Finally, the lower limb amputees also displayed significant FA reduction in the right inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, which is negatively correlated with the time since amputation. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the amputation of lower limb could induce changes in the cortical representation of the missing limb and the underlying WM connections.

  10. Tissue spectrophotometry and thermographic imaging applied to routine clinical prediction of amputation level viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jon M.; Harrison, David K.; Hawthorn, Ian E.

    2002-06-01

    About 5% of British males over 50 years develop peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Of these about 2% ultimately require lower limb amputation. In 1995 we proposed a new technique using lightguide spectrophotometry to measure the oxygen saturation level of haemoglobin (SO2) in the skin as a method for predicting tissue viability. This technique, in combination with thermographic imaging, was compared with skin blood flow measurements using the I125)4- Iodoantipyrine (IAP) clearance technique. The optical techniques gave a sensitivity and selectivity of 1.0 for the prediction of successful outcome of a below knee amputation compared with a specificity of 93% using the traditional IAP technique at a below knee to above knee amputation ratio (BKA:AKA) of 75%. The present study assesses the routine clinical application of these optical techniques. The study is ongoing, but the data to date comprises 22 patients. 4 patients were recommended for above knee amputation (AKA) and 18 patients for below knee amputation on the basis of thermographic and tissue SO2 measurements. All but one of the predicted BKA amputations healed. The study to date produces evidence of 94% healing rate (specificity) for a BKA:AKA ratio of 82%. This compares favorably with the previous figures given above.

  11. Quality of Life Following Amputation or Limb Preservation in Patients with Lower Extremity Bone Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Mason

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although functional differences have been described between patients with lower extremity bone sarcoma with amputation and limb preservation surgery, differences have not clearly been shown between the two groups related to quality of life. The aim of the study was to determine if there is a difference in overall quality of life in lower extremity bone sarcoma survivors related to whether they had an amputation or a limb preservation procedure. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two long-term survivors of lower extremity bone sarcoma were studied to make a comparison of the overall quality of life, pain assessment and psychological evaluations in limb preservation and amputation patients. Forty-eight patients with limb preservation and thirty-four patients with amputations were enrolled in the study. Validated psychometric measures including the Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and visual analog scales were utilized.RESULTS: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation was significantly higher than patients with amputation (p-value < 0.01. Significant differences were noted in the categories of material well being, job satisfiers and occupational relations. CONCLUSION: The overall quality of life of patients with limb preservation appears to be better than for those patients with amputation based on the quality of life questionnaire in patients surviving lower extremity bone sarcoma. Further analysis needs to verify the results and focus on the categories that significantly affect the overall quality of life.

  12. Incidence, severity, and impact of hyperhidrosis in people with lower-limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Hansen, MD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the incidence and severity of self-reported hyperhidrosis in patients with amputation and understand its effects on prosthetic fit or function, a cross-sectional survey of patients at two amputee clinics was performed. Responses from 121 subjects with lower-limb amputation were analyzed. Of these subjects, 66% reported sweating to a degree that it interfered with daily activities, as measured by the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale. There was a significant association between sweating and interference with prosthetic fit and function. Sweating was more severe in cases of transtibial amputations, patients under the age of 60 yr, warm weather, and vigorous activity. There was no relationship between severity of sweating and time since amputation, etiology of amputation, duration of daily prosthetic use, or reported ability to perform functional tasks. Subjects reported trying multiple interventions, but the self-reported effectiveness of these treatments was low. Hyperhidrosis, a common problem associated with prosthetic usage, varies in severity and often interferes with daily activities. Sweating severity is associated with poor prosthetic fit and function. Risk factors include younger age and transtibial amputation status. Treatment strategies generally lack efficacy. The results of this study may provide guidance for future interventions and treatment options.

  13. "Reposition-flap": A therapeutic alternative in fingertips amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, N; Chassat, R; Couturier, C; Delpit, X; Masmejean, E

    2015-08-01

    After trans-phalanx fingertips amputations, there is usually a therapeutic problem related to the distal fragment quality. Replantation is not always possible. The aim of this study was to propose the "reposition-flap" surgical procedure as an alternative solution to various surgical strategies for distal stump coverage. It consisted in the association of a bone fragment osteosyntesis and a pedicular local flap implementation. Between 2001 and 2011, the reposition-flap surgical procedure was retrospectively tested in two hand trauma centers. We reviewed a cohort of 51 patients divided in two groups. The first one (20 patients) was the "reposition-flap" group, the second (31 patients) had a coverage with an other surgical procedure (simple regularisation or local flap). Sensibility, pulp trophicity, fingers mobility, digital length, nail appearance and radiologic consolidation of each patient were reviewed. "Reposition-flap" allowed 80% length of phalanx conservation. In comparison with regularisation, the aesthetic aspects of the nail's finger (no claw) were improved with this surgical procedure. However, the Quick DASH average revealed significant statistical differences instead of the statistics obtained with the mobility of the IPD and the sensitivity of the pulp. This procedure gave best aesthetic and functional results. PMID:25001417

  14. Effect of CO2 laser amputation on hydra regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petrocellis, L.; Finizio, Andrea; Minei, R.; Mormile, Pasquale; Pierattini, Giovanni

    1994-08-01

    In order to investigate laser effects on biological specimens, Hydra, a coelenterate with high regeneration rate, was observed for ten days during regeneration after CO2 laser cutting. Control animals were cut with a razor blade immediately below the tentacle whorl under a dissecting microscope while they were in small glass petri dishes. They regenerated tentacles completely 8 to 10 days from the cutting. Hydra were cut in the same position with CO2 laser. As a first step, we studied the effect of the laser beam on the normal behaviour of hydra. For the cutting, we used four different power intensities: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 W. At different power intensities the animals regenerated the tentacles. However in about 20% of the animals the amputation performed with 1 and 1.5 W originated a quicker regeneration of tentacles. No effect was observed on asexual reproduction of the polyps and therefore also no change of the bud index.

  15. Rabbit care and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Teresa

    2004-05-01

    This article provides information for the veterinary staff to be better prepared to care for the special needs of rabbit patients as they are presented in increased frequency for veterinary care. Housing, nutrition,restraint, and recognizing illness are covered in detail. Descriptions of techniques for blood collection, oral medication administration, and injection sites are included. Preventive care recommendations for examinations from first visit to geriatric visits are outlined as well as indications for spaying and neutering. Also provided are lists that will aid the veterinary staff in providing instructions when the appointment is made, recommendations for boarding, surgical, and anesthetic considerations and clinical signs that are associated with pain in rabbits. PMID:15145392

  16. Angioarchitecture of rabbit iris.

    OpenAIRE

    Ojima,Makoto; Matsuo,Nobuhiko

    1985-01-01

    We made a scanning electron-microscopic study of the angioarchitecture of the rabbit iris using vascular resin casts, and compared the vascular structure in miosis to that in mydriasis. There were three vascular layers in the iris: the anterior capillary layer, arteriolo-venular layer and posterior capillary layer. The anterior capillary layer was a network which covered the anterior surface of the iris. The posterior capillary layer was a peculiar network composed of many capillary folds, wh...

  17. The role of vibrissal sensing in forelimb position control during travelling locomotion in the rat (Rattus norvegicus, Rodentia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederschuh, Sandra J; Witte, Hartmut; Schmidt, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    In the stem lineage of therians, a comprehensive reorganization of limb and body mechanics took place to provide dynamic stability for rapid locomotion in a highly structured environment. At what was probably the same time, mammals developed an active sense of touch in the form of movable mystacial vibrissae. The rhythmic movements of the limbs and vibrissae are controlled by central pattern-generating networks which might interact with each other in sensorimotor control. To test this possible interaction, we studied covariation between the two by investigating speed-dependent adjustments in temporal and spatial parameters of forelimb and vibrissal kinematics in the rat. Furthermore, the possible role of carpal vibrissae in connecting the two oscillating systems was explored. We compared locomotion on continuous and discontinuous substrates in the presence and absence of the mystacial or/and carpal vibrissae across a speed range of 0.2-0.5m/s and found that a close coupling of the kinematics of the two oscillating systems appears to be precluded by their differential dependence on the animal's speed. Speed-related changes in forelimb kinematics mainly occur in temporal parameters, whereas vibrissae change their spatial excursion. However, whisking frequency is always high enough that at least one whisk cycle falls into the swing phase of the limb, which is the maximum critical period for sensing the substrate on which the forepaw will be placed. The influence of tactile cues on forelimb positional control is more subtle than expected. Tactile cues appear to affect the degree of parameter variation but not average parameters or the failure rate of limbs during walking on a perforated treadmill. The carpal vibrissae appear to play a role in sensing the animal's speed by measuring the duration of the stance phase. The absence of this cue significantly reduces speed-related variation in stride frequency and vibrissal protraction. PMID:25547567

  18. The researchers developed luminous rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Their efforts produced two rabbits out of a litter of eight that went from being a normal, fluffy(蓬松的) white to glowing green in the dark. The rabbits were born at the University of Istanbul as part of a collaboration between scientists from universities in Turkey and Hawaii. The rabbits glow to show that a genetic manipulation technique can work efficiently,

  19. Amputation history and rehabilitation of black men living in the greater Durban area who have had traumatic amputations of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Kubheka

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was undertaken amongst twenty five black men living in the greater Durban area who had had amputations of the lower limbs. The type of amputation care and the rehabilitation programme they underwent post-operatively is described. The sample included men from 24 to 50 years of age, of whom the majority were from rural areas. The amputation care intra and post-operatively was marked by the lack of emotional preparation pre-operatively, and lack of rehabilitation information and teaching afterwards. Most respondents had to find information for themselves. This lack of information and teaching seemed to impede physical rehabilitation, with stump sores and limited use of prostheses being the main problems. Vocational rehabilitation was almost totally absent. In contrast to the twenty two respondents who worked before their amputations, only four worked afterwards. The majority had to support their families alone; sixteen of them were totally reliant on a Disability Grant. These problems lead to social isolation, depression, loneliness and other psycho-social problems.

  20. Four-fold increase in foot ulcers in type 2 diabetic subjects without an increase in major amputations by a multidisciplinary setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedetoft, Christoffer; Rasmussen, Anne; Fabrin, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: We observed a large increase in type 2 diabetic subjects with foot ulcers in our diabetic outpatient foot clinic and wanted to identify the amputations rate and individuals at risk of amputations by comparing those who had had a regular control in the multidisciplinary foot clinic prior to...... the amputations and those who had not. METHODS: We examined all clinical records from the orthopaedic surgery department and the diabetic outpatient foot clinic of diabetic patients who underwent amputations for 6 years. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes underwent 142 amputations; 42...... major and 100 minor amputations. There was no increase in the number of major amputations in this period. In the group not followed in the foot clinic prior to amputations we showed a greater major amputations rate (p<0.05), although this group had a shorter duration of diabetes and less retinopathy...

  1. The use of high-density EEG to map out cortical motor activity and reorganization following lower-limb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Valur Guðnason 1991

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have shown that after amputation, changes occur in the sensory and motor cortex. These changes are called cortical reorganization, where adjacent cortical areas occupy the cortical area of the amputated limb. High-density electroencephalography (EEG) has been used to observe cortical reorganization in the motor cortex following upper limb amputation. The aim of this study was to use high-density EEG to map out motor cortical activity and cortical reorganization following...

  2. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  3. Scintigraphic Evaluation of the Stump Region After Extremity Amputation and the Effect of Scintigraphy on Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadic, Murat; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Cinar, Alev; Koca, Gokhan; Demirel, Koray; Comak, Aylin; Ozyurt, Sinem; Yildirim, Sule; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the stump region with scintigraphy and compared the correlation of treatment modalities and scintigraphic results. Methods Sixty-eight cases with extremity amputation were included in the study. Amputation applied cases underwent four-phase Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate scintigraphy. Groups were performed according to the scanning time after amputation and amputation regions. After scintigraphic evaluation, results were recorded into five groups: osteomyelitis, soft-tissue infection, reactive changes secondary to surgery, chronic osteomyelitis, and normal. Post-surgical treatment modalities of the patients were determined and compared with scintigraphic results. Results In the scintigraphic evaluation of stump regions of the 68 amputated cases, 34 patients had acute osteomyelitis, one had chronic osteomyelitis, 16 had soft-tissue infection, and eight had changes secondary to the surgery. Nine of 68 cases had normal scintigraphic features. In the scintigraphic evaluation, 43 patients took antibiotic treatment and 16 had surgery. There was a strong correlation between scintigraphic results and treatment approach (P < 0.0001, r = 0.803) by means of preferred therapy and effectiveness of the therapy according to the scintigraphic results. Scintigraphy need increases with age after amputation and a negative correlation between patient age and scintigraphic need was found (P < 0.02, r = -0.339). There was no pathology in the follow-up in the cases that were scintigraphically normal. Conclusion Bone scintigraphy is a cost-effective, non-invasive, and efficient method that directs treatment in the evaluation of the stump region after amputation. PMID:26858796

  4. Development of a universal measure of quadrupedal forelimb-hindlimb coordination using digital motion capture and computerised analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Nick D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical spinal cord injury in domestic dogs provides a model population in which to test the efficacy of putative therapeutic interventions for human spinal cord injury. To achieve this potential a robust method of functional analysis is required so that statistical comparison of numerical data derived from treated and control animals can be achieved. Results In this study we describe the use of digital motion capture equipment combined with mathematical analysis to derive a simple quantitative parameter – 'the mean diagonal coupling interval' – to describe coordination between forelimb and hindlimb movement. In normal dogs this parameter is independent of size, conformation, speed of walking or gait pattern. We show here that mean diagonal coupling interval is highly sensitive to alterations in forelimb-hindlimb coordination in dogs that have suffered spinal cord injury, and can be accurately quantified, but is unaffected by orthopaedic perturbations of gait. Conclusion Mean diagonal coupling interval is an easily derived, highly robust measurement that provides an ideal method to compare the functional effect of therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury in quadrupeds.

  5. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espirito Santo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL. This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109 and distal (r = 0.9092 radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055. Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies.

  6. The Year of the Rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Every year of the Chinese lunar calendar corresponds with an animal. The rat,ox, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse,sheep, monkey, rooster, dog and pig make up the Chinese zodiac, which repeats in a12-year cycle. This year’s Chinese NewYear rings in the Year of the Rabbit.

  7. Feedforward control strategies of subjects with transradial amputation in planar reaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Metzger, MBE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The rate of upper-limb amputations is increasing, and the rejection rate of prosthetic devices remains high. People with upper-limb amputation do not fully incorporate prosthetic devices into their activities of daily living. By understanding the reaching behaviors of prosthesis users, researchers can alter prosthetic devices and develop training protocols to improve the acceptance of prosthetic limbs. By observing the reaching characteristics of the nondisabled arms of people with amputation, we can begin to understand how the brain alters its motor commands after amputation. We asked subjects to perform rapid reaching movements to two targets with and without visual feedback. Subjects performed the tasks with both their prosthetic and nondisabled arms. We calculated endpoint error, trajectory error, and variability and compared them with those of nondisabled control subjects. We found no significant abnormalities in the prosthetic limb. However, we found an abnormal leftward trajectory error (in right arms in the nondisabled arm of prosthetic users in the vision condition. In the no-vision condition, the nondisabled arm displayed abnormal leftward endpoint errors and abnormally higher endpoint variability. In the vision condition, peak velocity was lower and movement duration was longer in both arms of subjects with amputation. These abnormalities may reflect the cortical reorganization associated with limb loss.

  8. Somatotype of the individuals with lower extremity amputation and its association with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Roy, Subrata K

    2008-03-01

    Anthropometric somatotyping is one of the methods to describe the shape of the human body, which shows some associations with an individual's health and disease condition, especially with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Individuals with lower extremity amputation (LEA) are known to be more vulnerable to the cardiovascular risk. The objectives of the present study are to report the somatotype of the individuals having lower extremity amputation, to study the possible variation in somatotype between two groups of amputated individuals, and to study the association between cardiovascular disease risk factor and somatotype components among individuals with locomotor disability. 102 adult male individuals with unilateral lower-extremity amputation residing in Calcutta and adjoining areas were investigated. The anthropometric data for somatotyping and data on cardiovascular risk traits (such as body mass index, blood pressure measurements, blood lipids) have been collected. The somatotyping technique of Carter & Heath (1990) has been followed. The result shows high mean values of endomorphy and mesomorphy components and a low mean value of the ectomorphy component among the amputated individuals having cardiovascular risks. The results of both discriminant analysis and logistic regression analysis show a significant relationship between somatotype components and CVD risk among the individuals with LEA. The findings of the present study support the findings of similar studies conducted on the normal population. Diagnosis of CVD risk condition through somatotyping can be utilized in prevention/treatment management for the individuals with LEA. PMID:18435209

  9. Symmetrical kinematics does not imply symmetrical kinetics in people with transtibial amputation using cycling model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lee Childers, PhD, CP

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People with amputation move asymmetrically with regard to kinematics (joint angles and kinetics (joint forces and moments. Clinicians have traditionally sought to minimize kinematic asymmetries, assuming kinetic asymmetries would also be minimized. A cycling model evaluated locomotor asymmetries. Eight individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation pedaled with 172 mm-length crank arms on both sides (control condition and with the crank arm length shortened to 162 mm on the amputated side (CRANK condition. Pedaling kinetics and limb kinematics were recorded. Joint kinetics, joint angles (mean and range of motion [ROM], and pedaling asymmetries were calculated from force pedals and with a motion capture system. A one-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc compared kinetics and kinematics across limbs. Statistical significance was set to p amputated limb compared with the control condition. There were no differences in joint kinematics between the contralateral and amputated limbs during the CRANK condition. Pedaling asymmetries did not differ and were 23.0% +/– 9.8% and 23.2% +/– 12.0% for the control and CRANK conditions, respectively. Our results suggest that minimizing kinematic asymmetries does not relate to kinetic asymmetries as clinically assumed. We propose that future research should concentrate on defining acceptable asymmetry.

  10. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  11. [Amputations. A five-year epidemiological study in Buenos Aires City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelevich, Alejandro; Kramer, Marcia; Maiarú, Mariano; Módica, Mariela; Ostolaza, Marco; Peralta, Federico

    2015-01-01

    An amputation is the removal of a limb by surgery or accident. The aim of this paper was to carry out an epidemiological analysis on patients with amputations treated at the Instituto de Rehabilitación Psicofísica between 2009 and 2013. This is a retrospective, observational and cross-sectional study. The analyzed data included a total of 262 patients: 180 men (68.7%) and 82 women (31.3%). Our population mainly included subjects with only one amputated lower limb (83.6%), of vascular etiology (mostly diabetics) and with an average age of 63.5 years. The second sample group comprised traumatic amputees (29.8%), with an average age of 37 years and with a higher frequency of phantom pain. The characteristics of these groups can make them to behave differently during rehabilitation. PMID:26707661

  12. Preoperative determination of the level of amputation in chronic arterial occlusion. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two quantitative methods of blood flow measuring, venous occlusion plethysmography and 133Xe muscle clearance, were compared with regard to their suitability in determining the level of amputation preoperatively. The examinations were performed in 38 patients and 20 healthy control subjects. In differentiation between stump healing and distinctive disturbances of wound healing after lower leg amputation the best results could be obtained by the 133Xe clearance test (p 133Xe clearance ischemia test and venous occlusion plethysmography. Blood flow measurements are in connection with clinical data auxiliaries in determining the level of amputation. Their application as absolute determinants seems to be not sensible. Considerable scattering of the measured values reduce the usefulness of the two methods. (author)

  13. A clinical trial testing the efficacy of PDT in preventing amputation in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardivo, João Paulo; Adami, Fernando; Correa, João Antonio; Pinhal, Maria Aparecida S; Baptista, Mauricio S

    2014-09-01

    The feet of diabetic patients continue to be an unsolved problem in medicine. Uncontrolled neuropathy, ulceration and infection usually lead to amputation and presently there is no effective and reliable method that can be used to provide an efficient cure. Overall improvement in the salvage strategies, based on comprehensive pre-clinical evaluation, debridement, antibiotic therapy and follow up, has shown improvements in certain hospital settings, but the general picture for patients with diabetic foot is to have some sort of amputation, especially in underserved populations. It is clearly necessary to develop novel treatment strategies for this worldwide health problem. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses light to generate in situ reactive oxygen species, which can cause cell death. PDT can be used to treat several diseases, including foot infections that do not respond well to antibiotic therapy. There are several characteristics of PDT that make it potentially ideal to treat diabetic feet: the photosensitizer is non-toxic in the dark, but after illumination it becomes a very efficient antimicrobial agent with topical use, and it can regenerate small bones, such as the phalanges. However, PDT is still not used in clinical practice to treat diabetic feet. Therefore, we decided to perform a clinical study to prove that PDT is an effective method to avoid amputation of infected diabetic feet. An inexpensive PDT protocol was developed and applied to 18 patients with osteomyelitis, classified as Grade 3 on the Wagner scale. Only one of these patients suffered amputation. At least two of them were cured from resistant bacteria strains without intravenous antibiotic therapy. In the control group of 16 patients, all of them ended up suffering amputation. The rate of amputation in the PDT group was 0.029 times the rate in the control group and the difference is clearly statistically significant (p=0.002). PMID:24814697

  14. Combat-related bridge synostosis versus traditional transtibial amputation: comparison of military-specific outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plucknette, Benjamin F; Krueger, Chad A; Rivera, Jessica C; Wenke, Joseph C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study was to determine military-specific outcomes for transtibial amputations of US Service members using either the traditional technique (Burgess) or the Ertl technique. All US Service members sustaining transtibial, combat-related amputation from September 2001 through July 2011 were reviewed. Amputation type, mechanism of injury, time interval to amputation, age, sex, branch of service, rank, force, nature, and injury severity score were recorded. Outcomes were determined by analyzing military-specific medical review results, to include the following: Physical Evaluation Board Liaison Office (PEBLO) rating (0-100), PEBLO outcome (permanent retirement, temporary disability retirement, separation without benefits, continuation of active duty, or fit for redeployment), and the rate of redeployment. Amputation type (Ertl vs. Burgess) was determined by reviewing postoperative radiographs and radiology reports. Data from all of the above categories were compared for both Ertl and Burgess amputees. Of 512 subjects identified, 478 had radiographs or radiology reports distinguishing between Ertl or Burgess transtibial amputation. A total of 406 subjects underwent the Burgess procedure, and 72 subjects underwent the Ertl procedure. There was not a significant difference between the two groups in review board rating (p = 0.858), review board outcome (p = 0.102), or ability to deploy (p = 0.106); however, subjects that underwent the Ertl procedure remained on active duty at a significantly higher rate (p = 0.021). There is a higher rate of remaining on active duty using the Ertl technique. This study suggests that there is an improvement in functional outcome with the Ertl technique. PMID:26644067

  15. Clinical and theoretical parallels between desire for limb amputation and gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Anne A

    2006-06-01

    Desire for amputation of a healthy limb has usually been regarded as a paraphilia (apotemnophilia), but some researchers propose that it may be a disorder of identity, similar to Gender Identity Disorder (GID) or transsexualism. Similarities between the desire for limb amputation and nonhomosexual male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism include profound dissatisfaction with embodiment, related paraphilias from which the conditions plausibly derive (apotemnophilia and autogynephilia), sexual arousal from simulation of the sought-after status (pretending to be an amputee and transvestism), attraction to persons with the same body type one wants to acquire, and an elevated prevalence of other paraphilic interests. K. Freund and R. Blanchard (1993) proposed that nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism represents an erotic target location error, in which men whose preferred erotic targets are women also eroticize their own feminized bodies. Desire for limb amputation may also reflect an erotic target location error, occurring in combination with an unusual erotic target preference for amputees. This model predicts that persons who desire limb amputation would almost always be attracted to amputees and would display an increased prevalence of gender identity problems, both of which have been observed. Persons who desire limb amputation and nonhomosexual MtF transsexuals often assert that their motives for wanting to change their bodies reflect issues of identity rather than sexuality, but because erotic/romantic orientations contribute significantly to identity, such distinctions may not be meaningful. Experience with nonhomosexual MtF transsexualism suggests possible directions for research and treatment for persons who desire limb amputation. PMID:16799838

  16. Ectopic major transplantation for salvage of upper and lower extremity amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazerani Shahram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Ectopic tissue transplanta- tion is not a new idea. Godina and his colleagues pioneered this method in the 1980s. This method is a last resort method of preserving an amputated body part, which consists of banking the amputated segment in an ectopic area and re- turning it to its native place at a later date. In this article we present our experience with this demanding procedure. Methods: Debridement was the mainstay of this procedure. The stump and amputated part are carefully de- brided and the stump was either closed primarily or covered by a flap. The amputated part was transplanted to one of several banking sites in the body and at a later date it will be transferred to its native site in an elective setting. Results: Seven patients meeting the set criteria for ectopic transplantation were enrolled in this study. The over- all success rate was about 70%, lower than expected but these are cases of severe crush injury. Although the func- tional recovery of these patients are very low, all of the successful cases except one could find a job as a janitor or light manual worker. No patient could return to his previous job. Conclusion: Ectopic transplantation of body parts is an accepted method of treatment of severely crushed ex- tremity or finger injuries. In our country an amputee has very little chance of finding a job instead a disabled person can. In addition in Iran cultures amputation is seen as pu- nishment of either the God or the society, so it is not well accepted and many patients persist on saving the limb even with no functional recovery. None of our successful cases could return to his previous occupation but almost all of them could find a job as janitors or light manual workers. Key words: Replantation; Transplantation; Extremities; Amputation, traumatic

  17. Prevalence and Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain and Residual Limb Pain in the Long Term after Upper Limb Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain after upper limb amputation. One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Prevalence…

  18. Mortality After Nontraumatic Major Amputation Among Patients With Diabetes and Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorud, Jakob C; Plemmons, Britton; Buckley, Clifford J; Shibuya, Naohiro; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    High mortality rates have been reported after major amputations of a lower limb secondary to diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. However, the mortality rates have varied across studies. A systematic review of the 5-year mortality after nontraumatic major amputations of the lower extremity was conducted. A data search was performed of Medline using OVID, CINHAL, and Cochrane, 365 abstracts were screened, and 79 full text articles were assessed for eligibility. After review, 31 studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, the 5-year mortality rate was very high among patients with any amputation (major and minor combined), ranging from 53% to 100%, and in patients with major amputations, ranging from 52% to 80%. Mortality after below-the-knee amputation ranged from 40% to 82% and after above-the-knee amputation from 40% to 90%. The risk factors for increased mortality included age, renal disease, proximal amputation, and peripheral vascular disease. Although our previous systematic review of the 5-year mortality after ulceration had much lower rates of death, additional studies are warranted to determine whether amputation hastens death or is a marker for underlying disease severity. PMID:26898398

  19. Impact of a diabetic foot care education program on lower limb amputation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Wahbi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-WahbiDepartment of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyahd, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetic foot complications are a leading cause of lower extremity amputation. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Arab world, specifically in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the rate of amputation will rise significantly. A diabetic foot care program was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2002. The program was directed at health care staff and patients to increase their awareness about diabetic foot care and prevention of complications. The purpose of this study was to perform a primary evaluation of the program’s impact on the rate of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications.Method: This pilot study was the first analysis of the diabetic foot care program and examined two groups of participants for comparison, ie, a “before” group having had diabetic foot ulcers managed between 1983, when the hospital was first established, and 2002 when the program began and an “after group” having had foot ulcers managed between 2002 and 2004, in the program’s initial phase. A total of 41 charts were randomly chosen retrospectively. A data sheet containing age, gender, medical data, and the presentation, management, and outcome of diabetic foot cases was used for the analysis.Results: The before group contained 20 patients (17 males and the after group contained 21 patients (16 males. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and comorbidities. The rate of amputation was 70% in the before group and 61.9% in the after group. There was a decrease in the percentage of toe amputation in the after group and an increase in the percentage of below-knee amputation in the before group. However, these changes were not significant.Conclusion: The program, although evaluated at an early

  20. Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Herta; Elbert, Thomas; Knecht, Stefan; Wienbruch, Christian; Pantev, Christo; Birbaumer, Niels; Larbig, Wolfgang; Taub, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Although phantom-limb pain is a frequent consequence of the amputation of an extremity, little is known about its origin1-4. On the basis of the demonstration of substantial plasticity of the somatosensory cortex after amputation5 or somatosensory deafferentation in adult monkeys6, it has been suggested that cortical reorganization could account for some non-painful phantom-limb phenomena in amputees and that cortical reorganization has an adaptive (that is, pain-preventing) function2,5,7,8. ...

  1. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Nehete

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  2. Bilateral recurrent discloation of the patella associated with below knee amputation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Prasanna

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent dislocation of the patella in patients with below knee amputation is a known entity. Abnormally high-riding patella (patella alta and medial patellofemoral ligament insufficiency in these patients predisposes them to patellar instability. The established treatment of this problem is surgical realignment. Case presentation A 25 year old male patient with bilateral below knee amputation presented with bilateral recurrent dislocation of the patella while walking on knees on uneven ground. Clinical and radiographic studies showed patella alta. A simple shoe modification was used to treat this patient. Conclusions A simple shoe modification can be used to treat such a condition which is otherwise treated surgically.

  3. Stepwise surgical approach to diabetic partial foot amputations with autogenous split thickness skin grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the surgical treatment of severe diabetic foot infections, substantial soft tissue loss often accompanies partial foot amputations. These sizeable soft tissue defects require extensive care with the goal of expedited closure to inhibit further infection and to provide resilient surfaces capable of withstanding long-term ambulation. Definitive wound closure management in the diabetic population is dependent on multiple factors and can have a major impact on the risk of future diabetic foot complications. In this article, the authors provide an overview of autogenous skin grafting, including anatomical considerations, clinical conditions, surgical approach, and adjunctive treatments, for diabetic partial foot amputations.

  4. A second rabbit kappa isotype

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from the rabbit strain Basilea was previously shown to contain two distinct populations of molecules one with light chain belonging to the known lambda isotype and the others to a new kappa-like L chain type. Alloantisera prepared against the Basilea IgG are directed against the kappa-like light chain (anti-bas antisera). All Basilea rabbits express kappa-like chains recognized by anti-bas sera, but IgG from other domestic rabbits did not react with these antisera. Gene...

  5. Pain and pain-related interference in adults with lower-limb amputation: Comparison of knee-disarticulation, transtibial, and transfemoral surgical sites

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, James; Friedly, Janna; Molton, Ivan; Morgenroth, David; Jensen, Mark P.; Smith, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    Pain and pain-related interference with physical function have not been thoroughly studied in individuals who have undergone knee-disarticulation amputations. The principal aim of this study was to determine whether individuals with knee-disarticulation amputations have worse pain and pain-related interference with physical function than do individuals with transtibial or transfemoral amputations. We analyzed cross-sectional survey data provided by 42 adults with lower-limb amputations. These...

  6. Experimental infection of young rabbits with a rabbit enteric coronavirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Descôteaux, J P; Lussier, G.

    1990-01-01

    The clinical signs and lesions caused by the rabbit enteric coronavirus (RECV) were studied in young rabbits orally inoculated with a suspension containing RECV particles. The inoculated animals were observed daily for evidence of diarrhea. Fecal samples and specimens from the small intestine and from the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) were collected from 2 h to 29 days postinoculation (PI) and processed for immune electron microscopy (IEM) and light microscopy. Coronavirus particles w...

  7. In vivo measurements of flexor tendon and suspensory ligament forces during trotting using the thoroughbred forelimb model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Mukai, Kazutaka; Ohmura, Hajime; Aida, Hiroko; Hiraga, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred horse for measuring the force in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons (SDFT and DDFT), and the suspensory ligament (SL) during a trot. The mass, centers of gravity, and inertial moments in the metacarpus, pastern, and hoof segments were measured in 4 Thoroughbred horses. The moment arms of the SDFT, DDFT, and SL in the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) and distal interphalangeal (coffin) joints were measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The relationship between the fetlock joint angle and the force in the SL was assessed in 3 limbs of 2 Thoroughbred horses. The forces in the SDFT, DDFT, and SL during a trot were also measured in 7 Thoroughbred horses. The mass of the 3 segments, and the moment arms of the SDFT and DDFT in the fetlock joint of the Thoroughbred horses were smaller than those of the Warmblood horses, whereas the other values were almost the same in the 2 types. The calculated force in the SDFT with this Thoroughbred model reached a peak (4,615 N) at 39.3% of the stance phase, whereas that in the DDFT reached a peak (5,076 N) at 51.2% of the stance phase. The force in the SL reached a peak (11,957 N) at 49.4% of the stance phase. This lower forelimb model of the Thoroughbred can be applied to studying the effects of different shoe types and change of hoof angle for the flexor tendon and SL forces. PMID:24834009

  8. Passive and active mechanical properties of the superficial and deep digital flexor muscles in the forelimbs of anesthetized Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanstrom, Michael D; Zarucco, Laura; Stover, Susan M; Hubbard, Mont; Hawkins, David A; Driessen, Bernd; Steffey, Eugene P

    2005-03-01

    The superficial (SDF) and deep digital flexor (DDF) muscles are critical for equine forelimb locomotion. Knowledge of their mechanical properties will enhance our understanding of limb biomechanics. Muscle contractile properties derived from architectural-based algorithms may overestimate real forces and underestimate shortening capacity because of simplistic assumptions regarding muscle architecture. Therefore, passive and active (=total - passive) force-length properties of the SDF and DDF muscles were measured directly in vivo. Muscles from the right forelimbs of four Thoroughbred horses were evaluated during general anesthesia. Limbs were fixed to an external frame with the muscle attached to a linear actuator and load cell. Each muscle was stretched from an unloaded state to a range of prefixed lengths, then stimulated while held at that length. The total force did not exceed 4000 N, the limit for the clamping device. The SDF and DDF muscles produced 716+/-192 and 1577+/-203 N maximum active isometric force (F(max)), had ascending force-length ranges (R(asc)) of 5.1+/-0.2 and 9.1+/-0.4 cm, and had passive stiffnesses of 1186+/-104 and 1132+/-51 N/cm, respectively. The values measured for F(max) were much smaller than predicted based on conservative estimates of muscle specific tension and muscle physiological cross-sectional area. R(asc) were much larger than predicted based on muscle fiber length estimates. These data suggest that accurate prediction of the active mechanical behavior of architecturally complex muscles such as the equine DDF and SDF requires more sophisticated algorithms. PMID:15652557

  9. Functional morphology and biomechanics of the cynodont Trucidocynodon riograndensis from the Triassic of Southern Brazil: Pectoral girdle and forelimb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téo Veiga De Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-mammalian cynodonts provide insights on several points about mammalian evolution, such as the postural change and locomotory advances within the group. Unfortunately, complete skeletons of Triassic cynodonts are rather uncommon and where more complete specimens are found they can offer a global vision on some traits not available from partial specimens. This is the case of the cynodont Trucidocynodon riograndensis, from the Triassic of Brazil, that has preserved its forelimbs providing some insights into locomotory properties. The movements between interclavicle and clavicle must have been limited, as such as those occurring between the latter and the scapulocoracoid although the long acromion process of this should have permitted a greater degree of freedom. Some of the more significant movements were those on the shoulder joint, in which the maximum adduction should have been ca. 35º relative to the parasagittal plane and the greater abduction ca. 55º. The maximum adduction occurred when the humerus was in the more retracted position during stride and the variation in the adduction/abduction should have been significant to the limb posture during its recovery stroke. The long olecranon and the distal overlapping between radius and ulna suggest the predominance of simple flexion/extension on the forearm without significant pronation/supination. The poorly preserved hand suggests that Trucidocynodon could have evolved a slight semidigitigrad condition in its forelimbs. All these features give to this cynodont an important role in the evolution of the mammalian locomotory properties indicating that some features, such as the possibility of greater humeral adduction, evolved early in cynodont lineage.

  10. Kinetic analysis of experimental rabbit tumour and inflammation model with 18F-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-specific accumulation of 18F-FDG by both tumour and inflammatory lesions can make diagnostic analysis difficult. Our aim was to explore the difference in 18F-FDG uptake kinetics between tumour and inflammatory cells. To this end, we investigated VX2 tumour lesions and inflammatory lesions in rabbits. Methods: Six rabbits with VX2 tumour cells transplanted into one forelimb muscle and inflammatory lesions induced by turpentine oil in the contralateral forelimb were scanned for 60 minutes post 18F-FDG injection. Imaging data was analyzed with the standard 2-tissue-compartment model. Parameters, VB, Ki, K1, k2, k3, k4, were compared between tumour and inflammatory lesions. SUV and dual time scan methods were also compared in the experiment. Results: Time activity curves of VX2 tumour lesions showed a characteristic pattern of gradually increasing 18F-FDG uptake up to 60 min, whereas, 18F-FDG uptake in inflammatory lesions increased more slowly than in tumours. Parameters estimated from the uptake process showed that forward transport constant, K1, and influx constant, Ki, values in VX2 tumour lesions (0.186 ± 0.053 and 0.048 ± 0.014, respectively) was significantly higher than that in inflammatory lesions (0.129 ± 0.024 and 0.022 ± 0.007, respectively) (p 18F-FDG injection were also significantly higher in the VX2 tumor lesions than in the inflammatory lesions. Retention index (RI) was not significantly different between VX2 tumours and inflammatory lesions (1.134 ± 0.076 vs. 1.060 ± 0.058, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Different kinetic parameters (Ki, K1, k3) exist between inflammatory and tumour lesions. (orig.)

  11. Rabbit model of rotavirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, M E; Estes, M K; Graham, D Y

    1988-01-01

    A new small animal model was developed to study parameters of rotavirus infections, including the active immune response. Seronegative New Zealand White rabbits (neonatal to 4 months old) were inoculated orally with cultivatable rabbit rotavirus strains Ala, C11, and R2 and with the heterologous simian strain SA11. The course of infection was evaluated by clinical findings, virus isolation (plaque assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and serologic response. All four strains of virus ...

  12. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Rabbit's Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    DIMITROV, Rosen; RUSSENOV, Anton; STAMATOVA-YOVCHEVA, Kamelia; UZUNOVA, Krassimira; Yordanova, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to demonstrate some ultrasonography specifications of the normal pancreas in rabbit and their use as model for visual anatomical imaging study of pancreatic lesions in animals and humans. We used 12 clinically healthy 8 months old of New Zealand White rabbits between 2.8 and 3.2 kilos, who were mature and all anesthetized. Our investigation had been done Diagnostic Ultrasound System and micro convex multi frequency transducer. The trial animals were starved before the exp...

  13. Postural performance in decerebrated rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Musienko, P. E.; Zelenin, P. V.; Lyalka, V. F.; Orlovsky, G. N.; Deliagina, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    It is known that animals decerebrated at the premammillary level are capable of standing and walking without losing balance, in contrast to postmammillary ones which do not exhibit such behavior. The main goals of the present study were, first, to characterize the postural performance in premammillary rabbits, and, second, to activate the postural system in postmammillary ones by brainstem stimulation. For evaluation of postural capacity of decerebrated rabbits, motor and EMG responses to lat...

  14. Identification of trunk and pelvis movement compensations in patients with transtibial amputation using angular momentum separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Brecca M; Murray, Amanda M; Christiansen, Cory L; Davidson, Bradley S

    2016-03-01

    Patients with unilateral dysvascular transtibial amputation (TTA) have a higher risk of developing low back pain than their healthy counterparts, which may be related to movement compensations used in the absence of ankle function. Assessing components of segmental angular momentum provides a unique framework to identify and interpret these movement compensations alongside traditional observational analyses. Angular momentum separation indicates two components of total angular momentum: (1) transfer momentum and (2) rotational momentum. The objective of this investigation was to assess movement compensations in patients with dysvascular TTA, patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and healthy controls (HC) by examining patterns of generating and arresting trunk and pelvis segmental angular momenta during gait. We hypothesized that all groups would demonstrate similar patterns of generating/arresting total momentum and transfer momentum in the trunk and pelvis in reference to the groups (patients with DM and HC). We also hypothesized that patients with amputation would demonstrate different (larger) patterns of generating/arresting rotational angular momentum in the trunk. Patients with amputation demonstrated differences in trunk and pelvis transfer angular momentum in the sagittal and transverse planes in comparison to the reference groups, which indicates postural compensations adopted during walking. However, patients with amputation demonstrated larger patterns of generating and arresting of trunk and pelvis rotational angular momentum in comparison to the reference groups. These segmental rotational angular momentum patterns correspond with high eccentric muscle demands needed to arrest the angular momentum, and may lead to consequential long-term effects such as low back pain. PMID:26979898

  15. Hindquarter amputation: is it still needed and what are the outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimer, R J; Chandrasekar, C R; Carter, S R; Abudu, A; Tillman, R M; Jeys, L

    2013-01-01

    A total of 157 hindquarter amputations were carried out in our institution during the last 30 years. We have investigated the reasons why this procedure is still required and the outcome. This operation was used as treatment for 13% of all pelvic bone sarcomas. It was curative in 140 and palliative in 17, usually to relieve pain. There were 90 primary procedures (57%) with the remaining 67 following the failure of previous operations to control the disease locally. The indication for amputation in primary disease was for large tumours for which limb-salvage surgery was no longer feasible. The peri-operative mortality was 1.3% (n = 2) and major complications of wound healing or infection arose in 71 (45%) patients. The survival at five years after hindquarter amputation with the intent to cure was 45%, and at ten years 38%. Local recurrence occurred in 23 patients (15%). Phantom pain was a significant problem, and only 20% used their prosthesis regularly. Functional scores were a mean of 57%. With careful patient selection the oncological results and functional outcomes of hindquarter amputation justify its continued use. PMID:23307686

  16. Computed tomography in low-back-pain after femur-amputation for osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following amputation of a lower extremity for osteogenic sarcoma, the lumbar muscles receive an asymmetric strain. This predisposes to low-back-pain. When this occurs, tumour-recurrence must be excluded. This report demonstrates the usefulness of high-resolution computer tomography (CT) in this clinical situation. (orig.)

  17. Case 2: amputation site and infected toe on the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Severe infection resulted in the amputation of one toe and surgical debridement of necrotic tissue on another toe in the same diabetic foot. The postoperative wounds healed quickly and uneventfully following use of octenilin Wound Gel and a foam dressing. PMID:26949846

  18. Taking Care of Your New Arm or Leg After an Amputation

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This podcast provides health information on taking care of a new arm or leg after an amputation.  Created: 2/18/2010 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disability, Disability and Health Program.   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  19. [Amputation in low-income countries: particularities in epidmiological features and management practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisseriex, H; Rogez, D; Thomas, M; Truffaut, S; Compere, S; Mercier, H; Dochez, F; Lapeyre, E; Thefenne, L

    2011-12-01

    The epidemiological features and management practices associated with amputation in low-income countries, generally synonymous with the tropics, are different from those observed in Western countries. Unlike developed countries, amputation most frequently involves traumatic injury in young active people. However, Westernization of the lifestyle is leading to an increasing number of cases involving diabetes and atherosclerotic disease. In the developing world, leprosy and Buruli ulcer are still significant etiologic factors for amputation. In war-torn countries, use of antipersonnel landmines is another major cause of amputation with characteristic features. Management of amputees in the developing world is hindered by the lack of facilities for rehabilitation and prosthetic fitting. Many international organizations are supporting national programs to develop such facilities. In addition to being affordable, prosthetics and orthotics must be adapted to the living conditions of a mostly rural amputee population, i.e., heat, humidity, and farm work. The rehabilitation process must be part of a global handicap policy aimed at changing attitudes about disability and reintegrating amputees both socially and professionally. PMID:22393622

  20. Decrease in (Major Amputations in Diabetics: A Secondary Data Analysis by AOK Rheinland/Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie May

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In two German regions with 11.1 million inhabitants, 6 networks for specialized treatment of DFS were implemented until 2008. Data provided for accounting purposes was analysed in order to determine changes in the rate of diabetics requiring amputations in the years before and after the implementation. Method. Data covering 2.9 million people insured by the largest insurance company between 2007 and 2013 was analysed by the use of log-linear Poisson regression adjusted for age, gender and region. Results. The rate of diabetics needing major amputations fell significantly by 9.5% per year (p<0.0001 from 217 to 126 of 100,000 patients per year. The rate of diabetics needing amputations of any kind fell from 504 to 419 of 100,000 patients per year (p=0.0038. Discussion. The networks integrate health care providers in an organised system of shared care. They educate members of the medical community and the general public. At the same time, a more general disease management program for people with diabetes was implemented, which may also have contributed to this decrease. At the end of the observation period, the rate of diabetics requiring amputations was still high. For this reason, further expansion of organised specialized care is urgently needed.

  1. Auto-amputated Ovarian Cyst with Compression Sequelae: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Mirza

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian  cysts  contribute  a  major  share  of  cystic  lesions in  fetal  life. Quite often, these cysts are benign and resolve spontaneously. Occasionally, these cysts can twist, resulting in ovarian loss. We report a case of auto-amputated ovarian cyst presetting with intestinal obstruction.

  2. Instrumented Measurement of Balance and Postural Control in Individuals with Lower Limb Amputation: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, Prasath; Johnson, Gillian M.; Sullivan, S. John; Nitz, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of balance and postural performance that underpins activities of daily living is important in the rehabilitation of individuals with a lower limb amputation (LLA), and there are a number of methods and strategies available for this purpose. To provide an evidence-based choice of approach, this review aims to critically review the tasks…

  3. Replantation of traumatic limb amputation above the elbow: a report of 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Karimian

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Transplantation of the amputated limb can be done in spite of limited resources. Any delay in repairing damaged nerves will result great reduction of final organs’ performance. A limb, made from the own body, always take precedence to prosthesis, even when the efficiency is low.

  4. Resilience in patients with amputation because of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodde, Marlies I.; Schrier, Ernst; Krans, Hilde K.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although controversial, an amputation for longstanding and therapy-resistant Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type I (CRPS-I) may improve quality of life and pain intensity. Resilience, the way people deal with adversity in a positive way may be related to these positive outcomes. This study

  5. Total hip arthroplasty in a patient with arthrogryphosis and an ipsilateral above knee amputation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leonard, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The authors present the case of a young man with arthrogryphosis multiplex congenita and an above knee amputation who underwent an ipsilateral total hip replacement. The unique aspects of the case and technical difficulties are highlighted. Follow-up at five years revealed an excellent clinical and radiological outcome.

  6. Sequential compression biomechanical device versus primary amputation in patients with critical limb ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tawfick, Wael A

    2013-10-01

    Introduction: Patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI), who are unsuitable for intervention, face the consequence of primary amputation. Sequential compression biomechanical device (SCBD) therapy provides a limb salvage option for these patients. Objectives: To assess the outcome of SCBD in patients with severe CLI who are unsuitable for revascularization. Primary end points were limb salvage and 30-day mortality. Methods: From 2005 to 2012, 189 patients with severe CLI were not suitable for revascularization. In all, 171 joined the SCBD program. We match controlled 75 primary amputations. Results: All patients were Rutherford category 4 or higher. Sustained clinical improvement was 68% at 1 year. Mean toe pressure increased from 19.9 to 35.42 mm Hg, P < .0001. Mean popliteal flow increased from 35.44 to 55.91 cm\\/sec, P < .0001. The 30-day mortality was 0.6%. Limb salvage was 94% at 5 years. Freedom from major adverse clinical events was 62.5%. All-cause survival was 69%. Median cost of managing a primary amputation patient is €29 815 compared to €3985 for SCBD. We treated 171 patients with artassist at a cost of €681 965. However, primary amputation for 75 patients cost €2 236 125. Conclusion: The SCBD therapy is a cost-effective and clinically effective solution in patients with CLI having no option of revascularization. It provides adequate limb salvage while providing relief of rest pain without any intervention.

  7. Blindness, Diabetes, and Amputation: Alleviation of Depression and Pain through Thermal Biofeedback Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, W. E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A 39-year-old man who was blind, diabetic, and had a double amputation with chronic renal failure and peripheral vascular disease was treated with thermal biofeedback to reduce his depression through increased self-control, to minimize pain, and to facilitate healing of a pregangrenous hand. On treatment discharge, his mental and physical states…

  8. Wound healing in above-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Dovey, H; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    In 59 above-knee amputations healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 1318-- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mmHg no...

  9. Salvage versus amputation: Utility of mangled extremity severity score in severely injured lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of Mangled extremity severity score (MESS in severely injured lower limbs. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively 25 and prospectively 36 lower limbs in 58 patients with high-energy injuries were evaluated with the use of MESS, to assist in the decision-making process for the care of patients with such injuries. Difference between the mean MESS scores for amputated and salvaged limbs was analyzed. Results: In the retrospective study 4.65 (4.65 ± 1.32 was the mean score for the salvaged limbs and 8.80 (8.8 ± 1.4 for the amputated limbs. In the prospective study 4.53 (4.53 ± 2.44 was the mean score for the salvaged limbs and 8.83 (8.83 ± 2.34 for the amputated limbs. There was a significant difference in the mean scores for salvaged and amputated limbs. Retrospective 21 (84% and prospective 29 (80.5% limbs remained in the salvage pathway six months after the injury. Conclusion: MESS could predict amputation of severely injured lower limbs, having score of equal or more than 7 with 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity. There was a significant difference in the mean MESS scores in the prospective study (n=36, 4.53 (4.53 ± 2.44 in thirty salvaged limbs (83.33% and 8.83 (8.83 ± 2.34 in six amputated limbs (16.66% with a P -value 0.002 ( P -value < 0.01. Similarly there was a significant difference in the mean MESS score in the retrospective study (n=25, 4.65 (4.65 ± 1.32 in twenty salvaged limbs (80% and 8.80 (8.8 ± 1.4 in five amputated limbs (20% with a P -value 0.00005 ( P -value < 0.01. MESS is a simple and relatively easy and readily available scoring system which can help the surgeon to decide the fate of the lower extremity with a high-energy injury.

  10. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs

  11. Changes in the extracellular matrix and glycosaminoglycan synthesis during the initiation of regeneration in adult newt forelimbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mescher, A.L.; Munaim, S.I.

    1986-04-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the distal tissues in a newt limb stump is completely reorganized in the 2-3-week period following amputation. In view of numerous in vitro studies showing that extracellular material influences cellular migration and proliferation, it is likely that the changes in the limb's ECM are important activities in the process leading to regeneration of such limbs. Using biochemical, autoradiographic, and histochemical techniques we studied temporal and spatial differences in the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) during the early, nerve-dependent phase of limb regeneration. Hyaluronic acid synthesis began with the onset of tissue dedifferentiation, became maximal within 1 weeks, and continued throughout the period of active cell proliferation. Chondroitin sulfate synthesis began somewhat later, increased steadily, and reached very high levels during chondrogenesis. During the first 10 days after amputation, distributions of sulfated and nonsulfated GAGs were both uniform throughout dedifferentiating tissues, except for a heavier localization near the bone. Since nerves are necessary to promote the regenerative process, we examined the neural influence on synthesis and accumulation of extracellular GAGs. Denervation decreased GAG production in all parts of the limb stump by approximately 50%. Newt dorsal root ganglia and brain-derived fibroblast growth factor each produced twofold stimulation of GAG synthesis in cultured 7-day regenerates. The latter effect was primarily on synthesis of hyaluronic acid. The results indicate that the trophic action of nerves on amphibian limb regeneration includes a positive influence on synthesis and extracellular accumulation of GAGs.

  12. Proximal major limb amputations – a retrospective analysis of 45 oncological cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goertz Ole

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proximal major limb amputations due to malignant tumors have become rare but are still a valuable treatment option in palliation and in some cases can even cure. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse outcome in those patients, including the postoperative course, survival, pain, quality of life, and prosthesis usage. Methods Data of 45 consecutive patients was acquired from patient's charts and contact to patients, and general practitioners. Patients with interscapulothoracic amputation (n = 14, shoulder disarticulation (n = 13, hemipelvectomy (n = 3 or hip disarticulation (n = 15 were included. Results The rate of proximal major limb amputations in patients treated for sarcoma was 2.3% (37 out of 1597. Survival for all patients was 42.9% after one year and 12.7% after five years. Survival was significantly better in patients with complete tumor resections. Postoperative chemotherapy and radiation did not prolong survival. Eighteen percent of the patients with malignant disease developed local recurrence. In 44%, postoperative complications were observed. Different modalities of postoperative pain management and the site of the amputation had no significant influence on long-term pain assessment and quality of life. Eighty-seven percent suffered from phantom pain, 15.6% considered their quality of life worse than before the operation. Thirty-two percent of the patients who received a prosthesis used it regularly. Conclusion Proximal major limb amputations severely interfere with patients' body function and are the last, albeit valuable, option within the treatment concept of extremity malignancies or severe infections. Besides short survival, high complication rates, and postoperative pain, patients' quality of life can be improved for the time they have remaining.

  13. Vascular surgery, microsurgery and supramicrosurgery for treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers to prevent amputations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Schirmer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Diabetic foot ulcers occur in approximately 2,5% of patients suffering from diabetes and may lead to major infections and amputation. Such ulcers are responsible for a prolonged period of hospitalization and co- morbidities caused by infected diabetic foot ulcers. Small, superficial ulcers can be treated by special conservative means. However, exposed bones or tendons require surgical intervention in order to prevent osteomyelitis. In many cases reconstructive surgery is necessary, sometimes in combination with revascularization of the foot. There are studies on non surgical treatment of the diabetic foot ulcer. Most of them include patients, classified Wagner 1-2 without infection. Patients presenting Wagner 3D and 4D however are at a higher risk of amputation. The evolution of microsurgery has extended the possibilities of limb salvage. Perforator based flaps can minimize the donorsite morbidity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 41 patients were treated with free tissue transfer for diabetic foot syndrome and chronic defects. 44 microvascular flaps were needed. The average age of patients was 64.3 years. 18 patients needed revascularization. 3 patients needed 2 microvascular flaps. In 6 cases supramicrosurgical technique was used. RESULTS: There were 2 flap losses leading to amputation. 4 other patients required amputation within 6 months postoperatively due to severe infection or bypass failure. Another 4 patients died within one year after reconstruction. The remaining patients were ambulated. DISCUSSION: Large defects of the foot can be treated by free microvascular myocutaneous or fasciocutaneous tissue transfer. If however, small defects, exposing bones or tendons, are not eligible for local flaps, small free microvascular flaps can be applied. These flaps cause a very low donor site morbidity. Arterialized venous flaps are another option for defect closure. Amputation means reduction of quality of life and can lead to an increased

  14. Development of the Tardivo Algorithm to Predict Amputation Risk of Diabetic Foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Tardivo

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects almost 19% of the elderly population in Brazil and similar percentages around the world. Amputation of lower limbs in diabetic patients who present foot complications is a common occurrence with a significant reduction of life quality, and heavy costs on the health system. Unfortunately, there is no easy protocol to define the conditions that should be considered to proceed to amputation. The main objective of the present study is to create a simple prognostic score to evaluate the diabetic foot, which is called Tardivo Algorithm. Calculation of the score is based on three main factors: Wagner classification, signs of peripheral arterial disease (PAD, which is evaluated by using Peripheral Arterial Disease Classification, and the location of ulcers. The final score is obtained by multiplying the value of the individual factors. Patients with good peripheral vascularization received a value of 1, while clinical signs of ischemia received a value of 2 (PAD 2. Ulcer location was defined as forefoot, midfoot and hind foot. The conservative treatment used in patients with scores below 12 was based on a recently developed Photodynamic Therapy (PDT protocol. 85.5% of these patients presented a good outcome and avoided amputation. The results showed that scores 12 or higher represented a significantly higher probability of amputation (Odds ratio and logistic regression-IC 95%, 12.2-1886.5. The Tardivo algorithm is a simple prognostic score for the diabetic foot, easily accessible by physicians. It helps to determine the amputation risk and the best treatment, whether it is conservative or surgical management.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Lower Limb Amputation: A Clinic-Based Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Beverly T.; Vangaveti, Venkat N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for lower limb amputation in a specialist foot clinic-based setting. Methods. A retrospective quantitative study was conducted, using clinical and biochemical profiles of diabetic foot patients attending the High Risk Foot Clinic at The Townsville Hospital, Australia, between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2013. Results. The total study sample included 129 subjects, comprising 81 males and 48 females with M : F ratio of 1.7 : 1. Twenty-three subjects were Indigenous Australians, representing 17.8% of the study population. The average age of the cohort was 63.4 years ± 14.1 years [CI 90.98–65.89]. Lower limb amputation was identified as a common and significant outcome (n = 44), occurring in 34.1%, more commonly amongst the Indigenous Australians (56.5% versus 29.2%; p = 0.94, OR 0.94). Risk factors most closely associated with amputation included diabetic retinopathy (p = 0.00, OR 4.4), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery (p = 0.01, OR 4.1), Charcot's arthropathy (p = 0.01, OR 2.9), and Indigenous ethnicity (p = 0.01, OR 3.4). Although average serum creatinine, corrected calcium, and glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (Hba1c) levels were higher amongst amputees they were statistically insignificant. Conclusions. Lower limb amputation is a common outcome and linked to ethnicity and neurovascular diabetic complications amongst subjects with diabetic foot ulcer. Further research is needed to identify why risk of lower limb amputation seems to differ according to ethnicity.

  16. Assessment of gait stability, harmony, and symmetry in subjects with lower-limb amputation evaluated by trunk accelerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Iosa, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of upper-body accelerations is a promising and simple technique for quantitatively assessing some general features of gait such as stability, harmony, and symmetry. Despite the growing literature on elderly healthy populations and neurological patients, few studies have used accelerometry to investigate these features in subjects with lower-limb amputation. We enrolled four groups of subjects: subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with a locked knee prosthesis, subjects with transfemoral amputation who walked with an unlocked knee prosthesis, subjects with transtibial amputation, and age-matched nondisabled subjects. We found statistically significant differences for stability (p < 0.001, harmony (p < 0.001, and symmetry (p < 0.001 of walking, with general trends following the noted order of subjects, but with the lowest laterolateral harmony in subjects with transtibial amputation. This study is the first to investigate upper-body acceleration of subjects with unilateral lower-limb amputation during walking who were evaluated upon dismissal from a rehabilitation hospital; it is also the first study to differentiate the sample in terms of level of amputation and type of prosthesis used.

  17. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  18. TUNEL-positive cells in the surgical border of an amputation due to infected diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker-Méndez, C; Guzmán-Aguilar, R M; Hernández-Cueto, M A; Huerta-Yepez, S; Jarillo-Luna, R A; González-Veyrand, E; González-Bonilla, C R

    2012-02-01

    Diabetic infected foot is the outcome of progressive vascular and neurological damage caused by persistent chronic hyperglycemia. Due to acute hypoxia and infection, the tissues develop extensive necrosis and gangrene, which often require amputation. The decision regarding the level of amputation relies mainly on the personal experience of the surgeon who must identify the healthy tissue without necrosis. However, tissue cells under stress may succumb before clear evidence of necrosis is present. In this study, dying cells with DNA damage were identified in the necrotic lesions and surgical borders of amputations. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to identify apoptosis in the surgical borders of amputations required to treat infected diabetic foot. Apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated bio-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) in the superficial and deep tissues of wounds, and in the surgical borders of 10 consecutive adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) who underwent amputation due to infected diabetic foot. The severity of the disease was classified by the Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score on admission, and laboratory data were collected and bacteriological cultures were obtained from the lesions. The ankle/arm blood pressure index was measured, the blood flow in the affected limb was evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography and color Doppler and pulse oximetry were performed during surgery. A total of 5 males and 5 females, aged 45-84 years (58.8 ± 14.1), were included. The APACHE II score was 2-18 points (8 ± 5.7). A total of 9 patients developed sepsis and 2 succumbed. A total of 5 patients required above-ankle amputation, and 5 required toe disarticulation. The ankle/arm blood pressure index ranged from 0.23-0.85 (0.51 ± 0.23). Apoptotic cells were found in ulcers and abscesses, and in areas without necrosis. In the surgical borders of the amputations

  19. Inhibitory effect of syphilitic rabbit serum on DNA synthesis in rabbit cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, G H; Steiner, B; Strugnell, R; Faine, S.; Graves, S.

    1984-01-01

    A previously described toxic factor associated with Treponema pallidum (Nichols) and found in extracts of syphilitic rabbit testes has now also been detected in syphilitic rabbit serum. The toxic factor, which inhibits DNA synthesis in baby rabbit genital organ (BRGO) cells in vitro, is present in rabbit serum up to 30 days after infection with T pallidum.

  20. Differential Fault Analysis of Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Aleksandar; Youssef, Amr M.

    Rabbit is a high speed scalable stream cipher with 128-bit key and a 64-bit initialization vector. It has passed all three stages of the ECRYPT stream cipher project and is a member of eSTREAM software portfolio. In this paper, we present a practical fault analysis attack on Rabbit. The fault model in which we analyze the cipher is the one in which the attacker is assumed to be able to fault a random bit of the internal state of the cipher but cannot control the exact location of injected faults. Our attack requires around 128 - 256 faults, precomputed table of size 241.6 bytes and recovers the complete internal state of Rabbit in about 238 steps.

  1. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) and rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV): a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Abrantes Joana; van der Loo Wessel; Le Pendu Jacques; Esteves Pedro J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus of the genus Lagovirus that causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) in adult European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). First described in China in 1984, the virus rapidly spread worldwide and is nowadays considered as endemic in several countries. In Australia and New Zealand where rabbits are pests, RHDV was purposely introduced for rabbit biocontrol. Factors that may have precipitated RHD emergence remain unclear, but non-p...

  2. Motivation, effort and life circumstances as predictors of foot ulcers and amputations in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Christine; Guassora, Ann Dorrit; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen;

    2014-01-01

    population and health registers. The associations between patient motivation, effort and life circumstances and foot ulcer prevalence 6 years after diabetes diagnosis and the incidence of amputation in the following 13 years were analysed using odds ratios from logistic regression and hazard ratios from Cox...... of the patients' own effort was associated with amputation (hazard ratio 7.12, 95% CI 3.40-14.92). When general practitioners assessed the influence of patients' life circumstances as 'poor' vs 'good', the amputation incidence increased (hazard ratio 2.97, 95% CI 1.22-7.24). 'Poor' vs 'very good' patient...... motivation was also associated with a higher amputation incidence (hazard ratio 7.57, 95% CI 2.43-23.57), although not in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSIONS: General practitioners' existing knowledge of patients' life circumstances, motivation and effort in diabetes management should be included in treatment...

  3. Contribution of Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) to the Evaluation of Healing After Amputation of the Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-14

    A Stabilized Definitive Prosthesis (Procedure 1); Definitive Prosthesis With a Contact Socket (Procedure 1); Patients in the Initial Phase (Temporary Prosthesis, Rehabilitation) Following Unilateral Post- Transtibial Amputation (Procedure 2)

  4. Recombinant Rabbit Leukemia Inhibitory Factor and Rabbit Embryonic Fibroblasts Support the Derivation and Maintenance of Rabbit Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Fei; Ma, Yinghong; Chen, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng; Lin, Tzu-An; Chen, Chien-Hong; Lin, Wei-Wen; Roach, Marsha; Ju, Jyh-Cherng; Yang, Lan; Du, Fuliang; Xu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The rabbit is a classical experimental animal species. A major limitation in using rabbits for biomedical research is the lack of germ-line-competent rabbit embryonic stem cells (rbESCs). We hypothesized that the use of homologous feeder cells and recombinant rabbit leukemia inhibitory factor (rbLIF) might improve the chance in deriving germ-line-competent rbES cells. In the present study, we established rabbit embryonic fibroblast (REF) feeder layers and synthesized recombinant rbLIF. We der...

  5. The dying rabbit problem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Oller, Antonio M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study a generalization of the Fibonacci sequence in which rabbits are mortal and take more that two months to become mature. In particular we give a general recurrence relation for these sequences (improving the work in the paper Hoggatt, V. E., Jr.; Lind, D. A. "The dying rabbit problem". Fibonacci Quart. 7 1969 no. 5, 482--487) and we calculate explicitly their general term (extending the work in the paper Miles, E. P., Jr. Generalized Fibonacci numbers and associated matri...

  6. [Review] Mary Toft's Rabbit Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emrys

    2013-01-01

    Originally broadcast in April 2011 and aired again by BBC Radio 4 this November, Mary Toft’s Rabbit Tale is a radio drama retelling the story of its titular fraudster’s brief notoriety. With a high-profile cast – including singer Will Young as Toft’s husband and Rupert Graves as man-midwife, John Howard – the play explores a number of issues related to the alleged rabbit births of 1726 and their impact on public discourse of the time.

  7. Muscle architecture of the forelimb of the Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) (Aves:Phasianidae) and its implications for functional capacity in flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Yang; Huan Wang; Zihui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Flight is the central avian adaptation in evolution. Wing muscles form an important anatomical basis for avian flight, affecting wing performance and determine modes of flight. However, the roles of distal muscles in adjusting the wing, as well as their functional specializations, remain largely unknown. The importance of muscle fiber architecture has long been recognized. In this study, we provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle architecture of the forelimb of the Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus), with an emphasis on brachial, antebrachial and manual segments. Methods:The forelimbs of five Golden Pheasants were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscles were made, including muscle mass, muscle belly length, fascicle length. From these values, muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) and maximum isometric force were derived. Results:General trends such as the distribution of muscle mass, fascicle length and the ratio of tendon length/belly length are revealed. Comparing PCSAs between antebrachial depressors and elevators and between intrinsics of the alular digit and major digit yielded significant differences (p Conclusions:These observations illustrate the underlying structural basis for the functional capacities of the distal forelimb muscles and may provide additional information useful in further biomechanical and in vivo investigations.

  8. Robotic Rehabilitator of the Rodent Upper Extremity: A System and Method for Assessing and Training Forelimb Force Production after Neurological Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Kelli G; Duarte, Jaime E; Gebrekristos, Berkenesh; Perez, Sergi; Steward, Oswald; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2016-03-01

    Rodent models of spinal cord injury are critical for the development of treatments for upper limb motor impairment in humans, but there are few methods for measuring forelimb strength of rodents, an important outcome measure. We developed a novel robotic device--the Robotic Rehabilitator of the Rodent Upper Extremity (RUE)--that requires rats to voluntarily reach for and pull a bar to retrieve a food reward; the resistance of the bar can be programmed. We used RUE to train forelimb strength of 16 rats three times per week for 23 weeks before and 38 weeks after a mild (100 kdyne) unilateral contusion at the cervical level 5 (C5). We measured maximum force produced when RUE movement was unexpectedly blocked. We compared this blocked pulling force (BPF) to weekly measures of forelimb strength obtained with a previous, well-established method: the grip strength meter (GSM). Before injury, BPF was 2.6 times higher (BPF, 444.6 ± 19.1 g; GSM, 168.4 ± 3.1 g) and 4.9 times more variable (p GSM; the two measurement methods were uncorrelated (R(2) = 0.03; p = 0.84). After injury, there was a significant decrease in BPF of 134.35 g ± 14.71 g (p GSM and thus may provide a useful measure for quantifying the effects of treatment in rodent models of SCI. PMID:26414700

  9. Tactile, thermal, and electrical thresholds in patients with and without phantom limb pain after traumatic lower limb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Melton DH; Li S

    2015-01-01

    Shengai Li,1,2 Danielle H Melton,1,2 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: To examine whether there is central sensitization in patients with phantom limb pain (PLP) after traumatic limb amputation. Methods: Seventeen patients after unilateral lower limb amputation secondary to trauma were...

  10. Disappearance of “phantom limb” and amputated arm usage during dreaming in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Vetrugno, Roberto; Arnulf, Isabelle; Montagna, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Limb amputation is followed, in approximately 90% of patients, by “phantom limb” sensations during wakefulness. When amputated patients dream, however, the phantom limb may be present all the time, part of the time, intermittently or not at all. Such dreaming experiences in amputees have usually been obtained only retrospectively in the morning and, moreover, dreaming is normally associated with muscular atonia so the motor counterpart of the phantom limb experience cannot be observed directl...

  11. PERCEIVED INDEPENDENCE AND LIMITATIONS IN RISING AND SITTING DOWN AFTER REHABILITATION FOR A LOWER-LIMB AMPUTATION

    OpenAIRE

    de Laat, Fred A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Rommers, Gerardus M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Roorda, Leo D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study perceived independence in rising and perceived limitations in rising and sitting down in persons after a lower-limb amputation and the relationship of these perceptions with personal and clinical characteristics. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects/patients: Persons with a lower-limb amputation wearing a prosthesis (n=172). Methods: Perceived independence in rising was assessed with the Locomotor Capabilities Index. Limitations in rising and sitting down were assessed ...

  12. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yao; Albert Chen; Todd Kuiken; Carolina Carmona; Julius Dewald

    2015-01-01

    This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR). As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via th...

  13. Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the motor ability of forelimb according to on- or off-riding during cadences (walk and trot) of horse. Horses and rider selected as subject consisted of total 37 heads of Jeju native horse and 1 female rider. The variables analyzed composed of 1 stride length, 1 step length, elapsed time of stance, elapsed time of swing, elapsed time of 1 step, and forward velocity (x-axis). Two-way analysis of variance of variables was employed for the statistical analysis with the level of significance set at 5% (P<0.05). Trot cadence showed significant difference with the faster and shorter during trot than that of walk in velocity and elapsed time. When analyzed interaction effect in stance and swing phase, the locomotion showed the shorter elapsed time in trot than that of walk, but more delayed in case of on-riding during stance phase, whereas the case of on-riding showed with the shorter during swing phase than that of the case of off-riding These result of horse’s analysis meant that there was very close relation among variables of rider’s weight-velocity-stride length-stride elapsed time. Next study will be necessary to analyze cadence variables added both stride length and rider’s weight for riding activity and rehabilitation during horse riding using Jeju native horse. PMID:26933662

  14. Canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling control the regeneration of amputated rodent vibrissae follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yan-Ping; Huang, Keng; Xu, Yan-Min; Chen, Xian-Cai; Li, Hai-Hong; Cai, Bo-Zhi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Huan; Li, Yu; Lin, Chang-Min

    2016-02-01

    Although mammals are notoriously poor at regeneration compared with many lower-order species, the hair follicle, particular to mammals, is capable of regeneration following partial amputation. The detailed internal mechanism of this phenomenon is still unclear. Development and regrowth of the hair follicle depends on dermal-epidermal interaction within the hair follicle. Previous studies have shown that Wnt/β-catenin, Shh, Bmp, PDGF, TGF and Notch signals all take part in the development and growth of the hair follicle, and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling additionally plays an indispensable role in hair follicle morphogenesis and regrowth. In this study, we investigated the localization, as well as, protein levels of Wnt/β-catenin signaling molecules during amputated whisker follicle regeneration. PMID:26742765

  15. Amputees by choice: body integrity identity disorder and the ethics of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Levy, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Should surgeons be permitted to amputate healthy limbs if patients request such operations? We argue that if such patients are experiencing significant distress as a consequence of the rare psychological disorder named Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), such operations might be permissible. We examine rival accounts of the origins of the desire for healthy limb amputations and argue that none are as plausible as the BIID hypothesis. We then turn to the moral arguments against such operations, and argue that on the evidence available, none is compelling. BIID sufferers meet reasonable standards for rationality and autonomy: so as long as no other effective treatment for their disorder is available, surgeons ought to be allowed to accede to their requests. PMID:15948330

  16. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics

  17. Crossover replantation after bilateral traumatic lower limb amputations: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Replantation of a limb to the contralateral stump after bilateral traumatic amputations is rare. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports of crossover lower limb replantation in the literature. Case presentation We treated a 37-year-old Chinese woman with bilateral lower limb crush injuries sustained in a traffic accident. Her lower limb injuries were at different anatomic levels. We performed emergency bilateral amputations followed by crossover replantation. Five years later, the woman had recovered well, and had perfect movement and stability in her replanted leg. After reviewing the literature, we thought that presentation of our patient’s case might provide useful information for clinicians. Conclusions Crossover replantation should be considered when evaluating a patient with bilateral lower limb injuries, thus allowing the patient to touch the ground and stand using their own foot.

  18. Dynamic stability of running: The effects of speed and leg amputations on the maximal Lyapunov exponent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Look, Nicole [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Arellano, Christopher J.; Grabowski, Alena M.; Kram, Rodger [Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); McDermott, William J. [The Orthopedic Specialty Hospital, Murray, Utah 84107 (United States); Bradley, Elizabeth [Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA and Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, we study dynamic stability during running, focusing on the effects of speed, and the use of a leg prosthesis. We compute and compare the maximal Lyapunov exponents of kinematic time-series data from subjects with and without unilateral transtibial amputations running at a wide range of speeds. We find that the dynamics of the affected leg with the running-specific prosthesis are less stable than the dynamics of the unaffected leg and also less stable than the biological legs of the non-amputee runners. Surprisingly, we find that the center-of-mass dynamics of runners with two intact biological legs are slightly less stable than those of runners with amputations. Our results suggest that while leg asymmetries may be associated with instability, runners may compensate for this effect by increased control of their center-of-mass dynamics.

  19. Prosthetic ambulation in a paraplegic patient with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C; Kim, D Y; Choi, Y S; Kim, Y K; Seong, Y J

    2000-08-01

    Great importance and caution should be placed on prosthetic fitting for a paraplegic patient with an anesthetic residual limb if functional ambulation is to be achieved. The combination of paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy is a complex injury that makes the rehabilitation process difficult. This article describes a case of L2 paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy on the right side. Following the rehabilitation course, the patient independently walked using a walker at indoor level with a transfemoral prosthesis with ischial containment socket, polycentric knee assembly, endoskeletal shank and multiaxis foot assembly and a knee ankle foot orthosis on the sound side. The difficulties of fitting a functional prosthesis to an insensate limb and the rehabilitation stages leading to functional ambulation are reviewed. PMID:10992814

  20. Secondary reconstruction of below knee amputation stump with free anterolateral thigh flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Dinesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Below knee stump preservation reduces ambulatory energy expenditure and improves the quality of life. Reconstruction of soft tissue loss around the stump is a challenging task. Below knee stump reconstruction demands stable skin with sufficient soft tissue to allow weigh bearing. Microsurgical tissue transfer is increasingly being used as a salvage option. Anterolateral thigh flap with additional vastus lateralis muscle provides extra cushioning effect. We report two cases of amputation below knee successfully salvaged. The anterolteral flap with abundant tissue and stable skin offers a reliable option for cover. Two patients with below knee amputation were reconstructed secondarily. After 6 to 20 months of follow -up, stumps showed no signs of pressure effects. Patients are able to bear 50-70 hours of weight per week.

  1. Plantar rotational flap technique for panmetatarsal head resection and transmetatarsal amputation: a revision approach for second metatarsal head transfer ulcers in patients with previous partial first ray amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Reinking, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Transfer ulcers beneath the second metatarsal head are common after diabetes-related partial first ray amputation. Subsequent osteomyelitis of the second ray can further complicate this difficult situation. We present 2 cases depicting our plantar rotational flap technique for revision surgery involving conversion to either panmetatarsal head resection or transmetatarsal amputation (TMA). These cases are presented to demonstrate our indications, procedure selection criteria, flap technique, operative pearls, and staging protocol. The goals of this surgical approach are to excise and close the plantar ulcer beneath the second metatarsal head, remove any infected bone, allow staged surgery if needed, remove all remaining metatarsal heads to decrease the likelihood of repeat transfer ulcers, preserve the toes when practical, avoid excessive shortening of the foot, avoid multiple longitudinal dorsal incisions, and create a functional and cosmetically appealing foot. The flap is equally suited for either panmetatarsal head resection or TMA. The decision to pursue panmetatarsal head resection versus TMA largely depends on the condition of the remaining toes. Involvement of osteomyelitis in the base of the second proximal phalanx, the soft tissue viability of the remaining toes, the presence of a preoperative digital deformity, and the likelihood that saving the lesser toes will be beneficial from a cosmetic or footwear standpoint are factors we consider when deciding between panmetatarsal head resection and TMA. Retrospective chart review identified prompt healing of the flap in both patients. Neither patient experienced recurrent ulcers or required subsequent surgery within the first 12 months postoperatively. PMID:23910736

  2. Conservative management of phantom-limb and amputation-stump pain.

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The causes of pain in the amputation stump or in the so-called phantom limb are far from clear and a wide variety of methods of treatment have been used with varying degrees of success. Surgical techniques do not always give lasting relief and it is suggested that conservative methods such as vibration therapy and various forms of electrical stimulation may prove more helpful.

  3. Proximal major limb amputations – a retrospective analysis of 45 oncological cases

    OpenAIRE

    Goertz Ole; Langer Stefan; Steinstraesser Lars; Hauser Joerg; Khadra Ammar; Lehnhardt Marcus; Daigeler Adrien; Steinau Hans-Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Proximal major limb amputations due to malignant tumors have become rare but are still a valuable treatment option in palliation and in some cases can even cure. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse outcome in those patients, including the postoperative course, survival, pain, quality of life, and prosthesis usage. Methods Data of 45 consecutive patients was acquired from patient's charts and contact to patients, and general practitioners. Patients with inter...

  4. Diabetic foot infections: effective microorganisms and factors affecting the frequency of osteomyelitis and amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Sonmezer, Meliha Cagla; TULEK, Necla; Ozsoy, Metin; Erdinc, Fatma; Ertem, Gunay

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Diabetic foot infections are common reason for hospitalization and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the clinic features and predisposed causes of osteomyelitis and amputation of patients with diabetic foot infections. Methods. Patients with diabetic foot infections who admitted and hospitalized at Infection Diseases and Clinical Microbiology department between January 2012 and July 2014 were included. Osteomyelitis was evaluated using magnetic...

  5. Vascular Surgery, Microsurgery and Supramicrosurgery for Treatment of Chronic Diabetic Foot Ulcers to Prevent Amputations

    OpenAIRE

    Schirmer, Steffen; Ritter, Ralf-Gerhard; Fansa, Hisham

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diabetic foot ulcers occur in approximately 2,5% of patients suffering from diabetes and may lead to major infections and amputation. Such ulcers are responsible for a prolonged period of hospitalization and co- morbidities caused by infected diabetic foot ulcers. Small, superficial ulcers can be treated by special conservative means. However, exposed bones or tendons require surgical intervention in order to prevent osteomyelitis. In many cases reconstructive surgery is necessar...

  6. Medical and Social Aspects of High Amputations in Patients with Obliterating Atherosclerosis of Lower Extremities

    OpenAIRE

    Gudz, I. M.; Hnatyshchak, A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Obliterating atherosclerosis of the lower extremities is one of the main causes of limb ischemia, that can result in high amputation of the lower limb (HALL). Despite the large number of publications on this subject, medical and social effects of HALL on the patients’ life are studied insufficiently. In some studies a significant impact of financial situation, the level of education, and accessibility of qualified vascular surgery care on the HALL index was stated. As this intervention is con...

  7. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation

    OpenAIRE

    El Harrech, Y.; Abaka, N.; Ghoundale, O.; D Touiti

    2013-01-01

    Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient...

  8. Selective amputation of the pharynx identifies a FoxA-dependent regeneration program in planaria

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Carolyn E.; Seidel, Chris W.; McKinney, Sean A.; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest Some animals can regrow whole limbs or organs after amputation. Flatworms called planaria, for example, can regenerate their whole body from small pieces. This remarkable ability depends on neoblasts—a type of stem cell found in planaria that can detect damaged or lost organs, migrate to the site of damage, produce the required cells, and integrate into the remaining tissues. Researchers hope that studying these animals will reveal ways to use stem cells to regenerate injured lim...

  9. Auto-amputated Ovarian Cyst with Compression Sequelae: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Mirza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian  cysts  contribute  a  major  share  of  cystic  lesions in  fetal  life. Quite often, these cysts are benign and resolve spontaneously. Occasionally, these cysts can twist, resulting in ovarian loss. We report a case of auto-amputated ovarian cyst presetting with intestinal obstruction.

  10. Tophaceous gout in an amputation stump in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Christine B.; Mohana-Borges, Aurea; Pathria, Mini [Department of Radiology, UCSD and VAHCS, 3350 La Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Gout is a common rheumatologic disorder that can have an unusual clinical presentation. This case report describes the development of a gouty tophus at a site of remote traumatic forearm amputation in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It further addresses the imaging characteristics of tophaceous gout as well as the differential diagnostic considerations as regards both the imaging findings and the clinical presentation. (orig.)

  11. Tophaceous gout in an amputation stump in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gout is a common rheumatologic disorder that can have an unusual clinical presentation. This case report describes the development of a gouty tophus at a site of remote traumatic forearm amputation in a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It further addresses the imaging characteristics of tophaceous gout as well as the differential diagnostic considerations as regards both the imaging findings and the clinical presentation. (orig.)

  12. Ovarian torsion and amputation resulting in partially calcified, pedunculated cystic mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three children with torsion and amputation of the right ovary are presented. The detached ovary resulted in a cystic mass containing necrotic material and a solid, partially clacified mural node. The cysts were attached to the omentum, to the mesentery of the transverse colon, or to the lower edge of the liver by a long twisted pedicle containing thin-walled vascular spaces. The radiographic and sonographic findings were quite similar and clearly reflected the operative and pathologic changes. (orig.)

  13. Effect of traumatic brain injury among U.S. servicemembers with amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell J. Rauh, PhD, PT, MPH; Hilary J. Aralis, MS; Ted Melcer, PhD; Caroline A. Macera, PhD; Pinata Sessoms, PhD; Jamie Bartlett, PhD; Michael R. Galarneau, MS

    2013-01-01

    Servicemembers with combat-related limb loss often require substantial rehabilitative care. The prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), which may impair cognitive and functional abilities, among servicemembers has increased. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of TBI among servicemembers with traumatic amputation and examine whether TBI status was associated with discharge to civilian status and medical and rehabilitative service use postamputation. U.S. s...

  14. Bionic ankle–foot prosthesis normalizes walking gait for persons with leg amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Herr, Hugh M.; Grabowski, Alena M

    2011-01-01

    Over time, leg prostheses have improved in design, but have been incapable of actively adapting to different walking velocities in a manner comparable to a biological limb. People with a leg amputation using such commercially available passive-elastic prostheses require significantly more metabolic energy to walk at the same velocities, prefer to walk slower and have abnormal biomechanics compared with non-amputees. A bionic prosthesis has been developed that emulates the function of a biolog...

  15. The utilization of a suture bridge construct for tibiofibular instability during transtibial amputation without distal bridge synostosis creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Louis R; Tintle, Scott M; D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; Potter, Benjamin K

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic distal tibiofibular instability is a known complication of trauma-related transtibial amputations. Overt proximal tibiofibular dislocations, which are easily recognized on routine radiographs, may occur concurrently with the traumatic injury or amputation. More commonly, however, the proximal tibiofibular joint remains structurally intact in the presence of distal instability due to the loss of the distal syndesmotic structures and damage to the interosseous membrane, resulting in fibular angulation and distal tibiofibular diastasis. Some authors have espoused treating this instability with the creation of a distal tibiofibular bridge synostosis (the so-called Ertl procedure or modifications there of) to prevent potentially painful discordant motion and to minimize the prominence of the residual distal fibula. Recent studies, however, have suggested an increase in complication and reoperation rates in transtibial amputations that received a bridge synostosis compared with standard transtibial amputations. Additionally, although there are several described techniques for bridge synostosis creation, most are dependent on having sufficient remaining fibula to construct the bone bridge without unnecessary shortening of the tibia; however, sufficient residual fibula is not always available after traumatic and trauma-related amputations. We propose a technique utilizing a suture bridge to restore tibiofibular stability when performing transtibial amputations in patients with proximal tibiofibular dislocations or distal diastasis, avoiding the potential need for a distal bridge synostosis. PMID:23429174

  16. Pediatric Traumatic Limb Amputation: The Principles of Management and Optimal Residual Limb Lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Adil Abbas; Javed, Ammar Asrar; Rao, Dominic Jordan; Corner, J Antony; Rosenfield, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic limb amputations are rare and their acute and long term management can be challenging in this subgroup of patients. The lengthy and costly hospital stays, and resulting physical and psychological implications leads to significant morbidity. We present a summary of treatment principles and the evidence base supporting the management options for this entity. The initial management focuses on resuscitating and stabilization of the patients, administration of appropriate and adequate analgesics, and broad spectrum antibiotics. The patient should ideally be managed by an orthopedic or a plastic surgeon and when an amputation is warranted, the surgical team should aim to conserve as much of the viable physis as possible aimed at allowing bone development in a growing child. A subsequent wound inspection should be performed to assess for signs of ischemia or non-viability of tissue. Depending on the child's age, approximations of the ideal residual limb length can be calculated using our guidelines, allowing an ideal stump length at skeletal maturity for a well-fitting and appropriate prosthesis. Myodesis and myoplasties can be performed according to the nature of the amputation. Removable rigid dressings are safe and cost effective offering better protection of the stump. Complications such as necrosis and exostosis, on subsequent examination, warrant further revisions. Other complications such as neuromas can be prevented by proximal division of the nerves. Successful rehabilitation can be accomplished with a multidisciplinary approach, involving physiotherapist, play therapist and a child psychiatrist, in addition to the surgeon and primary care providers. PMID:27308235

  17. Global trends in incidence of lower limb amputation: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Godlwana

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compile a literature report on the global epidemiology of lower limb amputations. Specifically it aimed at capturing information on the incidence of traumatic and non-traumatic lowerlimb amputations throughout the world, to identify the etiology including diseases and lifestyle habits associated with lower limb amputees (LLA in boththe developed and the developing countries, to identify the demographiccharacteristics, age, sex, race, geographical location of the people undergoing LLA including the levels of amputation as pointed out by the literature. Aliterature search was conducted. Different keyword combinations were used togather as much literature on the subject as possible. The authors systemicallyreviewed literature from some parts of Europe, Asia, North and South America and South Africa. The data was analyzed and presented under various themes. The existing literature shows that diabetes is the leading cause of LLA and trauma accounts for the minority of these cases. The incidence of LLA can be predicted by gender, age, maritalstatus, level of education and socio-economic status. Information on LLA in South Africa is almost absent.

  18. Revisiting risks associated with mortality following initial transtibial or transfemoral amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Bates, MD, MBA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to determine how treatment-, environmental-, and facility-level characteristics contribute to postdischarge mortality prediction. The study included 4,153 Veterans who underwent lower-limb amputation in Department of Veterans Affairs facilities during fiscal years 2003 and 2004. Veterans were followed 1 yr postamputation. A Cox regression identified characteristics associated with mortality risk after hospital discharge following amputation. Older age, higher amputation level, and more comorbidities increased mortality likelihood. Patients who had inpatient procedures for pulmonary and renal problems had higher hazards of postdischarge death than those who did not (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–3.77, and HR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.80–2.74, respectively. Patients who had central nervous system procedures had higher hazards of death early postdischarge (HR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.60–3.11 at 0 d, but this association became insignificant by 180 d. Patients in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU, medical ICU, or medical bed section at the time of discharge were more likely to die than patients on a surgical bed section. Patients hospitalized in the Midwest were less likely to die early after discharge than patients in the Mountain Pacific region, but this regional effect became insignificant by 90 d. Adding treatment-, environmental-, and facility-level characteristics contributed additional information to a mortality risk model.

  19. Angiographic findings and need for amputation in high tension electrical injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because it is difficult to estimate the extent of deep tissue injury clinically, angiography was carried out in 28 patients with signs of damage from current flow through the body. Eight of the arteriograms showed normal extremities, 6 showed changes of small arteries, and 38 showed injury to the main arteries. In the latter group there were 24 total arterial occlusions, narrow irregular lumens in 10, and 4 had occlusion and distal refilling. Changes in the main arteries were most often seen near major joints where the internal body resistance as well as the density of the current are higher. Injury to the main arteries resulted in severe neuromuscular damage or amputation of the limb, whereas injury to small arteries resulted in little functional deficit. Of the 25 amputations 19 were at the level of the arterial occlusion. Spasmolytic drugs did not increase filling. We concluded that early angiography is valuable for the detection of deep injury and often indicates the level of adequate amputation or the need for immediate exploration. In some patients it indicated the necessity for arterial reconstruction. (au)

  20. Unani treatment and leech therapy saved the diabetic foot of a patient from amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, S M Arif

    2016-04-01

    Every 30 seconds, a lower limb amputation is carried out due to diabetes throughout the world. The mortality rate due to diabetic foot gangrene is just next to that of cancer. As tissue death cannot be reversed, surgical removal of the affected tissue (debridement) or amputation of the limb is the only treatment option left when gangrene has advanced. The present case study illustrates an option to treat poorly healing diabetic wounds with Unani medicine (blood purifier and deobstruent) besides hirudotherapy. The study was performed on a 60-year-old woman suffering from diabetic foot (on the left) grade 5 and facing the prospect of imminent amputation. The patient was having severe pain (80 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale) in the gangrenous foot and foul-smelling with necrosed areas. Wound dressing was done with unripe papaya as it has a very good role in clearing necrotising area and hirudotherapy was also used in poorly healing wounds. The pain score decreased to 0-10 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale within 20 days and no further pain relieving medication was required. Over a time interval of nearly 3·5 months, necrotic areas disappeared and the wound was completely healed. PMID:24809835

  1. [Basic principles and difficulties relating to rehabilitation in diabetic patients following amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindra, Martin; Věchtová, Bohuslava; Bielmeierová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Vascular diseases as a result of diabetes mellitus are the most frequent indication for amputation in the Czech republic. Diabetic patients following amputation, unlike the other amputees, very frequently suffer multiple complications. These are both of general and local nature and pose a limitation to rehabilitation care as well as a prosthesis use. The main goal of therapeutic rehabilitation is the practice of locomotion with a prosthesis (artificial limb) and the patients full return to normal life. A team of closely cooperating specialists is involved. The rehabilitation care of amputees is divided into acute and aftercare. Within preoperative care we try to improve the patients physical and psychological condition. Following surgery we verticalize the patient as soon as possible depending on his/her possibilities and condition, we carry out breathing and vascular gymnastics and prevention of thromboembolic disease and we start the care of the stump. When the stump has been healed and shaped, the patient is provided with an artificial limb. The patients equipped with an artificial limb take a walking course where they learn how to handle the limb as well as walk indoors and outdoors and cope with common terrain unevenness.Key words: amputation - diabetes mellitus - walking with an artificial limb - prosthesis - lower limb prosthetics. PMID:26258981

  2. Wound healing in above-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 59 above-knee amputations healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 132I--or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mmHg no less than nine (82 per cent) suffered severe wound complications. Out of the 48 cases with an SPP above 30 mmHg severe wound complications occurred in only four cases (8 per cent). The difference in wound complication rate is highly significant (P<0.01). The postoperative SPP measured on the stumps was on average only slightly and insignificantly higher than the preoperative values, explaining why the preoperative values related so closely to the postoperative clinical course. We conclude that the SPP can be used to predict ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations as has previously been shown to be the case in below-knee amputations. (author)

  3. Active dorsiflexing prostheses may reduce trip-related fall risk in people with transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah J. Rosenblatt, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available People with amputation are at increased risk of falling compared with age-matched, nondisabled individuals. This may partly reflect amputation-related changes to minimum toe clearance (MTC that could increase the incidence of trips and fall risk. This study determined the contribution of an active dorsiflexing prosthesis to MTC. We hypothesized that regardless of speed or incline the active dorsiflexion qualities of the ProprioFoot would significantly increase MTC and decrease the likelihood of tripping. Eight people with transtibial amputation walked on a treadmill with their current foot at two grades and three velocities, then repeated the protocol after 4 wk of accommodation with the ProprioFoot. A mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare MTC. Curves representing the likelihood of tripping were derived from the MTC distributions and a multiple regression was used to determine the relative contributions of hip, knee, and ankle angles to MTC. Regardless of condition, MTC was approximately 70% larger with the ProprioFoot (p < 0.001 and the likelihood of tripping was reduced. Regression analysis revealed that MTC with the ProprioFoot was sensitive to all three angles, with sensitivity of hip and ankle being greater. Overall, the ProprioFoot may increase user safety by decreasing the likelihood of tripping and thus the pursuant likelihood of a fall.

  4. Discrimination of two equine racing surfaces based on forelimb dynamic and hoof kinematic variables at the canter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie; Pourcelot, Philippe; Holden-Douilly, Laurène; Camus, Mathieu; Falala, Sylvain; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Vergari, Claudio; Desquilbet, Loïc; Chateau, Henry

    2013-12-01

    The type and condition of sport surfaces affect performance and can also be a risk factor for injury. Combining the use a 3-dimensional dynamometric horseshoe (DHS), an accelerometer and high-speed cameras, variables reflecting hoof-ground interaction and maximal limb loading can be measured. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of two racing surfaces, turf and all-weather waxed (AWW), on the forelimbs of five horses at the canter. Vertical hoof velocity before impact was higher on AWW. Maximal deceleration at impact (vertical impact shock) was not significantly different between the two surfaces, whereas the corresponding vertical force peak at impact measured by the DHS was higher on turf. Low frequency (0-200 Hz) vibration energy was also higher on turf; however high frequency (>400 Hz) vibration energy tended to be higher on AWW. The maximal longitudinal force during braking and the maximal vertical force at mid-stance were lower on AWW and their times of occurrence were delayed. AWW was also characterised by larger slip distances and sink distances, both during braking and at maximal sink. On a given surface, no systematic association was found between maximal vertical force at mid-stance and either sink distance or vertical impact shock. This study confirms the damping properties of AWW, which appear to be more efficient for low frequency events. Given the biomechanical changes induced by equestrian surfaces, combining dynamic and kinematic approaches is strongly recommended for a reliable assessment of hoof-ground interaction and maximal limb loading. PMID:24360756

  5. Demographics of Lower Limb Amputations in the Pakistan Military: A Single Center, Three-Year Prospective Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq A; Ayaz, Saeed B; Mansoor, Sahibzada N; Qureshi, Ali R; Fahim, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION : The Pakistan military has been actively engaged in the war against terror for more than a decade. Many officers and soldiers have lost their limbs in this war. But the data on traumatic lower limb amputations in Pakistan is sparse. The aim of this study is to prospectively document the epidemiological profile of lower limb military amputees presenting at the largest rehabilitation centre of Pakistan over a three-year period. MATERIALS & METHODS : A prospective three-year survey was conducted at the Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Pakistan. One hundred twenty-three consecutive patients with lower limb amputations were enrolled in the survey. The demographic data, etiology, associated injuries, complications profile, and type of prosthesis provided were documented. The data analysis was done using the statistical analysis tool SPSS V 20 (IBM®,NY, USA). RESULTS : All patients were male. Most had traumatic amputation (119), were between 20-40 years (106), with unilateral amputation (115). Mine blast injury was the leading cause in 73 (59.3%) and most (58.5%) were fitted with modular prosthesis. Transtibial amputation was the commonest level (65), followed by transfemoral (30). The time of surgical amputation was not documented in 87% of the patients. Half of the patients (54%) had associated injuries. Seventy-nine patients had at least one complication with phantom pain being the commonest in 25% cases. CONCLUSIONS : This is the largest prospective demographic survey of lower limb amputees in Pakistan military to date. Scores of soldiers and civilians in Pakistan have suffered lower limb amputation. The availability of demographic data can improve the trauma and rehabilitation services for better understanding and management of such cases. There is a need to conduct large scale community-based epidemiological surveys to direct future policies and develop amputee rehabilitation services in the public sector. PMID:27186448

  6. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5th, 6th and 7th groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8th group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal temperature and

  7. L'influence de l' "eye movement desensitization and reprocessing" sur la douleur fantôme des patients amputés

    OpenAIRE

    Grand, Kevin; Bonny, Marion; Portuesi, Vito

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Les douleurs fantômes sont présentes chez 70 à 90 % des sujets suite à une amputation. Ces douleurs influencent négativement le quotidien des amputés. Il existe de nombreux traitements, mais aucun ne fait l’unanimité. Problématique : L’incidence des amputations est exponentielle à l’augmentation du nombre de personnes présentant une atteinte vasculaire. Différents changements s’effectuent lors d’une amputation, notamment au niveau du système nerveux qui engendre fréquemment des...

  8. Use of sup(99m)technetium-pyrophosphate scintiscanning to determine the optimum amputation height in cases of arterial occlusion at the lower extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates whether sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate scintiscanning is a suitable method to determine the optimum amputation height in cases of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. 10 patients were examined who had to be amputated between 1979 and 1981 for advanced arterial occlusive disease at the lower extremity. Throughout, the scintigraphic results and height of successful amputations were found to be in accordance. The amputation plane was chosen in the zone above the highest sup(99m)Tc-PYP accumulation. The advantages of scintiscanning are presented. (orig./MG)

  9. Evaluation of intravenous lipid emulsion on haloperidol-induced hypotension in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Vahabzadeh, Maryam; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    There are many reports on the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote in drug toxicity. Haloperidol (HAL) is a butyrophenone antipsychotic agent which is highly lipophilic. Hypotension is an important adverse effect of HAL administration and overdose. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial hemodynamic effects of ILE on acute HAL poisoning. We used six groups of five male rabbits. Two groups received aseptic distilled water intravenously followed by infusion of 18.6 ml/kg normal saline, as negative control group, or ILE 20% after 0.5 h. The third group received 18.6 ml/kg normal saline after HAL infusion (2.6 mg/kg). The other three groups received ILE 20% solution (6, 12, and 18.6 ml/kg) following HAL (2.6 mg/kg) administration. We measured blood pressure at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 24 h after starting HAL administration, from left forelimb using a noninvasive method that was carried out automatically with a neonatal intensive care unit bedside monitor. ILE 20% at the dose of 18 ml/kg could return the reduced mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure sooner than the other doses and normal saline. In conclusion, ILE could reverse HAL-induced hypotension same as the other lipophilic drugs. However, the clinical use of ILE for this purpose needs more evaluation to determine its exact indication and safety. PMID:24444695

  10. White Rabbit Status and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M; Beck, D; Hoffmann, J; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S; Terpstra, W W; Zweig, M

    2014-01-01

    The White Rabbit (WR) project started off to provide a sequencing and synchronisation solution for the needs of CERN and GSI. Since then, many other users have adopted it to solve problems in the domain of distributed hard realtime systems. The paper discusses the current performance of WR hardware, along with present and foreseen applications. It also describes current efforts to standardise WR under IEEE 1588 and recent developments on reliability of timely data distribution, finishing with an outline of future plans.

  11. Osteoblastic Osteosarcoma in a Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Megumi; Kondo, Hirotaka; Onuma, Mamoru; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    An osteosarcoma developed in the tarsal joint region involving the distal tibia of a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Micrometastases were present in the lungs. Histologically the tumor was composed of ovoid to short-spindle cells with abundant giant cells, producing irregular islands of osteoids. The tumor cells were immunopositive with antiosteocalcin monoclonal antibody, consistent with their derivation from osteoblasts. According to review of 10 published cases, productive osteobl...

  12. Functional domains of rabbit thrombomodulin.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourin, M C; Boffa, M C; Björk, I.; Lindahl, U

    1986-01-01

    Thrombomodulin isolated from rabbit lung was separated by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose into a retarded (acidic) and a nonretarded (nonacidic) fraction. Both fractions contained the cofactor required for the activation of protein C. In addition, the acidic fraction (but not the nonacidic fraction) prevented the clotting of fibrinogen by thrombin ("direct" anticoagulant activity) and accelerated the inhibition of thrombin by antithrombin (effect corresponding to 2-10 internatio...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances following hindquarter amputation for pelvic musculoskeletal malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe our experience of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances after hindquarter amputation, focusing on the normal pattern of time-related changes in signal intensity within the amputation flap and appearances of local disease recurrence. This was a retrospective review of the records of patients identified on our orthopaedic oncology database who had undergone hindquarter amputation at our centre. Examinations were divided into one group consisting of 'normal' postoperative findings and another group demonstrating local recurrence. 'Normal' postoperative findings were assessed for signal intensity, morphology and presence of the 'muscle texture sign' within the amputation flap. Examinations were grouped according to time from surgery. Examinations demonstrating local recurrence were assessed for site, signal intensity, morphology and axial dimensions of recurrent tumour. Comparison was made to pre-operative imaging. Thirty-five patients with postoperative MR images were identified. Seventy-seven examinations were reviewed (range 1-18 per patient). The 'normal group' comprised 18 patients (seven female, 11 male, mean age 44 years, range 16-75 years), with 47 examinations reviewed. The 'muscle texture sign' was preserved in all examinations in this group. Up to 6 months after surgery, 100% (10) of examinations showed hyperintense T2- and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-weighted) signals within the muscle flap, indicating oedema. Only after 4 years was the muscle flap signal isointense in all cases (13). Up to 6 months after surgery, 50% (5 of 10) of examinations demonstrated flap swelling, but after 1 year, 100% (28) showed atrophy. Twenty percent (2 of 10) of examinations 0-6 months from surgery showed hyperintense T1-weighted signal within the muscle flap, consistent with fatty infiltration, but after 2 years, 100% (20) showed a hyperintense T1-weighted signal. The 'local recurrence' group comprised 20 patients (six female, 14 male, mean age 45

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging appearances following hindquarter amputation for pelvic musculoskeletal malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A.; Davies, A.M.; James, Steven L.J. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Grimer, Robert J. [Royal Orthopaedic Hospital Foundation Trust, Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    To describe our experience of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances after hindquarter amputation, focusing on the normal pattern of time-related changes in signal intensity within the amputation flap and appearances of local disease recurrence. This was a retrospective review of the records of patients identified on our orthopaedic oncology database who had undergone hindquarter amputation at our centre. Examinations were divided into one group consisting of 'normal' postoperative findings and another group demonstrating local recurrence. 'Normal' postoperative findings were assessed for signal intensity, morphology and presence of the 'muscle texture sign' within the amputation flap. Examinations were grouped according to time from surgery. Examinations demonstrating local recurrence were assessed for site, signal intensity, morphology and axial dimensions of recurrent tumour. Comparison was made to pre-operative imaging. Thirty-five patients with postoperative MR images were identified. Seventy-seven examinations were reviewed (range 1-18 per patient). The 'normal group' comprised 18 patients (seven female, 11 male, mean age 44 years, range 16-75 years), with 47 examinations reviewed. The 'muscle texture sign' was preserved in all examinations in this group. Up to 6 months after surgery, 100% (10) of examinations showed hyperintense T2- and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-weighted) signals within the muscle flap, indicating oedema. Only after 4 years was the muscle flap signal isointense in all cases (13). Up to 6 months after surgery, 50% (5 of 10) of examinations demonstrated flap swelling, but after 1 year, 100% (28) showed atrophy. Twenty percent (2 of 10) of examinations 0-6 months from surgery showed hyperintense T1-weighted signal within the muscle flap, consistent with fatty infiltration, but after 2 years, 100% (20) showed a hyperintense T1-weighted signal. The 'local recurrence

  15. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Cavani; Massimiliano Petracci; Fabio Luzi; Marina Verga

    2010-01-01

    The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus) main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these ...

  16. Assessment of propofol anesthesia in the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Sónia Patrícia Seabra

    2010-01-01

    The growing interests in propofol as an intravenous anesthetic agent and in particular to its use in rabbits were the motivation for this work. The rabbit is the third most common pet, and is also used as a biomedical research model in a wide range of science branches such as pharmacology, toxicology, anesthesiology and surgery. The main goal of this study was to explore the effects of Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol in rabbits. Different infusion rates were administrated...

  17. Identification of Rabbit Myostatin Gene Polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    T. I. Amalianingsih; B Brahmantiyo; Jakaria

    2015-01-01

    The existence of selection on the rabbits with potential for meat has only been seen from phenotypic aspects including performance and productivity, while the molecular genetic studies are still very rare. One of the candidate genes for meat production traits in rabbit is myostatin. Totally 50 blood samples of male rabbits from Rex, Satin, Reza (crossing from Rex and Satin), Flemish Giant and FZ3 (crossing from Flemish Giant and Reza) breed were used at Indonesian Research Institute for Anima...

  18. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Szabóová, R.; Lauková, A.; Simonová, M.P,; Strompfová, V.; Chrastinová, L.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42). Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococ...

  19. Structural changes in the lengthened rabbit muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Pap, Károly; Berki, Sándor; Shisha, Tamás; Kiss, Sándor; Szőke, György

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the histological changes in muscle tissue after limb lengthening in skeletally mature and immature rabbits and assessed the most vulnerable level of striated muscle. Twenty-three male domestic white rabbits, divided into six groups, were operated on and different lengthening protocols were used in the mature and immature rabbits. The histopathological changes were analysed by a semi-quantitative method according to the scoring system of Lee et al. (Acta Orthop Scand 64(6)...

  20. Ultrasound Anatomical Visualization of the rabbit liver

    OpenAIRE

    Kamelia Dimcheva Stamatova-Yovcheva; Rosen Dimitrov; David Yovchev; Krassimira Uzunova; Rumen Binev

    2014-01-01

    The topic was to investigate the anatomical features of the rabbit liver by two- and three-dimensional ultrasonography. Eighteen sexually mature healthy clinically New Zealand rabbits aged eight months were studied. Two-dimensional ultarsonographic anatomical image of the rabbit liver presented it in the cranial abdominal region as a relatively hypoechoic finding. Its contours were regular and in close contact with the hyperechoic diaphragm. Liver parenchyma was heterogeneous. The gall bladde...

  1. Conservative Surgery of Diabetic Forefoot Osteomyelitis: How Can I Operate on This Patient Without Amputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose L; Alvaro-Afonso, Francisco Javier; Molinés-Barroso, Raúl

    2015-06-01

    Surgery is necessary in many cases of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. The decision to undertake surgery should be based on the clinical presentation of diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Surgery is required when the bone is protruding through the ulcer, there is extensive bone destruction seen on x-ray or progressive bone damage on sequential x-ray while undergoing antibiotic treatment, the soft tissue envelope is destroyed, and there is gangrene or spreading soft tissue infection. Several issues should be taken into account when considering surgery for treating diabetic foot osteomyelitis. It is necessary to have a surgeon available with diabetic foot expertise. Regarding location of diabetic foot osteomyelitis, it is important to consider whether isolated bone or a joint is involved. In cases in which osteomyelitis is associated with a bone deformity, surgery should be able to correct this. The surgeon should always reflect about whether extensive/radical surgery could destabilize the foot. The forefoot is the most frequent location of diabetic foot osteomyelitis and is associated with better prognosis than midfoot and hindfoot osteomyelitis. Many surgical procedures can be performed in patients with diabetes and forefoot ulcers complicated by osteomyelitis while avoiding amputations. Performing conservative surgeries without amputations of any part of the foot is not always feasible in cases in which the infection has destroyed the soft tissue envelope. Attempting conservative surgery in such cases risks infected tissues remaining in the wound bed leading to failure. The election of different surgical options depends on the expertise of the surgeons selected for the multidisciplinary teams. It is the aim of this article to provide a sample of surgical techniques in order to remove the bone infection from the forefoot while avoiding amputations. PMID:25256285

  2. Mind-body interventions for treatment of phantom limb pain in persons with amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Vera Lucia; Faurot, Keturah R; Gaylord, Susan A; Mann, J Douglas; Sill, Morgan; Lynch, Chanee; Lee, Michael Y

    2012-08-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a significant source of chronic pain in most persons with amputation at some time in their clinical course. Pharmacologic therapies for this condition are often only moderately effective and may produce unwanted adverse effects. There is growing empirical evidence of the therapeutic effectiveness of mind-body therapies for the relief of chronic pain; therefore, an exploration of their role in relieving amputation-related chronic pain is warranted. We undertook a focused literature review on mind-body interventions for patients with amputation who experience PLP. Because of study heterogeneity, only descriptive presentations of the studies are presented. Only studies of hypnosis, imagery, and biofeedback, including visual mirror feedback, were found; studies on meditation, yoga, and tai chi/qigong were missing from the literature. Few studies of specific mind-body therapies were dedicated to management of PLP, with the exception of mirror visual therapy. Overall, studies were largely exploratory and reflect considerable variability in the application of mind-body techniques, making definitive conclusions inadvisable. Nevertheless, the weight of existing findings indicates that a mind-body approach to PLP pain management is promising and that specific methods may offer either temporary or long-term relief, either alone or in combination with conventional therapies. The authors discuss the potential for usefulness of specific mind-body therapies and the relevance of their mechanisms of action to those of PLP, including targeting cortical reorganization, autonomic nervous system deregulation, stress management, coping ability, and quality-of-life. The authors recommend more and better quality research exploring the efficacy and mechanisms of action. PMID:22286895

  3. The modified Pirogoff's amputation in treating diabetic foot infections: surgical technique and case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Nather

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes the surgical technique of a modified Pirogoff's amputation performed by the senior author and reports the results of this operation in a single surgeon case series for patients with diabetic foot infections. Methods: Six patients with diabetic foot infections were operated on by the National University Hospital (NUH diabetic foot team in Singapore between November 2011 and January 2012. All patients underwent a modified Pirogoff's amputation for diabetic foot infections. Inclusion criteria included the presence of a palpable posterior tibial pulse, ankle brachial index (ABI of more than 0.7, and distal infections not extending proximally beyond the midfoot level. Clinical parameters such as presence of pulses and ABI were recorded. Preoperative blood tests performed included a glycated hemoglobin level, hemoglobin, total white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, albumin, and creatinine levels. All patients were subjected to 14 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy postoperatively and were followed up for a minimum of 10 months. Results: All six patients had good wound healing. Tibio-calcaneal arthrodesis of the stump was achieved in all cases by 6 months postoperatively. All patients were able to walk with the prosthesis. Conclusions: The modified Pirogoff's amputation has been found to show good results in carefully selected patients with diabetic foot infections. The selection criteria included a palpable posterior tibial pulse, distal infections not extending proximally beyond the midfoot level, ABI of more than 0.7, hemoglobin level of more than 10 g/dL, and serum albumin level of more than 30 g/L.

  4. Muscle architecture of the forelimb of the Golden Pheasant(Chrysolophus pictus)(Aves: Phasianidae)and its implications for functional capacity in flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Yang; Huan; Wang; Zihui; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Flight is the central avian adaptation in evolution. Wing muscles form an important anatomical basis for avian flight, affecting wing performance and determine modes of flight. However, the roles of distal muscles in adjusting the wing, as well as their functional specializations, remain largely unknown. The importance of muscle fiber architecture has long been recognized. In this study, we provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle architecture of the forelimb of the Golden Pheasant(Chrysolophus pictus), with an emphasis on brachial,antebrachial and manual segments.Methods: The forelimbs of five Golden Pheasants were dissected and detailed measurements of all muscles were made, including muscle mass, muscle belly length, fascicle length. From these values, muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area(PCSA) and maximum isometric force were derived.Results: General trends such as the distribution of muscle mass, fascicle length and the ratio of tendon length/belly length are revealed. Comparing PCSAs between antebrachial depressors and elevators and between intrinsics of the alular digit and major digit yielded significant differences(p < 0.05). Pronounced development of the antebrachial depressors suggests that ventral rotation of the distal half of the wing is a pivotal factor in shape change and orientation modulation. Large PCSAs in tandem with the force generation capability of the major digit intrinsics may help stabilize the digits while enhancing support of the primary feathers. The architectural properties of the alular digit confirm that alular adjustment is essential to rapid adduction and abduction.Conclusions: These observations illustrate the underlying structural basis for the functional capacities of the distal forelimb muscles and may provide additional information useful in further biomechanical and in vivo investigations.

  5. Penile amputation and scrotal urethrostomy followed by chemotherapy in a dog with penile hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolfer, Luiz; Schmit, Joanna M; McNeill, Amy L; Ragetly, Chantal A; Bennett, R Avery; McMichael, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old castrated male standard poodle weighing 25 kg was presented with a 5 day history of hematuria, dysuria, and the presence of a 2.5 cm, firm swelling within the prepuce. Abdominal radiographs revealed a soft-tissue mass on the distal prepuce and lysis of the cranial margin of the os penis. The patient was sedated and an ulcerated hemorrhagic mass was identified at the tip of the penis. The mass was diagnosed as hemangiosarcoma via incisional biopsy. A penile amputation with scrotal urethrostomy was performed followed by chemotherapy with doxorubicin. PMID:25415220

  6. Physical Rehabilitation for Disabled People with Insulin-independent Diabetes after Single Leg Amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya A. Pilosyan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the program of physical rehabilitation for the disabled people with insulin-independent diabetes, who came through single leg amputation. The program includes phantom-impulsive gymnastics, exercises for the remaining leg, back and shoulders, for the improvement of stump functional state, equilibrium exercises and exercises for arms supporting function development. Set of therapeutic exercises involves exercise machine training. The application of the developed physical rehabilitation program at the stage of preparation for fitting the prosthesis and learning to walk on prosthetic leg has proved its efficiency according to test results, biomedical methods of research and increases the motor activity of 100% percent of patients.

  7. Characterization of Rabbit CD5 Isoforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pospisil, Richard; Kabat, Juraj; Mage, Rose G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously described polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to rabbit CD5, raised against expressed recombinant protein or peptides, recognize CD5 on most rabbit B cells. The mAb KEN-5 was originally reported to recognize rabbit CD5. However, KEN-5 binds almost exclusively to T cells and only to a minor population of B cells. We show here that by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), KEN-5 binds to recombinant rabbit CD5. This interaction is partially inhibited by polyclonal goat anti...

  8. A Gene(s) for All-trans-Retinoic Acid-Induced Forelimb Defects Mapped and Confirmed to Murine Chromosome 11

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Grace S.; Cantor, Rita M.; Abnoosian, Arin; Park, Euisun; Yamamoto, Mitsuko L.; Hovland, David N.; Collins, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) induces various anatomical limb dysmorphologies in mice dependent on the time of exposure. During early limb development, RA induces forelimb ectrodactyly (digital absence) with varying susceptibilities for different inbred mouse strains; C57BL/6N are highly susceptible while SWV are resistant. To isolate the genetic basis of this defect, a full-genome scan was performed in 406 backcross fetuses of F1 males to C57BL/6N females. Fetuses were exposed via a maternal ...

  9. The Use of the 6-Min Walk Test as a Proxy for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure during Gait in Individuals with Lower-Limb Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kark, Laurena; McIntosh, Andrew S.B; Simmons, Annea

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine, and compare, the utility of the 6-min walk test (6 MWT) and self-selected walking speed over 15 m as proxies for the assessment of energy expenditure during gait in individuals with lower-limb amputation. Patients with unilateral, transfemoral amputation (n = 6) and patients with unilateral,…

  10. Trends in the incidence of lower extremity amputations in people with and without diabetes over a five-year period in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Claire M

    2012-01-01

    To describe trends in the incidence of non-traumatic amputations among people with and without diabetes and estimate the relative risk of an individual with diabetes undergoing a lower extremity amputation compared to an individual without diabetes in the Republic of Ireland.

  11. An enhanced treatment program with markedly reduced mortality after a transtibial or higher non-traumatic lower extremity amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Holm, Gitte; Krasheninnikoff, Michael;

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Historically, high 30-day and 1-year mortality post-amputation rates (> 30% and 50%, respectively) have been reported in patients with a transtibial or higher non-traumatic lower extremity amputation (LEA). We evaluated whether allocating experienced staff and implementing....... Mortality was compared with historical and concurrent national controls in Denmark. Results - The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 16% and 37%, respectively, in the intervention group, as compared to 35% and 59% in the historical control group treated in the same orthopedic ward. Cox proportional...

  12. Langtidsbehandling med spinal cord-stimulation hos en patient med kronisk regionalt smertesyndrom type 1 og fantomsmerter efter amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Thomas Peter; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone; Andersen, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a well......-documented pain relieving effect in patients with CRPS. This case story summarises the long term effect of SCS in a patient with CRPS after two amputations of the right leg. Pharmacological pain therapies as well as Guanethidine blockade were found to be ineffective. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb-4...

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain in the long term following upper limb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond, Deirdre M.; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of phantom limb pain and residual limb pain following upper limb amputation. Methods: One-hundred and forty-one participants (139 males; mean age 74.8 years; mean time since amputation 50.1 years) completed a self-report questionnaire assessing residual and phantom limb pain experience. Results: Prevalence of phantom limb pain during the week preceding assessment was 42.6% (60/141). Prevalence of residual limb pain was 43.3% (61/1...

  14. Amputation effects on the underlying complexity within transtibial amputee ankle motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurdeman, Shane R., E-mail: shanewurdeman@gmail.com [Nebraska Biomechanics Core Facility, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska 68182 (United States); Advanced Prosthetics Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68134 (United States); Myers, Sara A. [Nebraska Biomechanics Core Facility, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska 68182 (United States); Stergiou, Nicholas [Nebraska Biomechanics Core Facility, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska 68182 (United States); College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The presence of chaos in walking is considered to provide a stable, yet adaptable means for locomotion. This study examined whether lower limb amputation and subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation resulted in a loss of complexity in amputee gait. Twenty-eight individuals with transtibial amputation participated in a 6 week, randomized cross-over design study in which they underwent a 3 week adaptation period to two separate prostheses. One prosthesis was deemed “more appropriate” and the other “less appropriate” based on matching/mismatching activity levels of the person and the prosthesis. Subjects performed a treadmill walking trial at self-selected walking speed at multiple points of the adaptation period, while kinematics of the ankle were recorded. Bilateral sagittal plane ankle motion was analyzed for underlying complexity through the pseudoperiodic surrogation analysis technique. Results revealed the presence of underlying deterministic structure in both prostheses and both the prosthetic and sound leg ankle (discriminant measure largest Lyapunov exponent). Results also revealed that the prosthetic ankle may be more likely to suffer loss of complexity than the sound ankle, and a “more appropriate” prosthesis may be better suited to help restore a healthy complexity of movement within the prosthetic ankle motion compared to a “less appropriate” prosthesis (discriminant measure sample entropy). Results from sample entropy results are less likely to be affected by the intracycle periodic dynamics as compared to the largest Lyapunov exponent. Adaptation does not seem to influence complexity in the system for experienced prosthesis users.

  15. Expression of secreted Wnt pathway components reveals unexpected complexity of the planarian amputation response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Kyle A; Elliott, Sarah A; Simakov, Oleg; Schmidt, Heiko A; Holstein, Thomas W; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2010-11-01

    Regeneration is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, but our molecular understanding of this process in adult animals remains poorly understood. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays crucial roles throughout animal life from early development to adulthood. In intact and regenerating planarians, the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling functions to maintain and specify anterior/posterior (A/P) identity. Here, we explore the expression kinetics and RNAi phenotypes for secreted members of the Wnt signaling pathway in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-wnt and sFRP expression during regeneration is surprisingly dynamic and reveals fundamental aspects of planarian biology that have been previously unappreciated. We show that after amputation, a wounding response precedes rapid re-organization of the A/P axis. Furthermore, cells throughout the body plan can mount this response and reassess their new A/P location in the complete absence of stem cells. While initial stages of the amputation response are stem cell independent, tissue remodeling and the integration of a new A/P address with anatomy are stem cell dependent. We also show that WNT5 functions in a reciprocal manner with SLIT to pattern the planarian mediolateral axis, while WNT11-2 patterns the posterior midline. Moreover, we perform an extensive phylogenetic analysis on the Smed-wnt genes using a method that combines and integrates both sequence and structural alignments, enabling us to place all nine genes into Wnt subfamilies for the first time. PMID:20707997

  16. [Mirror therapy for the treatment of phantom limb pain after bilateral thigh amputation. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosnitzka, M; Papenhoff, M; Reinersmann, A; Maier, C

    2014-12-01

    This case study is the first to report successful treatment of bilateral phantom limb pain (PLP) in a patient with bilateral thigh amputation and inefficacious medical treatment using a protocol of graded interventions including mirror therapy (MT). MT is a common treatment for PLP but requires the induction of a visual illusion of an intact limb in the mirror, usually achieved by mirroring the healthy extremity. Here, we illustrate how application of a unilateral prosthesis sufficed to induce the necessary illusion. After sequential imagery, then lateralization training, which alleviated pain attacks, the patient received a further 3-week treatment of mirror treatment. Pain intensity was reduced by more than 85 %; the number of attacks were decreased by more than 90% per day. The analgesic efficacy lasted until the unexpected death of the patient several months later. This case illustrates the mechanisms of MT through overcoming the sensory incongruences underlying the distorted body schema and its efficacy in patients with bilateral amputation. PMID:25392090

  17. Reconstruction of Punitive Ear Amputations in Uganda: A Unique Surgical Burden of Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusseldorp, Joseph; Hodges, Andrew; Patel, Anup; Marchac, Alexandre; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    Over the course of 12 months, a plastic surgical team from Paris, France, undertook 2 intensive ear reconstruction missions with plastic surgeons from the CoRSU Rehabilitation Hospital in Uganda. A cohort of over 30 adult women was assessed having been subjected to ear amputations by members of the Lords Resistance Army in Northern Uganda in the 1990s. The patients were identified, mobilized, and transferred to Kampala for surgery by a charitable arm of the Watoto Church, known as Living Hope. The surgical team performed 15 ear reconstruction cases during the first 1-week mission and 16 ear reconstruction cases during the second 1-week mission. All cases were reconstructed successfully using the 2-stage autologous auricular reconstruction method advocated by the senior author (FF). Local skin was used to cover the costal cartilage framework in the first stage without need for temporo-parietal fascial flaps. Technical challenges included the older age of patients and ossified costal cartilage, high prevalence of HIV positivity, bilateral amputation, and difficulty of surgical follow-up. The main modifications to standard practice were routine pre-op testing of the costal cartilage, pre-op viral load and CD4 count screening in HIV-positive patients, simultaneous bilateral first-stage ear reconstruction, prolonged hospital stay, and implementation of routine surgical counting procedures. PMID:26080156

  18. Amputation effects on the underlying complexity within transtibial amputee ankle motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurdeman, Shane R.; Myers, Sara A.; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2014-03-01

    The presence of chaos in walking is considered to provide a stable, yet adaptable means for locomotion. This study examined whether lower limb amputation and subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation resulted in a loss of complexity in amputee gait. Twenty-eight individuals with transtibial amputation participated in a 6 week, randomized cross-over design study in which they underwent a 3 week adaptation period to two separate prostheses. One prosthesis was deemed "more appropriate" and the other "less appropriate" based on matching/mismatching activity levels of the person and the prosthesis. Subjects performed a treadmill walking trial at self-selected walking speed at multiple points of the adaptation period, while kinematics of the ankle were recorded. Bilateral sagittal plane ankle motion was analyzed for underlying complexity through the pseudoperiodic surrogation analysis technique. Results revealed the presence of underlying deterministic structure in both prostheses and both the prosthetic and sound leg ankle (discriminant measure largest Lyapunov exponent). Results also revealed that the prosthetic ankle may be more likely to suffer loss of complexity than the sound ankle, and a "more appropriate" prosthesis may be better suited to help restore a healthy complexity of movement within the prosthetic ankle motion compared to a "less appropriate" prosthesis (discriminant measure sample entropy). Results from sample entropy results are less likely to be affected by the intracycle periodic dynamics as compared to the largest Lyapunov exponent. Adaptation does not seem to influence complexity in the system for experienced prosthesis users.

  19. Amputation effects on the underlying complexity within transtibial amputee ankle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of chaos in walking is considered to provide a stable, yet adaptable means for locomotion. This study examined whether lower limb amputation and subsequent prosthetic rehabilitation resulted in a loss of complexity in amputee gait. Twenty-eight individuals with transtibial amputation participated in a 6 week, randomized cross-over design study in which they underwent a 3 week adaptation period to two separate prostheses. One prosthesis was deemed “more appropriate” and the other “less appropriate” based on matching/mismatching activity levels of the person and the prosthesis. Subjects performed a treadmill walking trial at self-selected walking speed at multiple points of the adaptation period, while kinematics of the ankle were recorded. Bilateral sagittal plane ankle motion was analyzed for underlying complexity through the pseudoperiodic surrogation analysis technique. Results revealed the presence of underlying deterministic structure in both prostheses and both the prosthetic and sound leg ankle (discriminant measure largest Lyapunov exponent). Results also revealed that the prosthetic ankle may be more likely to suffer loss of complexity than the sound ankle, and a “more appropriate” prosthesis may be better suited to help restore a healthy complexity of movement within the prosthetic ankle motion compared to a “less appropriate” prosthesis (discriminant measure sample entropy). Results from sample entropy results are less likely to be affected by the intracycle periodic dynamics as compared to the largest Lyapunov exponent. Adaptation does not seem to influence complexity in the system for experienced prosthesis users

  20. Canine Osteosarcoma Treated by Post-Amputation Sequential Accelerated Doxorubicin and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: 38 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimberger, Angela E; Chan, Catherine M; Moore, Antony S

    2016-01-01

    Canine appendicular osteosarcoma is an important clinical problem in veterinary medicine. Current standard therapy includes amputation followed by chemotherapy, which improves outcomes; however the percentage of long-term survival is still relatively low at 15-20%. Established prognostic factors include serum alkaline phosphatase level, histologic grade, and lymphocyte and monocyte counts. We used a protocol with shorter inter-treatment intervals than standard, but which we expected to still be well-tolerated, based on drugs known to be active agents, with the aim of improving outcomes by increasing dose intensity. Thirty-eight dogs with confirmed appendicular osteosarcoma and no pulmonary metastases that underwent amputation followed by this chemotherapy protocol were retrospectively evaluated. The median survival time was 317 days and 1- and 2-yr survival percentages were 43.2% and 13.9%, respectively. Toxicity was comparable to that seen with other standard dose protocols, with 5.2% of dogs hospitalized for complications that resolved with supportive care and no chemotherapy-related mortality. Serum alkaline phosphatase level (normal or high) (p = 0.004) and whether or not chemotherapy was completed (p = 0.001) were found to significantly impact survival time on multivariate analysis. Outcomes were similar to those reported with most other published chemotherapy protocols for dogs with this disease. PMID:27008320

  1. Financial analysis of diabetic patients hospitalizations submitted to lower limb amputation in a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Santos Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is a documental descriptive analysis which aimed to verify the cost established in 2006, in relation to the hospitalization of 21 diabetic patients submitted to the lower limb amputation in a public hospital and the value transferred by the Unified Health System (SUS regarding this procedure. Among the studied patients, 57.14% were female and 42.86% male, aged 40 to 90 years. The time of diagnosis varied from 5 to 25 years. The average of hospitalization was 14 days per patient. The cost to the hospital was R$ 99,455.74, average cost per patient was R$ 4,735.98. The total amount transferred by SUS to the hospital was R$ 27,740.15, a cost 3.6 times lower than the hospital costs. The SUS transferring is in accordance with the predetermined values for its table of procedure. Prevention is the only alternative to reduce the rate of amputation and improve survival of diabetes patients. It is necessary an early diagnosis and better control of diabetes mellitus with appropriate government and institutional policies.

  2. Leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Shalviri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To inform healthcare professionals of a rare serious reaction leading to leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran and report comments for preventing such reactions.A case of leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran reported to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center was reviewed. Patient and reaction data was collected by assessing the reported yellow card, patient chart review and interviewing with patient and physicians. World Health Organization definition for serious reactions was used to determine the seriousness of the reaction. Naranjo algorithm was used to determine probability scale. The probability of the reaction was determined based on questionnaire of Schumock et al. The studied case is classified as a rare and serious but preventable reaction induced by intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman. The probability of the reaction is appeared to be “probable” based on Naranjo algorithm. It seems that Iron dextran could cause serious and life threatening adverse effects. It is necessary for healthcare professionals to be informed of such rare but serious reaction in order to apply preventive actions.

  3. The morphology of amputated human teeth and its relation to mechanical properties after restoration treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Jonas; Krastl, Gabriel; Huser, Marius; Deyhle, Hans; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    The increased susceptibility to fracture of root canal- and post-treated teeth is less affected by alterations of the dentin structure, but seems to crucially depend on the loss of coronal tooth substance. The surface, available for adhesion of the composite material in the root canal and in the coronal part of the tooth, is assumed to be of key importance for the fracture resistance. Thus, an appropriate three-dimensional method should be identified to determine the adhesive surface with necessary precision. For this purpose, severely decayed teeth were simulated decapitating clinical crowns. After root canal filling and post space preparation, impressions of the root canal and the amputation surface were obtained using silicone. Micro computed tomography scans of these impressions were acquired. For one selected specimen, an additional high-resolution scan was recorded at a synchrotron radiation source. Software of ImageLab served for the extraction of the amputation interface, the post surface and the post volume from the tomography data, which have been finally correlated with the Young's modulus and the maximal load derived from mechanical tests. The morphological parameters show a realistic relationship to the mechanical tests performed after the restoration treatments and are consequently important for improving the dental skills.

  4. Regeneration of soft tissues is promoted by MMP1 treatment after digit amputation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Mu

    Full Text Available The ratio of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs to the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs in wounded tissues strictly control the protease activity of MMPs, and therefore regulate the progress of wound closure, tissue regeneration and scar formation. Some amphibians (i.e. axolotl/newt demonstrate complete regeneration of missing or wounded digits and even limbs; MMPs play a critical role during amphibian regeneration. Conversely, mammalian wound healing re-establishes tissue integrity, but at the expense of scar tissue formation. The differences between amphibian regeneration and mammalian wound healing can be attributed to the greater ratio of MMPs to TIMPs in amphibian tissue. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of MMP1 to effectively promote skeletal muscle regeneration by favoring extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling to enhance cell proliferation and migration. In this study, MMP1 was administered to the digits amputated at the mid-second phalanx of adult mice to observe its effect on digit regeneration. Results indicated that the regeneration of soft tissue and the rate of wound closure were significantly improved by MMP1 administration, but the elongation of the skeletal tissue was insignificantly affected. During digit regeneration, more mutipotent progenitor cells, capillary vasculature and neuromuscular-related tissues were observed in MMP1 treated tissues; moreover, there was less fibrotic tissue formed in treated digits. In summary, MMP1 was found to be effective in promoting wound healing in amputated digits of adult mice.

  5. Prosthetics / Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrOstHetics/liMb lOss VA researchers are exploring the use of leading-edge technology such as robotics, tissue engineering, and nanotechnology ... prosthetic components to the needs of Veterans with limb loss—especially those who seek to maintain an active ...

  6. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Akira; Mukai, Kazutaka; Ohmura, Hajime; Hiraga, Atsushi; Aida, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from -6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires were inserted into each of the brachiocephalicus (Bc), biceps brachii (BB), splenius (Sp), and pectoralis descendens (PD) in the forelimb experiment and into the longissimus dorsi (LD), vastus lateralis (VL), gluteus medius (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) in the hind limb experiment. The EMG recordings were taken at a sampling rate of 1,000 Hz. At a walk, the iEMG values for the forelimb were not significantly different under any of the inclinations. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the GM and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. At a trot, the iEMG values for the Bc in the forelimb significantly decreased as the inclination of the treadmill decreased. In the hind limb, the iEMG values for the LD, GM, and BF significantly decreased as the inclination decreased. Uphill exercise increased the iEMG values for the Bc, LD, GM, and BF, while downhill exercise resulted in little increase in the iEMG values. It was concluded that the effects of inclination on the muscle activities were larger for the uphill exercises, and for the hind limb muscles compared with the forelimb muscles. PMID:25558180

  7. Synergistic effects of self-assembling peptide and neural stem/progenitor cells to promote tissue repair and forelimb functional recovery in cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Motoyuki; Wilcox, Jared T; Nishimura, Yusuke; Zweckberger, Klaus; Suzuki, Hidenori; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yang; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Fehlings, Michael G

    2014-03-01

    While neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) show promise for traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), their efficacy in cervical SCI remains to be established. Moreover, their application to SCI is limited by the challenges posed by the lesion including the glial scar and the post-traumatic cavitation. Given this background, we sought to examine the synergistic effect of self-assembling peptide (SAP) molecules, designed to optimize the post-traumatic CNS microenvironment, and NSCs in a clinically-relevant model of contusive/compressive cervical SCI. We injected K2(QL)6K2 (QL6) SAPs into the lesion epicenter 14 days after bilateral clip compression-induced cervical SCI in rats, combined with simultaneous transplantation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) intraspinally adjacent to the lesion epicenter. The QL6 SAPs reduced the volume of cystic cavitation in the spinal cord lesion. Simultaneously engrafted NPCs preserved motor neurons and attenuated perilesional inflammation. The combination of QL6 and NPCs promoted forelimb neurobehavioral recovery and was associated with significant improvement in forelimb print area and stride length. In summary, we report for the first time histologic and functional benefits in a clinically-relevant model of cervical SCI through the synergistic effects of combined SAP and NPCs. PMID:24406216

  8. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Anna Paula Martins; Lima, Juliana Ywasaki; Azevedo, Carolina Torres; Botta, Silvina; de Queiroz, Fábio Ferreira; Campos, Adélia Sepúlveda; Barbosa, Lupércio de Araújo; da Silveira, Leonardo Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL). This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109) and distal (r = 0.9092) radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055). Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies. PMID:26017269

  9. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. PMID:24018033

  10. The Effects of Inclination (Up and Down) of the Treadmill on the Electromyogram Activities of the Forelimb and Hind limb Muscles at a Walk and a Trot in Thoroughbred Horses

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki; Matsui, Akira; MUKAI, Kazutaka; OHMURA, Hajime; HIRAGA, Atsushi; AIDA, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is important to know the effects of the inclination of a slope on the activity of each muscle, because training by running on a sloped track is commonly used for Thoroughbred racehorses. The effects of incline (from −6 to +6%) on the forelimbs and hind limbs during walking and trotting on a treadmill were evaluated by an integrated electromyogram (iEMG). The muscle activities in the forelimbs (5 horses) and hind limbs (4 horses) were measured separately. Two stainless steel wires ...

  11. Kinetic analysis of experimental rabbit tumour and inflammation model with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ninth People' s Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong Univ., SH (China); Huang, G.; Dong, S.; Wan, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong Univ., SH (China)

    2009-07-01

    Non-specific accumulation of {sup 18}F-FDG by both tumour and inflammatory lesions can make diagnostic analysis difficult. Our aim was to explore the difference in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake kinetics between tumour and inflammatory cells. To this end, we investigated VX2 tumour lesions and inflammatory lesions in rabbits. Methods: Six rabbits with VX2 tumour cells transplanted into one forelimb muscle and inflammatory lesions induced by turpentine oil in the contralateral forelimb were scanned for 60 minutes post {sup 18}F-FDG injection. Imaging data was analyzed with the standard 2-tissue-compartment model. Parameters, VB, Ki, K1, k2, k3, k4, were compared between tumour and inflammatory lesions. SUV and dual time scan methods were also compared in the experiment. Results: Time activity curves of VX2 tumour lesions showed a characteristic pattern of gradually increasing {sup 18}F-FDG uptake up to 60 min, whereas, {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in inflammatory lesions increased more slowly than in tumours. Parameters estimated from the uptake process showed that forward transport constant, K1, and influx constant, Ki, values in VX2 tumour lesions (0.186 {+-} 0.053 and 0.048 {+-} 0.014, respectively) was significantly higher than that in inflammatory lesions (0.129 {+-} 0.024 and 0.022 {+-} 0.007, respectively) (p < 0.05). In contrast, mean values of VB, k2, k3 and k4 derived from VX2 tumours were not significantly different from that of inflammatory lesions. SUVs at 60 minutes post {sup 18}F-FDG injection were also significantly higher in the VX2 tumor lesions than in the inflammatory lesions. Retention index (RI) was not significantly different between VX2 tumours and inflammatory lesions (1.134 {+-} 0.076 vs. 1.060 {+-} 0.058, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Different kinetic parameters (Ki, K1, k3) exist between inflammatory and tumour lesions. (orig.)

  12. 9 CFR 354.124 - Quarantine of diseased rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased rabbits. 354... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF RABBITS AND EDIBLE PRODUCTS THEREOF Inspection Procedures; Ante-Mortem Inspections § 354.124 Quarantine of diseased rabbits. If live rabbits, which...

  13. Langtidsbehandling med spinal cord-stimulation hos en patient med kronisk regionalt smertesyndrom type 1 og fantomsmerter efter amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Thomas P.; Scherer, Christian; Nikolajsen, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    The development of stump and phantom pain after limb amputation in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is very frequent. Stump pain is typically recurred CRPS and the possibilities for effective pharmacological pain relief are often limited. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has a wel...

  14. It's About Time Physical Disabilities Came Out in the Open: Part I. Amputation, Monoplegia, Hemiplegia, Triplegia, Quadruplegia, Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kay

    After a definition of the term, mobility impairments, and a discussion of the causes and problems associated with amputation, this document covers, under the major section, Paralysis, six handicapping conditions in terms of how each may affect a student's ability to be successful in both a vocational program and a job. Topics under this section…

  15. The role of amputation as an outcome measure in cellular therapy for critical limb ischemia: implications for clinical trial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl Gregory J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been ascribed an important therapeutic role in No-Option Critical limb Ischemia (NO-CLI. One primary endpoint for evaluating NO-CLI therapy is major amputation (AMP, which is usually combined with mortality for AMP-free survival (AFS. Only a trial which is double blinded can eliminate physician and patient bias as to the timing and reason for AMP. We examined factors influencing AMP in a prospective double-blinded pilot RCT (2:1 therapy to control of 48 patients treated with site of service obtained bone marrow cells (BMAC as well as a systematic review of the literature. Methods Cells were injected intramuscularly in the CLI limbs as either BMAC or placebo (peripheral blood. Six month AMP rates were compared between the two arms. Both patient and treating team were blinded of the assignment in follow-up examinations. A search of the literature identified 9 NO-CLI trials, the control arms of which were used to determine 6 month AMP rates and the influence of tissue loss. Results Fifteen amputations occurred during the 6 month period, 86.7% of these during the first 4 months. One amputation occurred in a Rutherford 4 patient. The difference in amputation rate between patients with rest pain (5.6% and those with tissue loss (46.7%, irrespective of treatment group, was significant (p = 0.0029. In patients with tissue loss, treatment with BMAC demonstrated a lower amputation rate than placebo (39.1% vs. 71.4%, p = 0.1337. The Kaplan-Meier time to amputation was longer in the BMAC group than in the placebo group (p = 0.067. Projecting these results to a pivotal trial, a bootstrap simulation model showed significant difference in AFS between BMAC and placebo with a power of 95% for a sample size of 210 patients. Meta-analysis of the literature confirmed a difference in amputation rate between patients with tissue loss and rest pain. Conclusions BMAC shows promise in improving AMP

  16. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  17. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  18. Cyclic pneumatic rabbit with program control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of cyclic pneumatic rabbit with automatic program control applied at the IRT 2000 reactor for fission products investigation is described. The pneumatic rabbit is mounted on the base of a standard 25 mm diameter vertical experimental channel of the IRT-2000 reactor. A duralumin pipe with 12.5 mm inner diameter serves as a sample feeding channel. For accurate fixing the time of start and finish of sample irradiation the pneunatic rabbit is provided with a limit switch. Principle electric equipment schemes of the pneumatic rabbit are presented and the construction of the limit switch meant for operation at the neutron flux density of about 1013 neutron/cm2xs is given. The base of electric equipment of the pneumatic rabbit is a programmer mounted at RC-circuits. Step-by-step selectors and polarized relays serve as executive elements. The working body of the pneumatic rabbit is air of pneumatic or compressed pipe-line helium. By means of a described pneumatic rabbit one can irradiate a sample in the time interval from 3 to 1000 s, perform four measurements in the interval from 4 to 1000 s as well as realize a reverse discharge of the irradiated sample into the core. The number of cycles can vary from 1 to 100. The time for sample supply of 25g mass from the reactor core to the detector (distance about 30 m) constitutes 3 s

  19. Newer antipsychotics and the rabbit syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masalehdan Azadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbit syndrome is a movement disorder that is associated with long-term exposure to neuroleptic medications. Of particular interest and importance is the risk of rabbit syndrome with exposure to the newer atypical antipsychotics. Our recent experience with such a case brought to light the importance of exploring this risk. Methods MEDLINE and PubMed (1972–2006 databases were searched for English language articles using the keywords rabbit syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, antipsychotic, extrapyramidal symptoms and side effects. A recent case study is used to expand upon the literature available on newer antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome. Results We reviewed papers that addressed the following aspects of rabbit syndrome 1 the clinical manifestations 2 prevalence and risk factors, 3 etiopathogenesis 4 older antipsychotics and rabbit syndrome 5 newer antipsychotics, 6 treatment options. Moreover, we report a case of RS in a 50 year old white female, diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, that, after the discontinuation of risperidone, developed involuntary movements of the mouth that were fine, rhythmic and rapid, along the vertical axis, and without involvement of the tongue. After the re-introduction of risperidone, the symptoms decreased in a few hours and disappeared after 3 days. Conclusion Eleven cases of rabbit syndrome have been documented since the implementation of newer antipsychotics. Future research is needed to better understand the etiopathogenesis of rabbit syndrome in psychiatric populations treated with the atypical antipsychotics. Understanding the differences and similarities of rabbit syndrome and tardive dyskinesia is crucial to the creation of a successful treatment paradigm.

  20. Phantom phenomena and body scheme after limb amputation: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirowska, Aneta; Wloch, Tomasz; Nowobilski, Roman; Plaszewski, Maciej; Hocini, Abdellah; Ménager, Doménico

    2014-01-01

    Phantom phenomena are subject of various, often inconsistent, descriptions, and new concepts and treatment approaches emerge. The aim of the study is to describe contemporary terminology and developments in the field, and to share personal experience. A review of English and French language literature, published prior to 27th February, 2012, extracted from PubMed/MEDLINE, Google.fr, GoogleScholar databases, and by hand searching of selected full text papers and textbooks with correspondence to personal clinical experience was performed. The terminology and classification of phantom phenomena sensations, relations between intensity and character of phantom pain to the etiology and level of amputations, as well as the influence of presence and intensity of pre-operative limb pain and post-operative stump pain on phantom phenomena are described. The benefits of mirror therapy and early introduction of prosthesis and applying functional prosthesis are also presented, with a glance at other conservative and surgical treatment approaches. PMID:24636771

  1. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y El harrech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  2. Donovanosis with auto-amputation of penis in a HIV-2 infected person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Gupta T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Donovanosis is a slowly progressive, granulomatous ulcerative disease , caused by Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis. The disease is known to persist for years together, leading to complications. A male patient aged 30 years with underlying HIV-2 infection presented to the department of STD with painful ulceration over the genital region of 5 months duration, with absence of penis. Tissue smear from the ulcer and histopathological examination revealed large histiocytes with intracellular Donovan bodies (Pund cell. A final diagnosis of donovanosis with auto-amputation of penis with HIV-2 infection was made. The old conventional medicines, viz. streptomycin, doxycycline and amoxycillin, were effective. Though HIV-2 infections are milder than HIV-1 infections in all aspects, donovanosis in this HIV-2 infected case presented with complications. However, since the CD4 count was 748 cells/cmm, the severity is attributed to the long standing nature and negligence by the patient, and not to possible immunodeficiency.

  3. Radium-226-induced bone lesions in beagle dogs treated by amputation: clinical, radiological, and histologic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a colony of beagle dogs that had received intravenous injections of 226Ra there was a subgroup of dogs, each of which developed a painful lesion of a long bone. These bone lesions had their inception in bizarre, progressively expansile resorption cavities in which the process of normal bone tissue replacement was defective. On occasion, bone sarcomas arose in some of the sites of perturbed bone repair. This radiation-induced disturbance of the normal bone remodeling process with its preneoplastic spectrum of radiographic and histologic lesions was termed radiation-osteodystrophy. Lesions were studied by sequential radiography prior to the onset of clinical signs. Because of the painful nature of the lesion and difficulty experienced by the dogs in walking, full leg amputations were performed. This not only provided relief from clinical signs, but also permitted the dog to continue to live, allowing study of subsequently identified radiation-induced lesions

  4. Predictive value of intracutaneous xenon clearance for healing of amputation and cutaneous ulcer sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previously reported technique for the assessment of skin blood flow in the lower extremities of patients with ischemic lesions was evaluated using intracutaneous xenon clearance. The radioisotope was injected above and below both the ankle and the knee and flow was measured using a gamma camera with a low-energy collimator, 88-keV photopeak, and a 20% window. Healing was more frequent when skin blood flow was equal to or greater than 2.4 ml/min/100 g (38/39 patients) than when flow was less than 2.4 ml/min/100 g (4/7 patients). The authors conclude that this technique can be used to help determine the appropriate site for amputation in lower limb ischemic lesions

  5. USE OF LOPINAVIR/RITONAVIR ASSOCIATED WITH ERGOTAMINE RESULTING IN FOOT AMPUTATION: BRIEF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old female, was diagnosed in 2004 with a C1 HIV1 infection, using zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg BID and lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, in addition to prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg QD, but no prophylaxis with macrolide antibiotics. The patient presented with a severe headache and was prescribed two capsules of the anti-migraine drug Ormigrein™, which contained ergotamine tartrate 1 mg, caffeine 100 mg, paracetamol 220 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 87.5 mcg, and atropine sulfate 12.5 mcg. Afterwards she was prescribed one capsule of Ormigrein every 30 minutes for a total of six capsules a day. The patient took the medication as prescribed but developed a pain in her left ankle three days later, which evolved to the need for amputation.

  6. Use of lopinavir/ritonavir associated with ergotamine resulting in foot amputation: brief communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Carvalho, Ricardo de Souza; De Sá, Carlos Alberto Morais

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old female, was diagnosed in 2004 with a C1 HIV1 infection, using zidovudine/lamivudine 300/150 mg BID and lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg BID, in addition to prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 800/160 mg QD, but no prophylaxis with macrolide antibiotics. The patient presented with a severe headache and was prescribed two capsules of the anti-migraine drug Ormigrein™, which contained ergotamine tartrate 1 mg, caffeine 100 mg, paracetamol 220 mg, hyoscyamine sulfate 87.5 mcg, and atropine sulfate 12.5 mcg. Afterwards she was prescribed one capsule of Ormigrein every 30 minutes for a total of six capsules a day. The patient took the medication as prescribed but developed a pain in her left ankle three days later, which evolved to the need for amputation. PMID:24879006

  7. Hematologic comparisons of shot and live trapped cottontail rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, H A; Kirkpatrick, R L; Burkhart, H E; Davis, J W

    1978-01-01

    Comparisons were made between hematologic measurements of shot and box-trapped cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus). Trapped rabbits had significantly (P less than 0.001) higher serum corticoid levels and segmented neutrophil percentages and significantly (P less than 0.001) lower lymphocyte percentages than did shot rabbits. Trapped rabbits also had significantly (P less than 0.05) higher packed cell volumes and blood urea nitrogen values than did shot rabbits. PMID:633520

  8. Consumer Perceptions of, and Attitudes Toward, Rabbit Meat

    OpenAIRE

    McLean-Meyinsse, Patricia E.; Hui, Jianguo; Meyinsse, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Results from a consumer-oriented study of households in Louisiana and Texas suggest that the nutritional properties of rabbit meat play a minor role in its consumption. In general, users regard rabbit meat as inferior to chicken, beef or pork and non-users are reluctant to try rabbit meat. Based on these results, the market for rabbit meat is likely to remain small, and rabbit production may not be a viable enterprise for farmers in this region of the country.

  9. Efficacy of removable rigid dressing after transtibial amputation in diabetes mellitus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi R.N. Hidayati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the RRD’s efficacy in decreasing stump edema and pain compared to elastic bandage for diabetic mellitus patients after transtibial amputation.Methods: Interventional research was using consecutive  sampling. Subjects were randomized into two groups: RRD and elastic bandage. Twenty-three subjects were analyzed. Stump  edema volume was measured by the amount of water spilled out from volume glass. Elastic bandage was reapplied every 4 hours  and RRD was refitted every 7 days during evaluation time. Stump edema volume was evaluated every 7 days during the 8 week observation.Results: There was a significant decrease of stump volume in RRD group during the first and second week (p = 0.03, p = 0.01 and the edema decreasing time was also significant (p = 0.03.  The average decrease of edema volume in RRD was 63.85% of second week and in the elastic bandage group was 34.35%. There were a tendency of pain reduction time in RRD group (4.83 ± 1.95 weeks compared to elastic bandage group (5.18 ± 2.31weeks. Cox regression result of decreasing edema volume time was 3.088 (CI 95%: 1.128 – 4.916.Conclusion: This study found that there was stump edema  volume acceleration in RRD group, it was three times faster for stump to become not edematous compared to elastic bandage group. There was a tendency of faster decreasing stump pain in  RRD group than elastic bandage group, eventhough this result  was not statistically significant. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:16-21Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, removable rigid dressing, transtibial amputation

  10. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A Mohammed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in Egypt (1952 to 2013. The review will highlight the viral infection of rabbit hemorrhagic disease, bacterial disease of colibacillosis, clostridiosis, salmonellosis, pasteurellosis, staphylococcosis and listeriosis and parasitic infection of coccidiosis and mange.

  11. Bobcat attack on a cottontail rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Biggins, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We observed an attack by a bobcat (Lynx rufus) on a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus) that involved stealthy approach by the cat for >1 h, followed by a 12.3-s chase covering 116.0 m for the cat and 128.4 m for the rabbit. During the chase, the route of the cat from starting point to kill site was more direct than the semi-circular route of the rabbit. Stride lengths for the cat and total distance covered by the chase were longer than those previously reported for bobcats.

  12. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Ajda Kermauner; Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed) were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A ...

  13. Aging contributes to inflammation in upper extremity tendons and declines in forelimb agility in a rat model of upper extremity overuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Kietrys

    Full Text Available We sought to determine if tendon inflammatory and histopathological responses increase in aged rats compared to young rats performing a voluntary upper extremity repetitive task, and if these changes are associated with motor declines. Ninety-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the rat model of upper extremity overuse: 67 aged and 29 young adult rats. After a training period of 4 weeks, task rats performed a voluntary high repetition low force (HRLF handle-pulling task for 2 hrs/day, 3 days/wk for up to 12 weeks. Upper extremity motor function was assessed, as were inflammatory and histomorphological changes in flexor digitorum and supraspinatus tendons. The percentage of successful reaches improved in young adult HRLF rats, but not in aged HRLF rats. Forelimb agility decreased transiently in young adult HRLF rats, but persistently in aged HRLF rats. HRLF task performance for 12 weeks lead to increased IL-1beta and IL-6 in flexor digitorum tendons of aged HRLF rats, compared to aged normal control (NC as well as young adult HRLF rats. In contrast, TNF-alpha increased more in flexor digitorum tendons of young adult 12-week HRLF rats than in aged HRLF rats. Vascularity and collagen fibril organization were not affected by task performance in flexor digitorum tendons of either age group, although cellularity increased in both. By week 12 of HRLF task performance, vascularity and cellularity increased in the supraspinatus tendons of only aged rats. The increased cellularity was due to increased macrophages and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF-immunoreactive fibroblasts in the peritendon. In conclusion, aged rat tendons were overall more affected by the HRLF task than young adult tendons, particularly supraspinatus tendons. Greater inflammatory changes in aged HRLF rat tendons were observed, increases associated temporally with decreased forelimb agility and lack of improvement in task success.

  14. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  15. Rabbit Models for Studying Human Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xuwen; Knouse, John A; Hernon, Krista M

    2015-12-01

    Using an appropriate animal model is crucial for mimicking human disease conditions, and various facets including genetics, anatomy, and pathophysiology should be considered before selecting a model. Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are well known for their wide use in production of antibodies, eye research, atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. However, a systematic description of the rabbit as primary experimental models for the study of various human infectious diseases is unavailable. This review focuses on the human infectious diseases for which rabbits are considered a classic or highly appropriate model, including AIDS (caused by HIV1), adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), papilloma or carcinoma (human papillomavirus) , herpetic stromal keratitis (herpes simplex virus type 1), tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), and syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In addition, particular aspects of the husbandry and care of rabbits used in studies of human infectious diseases are described. PMID:26678367

  16. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    OpenAIRE

    Ilić Tamara; Petrović Tamaš; Dimitrijević Sanda

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs) belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae) which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ocho...

  17. Learning about the rabbit in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Roblek, Tadeja

    2012-01-01

    The present diploma thesis presents the biology of hares and rabbits and key differences between them. It describes the importance of living creatures for the child's development, the concept of learning by experience and the importance of children's books for the child's development. The purpose of the diploma thesis is to analyse the accuracy of information in children's books that present hares and rabbits. The thesis aims to explore the importance of learning by experience in pre-scho...

  18. Effect of Drugs on Rabbit Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Cardiakidis Myers, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The adverse effects of drugs in the eye are not easily detected, and the underlying pathogenesis not fully understood. The effects of four different kinds of drugs have been investigated in the rabbit eye, using electroretinography, ocular examination and histochemical methods. Rifabutin is a broad spectrum antibiotic with known ocular adverse effects (corneal opacities, uveitis and vascular retinopathy) in the human eye. In the rabbit eye rifabutin causes lens discoloration and it si...

  19. Ultrastructural study of developing rabbit diaphragm.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamashiro, S; Harris, W. H.; Stopps, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    Diaphragms obtained from forty rabbit fetuses during the last third of gestation and from five rabbits one week old were studied ultrastructurally. Four gestational ages were chosen for the investigation. The diaphragm at 20 days gestation revealed early myogenesis which was characterised by many myogenic cells in the process of mitosis and by fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes. A large number of lipid droplets and a moderate quantity of glycogen were observed in the myotubes. These myotube...

  20. Rabbit cationic protein enhances leukocyte adhesiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Oseas, R S; Allen, J; Yang, H. H.; Baehner, R. L.; Boxer, L A

    1981-01-01

    Cationic protein purified from rabbit peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was demonstrated to incite autoaggregation of the rabbit PMN and promote adhesiveness of human PMN to endothelial cells. PMN aggregation induced by supernatants derived from secretory PMN was blocked by a specific anticationic protein antibody. These studies reveal that a positively charged protein derived from the PMN can alter surface properties of the PMN itself and imply a role for this protein in PMN immo...

  1. A Review of Rabbit Diseases in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed A Mohammed; Eid AA M; El-Bakrey R MM

    2016-01-01

    Promising approaches of the Egyptian governmental as well as non-governmental society to rabbit industry to overcome the unemployment of youth in the society required more efforts from scientific institutes to help in development of such industry. Epidemiological studies are of outmost importance to highlight disease nature and to help in meantime implement of successful preventive and control measures. The aim of this paper is to review the situation of rabbit diseases of economic impact in ...

  2. Organotypic Culture of Adult Rabbit Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Lye, Ming H.; Jakobs, Tatjana C.; Masland, Richard H.; Koizumi, Amane

    2007-01-01

    Organotypic culture systems of functional neural tissues are important tools in neurobiological research. Ideally, such a system should be compatible with imaging techniques, genetic manipulation, and electrophysiological recording. Here we present a simple interphase tissue culture system for adult rabbit retina that requires no specialized equipment and very little maintenance. We demonstrate the dissection and incubation of rabbit retina and particle-mediated gene transfer of plasmids enco...

  3. Training in rabbit husbandry in Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Facchin, E.; Gallazzi, D.; Gaspari, D.; PARIGI-BINI, R.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of the meat rabbit production in developing countries with reference to Mozambique situation is treated. The rabbit husbandry in Mozambique is feasible but the cultural passage from the passive rearing habits to a modem intensive technological rearing it will be neither easy nor next to corne. Three kinds of husbandry could be possible in Mozambique : a) intensive b) complementary and c) family husbandry ; a) can be made only in well organized farm and the limits for intensive...

  4. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    OpenAIRE

    Castellini, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, ...

  5. Induction of Asherman's Syndrome in Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Bazoobandi, Sanaz; Tanideh, Nader; Rahmanifar, Farhad; Tamadon, Amin; Keshtkar, Mohammadreza; Mehrabani, Davood; Kasraeian, Maryam; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Uterine synechiae or Asherman's syndrome is a condition that can cause infertility. The present experimental study was designed to establish the rabbit as an animal model for human Asherman's syndrome using the endometrial curettage. Methods: In an experimental study, female adult rabbits (n=18) were randomly divided into intact and ovariectomized groups. One third of caudal part of both uteri was submitted to traumatic endometrial curettage. One group was simultaneously ovariecto...

  6. Computer tomographic imaging of rabbit bulbourethral glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to utilize the obtained data for differentiation of normal and pathologically altered bulbourethral glands in rabbits with regard to using this animal species as a model for studying diseases in this organ in humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten sexually mature healthy male white New Zealand rabbits, 12 months old, weighed 2.8−3.2 kg were investigated. The animals were anesthetized. Scans were done at 2 mm intervals and the image reconstruction was three-dimensional. RESULTS: Rabbit bulbourethral glands were observed as a transversely oval homogeneous, relatively hyperdense structure against the surrounding soft tissues. They are visualized in the transverse cut of the pelvic outlet in the plane through the cranial part of cg2, the body of ischium, cranially to tuber ischiadicum and dorsally to the caudal part of symphysis pubis –sciatic arch. The glandular margins are adequately distinguished from the adjacent soft tissue structures. The density of the rabbit bulbourethral glands was similar to this of the soft tissues. CONCLUSION: The data obtained by the computed tomographic imaging of the rabbit bulbourethral glands could be used as an anatomical reference in the diagnosis and interpretation of imaging findings of various pathological states of the gland in this species, as well as in utilization of the rabbit as an animal model for studying diseases of this organ in humans, particularly diverticula, stenosis, lithiasis and valves

  7. Genomic Analysis of Companion Rabbit Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Elizabeth M.; Parkhill, Julian; Foster, Geoffrey; Paterson, Gavin K.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to being an important human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to cause a variety of infections in numerous other host species. While the S. aureus strains causing infection in several of these hosts have been well characterised, this is not the case for companion rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), where little data are available on S. aureus strains from this host. To address this deficiency we have performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genome sequencing on a collection of S. aureus isolates from companion rabbits. The findings show a diverse S. aureus population is able to cause infection in this host, and while antimicrobial resistance was uncommon, the isolates possess a range of known and putative virulence factors consistent with a diverse clinical presentation in companion rabbits including severe abscesses. We additionally show that companion rabbit isolates carry polymorphisms within dltB as described as underlying host-adaption of S. aureus to farmed rabbits. The availability of S. aureus genome sequences from companion rabbits provides an important aid to understanding the pathogenesis of disease in this host and in the clinical management and surveillance of these infections. PMID:26963381

  8. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  9. Serologic evidence for rabbit syncytium virus in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, K W; McCloskey, C M; Scott, D P

    1993-07-01

    Thirteen of 20 eastern cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus) sera collected near Delaware, Ohio (USA) in 1991 were positive by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for antibody to rabbit syncytium virus (RSV), a Kemerovo serogroup orbivirus. In addition, two of 10 domestic bovine sera and three of 30 sheep sera collected in southeastern Ohio gave weak positive IFAT reactions to RSV. PMID:8394944

  10. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength “trabecular Nitinol” scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1–1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects

  11. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Zaretzky, Asaph; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Gutmanas, Elazar Y.

    2015-10-01

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength "trabecular Nitinol" scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1-1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects.

  12. Effect of a novel load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffold on rabbit radius bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotman, Irena, E-mail: gotman@technion.ac.il; Gutmanas, Elazar Y., E-mail: gutmanas@technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Techion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 32000 Israel (Israel); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Zaretzky, Asaph [The Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 31096 Israel (Israel); Psakhie, Sergey G. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The research aim was to evaluate the bone regeneration capability of novel load-bearing NiTi alloy (Nitinol) scaffolds in a critical-size defect (CSD) model. High strength “trabecular Nitinol” scaffolds were prepared by PIRAC (Powder Immersion Reaction Assisted Coating) annealing of the highly porous Ni foam in Ti powder at 900°C. This was followed by PIRAC nitriding to mitigate the release of potentially toxic Ni ions. Scaffolds phase composition and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS), and their mechanical properties were tested in compression. New Zealand white rabbits received bone defect in right radius and were divided in four groups randomly. In the control group, nothing was placed in the defect. In other groups, NiTi scaffolds were implanted in the defect: (i) as produced, (ii) loaded with bone marrow aspirate (BMA), and (iii) biomimetically CaP-coated. The animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks. The forelimbs with scaffolds were resected, fixed, sectioned and examined in SEM. New bone formation inside the scaffold was studied by EDS analysis and by the processing of backscattered electron images. Bone ingrowth into the scaffold was observed in all implant groups, mostly next to the ulna. New bone formation was strongly enhanced by BMA loading and biomimeatic CaP coating, the bone penetrating as much as 1–1.5 mm into the scaffold. The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that the newly developed high strength trabecular Nitinol scaffolds can be successfully used for bone regeneration in critical size defects.

  13. Biphasic synovial sarcoma of the extremity : quadruple approach of isolated limb perfusion, surgical ablation, adipofascial perforator flap and radiation to avoid amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Steinsträßer, Lars; Agarwal, R.; Stricker, Ingo; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; al- Benna, Sammy

    2011-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma that occurs mostly in young adults, and it is always regarded as a high-grade tumor. Here, we report the case of a 31-year-old German Caucasian male with synovial sarcoma of the wrist who was offered amputation at his local hospital. After referral to our Reference Centre for Soft Tissue Sarcoma, the quadruple approach of isolated limb perfusion, surgical ablation, adipofascial perforator flap and radiation avoided amputation and enabled ...

  14. A prospective study of the importance of life goal characteristics and goal adjustment capacities in longer term psychosocial adjustment to lower limb amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Coffey, Laura; Gallagher, Pamela; Desmond, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the life goal characteristics and goal adjustment capacities of persons with lower limb amputation on admission to rehabilitation, and to examine their efficacy as predictors of psychosocial outcomes 6 months post-discharge. Design: Prospective, descriptive. Setting: Two specialist inpatient rehabilitation facilities in Ireland. Subjects: A consecutive sample of 64 patients with lower limb amputation. Main measures: On admission to rehabilitation, life goal c...

  15. Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Amputated Limbs Suffering from Phantom Pain: A Comparative Study with Non-Phantom Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Kazemi; Shahin Ghassemi; Seyed Mohammad Fereshtehnejad; Afshin Amini; Pier Hossein Kolivand; Taher Doroudi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is approximately a common condition after limb amputation, which potentially affects the quality of life. We aimed to evaluate anxiety and depression in patients with amputated limbs suffering from PLP and to compare these psychological dysfunctions with that of patients with non-phantom chronic pain. Methods : A total number of 16 male amputees with PLP and 24 male age-matched patients with non-phantom chronic pain were recruited in this study, which wa...

  16. Post-Amputation Pain Is Associated with the Recall of an Impaired Body Representation in Dreams—Results from a Nation-Wide Survey on Limb Amputees

    OpenAIRE

    Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Schredl, Michael; Diers, Martin; Reinhard, Iris; Foell, Jens; Trojan, Jörg; Fuchs, Xaver; Flor, Herta

    2015-01-01

    The experience of post-amputation pain such as phantom limb pain (PLP) and residual limb pain (RLP), is a common consequence of limb amputation, and its presence has negative effects on a person’s well-being. The continuity hypothesis of dreams suggests that the presence of such aversive experiences in the waking state should be reflected in dream content, with the recalled body representation reflecting a cognitive proxy of negative impact. In the present study, we epidemiologically assessed...

  17. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Madsen Topp, Ulla; Jakobsen, Berit; Nielsen, Kirsten Juel; Gybel Juul-Larsen, Helle; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST in...... patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure....

  18. Management of diabetic foot disease and amputation in the Irish health system: a qualitative study of patients' attitudes and experiences with health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delea, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent chronic illness that places a huge burden on the individual, the health system and society. Patients with active foot disease and lower limb amputations due to diabetes have a significant amount of interaction with the health care services. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of foot care services in Ireland among people with diabetes and active foot disease or lower limb amputations.

  19. Amputations and foot ulcers in patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and observed for 19 years. The role of age, gender and co-morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, C; Siersma, V.; Guassora, A.D.;

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of foot ulcers and the incidence of amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes observed for 19 years after diagnosis. We investigated the role of gender, age and co-morbidities.......To determine the prevalence of foot ulcers and the incidence of amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes observed for 19 years after diagnosis. We investigated the role of gender, age and co-morbidities....

  20. Data on amputation free survival of patients with lower limb peripheral artery disease classified according TASC II classification and a new crural index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalkanen, Juho M; Wickström, Jan-Erik; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri H

    2016-09-01

    The results of amputation free survival (AFS) of a cohort of 887 caucasian patients is shown. The data is based on further analyses of data presented in Jalkanen et al. (2016) [1]. The 36-month amputation free survival of patients divided in new crural vessel disease classification (Crural Index), aortoiliac TASC II classification, femoropopliteal TASC II classification and most severe segment is presented. Also, in depth demographic data is presented for each Crural Index group Jalkanen et al., 2016 [1]. PMID:27331095

  1. Merkel cell carcinoma: A case of palliative upper limb amputation in a patient with refractory in-transit metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratne, Dakshika A; Howle, Julie R; Veness, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    We report an unusual case of Merkel cell carcinoma in a 70-year-old woman with the rapid development of left upper limb in-transit and hepatic metastases. The patient had a preceding history of left-sided breast cancer. Palliative chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide produced a minimal response. The in-transit metastases rapidly progressed and were refractory to chemotherapy and a single fraction of palliative radiotherapy, leading to a marked impact on her quality of life, secondary to sepsis and bleeding. After lengthy discussion, she consented to an above-elbow amputation resulting in a marked improvement in her well-being. In this case, we believe that palliative amputation of the involved arm was justified and beneficial to the patient. PMID:25754425

  2. Prevention of phantom pain after major lower limb amputation by epidural infusion of diamorphine, clonidine and bupivacaine.

    OpenAIRE

    M Jahangiri; Jayatunga, A. P.; Bradley, J. W.; Dark, C. H.

    1994-01-01

    Phantom limb pain may appear in up to 85% of patients after amputation. There is no effective treatment. Perioperative epidural infusion of morphine and bupivacaine, alone or in combination, is effective in preventing phantom limb pain in patients with pre-existing limb pain. Serious side-effects, however, make them difficult to manage on a general ward. Clonidine has been shown to be an effective postoperative analgesia when applied epidurally. To mitigate the potentially serious side-effect...

  3. Dorso-palmar triangular finger flap-A new advancement flap for cover of finger amputations-A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Satyanarayan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A triangular V-Y type advancement flap on the finger has been designed, which advances skin from over the whole circumference of the finger, which includes both palmar and dorsal skin. The flap is sensate too. It is indicated for finger and thumb amputations proximal to the body of the nail. Six flaps were raised with five successes and one partial necrosis. This is a preliminary report on a new flap.

  4. Factors Affecting Length of Hospital Stay and Mortality in Infected Diabetic Foot Ulcers Undergoing Surgical Drainage without Major Amputation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Gyun; Moon, Sang Young; Park, Moon Seok; Kwon, Soon-Sun; Jung, Ki Jin; Lee, Taeseung; Kim, Baek Kyu; Yoon, Chan; Lee, Kyoung Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting length of hospital stay and mortality of a specific group of patients with infected diabetic foot ulcer who underwent surgical drainage without major amputation, which is frequently encountered by orthopedic surgeons. Data on length of hospital stay, mortality, demographics, and other medical information were collected for 79 consecutive patients (60 men, 19 women; mean age, 66.1 [SD, 12.3] yr) with infected diabetic foot ulcer who underwent s...

  5. Is the desire for amputation related to disturbed emotion processing? A multiple case study analysis in BIID

    OpenAIRE

    Bottini, G.; Brugger, P; Sedda, A.

    2015-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterized by the overwhelming desire to amputate one or more healthy limbs or to be paraplegic. Recently, a neurological explanation of this condition has been proposed, in part on the basis of findings that the insular cortex might present structural anomalies in these individuals. While these studies focused on body representation, much less is known about emotional processing. Importantly, emotional impairments have been found in psychiatric d...

  6. Cross-sectional study of alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation in military personnel with amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Michael; Bennett Britton, Thomas M; Drew, Benjamin T; Phillip, Rhodri D

    2015-01-01

    While phantom limb pain is a well-recognized phenomenon, clinical experience has suggested that the augmentation of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is an issue for many military personnel with amputation (visceral stimulation being the sensation of the bowel or bladder either filling or evacuating). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the alteration in phantom limb pain and the effect that visceral stimulation has on phantom limb pain intensity. A cross-sectional study of 75 military personnel who have lost one or both lower limbs completed a questionnaire to assess the prevalence of the alteration of phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation. Included in the questionnaire was a pain visual analog scale (VAS) graded from 0 to 10. Patients recorded the presence and intensity of phantom limb pain. They also recorded whether and how this pain altered with a need to micturate or micturition, and/or a need to defecate or defecation, again using a pain VAS. Time since amputation, level of amputation, and medications were also recorded. Patients reported a phantom limb pain prevalence of 85% with a mean VAS of 3.6. In all, 56% of patients reported a change in the severity of phantom limb pain with visceral stimuli. The mean increase in VAS for visceral stimulation was 2.5 +/- 1.6 for bladder stimulation and 2.9 +/- 2.0 for bowel stimulation. Of the patients questioned, 65% reported an improvement in symptoms over time. VAS scores were highest in the subgroup less than 6 mo postamputation. An increase in phantom limb pain with visceral stimulation is a common problem for military personnel with amputation. PMID:26360529

  7. The Effect of Prosthetic Ankle Units on Roll-Over Shape Characteristics During Walking in Persons with Bilateral Transtibial Amputations

    OpenAIRE

    Gard, Steven A.; Su, Po-Fu; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Hansen, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Some important functions of walking are adversely affected or eliminated in prosthesis users due to reduced or absent ankle motion. The purpose of this retrospective data analysis was to determine the effect of prosthetic ankle units on the characteristics of the ankle-foot roll-over shape in persons with bilateral transtibial amputations. Seventeen subjects were fitted with Endolite Multiflex Ankles to provide ankle plantar/dorsiflexion during the stance phase of gait. Two quantitative gait ...

  8. Karkirurgiske procedurer i Danmark 1996-2004. Amtslig karkirurgisk funktion er associeret med hyppigere indgreb, der forebygger amputation og apopleksi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S; Jensen, Leif Panduro

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: International studies indicate that decentralised vascular surgical activity could have a positive influence on the organisation of vascular services in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Numbers of vascular operations in 1994-2004 in the various Danish counties were collected from the...... (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Own vascular surgical services in Denmark are associated with a higher incidence of operations, thus preventing stroke and amputation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Nov-19...

  9. Local Therapy for Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Hands and Feet: Is Amputation Necessary? A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the hand or foot treated with surgery and/or local radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with nonmetastatic RMS of the hand or foot were enrolled on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study III, IV-Pilot, and IV. Patients received multiagent chemotherapy with surgery and/or RT. Twenty-four patients (50%) underwent surgery without local RT, of whom 4 had complete resection and 20 had an amputation. The remaining 24 patients (50%) underwent local RT, of whom 2 required RT for microscopic residual disease after prior amputation. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 9.7 years. Results: Actuarial 10-year local control was 100%; 10-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 62% and 63%, respectively. Poor prognostic factors for recurrence included gross residual (Group III) disease and nodal involvement (p = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). More patients in the RT group had alveolar histology, Group III disease, and nodal involvement, as compared with the surgery group. There was no difference in 10-year event-free survival (57% vs. 66%) or overall survival (63% vs. 63%) between patients who underwent surgery or local RT. Among relapsing patients, there were no long-term survivors. No secondary malignancies have been observed. Conclusions: Despite having high-risk features, patients treated with local RT achieved excellent local control. Complete surgical resection without amputation is difficult to achieve in the hand or foot. Therefore, we recommend either definitive RT or surgical resection that maintains form and function as primary local therapy rather than amputation in patients with hand or foot RMS.

  10. Adjustment to amputation and psychological distress: an examination of the intervening role of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Conaill, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Successful adjustment to amputation can be quantified in a number of ways. Physical measures such as prosthesis use, mobility indices, and activities of daily living have traditionally been suggested as outcome measures in the literature. More recently, the importance of psychological outcomes is gaining attention. This study was based in a regional prosthetic, orthotic, and limb-absence rehabilitation unit. It was developed in order to provide an overview of a range of issues affecting pa...

  11. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of [32P]ATP and Mg2+. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements

  12. CURRENT STATUS, CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF RABBIT PRODUCTION IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. MOREKI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the current status of rabbit production, challenges facing the industry and opportunities available. Rabbit farming in Botswana is in its infancy and the rabbit population is estimated to be less than 1000. However, this value is a gross underestimate due to poor monitoring by government extension services. In Botswana, rabbits are mainly kept in the backyards, indicating that intensive systems have not yet been developed. Rabbits have small body size, short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate and ability to utilize forages. Compared to beef, chicken, mutton, chevon and chicken, rabbit meat has low cholesterol, high protein and low fat contents. Rabbit production can be integrated into small farming systems, with the rabbits being fed on crop residues, weeds, poultry droppings, and kitchen and garden wastes. The manure can be used to fertilize soils. The major challenges in rabbit production are inadequacy of breeding stock, inadequate rabbit feeds, poor management (feeding, housing and health care, lack of research support, lack of technical support from extension services, lack of access to credit and inadequate supply of equipment. The major opportunity available to the rearers is that the market is vast due to the small rabbit population in the country. The attributes of rabbits suggest that rabbit farming is likely to play an important role in nutrition, poverty alleviation and food security, especially in countries with higher unemployment levels and HIV/AIDS prevalence rates such as Botswana.

  13. A Clinical Evaluation of Postamputation Phenomena Including Phantom Limb Pain after Lower Limb Amputation in Dysvascular Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cliff; Crawford, Kath; Milnes, Karen; Bouch, Elizabeth; Kulkarni, Jai

    2015-08-01

    To explore the effects of phantom phenomena on a group of dysvascular lower limb amputees. This was a cross-sectional study of dysvascular lower limb amputees. A modified version of the phantom phenomena questionnaire was used to measure the prevalence of phantom phenomena and the effects of those phenomena on daily life. Eighty-nine amputees were recruited. The majority were inpatients (72%) and male (72%). Most had pain before amputation (83%). Sixty-three percent had phantom limb pain. No associations were found between phantom limb pain and preamputation pain (p = .397). Phantom limb pain was present immediately on waking from amputation in 23%. Phantom limb pain is highly fluctuant. It is more likely that phantom limb pain was present with more time passed since amputation (p = .002). Outpatients with unhealed wounds were less likely to have phantom limb pain (p = .007). The effects of postamputation phenomena include sleep loss and social restrictions. These results challenge the belief that phantom limb pain reduces over time as more outpatients reported phantom limb pain than inpatients. Preamputation pain is not linked to the presence of phantom limb pain. The fluctuant nature of phantom limb pain makes its treatment complex. Some may wish intensity to reduce, whereas others may prefer to reduce the number of episodes or duration of each episode instead. More research is needed to clarify the needs of amputees in relation to the postamputation phenomena. PMID:26092194

  14. Increased slow transport in axons of regenerating newt limbs after a nerve conditioning lesion made prior to amputation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this study shows that axonal density is constant in the limb stump of the next proximal to the area of traumatic nerve degeneration caused by limb amputation. The results of the second part of this work reveal that a nerve conditioning lesion made two weeks prior to amputation is associated with accelerated limb regeneration and that this accelerated limb regeneration is accompanied by an earlier arrival of axons. This is the first demonstration of naturally occurring limb regeneration being enhanced. In this study SCb cytoskeletal proteins were identified and measured using SDS-PAGE and liquid scintillation counting. Proteins were measured at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after 35S-methionine injection and the normal rate of SCb transport determined to be 0.19 mm/day. A single axotomy does not enhance the rate of SCb transport but does increase the amount of labeled SCb proteins that are transported. When a conditioning lesion is employed prior to limb amputation and SCb proteins are measured at 7, 14, and 21 days after injection, there is a twofold acceleration in the rate of SCb transport and an increase in the amount of SCb proteins transported in conditioned axons

  15. Angiographic technique in rabbits: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The rabbit is the most important experimental animal for the basic interventional research, which has displayed the essential value for the interventional experimental diagnosis and therapy in some tumor and vascular disease, while the angiography is the basic imaging examination for the related study. This research attempts to improve and to optimize the angiographic technique for the experimental rabbits, as well as to modify the hemostasis course in order to increase the success rate of angiographic study in rabbits. At the same time. a preliminary study of CTA and DSA in rabbits has also been made in order to get the relative experience. Methods: Fifteen New Zealand white rabbits were anesthetized, which was followed by CTA with the contrast injection through the ear vein catheterization. The diameters of the major blood vessels were measured and their shape and course were observed. An 18 G needle was used to puncture the blood vessels and a 4 F single bend catheter to perform the DSA examination. The groin area was dissected, the femoral artery and femoral vein were separated, and the catheter was inserted with Seldinger technique. For angiography examination, after the femoral artery was successfully punctured, DSA of the aortic arch, dorsal aorta, abdominal aorta, iliac artery, carotid artery, vertebral artery, celiac artery, anterior mesenteric artery and renal artery was carried out in proper sequence and the appearance of pertaining veins were also observed. For venography examination, after the femoral vein was successfully punctured, angiography of the posterior vena cava and pulmonary artery was performed successively. The femoral vein was pressed for a few minutes to stop bleeding, while the femoral artery bleeding was stanched by forceps, local wet compression with thrombin or surgical reconstruction of femoral artery sheath. Results: According to the diameter and shape of the major vessels, the combination of 18 G vascular puncture

  16. Reassessing cortical reorganization in the primary sensorimotor cortex following arm amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makin, Tamar R; Scholz, Jan; Henderson Slater, David; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Tracey, Irene

    2015-08-01

    The role of cortical activity in generating and abolishing chronic pain is increasingly emphasized in the clinical community. Perhaps the most striking example of this is the maladaptive plasticity theory, according to which phantom pain arises from remapping of cortically neighbouring representations (lower face) into the territory of the missing hand following amputation. This theory has been extended to a wide range of chronic pain conditions, such as complex regional pain syndrome. Yet, despite its growing popularity, the evidence to support the maladaptive plasticity theory is largely based on correlations between pain ratings and oftentimes crude measurements of cortical reorganization, with little consideration of potential contributions of other clinical factors, such as adaptive behaviour, in driving the identified brain plasticity. Here, we used a physiologically meaningful measurement of cortical reorganization to reassess its relationship to phantom pain in upper limb amputees. We identified small yet consistent shifts in lip representation contralateral to the missing hand towards, but not invading, the hand area. However, we were unable to identify any statistical relationship between cortical reorganization and phantom sensations or pain either with this measurement or with the traditional Euclidian distance measurement. Instead, we demonstrate that other factors may contribute to the observed remapping. Further research that reassesses more broadly the relationship between cortical reorganization and chronic pain is warranted. PMID:26072517

  17. Phantom limb perception interferes with motor imagery after unilateral upper-limb amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuanyuan; Guo, Xiaoli; Bekrater-Bodmann, Robin; Flor, Herta; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-01-01

    A potential contributor to impaired motor imagery in amputees is an alteration of the body schema as a result of the presence of a phantom limb. However, the nature of the relationship between motor imagery and phantom experiences remains unknown. In this study, the influence of phantom limb perception on motor imagery was investigated using a hand mental rotation task by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures. Compared with healthy controls, significantly prolonged response time for both the intact and missing hand were observed specifically in amputees who perceived a phantom limb during the task but not in amputees without phantom limb perception. Event-related desynchronization of EEG in the beta band (beta-ERD) in central and parietal areas showed an angular disparity specifically in amputees with phantom limb perception, with its source localized in the right inferior parietal lobule. The response time as well as the beta-ERD values were significantly positively correlated with phantom vividness. Our results suggest that phantom limb perception during the task is an important interferential factor for motor imagery after amputation and the interference might be related to a change of the body representation resulting from an unnatural posture of the phantom limb. PMID:26879749

  18. Plasticity of plasticity? Changes in the pattern of perceptual correlates of reorganization after amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, S; Henningsen, H; Höhling, C; Elbert, T; Flor, H; Pantev, C; Taub, E

    1998-04-01

    We report a follow-up study on seven arm amputees in whom magnetic source imaging had originally revealed a strong correlation between the amount of cortical invasion of the deafferented cortex and the amount of pain evoked sensation mislocalized to the phantom limb. This re-examination was performed in order to corroborate the phenomenon of mislocalization. On follow-up examination for mislocalization 4 weeks later, a close correlation had remained between the original amount of cortical representational reorganization of the amputation zone (at the first examination) and the number of sites from where painful stimuli evoked sensations referred to the phantom limb, i.e. the amount of perceptual mislocalization, at the second examination. However, contrary to our expectation, the topography of referred sensation had completely changed in every patient. These results suggest that while the overall extent of reorganization is a rather stable phenomenon, the concomitant changes in the pattern of sensory processing are not. This may be due to the fact that alterations of sensory processing are not hardwired, but are rather mediated by an extensive and interconnected neural network with fluctuating synaptic strengths. This mechanism may be of importance for neurological rehabilitation. PMID:9577396

  19. Treatment of phantom limb pain by cryoneurolysis of the amputated nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Albert A; Karl, Helen W; Trescot, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiology of phantom limb pain (PLP) is multifactorial. It probably starts in the periphery and is amplified and modified in the central nervous system. A small group of patients with PLP were questioned as to the portion of the phantom limb affected by pain (e.g., "great toe," "thumb"). In the stump, the corresponding amputated nerve was located with a nerve stimulator. With correct placement and stimulation, the PLP could then be reproduced or exacerbated. A small dose of local anesthesia was then injected, resulting in the disappearance of the PLP. If a peripheral nerve injection gave temporary relief, our final treatment was cryoanalgesia at this location. Evaluation of 5 patients, followed for at least 2.5 years, yielded the following results: 3 patients had excellent results (100%, 95%, and 90% decrease in complaints, respectively), 1 patient had an acceptable result (40% decrease), and 1 patient had only a 20% decrease in pain. Although both central and peripheral components are likely involved in PLP, treatment of a peripheral pain locus with cryoanalgesia should be considered. We propose the identification of a peripheral etiology may help match patients to an appropriate therapy, and cryoanalgesia may result in long-term relief of PLP. PMID:23279331

  20. [Lower limb salvage with a free fillet fibula flap harvested from the contralateral amputated leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, M; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V; Semere, A; Moutet, F

    2015-06-01

    We report a unusual case of "fillet flap" to reconstruct the lower limb with the amputated contralateral leg. This kind of procedure was first described by Foucher et al. in 1980 for traumatic hand surgery as the "bank finger". A 34-year-old man suffered a microlight accident with bilateral open legs fractures. A large skin defect of the left leg exposed the ankle, the calcaneus and a non-vascularized part of the tibial nerve (10 cm). The patient came to the OR for surgical debridement and had massive bone resection of the left calcaneus. The right leg showed limited skin defect at the lower part, exposing the medial side of the ankle and a tibial bone defect, measuring 10 cm. Salvage the left leg was impossible due to complex nerve, bones and skin associated injuries, so this leg was sacrificed and used as a donor limb, to harvest a free fibula flap for contralateral tibial reconstruction. At 18 months of follow-up, the patient was very satisfied, the clinical result was very good on both lower limbs and X-rays showed excellent integration of the free fibula flap. The patient had normal dailies occupations, can run and have bicycle sport practice with a functional left leg fit prosthesis. This case showed an original application of the "fillet flap concept" to resolve complex and rare traumatic situations interesting the both lower limbs. In our opinion, this strategy must be a part of the plastic surgeon skills in uncommon situations. PMID:25069828

  1. Symptoms of PTSD Associated With Painful and Nonpainful Vicarious Reactivity Following Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette M; Tsao, Jack W; Gibson, Stephen J; Rich, Anina N; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie; Chou, Michael; Bradshaw, John L; Alphonso, Aimee L; Tung, Monica L; Drastal, Carol A; Hanling, Steven; Pasquina, Paul F; Enticott, Peter G

    2015-08-01

    Although the experience of vicarious sensations when observing another in pain have been described postamputation, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated whether vicarious sensations are related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and chronic pain. In Study 1, 236 amputees completed questionnaires about phantom limb phenomena and vicarious sensations to both innocuous and painful sensory experiences of others. There was a 10.2% incidence of vicarious sensations, which was significantly more prevalent in amputees reporting PTSD-like experiences, particularly increased arousal and reexperiencing the event that led to amputation (φ = .16). In Study 2, 63 amputees completed the Empathy for Pain Scale and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Cluster analyses revealed 3 groups: 1 group did not experience vicarious pain or PTSD symptoms, and 2 groups were vicarious pain responders, but only 1 had increased PTSD symptoms. Only the latter group showed increased chronic pain severity compared with the nonresponder group (p = .025) with a moderate effect size (r = .35). The findings from both studies implicated an overlap, but also divergence, between PTSD symptoms and vicarious pain reactivity postamputation. Maladaptive mechanisms implicated in severe chronic pain and physical reactivity posttrauma may increase the incidence of vicarious reactivity to the pain of others. PMID:26243674

  2. Long-term activity in and among persons with transfemoral amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Halsne, CPO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although physical limitations associated with transfemoral amputation (TFA have been studied in laboratory settings, little is known about habitual activity within free-living environments. A retrospective analysis of 12 mo of step activity data was performed to quantify activity levels, variations, and patterns in 17 adults with unilateral TFA. Yearly, seasonal, and monthly average daily step counts and coefficients of variation (CoVs were examined to characterize mobility. Analysis by Medicare Functional Classification Level (MFCL was performed to explore relationships between clinical classification and performance. Subjects averaged 1,540 prosthetic steps/day, and activity generally increased with MFCL. Activity between MFCL-2 and -3 subjects was not significantly different, suggesting that ability to engage in habitual physical activity may be similar for these groups. Relative variation (CoV was 0.65 across subjects but was lower for those with higher activity levels. No significant differences in CoV by group were detected. Marked seasonal and monthly patterns in activity were identified. Warmer seasons and months generally promoted higher activity, but peak temperatures and humidity depressed activity. Results suggest that persons with TFA are greatly limited in regards to activity. Further, large variations within and between subjects may challenge the interpretation of step activity gathered over short periods of time.

  3. Epidural electrocorticography of phantom hand movement following long-term upper-limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza eGharabaghi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prostheses for upper-limb amputees are currently controlled by either myoelectric or peripheral neural signals. Performance and dexterity of these devices is still limited, particularly when it comes to controlling hand function. Movement-related brain activity might serve as a complementary bio-signal for motor control of hand prosthesis. Methods: We introduced a methodology to implant a cortical interface without direct exposure of the brain surface in an upper-limb amputee. This bi-directional interface enabled us to explore the cortical physiology following long-term transhumeral amputation. In addition, we investigated neurofeedback of electrocorticographic brain activity related to the patient’s motor imagery to open his missing hand, i.e. phantom hand movement, for real-time control of a virtual hand prosthesis.Results: Both event-related brain potentials and cortical stimulation revealed mutually overlapping cortical representations of the phantom hand. Phantom hand movements could be robustly classified and the patient required only three training sessions to gain reliable control of the virtual hand prosthesis in an online closed-loop paradigm that discriminated between hand opening and rest. Conclusion: Epidural implants may constitute a powerful and safe alternative communication pathway between the brain and external devices for upper-limb amputees, thereby facilitating the integrated use of different signal sources for more intuitive and specific control of multi-functional devices in clinical use.

  4. Toe clearance when walking in people with unilateral transtibial amputation: Effects of passive hydraulic ankle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Johnson, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most clinically available prosthetic feet have a rigid attachment or incorporate an “ankle” device allowing elastic articulation during stance, with the foot returning to a “neutral” position at toe-off. We investigated whether using a foot with a hydraulically controlled articulating ankle that allows the foot to be relatively dorsiflexed at toe-off and throughout swing would increase minimum toe clearance (MTC. Twenty-one people with unilateral transtibial amputation completed overground walking trials using their habitual prosthetic foot with rigid or elastic articulating attachment and a foot with a hydraulic ankle attachment (hyA-F. MTC and other kinematic variables were assessed across multiple trials. When using the hyA-F, mean MTC increased on both limbs (p = 0.03. On the prosthetic limb this was partly due to the device being in its fully dorsiflexed position at toe-off, which reduced the “toes down” foot angle throughout swing (p = 0.01. Walking speed also increased when using the hyA-F (p = 0.001 and was associated with greater swing-limb hip flexion on the prosthetic side (p = 0.04, which may have contributed to the increase in mean MTC. Variability in MTC increased on the prosthetic side when using the hyA-F (p = 0.03, but this did not increase risk of tripping.

  5. Enhancing the soft tissue seal around intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses using silanized fibronectin titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Pendegrass, C; Blunn, G, E-mail: mukai.cg@mac.com [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, University College London, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, HA7 4LP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    The success of intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) relies on achieving a tight seal between the soft tissues and the implant in order to avoid infection. Fibronectin (Fn) may be silanized onto titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in order to promote soft-tissue attachment. The silanization process includes passivation with sulphuric acid, which alters surface characteristics. This study aimed to improve in vitro fibroblast adhesion to silanized fibronectin (SiFn) titanium alloy by omitting the passivation stage. Additionally, the study assessed the effects of SiFn on in vivo dermal attachment, comparing the results with adsorbed Fn, hydroxyapatite (HA), Fn adsorbed onto HA (HAFn) and uncoated controls. Surface topography was assessed using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurement. Anti-vinculin antibodies were used to immunolocalize fibroblast adhesion sites. A histological assessment of soft-tissue attachment and cell alignment relative to implants in an in vivo ovine model was performed. Passivation resulted in rougher, more hydrophobic, microcracked surfaces and was associated with poorer fibroblast adhesion than unpassivated controls. SiFn and HAFn surfaces resulted in more favourable cell alignment in vivo, implying that dermal attachment was enhanced. These results suggest that SiFn and HAFn surfaces could be useful in optimizing the soft tissue seal around ITAP.

  6. Enhancing the soft tissue seal around intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses using silanized fibronectin titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) relies on achieving a tight seal between the soft tissues and the implant in order to avoid infection. Fibronectin (Fn) may be silanized onto titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) in order to promote soft-tissue attachment. The silanization process includes passivation with sulphuric acid, which alters surface characteristics. This study aimed to improve in vitro fibroblast adhesion to silanized fibronectin (SiFn) titanium alloy by omitting the passivation stage. Additionally, the study assessed the effects of SiFn on in vivo dermal attachment, comparing the results with adsorbed Fn, hydroxyapatite (HA), Fn adsorbed onto HA (HAFn) and uncoated controls. Surface topography was assessed using scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle measurement. Anti-vinculin antibodies were used to immunolocalize fibroblast adhesion sites. A histological assessment of soft-tissue attachment and cell alignment relative to implants in an in vivo ovine model was performed. Passivation resulted in rougher, more hydrophobic, microcracked surfaces and was associated with poorer fibroblast adhesion than unpassivated controls. SiFn and HAFn surfaces resulted in more favourable cell alignment in vivo, implying that dermal attachment was enhanced. These results suggest that SiFn and HAFn surfaces could be useful in optimizing the soft tissue seal around ITAP.

  7. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist. PMID:26291149

  8. Wound healing in below-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Sager, P; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    In 60 below-knee amputations the healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Of the eight cases with an SPP below 20 mmHg, no...... less than six (75 per cent) failed to heal and required reamputation at the above-knee level. Of the 12 cases with an SPP between 20 and 30 mmHg four cases (33 per cent) failed to heal but of the 40 cases with an SPP above 30 mmHg, there were only four cases (10 per cent) which did not heal. The...... difference in failure rate is highly significant (P less than 0.01). Four out of 30 diabetic patients required reamputation as against 10 out of 30 non-diabetics (0.05 less than P less than 0.10). The average SPP was higher in the diabetic group: 57 mmHg (range 18-93 mmHg) compared with 34 mmHg (range 8...

  9. Genotoxic effects of copper sulfate in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the genotoxic effects of oral application of CuSO4 in rabbits by the chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. Ten male New Zealand rabbits (5 months old, weighing 3.5-4.0 kg were allocated into two groups. The first group received CuSO4 (5H2O in drinking water for 6 consecutive days. The second group was used as a control. On the 7th day, blood samples were taken from the ear marginal vein and the SCE and CA tests in peripheral lymphocytes were used as genotoxicity and mutagenicity endpoints, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the frequencies of the aberrant cells (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 and CA (chromatid fragments 3.2±0.37, chromosome fragments 4.2±0.37, P<0.001, and total aberrations (7.4±0.24, P<0.001 after the treatment with CuSO4 when compared with the control group. The level of SCE per cell in the CuSO4-treated rabbits (9.66±0.062 was significantly higher than in rabbits from the control group. These findings show that copper exhibits a genotoxic and mutagenic potential in rabbits.

  10. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  11. Diagnosis of dental problems in pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caelenberg, Annemie; De Rycke, Lieve; Hermans, Katleen; Verhaert, Maria-Magdalena; van Bree, Henri; Gielen, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    Dental problems are very common in pet rabbits. To establish a correct diagnosis of rabbit dental pathology, a general knowledge of normal dental anatomy and physiology is necessary. The specific anatomy and the most common pathologies of rabbit dentition are reviewed. Techniques for diagnosing dental abnormalities - such as clinical examination, radiography and computed tomography (CT) - are summarized. Finally two clinical cases of rabbits with dental pathologies are described.

  12. Is the trend of amputation in Nigeria changing? A review of 51 consecutives cases seen at Federal medical centre Ebute Metta, Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Dada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many previous studies from Nigeria have recognized trauma and complications of management of musculo-skeletal conditions by traditional bone setters (TBS as the leading cause of amputation in Nigeria. However, of recent, a number of the studies are showing that diabetes gangrene which used to be an uncommon indication is becoming an important cause of extremity amputations. In view of the effect of amputation on the individual and the society and the success of well designed preventive programs, it is important that the indications for amputation be kept in constant view. The objective of this study is to draw attention to the increasing importance of diabetes gangrene as a leading cause of amputation in Nigeria. Patient and Methods: This is a three-year prospective study (October 2006 - September 2009 using observer- administered questionnaires after consents were obtained from all patients or proxy during the period of study. All recruited patients were followed up and evaluated after surgery to determine the outcome. The following data were obtained and analyzed - age, sex, amputation type, indication and use of prosthesis. Results: Fifty-one amputations were performed in fifty patients (37 males and 13 females. M.F = 2.8:1, age range 5 - 85 years, mean 47.6+/- S.D 20.7. Major limb amputations accounted for 35 cases (68.6 % with diabetes gangrene accounting for 23 cases (45% followed by Trauma accounting for 16 cases (31%. Wound infection was the commonest complication occurring in 16 cases (31.4%, Escherichia coli being the commonest causative organism. Only 6 patients (12% eventually used prosthesis and the mortality in this series was 8 patients (16%. Conclusion: Diabetic gangrene is the leading cause of amputation in this series. This is the first study in this environment to the best of the authors′ knowledge where diabetes gangrene will emerge the leading indication. A number of other reports from Nigeria in the last few

  13. Culture and characterization of juvenile rabbit tenocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard-Beaubois, K; Hecquet, C; Houcine, O; Hayem, G; Adolphe, M

    1997-02-01

    The culture of rabbit tenocytes could be a useful model in the study of the physiopathology and pharmacotoxicology of tendons. This work was undertaken to examine the in vitro behavior of tenocytes form juvenile rabbit Achilles tendons. We report observations of the morphological and biological characteristics of primary culture and subsequent passages of rabbit tendon cells cultured in monolayer. Data obtained by electron microscopy and growth curves were complementary. After 36 passages, the generation time of tenocytes did not change and no sign of senescence could be seen. Primary culture and the first passages retained the expression of tenocyte differentiated functions, synthesis of type I collagen and decorin. Cell growth behavior was not modified upon passaging. However, when subcultured, tenocytes displayed a modulated phenotype. PMID:9049100

  14. White Rabbit in space related application

    Science.gov (United States)

    JamroŻy, M.; Gumiński, M.; Kasprowicz, G.; Romaniuk, R.; Poźniak, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes study results regarding potential use of White Rabbit technology in Space Related Applications. During the study Technology Readiness Level and Compliance with Space Related Applications was evaluated. After considering possible deployment and development scenarios, main focus has been put on European Space Agency's tracking station system. This outcome derived from specific requirements of tracking system which are coherent with White Rabbit technology scope of application and further development plans. Current state of Time and Frequency Distribution technology implemented into tracking stations is based on multiple different technologies coexisting in parallel creating a complex system. It requires specific, custom made hardware to combine all the technologies which makes it expensive and difficult to maintain. White Rabbit could be use to reduce Time and Frequency Distribution to a single Ethernet based network with link redundancy, payload data transfer and sub-nanosecond accuracy.

  15. EFFECT OF DONOR STRAIN AND MATURATION STAGE OF RABBIT OOCYTES ON RESULTS OF PENETRATION TEST OF RABBIT SEMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Mocé, E.; Vicente, J.S.; R. Lavara

    2002-01-01

    Abstract not available. Mocé, E.; Vicente, J.; Lavara, R. (2002). EFFECT OF DONOR STRAIN AND MATURATION STAGE OF RABBIT OOCYTES ON RESULTS OF PENETRATION TEST OF RABBIT SEMEN. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10003.

  16. Synergistic activity of rabbit granulocyte peptides against Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, R I; Szklarek, D; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E

    1986-01-01

    Rabbit granulocytes contain six antimicrobial peptides that are structurally homologous to the human neutrophil "defensins." NP-5, a rabbit defensin, lacks significant activity against Candida albicans. Nevertheless, its addition to submicromolar concentrations of rabbit NP-1, NP-2, or NP-3a potentiates their candidacidal effect. Thus, granulocyte defensins can act synergistically against potential pathogens.

  17. Prevalence of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Flanders, Belgium, 1999-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Vandekerchove, D; Roels, S; Butaye, Patrick; Van den Berge, K.; Peeters, J.

    2003-01-01

    During the period of July 1999 through June 2002, carcasses of wild rabbits that had been shot or found dead and livers originating from wild rabbits that had been shot for consumption were collected in Flanders. One hundred and twelve carcasses were suitable for necropsy and histological and bacteriological analysis; histological analysis was possible in 41 livers. Considering the 112 rabbit carcasses only, Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease (RHD) was found to be present in 33.9% of the cases. RHD w...

  18. Iron supply for erythropoiesis in the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Celada, A; Stray, S; Sivarajan, M; Finch, C

    1984-01-01

    Marrow radioiron uptake and marrow blood flow were measured in order to evaluate iron supply for erythropoiesis. Normal, phenylhydrazine-treated and bled animals were studied. The plasma iron turnover of seven normal rabbits was 1.49 +/- 0.22 mg/dl whole blood per d, of 11 rabbits treated 4 d before with phenylhydrazine was 5.16 +/- 1.81, and of four bled animals the plasma iron turnover was 3.75 +/- 1.61. The cardiac output and the percentage of blood flow to the marrow was increased in phen...

  19. A novel functional rabbit IL- 7 isoform

    OpenAIRE

    Siewe, Basile T.; Kalis, Susan L.; Esteves, Pedro J; Zhou, Tong; Knight, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    IL-7 is required for B cell development in mouse and is a key regulator of T cell development and peripheral T cell homeostasis in mouse and human. Recently, we found that IL-7 is expressed in rabbit bone marrow and in vitro, is required for differentiation of lymphoid progenitors to B and T lineage cells. Herein, we report the identification of a novel rabbit IL-7 isoform, IL-7II. Recombinant IL-7II (rIL-7II) binds lymphocytes via the IL-7R and induces phosphorylation of STAT5. Further, rIL-...

  20. Processing of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus polyprotein.

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Alonso, J M; Casais, R.; Boga, J A; Parra, F

    1996-01-01

    Expression of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) cDNAs in vitro with rabbit reticulocyte lysates and in Escherichia coli have been used to study the proteolytic processing of RHDV polyprotein encoded by ORF1. An epitope tag was used for monitoring the gene products by a specific antibody. We have identified four gene products with molecular masses of 80, 43, 73, and 60 kDa, from the amino to the carboxy terminus of the polyprotein. The amino-terminal sequences of the 43- and 73-kDa produ...

  1. Isolation and distribution of rabbit keratocyte precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Amano, Shiro; Yokoo, Seiichi; Uchida, Saiko; Usui, Tomohiko; Yamagami, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To isolate multipotent precursors from the rabbit corneal stroma and to compare the distribution and proliferative capacity of keratocyte precursors obtained from the central and peripheral regions of the corneal stroma. Methods The rabbit corneal stroma was divided into a peripheral region (6.0–10.0 mm in diameter) and a central region (6.0 mm in diameter). A sphere-forming assay was then performed to isolate precursors from the stroma of each region. To promote differentiation, isol...

  2. DETECTION OF MSTN POLYMORPHISM IN RABBIT

    OpenAIRE

    ALICA RAFAYOVÁ; ZUZANA LIESKOVSKÁ; ANNA TRAKOVICKÁ; A. KOVÁČIK

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin is negative regulation factor, which determine maximal amount of body mass typical for every species. If there is a mutation in myostatine, its negative regulation function is disrupt. MSTN is important candidate gene for meat production. In rabbit it is known sequention of exon 1, 2, 3 and intron 1, 2. No mutation is observed, only one SNP in intron 2, C-T transition in position 34. We analysed 127 broiler rabbits linea M91 and P91 using PCR-RFLP. We noted slight majority of genoty...

  3. Effect of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins on radius fracture healing in rabbits Efeito de proteínas morfogenéticas ósseas de origem bovina na consolidação de fraturas induzidas no rádio de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Feio da Maia Lima

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (bBMPs bound to hydroxyapatite plus collagen in the healing of unstable radius fractures. METHODS: A transverse fracture was induced at the mid of the diaphysis in both radii on 15 Norfolk rabbits with average age of 5.5 months and 3.5kg. A mixture of bBMPs bound to thin powdered hydroxyapatite (bBMP-HA and bovine collagen as agglutinant was applied to the right radius fracture site. The left radius fracture was considered control and no treatment was used. After 30, 60 and 90 days (5 rabbits/period the rabbits were euthanized and the radii were collected for histological analysis. RESULTS: The descriptive histological analysis revealed that repair was similar for both forelimbs. The histomorphometric analysis showed that the mean area of newly formed bone was 867442.16 mm², 938743.00 mm² and 779621.06 mm² for the control forelimbs, and 841118.47 mm², 788038.76mm² and 618587.24 mm² for the treated forelimbs at 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively. Thus the newly formed bone area was 12.17% larger in the forelimbs treated with bBMP-HA/collagen than in the control forelimbs (pOBJETIVO: Investigar a influência de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas de origem bovina (bBMPs ligadas a hidroxiapatita mais colágeno na consolidação de fraturas instáveis do rádio. MÉTODOS: Em 15 coelhos com aproximadamente 5,5 meses de idade e peso médio de 3,5kg foi realizada uma fratura transversa na porção média da diáfise do rádio de ambos os membros. Na fratura do rádio direito foi aplicada mistura de bBMPs ligadas à hidroxiapatita (bBMP-HA e colágeno bovino como aglutinante e na do rádio esquerdo, considerada controle, nenhum tratamento foi usado. Os coelhos (cinco por período foram submetidos à eutanásia aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a cirurgia para realização do processamento histológico e análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A análise histológica descritiva revelou que

  4. Comparative penetration of azlocillin and mezlocillin into cerebrospinal fluid of normal rabbits and rabbits with experimentally induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, G R; Worley, S E

    1982-01-01

    The impacts of meningeal infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and route of drug administration on the penetration of azlocillin and mezlocillin into the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits were evaluated. The penetration of both agents was increased to a similar degree in rabbits with meningitis compared with normal rabbits. The increase in penetration was greater after intravenous administration than after intramuscular administration.

  5. Cloning, Characteristics, and Functional Analysis of Rabbit NADPH Oxidase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Yin, Caiyong; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Fulton, David J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nox5 was the last member of the Nox enzyme family to be identified. Functionally distinct from the other Nox isoforms, our understanding of its physiological significance has been hampered by the absence of Nox5 in mouse and rat genomes. Nox5 is present in the genomes of other species such as the rabbit that have broad utility as models of cardiovascular disease. However, the mRNA sequence, characteristics, and functional analysis of rabbit Nox5 has not been fully defined and were the goals of the current study. Methods: Rabbit Nox5 was amplified from rabbit tissue, cloned, and sequenced. COS-7 cells were employed for expression and functional analysis via Western blotting and measurements of superoxide. We designed and synthesized miRNAs selectively targeting rabbit Nox5. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of rabbit Nox5 were aligned with those of putative rabbit isoforms (X1, X2, X3, and X4). A phylogenetic tree was generated based on the mRNA sequence for Nox5 from rabbit and other species. Results: Sequence alignment revealed that the identified rabbit Nox5 was highly conserved with the predicted sequence of rabbit Nox5. Cell based experiments reveal that rabbit Nox5 was robustly expressed and produced superoxide at rest and in a calcium and PMA-dependent manner that was susceptible to superoxide dismutase and the flavoprotein inhibitor, DPI. miRNA-1 was shown to be most effective in down-regulating the expression of rabbit Nox5. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between rabbit and armadillo Nox5. Rabbit Nox5 was relatively closely related to human Nox5, but lies in a distinct cluster. Conclusion: Our study establishes the suitability of the rabbit as a model organism to further our understanding of the role of Nox5 in cardiovascular and other diseases and provides new information on the genetic relationship of Nox5 genes in different species. PMID:27486403

  6. Functional-adaptive anatomy of the forelimb in the Didelphidae, and the paleobiology of the Paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argot, C

    2001-01-01

    An attempt to determine the locomotor activities of Mayulestes ferox (Borhyaenoidea) and Pucadelphys andinus (Didelphoidea) from the early Paleocene site of Tiupampa (Bolivia) is presented. The functional anatomy of the forelimbs of these South American marsupials is compared to that of some living didelphids: Caluromys philander, Micoureus demerarae, Marmosa murina, Didelphis marsupialis, Monodelphis brevicaudata and Metachirus nudicaudatus. Deductions from bone morphology to myology and locomotor behavior in the fossils are inferred from the comparisons with living forms. Some features of the postcranial skeleton, indicative of arboreal adaptations, are found in the extinct marsupials: anteriorly projected acromion, hemispherical head of the humerus, extended humeral lateral epicondylar ridge, medially protruding humeral entepicondyle, proximal ulnar posterior convexity, and deep flexor fossa on the medial side of the ulna. But other features are related to a more terrestrial pattern: the well-developed tubercles of the humeral head, the elongated olecranon process of the ulna, and the oval shape of the radial head. Mayulestes had clear arboreal abilities, but, as a predaceous mammal, probably hunted on the ground. Pucadelphys was less specialized, close to the living Monodelphis, a terrestrial insectivorous form with some skeletal features related to arboreal locomotion that are probably plesiomorphic for marsupials. PMID:11124686

  7. Ankle ligamints : comparison of MR arthrography with conventional MR imaging in amputated feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography with conventional MR imaging in the evaluation of ankle ligaments. Eight freshly amputated human feet underwent conventional MR imaging and MR arthrography. For the former, 1.5-T magnets in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes were used, and T1-weighted sequences were obtained. Following the injection of 6-10 ml of diluted contrast media (Gd-DTPA 1:250), T1-weighted images were obtained in the same positions as conventional MR images. Paired conventional MR imaging and MR arthrography of each ankle ligament were rated on a five-point scale, and to reflect inter-group differences a Wilcoxon singed-rank test was used to compare the different measurements (p<0.05). In two ankles, MR images of the ligaments were correlated with ankle dissection. Anterior and posterior talofibular ligaments were more clearly revealed by MR arthrography than by conventional MR imaging, while calcaneofibular ligaments showed no difference between these two modalities. With regard to deltoid ligaments, visualization of the anterior and posterior tibiotalar ligament was much improved when contrast material was used to outline the ligament's articular aspect. Visualization of the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament and inferior transverse ligament were also improved when the use of contrast material provided delineation of the articular side of the ligaments and separated them from adjacent bone. In addition, MR arthography was very useful for indentification of the posterior intermalleolar ligament, though its use did not enhance visualization of the calcaneofibular, tibiocalcaneal, spring or tibiospring ligaments. MR arthrography accurately revealed the anatomic details of ankle ligaments, and may therefore be more useful than conventional Mr imaging for evaluation of these structures

  8. Development of Transvaginal Uterus Amputation Device for Laparoscopic Hysterectomies in Gynecologic Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan DİKİCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterectomy, that is removal of uterus, is one of the most common major operations in gynecologic surgeries. Laparoscopy technique is preferred in hysterectomy because of its advantages such as lower intra-operative blood loss, decreased surrounding tissue/organ damage, less operating time, lower postoperative infection and frequency of fever, shorter duration of hospitalization and post-operative returning time to normal activity. During total laparoscopic hysterectomy, first uterine vessels and ligaments are cauterized respectively, and then cervicovaginal connections are cauterized and coagulated to remove uterus completely. Uterine manipulators are used during laparoscopy to maximize the endoscopic vision of surgeons by moving related organs. However, conventional uterine manipulators have important drawbacks particularly to move uterus in three dimensions and to show cervicovaginal landmark during laparoscopic circular cauterization and amputation of the uterine cervix. A new transvaginal uterine manipulator may overcome these two important drawbacks of these currently available devices. For this reason, a3D scanned technique was used to get uterus sizes and computer aided design software is used in designing of the new manipulator and then 3D printer was used in prototyping. Special light emitting diodes (LEDs were mounted on the cervical cap of the manipulator to guide light beams from inside of cervicovaginal tissue to abdominal cavity to facilitate the visualization of tissue landmarks. Moreover, performances of different caps and LED systems will be evaluated. Furthermore, after integration of self-cutting and self-suturing mechanisms into our system, final prototype will be produced by using titanium which is biologically and mechanically appropriate. Therefore, aim of this study was to design and produce a new uterine manipulator with three dimensional movements, LED illumination, self-cutting and self-suturing systems to facilitate

  9. Smoking synthetic marijuana leads to self-mutilation requiring bilateral amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Karim A; Russo, Russell R; Adhvaryu, Dhaval V

    2014-04-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids have become a worldwide epidemic because they provide a sometimes legal, easily accessible, and presumably safe alternative to marijuana. Recently published reports have linked acute psychosis, myocardial infarctions, convulsions, self-harm, and even terrorist organizations to these designer substances. This case report outlines the first reported case of Black Diamond, a synthetic cannabis, leading to a self-inflicted burn to the bilateral upper extremities requiring a transradial amputation of the right arm and a toe transfer procedure of the left hand after loss of all digits. The patient presented to the emergency department with self-inflicted fourth-degree burns to the bilateral hands and forearms with second-degree burns of the face, for a total body surface area of 14.5%. The patient was found by firefighters with his hands aflame on his kitchen stove. With no previous medical or psychiatric history and collateral information to confirm the patient's mental status prior to use of Black Diamond, the patient's acute psychotic episode was attributed to Black Diamond. After multiple procedures and a lengthy recovery, the patient completed his post-graduate education and entered the professional world. As orthopedic surgeons, we should be involved in educating the public on the harm of these designer drugs, including self-mutilation. The popularity of synthetic drugs in the United States will continue to present a major challenge to all health care providers. Orthopedists are on the front lines of this epidemic because these drugs push patients into risky, traumatic behavior. PMID:24762846

  10. Wound healing in below-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 60 below-knee amputations the healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Of the eight cases with an SPP below 20 mmHg, no less than six (75 per cent) failed to heal and required reamputation at the above-knee level. Of the 12 cases with an SPP between 20 and 30 mmHg four cases (33 per cent) failed to heal but of the 40 cases with an SPP above 30 mmHg, there were only four cases (10 per cent) which did not heal. The difference in failure rate is highly significant (P<0.01). Four out of 30 diabetic patients required reamputation as against 10 out of 30 non-diabetics (0.05< P<0.10) The average SPP was higher in the diabetic group: 57 mmHg (range 18-93 mmHg) compared with 34 mmHg (range 8-68 mmHg) in the non-diabetic group (P<0.001). The postoperative SPP measured on the stumps was on average 8 mmHg higher than the preoperative SPP (P<0.001). The increase took place mainly in stumps with an SPP above 20 mmHg explaining why the preoperative SPP values related so closely to the postoperative clinical course. We conclude that a low SPP can be used to predict ischaemic wound complications, leading to reamputation at a higher level. (author)

  11. Biomechanics of the human walk-to-run gait transition in persons with unilateral transtibial amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giest, Tracy N; Chang, Young-Hui

    2016-06-14

    Propulsive force production (indicative of intrinsic force-length-velocity characteristics of the plantar flexor muscles) has been shown to be a major determinant of the human walk-to-run transition. The purpose of this work was to determine the gait transition speed of persons with unilateral transtibial amputation donning a passive-elastic prosthesis and assess whether a mechanical limit of their intact side plantar flexor muscles is a major determinant of their walk-to-run transition. We determined each individual׳s gait transition speed (GTS) via an incremental protocol and assessed kinetics and kinematics during walking at speeds 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 100%, 120%, and 130% of that gait transition speed (100%:GTS). Unilateral transtibial amputees transitioned between gaits at significantly slower absolute speeds than matched able-bodied controls (1.73±0.13 and 2.09±0.05m/s respectively, p120%: 0.23±0.05BW, p<0.05). In contrast, amputee subjects' intact side generated significantly higher peak anterior-posterior propulsive forces while walking at speeds above their preferred gait transition speed (100%: 0.28±0.04<110%: 0.30±0.04BW, p<0.05). Changes in propulsive force production were found to be a function of changes in absolute speed, rather than relative to the walk-to-run transition speed. Therefore, the walk-to-run transition in unilateral transtibial amputees is not likely dictated by propulsive force production or the force-length-velocity characteristics of the intact side plantar flexor muscles. PMID:27087677

  12. Asymmetrical loading demands associated with vertical jump landings in people with unilateral transtibial amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Schoeman, PhD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Loading symmetry during vertical jump landings between a person with amputation’s intact and prosthetic limbs was assessed to determine the role of each limb in controlling the downward momentum of the center of mass during landing. Six participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA and ten nondisabled participants completed 10 maximal vertical jumps, of which the highest jump was analyzed. Contralateral symmetry was assessed through the Symmetry Index (SI, while symmetry at the group level was assessed through a Mann-Whitney U test. Participants with TTA performed quasi-unilateral landings onto the intact limbs, resulting from either the incapability of the prosthetic ankle to plantar flex or increased residual-limb knee and hip flexion. In the loading phase, the participants with TTA displayed reduced prosthetic-side peak vertical forces (p = 0.04 along with reduced prosthetic-side ankle range of motion (p < 0.001, extensor moments (p = 0.03, and negative work generated (p = 0.00. Individual asymmetries were evident in the peak vertical force magnitudes (SI = 51%–140%, duration from touchdown to peak vertical force (SI = 52%–157%, ankle joint angles at touchdown (SI = 100%–538%, ranges of motion (SI = 147%–200%, knee (SI = 66%–179% and hip (SI = 87%–132% extensor moments, and work done at the ankle (SI = 155%–199% and hip (SI = 83%–204%. High peak forces (25.25 +/– 4.89 N·kg−1 intact limb and 14.61 +/– 8.28 N·kg−1 prosthetic limb from significantly lower (p < 0.001 landing heights than the nondisabled participants indicate a potential injury risk associated with landing for people with TTA.

  13. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-01

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas. PMID:15573951

  14. Towards a unique and transmissible vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease for rabbit populations

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Elena; Bárcena, Juan

    2007-01-01

    Currently available vaccines against myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are not suited to immunise wild rabbit populations, as vaccines need to be delivered individually by conventional veterinary practices. As an alternative approach, research in Spain has focused on the development of a transmissible vaccine. A recombinant virus has been constructed based on a naturally attenuated myxoma virus (MV) field strain, expressing the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). Following inocu...

  15. Becoming and Being: "The Velveteen Rabbit."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Defends "Velveteen Rabbit," a beloved classic, on its 75th anniversary. Finds that the story of a toy which becomes real has stood the test of time, even though critics call it overly sentimental. States that it deals with a universal theme and prepares its young readers for life's vicissitudes. Lists the book's classic elements. Gives questions…

  16. Lewis Thomas and droopy rabbit ears

    OpenAIRE

    Bashyam, Hema

    2007-01-01

    In 1956, Lewis Thomas discovered that injecting rabbits with a plant protease called papain caused their ears to collapse. This experiment led to the identification of the endogenous proteases that cause the tissue destruction seen in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  18. Rabbit production and rabbit market in Romania : the most frequent breeds, half-breeds and their characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Blaga, Bianca-Claudia; Burny, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This study has in view to investigate grossly the Romanian rabbit market as starting point for a future deeper and larger economic approach of the Romanian rabbit market as part of the European market. In Romania, the rabbit meat is expensive (4.48-9.01 Euro perkg), and this is due to its lownumber of consumers. The local rabbit production in Romania is supported only by small farms, and these are not competitive. Rabbit meat imported from Spain is con siderably cheaper than the one local pro...

  19. Primary motor cortex changes after amputation correlate with phantom limb pain and the ability to move the phantom limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Estelle; Richard, Nathalie; Giraux, Pascal; Reilly, Karen T

    2016-04-15

    A substantial body of evidence documents massive reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices following hand amputation, the extent of which is correlated with phantom limb pain. Many therapies for phantom limb pain are based upon the idea that plastic changes after amputation are maladaptive and attempt to normalize representations of cortical areas adjacent to the hand area. Recent data suggest, however, that higher levels of phantom pain are associated with stronger local activity and more structural integrity in the missing hand area rather than with reorganization of neighbouring body parts. While these models appear to be mutually exclusive they could co-exist, and one reason for the apparent discrepancy between them might be that no single study has examined the organisation of lip, elbow, and hand movements in the same participants. In this study we thoroughly examined the 3D anatomy of the central sulcus and BOLD responses during movements of the hand, elbow, and lips using MRI techniques in 11 upper-limb amputees and 17 healthy control subjects. We observed different reorganizational patterns for all three body parts as the former hand area showed few signs of reorganization, but the lip and elbow representations reorganized and shifted towards the hand area. We also found that poorer voluntary control and higher levels of pain in the phantom limb were powerful drivers of the lip and elbow topological changes. In addition to providing further support for the maladaptative plasticity model, we demonstrate for the first time that motor capacities of the phantom limb correlate with post-amputation reorganization, and that this reorganization is not limited to the face and hand representations but also includes the proximal upper-limb. PMID:26854561

  20. Tactile, thermal, and electrical thresholds in patients with and without phantom limb pain after traumatic lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Danielle H Melton,1,2 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA; 2Neurorehabilitation Research Laboratory, TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, Houston, TX, USA Purpose: To examine whether there is central sensitization in patients with phantom limb pain (PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Methods: Seventeen patients after unilateral lower limb amputation secondary to trauma were enrolled. Ten patients had chronic PLP, while the other seven patients had no PLP. Tactile-sensation threshold, cold- and warm-sensation thresholds, cold- and heat-pain thresholds, electrical-sensation threshold (EST, and electrical-pain threshold on the distal residual limb and the symmetrical site on the sound limb were measured in all tested patients. Their thresholds were compared within the PLP and non-PLP group, and between the groups. Results: The novel findings included: 1 electrical-pain threshold was only decreased in the sound limb in the PLP group and there was no difference between two limbs in the non-PLP group, suggesting central sensitization in patients with PLP; and 2 EST was increased on the affected limb as compared to the sound limb within the PLP group, but there were no significant differences in EST between the PLP and non-PLP group. There were in general no significant differences in other tested thresholds within the groups and between groups. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate central sensitization in the patients with PLP after traumatic limb amputation. Keywords: central sensitization, pain threshold, human

  1. Sensory cortical re-mapping following upper-limb amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study demonstrates the change of sensory cortical representations of the residual parts of the arm in an individual who underwent a trans-humeral amputation and subsequent targeted reinnervation (TR. As a relatively new surgical technique, TR restores a direct neural connection from amputated sensorimotor nerves to specific target muscles. This method has been successfully applied to upper-limb and lower-limb amputees, and has shown effectiveness in regaining control signals via the newly re-innervated muscles. Correspondingly, recent study results have shown that motor representations for the missing limb move closer to their original locations following TR. Besides regaining motor control signals, TR also restores the sensation in the re-innervated skin areas. We therefore hypothesize that TR causes analogous cortical sensory remapping that may return closer to their original locations. In order to test this hypothesis, cortical activity in response to sensory-level electrical stimulation in different parts of the arm was studied longitudinally in one amputated individual before and up to 2 years after TR. Our results showed that 1 before TR, the cortical response to sensory electrical stimulation in the residual limb showed a diffuse bilateral pattern without a clear focus in either the time or spatial domain; and 2 2 years after TR, the sensory map of the reinnervated median nerve reorganized, showing predominant activity over the contralateral S1 hand area as well as moderate activity over the ipsilateral S1. Therefore, this work provides new evidence for long-term sensory cortical plasticity in the human brain after TR.

  2. Penis auto-amputation and chasm of the lower abdominal wall due to advanced penile carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Baltogiannis Dimitrios; Zotos Konstantinos; Tsambalas Stavros; Giannakis Dimitrios; Sofikitis Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Penile cancer is uncommon. When penile cancer is left untreated, at an advanced stage it can have tragic consequences for the patient. Case presentation Our case report does not concern a new manifestation of penile cancer, but an interesting presentation with clinical significance that emphasizes the need to diagnose and treat penile cancer early. It is an unusual case of a neglected penile cancer in a 57-year-old Greek man that led to auto-amputation of the penis and a...

  3. Incidental detection of a pseudoaneurysm at an amputation stump in a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    A 20-year-old man underwent a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan for the evaluation of an infection at the stump of an AK amputation, which was conducted due to an open communicated fracture of the left lower leg. Blood-flow and blood-pool images demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm with a focus of intense activity medial to the stump, and centered within a large photopenic defect by surrounding hematoma. Delayed image obtained at 3 hours post-injection showed persistent intense and slight increased activity. Contrast angiography confirmed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm arising from a branch of the left superficial femoral artery.

  4. Incidental detection of a pseudoaneurysm at an amputation stump in a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 20-year-old man underwent a Tc-99m HMPAO labeled leukocyte scan for the evaluation of an infection at the stump of an AK amputation, which was conducted due to an open communicated fracture of the left lower leg. Blood-flow and blood-pool images demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm with a focus of intense activity medial to the stump, and centered within a large photopenic defect by surrounding hematoma. Delayed image obtained at 3 hours post-injection showed persistent intense and slight increased activity. Contrast angiography confirmed the presence of a pseudoaneurysm arising from a branch of the left superficial femoral artery

  5. Translation, Adaptation or Amputation? Arctic Explorer-Writer-Anthropologist Peter Freuchen's Little-Known Danish Translation of Moby Dick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses how the simplification of adaptation can actually empower a translation with a historically and culturally significant function. The study analyses and discusses the fairly unknown first Danish translation of Herman Melville’s classic novel Moby Dick made in 1942. The...... translation was made by the internationally famous Arctic explorer and writer Peter Freuchen, and his version of the novel has been so drastically cut down to the bare skeleton of the plot that we may speak of amputation rather than adaptation. The result is a so-called real “man’s book”, as is pronounced on...

  6. Crossbreeding effects on rabbit reproduction from four maternal lines of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, M; Sánchez, J P; Mínguez, C; Baselga, M

    2016-07-01

    Litter size is essential for an efficient production of rabbit meat. A diallel cross between four maternal lines was carried out and the analysis of the components of litter size has been already done. This paper presents the analysis of litter size traits themselves (total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), number weaned (NW)) and kindling interval (KI), that complete the analysis of the reproductive performance. The 16 genetic groups were distributed in four Spanish farms. The V line was present in all farms in order to be used as reference group. A total of 34 546 parities from 7111 does, were analysed. The crossbreeding parameters were estimated according to Dickerson model. The differences between lines performance were of low magnitude and not significant for litter size traits. The LP line showed the shortest KI followed by H respect to lines A and V. These differences reflected the differences between direct and maternal genetic effects. The differences between the average of all crosses and line V were found to be significant and seemed to be important, being 0.46 for TB, 0.56 for NBA, 0.75 for NW and -2.21 days for KI. The differences between reciprocal crosses for litter size were of low magnitude and non-significant, which indicate that the maternal effects are not important between these lines. In general, the lines did not show significant differences in direct and maternal genetic effects for TB, NBA and NW but there were some significant differences for KI, which ranged from 1.54 to 6.85 days in direct effects and from 0.63 to 3.38 days for maternal effects. A positive and, in some cases, relevant heterosis was found. The largest heterosis was for TB in the HV cross (1.05 rabbits), followed by the AH (0.74 rabbits), AV (0.57 rabbits) and LH (0.55 rabbits) crosses. For NBA, significant heterosis was found in HV (1.11 rabbits) and AV (0.49 rabbits) and for NW in AV (0.90 rabbits), LH (0.70 rabbits) and LV (0.58 rabbits). Favourable and significant

  7. Characterization of rabbit CD5 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospisil, Richard; Kabat, Juraj; Mage, Rose G

    2009-08-01

    Previously described polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to rabbit CD5, raised against expressed recombinant protein or peptides, recognize CD5 on most rabbit B cells. The mAb KEN-5 was originally reported to recognize rabbit CD5. However, KEN-5 binds almost exclusively to T cells and only to a minor population of B cells. We show here that by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), KEN-5 binds to recombinant rabbit CD5. This interaction is partially inhibited by polyclonal goat anti-CD5 antibody. In addition, immunoprecipitations from lysates of surface biotinylated rabbit lymphocytes with KEN-5 or our anti-CD5 mAb isolate molecules that migrate identically on gels with the same approximate relative molecular mass of 67,000 M(r). By flow cytometric analyses of individual cells from spleen, thymus and appendix, KEN-5 recognizes CD5-like molecules mainly on T cells and on 3-6% of IgM(+) B cells. Immunohistochemical staining of splenic and appendix tissues and confocal immunofluorescent imaging confirm and extend results from flow cytometric analyses. Quantitation of fluorescent colocalization indicates that staining by KEN-5 colocalizes with staining by anti-CD5 on small percentage lymphocytes in splenic tissue sections. As CD5 has both N- and O-linked glycosylation, we hypothesised that differential binding of KEN-5 to T cells and B-cells may be explained by different glycan structures on the CD5 present on T compared to B cells. This hypothesis is supported by ELISA data that show that deglycosylation diminishes the binding of KEN-5 to recombinant rabbit CD5. Screening KEN-5 on an array with 406 glycans was inconclusive. Although we did not identify a strongly binding glycan structure, the data are suggestive that the epitope recognized by KEN-5 may be influenced by glycan structures. The epitope this mAb recognizes may either be the glycan itself, or more likely, is influenced by neighboring glycan structure. Our findings suggest that development

  8. Incidence of major amputations, bypass procedures and percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA) in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a German referral center 1996-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the current incidence of major amputations, bypass procedures and percutaneous transluminal angioplasties (PTA) in a study population of patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease in a German referral center. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, we recruited patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease who underwent an amputation, bypass procedure, or PTA in the region of the pelvis or lower limbs between 1996 and 2003 at the Augsburg Medical Center. Patients were identified via the hospital database. This was performed with the help of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD 9 and 10), the operation code (OPS), and appropriate invoices. The incidence of PTAs was further estimated with 200 charts. Results: Of 5379 patients, 627 underwent amputation, 1832 a bypass procedure, and 2920 a PTA. The incidence of PTAs increased during the study period from 51.3/100 000/year to 64.4/100 000/year (p<0.01), while the number of amputations and bypass procedures remained stable. The incidence of PTAs was exceeded by that of bypass procedures only in patients older than 85 years. The age of the amputees decreased during the study period from 72.2 to 70.5 years (p<0.01). The age of patients who underwent a bypass procedure increased from 67.2 to 69.4 years, and the age of patients who underwent PTA increased form 66.3 to 69.8 years (p<0.01). Bypass procedures and PTAs were performed in men 6.3 years earlier than in women (p<0.01). Conclusion: The result is a population-corrected need of 8.4/100 000/year major amputations, 23/100 000/year bypass procedures and 64.4/100 000/year PTAs for patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease within the referral area of our hospital. The performance of major amputations and bypass procedures stagnates, while the incidence of PTAs is increasing. (orig.)

  9. Graft-mediated functional recovery on a skilled forelimb use paradigm in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease is dependent on reward contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Karina Kohn; Jiang, Wei; Papazoglou, Anna; Tenório, Sérgio Bernardo; Döbrössy, Máté; Nikkhah, Guido

    2010-10-15

    The Staircase test measures lateralised deficits in skilled paw reaching in rodents, and there is a long-standing discrepancy in the literature on whether the paradigm is sensitive to graft-mediated functional recovery in the rodent model of Parkinson's disease. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the critical influence of test conditions like pellet density on dopamine-dependent graft-mediated functional recovery. Rats were pre-trained on the Staircase test with a configuration of 8 pellets in each of the 6 wells bilaterally prior to receiving unilateral 6-OHDA lesions of the medial forebrain bundle. Later, the lesioned animals received E14 VM grafts into the striatum, and were tested on the Staircase test under one of two test configurations: bilaterally, either with 10 (HIGH) or with 2 (LOW) pellets per well. Subsequent sessions included unilateral forced-choice testing under the same pellet configuration, and second bilateral and forced-choice sessions with the pellet density configurations switched around between the groups (Cross-over). Animals were also tested on the Corridor and the Cylinder test, and subjected to drug-induced rotation. Graft-mediated functional recovery was observed in the pellets taken criteria only under the HIGH pellet configuration during the bilateral and the forced choice condition. When tested under the LOW configuration, the graft provided no measurable benefit. The presence of VM grafts reduced lateralised motor deficits in the Cylinder test, the adjacent version of the Corridor test, and drug-induced rotation. Our results confirm that VM transplants can partially restore skilled forelimb sensorimotor deficits under specific testing configuration. PMID:20394782

  10. Radiographic characteristics of the forelimb distal phalanx and microscopic morphology of the lateral palmar process in foals 3-32 weeks old

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developmental morphology of the forelimb distal phalanges and lateral palmar processes of 9 Thoroughbred foals aged 3–32 weeks was assessed using radiography, microradiography and histology. For inclusion in the study, all distal phalanges had no pathologic radiographic abnormalities.Vascular channels that are characteristically found in the dorsal region of the distal phalanx were not evident radiographically in the palmar process. The proximal and distal angles of the palmar processes were separated by a lucent line continuous with the incisure in foals only through 12 weeks of age. The distal phalanges were triangular-shaped in foals 3–12 weeks of age, and were oval-shaped in older foals.The palmar aspect of the distal phalanx was the major contributor to growth of the distal phalanx in the sagittal plane, especially between 3 and 12 weeks of age. Growth of the lateral palmar process occurred through the means of endochondral ossification. The body and cortices of the lateral palmar process were composed of coarse cancellous bone. Porosity within the lateral palmar process was greater in regions sampled axial, compared to abaxial, to the parietal sulcus and did not change with age.A fracture was identified microradiographically and/or histologically in 9 of 18 (50%) and 10 of 17 (59%), respectively, of the lateral palmar processes examined. The fracture line was consistently associated with the parietal sulcus on the dorsal cortical surface and was always immediately abaxial to the deep digital flexor tendon attachment. No age-related morphological changes of the lateral palmar processes were identified with microradiography or histological examinations

  11. A Simple Technique for the Positioning of a Patient with an above Knee Amputation for an Ipsilateral Extracapsular Hip Fracture Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Davarinos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The positioning of the patient on the fracture table is critical to the successful reduction and operative fixation of hip fractures which are fixed using the dynamic hip screw system (DHS. There is a standard setup which is commonly used with relative ease. Yet the positioning of patients with amputations either above or below knee of the affected side can pose a significant challenge. We describe a novel positioning technique used on a 51-year old patient with a right above knee amputation who sustained an intertrochanteric extracapsular hip fracture.

  12. Health-Related Quality of Life Predicts Major Amputation and Death, but Not Healing, in People With Diabetes Presenting With Foot Ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersma, V.; Thorsen, H.; Holstein, P.E.;

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveLow health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been consistently reported to be associated with poor prognosis for a variety of health outcomes in various settings. We aimed to evaluate whether HRQoL in patients presenting with new diabetic foot ulcers has prognostic significance for ulcer...... healing, major amputation and death.Research design and methodsWe followed 1088 patients with new diabetic foot ulcers presenting for treatment at one of the 14 centers in 10 European countries participating in the Eurodiale study, prospectively until healing (76.9%), major amputation (4.6%) or death (6...

  13. Effect of amputation level on the stress transferred to the femur by an artificial limb directly attached to the bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, L; Dewar, M; Blunn, G W; Fromme, P

    2013-12-01

    Attachment of an artificial limb directly to the skeleton has a number of potential benefits and the technique has been implemented for several amputation sites. In this paper the transfer of stress from an external, transfemoral prosthesis to the femur during normal walking activity is investigated. The stress distribution in the femur and at the implant-bone interface is calculated using finite element analysis for the 3D geometry and inhomogeneous, anisotropic material properties obtained from a CT scan of a healthy femur. Attachment of the prosthetic leg at three different levels of amputation is considered. Stress concentrations are found at the distal end of the bone and adjacent to the implant tip and stress shielding is observed adjacent to the implant. It is found that the stress distribution in the femur distal to the epiphysis, where the femur geometry is close to cylindrical, can be predicted from a cylindrical finite element model, using the correct choice of bone diameter as measured from a radiograph. Proximal to the lesser trochanter the stress decreases as the femur geometry diverges significantly from a cylinder. The stress concentration at the distal, resected end of the bone is removed when a collared implant is employed. These findings form the basis for appropriate settings of an external fail-safe device to protect the bone from excessive stress in the event of an undue load. PMID:23953406

  14. Breathing-controlled electrical stimulation could modify the affective component of neuropathic pain after amputation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melton DH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheng Li1,2, Danielle H Melton1, Jeffrey C Berliner11Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Medical School – Houston, Houston, TX; 2UTHealth Motor Recovery Laboratory, Institute for Rehabilitation and Research, Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: In this case, a 31-year-old male suffered phantom neuropathic pain for more than 3 years after an above-the-knee amputation. His shooting phantom pain disappeared after the first session of breathing-controlled electrical stimulation, and reappeared or was triggered 28 days after an experimental error during which he received sustained electrical stimulation. In other words, painful shooting stimuli may not have been “cured” but forgotten and retriggered by a fearful event due to the experimental error. Therefore, this accidental finding provides a unique opportunity to understand sensory and affective components of neuropathic pain, and a novel intervention could modify the affective component of it.Keywords: neuropathic pain, amputation, electrical stimulation, voluntary breathing

  15. Paul Wittgenstein's right arm and his phantom: the saga of a famous concert pianist and his amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, François; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs have increased in recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems are still poorly understood and are considered rather mysterious, and they are difficult to treat. In addition, they may shed light on brain physiology and neuropsychology. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Several artists have suffered from postamputation complications and this has influenced not only their personal life but also their artistic work. Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), a pianist whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert performer. His case provides insight into Post-World War I musical and political history. More specifically, the impact on the artistic life of this pianist illustrates various postamputation complications, such as phantom limb, stump pain, and especially moving phantom. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him develop the dexterity of his left hand. Wittgenstein played piano works that were written especially for him (the most famous being Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand) and composed some of his own. Additionally, several famous composers had previously written for the left hand. PMID:25684295

  16. Rabbit lung injury induced by explosive decompression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the mechanism of rabbit lunginjury caused by explosive decompression. Methods: A total of 42 rabbits and 10 rats were served as the experimental animals. A slow recompressiondecompression test and an explosive decompression test were applied to the animals, respectively. And the effects of the given tests on the animals were discussed. Results: The slow recompression-decompression did not cause an obvious lung injury, but the explosive decompression did cause lung injuries in different degrees. The greater the decompression range was, the shorter the decompression duration was, and the heavier the lung injuries were. Conclusions: Explosive decompression can cause a similar lung injury as shock wave does. The primary mechanical causes of the lung injury might be a tensile strain or stress in the alveolar wall and the pulmonary surface's impacts on the inside wall of the chest.

  17. Out-pile tests for improved type rabbits in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation tests by hydraulic rabbit are expected to increase the demand of medical use radioisotope productions and nuclear human resource development after restart of Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). Therefore, it is necessary to shorten fabrication period of hydraulic rabbits. In this study, applicability of the pressure welding type hydraulic rabbit, which was used in Japan Research Reactor-3 (JRR-3), was examined. As the results, it was confirmed that the fabricated hydraulic rabbit kept airtightness of the external pressure of 2.45 MPa, impact of the fall from 5m in height and every 5 times of thermal cycle under conditions such as 110°C ,200°C and 300°C. Furthermore, it was clear that the fabricated hydraulic rabbit had the endurance up to the inner pressure of 1 MPa. Therefore, there were bright prospects that the pressure hydraulic type rabbit has the applicability of the irradiation test in JMTR. (author)

  18. Carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, A. S.; de Castro, C. R.; de Ferreyra, E. C.; Villarruel, M. C.; Fernández, G.; de Fenos, O. M.; Castro, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    CCl4 administration to rabbits leads to early destruction of liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, to depression of glucose 6 phosphatase, to ultrastructurally revealable alterations and to an intense necrosis and fat accumulation in liver. Despite the known resistance of rabbit liver microsomes to lipid peroxidation, CCl4 administration to rabbits promoted lipid peroxidation of their liver microsomal lipids as revealable by the diene hyperconjugation technique, at periods of time from 1 to 12 h. Nevertheless, the intensity of this process is not equivalent to that occurring in rat liver microsomes, since the arachidonic acid content of rabbit liver microsomal lipids does not decrease at either 6 or 24 h after CCl4 administration. Rabbit liver is able to activate CCl4 to reactive metabolites that bind covalently to lipids. Relevance of covalent binding of CCl4 reactive metabolites and CCl4-promoted lipid peroxidation to CCl4-induced rabbit liver injury is analysed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6309207

  19. Design, fabrication and inspection of rabbit capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many capsules designed by Irradiation Div. 1 have been irradiated in the JMTR reactor in past years. The Irradiation Div. 1 has been developing and studying the irradiation and design techniques. This report contains the description of the design and inspection standard, fabrication and the basic design of small capsule called ''Rabbit''. Therefore, this report is very useful for proposer who want to irradiate small specimen by irradiation facility in the JMTR reactor. (author)

  20. Effectiveness of cyanoacrylate adhesive in rabbit aortorrhaphy

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Vinicius Henriques de Carvalho; Evaldo Marchi; Mario Pantaroto

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Even when properly performed, arterial sutures are not always absolutely hemostatic. Tissue sealants and adhesives have become available that can be used to complete sutures, preventing hemorrhage problems.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of cyanoacrylate adhesive for sealing aortotomies in rabbits in a coagulopathic state, by analyzing survival of the animals and the time taken to achieve hemostasis.METHODS: Ten-mm long aortotomies were performed on the infrarenal aortas...