#### Sample records for amplitude proportional coulomb

1. Optimal Tuning of Amplitude Proportional Coulomb Friction Damper for Maximum Cable Damping

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Weber, Felix; Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

2010-01-01

This paper investigates numerically the optimal tuning of Coulomb friction dampers on cables, where the optimality criterion is maximum additional damping in the first vibration mode. The expression for the optimal friction force level of Coulomb friction dampers follows from the linear viscous...... to higher modes evoked by the amplitude proportional Coulomb friction damper which clamps the cable at its upper and lower positions. The resulting nonsinusoidal cable motion clearly violates the assumption of pure harmonic motion and explains why such dampers have to be tuned differently from optimal...... damper via harmonic averaging. It turns out that the friction force level has to be adjusted in proportion to cable amplitude at damper position which is realized by amplitude feedback in real time. The performance of this adaptive damper is assessed by simulated free decay curves from which the damping...

2. Exact solution to the Coulomb wave using the linearized phase-amplitude method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shuji Kiyokawa

2015-08-01

Full Text Available The author shows that the amplitude equation from the phase-amplitude method of calculating continuum wave functions can be linearized into a 3rd-order differential equation. Using this linearized equation, in the case of the Coulomb potential, the author also shows that the amplitude function has an analytically exact solution represented by means of an irregular confluent hypergeometric function. Furthermore, it is shown that the exact solution for the Coulomb potential reproduces the wave function for free space expressed by the spherical Bessel function. The amplitude equation for the large component of the Dirac spinor is also shown to be the linearized 3rd-order differential equation.

3. Amplitude Function of Asymptotic Correlations Along Charged Wall in Coulomb Fluids

Science.gov (United States)

Šamaj, Ladislav

2016-07-01

In classical semi-infinite Coulomb fluids, two-point correlation functions exhibit a slow inverse-power law decay along a uniformly charged wall. In this work, we concentrate on the corresponding amplitude function which depends on the distances of the two points from the wall. Recently Šamaj (J Stat Phys 161:227-249 2015), applying a technique of anticommuting variables to a 2D system of charged rectilinear wall with "counter-ions only", we derived a relation between the amplitude function and the density profile which holds for any temperature. In this paper, using the Möbius conformal transformation of particle coordinates in a disc, a new relation between the amplitude function and the density profile is found for that model. In all exactly solvable cases, the amplitude function factorizes itself in the two distances from the wall. Presupposing this factorization property at any temperature and using specific sum rules for semi-infinite geometries, a relation between the amplitude function of the charge-charge structure function and the charge profile is derived for many-component Coulomb fluids in any dimension.

4. Proportionality lost - proportionality regained?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Werlauff, Erik

2010-01-01

In recent years, the European Court of Justice (the ECJ) seems to have accepted restrictions on the freedom of establishment and other basic freedoms, despite the fact that a more thorough proportionality test would have revealed that the restriction in question did not pass the 'rule of reason' ...

5. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits

OpenAIRE

Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

2008-01-01

We study drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts (QPC), coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of QPC gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the non-linear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit,...

6. Proportional reasoning

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

2015-01-01

Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...... to foster students’ proportional reasoning. Classroom data revealed limited initial teacher knowledge and awareness of the pervasive nature of proportional reasoning required in the mathematics curriculum. Teacher capacity to seize teachable moments for building students’ proportional reasoning skills...... increased throughout the project. From this background, this paper presents an analysis of the proportional reasoning demands and opportunities of topics within the school mathematics curriculum in Australia. Implications for the study of whole number arithmetic (WNA) and other topics to promote...

7. A Coulomb-Like Off-Shell T-Matrix with the Correct Coulomb Phase Shift

Science.gov (United States)

Oryu, Shinsho; Watanabe, Takashi; Hiratsuka, Yasuhisa; Togawa, Yoshio

2017-03-01

We confirm the reliability of the well-known Coulomb renormalization method (CRM). It is found that the CRM is only available for a very-long-range screened Coulomb potential (SCP). However, such an SCP calculation in momentum space is considerably difficult because of the cancelation of significant digits. In contrast to the CRM, we propose a new method by using an on-shell equivalent SCP and the rest term. The two-potential theory with r-space is introduced, which defines fully the off-shell Coulomb amplitude.

8. Coulomb Thrusting Application Study

Science.gov (United States)

2006-01-20

this formation about the orbit radial direction. From this point on- wards, this will be referred to as the Coulomb tether regulation problem . These...m2 m2 (6.13) For the Coulomb tether regulation problem , L is taken as a sum of a constant reference length Lref and a small varying length δL...be noted that in the Coulomb tether regulation problem Lref is constant and the dif- ferential equation given in Eq. (6.13) is lin- earized by

9. Coulomb collision effects on linear Landau damping

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Callen, J. D., E-mail: callen@engr.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1609 (United States)

2014-05-15

Coulomb collisions at rate ν produce slightly probabilistic rather than fully deterministic charged particle trajectories in weakly collisional plasmas. Their diffusive velocity scattering effects on the response to a wave yield an effective collision rate ν{sub eff} ≫ ν and a narrow dissipative boundary layer for particles with velocities near the wave phase velocity. These dissipative effects produce temporal irreversibility for times t ≳ 1/ν{sub eff} during Landau damping of a small amplitude Langmuir wave.

10. Relativistic Coulomb scattering of spinless bosons

CERN Document Server

Garcia, M G

2015-01-01

The relativistic scattering of spin-0 bosons by spherically symmetric Coulomb fields is analyzed in detail with an arbitrary mixing of vector and scalar couplings. It is shown that the partial wave series reduces the scattering amplitude to the closed Rutherford formula exactly when the vector and scalar potentials have the same magnitude, and as an approximation for weak fields. The behavior of the scattering amplitude near the conditions that furnish its closed form is also discussed. Strong suppressions of the scattering amplitude when the vector and scalar potentials have the same magnitude are observed either for particles or antiparticles with low incident momentum. We point out that such strong suppressions might be relevant in the analysis of the scattering of fermions near the conditions for the spin and pseudospin symmetries. From the complex poles of the partial scattering amplitude the exact closed form of bound-state solutions for both particles and antiparticles with different scenarios for the ...

11. Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor

CERN Document Server

Quandt, M; Chimchinda, S; Reinhardt, H

2008-01-01

The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0--propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0-propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.

12. Coulomb gauge ghost propagator and the Coulomb form factor

Science.gov (United States)

Quandt, M.; Burgio, G.; Chimchinda, S.; Reinhardt, H.

The ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are evaluated in Coulomb gauge on the lattice, using an improved gauge fixing scheme which includes the residual symmetry. This setting has been shown to be essential in order to explain the scaling violations in the instantaneous gluon propagator. We find that both the ghost propagator and the Coulomb potential are insensitive to the Gribov problem or the details of the residual gauge fixing, even if the Coulomb potential is evaluated from the A0 -propagator instead of the Coulomb kernel. In particular, no signs of scaling violations could be found in either quantity, at least to well below the numerical accuracy where these violations were visible for the gluon propagator. The Coulomb potential from the A0 -propagator is shown to be in qualitative agreement with the (formally equivalent) expression evaluated from the Coulomb kernel.

13. Traceable Coulomb Blockade Thermometry

CERN Document Server

Hahtela, Ossi; Kemppinen, Antti; Meschke, Matthias; Prunnila, Mika; Gunnarsson, David; Roschier, Leif; Penttila, Jari; Pekola, Jukka

2016-01-01

We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods, the numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip yield almost identical results. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that the relative expanded uncertainty (k = 2) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 1 %. A good agreement within the measurement uncertainty is experimentally demonstrated between the Coulomb blockade thermometer and a superconducting reference point device that has been directly calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

14. Coulomb Effects in Femtoscopy

CERN Document Server

Maj, Radoslaw

2009-01-01

The correlation function of two identical particles - pions or kaons - interacting via Coulomb potential is computed. The particles are emitted from an anisotropic particle's source of finite lifetime. In the case of pions, the effect of halo is taken into account as an additional particle's source of large spatial extension. The relativistic effects are discussed in detail. The Bowler-Sinyukov procedure to remove the Coulomb interaction is carefully tested. In the absence of halo the procedure is shown to work very well even for an extremely anisotropic source. When the halo is taken into account the free correlation function, which is extracted by means of the Bowler-Sinyukov procedure, is distorted at small relative momenta but the source parameters are still correctly reproduced.

15. Distorted Coulomb field of the scattered electron

CERN Document Server

Thomsen, H D; Andersen, K K; Lund, M D; Knudsen, H; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj1, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

2010-01-01

Experimental results for the radiation emission from ultrarelativistic electrons in targets of 0.03%–5% radiation length is presented. For the thinnest targets, the radiation emission is in accordance with the Bethe-Heitler formulation of bremsstrahlung, the target acting as a single scatterer. In this regime, the radiation intensity is proportional to the thickness. As the thickness increases, the distorted Coulomb field of the electron that is the result of the first scattering events, leads to a suppressed radiation emission per interaction, upon subsequent scattering events. In that case, the radiation intensity becomes proportional to a logarithmic function of the thickness, due to the suppression. Eventually, once the target becomes sufficiently thick, the entire radiation process becomes influenced by multiple scattering and the radiation intensity is again proportional to the thickness, but with a different constant of proportionality. The observed logarithmic thickness dependence of radiation inten...

16. Non-linear conductivity in Coulomb glasses

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Voje, A.; Bergli, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Ortuno, M.; Somoza, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica - CIOyN, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30.071 (Spain); Caravaca, M.

2009-12-15

We have studied the nonlinear conductivity of two-dimensional Coulomb glasses. We have used a Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the dynamic of the system under an applied electric field E. We have compared results for two different models: a regular square lattice with only diagonal disorder and a random array of sites with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. We have found that for moderate fields the logarithm of the conductivity is proportional to {radical}(E)/T{sup 2}, reproducing experimental results. We have also found that in the nonlinear regime the site occupancy in the Coulomb gap follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature T{sub eff} higher than the phonon bath temperature T. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

17. The Coulomb Green's function

Science.gov (United States)

Lieber, Michael

1989-06-01

It is something of a miracle that the nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation with a Coulomb potential can be solved for the wavefunction in exact analytic form. Even more miraculous is the result of Schwinger which enables the Green's function to be solved in closed form, for this is in effect, an infinite sum of wavefunction products. In the relativistic case too the wavefunction can be found in closed form, but as yet no such result for the Green's function has been found. This lecture provides a brief overview of the situation with an emphasis on the hidden symmetry'' which underlies the nonrelativisitic problem and its degenerate form which carries over to the relativistic case.

18. Enhanced population of side band of {sup 155}Gd in heavy-ion Coulomb excitation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oshima, Masumi; Hayakawa, Takehito; Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

1998-03-01

In the Coulomb excitation of {sup 155}Gd with heavy projectiles, {sup 32}S, {sup 58}Ni and {sup 90}Zr, unexpectedly large enhancement of a positive-parity side band has been observed. This enhancement could not be reproduced by a Coulomb-excitation calculation taking into account the recommended upper limits of E1 or E3 transitions, which are compiled in the whole mass region, and is proportional to the electric field accomplished in the Coulomb-scattering process. (author)

19. Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry

Science.gov (United States)

Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.

2017-02-01

We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

20. Classical and quantum Coulomb crystals

CERN Document Server

Bonitz, M; Baumgartner, H; Henning, C; Filinov, A; Block, D; Arp, O; Piel, A; Kading, S; Ivanov, Y; Melzer, A; Fehske, H; Filinov, V

2008-01-01

Strong correlation effects in classical and quantum plasmas are discussed. In particular, Coulomb (Wigner) crystallization phenomena are reviewed focusing on one-component non-neutral plasmas in traps and on macroscopic two-component neutral plasmas. The conditions for crystal formation in terms of critical values of the coupling parameters and the distance fluctuations and the phase diagram of Coulomb crystals are discussed.

1. Coulomb explosion of "hot spot"

CERN Document Server

Oreshkin, V I; Chaikovsky, S A; Artyomov, A P

2016-01-01

The study presented in this paper has shown that the generation of hard x rays and high-energy ions, which are detected in pinch implosion experiments, may be associated with the Coulomb explosion of the hot spot that is formed due to the outflow of the material from the pinch cross point. During the process of material outflow, the temperature of the hot spot plasma increases, and conditions arise for the plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated. The runaway of electrons from the hot spot region results in the buildup of positive space charge in this region followed by a Coulomb explosion. The conditions for the hot spot plasma electrons to become continuously accelerated have been revealed and estimates have been obtained for the kinetic energy of the ions generated by the Coulomb explosion.

2. Interpolating the Coulomb Phase of Little String Theory

CERN Document Server

Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

2015-01-01

We study up to 8-derivative terms in the Coulomb branch effective action of (1,1) little string theory, by collecting results of 4-gluon scattering amplitudes from both perturbative 6D super-Yang-Mills theory up to 4-loop order, and tree-level double scaled little string theory (DSLST). In previous work we have matched the 6-derivative term from the 6D gauge theory to DSLST, indicating that this term is protected on the entire Coulomb branch. The 8-derivative term, on the other hand, is unprotected. In this paper we compute the 8-derivative term by interpolating from the two limits, near the origin and near the infinity on the Coulomb branch, numerically from SU(k) SYM and DSLST respectively, for k=2,3,4,5. We discuss the implication of this result on the UV completion of 6D SYM as well as the strong coupling completion of DSLST. We also comment on analogous interpolating functions in the Coulomb phase of circle-compactified (2,0) little string theory.

3. No confinement without Coulomb confinement

CERN Document Server

Zwanziger, D

2003-01-01

We compare the physical potential $V_D(R)$ of an external quark-antiquark pair in the representation $D$ of SU(N), to the color-Coulomb potential $V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ which is the instantaneous part of the 44-component of the gluon propagator in Coulomb gauge, $D_{44}(\\vx,t) = V_{\\rm coul}(|\\vx|) \\delta(t)$ + (non-instantaneous). We show that if $V_D(R)$ is confining, $\\lim_{R \\to \\infty}V_D(R) = + \\infty$, then the inequality $V_D(R) \\leq - C_D V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ holds asymptotically at large $R$, where $C_D > 0$ is the Casimir in the representation $D$. This implies that $- V_{\\rm coul}(R)$ is also confining.

4. Coulomb excitation of Ga-73

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Diriken, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Balabanski, D.; Blasi, N.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Cederkaell, J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Davinson, T.; Eberth, J.; Ekstrom, A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Franchoo, S.; Georgiev, G.; Gladnishki, K.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Iwanicki, J.; Jolie, J.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Kroell, Th.; Kruecken, R.; Koester, U.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Maierbeck, P.; Marsh, B. A.; Napiorkowski, P.; Patronis, N.; Pauwels, D.; Reiter, P.; Seliverstov, M.; Sletten, G.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Voulot, D.; Walters, W. B.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wrzosek, K.

2010-01-01

The B(E2; I-i -> I-f) values for transitions in Ga-71(31)40 and Ga-73(31)42 were deduced from a Coulomb excitation experiment at the safe energy of 2.95 MeV/nucleon using post-accelerated beams of Ga-71,Ga-73 at the REX-ISOLDE on-line isotope mass separator facility. The emitted gamma rays were dete

5. Renormalization group analysis of graphene with a supercritical Coulomb impurity

Science.gov (United States)

Nishida, Yusuke

2016-08-01

We develop a field-theoretic approach to massless Dirac fermions in a supercritical Coulomb potential. By introducing an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid at the potential center, the critical Coulomb charge can be made arbitrarily small for one partial-wave sector, where a perturbative renormalization group analysis becomes possible. We show that a scattering amplitude for reflection of particle at the potential center exhibits the renormalization group limit cycle, i.e., log-periodic revolutions as a function of the scattering energy, revealing the emergence of discrete scale invariance. This outcome is further incorporated in computing the induced charge and current densities, which turn out to have power-law tails with coefficients log-periodic with respect to the distance from the potential center. Our findings are consistent with the previous prediction obtained by directly solving the Dirac equation and can in principle be realized by graphene experiments with charged impurities.

6. Renormalization group analysis of graphene with a supercritical Coulomb impurity

CERN Document Server

Nishida, Yusuke

2016-01-01

We develop a field theoretical approach to massless Dirac fermions in a supercritical Coulomb potential. By introducing an Aharonov-Bohm solenoid at the potential center, the critical Coulomb charge can be made arbitrarily small for one partial wave sector, where a perturbative renormalization group analysis becomes possible. We show that a scattering amplitude for reflection of particle at the potential center exhibits the renormalization group limit cycle, i.e., log-periodic revolutions as a function of the scattering energy, revealing the emergence of discrete scale invariance. This outcome is further incorporated in computing the induced charge and current densities, which turn out to have power law tails with coefficients log-periodic with respect to the distance from the potential center. Our findings are consistent with the previous prediction obtained by directly solving the Dirac equation and can in principle be realized by graphene experiments with charged impurities.

7. Coulomb-Born-Oppenheimer approximation in Ps-H scattering

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

Hasi Ray

2006-02-01

To improve the Coulomb-Born approximation (CBA) theory of ionization in positronium (Ps) and atom scattering, the effect of exchange is introduced. The nine-dimensional exchange amplitude for ionization of Ps in Ps-H scattering is reduced to a two-dimensional integral using the present Coulomb-Born-Oppenheimer approximation (CBOA). The methodology is extremely useful to evaluate ionization parameters for different target systems and for different types of ionization processes. It is then applied to evaluate the Ps-ionization cross-section and to estimate the effect of exchange on Ps-ionization in Ps-H system. We establish the importance of exchange at lower energy region.

8. Revival of the Phase-Amplitude Description of a Quantum-Mechanical Wave Function

Science.gov (United States)

Rawitscher, George

2017-01-01

The phase-amplitude description of a wave function is formulated by means of a new linear differential-integral equation, which is valid in the region of turning points. A numerical example for a Coulomb potential is presented.

9. The Principle of Proportionality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

2005-01-01

Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

10. Strong-Field S-Matrix Theory With Coulomb-Volkov Final State in All Orders

CERN Document Server

Faisal, F H M

2016-01-01

Despite its long standing usefulness for the analysis of various processes in intense laser fields, it is well-known that the so-called strong-field KFR or SFA ansatz does not account for the final-state Coulomb interaction. Due to its importance for the ubiquitous ionisation process, numerous heuristic attempts have been made during the last several decades to account for the final state Coulomb interaction with in the SFA. Also to this end an ad hoc model with the so-called Coulomb-Volkov final state was introduced a long time ago. However, till now, no systematic strong-field S-matrix expansion using the Coulomb-Volkov final state could be found. Here we solve this long standing problem by determining the Coulomb-Volkov Hamiltonian, identifying the rest-interaction in the final state, and explicitly constructng the Coulomb-Volkov propagator (or Green's function). We employ them to derive the complete S-matrix series for the ionisation amplitude governed by the Coulomb-Volkov final state in all orders. The ...

11. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

Science.gov (United States)

Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

2009-05-01

This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

12. Adaptation through proportion

Science.gov (United States)

Xiong, Liyang; Shi, Wenjia; Tang, Chao

2016-08-01

Adaptation is a ubiquitous feature in biological sensory and signaling networks. It has been suggested that adaptive systems may follow certain simple design principles across diverse organisms, cells and pathways. One class of networks that can achieve adaptation utilizes an incoherent feedforward control, in which two parallel signaling branches exert opposite but proportional effects on the output at steady state. In this paper, we generalize this adaptation mechanism by establishing a steady-state proportionality relationship among a subset of nodes in a network. Adaptation can be achieved by using any two nodes in the sub-network to respectively regulate the output node positively and negatively. We focus on enzyme networks and first identify basic regulation motifs consisting of two and three nodes that can be used to build small networks with proportional relationships. Larger proportional networks can then be constructed modularly similar to LEGOs. Our method provides a general framework to construct and analyze a class of proportional and/or adaptation networks with arbitrary size, flexibility and versatile functional features.

13. Dirac-Coulomb scattering with plane wave energy eigenspinors on de Sitter expanding universe

CERN Document Server

Cotaescu, Ion I

2007-01-01

The lowest order contribution of the amplitude of Dirac-Coulomb scattering in de Sitter spacetime is calculated assuming that the initial and final states of the Dirac field are described by exact solutions of the free Dirac equation on de Sitter spacetime with a given energy and helicity. We find that the total energy is conserved in the scattering process.

14. Regularized friction and continuation: Comparison with Coulomb's law

Science.gov (United States)

Vigué, Pierre; Vergez, Christophe; Karkar, Sami; Cochelin, Bruno

2017-02-01

Periodic solutions of systems with friction are difficult to investigate because of the non-smooth nature of friction laws. This paper examines periodic solutions and most notably stick-slip, on a simple one-degree-of-freedom system (mass, spring, damper, and belt), with Coulomb's friction law, and with a regularized friction law (i.e. the friction coefficient becomes a function of relative speed, with a stiffness parameter). With Coulomb's law, the stick-slip solution is constructed step by step, which gives a usable existence condition. With the regularized law, the Asymptotic Numerical Method and the Harmonic Balance Method provide bifurcation diagrams with respect to the belt speed or normal force, and for several values of the regularization parameter. Formulations from the Coulomb case give the means of a comparison between regularized solutions and a standard reference. With an appropriate definition, regularized stick-slip motion exists, its amplitude increases with respect to the belt speed and its pulsation decreases with respect to the normal force.

15. Off-shell scattering amplitudes in the double-logarithmic approximation

CERN Document Server

Ermolaev, B I; Olness, F; Troyan, S I

2005-01-01

When scattering amplitudes are calculated in the double-logarithmic approximation, it is possible to relate the double-logarithmic on-shell and off-shell amplitudes. Explicit relations are obtained for scattering amplitudes in QED, QCD, and the ElectroWeak Standard Model. The off-shell amplitudes are considered in the hard and the Regge kinematic limits. We compare our results in both the Feynman and Coulomb gauges.

16. Coulomb dissociation of N-20,N-21

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Roeder, Marko; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M.; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J. G.; Burgunder, G.; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S.; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Fraile, Luis M.; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M.; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Goebel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, D. Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G.; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Bjorn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knoebel, Ronja; Kroell, Thorsten; Kruecken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J.; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Le Bleis, Tudi; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Mostazo Caro, Magdalena; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S.; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A.; Rahaman, Md. Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M. Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; del Rio Saez, Jose Sanchez; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V.; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J.; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G.; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J. S.; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

2016-01-01

Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role in the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on N-20,N-21 are reported. Relativistic N-20,N-21 ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a

17. Isospin Effect of Coulomb Interaction on Momentum Dissipation in Intermediate Energy Heavy Ion Collisions

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LIU Jian-Ye; GUO Wen-Jun; XING Yong-Zhong; Li Xi-Guo

2004-01-01

We investigate the isospin effect of Coulomb interaction on the momentum dissipation or nuclear stopping in the intermediate energy heavy ion collisions by using the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The calculated results show that the Coulomb interaction induces obviously the reductions of the momentum dissipation. We also find that the variation amplitude of momentum dissipation induced by the Coulomb interaction depends sensitively on the form and strength of symmetry potential. However, the isospin effect of Coulomb interaction on the momentum dissipation is less than that induced by the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section.In this case, Coulomb interaction does not change obviously the isospin effect of momentum dissipation induced by the in-medium two-body collision. In particular, the Coulomb interaction is preferable for standing up the isospin effect of in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section on the momentum dissipation and reducing the isospin effect of symmetry potential on it, which is important for obtaining the feature about the sensitive dependence of momentum dissipation on the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the symmetry potential.

18. A Multiaxial Low Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Both Proportional and Non-proportional Loading Conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Paul, Surajit Kumar

2014-09-01

This paper has presented a life prediction model in the field of multiaxial low-cycle fatigue. The proposed model is generally applied for constant amplitude multiaxial proportional and non-proportional loading. Depending upon applied strain path the equivalent strain varies within a cycle. Equivalent average strain amplitude is considered as fatigue damage parameter in the proposed model. The model has requirement of only two material constants and no other tuning parameters. The model is examined by the proportional and non-proportional low-cycle fatigue life experimental data for eight different types of materials. The model is successfully correlated with multiaxial fatigue lives of eight different materials.

19. Restrictions and Proportionality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Werlauff, Erik

2009-01-01

The article discusses three central aspects of the freedoms under European Community law, namely 1) the prohibition against restrictions as an important extension of the prohibition against discrimination, 2) a prohibition against exit restrictions which is just as important as the prohibition...... against host country restrictions, but which is often not recognised to the same extent by national law, and 3) the importance of also identifying and recognising an exit restriction, so that it is possible to achieve the required test of appropriateness and proportionality in relation to the rule...

20. The divine proportion

CERN Document Server

Huntley, H E

1970-01-01

Using simple mathematical formulas, most as basic as Pythagoras's theorem and requiring only a very limited knowledge of mathematics, Professor Huntley explores the fascinating relationship between geometry and aesthetics. Poetry, patterns like Pascal's triangle, philosophy, psychology, music, and dozens of simple mathematical figures are enlisted to show that the ""divine proportion"" or ""golden ratio"" is a feature of geometry and analysis which awakes answering echoes in the human psyche. When we judge a work of art aesthetically satisfying, according to his formulation, we are making it c

1. The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.

Science.gov (United States)

Francisco, E.; And Others

1988-01-01

Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)

2. Proportional counter radiation camera

Science.gov (United States)

Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

1974-01-15

A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

3. Effect of Coulomb Interaction on Dynamical Localization in a Two-Electron Quantum-Dot Molecule

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

WANG Li-Min; DUAN Su-Qing; ZHAO Xian-Geng; LIU Cheng-Shi

2004-01-01

The combined interaction of Coulomb interaction and ac fields with two electrons in a quantum dot molecule is studied respectively with numerical simulation, perturbation theory and the approximation of driven two-level model. The dynamical localization occurs with the ac field whose ratio of the amplitude to the angular frequency is a root of n-order Bessel functions, where n is determined by the Coulomb interaction energy. Such results are explained with either the driven two-level approximation or the degenerated three-level model and verified by the numerical simulations.

4. Coulomb string tension, asymptotic string tension, and the gluon chain

Science.gov (United States)

Greensite, Jeff; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

2015-02-01

We compute, via numerical simulations, the nonperturbative Coulomb potential of pure SU(3) gauge theory in Coulomb gauge. We find that the Coulomb potential scales nicely in accordance with asymptotic freedom, that the Coulomb potential is linear in the infrared, and that the Coulomb string tension is about four times larger than the asymptotic string tension. We explain how it is possible that the asymptotic string tension can be lower than the Coulomb string tension by a factor of four.

5. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

Science.gov (United States)

Cowper, G.

1958-08-12

A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

6. The microstrip proportional counter

Science.gov (United States)

Ramsey, B. D.

1992-01-01

Microstrip detectors in which the usual discrete anode and cathode wires are replaced by conducting strips on an insulating or partially insulating substrate are fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithographic techniques and hence offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity, together with the capability of producing extremely fine electrode structures. Microstrip proportional counters have now been variously reported having an energy resolution of better than 11 percent FWHM at 5.9 keV. They have been fabricated with anode bars down to 2 microns and on a variety of substrate materials including thin films which can be molded to different shapes. This review will examine the development of the microstrip detector with emphasis on the qualities which make this detector particularly interesting for use in astronomy.

7. Treatment versus proportionality

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sorensen, David Woodrow Mattson

2010-01-01

Persons suffering from mental illness, retardation or other disturbances who commit crimes in Denmark cannot be punished, but are instead sentenced to treatment. In the past, these sentences were always indeterminate, meaning that treatment regimens were only terminated when psychiatrists judged...... these persons no longer a danger to themselves or others. This practice was, however, severely criticized by advocates for the mentally ill in the late 1990s, since many of these treatment sentences lasted far longer than penal sentences given to mentally competent persons found guilty of similar crimes....... This critique, which hinges on proportionality, led to a change in the law on July 1, 2000, after which the length of treatment for non-serious-violent crimes was limited to a maximum of five years. This change was itself criticized by the Council of Medical Forensic Specialists, who argued that time of release...

8. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jessen, Cathrine

2014-01-01

Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio....... Frequent rebalancing limits how badly the position can go off track, but costs more than infrequent rebalancing. Gap risk resulting from a down jump that penetrates the floor adds another hard-to-manage risk. In this article, Jessen comparescommon hedging strategies for CPPI and explores how well each does...

9. Smooth models for the Coulomb potential

CERN Document Server

González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Karwowski, Jacek; Savin, Andreas

2016-01-01

Smooth model potentials with parameters selected to reproduce the spectrum of one-electron atoms are used to approximate the singular Coulomb potential. Even when the potentials do not mimic the Coulomb singularity, much of the spectrum is reproduced within the chemical accuracy. For the Hydrogen atom, the smooth approximations to the Coulomb potential are more accurate for higher angular momentum states. The transferability of the model potentials from an attractive interaction (Hydrogen atom) to a repulsive one (Harmonium and the uniform electron gas) is discussed.

10. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mortensen, N. Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

2002-01-01

means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing......We present a theory for Coulomb drug between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...

11. Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mortensen, N.A.; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

2002-01-01

means such as perturbation theory or random matrix theory. The physics of Coulomb drag in the mesoscopic regime is very different from Coulomb drag between extended electron systems. In the mesoscopic regime we in general find fluctuations of the drag comparable to the mean value. Examples are vanishing......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems which expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions. The formalism can be applied to both ballistic and disordered systems and the consequences can be studied either by numerical simulations or analytic...

12. Low rank factorization of the Coulomb integrals for periodic coupled cluster theory

CERN Document Server

Hummel, Felix; Grüneis, Andreas

2016-01-01

We study the decomposition of the Coulomb integrals of periodic systems into a tensor contraction of six matrices of which only two are distinct. We find that the Coulomb integrals can be well approximated in this form already with small matrices compared to the number of real space grid points. The cost of computing the matrices scales as O(N^4) using a regularized form of the alternating least squares algorithm. The studied factorization of the Coulomb integrals can be exploited to reduce the scaling of the computational cost of expensive tensor contractions appearing in the amplitude equations of coupled cluster methods with respect to system size. We apply the developed methodologies to calculate the adsorption energy of a single water molecule on a hexagonal boron nitride monolayer in a plane wave basis set and periodic boundary conditions.

13. Comments on Coulomb pairing in aromatic hydrocarbons

CERN Document Server

Huber, D L

2013-01-01

Recently reported anomalies in the double-photonionization spectra of aromatic molecules such as benzene, naphthalene, anthracene and coronene are attributed to Coulomb-pair resonances of pi electrons.

14. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

2009-01-01

Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

15. Coulomb screening in linear coasting nucleosynthesis

CERN Document Server

Singh, Parminder

2015-01-01

We investigate the impact of coulomb screening on primordial nucleosynthesis in a universe having scale factor that evolves linearly with time. Coulomb screening affects primordial nucleosynthesis via enhancement of thermonuclear reaction rates. This enhancement is determined by the solving Poisson equation within the context of mean field theory (under appropriate conditions during the primordial nucleosynthesis). Using these results, we claim that the mean field estimates of coulomb screening hardly affect the predicted element abundances and nucleosynthesis parameters$, \\{\\eta_9,\\xi_e\\}$. The deviations from mean field estimates are also studied in detail by boosting genuine screening results with the screening parameter ($\\omega_s$). These deviations show negligible effect on the element abundances and on nucleosynthesis parameters. This work thus rules out the coulomb screening effects on primordial nucleosynthesis in slow evolving models and confirms that constraints in ref.[7] on nucleosynthesis parame...

16. Coulomb Distortion in the Inelastic Regime

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Patricia Solvignon, Dave Gaskell, John Arrington

2009-09-01

The Coulomb distortion effects have been for a long time neglected in deep inelastic scattering for the good reason that the incident energies were very high. But for energies in the range of earlier data from SLAC or at JLab, the Coulomb distortion could have the potential consequence of affecting the A-dependence of the EMC effect and of the longitudinal to transverse virtual photon absorption cross section ratio $R(x,Q^2)$.

17. Gaussian expansion approach to Coulomb breakup

CERN Document Server

Egami, T; Matsumoto, T; Iseri, Y; Kamimura, M; Yahiro, M

2004-01-01

An accurate treatment of Coulomb breakup reactions is presented by using both the Gaussian expansion method and the method of continuum discretized coupled channels. As $L^2$-type basis functions for describing Coulomb breakup processes, we take complex-range Gaussian functions, which form in good approximation a complete set in a large configuration space being important for the processes. Accuracy of the method is tested quantitatively for $^{8}{\\rm B}+^{58}$Ni scattering at 25.8 MeV.

18. Dimension two condensates in the Gribov-Zwanziger theory in the Coulomb gauge

CERN Document Server

Guimaraes, M S; Sorella, S P

2015-01-01

We investigate the dimension two condensate $$within the Gribov-Zwanziger approach to Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the Coulomb gauge, in both 3 and 4 dimensions. An explicit calculation shows that, at the first order, the condensate$$ is plagued by a non-integrable IR divergence in 3D, while in 4D it exhibits a logarithmic UV divergence, being proportional to the Gribov parameter $\\gamma^2$. These results indicate that in 3D the transverse spatial Coulomb gluon two-point correlation function exhibits a scaling behaviour, in agreement with Gribov's expression. In 4D, however, they suggest that, next to the scaling behaviour, a decoupling solution might emerge too.

19. Integrability and separation of variables in Calogero-Coulomb-Stark and two-center Calogero-Coulomb systems

CERN Document Server

Hakobyan, Tigran

2015-01-01

We define the integrable N-dimensional Calogero-Coulomb-Stark and two-center Calogero-Coulomb systems and construct their constants of motion via the Dunkl operators. Their Schroedinger equations decouple in parabolic and elliptic coordinates, respectively, into the set of three differential equations like for the Coulomb-Stark and two-center Coulomb problems.

20. Asymptotic regimes for diffractive scatterings at ultrahigh energies and coulomb interaction

CERN Document Server

Anisovich, V V; Nyiri, J

2016-01-01

Comparative analysis of the interplay of hadron and Coulomb interactions in $pp^\\pm$ scattering amplitudes is performed for two extreme cases: for the asymptotic interaction of hadrons in black disk and resonant disk modes. The interactions are discussed in terms of the $K$-matrix function technique, the interference effects are estimated in the energy interval $\\sqrt{s}=1-10^6$ TeV. In both cases the real part of the hadronic amplitude is concentrated on the boundary of the disks in the impact parameter space that causes a growth of interference effects with the energy increase. For the $pp$ scattering at $\\sqrt{s}\\sim 10$ TeV an interplay of the hadron and Coulomb interactions in the resonant disk modes is realized in a specific shoulder in $d\\sigma_{el}/d{\\bf q}^2$ at ${\\bf q}^2\\sim 0.0025-0.0075$ GeV$^2$.

1. On Coulomb and Viscosity damped single-degree-of-freedom vibrating systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jakobsen, J.; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

2016-01-01

Attention on friction damping mechanisms could be of interest for vibration reduction, and appears therefore to be desirable. Presentations of textbook analyses on mechanical vibration of a viscosity damped single degree system [mass, spring and eventually damping] are numerous. Often they begin...... influence. The amount of analyses of friction damped system is comparatively more limited. The periodic square wave is a frequently occurring type of friction in this type of analyses. This periodic square wave is often named Coulomb friction. It can be resolved in an infinite series of harmonic components...... with frequencies 1, 3, 5, … times the basic frequency of the square wave and with respective amplitudes: (4/π)∗(1, 1/3, 1/5... )∗Fμ(ωt). Fμ(ωt): the square wave amplitude. The governing equation for the sequence of a free vibration with Coulomb friction damping is nonlinear, but is linear within each ½ period...

2. Properties of nuclear and Coulomb breakup of 8B

CERN Document Server

Ogata, K; Iseri, Y; Yahiro, M

2008-01-01

Dependence of breakup cross sections of 8B at 65 MeV/nucleon on target mass number A_T is investigated by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) with more reliable distorting potentials than in preceding study. The scaling law of the nuclear breakup cross section as A_T^(1/3) is found to be satisfied only in the middle A_T region of 40 < A_T < 150. Interference between nuclear and Coulomb breakup amplitudes turns out to vanish at very forward angles with respect to the center-of-mass of 8B, independent of target nucleus. Truncation of the relative energy between the p and 7Be fragments slightly reduces contribution from nuclear breakup at very forward angles, while the angular region in which the first-order perturbation theory works well does not change essentially.

3. Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb method for the fast evaluation of Coulomb integrals.

Science.gov (United States)

Kurashige, Yuki; Nakajima, Takahito; Hirao, Kimihiko

2007-04-14

The authors propose a new linear-scaling method for the fast evaluation of Coulomb integrals with Gaussian basis functions called the Gaussian and finite-element Coulomb (GFC) method. In this method, the Coulomb potential is expanded in a basis of mixed Gaussian and finite-element auxiliary functions that express the core and smooth Coulomb potentials, respectively. Coulomb integrals can be evaluated by three-center one-electron overlap integrals among two Gaussian basis functions and one mixed auxiliary function. Thus, the computational cost and scaling for large molecules are drastically reduced. Several applications to molecular systems show that the GFC method is more efficient than the analytical integration approach that requires four-center two-electron repulsion integrals. The GFC method realizes a near linear scaling for both one-dimensional alanine alpha-helix chains and three-dimensional diamond pieces.

4. Relativistic Scattering States of Coulomb Potential Plus a New Ring-Shaped Potential

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

CHEN Chang-Yuan; LU Fa-Lin; SUN Dong-Sheng

2006-01-01

In this paper, exact solutions of scattering states of the Klein-Gordon equation with Coulomb potential plus a new ring-shaped potential are studied under the condition that the scalar potential is equal to the vector potential.The normalized wave functions of scattering states on the "k/2π scale" and the calculation formula of phase shifts are presented. Analytical properties of the scattering amplitude are discussed.

5. Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects

Science.gov (United States)

Chakraborty, Baishali; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

2015-06-01

We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb impurity. The period of variation depends on the conical defect. In the presence of the conical defect, the Fano resonances begin to appear in the transport cross-section for a lower value of the Coulomb charge. For both sub and supercritical regime we derive the dependence of LDOS on the conical defect. The effects of generalized boundary condition on the physical observables are also discussed.

6. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bloor, Robert

1998-12-31

Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

7. Leading order QCD in Coulomb gauge

CERN Document Server

Watson, Peter

2011-01-01

Coulomb gauge QCD in the first order formalism can be written in terms of a ghost-free, nonlocal action that ensures total color charge conservation via Gauss' law. Making an Ansatz whereby the nonlocal term (the Coulomb kernel) is replaced by its expectation value, the resulting Dyson-Schwinger equations can be derived. With a leading order truncation, these equations reduce to the gap equations for the static gluon and quark propagators obtained from a quasi-particle approximation to the canonical Hamiltonian approach. Moreover a connection to the heavy quark limit can be established, allowing an intuitive explanation for the charge constraint and infrared divergences.

8. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

Science.gov (United States)

Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

2016-08-01

Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

9. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mortensen, Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

2001-01-01

, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states. which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means...

10. Coulomb drag in coherent mesoscopic systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mortensen, Niels Asger; Flensberg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

2001-01-01

, such as the random matrix theory, or by numerical simulations. We show that Coulomb drag is sensitive to localized states, which usual transport measurements do not probe. For chaotic 2D systems we find a vanishing average drag, with a nonzero variance. Disordered 1D wires show a finite drag, with a large variance......We present a theory for Coulomb drag between two mesoscopic systems. Our formalism expresses the drag in terms of scattering matrices and wave functions, and its range of validity covers both ballistic and disordered systems. The consequences can be worked out either by analytic means...

11. The impact of sharp screening on the Coulomb scattering problem in three dimensions

CERN Document Server

Yakovlev, S L; Yarevsky, E; Elander, N

2010-01-01

The scattering problem for two particles interacting via the Coulomb potential is examined for the case where the potential has a sharp cut-off at some distance. The problem is solved for two complimentary situations, firstly when the interior part of the Coulomb potential is left in the Hamiltonian and, secondly, when the long range tail is considered as the potential. The partial wave results are summed up to obtain the wave function in three dimensions. It is shown that in the domains where the wave function is expected to be proportional to the known solutions, the proportionality is given by an operator acting on the angular part of the wave function. The explicit representation for this operator is obtained in the basis of Legendre polynomials. We proposed a driven Schr\\"odinger equation including an inhomogeneous term of the finite range with purely outgoing asymptotics for its solution in the case of the three dimensional scattering problem with long range potentials.

12. Coulomb Logarithm, Version 1.0

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

2016-11-23

Clog is a library of charged particle stopping powers and related Coulomb logarithm processes in a plasma. The stopping power is a particularly useful quantity for plasma physics, as it measures the energy loss of per unit length of charged particle as it traverses a plasma. Clog's primary stopping power is the BPS (Brown-Preston-Singleton) theory.

13. Coulomb drag between helical Luttinger liquids

Science.gov (United States)

Kainaris, N.; Gornyi, I. V.; Levchenko, A.; Polyakov, D. G.

2017-01-01

We theoretically study Coulomb drag between two helical edges with broken spin-rotational symmetry, such as would occur in two capacitively coupled quantum spin Hall insulators. For the helical edges, Coulomb drag is particularly interesting because it specifically probes the inelastic interactions that break the conductance quantization for a single edge. Using the kinetic equation formalism, supplemented by bosonization, we find that the drag resistivity ρD exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the temperature T . In the limit of low T ,ρD vanishes with decreasing T as a power law if intraedge interactions are not too strong. This is in stark contrast to Coulomb drag in conventional quantum wires, where ρD diverges at T →0 irrespective of the strength of repulsive interactions. Another unusual property of Coulomb drag between the helical edges concerns higher T for which, unlike in the Luttinger liquid model, drag is mediated by plasmons. The special type of plasmon-mediated drag can be viewed as a distinguishing feature of the helical liquid—because it requires peculiar umklapp scattering only available in the presence of a Dirac point in the electron spectrum.

14. Coulomb's Electrical Measurements. Experiment No. 14.

Science.gov (United States)

Devons, Samuel

Presented is information related to the life and work of Charles Coulomb as well as detailed notes of his measurements of the distribution of electricity on conductors. The two methods that he used (the large torsion balance, and the timing of "force" oscillations) are described. (SA)

15. Real topological string amplitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Narain, K. S.; Piazzalunga, N.; Tanzini, A.

2017-03-01

We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G_{χ } , at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g' = -χ + 1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F_g.

16. Proportional Reasoning as Essential Numeracy

Science.gov (United States)

Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

2015-01-01

This paper reports an aspect of a large research and development project that aimed to promote middle years school teachers' understanding and awareness of the pervasiveness of proportional reasoning as integral to numeracy. Teacher survey data of proportional reasoning across the curriculum were mapped on to a rich model of numeracy. Results…

17. Proportioning of light weight concrete

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Palmus, Lars

1996-01-01

Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory......Development of a method to determine the proportions of the raw materials in light weight concrete made with leight expanded clay aggregate. The method is based on composite theory...

18. Cotunneling Drag Effect in Coulomb-Coupled Quantum Dots

Science.gov (United States)

Keller, A. J.; Lim, J. S.; Sánchez, David; López, Rosa; Amasha, S.; Katine, J. A.; Shtrikman, Hadas; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

2016-08-01

In Coulomb drag, a current flowing in one conductor can induce a voltage across an adjacent conductor via the Coulomb interaction. The mechanisms yielding drag effects are not always understood, even though drag effects are sufficiently general to be seen in many low-dimensional systems. In this Letter, we observe Coulomb drag in a Coulomb-coupled double quantum dot and, through both experimental and theoretical arguments, identify cotunneling as essential to obtaining a correct qualitative understanding of the drag behavior.

19. A novel treatment of the proton-proton Coulomb force in proton-deuteron Faddeev calculations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Glöckle W.

2010-04-01

Full Text Available We present resently introduced novel approach to include th e proton-proton (pp Coulomb force into the momentum space three-nucleon (3N Faddeev calculations. It is based on a standard formulation for short range forces and relies on a screening of the long-range Coul omb interaction. In order to avoid all uncertainties connected with an application of the partial wave expansion, unsuitable when working with long-range forces, we apply directly the 3-dimensional pp screened Coulomb t-matrix. That main new ingredient, the 3-dimensional screened pp Coulomb t-matrix, is obtained by a numerical sol ution of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS equation. Using a simple dynamical model for the nuclear part of the interaction we demonstrate the feasibility of that approach. The physical elastic pd scattering amplitude has a well deﬁned screening limit and does not require renormalisation. Well converged elastic pd cro ss sections are obtained at ﬁnite screening radii. Also the proton-deuteron (pd breakup observables can be determ ined from the resulting on-shell 3N amplitudes increasing the screening radius. However, contrary to the pd e lastic scattering, the screening limit exists only after renormalisation of the pp t-matrices.

20. Protostring scattering amplitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Thorn, Charles B.

2016-11-01

We calculate some tree-level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a light-cone world sheet which supports s integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann world-sheet system with d =24 -s transverse coordinate world-sheet fields. The protostring corresponds to s =24 and the bosonic string to s =0 . The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that s is even we calculate the multistring scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of s /2 compactified and d uncompactified bosonic world-sheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then study in detail some simple special cases. Multistring processes with maximal helicity violation have much simpler amplitudes. We also specialize to general four-string amplitudes and discuss their high energy behavior. Most of these models are not covariant under the full Lorentz group O (d +1 ,1 ). The exceptions are the bosonic string whose Lorentz group is O (25 ,1 ) and the protostring whose Lorentz group is O (1 ,1 ). The models in between only enjoy an O (1 ,1 )×O (d ) spacetime symmetry.

1. Protostring Scattering Amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Thorn, Charles B

2016-01-01

We calculate some tree level scattering amplitudes for a generalization of the protostring, which is a novel string model implied by the simplest string bit models. These bit models produce a lightcone worldsheet which supports $s$ integer moded Grassmann fields. In the generalization we supplement this Grassmann worldsheet system with $d=24-s$ transverse coordinate worldsheet fields. The protostring corresponds to $s=24$ and the bosonic string to $s=0$. The interaction vertex is a simple overlap with no operator insertions at the break/join point. Assuming that $s$ is even we calculate the multi-string scattering amplitudes by bosonizing the Grassmann fields, each pair equivalent to one compactified bosonic field, and applying Mandelstam's interacting string formalism to a system of $s/2$ compactified and $d$ uncompactified bosonic worldsheet fields. We obtain all amplitudes for open strings with no oscillator excitations and for closed strings with no oscillator excitations and zero winding number. We then ...

2. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang;

1997-01-01

A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...

3. Coulomb dissociation of $^{20,21}$N

CERN Document Server

Röder, Marko; Aksyutina, Yulia; Alcantara, Juan; Altstadt, Sebastian; Alvarez-Pol, Hector; Ashwood, Nicholas; Atar, Leyla; Aumann, Thomas; Avdeichikov, Vladimir; Barr, M; Beceiro, Saul; Bemmerer, Daniel; Benlliure, Jose; Bertulani, Carlos; Boretzky, Konstanze; Borge, Maria J G; Burgunder, G; Caamano, Manuel; Caesar, Christoph; Casarejos, Enrique; Catford, Wilton; Cederkall, Joakim; Chakraborty, S; Chartier, Marielle; Chulkov, Leonid; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Crespo, Raquel; Pramanik, Ushasi Datta; Diaz-Fernandez, Paloma; Dillmann, Iris; Elekes, Zoltan; Enders, Joachim; Ershova, Olga; Estrade, A; Farinon, F; Fraile, Luis M; Freer, Martin; Freudenberger, M; Fynbo, Hans; Galaviz, Daniel; Geissel, Hans; Gernhäuser, Roman; Göbel, Kathrin; Golubev, Pavel; Diaz, Diego Gonzalez; Hagdahl, Julius; Heftrich, Tanja; Heil, Michael; Heine, Marcel; Heinz, Andreas; Henriques, Ana; Holl, Matthias; Ickert, G; Ignatov, Alexander; Jakobsson, Bo; Johansson, Hakan; Jonson, Björn; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, Nasser; Kanungo, Rituparna; Kelic-Heil, Aleksandra; Knöbel, Ronja; Kröll, Thorsten; Krücken, Reiner; Kurcewicz, J; Kurz, Nikolaus; Labiche, Marc; Langer, Christoph; Bleis, Tudi Le; Lemmon, Roy; Lepyoshkina, Olga; Lindberg, Simon; Machado, Jorge; Marganiec, Justyna; Caro, Magdalena Mostazo; Movsesyan, Alina; Najafi, Mohammad Ali; Nilsson, Thomas; Nociforo, Chiara; Panin, Valerii; Paschalis, Stefanos; Perea, Angel; Petri, Marina; Pietri, S; Plag, Ralf; Prochazka, A; Rahaman, Md Anisur; Rastrepina, Ganna; Reifarth, Rene; Ribeiro, Guillermo; Ricciardi, M Valentina; Rigollet, Catherine; Riisager, Karsten; Rossi, Dominic; Saez, Jose Sanchez del Rio; Savran, Deniz; Scheit, Heiko; Simon, Haik; Sorlin, Olivier; Stoica, V; Streicher, Branislav; Taylor, Jon; Tengblad, Olof; Terashima, Satoru; Thies, Ronja; Togano, Yasuhiro; Uberseder, Ethan; Van de Walle, J; Velho, Paulo; Volkov, Vasily; Wagner, Andreas; Wamers, Felix; Weick, Helmut; Weigand, Mario; Wheldon, Carl; Wilson, G; Wimmer, Christine; Winfield, J S; Woods, Philip; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zhukov, Mikhail; Zilges, Andreas; Zuber, Kai

2016-01-01

Neutron-rich light nuclei and their reactions play an important role for the creation of chemical elements. Here, data from a Coulomb dissociation experiment on $^{20,21}$N are reported. Relativistic $^{20,21}$N ions impinged on a lead target and the Coulomb dissociation cross section was determined in a kinematically complete experiment. Using the detailed balance theorem, the $^{19}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{20}\\mathrm{N}$ and $^{20}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{21}\\mathrm{N}$ excitation functions and thermonuclear reaction rates have been determined. The $^{19}\\mathrm{N}(\\mathrm{n},\\gamma)^{20}\\mathrm{N}$ rate is up to a factor of 5 higher at $T<1$\\,GK with respect to previous theoretical calculations, leading to a 10\\,\\% decrease in the predicted fluorine abundance.

4. Coulomb crystallization of highly charged ions.

Science.gov (United States)

Schmöger, L; Versolato, O O; Schwarz, M; Kohnen, M; Windberger, A; Piest, B; Feuchtenbeiner, S; Pedregosa-Gutierrez, J; Leopold, T; Micke, P; Hansen, A K; Baumann, T M; Drewsen, M; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

2015-03-13

Control over the motional degrees of freedom of atoms, ions, and molecules in a field-free environment enables unrivalled measurement accuracies but has yet to be applied to highly charged ions (HCIs), which are of particular interest to future atomic clock designs and searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we report on the Coulomb crystallization of HCIs (specifically (40)Ar(13+)) produced in an electron beam ion trap and retrapped in a cryogenic linear radiofrequency trap by means of sympathetic motional cooling through Coulomb interaction with a directly laser-cooled ensemble of Be(+) ions. We also demonstrate cooling of a single Ar(13+) ion by a single Be(+) ion-the prerequisite for quantum logic spectroscopy with a potential 10(-19) accuracy level. Achieving a seven-orders-of-magnitude decrease in HCI temperature starting at megakelvin down to the millikelvin range removes the major obstacle for HCI investigation with high-precision laser spectroscopy.

5. Module of System Galactica with Coulomb's Interaction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Joseph J. Smulsky

2014-12-01

Full Text Available The system Galactica of free access is supplemented module for the Coulomb interaction. It is based on a high-precision method for solving differential equations of motion of N charged particles. The paper presents all the theoretical and practical issues required to use this module of system Galactica so that even the beginning researcher could study the motion of particles, atoms and molecules.

6. Coulomb dissociation studies for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Motobayashi, T. [Dept. of Physics, Rikkyo Univ., Toshima, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-06-01

The Coulomb dissociation method was applied to several radiative capture processes of astrophysical interest. The method has an advantage of high experimental efficiency, which allow measurements with radioactive nuclear beams. The reactions {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O and {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B are mainly discussed. They are the key reaction in the hot CNO cycle in massive stars and the one closely related to the solar neutrino problem, respectively. (orig.)

7. Elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na

CERN Document Server

Singh, G; Chatterjee, R

2016-01-01

Purpose : The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na on $^{208}$Pb to give us a core of $^{33}$Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of $^{34}$Na. Method : A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of $^{34}$Na on $^{208}$Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross-section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results : The total one neutron removal cross-section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of $^{34}$Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate $^{34}$Na to ha...

8. Proportional smile design using the recurring esthetic dental (red) proportion.

Science.gov (United States)

Ward, D H

2001-01-01

Dentists have needed an objective way in which to evaluate a smile. A method for determining the ideal size and position of the anterior teeth has been presented here. Use of the FIVE to evaluate the RED proportion and the width-to-height ratio, tempered with sound clinical judgment, gives pleasing and consistent results. With the diversity that exists in nature, rarely does the final result follow all the mathematical rules of proportional smile design. This approach may serve as a foundation on which to base initial smile design, however. When one begins to understand the relationship between beauty, mathematics, and the surrounding world, one begins to appreciate their interdependence.

9. Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion approach three-body Faddeev calculations for Coulomb-like interactions

CERN Document Server

Papp, Z

1996-01-01

We demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion method for generating accurate solutions of the Faddeev equations. Results obtained with this method are reported for several benchmark cases of bosonic and fermionic three-body systems. Correct bound-state results in agreement with the ones established in the literature are achieved for short-range interactions. We outline the formalism for the treatment of three-body Coulomb systems and present a bound-state calculation for a three-boson system interacting via Coulomb plus short-range forces. The corresponding result is in good agreement with the answer from a recent stochastic-variational-method calculation.

10. Development of multiwire proportional chambers

CERN Multimedia

Charpak, G

1969-01-01

It has happened quite often in the history of science that theoreticians, confronted with some major difficulty, have successfully gone back thirty years to look at ideas that had then been thrown overboard. But it is rare that experimentalists go back thirty years to look again at equipment which had become out-dated. This is what Charpak and his colleagues did to emerge with the 'multiwire proportional chamber' which has several new features making it a very useful addition to the armoury of particle detectors. In the 1930s, ion-chambers, Geiger- Muller counters and proportional counters, were vital pieces of equipment in nuclear physics research. Other types of detectors have since largely replaced them but now the proportional counter, in new array, is making a comeback.

11. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

12. Weak Boson Production Amplitude Zeros; Equalities of the Helicity Amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Mamedov, F

2002-01-01

We investigate the radiation amplitude zeros exhibited by many Standard Model amplitudes for triple weak gauge boson production processes. We show that $WZ\\gamma$ production amplitudes have especially rich structure in terms of zeros, these amplitudes have zeros originating from several different sources. It is also shown that TYPE I current null zone is the special case of the equality of the specific helicity amplitudes.

13. Off-energy-shell p-p scattering at sub-Coulomb energies via the Trojan horse method

Science.gov (United States)

Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Campajola, L.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillá, V.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Z.; Gialanella, L.; Gulino, M.; Gyürky, G.; Kiss, G.; Cognata, M. La; Lamia, L.; Ordine, A.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.

2008-12-01

Two-proton scattering at sub-Coulomb energies has been measured indirectly via the Trojan horse method applied to the p+d→p+p+n reaction to investigate off-energy shell effects for scattering processes. The three-body experiment was performed at 5 and 4.7 MeV corresponding to a p-p relative energy ranging from 80 to 670 keV. The free p-p cross section exhibits a deep minimum right within this relative energy region due to Coulomb plus nuclear destructive interference. No minimum occurs instead in the Trojan horse p-p cross section, which was extracted by employing a simple plane-wave impulse approximation. A detailed formalism was developed to build up the expression of the theoretical half-off-shell p-p cross section. Its behavior agrees with the Trojan horse data and in turn formally fits the n-n, n-p, and nuclear p-p cross sections given the fact that in its expression the Coulomb amplitude is negligible with respect to the nuclear one. These results confirm the Trojan horse suppression of the Coulomb amplitude for scattering due to the off-shell character of the process.

14. Periods and Superstring Amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Stieberger, S

2016-01-01

Scattering amplitudes which describe the interaction of physical states play an important role in determining physical observables. In string theory the physical states are given by vibrations of open and closed strings and their interactions are described (at the leading order in perturbation theory) by a world-sheet given by the topology of a disk or sphere, respectively. Formally, for scattering of N strings this leads to N-3-dimensional iterated real integrals along the compactified real axis or N-3-dimensional complex sphere integrals, respectively. As a consequence the physical observables are described by periods on M_{0,N} - the moduli space of Riemann spheres of N ordered marked points. The mathematical structure of these string amplitudes share many recent advances in arithmetic algebraic geometry and number theory like multiple zeta values, single-valued multiple zeta values, Drinfeld, Deligne associators, Hopf algebra and Lie algebra structures related to Grothendiecks Galois theory. We review the...

15. Quantitative Seismic Amplitude Analysis

OpenAIRE

Dey, A. K.

2011-01-01

The Seismic Value Chain quantifies the cyclic interaction between seismic acquisition, imaging and reservoir characterization. Modern seismic innovation to address the global imbalance in hydrocarbon supply and demand requires such cyclic interaction of both feed-forward and feed-back processes. Currently, the seismic value chain paradigm is in a feed-forward mode. Modern seismic data now have the potential to yield the best images in terms of spatial resolution, amplitude accuracy, and incre...

16. Social Justice and Proportional Reasoning

Science.gov (United States)

Simic-Muller, Ksenija

2015-01-01

Ratio and proportional reasoning tasks abound that have connections to real-world situations. Examples in this article demonstrate how textbook tasks can easily be transformed into authentic real-world problems that shed light on issues of equity and fairness, such as population growth and crime rates. A few ideas are presented on how teachers can…

17. Proportional Reasoning with a Pyramid

Science.gov (United States)

Mamolo, Ami; Sinclair, Margaret; Whiteley, Walter J.

2011-01-01

Proportional reasoning pops up in math class in a variety of places, such as while making scaled drawings; finding equivalent fractions; converting units of measurement; comparing speeds, prices, and rates; and comparing lengths, areas, and volume. Students need to be exposed to a variety of representations to develop a sound understanding of this…

18. Self-consistent inclusion of classical large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasma Monte Carlo simulations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turrell, A.E., E-mail: a.turrell09@imperial.ac.uk; Sherlock, M.; Rose, S.J.

2015-10-15

Large-angle Coulomb collisions allow for the exchange of a significant proportion of the energy of a particle in a single collision, but are not included in models of plasmas based on fluids, the Vlasov–Fokker–Planck equation, or currently available plasma Monte Carlo techniques. Their unique effects include the creation of fast ‘knock-on’ ions, which may be more likely to undergo certain reactions, and distortions to ion distribution functions relative to what is predicted by small-angle collision only theories. We present a computational method which uses Monte Carlo techniques to include the effects of large-angle Coulomb collisions in plasmas and which self-consistently evolves distribution functions according to the creation of knock-on ions of any generation. The method is used to demonstrate ion distribution function distortions in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) relevant scenario of the slowing of fusion products.

19. Heavy ion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2011-01-01

The angular distributions of fission fragments for the 32S+184W reaction near Coulomb barrier energies are measured. The ex perimental fission excitation function is obtained. The measured fission cross sections are decomposed into fusion-fission, quasi-fission and fast fission contributions by the dinuclear system (DNS) model. The hindrance to completing fusion both at small and large collision energies is explained. The fusion excitation functions of 32S+90,96Zr in an energy range from above to below the Coulomb barrier are measured and analyzed within a semi-classical model. The obvious effect of positive Q-value multi-neutron transfers on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement is observed in the 32S+96Zr system. In addition, the excitation functions of quasi-elastic scattering at a backward angle have been measured with high precision for the systems of 16O+208Pb, 196Pt, 184W, and 154,152Sm at energies well below the Coulomb barrier. Considering the deformed coupling effects, the extracted diffuseness parameters are close to the values extracted from the systematic analysis of elastic and inelastic scattering data. The elastic scattering angular distribution of 17F+12C at 60 MeV is measured and calculated by using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) approach. It is found that the diffuseness parameter of the real part of core-target potential has to be increased by 20% to reproduce the experimental result, which corresponds to an increment of potential depth at the surface re gion. The breakup cross section and the coupling between breakup and elastic scattering are small.

20. Coulomb excitation of {sup 8}Li

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Assuncao, Marlete; Britos, Tatiane Nassar [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra; Descouvemont, Pierre [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels (Belgium). Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique; Lepine-Szily, Alinka; Lichtenthaler Filho, Rubens; Barioni, Adriana; Silva, Diego Medeiros da; Pereira, Dirceu; Mendes Junior, Djalma Rosa; Pires, Kelly Cristina Cezaretto; Gasques, Leandro Romero; Morais, Maria Carmen; Added, Nemitala; Neto Faria, Pedro; Rec, Rafael [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear

2012-07-01

Full text: This work shows the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets that have effectively behavior of Rutherford in angles and energies of interest for determining the value of the B(E2) electromagnetic transition. Theoretical aspects involved in this type of measure, known as COULEX [1], and some results in the literature [2-3] will be presented. Some problems with the targets and measurement system while performing an experiment on Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li will be discussed: the energy resolution, background, possible contributions of the primary beam and also the excited states of the target near the region of elastic and inelastic peaks. They will be illustrated by measurements of the Coulomb Excitation of {sup 8}Li on targets of {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb using the system RIBRAS(Brazilian Radioactive Ion Beam). In this case, the {sup 8}Li beam(T{sub 1/2} = 838 ms)is produced by {sup 9}Be({sup 7}Li;{sup 8} Li){sup 8}Be reaction from RIBRAS system which is installed at Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo. The primary {sup 7L}i beam is provided by Pelletron Accelerator. [1] K. Alder and A. Winther, Electromagnetic Excitation, North-Holland, New York, 1975; [2] P. Descouvemont and D. Baye, Phys. Letts. B 292, 235-238, 1992; [3] J. A. Brown, F. D. Becchetti, J. W. Jaenecke, K, Ashktorab, and D. A. Roberts, J. J. Kolata, R. J. Smith, and K. Lamkin, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. Letts., 66, 19, 1991; [4] R. J. Smith, J. J Kolata, K. Lamkin and A. Morsard, F. D. Becchetti, J. A. Brown, W. Z. Liu, J. W. Jaenecke, and D. A. Roberts, R. E. Warner, Phys. Rev. C, 43, 5, 1991. (author)

1. Overlap Quark Propagator in Coulomb Gauge QCD

CERN Document Server

Mercado, Ydalia Delgado; Schröck, Mario

2014-01-01

The chirally symmetric Overlap quark propagator is explored in Coulomb gauge. This gauge is well suited for studying the relation between confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, since confinement can be attributed to the infrared divergent Lorentz-vector dressing function. Using quenched gauge field configurations on a $20^4$ lattice, the quark propagator dressing functions are evaluated, the dynamical quark mass is extracted and the chiral limit of these quantities is discussed. By removing the low-lying modes of the Dirac operator, chiral symmetry is artificially restored. Its effect on the dressing functions is discussed.

2. Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas

Science.gov (United States)

Hirvijoki, Eero

2016-09-01

An action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas is proposed. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd potentials. Conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles.

3. Action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas

CERN Document Server

Hirvijoki, Eero

2015-01-01

In this letter we derive an action principle for Coulomb collisions in plasmas. Although no natural Lagrangian exists for the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, an Eulerian variational formulation is found considering the system of partial differential equations that couple the distribution function and the Rosenbluth potentials. Exact conservation laws are derived after generalizing the energy-momentum stress tensor for second order Lagrangians and, in the case of a test-particle population in a given plasma background, the action principle is shown to correspond to the Langevin equation for individual particles. Being suitable for discretization, the presented action allows construction of variational integrators. Numerical implementation is left for a future study.

4. Coulombic dragging of molecular assemblies on nanotubes

Science.gov (United States)

Kral, Petr; Sint, Kyaw; Wang, Boyang

2009-03-01

We show by molecular dynamics simulations that polar molecules, ions and their assemblies could be Coulombically dragged on the surfaces of single-wall carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes by ionic solutions or individual ions moving inside the nanotubes [1,2]. We also briefly discuss highly selective ionic sieves based on graphene monolayers with nanopores [3]. These phenomena could be applied in molecular delivery, separation and desalination.[3pt] [1] Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, JACS 128, 15984 (2006). [0pt] [2] Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 046103 (2008). [0pt] [3] Kyaw Sint, Boyang Wang and Petr Kral, JACS, ASAP (2008).

5. Simplistic Coulomb Forces in Molecular Dynamics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Schrøder, Thomas; Dyre, J. C.

2012-01-01

In this paper we compare the Wolf method to the shifted forces (SF) method for efficient computer simulation of bulk systems with Coulomb forces, taking results from the Ewald summation and particle mesh Ewald methods as representing the true behavior. We find that for the Hansen–McDonald molten...... measures for the convergence of the Wolf method to the Ewald summation method. The SF approximation is also tested for the SPC/Fw model of liquid water at room temperature, showing good agreement with both the Wolf and the particle mesh Ewald methods; this confirms previous findings [Fennell, C. J...

6. Resonances in the two centers Coulomb system

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Seri, Marcello

2012-09-14

In this work we investigate the existence of resonances for two-centers Coulomb systems with arbitrary charges in two and three dimensions, defining them in terms of generalized complex eigenvalues of a non-selfadjoint deformation of the two-center Schroedinger operator. After giving a description of the bifurcation of the classical system for positive energies, we construct the resolvent kernel of the operators and we prove that they can be extended analytically to the second Riemann sheet. The resonances are then defined and studied with numerical methods and perturbation theory.

7. Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions

Science.gov (United States)

Durach, M.; Rusina, A.; Klimov, V. I.; Stockman, M. I.

2008-10-01

In this paper, we propose a general and powerful theory of the plasmonic enhancement of the many-body phenomena resulting in a closed expression for the surface plasmon-dressed Coulomb interaction. We illustrate this theory by computing the dressed interaction explicitly for an important example of metal-dielectric nanoshells which exhibits a rich resonant behavior in magnitude and phase. This interaction is used to describe the nanoplasmonic-enhanced Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between nanocrystal quantum dots near a nanoshell.

8. Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

2004-01-01

We calculate the transresistivity rho(21) between two concentric armchair nanotubes in a diffusive multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F). We approximate the tight-binding band structure by two crossing bands with a linear dispersion near the Fermi...... surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...

9. Coulomb field in a constant electromagnetic background

CERN Document Server

Adorno, T C; Shabad, A E

2016-01-01

Nonlinear Maxwell equations are written up to the third-power deviations from a constant-field background, valid within any local nonlinear electrodynamics including QED with Euler-Heisenberg effective Lagrangian. Linear electric response to imposed static finite-sized charge is found in the vacuum filled by an arbitrary combination of constant and homogeneous electric and magnetic fields. The modified Coulomb field, corrections to the total charge and to the charge density are given in terms of derivatives of the effective Lagrangian with respect to the field invariants.

10. Nanoplasmonic renormalization and enhancement of Coulomb interactions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Durach, M; Rusina, A; Stockman, M I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Klimov, V I [Chemistry Division, C-PCS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)], E-mail: mstockman@gsu.edu

2008-10-15

In this paper, we propose a general and powerful theory of the plasmonic enhancement of the many-body phenomena resulting in a closed expression for the surface plasmon-dressed Coulomb interaction. We illustrate this theory by computing the dressed interaction explicitly for an important example of metal-dielectric nanoshells which exhibits a rich resonant behavior in magnitude and phase. This interaction is used to describe the nanoplasmonic-enhanced Foerster resonant energy transfer (FRET) between nanocrystal quantum dots near a nanoshell.

11. Temperature dependence of coulomb drag between finite-length quantum wires.

Science.gov (United States)

Peguiron, J; Bruder, C; Trauzettel, B

2007-08-24

We evaluate the Coulomb drag current in two finite-length Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid wires coupled by an electrostatic backscattering interaction. The drag current in one wire shows oscillations as a function of the bias voltage applied to the other wire, reflecting interferences of the plasmon standing waves in the interacting wires. In agreement with this picture, the amplitude of the current oscillations is reduced with increasing temperature. This is a clear signature of non-Fermi-liquid physics because for coupled Fermi liquids the drag resistance is always expected to increase as the temperature is raised.

12. New approach to folding with the Coulomb wave function

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blokhintsev, L. D.; Savin, D. A. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Kadyrov, A. S. [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Medical Radiation Sciences, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845 (Australia); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2015-05-15

Due to the long-range character of the Coulomb interaction theoretical description of low-energy nuclear reactions with charged particles still remains a formidable task. One way of dealing with the problem in an integral-equation approach is to employ a screened Coulomb potential. A general approach without screening requires folding of kernels of the integral equations with the Coulomb wave. A new method of folding a function with the Coulomb partial waves is presented. The partial-wave Coulomb function both in the configuration and momentum representations is written in the form of separable series. Each term of the series is represented as a product of a factor depending only on the Coulomb parameter and a function depending on the spatial variable in the configuration space and the momentum variable if the momentum representation is used. Using a trial function, the method is demonstrated to be efficient and reliable.

13. The proton-proton scattering without Coulomb force renormalization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Glöckle W.

2010-04-01

Full Text Available We demonstrate numerically that proton-proton (pp scattering observables can be determined directly by standard short range methods using a screened pp Coulomb force without renormalization. We numerically investigate solutions of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS equation for an exponentially screened Coulomb potential. For the limit of large screening radii we conﬁrm analytically predicted properties for oﬀ-shell, half-shell and on-shell elements of the Coulomb t-matrix.

14. Coulomb effects in Fermi {beta} decay of {sup 74}Rb

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oinonen, M. [CERN, EP Div., Geneva (Switzerland)

2003-07-01

Coulomb effects in the {beta} decay of {sup 74}Rb have been studied at ISOLDE. The observation of the non-analog feeding in the {beta} decay allows for an estimation of the Coulomb mixing parameter {delta}{sub IM}{sup 1}. The analysis of the total Coulomb correction {delta}{sub C} is still hampered by the uncertainty in the decay energy. (orig.)

15. Disease proportions attributable to environment

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vineis Paolo

2007-11-01

Full Text Available Abstract Population disease proportions attributable to various causal agents are popular as they present a simplified view of the contribution of each agent to the disease load. However they are only summary figures that may be easily misinterpreted or over-interpreted even when the causal link between an exposure and an effect is well established. This commentary discusses several issues surrounding the estimation of attributable proportions, particularly with reference to environmental causes of cancers, and critically examines two recently published papers. These issues encompass potential biases as well as the very definition of environment and of environmental agent. The latter aspect is not just a semantic question but carries implications for the focus of preventive actions, whether centred on the material and social environment or on single individuals.

16. Transport Through a Coulomb Blockaded Majorana Nanowire

Science.gov (United States)

Zazunov, Alex; Egger, Reinhold; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy; Hützen, Roland; Braunecker, Bernd

In one-dimensional (1D) quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling and a Zeeman field, a superconducting substrate can induce zero-energy Majorana bound states located near the ends of the wire. We study electronic properties when such a wire is contacted by normal metallic or superconducting electrodes. A special attention is devoted to Coulomb blockade effects. We analyze the "Majorana single-charge transistor" (MSCT), i.e., a floating Majorana wire contacted by normal metallic source and drain contacts, where charging effects are important. We describe Coulomb oscillations in this system and predict that Majorana fermions could be unambiguously detected by the emergence of sideband peaks in the nonlinear differential conductance. We also study a superconducting variant of the MSCT setup with s-wave superconducting (instead of normal-conducting) leads. In the noninteracting case, we derive the exact current-phase relation (CPR) and find π-periodic behavior with negative critical current for weak tunnel couplings. Charging effects then cause the anomalous CPR I(\\varphi ) = Ic\\cos \\varphi, where the parity-sensitive critical current I c provides a signature for Majorana states.

17. Coulomb excitation of radioactive {sup 79}Pb

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.; Davids, C.N. [and others

1995-08-01

The technical challenges expected in experiments with radioactive beams can already be explored by using ions produced in primary reactions. In addition, the re-excitation of these ions by Coulomb excitation allows a sensitive search for collective states that are well above the yrast line. We are building an experiment to study Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions which are separated from beam particles by the Fragment Mass Analyzer. An array of gamma detectors will be mounted at the focal plane to measure the gamma radiation following re-excitation. Five Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and five planar LEPS detectors will be used. The optimum experiment of this type appears to be the study of {sup 79}Rb following the {sup 24}Mg ({sup 58}Ni,3p) reaction. We calculate that about 5 x 10{sup 5} {sup 79}Rb nuclei/second will reach the excitation foil. This rubidium isotope was selected for study as it is strongly produced and is highly deformed, so easily re-excited. The use of a {sup 58}Ni re-excitation foil offers the best yields. After re-excitation the ions will be subsequently transported into a shielded beamdump to prevent the accumulation of activity.

18. Effect of Coulomb interaction on multi-electronwave packet dynamics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shiokawa, T. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8571 (Japan); Takada, Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 102-0073, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Konabe, S.; Hatsugai, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8571, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Muraguchi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Endoh, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579, Japan and Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8577, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan); Shiraishi, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8571, Japan and Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8577, Japan and CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (Japan)

2013-12-04

We have investigated the effect of Coulomb interaction on electron transport in a one-dimensional nanoscale structure using a multi-electron wave packet approach. To study the time evolution, we numerically solve the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation, finding that the electron wave packet dynamics strongly depends on the Coulomb interaction strength. When the Coulomb interaction is large, each electron wave packet moves separately in the presence of an electric field. With weak Coulomb interaction, however, the electron wave packets overlap, forming and moving as one collective wave packet.

19. Quantum Amplitude Amplification and Estimation

CERN Document Server

Brassard, G; Mosca, M; Tapp, A; Brassard, Gilles; Hoyer, Peter; Mosca, Michele; Tapp, Alain

2000-01-01

Consider a Boolean function $\\chi: X \\to \\{0,1\\}$ that partitions set $X$ between its good and bad elements, where $x$ is good if $\\chi(x)=1$ and bad otherwise. Consider also a quantum algorithm $\\mathcal A$ such that $A \\ket{0} = \\sum_{x\\in X} \\alpha_x \\ket{x}$ is a quantum superposition of the elements of $X$, and let $a$ denote the probability that a good element is produced if $A \\ket{0}$ is measured. If we repeat the process of running $A$, measuring the output, and using $\\chi$ to check the validity of the result, we shall expect to repeat $1/a$ times on the average before a solution is found. *Amplitude amplification* is a process that allows to find a good $x$ after an expected number of applications of $A$ and its inverse which is proportional to $1/\\sqrt{a}$, assuming algorithm $A$ makes no measurements. This is a generalization of Grover's searching algorithm in which $A$ was restricted to producing an equal superposition of all members of $X$ and we had a promise that a single $x$ existed such tha...

20. Coulomb crystallization in classical and quantum systems

Science.gov (United States)

Bonitz, Michael

2007-11-01

Coulomb crystallization occurs in one-component plasmas when the average interaction energy exceeds the kinetic energy by about two orders of magnitude. A simple road to reach such strong coupling consists in using external confinement potentials the strength of which controls the density. This has been succsessfully realized with ions in traps and storage rings and also in dusty plasma. Recently a three-dimensional spherical confinement could be created [1] which allows to produce spherical dust crystals containing concentric shells. I will give an overview on our recent results for these Yukawa balls'' and compare them to experiments. The shell structure of these systems can be very well explained by using an isotropic statically screened pair interaction. Further, the thermodynamic properties of these systems, such as the radial density distribution are discussed based on an analytical theory [3]. I then will discuss Coulomb crystallization in trapped quantum systems, such as mesoscopic electron and electron hole plasmas in coupled layers [4,5]. These systems show a very rich correlation behavior, including liquid and solid like states and bound states (excitons, biexcitons) and their crystals. On the other hand, also collective quantum and spin effects are observed, including Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity of bound electron-hole pairs [4]. Finally, I consider Coulomb crystallization in two-component neutral plasmas in three dimensions. I discuss the necessary conditions for crystals of heavy charges to exist in the presence of a light component which typically is in the Fermi gas or liquid state. It can be shown that their exists a critical ratio of the masses of the species of the order of 80 [5] which is confirmed by Quantum Monte Carlo simulations [6]. Familiar examples are crystals of nuclei in the core of White dwarf stars, but the results also suggest the existence of other crystals, including proton or α-particle crystals in dense matter

1. Elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na

Science.gov (United States)

Singh, G.; Shubhchintak, Chatterjee, R.

2016-08-01

Background: 34Na is conjectured to play an important role in the production of seed nuclei in the alternate r -process paths involving light neutron rich nuclei very near the β -stability line, and as such, it is important to know its ground state properties and structure to calculate rates of the reactions it might be involved in, in the stellar plasma. Found in the region of island of inversion', its ground state might not be in agreement with normal shell model predictions. Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb to give us a core of 33Na with a neutron and in the process we try and investigate the one neutron separation energy and the ground state configuration of 34Na. Method: A fully quantum mechanical Coulomb breakup theory within the architecture of post-form finite range distorted wave Born approximation extended to include the effects of deformation is used to research the elastic Coulomb breakup of 34Na on 208Pb at 100 MeV/u. The triple differential cross section calculated for the breakup is integrated over the desired components to find the total cross-section, momentum, and angular distributions as well as the average momenta, along with the energy-angular distributions. Results: The total one neutron removal cross section is calculated to test the possible ground state configurations of 34Na. The average momentum results along with energy-angular calculations indicate 34Na to have a halo structure. The parallel momentum distributions with narrow full widths at half-maxima signify the same. Conclusion: We have attempted to analyze the possible ground state configurations of 34Na and in congruity with the patterns in the island of inversion' conclude that even without deformation, 34Na should be a neutron halo with a predominant contribution to its ground state most probably coming from 33Na(3 /2+)⊗ 2 p3 /2ν configuration. We also surmise that it would certainly be useful and rewarding to test our

2. Statistical inference on mixing proportion

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2008-01-01

In this paper, the interval estimation and hypothesis testing of the mixing proportion in mixture distributions are considered. A statistical inferential method is proposed which is inspired by the generalized p-values and generalized pivotal quantity. In some situations, the true levels of the tests given in the paper are equal to nominal levels, and the true coverage of the interval estimation or confidence bounds is also equal to nominal one. In other situations, under mild conditions, the tests are consistent and the coverage of the interval estimations or the confidence bounds is asymptotically equal to nominal coverage. Meanwhile, some simulations are performed which show that our method is satisfactory.

3. Photodetectors for scintillator proportionality measurement

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moses, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: wwmoses@lbl.gov; Choong, Woon-Seng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Hull, Giulia; Payne, Steve; Cherepy, Nerine; Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

2009-10-21

We evaluate photodetectors for use in a Compton Coincidence apparatus designed for measuring scintillator proportionality. There are many requirements placed on the photodetector in these systems, including active area, linearity, and the ability to accurately measure low light levels (which implies high quantum efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio). Through a combination of measurement and Monte Carlo simulation, we evaluate a number of potential photodetectors, especially photomultiplier tubes and hybrid photodetectors. Of these, we find that the most promising devices available are photomultiplier tubes with high ({approx}50%) quantum efficiency, although hybrid photodetectors with high quantum efficiency would be preferable.

4. Elastic scattering of vortex electrons provides direct access to the Coulomb phase

CERN Document Server

Ivanov, I P; Surzhykov, A; Fritzsche, S

2016-01-01

Vortex electron beams are freely propagating electron waves carrying adjustable orbital angular momentum with respect to the propagation direction. Such beams were experimentally realized just a few years ago and are now used to probe various electromagnetic processes. So far, these experiments used the single vortex electron beams, either propagating in external fields or impacting a target. Here, we investigate the elastic scattering of two such aligned vortex electron beams and demonstrate that this process allows one to experimentally measure features which are impossible to detect in the usual plane-wave scattering. The scattering amplitude of this process is well approximated by two plane-wave scattering amplitudes with different momentum transfers, which interfere and give direct experimental access to the Coulomb phase. This phase (shift) affects the scattering of all charged particles and has thus received significant theoretical attention but was never probed experimentally. We show that a properly ...

5. Study on Coulomb explosions of ion mixtures

CERN Document Server

Boella, E; D'Angola, A; Coppa, G; Silva, L O

2015-01-01

The paper presents a theoretical work on the dynamics of Coulomb explosion for spherical nanoplasmas composed by two different ion species. Particular attention has been dedicated to study the energy spectra of the ions with the larger charge-to-mass ratio. The connection between the formation of shock shells and the energy spread of the ions has been the object of a detailed analysis, showing that under particular conditions the width of the asymptotic energy spectrum tends to become very narrow, which leads to a multi-valued ion phase-space. The conditions to generate a quasi mono-energetic ion spectrum have been rigorously demonstrated and verifed by numerical simulations, using a technique that, exploiting the spherical symmetry of the problem, allows one to obtain very accurate and precise results.

6. Pair distribution of ions in Coulomb lattice

CERN Document Server

Witt, H E D; Chugunov, A I; Baiko, D A; Yakovlev, D G

2003-01-01

The pair distribution function g(r) ident to g(x, y, z) and the radial pair distribution function g(r) of ions in body-centred-cubic and face-centred-cubic Coulomb crystals are calculated within the harmonic-lattice (HL) approximation in a wide temperature range, from the high-temperature classical limit (T >> h-bar w sub p , w sub p being the ion plasma frequency) to the low-temperature quantum limit (T || h-bar w sub p). In the classical limit, g(r) is also calculated by the Monte Carlo (MC) method. MC and HL results are demonstrated to be in good agreement. With decreasing T, the correlation peaks of g(r) and g(r) become narrower. At T || h-bar w sub p they become temperature independent (determined by zero-point ion vibrations).

7. Coulomb crystals in the magnetic field

CERN Document Server

Baiko, D A

2009-01-01

The body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal of ions in the presence of a uniform magnetic field is studied using the rigid electron background approximation. The phonon mode spectra are calculated for a wide range of magnetic field strengths and for several orientations of the field in the crystal. The phonon spectra are used to calculate the phonon contribution to the crystal energy, entropy, specific heat, Debye-Waller factor of ions, and the rms ion displacements from the lattice nodes for a broad range of densities, temperatures, chemical compositions, and magnetic fields. Strong magnetic field dramatically alters the properties of quantum crystals. The phonon specific heat increases by many orders of magnitude. The ion displacements from their equilibrium positions become strongly anisotropic. The results can be relevant for dusty plasmas, ion plasmas in Penning traps, and especially for the crust of magnetars (neutron stars with superstrong magnetic fields $B \\gtrsim 10^{14}$ G). The effect of the magnetic ...

8. Thermodynamic Functions of Magnetized Coulomb Crystals

CERN Document Server

Baiko, D A

2013-01-01

Free energy, internal energy, and specific heat for each of the three phonon spectrum branches of a magnetized Coulomb crystal with body-centered cubic lattice are calculated by numerical integration over the Brillouin zone in the range of magnetic fields $B$ and temperatures $T$, such that $0 \\le \\omega_{\\rm B}/\\omega_{\\rm p}\\le 10^3$ and $10^{-4} \\le T/T_{\\rm p} \\le 10^4$. In this case, $\\omega_{\\rm B}$ is the ion cyclotron frequency, $\\omega_{\\rm p}$ and $T_{\\rm p}$ are the ion plasma frequency and plasma temperature, respectively. The results of numerical calculations are approximated by simple analytical formulas. For illustration, these formulas are used to analyze the behavior of the heat capacity in the crust of a neutron star with strong magnetic field. Thermodynamic functions of magnetized neutron star crust are needed for modeling various observational phenomena in magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars.

9. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb Branch

Science.gov (United States)

Schwarz, John H.

We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in AdS5 × S5 with N units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the U(1) factor of 𝒩 = 4 U(N + 1) super Yang-Mills theory, spontaneously broken to U(N) × U(1) by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action (HEA). We construct an SL(2, Z) multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that they reproduce the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble, which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

10. Coulomb dissociation of light unstable nuclei

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kido, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki

1997-05-01

The aim of this study is that a simulation method applicable to the atomic nucleus with neutron halo structure developed till now is applied to a wider range unstable nucleus containing proton excess nucleus to also attribute understanding of nuclear reaction with interest in astronomical nuclear reaction. The proton dissociation energy in {sup 8}B nucleus is small value of 138 eV, which is thought to have a structure of proton at the most outer shell bound much weakly by core nucleus and spread in thinner thickness. For the coulomb excitation of such weak bound system, quantum theoretical and non-perturbational treatment is important. Therefore, 3-dimensional time-dependent Schroedinger equation on relative wave function of the core nucleus {sup 7}Be and halo proton p will be dissolved in time space and will execute a time developmental simulation. (G.K.)

11. Ion Coulomb Crystals and Their Applications

Science.gov (United States)

Drewsen, Michael

The following text will give a brief introduction to the physics of the spatially ordered structures, so-called Coulomb crystals, that appear when confined ions are cooled to sufficiently low temperatures. It will as well briefly comment on the very diverse scientific applications of such crystals, which have emerged in the past two decades. While this document lacks figures and many specific references, it is the hope, not the text will stimulate the reader to dig deeper into one or more of the discussed subjects, and inspire her/him to think about new potential applications. A fully referenced journal article of essentially the same text can be found in Physica B 460, 105 (2015) [1].

12. Gauge Theories on the Coulomb branch

CERN Document Server

Schwarz, John H

2014-01-01

We construct the world-volume action of a probe D3-brane in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ with $N$ units of flux. It has the field content, symmetries, and dualities of the $U(1)$ factor of ${\\cal N} =4$ $U(N+1)$ super Yang--Mills theory, spontaneously broken to $U(N) \\times U(1)$ by being on the Coulomb branch, with the massive fields integrated out. This motivates the conjecture that it is the exact effective action, called a highly effective action' (HEA). We construct an $SL(2,Z)$ multiplet of BPS soliton solutions of the D3-brane theory (the conjectured HEA) and show that it reproduces the electrically charged massive states that have been integrated out as well as magnetic monopoles and dyons. Their charges are uniformly spread on a spherical surface, called a soliton bubble', which is interpreted as a phase boundary.

13. Coulomb distortion effects in deep-inelastic electron scattering

Science.gov (United States)

Co', Giampaolo; Heisenberg, Jochen

1987-11-01

The effects of the Coulomb distortion of the electron wave functions in the description of the electron scattering processes in the quasi-elastic region are discussed. A method to extract longitudinal and transverse response functions considering these effects is presented. While the transverse response function is remarkably affected by the Coulomb distortion, the values of the longitudinal response function are practically unchanged.

14. Magneto-Coulomb effect in spin-valve devices

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van der Molen, SJ; Tombros, N; van Wees, BJ

2006-01-01

We discuss the influence of the magneto-Coulomb effect (MCE) on the magnetoconductance of spin-valve devices. We show that the MCE can induce magnetoconductances of several percent or more, depending on the strength of the Coulomb blockade. Furthermore, the MCE-induced magnetoconductance changes sig

15. Quantum Dynamics of Biological Plasma in the External Coulomb Field

Science.gov (United States)

Lasukov, V. V.; Lasukova, T. V.; Lasukova, O. V.

2013-10-01

A quantum solution to the truncated Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation with Coulomb convection and linear diffusion is derived. The quantum radiation of biological systems, individual microorganisms (cells, bacteria), and dust plasma particles in the Coulomb field is studied using the foregoing solution.

16. Antilocalization of Coulomb Blockade in a Ge-Si Nanowire

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Higginbotham, Andrew P.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Larsen, Thorvald Wadum

2014-01-01

The distribution of Coulomb blockade peak heights as a function of magnetic field is investigated experimentally in a Ge-Si nanowire quantum dot. Strong spin-orbit coupling in this hole-gas system leads to antilocalization of Coulomb blockade peaks, consistent with theory. In particular, the peak...

17. Spherical Calogero model with oscillator/Coulomb potential: classical case

CERN Document Server

Correa, Francisco; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Nersessian, Armen

2016-01-01

We construct the Hamiltonians and symmetry generators of Calogero-oscillator and Calogero-Coulomb models on the N-dimensional sphere within the matrix-model reduction approach. Our method also produces the integrable Calogero-Coulomb-Stark model on the sphere and proves the integrability of the spin extensions of all these systems.

18. Coulomb excitation effects on alpha-particle optical potential below the Coulomb barrier

CERN Document Server

Avrigeanu, V; Mănăilescu, C

2016-01-01

A competition of the low-energy Coulomb excitation (CE) with the compound nucleus (CN) formation in alpha-induced reactions below the Coulomb barrier has recently been assumed in order to make possible the description of the latter as well as the alpha-particle emission by the same optical model (OM) potential. On the contrary, we show in the present work that the corresponding partial waves and integration radii provide evidence for the distinct account of the CE cross section and OM total-reaction cross section $\\sigma_R$. Thus the largest contribution to CE cross section comes by far from partial waves larger than the ones contributing to the $\\sigma_R$ values.

19. Collision between two ortho-positronium (Ps) atoms: A four-body Coulomb problem

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

RAY HASI

2016-05-01

The elastic collision between two ortho-positronium (e.g. $S = 1$) atoms is studied using an {\\it ab-initio} static exchange model (SEM) in the centre of mass (CM) frame by considering the system as a four-body Coulomb problem where all the Coulomb interaction terms in the direct and exchange channels are treated exactly. A coupled channel methodology in momentum space is used to solve Lippman–Schwinger equation following the integral approach. A new SEM code is developed in which the Born–Oppenheimer (BO) scattering amplitude acts as input to derive the SEM amplitude adapting the partial wave analysis. The $s$-, $p$- and $d$-wave elastic phase shifts and the corresponding partial cross-sections for the spin alignment $S = 0$, i.e., singlet (+) and $S = 2$, i.e., triplet (−) states are studied. An augmented Born approximation is used to includethe contribution of higher partial waves more accurately to determine the total/integrated elastic cross-section $(\\sigma)$, the quenching cross-section (σq) and ortho-to-para conversion ratio $(\\sigma/\\sigma q)$. The effective range theory is used to determine the scattering lengths and effective ranges in the s-wave elastic scattering. The theory includes the non-adiabatic short-range effects due to exchange.

20. Cold transfer between deformed, Coulomb excited nuclei; Kalter Transfer zwischen deformierten, Coulomb-angeregten Kernen

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bauer, H.

1998-12-31

The scattering system {sup 162}Dy {yields} {sup 116}Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high {gamma}-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in {sup 162}Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)

1. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

2012-01-01

be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

2. Statistical inference on mixing proportion

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

XU XingZhong; LIU Fang

2008-01-01

In this paper,the interval estimation and hypothesis testing of the mixing proportion in mixture distributions are considered.A statistical inferential method is proposed which is inspired by the generalized p-values and generalized pivotal quantity.In some situations,the true levels of the tests given in the paper are equal to nominal levels,and the true coverage of the interval estimation or confidence bounds is also equal to nominal one.In other situations,under mild conditions,the tests are consistent and the coverage of the interval estimations or the confidence bounds is asymptotically equal to nominal coverage.Meanwhile,some simulations axe performed which show that our method is satisfactory.

3. Proportional Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

Science.gov (United States)

Tourniaire, Francoise; Pulos, Steven

1985-01-01

The literature on proportional reasoning is reviewed. After methodology is discussed, strategies used to solve proportion problems, variables that influence performance, and training studies are each considered. (MNS)

4. Compact multigluonic scattering amplitudes with heavy scalars and fermions

CERN Document Server

Ferrario, P; Talavera, P; Ferrario, Paola; Rodrigo, German; Talavera, Pere

2006-01-01

Combining the Berends-Giele and on-shell recursion relations we obtain an extremely compact expression for the scattering amplitude of a complex scalar-antiscalar pair and an arbitrary number of positive helicity gluons. This is one of the basic building blocks for constructing other helicity configurations from recursion relations. We also show explicity that the all positive helicity gluons amplitude for heavy fermions is proportional to the scalar one, confirming in this way the recently advocated SUSY-like Ward identities relating both amplitudes.

5. The collision between two positronium (Ps) atoms: the exact evaluation of a four-body Coulomb problem

CERN Document Server

Ray, Hasi

2014-01-01

The collision between two positronium (Ps) atoms is a four-body Coulomb problem with all the particles of equal masses. It is very difficult to compute the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) scattering amplitude involving the nine-dimensional integrals with four Coulomb interaction terms between the atoms. It is extremely difficult in the electron-electron correlation term to include the exchange or antisymmetry between two system electrons exactly. Earlier the Ps and H system was easily approximated as a three-body problem, due to the light mass of Ps the center of mass of the system was confined in the H-nucleus. A simple substitution of variables using no approximation has enabled to evaluate the electron-electron Coulomb exchange-correlation term exactly in such a four-center problem in the center of mass frame involving a nine dimensional integral. The present code of Ps-Ps collision using an ab-initio and exact static-exchange model (SEM) that uses the BO amplitude as input, can reproduce exactly the same data of Ps...

6. CHY formula and MHV amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Du, Yi-jian; Wu, Yong-shi

2016-01-01

In this paper, we study the relation between the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) formula and the maximal-helicity-violating (MHV) amplitudes of Yang-Mills and gravity in four dimensions. We prove that only one special rational solution of the scattering equations found by Weinzierl support the MHV amplitudes. Namely, localized at this solution, the integrated CHY formula reproduces the Parke-Taylor formula for Yang-Mills amplitudes as well as the Hodges formula for gravitational amplitudes. This is achieved by developing techniques, in a manifestly M\\"obius covariant formalism, to explicitly compute relevant reduced Pfaffians/determinants. We observe and prove two interesting properties (or identities), which facilitate the computations. We also check that all the other $(n-3)!-1$ solutions to the scattering equations do not support the MHV amplitudes, and prove analytically that this is indeed true for the other special rational solution proposed by Weinzierl, that actually supports the anti-MHV amplitudes.

7. Strong Coulomb Coupling in the Todorov Equation

Science.gov (United States)

Bawin, M.; Cugnon, J.; Sazdjian, H.

A positronium-like system with strong Coulomb coupling, considered in its pseudoscalar sector, is studied in the framework of relativistic quantum constraint dynamics with the Todorov choice for the potential. Case’s method of self-adjoint extension of singular potentials, which avoids explicit introduction of regularization cut-offs, is adopted. It is found that, as the coupling constant α increases, the bound state spectrum undergoes an abrupt change at the critical value α=αc=1/2. For α>αc, the mass spectrum displays, in addition to the existing states for α<αc, a new set of an infinite number of bound states concentrated in a narrow band starting at mass W=0; all the states have indefinitely oscillating wave functions near the origin. In the limit α→αc from above, the oscillations disappear and the narrow band of low-lying states shrinks to a single massless state with a mass gap with the rest of the spectrum. This state has the required properties to represent a Goldstone boson and to signal spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry.

8. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion

Science.gov (United States)

Hamo, A.; Benyamini, A.; Shapir, I.; Khivrich, I.; Waissman, J.; Kaasbjerg, K.; Oreg, Y.; von Oppen, F.; Ilani, S.

2016-07-01

One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed ‘excitonic’, promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the ‘glue’ that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

9. Deep inelastic scattering near the Coulomb barrier

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gehring, J.; Back, B.; Chan, K. [and others

1995-08-01

Deep inelastic scattering was recently observed in heavy ion reactions at incident energies near and below the Coulomb barrier. Traditional models of this process are based on frictional forces and are designed to predict the features of deep inelastic processes at energies above the barrier. They cannot be applied at energies below the barrier where the nuclear overlap is small and friction is negligible. The presence of deep inelastic scattering at these energies requires a different explanation. The first observation of deep inelastic scattering near the barrier was in the systems {sup 124,112}Sn + {sup 58,64}Ni by Wolfs et al. We previously extended these measurements to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni and currently measured the system {sup 124}Xe + {sup 58}Ni. We obtained better statistics, better mass and energy resolution, and more complete angular coverage in the Xe + Ni measurements. The cross sections and angular distributions are similar in all of the Sn + Ni and Xe + Ni systems. The data are currently being analyzed and compared with new theoretical calculations. They will be part of the thesis of J. Gehring.

10. Dirac Hamiltonian with superstrong Coulomb field

CERN Document Server

Voronov, B L; Tyutin, I V

2006-01-01

We consider the quantum-mechanical problem of a relativistic Dirac particle moving in the Coulomb field of a point charge $Ze$. In the literature, it is often declared that a quantum-mechanical description of such a system does not exist for charge values exceeding the so-called critical charge with Z=137 based on the fact that the standard expression for energy eigenvalues yields complex values at overcritical charges. We show that from the mathematical standpoint, there is no problem in defining a self-adjoint Hamiltonian for any value of charge. What is more, the transition through the critical charge does not lead to any qualitative changes in the mathematical description of the system. A specific feature of overcritical charges is the nonuniqueness of the self-adjoint Hamiltonian, but this nonuniqueness is also characteristic for charge values less than the critical one (and larger than the subcritical charge with Z=118). We present the spectra and (generalized) eigenfunctions for all self-adjoint Hamilt...

11. Relativistic Coulomb excitation of {sup 88}Kr

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moschner, Kevin; Blazhev, Andrey; Jolie, Jan; Warr, Nigel; Wendt, Andreas [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: PreSPEC-Collaboration

2015-07-01

Within the scope of the PreSPEC campaign we performed a Coulomb-excitation experiment to determine absolute E2 transition strengths to 2{sup +} states in the radioactive nucleus {sup 88}Kr. The aim of our studies was to identify the one quadruple-phonon mixed-symmetry 2{sub MS}{sup +} state in order to extend our knowledge on these states to lighter N = 52 isotones and to track their evolution over different proton shells. The investigated ions were provided through projectile fission of a 650 MeV {sup 238}U beam on a primary target consisting of 0.6 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 9}Be and subsequent separation and identification of the reaction products via the FRS at GSI. The secondary target consisted of 0.4 g/cm{sup 2} {sup 197}Au. De-exciting γ radiation was detected by the PreSPEC array, consisting of 15 EUROBALL Cluster detectors. The Lund-York-Cologne-CAlorimeter LYCCA was used for particle identification after the secondary target. Absolute transition strengths of the transitions depopulating the 2{sup +}{sub 3} state in {sup 88}Kr which suggest the mixed symmetric character of this state are presented and discussed within the systematics of the N = 52 isotones.

12. Electron attraction mediated by Coulomb repulsion.

Science.gov (United States)

Hamo, A; Benyamini, A; Shapir, I; Khivrich, I; Waissman, J; Kaasbjerg, K; Oreg, Y; von Oppen, F; Ilani, S

2016-07-21

One of the defining properties of electrons is their mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, in solids this basic property may change; for example, in superconductors, the coupling of electrons to lattice vibrations makes the electrons attract one another, leading to the formation of bound pairs. Fifty years ago it was proposed that electrons can be made attractive even when all of the degrees of freedom in the solid are electronic, by exploiting their repulsion from other electrons. This attraction mechanism, termed 'excitonic', promised to achieve stronger and more exotic superconductivity. Yet, despite an extensive search, experimental evidence for excitonic attraction has yet to be found. Here we demonstrate this attraction by constructing, from the bottom up, the fundamental building block of the excitonic mechanism. Our experiments are based on quantum devices made from pristine carbon nanotubes, combined with cryogenic precision manipulation. Using this platform, we demonstrate that two electrons can be made to attract each other using an independent electronic system as the 'glue' that mediates attraction. Owing to its tunability, our system offers insights into the underlying physics, such as the dependence of the emergent attraction on the underlying repulsion, and the origin of the pairing energy. We also demonstrate transport signatures of excitonic pairing. This experimental demonstration of excitonic pairing paves the way for the design of exotic states of matter.

13. Coulomb crystals in the harmonic lattice approximation

CERN Document Server

Baiko, D A; De Witt, H E; Slattery, W L

2000-01-01

The dynamic structure factor ${\\tilde S}({\\bf k},\\omega)$ and the two-particle distribution function $g({\\bf r},t)$ of ions in a Coulomb crystal are obtained in a closed analytic form using the harmonic lattice (HL) approximation which takes into account all processes of multi-phonon excitation and absorption. The static radial two-particle distribution function $g(r)$ is calculated for classical ($T \\gtrsim \\hbar \\omega_p$, where $\\omega_p$ is the ion plasma frequency) and quantum ($T \\ll \\hbar \\omega_p$) body-centered cubic (bcc) crystals. The results for the classical crystal are in a very good agreement with extensive Monte Carlo (MC) calculations at $1.5 \\lesssim r/a calculated for classical and quantum bcc and face-centered cubic crystals, and anharmonic corrections are discussed. The inelastic part of the HL static structure factor$S''(k)$, averaged over orientations of wave-vector {\\bf k}, is shown to contain pronounced singularities at Bragg diffraction positions. The type of the singularities is di... 14. Coulomb gauge model for hidden charm tetraquarks Science.gov (United States) Xie, W.; Mo, L. Q.; Wang, Ping; Cotanch, Stephen R. 2013-08-01 The spectrum of tetraquark states with hidden charm is studied within an effective Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian approach. Of the four independent color schemes, two are investigated, the (qcbar)1(cqbar)1 singlet-singlet (molecule) and the (qc)3(qbarcbar)3 triplet-triplet (diquark), for selected JPC states using a variational method. The predicted masses of triplet-triplet tetraquarks are roughly a GeV heavier than the singlet-singlet states. There is also an interesting flavor dependence with (qqbar)1 (ccbar1) states about half a GeV lighter than (qcbar)1(qbarc)1. The lightest 1++ and 1-- predictions are in agreement with the observed X (3872) and Y (4008) masses suggesting they are molecules with ωJ / ψ and ηhc, rather than D*Dbar* and DDbar, type structure, respectively. Similarly, the lightest isovector 1++ molecule, having a ρJ / ψ flavor composition, has mass near the recently observed charged Zc (3900) value. These flavor configurations are consistent with observed X, Y and Zc decays to ππJ / ψ. 15. Ionic Coulomb Blockade and Resonant Conduction in Biological Ion Channels CERN Document Server Kaufman, I Kh; Eisenberg, R S 2014-01-01 The conduction and selectivity of calcium/sodium ion channels are described in terms of ionic Coulomb blockade, a phenomenon based on charge discreteness and an electrostatic model of an ion channel. This novel approach provides a unified explanation of numerous observed and modelled conductance and selectivity phenomena, including the anomalous mole fraction effect and discrete conduction bands. Ionic Coulomb blockade and resonant conduction are similar to electronic Coulomb blockade and resonant tunnelling in quantum dots. The model is equally applicable to other nanopores. 16. Coulomb Breakup of Nucleus 6 Li on Ion 208Pb OpenAIRE Irgaziev, B. F.; ERGASHBAEV, H. T. 1998-01-01 In the framework of the three-body approach the A(a,bc)A Coulomb breakup has been investigated. The three-body Coulomb dynamic is taken into account to derive the expression for the reaction matrix element. The mechanism of the breakup includes the direct process and the excitation of resonance state of the particle a. The calculation of the triple differential cross section of the 208Pb(6Li, a d)208Pb Coulomb dissociation have been performed in the energy region Ea d < 1MeV. Cal... 17. Amplitude dependent closest tune approach CERN Document Server Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Franchi, Andrea; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department 2016-01-01 Recent observations in the LHC point to the existence of an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. However this dynamical behavior and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This effect is highly relevant for the LHC as an unexpectedly closest tune approach varying with amplitude modifies the frequency content of the beam and, hence, the Landau damping. Furthermore the single particle stability would also be affected by this effect as it would modify how particles with varying amplitudes approach and cross resonances. We present analytic derivations that lead to a mechanism generating an amplitude dependent closest tune approach. 18. Graviton amplitudes from collinear limits of gauge amplitudes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) 2015-05-11 We express all tree-level graviton amplitudes in Einstein's gravity as the collinear limits of a linear combination of pure Yang–Mills amplitudes in which each graviton is represented by two gauge bosons, each of them carrying exactly one half of graviton's momentum and helicity. 19. The impact of sharp screening on the Coulomb scattering problem in three dimensions Science.gov (United States) Yakovlev, S. L.; Volkov, M. V.; Yarevsky, E.; Elander, N. 2010-06-01 The scattering problem for two particles interacting via the Coulomb potential is examined for the case where the potential has a sharp cut-off at some distance. The problem is solved for two complementary situations, firstly, when the interior part of the Coulomb potential is left in the Hamiltonian and, secondly, when the long-range tail is considered as the potential. The partial wave results are summed up to obtain the wavefunction in three dimensions. It is shown that in the domains where the wavefunction is expected to be proportional to the known solutions, the proportionality is given by an operator acting on the angular part of the wavefunction. The explicit representation for this operator is obtained in the basis of Legendre polynomials. We proposed a driven Schrödinger equation including an inhomogeneous term of the finite range with purely outgoing asymptotics for its solution in the case of the three-dimensional scattering problem with long-range potentials. 20. Thermodynamic properties of the magnetized Coulomb crystal lattices Science.gov (United States) Kozhberov, A. A. 2016-08-01 It is thought that Coulomb crystals of ions with hexagonal close-packed lattice may form in the crust of strongly-magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). In this work we are trying to verify this prediction assuming that the direction of the magnetic field corresponds to the minimum of the zero-point energy. We also continue a detailed study of vibration modes and thermodynamic properties of magnetized Coulomb crystals in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. It is demonstrated that the total Helmholtz free energy of the body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal is always lower than that of the Coulomb crystal with hexagonal close-packed or face-centered cubic lattice, which casts doubt on the hypothesis above. 1. The generalized Coulomb interactions for relativistic scalar bosons Science.gov (United States) Zarrinkamar, S.; Panahi, H.; Rezaei, M. 2016-07-01 Approximate analytical solutions of Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equation are obtained for the truncated Coulomb, generalized Cornell, Richardson and Song-Lin potentials via the quasi-exact analytical ansatz approach. 2. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia 2008-01-01 A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t + ... 3. COULOMB BLOCKADE OSCILLATIONS OF Si SINGLE-ELECTRON TRANSISTORS Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 王太宏; 李宏伟; 周均铭 2001-01-01 Coulomb blockade oscillations of Si single-electron transistors, which are fabricated completely by the conventional photolithography technique, have been investigated. Most of the single-electron transistors clearly show Coulomb blockade oscillations and these oscillations can be periodic by applying negative voltages to the in-plane gates. A shift of the peak positions is observed at high temperatures. It is also found that the fluctuation of the peak spacing cannot be neglected. 4. Closed string amplitudes as single-valued open string amplitudes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) 2014-04-15 We show that the single trace heterotic N-point tree-level gauge amplitude A{sub N}{sup HET} can be obtained from the corresponding type I amplitude A{sub N}{sup I} by the single-valued (sv) projection: A{sub N}{sup HET}=sv(A{sub N}{sup I}). This projection maps multiple zeta values to single-valued multiple zeta values. The latter represent a subclass of multiple zeta values originating from single-valued multiple polylogarithms at unity. Similar relations between open and closed string amplitudes or amplitudes of different string vacua can be established. As a consequence the α{sup ′}-expansion of a closed string amplitude is dictated by that of the corresponding open string amplitude. The combination of single-valued projections, Kawai–Lewellen–Tye relations and Mellin correspondence reveal a unity of all tree-level open and closed superstring amplitudes together with the maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills and supergravity theories. 5. Coulomb sink effect on coarsening of metal nanostructures on surfaces Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Yong HAN; Feng LIU 2008-01-01 We discuss Coulomb effects on the coarsening of metal nanostructures on surfaces. We have proposed a new concept of a "Coulomb sink" [Phys. Rev. Lett., 2004, 93: 106102] to elucidate the effect of Coulomb charging on the coarsening of metal mesas grown on semiconductor surfaces. A charged mesa, due to its reduced chemical potential, acts as a Coulomb sink and grows at the expense of neighboring neu-tral mesas. The Coulomb sink provides a potentially useful method for the controlled fabrication of metal nanostructures. In this article, we will describe in detail the proposed physical models, which can explain qualitatively the most salient fea-tures of coarsening of charged Pb mesas on the Si(111) sur-face, as observed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We will also describe a method of precisely fabricating large-scale nanocrystals with well-defined shape and size. By using the Coulomb sink effect, the artificial center-full-hol-lowed or half-hollowed nanowells can be created. 6. Cognitive and Metacognitive Aspects of Proportional Reasoning Science.gov (United States) Modestou, Modestina; Gagatsis, Athanasios 2010-01-01 In this study we attempt to propose a new model of proportional reasoning based both on bibliographical and research data. This is impelled with the help of three written tests involving analogical, proportional, and non-proportional situations that were administered to pupils from grade 7 to 9. The results suggest the existence of a… 7. Cluster Functions and Scattering Amplitudes for Six and Seven Points CERN Document Server Harrington, Thomas 2015-01-01 Scattering amplitudes in planar super-Yang-Mills theory satisfy several basic physical and mathematical constraints, including physical constraints on their branch cut structure and various empirically discovered connections to the mathematics of cluster algebras. The power of the bootstrap program for amplitudes is inversely proportional to the size of the intersection between these physical and mathematical constraints: ideally we would like a list of constraints which determine scattering amplitudes uniquely. We explore this intersection quantitatively for two-loop six- and seven-point amplitudes by providing a complete taxonomy of the Gr(4,6) and Gr(4,7) cluster polylogarithm functions of arXiv:1401.6446 at weight 4. 8. Stable and Critical Noncohesive Coulomb Wedges: Exact Elastic Solutions Science.gov (United States) Wang, K.; Hu, Y. 2004-12-01 The theory of critically tapered Coulomb wedge has been successfully applied to model active fold-and-thrust belts or submarine accretionary prisms. Brittle mountain building is episodic in nature, controlled by changes in basal friction, erosion and sedimentation, and hydrogeology. Sediment accretion may be modulated by great subduction earthquakes. Between deformation episodes and/or during transition between compressional and extensional tectonics, the Coulomb wedges are stable (i.e., supercritical), to which the critical taper theory does not apply. In this work, we provide an exact elastic solution for stable wedges based on Airy stress functions. The stress equilibrium equation and definition of basal friction and basal and internal pore fluid pressure ratios are exactly the same as those used for Dahlen's [1984] exact solution for critical noncohesive Coulomb wedges, but internal friction μ becomes irrelevant. Given elastic - perfectly Coulomb-plastic rheology, for stresses in a wedge on the verge of Coulomb failure there must co-exist a critical taper solution involving μ and a unique equivalent elastic solution not involving μ . Our elastic solution precisely reduces to Dahlen's critical taper solution for critical conditions. For stable conditions, normal stress perpendicular to the surface slope σ z and shear stress τ xz are identical with those in a critical taper, but the slope-parallel normal stress is different. The elastic solution is also generally applicable to purely elastic wedges and useful for modeling geodetic observations. A stable noncohesive Coulomb wedge differs from a general elastic wedge in that its upper and lower surfaces stay at zero curvature during loading. Dahlen, F.A. (1984), Noncohesive critical Coulomb wedges: An exact solution, JGR, 89, 10,125-10,133. 9. Model selection for amplitude analysis CERN Document Server Guegan, Baptiste; Stevens, Justin; Williams, Mike 2015-01-01 Model complexity in amplitude analyses is often a priori under-constrained since the underlying theory permits a large number of amplitudes to contribute to most physical processes. The use of an overly complex model results in reduced predictive power and worse resolution on unknown parameters of interest. Therefore, it is common to reduce the complexity by removing from consideration some subset of the allowed amplitudes. This paper studies a data-driven method for limiting model complexity through regularization during regression in the context of a multivariate (Dalitz-plot) analysis. The regularization technique applied greatly improves the performance. A method is also proposed for obtaining the significance of a resonance in a multivariate amplitude analysis. 10. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories CERN Document Server Henn, Johannes M 2014-01-01 At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ... 11. |m| Partial wave treatment for two-dimensional Coulomb-scattering and Regge pole Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) WANG; Jing; ZENG; Jinyan 2004-01-01 The symmetry and |m| partial-wave analysis for two-dimensional (2D) Coulomb-scattering is investigated. As a function of energy E, the |m| partial-wave scattering amplitude f|m|(θ) is analytically continuated to the negative E (complex k) plane, and it is found that the bound state energy eigenvalues (E<0) are just located at the poles of f|m|(θ) on the positive imaginary k axis as is expected. In addition, as a function of |m|, f|m|(θ) is analytically continuated to the complex |m| plane, the bound state energy eigenvalues are just located at the poles of f|m|(θ) on the positive real |m| axis. 12. Approximate Three-Dimensional Wave Function and the T-Matrix for the Sharply Cut Off Coulomb Potential Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Witała H. 2010-04-01 Full Text Available For a sharply cut-oﬀ Coulomb potential we derive analytically the asymptotic form of the threedimensional wave function and the related scattering amplitude. We show a failure of the standard renormalization factor which is believed to be generally valid for any type of screening. We obtain also the asymptotic form of the corresponding three-dimensional half-shell t-matrix. Our results are fully supported by the numerical solutions of the three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger equation. 13. Amplitudes of stellar oscillations the implications for asteroseismology CERN Document Server Kjeldsen, H 1994-01-01 There are no good predictions for the amplitudes expected from solar-like oscillations in other stars. In the absence of a definitive model for convection, which is thought to be the mechanism that excites these oscillations, the amplitudes for both velocity and luminosity measurements must be estimated by scaling from the Sun. In the case of luminosity measurements, even this is difficult because of disagreement over the solar amplitude. This last point has lead us to investigate whether the luminosity amplitude of oscillations (dL/L) can be derived from the velocity amplitude v_osc. Using linear theory and observational data, we show that p-mode oscillations in a large sample of pulsating stars satisfy (dL/L)_bol proportional to v_osc/T_eff. Using this relationship, together with the best estimate of v_osc(Sun) = (23.4 +/- 1.4) cm/s, we estimate the luminosity amplitude of solar oscillations at 550 nm to be dL/L = (4.7 +/- 0.3) ppm. Next we discuss how to scale the amplitude of solar-like (i.e., convectivel... 14. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N. 2004-05-17 Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium. 15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling Science.gov (United States) McCurdy, C. W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T. N. 2004-09-01 Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a 'reduction to computation' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wavefunction can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium. 16. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections Science.gov (United States) Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S. 2017-01-01 We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values. 17. Features of non-congruent phase transition in modified Coulomb model of the binary ionic mixture Science.gov (United States) Stroev, N. E.; Iosilevskiy, I. L. 2016-11-01 Non-congruent gas-liquid phase transition (NCPT) have been studied previously in modified Coulomb model of a binary ionic mixture C(+6) + O(+8) on a uniformly compressible ideal electronic background /BIM(∼)/. The features of NCPT in improved version of the BIM(∼) model for the same mixture on background of non-ideal electronic Fermi-gas and comparison it with the previous calculations are the subject of present study. Analytical fits for Coulomb corrections to equation of state of electronic and ionic subsystems were used in present calculations within the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions of non-congruent phase equilibrium. Parameters of critical point-line were calculated on the entire range of proportions of mixed ions 0 BIM(∼) model. Just similar distillation was obtained in the variant of NCPT in dense nuslear matter. The absence of azeotropic compositions was revealed in studied variants of BIM(∼) in contrast to an explicit existence of the azeotropic compositions for the NCPT in chemically reacting plasmas and in astrophysical applications. 18. Features of non-congruent phase transition in modified Coulomb model of the binary ionic mixture CERN Document Server Stroev, N E 2016-01-01 Non-congruent gas-liquid phase transition (NCPT) have been studied in modified Coulomb model of a binary ionic mixture C(+6) + O(+8) on a \\textit{uniformly compressible} ideal electronic background /BIM($\\sim$)/. The features of NCPT in improved version of the BIM($\\sim$) model for the same mixture on background of \\textit{non-ideal} electronic Fermi-gas and comparison it with the previous calculations are the subject of present study. Analytical fits for Coulomb corrections to EoS of electronic and ionic subsystems were used in present calculations within the Gibbs--Guggenheim conditions of non-congruent phase equilibrium.Parameters of critical point-line (CPL) were calculated on the entire range of proportions of mixed ions$0

19. Gribov horizon and Gribov copies effect in lattice Coulomb gauge

CERN Document Server

Burgio, Giuseppe; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vogt, Hannes

2016-01-01

Following a recent proposal by Cooper and Zwanziger we investigate via lattice simulations the effect on the Coulomb gauge propagators and on the Gribov-Zwanziger confinement mechanism of selecting the Gribov copy with the smallest non-trivial eigenvalue of the Faddeev-Popov operator, i.e. the one closest to the Gribov horizon. Although such choice of gauge drives the ghost propagator towards the prediction of continuum calculations, we find that it actually overshoots the goal. With increasing computer time, we observe that Gribov copies with arbitrarily small eigenvalues can be found. For such a method to work one would therefore need further restrictions on the gauge condition to isolate the physically relevant copies, since e.g. the Coulomb potential $V_C$ defined through the Faddeev-Popov operator becomes otherwise physically meaningless. Interestingly, the Coulomb potential alternatively defined through temporal link correlators is only marginally affected by the smallness of the eigenvalues.

20. CubeSat testing of Coulomb drag propulsion

CERN Document Server

Janhunen, Pekka; Toivanen, Petri; Rauhala, Timo; Haeggström, Edward; Grönland, Tor-Arne

2016-01-01

In Coulomb drag propulsion, a long high voltage tether or system of tethers gathers momentum from a natural plasma stream such as solar wind or ionospheric plasma ram flow. A positively polarised tether in the solar wind can be used for efficient general-purpose interplanetary propellantless propulsion (the electric solar wind sail or E-sail), whereas a negatively polarised tether in LEO can be used for efficient deorbiting of satellites (the plasma brake). Aalto-1 is a 3-U cubesat to be launched in May 2016. The satellite carries three scientific experiments including 100 m long Coulomb drag tether experiment. The tether is made of four 25 and 50 micrometre diameter aluminium wires that are ultrasonically bonded together every few centimetre intervals. The tether can be charged by an onboard voltage source up to one kilovolt positive and negative. The Coulomb drag is measured by monitoring the spin rate.

1. Elementary excitations and avalanches in the Coulomb glass

Science.gov (United States)

Palassini, Matteo; Goethe, Martin

2012-07-01

We study numerically the statistics of elementary excitations and charge avalanches in the classical Coulomb glass model of localized charges with unscreened Coulomb interaction and disorder. We compute the single-particle density of states with an energy minimization algorithm for systems of up to 1003 sites. The shape of the Coulomb gap is consistent with a power-law with exponent δ simeq 2.4 and marginally consistent with exponential behavior. The results are also compared with a recently proposed self-consistent approach. We then analyze the size distribution of the charge avalanches produced by a small perturbation of the system. We show that the distribution decays as a power law in the limit of large system size, and explain this behavior in terms of the elementary excitations. Similarities and differences with the scale-free avalanches observed in mean-field spin glasses are discussed.

2. Quasiparticle Gaps and Exciton Coulomb Energies in Si Nanoshells

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frey, K. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C [ORNL; Tiago, Murilo L [ORNL; Reboredo, Fernando A [ORNL; Ogut, Serdar [University of Illinois, Chicago

2009-01-01

Quasiparticle gaps and exciton Coulomb energies of H-passivated spherical Si nanoshells are computed using rst principles SCF and GW methods. We nd that the quasiparticle gap of a nanoshell depends on both its inner radius R1 (weakly) and outer radius R2 (strongly). These dependences on R1 and R2 are mostly consistent with electrostatics of a metallic shell. We also nd that the unscreened Coulomb energy ECoul in Si nanoshells has a somewhat unexpected size dependence at xed outer radius R2: ECoul decreases as the nanoshell becomes more conning, contrary to what one would expect from quantum connement eects. We show that this is a consequence of an increase in the average electron-hole distance, giving rise to reduced exciton Coulomb energies in spite of the reduction in the conning nanoshell volume.

3. Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.

This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at

4. Optimal crossover designs for the proportional model

OpenAIRE

Zheng, Wei

2013-01-01

In crossover design experiments, the proportional model, where the carryover effects are proportional to their direct treatment effects, has draw attentions in recent years. We discover that the universally optimal design under the traditional model is E-optimal design under the proportional model. Moreover, we establish equivalence theorems of Kiefer-Wolfowitz's type for four popular optimality criteria, namely A, D, E and T (trace).

5. Scattering Amplitudes in Gauge Theories

CERN Document Server

Schubert, Ulrich

2014-01-01

This thesis is focused on the development of new mathematical methods for computing multi-loop scattering amplitudes in gauge theories. In this work we combine, for the first time, the unitarity-based construction for integrands, and the recently introduced integrand-reduction through multivariate polynomial division. After discussing the generic features of this novel reduction algorithm, we will apply it to the one- and two-loop five-point amplitudes in ${\\cal N}=4$ sYM. The integrands of the multiple-cuts are generated from products of tree-level amplitudes within the super-amplitudes formalism. The corresponding expressions will be used for the analytic reconstruction of the polynomial residues. Their parametric form is known a priori, as derived by means of successive polynomial divisions using the Gr\\"obner basis associated to the on-shell denominators. The integrand reduction method will be exploited to investigate the color-kinematic duality for multi-loop ${\\cal N}=4$ sYM scattering amplitudes. Our a...

6. An algebraic model of Coulomb scattering with spin

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Levay, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia); Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Technical University, Budapest (Hungary); Amos, K. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

2001-05-11

A new matrix-valued realization for the so(3,1) algebra leads to a natural generalization of the Coulomb scattering problem of a particle with spin. The underlying su(2) gauge structure of this realization recasts the scattering problem into a familiar form, namely, the Coulomb scattering problem of a collection of dyons (particles having both electric and magnetic charges). Using this equivalent form and the results of Zwanziger for such systems, the scattering matrix can be calculated in the helicity formalism. (author)

7. Spin and polarized current from Coulomb blockaded quantum dots.

Science.gov (United States)

Potok, R M; Folk, J A; Marcus, C M; Umansky, V; Hanson, M; Gossard, A C

2003-07-04

We report measurements of spin transitions for GaAs quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime and compare ground and excited state transport spectroscopy to direct measurements of the spin polarization of emitted current. Transport spectroscopy reveals both spin-increasing and spin-decreasing transitions, as well as higher-spin ground states, and allows g factors to be measured down to a single electron. The spin of emitted current in the Coulomb blockade regime, measured using spin-sensitive electron focusing, is found to be polarized along the direction of the applied magnetic field regardless of the ground state spin transition.

8. Correlated Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum-dot structures

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

2016-01-01

We study theoretically Coulomb drag in capacitively coupled quantum dots (CQDs) -- a biasdriven dot coupled to an unbiased dot where transport is due to Coulomb mediated energy transfer drag. To this end, we introduce a master-equation approach which accounts for higher-order tunneling (cotunneling....... Interestingly, the direction of the drag current is not determined by the drive current, but by an interplay between the energy-dependent lead couplings. Studying the drag mechanism in a graphene-based CQD heterostructure, we show that the predictions of our theory are consistent with recent experiments...

9. Lyapunov spectra of Coulombic and gravitational periodic systems

CERN Document Server

Kumar, Pankaj

2016-01-01

We compute Lyapunov spectra for Coulombic and gravitational versions of the one-dimensional systems of parallel sheets with periodic boundary conditions. Exact time evolution of tangent-space vectors are derived and are utilized toward computing Lypaunov characteristic exponents using an event-driven algorithm. The results indicate that the energy dependence of the largest Lyapunov exponent emulates that of Kolmogorov-entropy density for each system at different degrees of freedom. Our approach forms an effective and approximation-free tool toward studying the dynamical properties exhibited by the Coulombic and gravitational systems and finds applications in investigating indications of thermodynamic transitions in large versions of the spatially periodic systems.

10. Vibrational motions in rotating nuclei studied by Coulomb excitations

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shimizu, Yoshifumi R. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics

1998-03-01

As is well-known Coulomb excitation is an excellent tool to study the nuclear collective motions. Especially the vibrational excitations in rotating nuclei, which are rather difficult to access by usual heavy-ion fusion reactions, can be investigated in detail. Combined with the famous 8{pi}-Spectrometer, which was one of the best {gamma}-ray detector and had discovered some of superdeformed bands, such Coulomb excitation experiments had been carried out at Chalk River laboratory just before its shutdown of physics division. In this meeting some of the experimental data are presented and compared with the results of theoretical investigations. (author)

11. Factorization of Chiral String Amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Huang, Yu-tin; Yuan, Ellis Ye

2016-01-01

We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: As found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.

12. Factorization of chiral string amplitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Huang, Yu-tin; Siegel, Warren; Yuan, Ellis Ye

2016-09-01

We re-examine a closed-string model defined by altering the boundary conditions for one handedness of two-dimensional propagators in otherwise-standard string theory. We evaluate the amplitudes using Kawai-Lewellen-Tye factorization into open-string amplitudes. The only modification to standard string theory is effectively that the spacetime Minkowski metric changes overall sign in one open-string factor. This cancels all but a finite number of states: as found in earlier approaches, with enough supersymmetry (e.g., type II) the tree amplitudes reproduce those of the massless truncation of ordinary string theory. However, we now find for the other cases that additional fields, formerly thought to be auxiliary, describe new spin-2 states at the two adjacent mass levels (tachyonic and tardyonic). The tachyon is always a ghost, but can be avoided in the heterotic case.

13. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A.V. Belitsky

2015-07-01

Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

14. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radyushkin, Anatoly

2009-11-01

A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

15. Coulomb collisional effects on high energy particles in the presence of driftwave turbulence

CERN Document Server

Huang, B; Cheng, C Z

2013-01-01

High energy particles' behavior including fusion born alpha particles in an ITER like tokamak in the presence of background driftwave turbulence is investigated by an orbit following calculation. The background turbulence is given by the toroidal driftwave eigenmode combined with a random number generator. The transport level is reduced as the particle energy increase; the widths of the guiding center islands produced by the passing particles are inverse proportional to the square root of parallel velocities. On the other hand, the trapped particles are sensitive to $E \\times B$ drift at the banana tips whose radial displacement is larger for lower energy particles. Coulomb collisional effects are incorporated which modifies the transport process of the trapped high energy particles whose radial excursion resides in limited radial domains without collisions.

16. Proportional Reasoning and the Visually Impaired

Science.gov (United States)

Hilton, Geoff; Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley L.; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

2012-01-01

Proportional reasoning is an important aspect of formal thinking that is acquired during the developmental years that approximate the middle years of schooling. Students who fail to acquire sound proportional reasoning often experience difficulties in subjects that require quantitative thinking, such as science, technology, engineering, and…

17. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Wijayanti, Dyana

2015-01-01

. Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our...... results show that the explanation in two domains has different approach, but basically they are mathematically related....

18. Regulatory scrutiny of subsidiarity and proportionality

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Meuwese, Anne; Gomtsyan, Suren

2015-01-01

As the monitoring of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality is mostly left up to the EU institutions, internal quality control bodies could play an important role in developing tests and standards which represent part of ‘subsidiarity and proportionality in action’. In this context, the

19. Fatigue characteristics and microcosmic mechanism of Al-Si-Mg alloys under multiaxial proportional loadings

Science.gov (United States)

Jiang, Xiao-Song; He, Guo-Qiu; Liu, Bing; Zhu, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Hua

2011-08-01

With the increasing use of Al-Si-Mg alloys in the automotive industry, the fatigue performance of Al-Si-Mg alloy has become a major concern with regard to their reliability. The fatigue characteristics and microcosmic mechanism of an Al-Si-Mg alloy under multiaxial proportional loadings were investigated in this research. As low cycle fatigue life and material strengthening behavior are closely related, the effect of equivalent strain amplitude on the multiaxial fatigue properties was analyzed. Fatigue tests were conducted to determine the influence of equivalent strain amplitude on the multiaxial proportional fatigue properties. The fatigue life exhibits a stable behavior under multiaxial proportional loadings. The dislocation structures of the Al-Si-Mg alloy were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dislocation structure evolution of the Al-Si-Mg alloy under multiaxial proportional loadings during low cycle fatigue develops step by step by increasing fatigue cycles. Simultaneously, the dislocation structure changes with the change in equivalent strain amplitude under multiaxial proportional loadings. The experimental evidence indicates that the multiaxial fatigue behavior and life are strongly dependent on the microstructure of the material, which is caused by multiaxial proportional loadings.

20. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

Science.gov (United States)

Workman, R. L.

2011-09-01

We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

1. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

CERN Document Server

Moult, Ian; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

2015-01-01

Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in $4$- and $d$-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard m...

2. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Henn, Johannes M. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences; Plefka, Jan C. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

2014-03-01

First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

3. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

2015-01-01

Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are dire

4. Exchange Coulomb interaction in nanotubes: Dispersion of Langmuir waves

CERN Document Server

Andreev, P A

2015-01-01

Microscopic derivation of the Coulomb exchange interaction for electrons located on the nanotubes is presented. Our derivation is based on the many-particle quantum hydrodynamic method. We demonstrate the role of the curvature of the nanocylinders on the force of the exchange interaction. We calculate corresponding dispersion dependencies for electron oscillations on the nanotubes.

5. Existence of the thermodynamic limit for disordered quantum Coulomb systems

CERN Document Server

Blanc, Xavier

2012-01-01

Following a recent method introduced by C. Hainzl, J.P. Solovej and the second author of this article, we prove the existence of the thermodynamic limit for a system made of quantum electrons, and classical nuclei whose positions and charges are randomly perturbed in an ergodic fashion. All the particles interact through Coulomb forces.

6. Fast Electron Repulsion Integrals for Molecular Coulomb Sturmians

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Avery, James Emil

2013-01-01

of hyperspherical harmonics. A rudimentary software library has been implemented and preliminary benchmarks indicate very good performance: On average 40 ns, or approximately 80 clock cycles, per electron repulsion integral. This makes molecular Coulomb Sturmians competitive with Gaussian type orbitals in terms...

7. Application of Designer Polynomials to the Soft-Coulomb Potential

Science.gov (United States)

Weatherford, Charles; Wynn, Albert, III; Red, Eddie; Mathis, Clausell

2004-05-01

In a recent article [C.A. Weatherford, E. Red, A. Wynn III, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 90, 1289-1294 (2002)], an algorithm was described whereby a synthetic weighted polynomial basis may be constructed which is adapted (designed) to a particular potential. It was applied therein to the Schroedinger equation with a coulomb potential in one dimension (-1/|x| ). A weighted polynomial basis with weight function w(x)=exp(-a|x|) was employed. It was observed that this potential had no even parity solutions - only odd parity solutions. The question arises as to the relationship of the solutions (eigenfunctions and eigenvalues) for this hard coulomb potential to the solutions for the soft coulomb potential (-1/ √x^2+b^2^1/2 ). In particular, since the soft coulomb potential is clearly expected to possess both even and odd parity solutions, how do these solutions behave as b->0 and thus what happens to the even solutions. This problem is deceptively difficult none of the standard basis sets produce a variational minimum as a function of 'a' for nonzero 'b'. This is apparently why this problem has never been done before. A new orthonormal basis was designed with weight function w(x)=exp(-a√x^2+b^2) which did produce a variational minimum for variable a and arbitrary fixed 'b'. The present paper describes these solutions and clearly indicates how they behave as b->0 .

8. The Coulomb law and atomic levels in a superstrong B

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vysotsky M.I.

2014-04-01

Full Text Available The spectrum of atomic levels of hydrogen-like ions originating from the lowest Landau level in an external homogeneous superstrong magnetic field is obtained. The influence of the screening of the Coulomb potential on the values of critical nuclear charges is studied.

9. Coulomb blockade and superuniversality of the theta angle

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

2008-01-01

Based on the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön approach to the Coulomb blockade, we develop a complete quantum theory of the single electron transistor. We identify a previously unrecognized physical observable in the problem that, unlike the usual average charge on the island, is robustly quantized for any f

10. Integrating over the Coulomb branch in N=2 gauge theory

OpenAIRE

Marino, Marcos; Moore, Gregory

1997-01-01

We review the relation of certain integrals over the Coulomb phase of $d=4$, N=2 SO(3) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with Donaldson-Witten theory. We describe a new way to write an important contact term in the theory and show how the integrals generalize to higher rank gauge groups.

11. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

CERN Document Server

Descouvemont, Pierre; Hussein, Mahir S

2016-01-01

We use a three-body Continuum Discretized Coupled Channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term, and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation, and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li + 208Pb. For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the alpha + t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the 'Coulomb' and 'nuclear' breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest...

12. Revised variational approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge

CERN Document Server

Campagnari, Davide R; Reinhardt, Hugo; Vastag, Peter

2016-01-01

The variational approach to QCD in Coulomb gauge is revisited. By assuming the non-Abelian Coulomb potential to be given by the sum of its infrared and ultraviolet parts, i.e.~by a linearly rising potential and an ordinary Coulomb potential, and by using a Slater determinant ansatz for the quark wave functional, which contains the coupling of the quarks and the gluons with two different Dirac structures, we obtain variational equations for the kernels of the fermionic vacuum wave functional, which are free of ultraviolet divergences. Thereby, a Gaussian type wave functional is assumed for the gluonic part of the vacuum. By using the results of the pure Yang--Mills sector for the gluon propagator as input, we solve the equations for the fermionic kernels numerically and calculate the quark condensate and the effective quark mass in leading order. Assuming a value of $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{C}} = 2.5 \\sigma$ for the Coulomb string tension (where $\\sigma$ is the usual Wilsonian string tension) the phenomenological valu...

13. Canonical derivation of the Vlasov-Coulomb noncanonical Poisson structure

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kaufman, A.N.; Dewar, R.L.

1983-09-01

Starting from a Lagrangian formulation of the Vlasov-Coulomb system, canonical methods are used to define a Poisson structure for this system. Successive changes of representation then lead systematically to the noncanonical Lie-Poisson structure for functionals of the Vlasov distribution.

14. Coulomb repulsion in (TMTSF)2X and (TMTTF)2X

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mortensen, Kell; Engler, E. M.

1985-01-01

On the basis of studies of transport properties of (TMTSF)2 X, (TMTTF)2X and their binary alloys the authors discuss the role of on-site Coulomb repulsion relative to the transfer integrals. In TMTTF-salts U/ta are believed to be large, resulting in a Hubbard gap, whereas U/ta in TMTSF-salts are ...

15. Human skeleton proportions from monocular data

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

PENG En; LI Ling

2006-01-01

This paper introduces a novel method for estimating the skeleton proportions ofa human figure from monocular data.The proposed system will first automatically extract the key frames and recover the perspective camera model from the 2D data.The human skeleton proportions are then estimated from the key frames using the recovered camera model without posture reconstruction. The proposed method is tested to be simple, fast and produce satisfactory results for the input data. The human model with estimated proportions can be used in future research involving human body modeling or human motion reconstruction.

16. Electron and nuclear dynamics of molecular clusters in ultraintense laser fields. IV. Coulomb explosion of molecular heteroclusters.

Science.gov (United States)

Last, Isidore; Jortner, Joshua

2004-11-01

In this paper we present a theoretical and computational study of the temporal dynamics and energetics of Coulomb explosion of (CD4)(n) and (CH4)(n) (n=55-4213) molecular heteroclusters in ultraintense (I=10(16)-10(19) W cm(-2)) laser fields, addressing the manifestation of electron dynamics, together with nuclear energetic and kinematic effects on the heterocluster Coulomb instability. The manifestations of the coupling between electron and nuclear dynamics were explored by molecular dynamics simulations for these heteroclusters coupled to Gaussian laser fields (pulse width tau=25 fs), elucidating outer ionization dynamics, nanoplasma screening effects (being significant for Icharges and masses. Nonuniform heterocluster Coulomb explosion (eta >1) manifests an overrun effect of the light ions relative to the heavy ions, exhibiting the expansion of two spatially separated subclusters, with the light ions forming the outer subcluster at the outer edge of the spatial distribution. Important features of the energetics of heterocluster Coulomb explosion originate from energetic triggering effects of the driving of the light ions by the heavy ions (C(4+) for I=10(17)-10(18) W cm(-2) and C(6+) for I=10(19) W cm(-2)), as well as for kinematic effects. Based on the CVI assumption, scaling laws for the cluster size (radius R(0)) dependence of the energetics of uniform Coulomb explosion of heteroclusters (eta=1) were derived, with the size dependence of the average (E(j,av)) and maximal (E(j,M)) ion energies being E(j,av)=aR(0) (2) and E(j,M)=(5a/3)R(0) (2), as well as for the ion energy distributions P(E(j)) proportional to E(j) (1/2); E(j)1) result in an isotope effect, predicting the enhancement (by 9%-11%) of E(H,av) for Coulomb explosion of (C(4+)H(4) (+))(eta) (eta=3) relative to E(D,av) for Coulomb explosion of (C(4+)D(4) (+))(eta) (eta=1.5), with the isotope effect being determined by the ratio of the kinematic parameters for the pair of Coulomb exploding clusters

17. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

Science.gov (United States)

Forge, John

2009-03-01

Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

18. High Amplitude Secondary Mass Drive

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

DYCK,CHRISTOPHER WILLIAM; ALLEN,JAMES J.; HUBER,ROBERT JOHN; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.

2000-07-06

In this paper we describe a high amplitude electrostatic drive for surface micromachined mechanical oscillators that may be suitable for vibratory gyroscopes. It is an advanced design of a previously reported dual mass oscillator (Dyck, et. al., 1999). The structure is a 2 degree-of-freedom, parallel-plate driven motion amplifier, termed the secondary mass drive oscillator (SMD oscillator). During each cycle the device contacts the drive plates, generating large electrostatic forces. Peak-to-peak amplitudes of 54 {micro}m have been obtained by operating the structure in air with an applied voltage of 11 V. We describe the structure, present the analysis and design equations, and show recent results that have been obtained, including frequency response data, power dissipation, and out-of- plane motion.

19. Gauge and Gravity Amplitude Relations

CERN Document Server

Carrasco, John Joseph M

2015-01-01

In these lectures I talk about simplifications and universalities found in scattering amplitudes for gauge and gravity theories. In contrast to Ward identities, which are understood to arise from familiar symmetries of the classical action, these structures are currently only understood in terms of graphical organizational principles, such as the gauge-theoretic color-kinematics duality and the gravitational double-copy structure, for local representations of multi-loop S-matrix elements. These graphical principles make manifest new relationships in and between gauge and gravity scattering amplitudes. My lectures will focus on arriving at such graphical organizations for generic theories with examples presented from maximal supersymmetry, and their use in unitarity-based multi-loop integrand construction.

20. Infrared singularities in QCD amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Gardi, Einan

2009-01-01

We review recent progress in determining the infrared singularity structure of on-shell scattering amplitudes in massless gauge theories. We present a simple ansatz where soft singularities of any scattering amplitude of massless partons, to any loop order, are written as a sum over colour dipoles, governed by the cusp anomalous dimension. We explain how this formula was obtained, as the simplest solution to a newly-derived set of equations constraining the singularity structure to all orders. We emphasize the physical ideas underlying this derivation: the factorization of soft and collinear modes, the special properties of soft gluon interactions, and the notion of the cusp anomaly. Finally, we briefly discuss potential multi-loop contributions going beyond the sum-over-dipoles formula, which cannot be excluded at present.

1. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie

2015-12-29

Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

2. On the role of deformed Coulomb potential in fusion using energy density formalism

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

Lavneet Kaur; Raj Kumari

2015-10-01

Using the Skyrme energy density formalism, the effect of deformed Coulomb potential on fusion barriers and fusion cross-sections is studied. Our detailed study reveals that the fusion barriers as well as fusion probabilities depend on the shape deformation (due to deformed Coulomb potential) of the colliding nuclei. However, this dependence due to deformed Coulomb potential is found to be very weak.

3. Blocage de Coulomb dans une boite quantique laterale contenant un faible nombre d'electrons

Science.gov (United States)

Gould, Charles

Dans ce travail on utilise une nouvelle geometrie pour augmenter le controle sur le nombre d'electrons contenus dans une boite quantique laterale, et ainsi atteindre un regime de petit nombre d'electrons. Ces echantillons permettent une etude du blocage de Coulomb quand les electrons sont injectes a partir d'un gaz electronique a deux dimensions (2DEG). Les mesures a faible champ magnetique demontrent la grande flexibilite des echantillons et montrent que l'on peut faire varier le nombre d'electrons dans une boite quantique a partir de plus de 40 electrons jusqu'a un seul electron, ce qui est assez courant dans les boites quantiques verticales, mais ce qui n'avait jamais ete reussi dans une boite quantique laterale. Nos resultats montrent egalement que dans les boites quantiques laterales il est possible de determiner le spin du niveau qui participe au transport a l'aide du phenomene de blocage de spin. De plus, dans certaines circonstances il est meme possible de determiner le spin total de la boite quantique, ce qui peut avoir des applications pratiques dans des domaines tels l'informatique quantique. Les mesures dans le regime de renversement de spin a un champ magnetique plus eleve montrent l'importance des correlations electrons---electrons dans ces boites quantiques, qui menent a des depolarisations et a des structures de spins qui ont un effet sur le transport. En particulier, ces correlations menent a l'existence de niveaux excites de basse energie qui causent une dependance anormale de l'amplitude des pics de blocage de Coulomb en fonction de la temperature. Nos experiences demontrent egalement la possibilite d'utiliser ces boites quantiques comme sondes pour etudier les proprietes du bord d'un 2DEG. Une voie de recherche a etre exploree.

4. Crisis in Amplitude Control Hides in Multistability

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Chunbiao; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Xing, Hongyan

2016-12-01

A crisis of amplitude control can occur when a system is multistable. This paper proposes a new chaotic system with a line of equilibria to demonstrate the threat to amplitude control from multistability. The new symmetric system has two coefficients for amplitude control, one of which is a partial amplitude controller, while the other is a total amplitude controller that simultaneously controls the frequency. The amplitude parameter rescales the basins of attraction and triggers a state switch among different states resulting in a failure of amplitude control to the desired state.

5. Calculation of multi-loop superstring amplitudes

Science.gov (United States)

Danilov, G. S.

2016-12-01

The multi-loop interaction amplitudes in the closed, oriented superstring theory are obtained by the integration of local amplitudes. The local amplitude is represented by a sum over the spinning string local amplitudes. The spinning string local amplitudes are given explicitly through super-Schottky group parameters and through interaction vertex coordinates on the (1| 1) complex, non-split supermanifold. The obtained amplitudes are free from divergences. They are consistent with the world-sheet spinning string symmetries. The vacuum amplitude vanishes along with 1-, 2- and 3-point amplitudes of massless states. The vanishing of the above-mentioned amplitude occurs after the integration of the corresponding local amplitude has been performed over the super-Schottky group limiting points and over interaction vertex coordinate, except for those (3| 2) variables which are fixed due to SL(2)-symmetry.

6. The Effects of Static Coulomb Stress Change on Southern California Earthquake Forecasting

Science.gov (United States)

Strader, Anne Elizabeth

I investigate how inclusion of static Coulomb stress changes, caused by tectonic loading and previous seismicity, contributes to the effectiveness and reliability of prospective earthquake forecasts. Several studies have shown that positive static Coulomb stress changes are associated with increased seismicity, relative to stress shadows. However, it is difficult to avoid bias when the learning and testing intervals are chosen retrospectively. I hypothesize that earthquake forecasts based on static Coulomb stress fields may improve upon existing earthquake forecasts based on historical seismicity. Within southern California, I have confirmed the aforementioned relationship between earthquake location and Coulomb stress change, but found no identifiable triggering threshold based on static Coulomb stress history at individual earthquake locations. I have also converted static Coulomb stress changes into spatially-varying earthquake rates by optimizing an index function and calculating probabilities of cells containing at least one earthquake based on Coulomb stress ranges. Inclusion of Coulomb stress effects gives an improvement in earthquake forecasts that is significant with 95% confidence, compared to smoothed seismicity null forecasts. Because of large uncertainties in Coulomb stress calculations near faults (and aftershock distributions), I combine static Coulomb stress and smoothed seismicity into a hybrid earthquake forecast. Evaluating such forecasts against those in which only Coulomb stress or smoothed seismicity determines earthquake rates indicates that Coulomb stress is more effective in the far field, whereas statistical seismology outperforms Coulomb stress near faults. Additionally, I test effects of receiver plane orientation, stress type (normal and shear components), and declustering receiver earthquakes. While static Coulomb stress shows significant potential in a prospective earthquake forecast, simplifying assumptions compromise its

7. Progress in studying scintillator proportionality: Phenomenological model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bizarri, Gregory; Cherepy, Nerine; Choong, Woon-Seng; Hull, Giulia; Moses, William; Payne, Sephen; Singh, Jai; Valentine, John; Vasilev, Andrey; Williams, Richard

2009-04-30

We present a model to describe the origin of non-proportional dependence of scintillator light yield on the energy of an ionizing particle. The non-proportionality is discussed in terms of energy relaxation channels and their linear and non-linear dependences on the deposited energy. In this approach, the scintillation response is described as a function of the deposited energy deposition and the kinetic rates of each relaxation channel. This mathematical framework allows both a qualitative interpretation and a quantitative fitting representation of scintillation non-proportionality response as function of kinetic rates. This method was successfully applied to thallium doped sodium iodide measured with SLYNCI, a new facility using the Compton coincidence technique. Finally, attention is given to the physical meaning of the dominant relaxation channels, and to the potential causes responsible for the scintillation non-proportionality. We find that thallium doped sodium iodide behaves as if non-proportionality is due to competition between radiative recombinations and non-radiative Auger processes.

8. Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Albert-Einstein Allee-11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Campo, Adolfo del [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Mehlstäubler, Tanja E., E-mail: tanja.mehlstaeubler@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

2015-03-01

We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.

9. Applicability of the molecular dynamics technique to a Coulomb plasma

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zhidkov, A.G.; Galeev, R.Kh.

1993-09-01

In the present work, we report the calculations of the local Lyapunov parameter which determines the nature of the motion for a system of n particles interacting according to Coulombs law. These calculations have been performed for the most probable states of a fully ionized plasma, and they were performed using a Microvax-3 computer with the NAG(FO2) program package for a plasma consisting of particles with the same mass and for a fully ionized hydrogen plasma. The particle coordinates were prescribed as a uniformly distributed set of random numbers obtained using the NAG(GO5) routine. Results for the Lyapunov parameter are presented, and it is shown that the values of the parameter increases sharply as a function of particle number up to n=100 and then saturate. This latter observation is attributed to shielding, related to Debye effects.

10. Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keller, Jonas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm Univ., Ulm, (Germany):Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ulm Univ.,Ulm, (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech Hubert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); del Campo, Adolfo [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

2014-11-19

We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.

11. Structure of light neutron-rich nuclei through Coulomb dissociation

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

U Datta Pramanik; T Aumann; D Cortina; H Emling; H Geissel; M Hellström; R Holzmann; N Iwasa; Y Leifels; G Münzenberg; M Rejmund; C Scheidenberger; K Sümmerer; A Leistenschneider; Th W Elze; A Grünschloss; S Ilievski; K Boretzky; J V Kratz; R Kulessa; E Lubkiewicz; E Wajda; W Walus; P Reiter; H Simon

2001-08-01

Coulomb breakup of neutron-rich nuclei around mass ∼ 20 has been studied experimentally using secondary beams (∼ 500–600 MeV/u) of unstable nuclei produced at GSI. The spectroscopic factor deduced for the neutron occupying 1/2 level in 15C ground state is consistent with the earlier reported value. The data analysis for Coulomb breakup of 17C shows that most of the cross section yields the 16C core in its excited state. For 17-22O, the low-lying E1 strength amounts up to about 12% of the energy weighted dipole sum rule strength depending on neutron excess. The cluster sum rule limit with 16O as a core is almost exhausted for 17,18O, while for more neutron rich isotopes the strength with respect to that limit decreases.

12. Confining Dyon-Anti-Dyon Coulomb Liquid Model I

CERN Document Server

Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

2015-01-01

We revisit the dyon-anti-dyon liquid model for the Yang-Mills confining vacuum discussed by Diakonov and Petrov, by retaining the effects of the classical interactions mediated by the streamline between the dyons and anti-dyons. In the SU(2) case the model describes a 4-component strongly interacting Coulomb liquid in the center symmetric phase. We show that in the linearized screening approximation the streamline interactions yield Debye-Huckel type corrections to the bulk parameters such as the pressure and densities, but do not alter significantly the large distance behavior of the correlation functions in leading order. The static scalar and charged structure factors are consistent with a plasma of a dyon-anti-dyon liquid with a Coulomb parameter $\\Gamma_{D\\bar D}\\approx 1$ in the dyon-anti-dyon channel. Heavy quarks are still linearly confined and the large spatial Wilson loops still exhibit area laws in leading order.

13. Coulomb field of an accelerated charge physical and mathematical aspects

CERN Document Server

Alexander, F J; Alexander, Francis J.; Gerlach, Ulrich H.

1991-01-01

The Maxwell field equations relative to a uniformly accelerated frame, and the variational principle from which they are obtained, are formulated in terms of the technique of geometrical gauge invariant potentials. They refer to the transverse magnetic (TM) and the transeverse electric (TE) modes. This gauge invariant "2+2" decomposition is used to see how the Coulomb field of a charge, static in an accelerated frame, has properties that suggest features of electromagnetism which are different from those in an inertial frame. In particular, (1) an illustrative calculation shows that the Larmor radiation reaction equals the electrostatic attraction between the accelerated charge and the charge induced on the surface whose history is the event horizon, and (2) a spectral decomposition of the Coulomb potential in the accelerated frame suggests the possibility that the distortive effects of this charge on the Rindler vacuum are akin to those of a charge on a crystal lattice.

14. Coulomb Traps and Charge Transport in Molecular Solids

Science.gov (United States)

Scher, Harvey

2000-03-01

A major result of experimental studies of a diverse assortment of disordered molecular solids is the observation of a common pattern in the charge transport properties. The transport ranges from charge transfer between molecules doped in an inert polymer to motion along the silicon backbone of polysilylenes. The pattern is the unusual combination of Poole Frenkel-like electric field dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the mobility. The latter feature has been especially puzzling. We study the drift mobility of a molecular polaron in the presence of an applied field and Coulomb traps. The model is based on one previously developed for geminate recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. The key electric field and temperature dependencies of the mobility measurements are well reproduced by this model. Our conclusion is that this nearly universal transport behavior arises from competition between rates of polaron trapping and release from a very low density of Coulomb traps.

15. Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup at Low Energies: Scaling Laws

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hussein M. S.

2013-12-01

Full Text Available We report on a recent work on the low-energy behavior of the breakup cross section in so far as it has important role in the fusion of weakly bound and halo nuclei at near-barrier energies. We assess the way the nuclear component of this cross section scales with the target mass. In complete accord with previous finding at higher energies we verify that the low energy behavior of the breakup cross section for a given projectile and relative center of mass energy with respect to the Coulomb barrier height scales as the cubic root of the mass number of the target. Surprisingly we find that the Coulomb component of the breakup cross section at these low energies also obeys scaling, but with a linear dependence on the target charge. Our findings are important when planning for experiments involving these exotic nuclei.

16. Femtosecond Studies Of Coulomb Explosion Utilizing Covariance Mapping

CERN Document Server

Card, D A

2000-01-01

The studies presented herein elucidate details of the Coulomb explosion event initiated through the interaction of molecular clusters with an intense femtosecond laser beam (≥1 PW/cm2). Clusters studied include ammonia, titanium-hydrocarbon, pyridine, and 7-azaindole. Covariance analysis is presented as a general technique to study the dynamical processes in clusters and to discern whether the fragmentation channels are competitive. Positive covariance determinations identify concerted processes such as the concomitant explosion of protonated cluster ions of asymmetrical size. Anti- covariance mapping is exploited to distinguish competitive reaction channels such as the production of highly charged nitrogen atoms formed at the expense of the protonated members of a cluster ion ensemble. This technique is exemplified in each cluster system studied. Kinetic energy analyses, from experiment and simulation, are presented to fully understand the Coulomb explosion event. A cutoff study strongly suggests that...

17. An entropic form for NLFP with coulombic-like potential

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grassi, A., E-mail: agrassi@unict.it [Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco, Università di Catania, V.le A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy)

2012-01-30

Here it is proposed a new entropy form for which it is possible to obtain a stationary solution of the Non-Linear Fokker–Planck equation (NLFP) with coulombic-like potentials. The general properties of this new entropy form are shown and the results are compared with those obtained by other entropy forms. Finally, the behavior of the stationary solution in presence of two point charges is also shown. -- Highlights: ► In this Letter we have proposed a new form of entropy. ► Starting from this new entropy form a Non-Linear Fokker–Planck equation has been derived. ► The stationary solution of the Non-Linear Fokker–Planck equation is obtained by using an external coulombic-like potential. ► A comparison with other forms of entropies has been proposed in the case of a single or two point charges.

18. Time-resolved studies of interatomic Coulombic decay

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frühling, U. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Trinter, F. [Institut für Kernphysik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Karimi, F. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Center for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Williams, J.B. [Institut für Kernphysik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Jahnke, T., E-mail: jahnke@atom.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

2015-10-15

Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) is a decay mechanism occurring in loosely bound matter, e.g. in systems bound by van der Waals-forces or hydrogen bonds. In many such cases the decay time is similar to the time scale of nuclear motion during the decay. As the efficiency of ICD strongly depends on the internuclear distance of the atoms or molecules involved in the decay, an overall non-trivial temporal decay behavior arises. The progress of examining the time-domain aspects of interatomic Coulombic decay is summarized in this short topical review with a special emphasis on experiments that are now feasible due to the developments of free-electron lasers.

19. Coulomb effects in low-energy nuclear fragmentation

Science.gov (United States)

Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Francis F.; John, Sarah

1993-01-01

Early versions of the Langley nuclear fragmentation code NUCFRAG (and a publicly released version called HZEFRG1) assumed straight-line trajectories throughout the interaction. As a consequence, NUCFRAG and HZEFRG1 give unrealistic cross sections for large mass removal from the projectile and target at low energies. A correction for the distortion of the trajectory by the nuclear Coulomb fields is used to derive fragmentation cross sections. A simple energy-loss term is applied to estimate the energy downshifts that greatly alter the Coulomb trajectory at low energy. The results, which are far more realistic than prior versions of the code, should provide the data base for future transport calculations. The systematic behavior of charge-removal cross sections compares favorably with results from low-energy experiments.

20. Coulomb Artifacts and Bottomonium Hyperfine Splitting in Lattice NRQCD

CERN Document Server

Liu, Tao; Rayyan, Ahmed

2016-01-01

We study the role of the lattice artifacts associated with the Coulomb binding effects in the analysis of the heavy quarkonium within lattice NRQCD. We find that a "na\\"ive" perturbative matching generates spurious linear Coulomb artifacts, which result in a large systematic error in the lattice predictions for the heavy quarkonium spectrum. This effect is responsible, in particular, for the discrepancy between the recent determinations of the bottomonium hyperfine splitting in the radiatively improved lattice NRQCD [1, 2]. We show that the correct matching procedure which provides full control over discretization errors is based on the asymptotic expansion of the lattice theory about the continuum limit, which gives $M_{\\Upsilon(1S)}-M_{\\eta_b(1S)}=52.9\\pm 5.5~{\\rm MeV}$ [1].

1. Interplay of Coulomb interaction and spin-orbit coupling

Science.gov (United States)

Bünemann, Jörg; Linneweber, Thorben; Löw, Ute; Anders, Frithjof B.; Gebhard, Florian

2016-07-01

We employ the Gutzwiller variational approach to investigate the interplay of Coulomb interaction and spin-orbit coupling in a three-orbital Hubbard model. Already in the paramagnetic phase we find a substantial renormalization of the spin-orbit coupling that enters the effective single-particle Hamiltonian for the quasiparticles. Only close to half band-filling and for sizable Coulomb interaction do we observe clear signatures of Hund's atomic rules for spin, orbital, and total angular momentum. For a finite local Hund's rule exchange interaction we find a ferromagnetically ordered state. The spin-orbit coupling considerably reduces the size of the ordered moment, it generates a small ordered orbital moment, and it induces a magnetic anisotropy. To investigate the magnetic anisotropy energy, we use an external magnetic field that tilts the magnetic moment away from the easy axis (1 ,1 ,1 ) .

2. Effect of Coulomb Screening Length on Nuclear Pasta Simulations

CERN Document Server

Alcain, P N; Nichols, J I; Dorso, C O

2013-01-01

We study the role of the effective Coulomb interaction strength and length on the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to those in a neutron star's crust. Calculations were made with a semi-classical molecular dynamics model, studying isospin symmetric matter at sub-saturation densities and low temperatures. The electrostatic interaction between protons interaction is included in the form of a screened Coulomb potential in the spirit of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, but the screening length is artificially varied to explore its effect on the formation of the non-homogeneous nuclear structures known as nuclear pasta''. As the screening length increases, we can a transition from a one-per-cell pasta regime (due exclusively to finite size effects) to a more appealing multiple pasta per simulation box. This shows qualitative difference in the structure of neutron star matter at low temperatures, and therefore, special caution should be taken when the screening length is estimated for numerical simulat...

3. Low-energy Coulomb excitation of Sr,9896 beams

Science.gov (United States)

Clément, E.; Zielińska, M.; Péru, S.; Goutte, H.; Hilaire, S.; Görgen, A.; Korten, W.; Doherty, D. T.; Bastin, B.; Bauer, C.; Blazhev, A.; Bree, N.; Bruyneel, B.; Butler, P. A.; Butterworth, J.; Cederkäll, J.; Delahaye, P.; Dijon, A.; Ekström, A.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fransen, C.; Georgiev, G.; Gernhäuser, R.; Hess, H.; Iwanicki, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Larsen, A. C.; Ljungvall, J.; Lutter, R.; Marley, P.; Moschner, K.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Pakarinen, J.; Petts, A.; Reiter, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Siem, S.; Sotty, C.; Srebrny, J.; Stefanescu, I.; Tveten, G. M.; Van de Walle, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wiens, A.; De Witte, H.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.

2016-11-01

The structure of neutron-rich Sr,9896 nuclei was investigated by low-energy safe Coulomb excitation of radioactive beams at the REX-ISOLDE facility, CERN, with the MINIBALL spectrometer. A rich set of transitional and diagonal E 2 matrix elements, including those for non-yrast structures, has been extracted from the differential Coulomb-excitation cross sections. The results support the scenario of a shape transition at N =60 , giving rise to the coexistence of a highly deformed prolate and a spherical configuration in 98Sr, and are compared to predictions from several theoretical calculations. The experimental data suggest a significant contribution of the triaxal degree of freedom in the ground state of both isotopes. In addition, experimental information on low-lying states in 98Rb has been obtained.

4. Direct simulation Monte Carlo schemes for Coulomb interactions in plasmas

CERN Document Server

Dimarco, Giacomo; Pareschi, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

We consider the development of Monte Carlo schemes for molecules with Coulomb interactions. We generalize the classic algorithms of Bird and Nanbu-Babovsky for rarefied gas dynamics to the Coulomb case thanks to the approximation introduced by Bobylev and Nanbu (Theory of collision algorithms for gases and plasmas based on the Boltzmann equation and the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation, Physical Review E, Vol. 61, 2000). Thus, instead of considering the original Boltzmann collision operator, the schemes are constructed through the use of an approximated Boltzmann operator. With the above choice larger time steps are possible in simulations; moreover the expensive acceptance-rejection procedure for collisions is avoided and every particle collides. Error analysis and comparisons with the original Bobylev-Nanbu (BN) scheme are performed. The numerical results show agreement with the theoretical convergence rate of the approximated Boltzmann operator and the better performance of Bird-type schemes with respect to t...

5. Scaling laws for near barrier Coulomb and Nuclear Breakup

CERN Document Server

Hussein, M S; Lubian, J; Otomar, D R; Canto, L F

2013-01-01

We investigate the nuclear and the Coulomb contributions to the breakup cross sections of $^6$Li in collisions with targets in different mass ranges. Comparing cross sections for different targets at collision energies corresponding to the same $E/V_{\\mathrm{\\scriptscriptstyle B}}$, we obtain interesting scaling laws. First, we derive an approximate linear expression for the nuclear breakup cross section as a function of $A_{\\mathrm{% \\scriptscriptstyle T}}^{1/3}$. We then confirm the validity of this expression performing CDCC calculations. Scaling laws for the Coulomb breakup cross section are also investigated. In this case, our CDCC calculations indicate that this cross section has a linear dependence on the atomic number of the target. This behavior is explained by qualitative arguments. Our findings, which are consistent with previously obtained results for higher energies, are important when planning for experiments involving exotic weakly bound nuclei.

6. Low-Temperature Kinetics and Dynamics with Coulomb Crystals

Science.gov (United States)

Heazlewood, Brianna R.; Softley, Timothy P.

2015-04-01

Coulomb crystals-as a source of translationally cold, highly localized ions-are being increasingly utilized in the investigation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics in the cold regime. To develop a fundamental understanding of ion-molecule reactions, and to challenge existing models that describe the rates, product branching ratios, and temperature dependence of such processes, investigators need to exercise full control over the experimental reaction parameters. This requires not only state selection of the reactants, but also control over the collision process (e.g., the collisional energy and angular momentum) and state-selective product detection. The combination of Coulomb crystals in ion traps with cold neutral-molecule sources is enabling the measurement of state-selective reaction rates in a diverse range of systems. With the development of appropriate product detection techniques, we are moving toward the ultimate goal of examining low-energy, state-to-state ion-molecule reaction dynamics.

7. Empirical parametrizations of the resonance amplitudes based on the Siegert's theorem

CERN Document Server

Ramalho, G

2016-01-01

We present parametrizations of the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N(1535)1/2^-$, $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to N(1520)3/2^-$ and $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta(1232)3/2^+$ transition amplitudes that are compatible with the analytic constraints at the pseudothreshold (Siegert's theorem). The presented parametrizations also provide a fair description of the experimental data. For the case of the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta(1232)3/2^+$ transition, we discuss how the pion cloud parametrizations of the electric and the Coulomb quadrupole form factors can be adjusted according to the Siegert's theorem.

8. Evaluation of Coulomb Energy Difference for Light Mirror Nuclei Using Slater-Type Orbitals

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

F. Oner; B.A. Mainedov

2002-01-01

Behavior of the Coulomb energy difference for light nuclei is explained in terms of the different values of theaverage Coulomb interaction between two particles. Coulomb energy difference according to shell model of light mirrornuclei in the Coulomb and exchange integrals in the formula can be explained with exponential-type wavefunctions. Inthis study, using the one-center expansion of exponential-type wavcfunctions in terms of Slater-type orbitals with thesame center, we derived formula for Coulomb energy difference of light mirror mulei.

9. Evaluation of Coulomb Energy Difference for Light Mirror Nuclei Using Slater—Type Orbitals

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

F.Oner; R.A.Mamedoy

2002-01-01

Behavior of the Coulomb energy difference for light nuclei is explained in terms of the different values of the average Coulomb interaction between two particles.Coulomb energy difference according to shell model of light mirror nuclei in the Coulomb and exchange integrals in the formula can be explained with exponential-type wavefunctions.In this study,using the one-center expansion of exponential-type wavefunctions in terms of Slater-type orbitals with the same center,we derived formula for Coulomb energy difference of light mirror nuclei.

10. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

Science.gov (United States)

Rheinberger, C. M.; Romang, H. E.; Bründl, M.

2013-08-01

Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

11. Proportional loss functions for debris flow events

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

C. M. Rheinberger

2013-08-01

Full Text Available Quantitative risk assessments of debris flows and other hydrogeological hazards require the analyst to predict damage potentials. A common way to do so is by use of proportional loss functions. In this paper, we analyze a uniquely rich dataset of 132 buildings that were damaged in one of five large debris flow events in Switzerland. Using the double generalized linear model, we estimate proportional loss functions that may be used for various prediction purposes including hazard mapping, landscape planning, and insurance pricing. Unlike earlier analyses, we control for confounding effects of building characteristics, site specifics, and process intensities as well as for overdispersion in the data. Our results suggest that process intensity parameters are the most meaningful predictors of proportional loss sizes. Cross-validation tests suggest that the mean absolute prediction errors of our models are in the range of 11%, underpinning the accurateness of the approach.

12. Coulombic potentials in the semi-classical limit

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chantelau, K. (Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 3 - Mathematik)

1990-05-01

This paper is devoted to Schroedinger operators in two dimensions with singular (Coulombic) potentials. We investigate the behaviour of the eigenvalues at the bottom of the spectrum in the semi-classical limit. To overcome the difficulties due to the singularities, we use some kind of generalisation of the Levi-Civita transform. After this regularisation, we apply the theory of Helffer and Sjoestrand to get the full asymptotics for the eigenvalues. (orig.).

13. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Shear Moduli for Coulomb Crystals

CERN Document Server

Horowitz, C J

2008-01-01

Torsional (shear) oscillations of neutron stars may have been observed in quasiperiodic oscillations of Magnetar Giant Flares. The frequencies of these modes depend on the shear modulus of neutron star crust. We calculate the shear modulus of Coulomb crystals from molecular dynamics simulations. We find that electron screening reduces the shear modulus by about 10% compared to previous Ogata et al. results. Our MD simulations can be extended to calculate the effects of impurities and or polycrystalline structures on the shear modulus.

14. Coulomb Interactions and Mesoscopic Effects in Carbon Nanotubes

OpenAIRE

Kane, Charlie; Balents, Leon; Fisher, Matthew

1997-01-01

We argue that long-range Coulomb forces convert an isolated (N,N) armchair carbon nanotube into a strongly-renormalized *Luttinger liquid*. At high temperatures, we find anomalous temperature dependences for the interaction and impurity contributions to the resistivity, and similar power-law dependences for the local tunneling density of states. At low temperatures, the nanotube exhibits spin-charge separation, visible as an extra energy scale in the discrete tunneling density of states (for ...

15. Coulomb excitation of 144,146,148,150Nd

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ahmad, A.; Bomar, G.; Crowell, H.; Hamilton, J. H.; Kawakami, H.; Maguire, C. F.; Nettles, W. G.; Piercey, R. B.; Ramayya, A. V.; Soundranayagam, R.; Ronningen, R. M.; Scholten, O.; Stelson, P. H.

1988-01-01

Coulomb excitation of 144,146,148,1605060Nd by 10.5 and 11 MeV alpha particles was studied by magnetic analysis of particles scattered into 150°. Values of B(E20+-->2+) for the 2+ states at 696, 454, 302, and 130 keV are 0.58(1), 0.78(1), 1.390(20), and 2.816(35) e2b2, respectively. For 148,150Nd, v

16. PT-invariant one-dimensional Coulomb problem

CERN Document Server

Sinha, A K; Sinha, Anjana; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

2002-01-01

The one-dimensional Coulomb-like potential with a real coupling constant beta, and a centrifugal-like core of strength G = alpha^2 - {1/4}, viz. V(x) = {alpha^2 - (1/4)}/{(x-ic)^2} + beta/|x-ic|, is discussed in the framework of PT-symmetry. The PT-invariant exactly solvable model so formed, is found to admit a double set of real and discrete energies, numbered by a quasi-parity q = +/- 1.

17. Coulomb Collision for Plasma Simulations: Modelling and Numerical Methods

Science.gov (United States)

Geiser, Juergen

2016-09-01

We are motivated to model weakly ionized Plasma applications. The modeling problem is based on an incorporated explicit velocity-dependent small-angle Coulomb collision terms into a Fokker-Planck equation. Such a collision is done with so called test and field particles, which are scattered stochastically based on a Langevin equation. Based on such different model approaches, means the transport part is done with kinetic equations, while the collision part is done via the Langevin equations, we present a splitting of these models. Such a splitting allow us to combine different modeling parts. For the transport part, we can apply particle models and solve them with particle methods, e.g., PIC, while for the collision part, we can apply the explicit Coulomb collision model, e.g., with fast stochastic differential equation solvers. Additional, we also apply multiscale approaches for the different parts of the transport part, e.g., different time-scales of an explicit electric field, and model-order reduction approaches. We present first numerical results for particle simulations with the deterministic-stochastic splitting schemes. Such ideas can be applied to sputtering problems or plasma applications with dominant Coulomb collisions.

18. The EMC effect of Nuclear Matter with Coulomb Corrections

Science.gov (United States)

Li, Shujie; Solvignon, Patricia; Arrington, John; Gaskell, Dave

2016-09-01

Extraction of the EMC effect for nuclear matter is of great interest since it allows comparison to theoretical calculations in a regime where exact'' nuclear wave functions can be used. Earlier extractions from (e,e') cross sections ignored the contribution of the Coulomb distortion, which can be approximated as an electron energy shift on the order of MeV. Though small, this shift can cause a noticeable change in cross sections in certain kinematic regimes. In this study, we applied Coulomb corrections on the per-nucleon ratios from the published SLAC E139 data and preliminary JLAB E03-103 data. I will show preliminary results for an extrapolation of the EMC ratios from finite nuclei to symmetric nuclear matter, including Coulomb Corrections and examining the sensitivity to different approximations for the nuclear density. The data from two experiments will also be combined to study the nuclear dependence of R =σL /σT . Supported in part by DOE Grant No. DE-AC05-06OR23177, No. DE-AC02-06CH11357, and No. DE-SC0014168.

19. Electron interactions in graphene through an effective Coulomb potential

Science.gov (United States)

Rodrigues, Joao N. B.; Adam, Shaffique

A recent numerical work [H.-K. Tang et al, PRL 115, 186602 (2015)] considering graphene's π-electrons interacting through an effective Coulomb potential that is finite at short-distances, stressed the importance of the sp2 -electrons in determining the semimetal to Mott insulator phase transition in graphene. Some years ago, I. F. Herbut [PRL 97, 146401 (2006)] studied such a transition by mapping graphene's π-electrons into a Gross-Neveu model. From a different perspective, D. T. Son [PRB 75, 235423 (2007)] put the emphasis on the long-range interactions by modelling graphene as Dirac fermions interacting through a bare Coulomb potential. Here we build on these works and explore the phase diagram of Dirac fermions interacting through an effective Coulomb-like potential screened at short-distances. The interaction potential used allows for analytic results that controllably switch between the two perspectives above. This work was supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01 and CA2DM medium-sized centre program) and by the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College (R-607-265-01312).

20. Proportional hazards models with discrete frailty.

Science.gov (United States)

Caroni, Chrys; Crowder, Martin; Kimber, Alan

2010-07-01

We extend proportional hazards frailty models for lifetime data to allow a negative binomial, Poisson, Geometric or other discrete distribution of the frailty variable. This might represent, for example, the unknown number of flaws in an item under test. Zero frailty corresponds to a limited failure model containing a proportion of units that never fail (long-term survivors). Ways of modifying the model to avoid this are discussed. The models are illustrated on a previously published set of data on failures of printed circuit boards and on new data on breaking strengths of samples of cord.

1. Divining Proportions in the Information Age

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Andrew Tallon

2014-06-01

Full Text Available The process of reverse engineering proportional systems of historic buildings has long been fraught with problems. One cannot assume, without knowing the specific conditions of acquisition, that existing plans are accurate enough to sustain the scrutiny necessary to resolve differences among potential proportional schemes. Yet producing a new survey with conventional measurement instruments could take weeks, if not months, and only in the best of situations would it be possible to acquire data in the upper reaches of the building—information required to avoid arbitrary dimensional rectification. With the advent of high-speed and high-precision laser scanning, however, the situation has changed dramatically.

2. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

2014-01-01

While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

3. LTR design of proportional-integral observers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Shafai, B.;

1995-01-01

This paper applies the proportional-integral (PI) observer in connection with loop transfer recovery (LTR) design for continuous-time systems. We show that a PI observer makes it possible to obtain time recovery, i.e., exact recovery for t -+ -, under mild conditions. Based on an extension...... of the LQG/LTR method of proportional (P) observers, a systematic LTR design method is derived for the PI observer. Our recovery design method allows time recovery and frequency (normal) recovery to be done independently. Furthermore, we give explicit expressions for the recovery error when asymptotic...

4. Vacuum polarization of planar Dirac fermions by a superstrong Coulomb potential

CERN Document Server

Khalilov, V R

2016-01-01

We study the vacuum polarization of planar charged Dirac fermions by a strong Coulomb potential. Induced vacuum charge density is calculated and analyzed at the subcritical and supercritical Coulomb potentials for massless and massive fermions. For the massless case the induced vacuum charge density is localized at the origin when the Coulomb center charge is subcritical while it has a power-law tail when the Coulomb center charge is supercritical. The finite mass contribution into the induced charge due to the vacuum polarization is small and insignificantly distorts the Coulomb potential only at distances of order of the Compton length. The induced vacuum charge has a screening sign. As is known the quantum electrodynamics vacuum becomes unstable when the Coulomb center charge is increased from subcritical to supercritical values. In the supercritical Coulomb potential the quantum electrodynamics vacuum acquires the charge due to the so-called real vacuum polarization. We calculate the real vacuum polarizat...

5. Amplitude recruitment of cochlear potential

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LI Xingqi; SUN Wei; SUN Jianhe; YU Ning; JIANG Sichang

2001-01-01

Intracellular recordings were made from outer hair cells (OHC) and the cochlear microphonics (CM) were recorded from scala media (SM) in three turn of guinea pig cochlea,the compound action potential (CAP) were recorded at the round window (RW) before and after the animal were exposed to white noise. The results suggest that the nonlinear properties with “saduration” of Input/output (I/O) function of OHC AC recepter potential and CM were founded; the nonlinear properties with “Low”, “Platean” and “high” of CAP also were investigated. After explosion, the threshold shift of CAP has about 10 dB. The I/O of OHC responses and CM were changed in a linearizing (i.e., nonlinearity loss), the “platean” of I/O CAP disappeared and the growth rate of CAP amplitude were larger than before explosion. The response amplitude recruitment of OHC appears to result from reduction in gain (i.e., hearing loss); It was due to the nonlinear growth function of OHC receptor potentials was changed in linearzing that the basilar membrance motion was changed in linearizing. Since intensity coding in the inner ear depends on an interactions of nonlinear basilar membrance and nerve fibers. So that it must lead to a linearizing of CAP as input responses.

6. Golden Proportions for the Generalized Tribonacci Numbers

Science.gov (United States)

Shah, Devbhadra V.; Mehta, Darshana A.

2009-01-01

It is known that the ratios of consecutive terms of Fibonacci and Tribonacci sequences converge to the fixed ratio. In this article, we consider the generalized form of Tribonacci numbers and derive the "golden proportion" for the whole family of this generalized sequence. (Contains 2 tables.)

7. Kitchen Gardens: Contexts for Developing Proportional Reasoning

Science.gov (United States)

Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

2013-01-01

It is great to see how the sharing of ideas sparks new ideas. In 2011 Lyon and Bragg wrote an "Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom" (APMC) article on the mathematics of kitchen gardens. In this article the authors show how the kitchen garden may be used as a starting point for proportional reasoning. The authors highlight different…

8. A comparison of Coulomb and pseudo-Coulomb friction implementations: Application to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting.

Science.gov (United States)

Jackson, M I; Hiley, M J; Yeadon, M R

2011-10-13

In the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting both dynamic and static friction act. The purpose of this study was to develop a method of simulating Coulomb friction that incorporated both dynamic and static phases and to compare the results with those obtained using a pseudo-Coulomb implementation of friction when applied to the table contact phase of gymnastics vaulting. Kinematic data were obtained from an elite level gymnast performing handspring straight somersault vaults using a Vicon optoelectronic motion capture system. An angle-driven computer model of vaulting that simulated the interaction between a seven segment gymnast and a single segment vaulting table during the table contact phase of the vault was developed. Both dynamic and static friction were incorporated within the model by switching between two implementations of the tangential frictional force. Two vaulting trials were used to determine the model parameters using a genetic algorithm to match simulations to recorded performances. A third independent trial was used to evaluate the model and close agreement was found between the simulation and the recorded performance with an overall difference of 13.5%. The two-state simulation model was found to be capable of replicating performance at take-off and also of replicating key contact phase features such as the normal and tangential motion of the hands. The results of the two-state model were compared to those using a pseudo-Coulomb friction implementation within the simulation model. The two-state model achieved similar overall results to those of the pseudo-Coulomb model but obtained solutions more rapidly.

9. Propagating Uncertainties from Source Model Estimations to Coulomb Stress Changes

Science.gov (United States)

Baumann, C.; Jonsson, S.; Woessner, J.

2009-12-01

Multiple studies have shown that static stress changes due to permanent fault displacement trigger earthquakes on the causative and on nearby faults. Calculations of static stress changes in previous studies have been based on fault parameters without considering any source model uncertainties or with crude assumptions about fault model errors based on available different source models. In this study, we investigate the influence of fault model parameter uncertainties on Coulomb Failure Stress change (ΔCFS) calculations by propagating the uncertainties from the fault estimation process to the Coulomb Failure stress changes. We use 2500 sets of correlated model parameters determined for the June 2000 Mw = 5.8 Kleifarvatn earthquake, southwest Iceland, which were estimated by using a repeated optimization procedure and multiple data sets that had been modified by synthetic noise. The model parameters show that the event was predominantly a right-lateral strike-slip earthquake on a north-south striking fault. The variability of the sets of models represents the posterior probability density distribution for the Kleifarvatn source model. First we investigate the influence of individual source model parameters on the ΔCFS calculations. We show through a correlation analysis that for this event, changes in dip, east location, strike, width and in part north location have stronger impact on the Coulomb failure stress changes than changes in fault length, depth, dip-slip and strike-slip. Second we find that the accuracy of Coulomb failure stress changes appears to increase with increasing distance from the fault. The absolute value of the standard deviation decays rapidly with distance within about 5-6 km around the fault from about 3-3.5 MPa down to a few Pa, implying that the influence of parameter changes decrease with increasing distance. This is underlined by the coefficient of variation CV, defined as the ratio of the standard deviation of the Coulomb stress

10. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

CERN Document Server

Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

2016-01-01

Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

11. Relations Between Helicity Coupling Amplitude and L-S Coupling Amplitude

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

WU Ning; RUAN Tu-Nan

2001-01-01

Relations between helicity coupling amplitude and L-S coupling amplitude are discussed. The equivalence condition for these two kinematic analysis methods and the limitations of the L-S coupling amplitude are also studied in this paper.

12. Proportional Reasoning of Preservice Elementary Education Majors: An Epistemic Model of the Proportional Reasoning Construct.

Science.gov (United States)

Fleener, M. Jayne

Current research and learning theory suggest that a hierarchy of proportional reasoning exists that can be tested. Using G. Vergnaud's four complexity variables (structure, content, numerical characteristics, and presentation) and T. E. Kieren's model of rational number knowledge building, an epistemic model of proportional reasoning was…

13. Developing Essential Understanding of Ratios, Proportions, and Proportional Reasoning for Teaching Mathematics: Grades 6-8

Science.gov (United States)

Lobato, Joanne; Ellis, Amy; Zbiek, Rose Mary

2010-01-01

How do you refute the erroneous claim that all ratios are fractions? This book goes beyond a simple introduction to ratios, proportions, and proportional reasoning. It will help broaden and deepen your mathematical understanding of one of the most challenging topics for students--and teachers--to grasp. It will help you engage your students,…

14. Proportional Fair Coding for Wireless Mesh Networks

CERN Document Server

Karumbu, Premkumar; Leith, Douglas

2012-01-01

We consider multi--hop wireless networks carrying unicast flows for multiple users. Each flow has a specified delay deadline, and the lossy wireless links are modelled as binary symmetric channels (BSCs). Since transmission time, also called airtime, on the links is shared amongst flows, increasing the airtime for one flow comes at the cost of reducing the airtime available to other flows sharing the same link. We derive the joint allocation of flow airtimes and coding rates that achieves the proportionally fair throughput allocation. This utility optimisation problem is non--convex, and one of the technical contributions of this paper is to show that the proportional fair utility optimisation can nevertheless be decomposed into a sequence of convex optimisation problems. The solution to this sequence of convex problems is the unique solution to the original non--convex optimisation. Surprisingly, this solution can be written in an explicit form that yields considerable insight into the nature of the proporti...

15. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter

CERN Document Server

Bougamont, E; Derre, J; Galan, J; Gerbier, G; Giomataris, I; Gros, M; Katsioulas, I; Jourde, D; Magnier, P; Navick, X F; Papaevangelou, T; Savvidis, I; Tsiledakis, G

2015-01-01

A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. Gas mixtures of $N_{2}$ with $C_{2}H_{6}$ and pure $N_{2}$ are studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for the neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the ${}^{14}N(n, p)C^{14}$ and ${}^{14}N(n, \\alpha)B^{11}$ reactions. Here we provide studies of the optimum gas mixture, the gas pressure and the most appropriate high voltage supply on the sensor of the detector in order to achieve the maximum amplification and better resolution. The detector is tested for thermal and fast neutrons detection with a ${}^{252}Cf$ and a ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}Be$ neutron source. The atmospheric neutrons are successfully measured from thermal up to several MeV, well separated from the cosmic ray background. A comparison of the spherical proportional counter with the current available neutron counters is also given.

16. Ideal proportional navigation for exoatmospheric interception

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Li Kebo; Zhang Taotao; Chen Lei

2013-01-01

Ideal proportional navigation (IPN) is a natural choice for exoatmospheric interception for its mighty capture capability and ease of implementation.The closed-form solution of two-dimensional ideal proportional navigation was conducted in previous public literature,whereas the practical interception happens in the three-dimensional space.A novel set of relative dynamic equations is adopted in this paper,which is with the advantage of decoupling relative motion in the instantaneous rotation plane of the line of sight from the rotation of this plane.The dimension-reduced IPN is constructed in this instantaneous plane,which functions as a three-dimensional guidance law.The trajectory features of dimension-reduced IPN are explored,and the capture regions of dimension-reduced IPN with limited acceleration against nonmaneuvering and maneuvering targets are analyzed by using phase plane method.It is proved that the capture capability of IPN is much stronger than true proportional navigation (TPN),no matter the target maneuvers or not.Finally,simulation results indicate that IPN is more effective than TPN in exoatmospheric interception scenarios.

17. Band Control of Mutual Proportional Reinsurance

CERN Document Server

Liu, John; Yuan, Jiguang

2011-01-01

In this paper, we investigate the optimization of mutual proportional reinsurance --- a mutual reserve system that is intended for the collective reinsurance needs of homogeneous mutual members, such as P&I Clubs in marine mutual insurance and reserve banks in the U.S. Federal Reserve. Compared to general (non-mutual) insurance models, which involve one-sided impulse control (i.e., either downside or upside impulse) of the underlying insurance reserve process that is required to be positive, a mutual insurance differs in allowing two-sided impulse control (i.e., both downside and upside impulse), coupled with the classical proportional control of reinsurance. We prove that a special band-type impulse control $(a,A,B,b)$ with $a=0$ and $aproportional reinsurance policy (classical control), is optimal when the objective is to minimize the total maintenance cost. That is, when the reserve position reaches a lower boundary of$a=0$, the reserve should immediately be raised to ... 18. Evaluation of Facial Beauty Using Anthropometric Proportions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jovana Milutinovic 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The improvement of a patient’s facial appearance is one of the main goals of contemporary orthodontic treatment. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the difference in facial proportions between attractive and anonymous females in order to establish objective facial features which are widely considered as beautiful. The study included two groups: first group consisted of 83 Caucasian female subjects between 22 and 28 years of age who were selected from the population of students at the University of Belgrade, and the second group included 24 attractive celebrity Caucasian females. The en face facial photographs were taken in natural head position (NHP. Numerous parameters were recorded on these photographs, in order to establish facial symmetry and correlation with the ideal set of proportions. This study showed significant difference between anonymous and attractive females. Attractive females showed smaller face in general and uniformity of the facial thirds and fifths, and most of the facial parameters meet the criteria of the ideal proportions. 19. The Proportion of Stars with Planets Science.gov (United States) Woolfson, M. M. 2016-04-01 Estimates of the proportion of Sun-like stars with accompanying planets vary widely; the best present estimate is that it is about 0.34. The capture theory of planet formation involves an interaction between a condensed star and either a diffuse protostar or a high-density region in a dense embedded cluster. The protostar, or dense region, is tidally stretched into a filament that is gravitationally unstable and breaks up into a string of protoplanetary blobs, which subsequently collapse to form planets, some of which are captured by the star. A computational model, in which the passage of collapsing protostars, with initial radii 1000, 1500 and 2000 au, through a dense embedded cluster are followed, is used to estimate the proportion of protostars that would be disrupted to give planets, in environments with star number-densities in the range 5000-25,000 pc-3. It is concluded from the results that the capture theory might explain the presently-estimated proportion of stars with exoplanet companions, although other possible ways of producing exoplanets are not excluded. 20. On the assessment of multiaxial fatigue damage under variable amplitude loading Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) V. Anes 2016-07-01 Full Text Available In this work, the performance of the SSF criterion is evaluated under variable amplitude loading conditions. The main objective was to inspect the validity of the hypothesis in which the SSF damage map remains valid for any high strength steel. In order to achieve that, fatigue life correlation of the 1050QT steel and 304L stainless steel was analyzed under multiaxial loading conditions. The loading block considered in the study comprises 360 proportional loading cycles with different stress amplitude ratios and stress levels. Despite being made of proportional branches, this loading block is a non-proportional loading due to its principal directions variation. This feature allows the evaluation of combined loading effects under variable amplitude loading conditions, which makes this loading block suitable to mimic the loading effects usually found in the field. Results show very good agreements, which reinforces the aforementioned hypothesis. 1. Amplitude Scaling of Asymmetry-Induced Transport: A Second Look Science.gov (United States) Eggleston, D. L.; Carrillo, B. 2000-10-01 Our initial experiments(D.L. Eggleston, in Non-Neutral Plasma Physics III, AIP Conference Proceedings 498, 1999, pp. 241-249.) on asymmetry-induced transport in non-neutral plasmas found the radial particle flux at small radii to be proportional to φ^2, where φ is the applied asymmetry amplitude. However, other researchers(Jason M. Kriesel and C. Fred Driscoll, op. cit., pp. 256-265.), using the global expansion rate as a measure of the transport, have observed a φ^1 scaling when the rigidity (the ratio of the axial bounce to the azimuthal rotation frequency) is in the range 1 - 10. In an effort to resolve this discrepancy, we have extended our measurements to different radii and asymmetry frequencies. Although the results to date are generally in agreement with those previously reported (φ^2 scaling at low asymmetry amplitudes falling off to a weaker scaling at higher amplitudes), we have observed some cases where the low amplitude scaling is closer to φ^1. However, both the φ^2 and φ^1 cases have rigidities less than ten. Instead, we find that the φ^1 cases are characterized by an induced flux that is comparable in magnitude but opposite in sign to the background flux. 2. The effect of speed of processing training on microsaccade amplitude. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Stephen Layfield Full Text Available Older adults experience cognitive deficits that can lead to driving errors and a loss of mobility. Fortunately, some of these deficits can be ameliorated with targeted interventions which improve the speed and accuracy of simultaneous attention to a central and a peripheral stimulus called Speed of Processing training. To date, the mechanisms behind this effective training are unknown. We hypothesized that one potential mechanism underlying this training is a change in distribution of eye movements of different amplitudes. Microsaccades are small amplitude eye movements made when fixating on a stimulus, and are thought to counteract the "visual fading" that occurs when static stimuli are presented. Due to retinal anatomy, larger microsaccadic eye movements are needed to move a peripheral stimulus between receptive fields and counteract visual fading. Alternatively, larger microsaccades may decrease performance due to neural suppression. Because larger microsaccades could aid or hinder peripheral vision, we examine the distribution of microsaccades during stimulus presentation. Our results indicate that there is no statistically significant change in the proportion of large amplitude microsaccades during a Useful Field of View-like task after training in a small sample of older adults. Speed of Processing training does not appear to result in changes in microsaccade amplitude, suggesting that the mechanism underlying Speed of Processing training is unlikely to rely on microsaccades. 3. Determination of$S_{17}$from systematic analyses on$^8$B Coulomb breakup with the Eikonal-CDCC method CERN Document Server Ogata, K; Iseri, Y; Matsumoto, T; Yamashita, N; Kamimura, M; Ogata, Kazuyuki 2003-01-01 A new version of the method of Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method (CDCC) is proposed, that is, the Eikonal-CDCC method (E-CDCC). The E-CDCC equation, for Coulomb dissociation in particular, can easily and safely be solved, since it is a first-order differential equation and contains no huge angular momentum in contrast to the CDCC one. The scattering amplitude calculated by E-CDCC has a similar form to that by CDCC. Then one can construct hybrid amplitude in an intuitive way, i.e., CDCC amplitude is adopted for a smaller angular momentum$L$and E-CDCC one for a larger$L$related to an impact parameter$b$. The hybrid calculation is found to perfectly reproduce the quantum mechanical result for$^{58}$Ni($^8$B,$^7$Be$+p$)$^{58}$Ni at 240 MeV, which shows its applicability to systematic analysis of$^8$B dissociation to extract the astrophysical factor$S_{17}$with high accuracy. 4. Coulomb breakup of 22C in a four-body model Science.gov (United States) Pinilla, E. C.; Descouvemont, P. 2016-08-01 Breakup cross sections are determined for the Borromean nucleus 22C by using a four-body eikonal model, including Coulomb corrections. Bound and continuum states are constructed within a 20C+n +n three-body model in hyperspherical coordinates. We compute continuum states with the correct asymptotic behavior through the R -matrix method. For the n +n potential, we use the Minnesota interaction. As there is no precise experimental information on 21C, we define different parameter sets for the 20C+n potentials. These parameter sets provide different scattering lengths, and resonance energies of an expected 3 /2+ excited state. Then we analyze the 22C ground-state energy and rms radius, as well as E 1 strength distributions and breakup cross sections. The E 1 strength distribution presents an enhancement at low energies. Its amplitude is associated with the low binding energy, rather than with a three-body resonance. We show that the shape of the cross section at low energies is sensitive to the ground-state properties. In addition, we suggest the existence of a low-energy 2+ resonance, which should be observable in breakup experiments. 5. Coulomb breakup of 22C in a four-body model CERN Document Server Pinilla, E C 2016-01-01 Breakup cross sections are determined for the Borromean nucleus 22C by using a four-body eikonal model, including Coulomb corrections. Bound and continuum states are constructed within a 20C + n + n three-body model in hyperspherical coordinates. We compute continuum states with the correct asymptotic behavior through the R-matrix method. For the n+ n potential, we use the Minnesota interaction. As there is no precise experimental information on 21C, we define different parameter sets for the 20C + n potentials. These parameter sets provide different scattering lengths, and resonance energies of an expected 3/2+ excited state. Then we analyze the 22C ground-state energy and rms radius, as well as E1 strength distributions and breakup cross sections. The E1 strength distribution presents an enhancement at low energies. Its amplitude is associated with the low binding energy, rather than with a three-body resonance. We show that the shape of the cross section at low energies is sensitive to the ground-state pro... 6. Hydrogenoid orbitals revisited: From Slater orbitals to Coulomb Sturmians Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Danilo Calderini; Simonetta Cavalli; Cecilia Coletti; Gaia Grossi; Vincenzo Qquilanti 2012-01-01 The simple connection between the Slater orbitals, venerable in quantum chemistry, and the Coulomb Sturmian orbitals, more recently employed in atomic and molecular physics, is pointed out explicitly in view of the renewed interest in both as basis sets in applied quantum mechanics. Research in Slater orbitals mainly concerns multicentre, many-body integrals, whereas that on Sturmians exploits their orthonormality and completeness with no need of continuum states. An account of recent progress is outlined, also with reference to relationships between the two basis sets, and with the momentum space and hyperspherical harmonics representations. 7. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) 2015-11-04 The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly. 8. The distinguishable cluster approach from a screened Coulomb formalism. Science.gov (United States) Kats, Daniel 2016-01-28 The distinguishable cluster doubles equations have been derived starting from an effective screened Coulomb formalism and a particle-hole symmetric formulation of the Fock matrix. A perturbative triples correction to the distinguishable cluster with singles and doubles (DCSD) has been introduced employing the screened integrals. It is shown that the resulting DCSD(T) method is more accurate than DCSD for reaction energies and is less sensitive to the static correlation than coupled cluster with singles and doubles with a perturbative triples correction. 9. Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Pires, C A de S [Departamento de FIsica, Universidade Federal da ParaIba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58059-970, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil) 2004-12-01 In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be undoubted evidence of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive a general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field. (brief report) 10. Photon deflection by a Coulomb field in noncommutative QED CERN Document Server De Pires, C A S 2004-01-01 In noncommutative QED photons present self-interactions in the form of triple and quartic interactions. The triple interaction implies that, even though the photon is electrically neutral, it will deflect when in the presence of an electromagnetic field. If detected, such deflection would be an undoubted signal of noncommutative space-time. In this work we derive the general expression for the deflection of a photon by any electromagnetic field. As an application we consider the case of the deflection of a photon by an external static Coulomb field. 11. Nonlocal and nonlinear electrostatics of a dipolar Coulomb fluid. Science.gov (United States) Sahin, Buyukdagli; Ralf, Blossey 2014-07-16 We study a model Coulomb fluid consisting of dipolar solvent molecules of finite extent which generalizes the point-like dipolar Poisson-Boltzmann model (DPB) previously introduced by Coalson and Duncan (1996 J. Phys. Chem. 100 2612) and Abrashkin et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 077801). We formulate a nonlocal Poisson-Boltzmann equation (NLPB) and study both linear and nonlinear dielectric response in this model for the case of a single plane geometry. Our results shed light on the relevance of nonlocal versus nonlinear effects in continuum models of material electrostatics. 12. "Coulombic Viscosity" In Granular Materials: Planetary and Astrophysical Implications Science.gov (United States) Marshall, J. R. 1999-09-01 The term "Coulombic viscosity" is introduced here to define an empirically observed phenomenon from experiments conducted in both microgravity, and in ground-based 1-g conditions. In the latter case, a sand attrition device was employed to test the longevity of aeolian materials by creating two intersecting grain-circulation paths or cells that would lead to most of the grain energy being expended on grain-to-grain collisions (simulating dune systems). In the areas in the device where gravitationally-driven grain-slurries recycled the sand, the slurries moved with a boundary-layer impeded motion down the chamber walls. Excessive electrostatic charging of the grains during these experiments was prevented by the use of an a.c. corona (created by a Tesla coil) through which the grains passed on every cycle. This created both positive and negative ions which neutralized the triboelectrically-generated grain charges. When the corona was switched on, the velocity of the wall-attached slurries increased by a factor of two as approximately determined by direct observation. What appeared to be a freely-flowing slurry of grains impeded only by intergranular mechanical friction, had obviously been significantly retarded in its motion by electrostatic forces between the grains; with the charging reduced, the grains were able to move past one another without a flow "viscosity" imposed by the Coulombic intergranular forces. A similar phenomenon was observed during microgravity experiments aboard Space Shuttle in USML-1 & USML-2 spacelabs where freely-suspended clouds of sand were being investigated for their potential to for-m aggregates. In this environment, the grains were also charged electrostatically (by natural processes prior to flight), but were free from the intervention of gravity in their interactions. The grains were dispersed into dense clouds by bursts of air turbulence and allowed to form aggregates as the ballistic and turbulent motions damped out. During this 13. Coulomb Interaction in Quantum Dot with a Precessing Magnetic Field Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 2007-01-01 We study electronic transport through a quantum dot (QD) with a precessing magnetic field. By using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green function method, formulas of local density of states (LDOS) and conductance of QD are derived self-consistently. It shows that the LDOS and conductance have obvious changes with the Coulomb blockade interaction. The intensity and angle of the magnetic field or temperatures, which reflect the mesoscopic structure of the QD are derived. The superiority of this device is that the QD can be controlled easily by the magnetic field, so it is valuable to apply in generating, manipulating and probing spin state. 14. Improving Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law and Gauss's Law CERN Document Server Singh, Chandralekha 2016-01-01 We discuss the development and evaluation of five research-based tutorials on Coulomb's law, superposition, symmetry and Gauss's Law to help students in the calculus-based introductory physics courses learn these concepts. We discuss the performance of students on the pre-/post-tests given before and after the tutorials in three calculus-based introductory physics courses. We also discuss the performance of students who used the tutorials and those who did not use it on a multiple-choice test which employs concepts covered in the tutorials. 15. Is the Coulomb sum rule violated in nuclei? CERN Document Server Morgenstern, J 2001-01-01 Guided by the experimental confirmation of the validity of the Effective Momentum Approximation (EMA) in quasi-elastic scattering off nuclei, we have re-examined the extraction of the longitudinal and transverse response functions in medium-weight and heavy nuclei. In the EMA we have performed a Rosenbluth separation of the available world data on$^{40}$Ca,$^{48}$Ca,$^{56}$Fe,$^{197}$Au,$^{208}$Pb and$^{238}$U. We find that the longitudinal response function for these nuclei is "quenched" and that the Coulomb sum is not saturated, at odds with claims in the literature. 16. Quantum confinement and Coulomb blockade in isolated nanodiamond crystallites Science.gov (United States) Bolker, Asaf; Saguy, Cecile; Tordjman, Moshe; Kalish, Rafi 2013-07-01 We present direct experimental evidence of quantum confinement effects in single isolated nanodiamonds by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. For grains smaller than 4.5 nm, the band gap was found to increase with decreasing nanodiamond size and a well-defined, evenly spaced, 12-peak structure was observed on the conduction band side of the conductance curves. We attribute these peaks to the Coulomb blockade effect, reflecting the 12-fold degeneracy of the first electron-energy level in the confined nanodiamond. The present results shed light on the size dependence of the electronic properties of single nanodiamonds and are of major importance for future nanodiamond-based applications. 17. Relation between the Fukui function and the Coulomb hole Indian Academy of Sciences (India) P Senet; M Yang 2005-09-01 By using a coarse-grain representation of the molecular electronic density, we demonstrate that the value of the condensed Fukui function at an atomic site is directly related to the polarization charge (Coulomb hole) induced by a test electron removed (or added) from (at) the atom. The link between the formation of an electron-hole pair and the condensed Fukui function provides insights on the possible negativity of the Fukui function which is interpreted in terms of two phenomena: overscreening and overstrengthening. 18. Coulomb interaction and first-order superconductor-insulator transition. Science.gov (United States) Syzranov, S V; Aleiner, I L; Altshuler, B L; Efetov, K B 2010-09-24 The superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) in regular arrays of Josephson junctions is studied at low temperatures. We derived an imaginary time Ginzburg-Landau-type action properly describing the Coulomb interaction. The renormalization group analysis at zero temperature T=0 in the space dimensionality d=3 shows that the SIT is always of the first order. At finite T, a tricritical point separates the lines of the first- and second-order phase transitions. The same conclusion holds for d=2 if the mutual capacitance is larger than the distance between junctions. 19. Intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation of Na30 Science.gov (United States) Ettenauer, S.; Zwahlen, H.; Adrich, P.; Bazin, D.; Campbell, C. M.; Cook, J. M.; Davies, A. D.; Dinca, D.-C.; Gade, A.; Glasmacher, T.; Lecouey, J.-L.; Mueller, W. F.; Otsuka, T.; Reynolds, R. R.; Riley, L. A.; Terry, J. R.; Utsuno, Y.; Yoneda, K. 2008-07-01 The neutron-rich nucleus Na30 in the vicinity of the “Island of Inversion” was investigated using intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation. A single γ-ray transition was observed and attributed to the 31+→2gs+ decay. A transition probability of B(E2;2gs+→31+)=147(21)e2fm4 was determined and found in agreement with a previous experiment and with large-scale shell-model calculations. Evidence for the strong excitation of the 41+ state predicted by the shell-model calculations was not observed. 20. Mean Field Evolution of Fermions with Coulomb Interaction Science.gov (United States) Porta, Marcello; Rademacher, Simone; Saffirio, Chiara; Schlein, Benjamin 2017-03-01 We study the many body Schrödinger evolution of weakly coupled fermions interacting through a Coulomb potential. We are interested in a joint mean field and semiclassical scaling, that emerges naturally for initially confined particles. For initial data describing approximate Slater determinants, we prove convergence of the many-body evolution towards Hartree-Fock dynamics. Our result holds under a condition on the solution of the Hartree-Fock equation, that we can only show in a very special situation (translation invariant data, whose Hartree-Fock evolution is trivial), but that we expect to hold more generally. 1. Coulomb Sturmians as a basis for molecular calculations DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil 2012-01-01 Almost all modern quantum chemistry programs use Gaussian basis sets even though Gaussians cannot accurately represent the cusp at atomic nuclei, nor can they represent the slow decay of the wave function at large distances. The reason that Gaussians dominate quantum chemistry today is the great...... mathematical difficulty of evaluating interelectron repulsion integrals when exponential-type orbitals (ETOs) are used. In this paper we show that when many-centre Coulomb Sturmian ETOs are used as a basis, the most important integrals can be evaluated rapidly and accurately by means of the theory... 2. Triaxiality near the 110Ru ground state from Coulomb excitation Science.gov (United States) Doherty, D. T.; Allmond, J. M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Korten, W.; Zhu, S.; Zielińska, M.; Radford, D. C.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Bucher, B.; Batchelder, J. C.; Beausang, C. W.; Campbell, C.; Carpenter, M. P.; Cline, D.; Crawford, H. L.; David, H. M.; Delaroche, J. P.; Dickerson, C.; Fallon, P.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Kondev, F. G.; Harker, J. L.; Hayes, A. B.; Hendricks, M.; Humby, P.; Girod, M.; Gross, C. J.; Klintefjord, M.; Kolos, K.; Lane, G. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Libert, J.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pardo, R. C.; Reviol, W.; Sarantites, D. G.; Savard, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Srebrny, J.; Varner, R.; Vondrasek, R.; Wiens, A.; Wilson, E.; Wood, J. L.; Wu, C. Y. 2017-03-01 A multi-step Coulomb excitation measurement with the GRETINA and CHICO2 detector arrays was carried out with a 430-MeV beam of the neutron-rich 110Ru (t1/2 = 12 s) isotope produced at the CARIBU facility. This represents the first successful measurement following the post-acceleration of an unstable isotope of a refractory element. The reduced transition probabilities obtained for levels near the ground state provide strong evidence for a triaxial shape; a conclusion confirmed by comparisons with the results of beyond-mean-field and triaxial rotor model calculations. 3. Hadronic correction to Coulomb potential between quarks and diquark structure Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Xin-Heng, Guo [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Xue-Qian, Li; Peng-Nian, Shen [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Chuang, Wang [Nankai Univ., TJ (China). Dept. of Physics 1997-07-01 We have studied the hadronic correction from the background pion fields due to the chiral symmetry breaking to the Coulomb potential that governs the short-distance behavior of the interactions between the bound quarks. The background fields are associated with the constituent quark mass. We find a modified form which favors the diquark structure. We also roughly estimate an influence of this correction on the phase shifts in nucleon scattering and find that it may cause an extra middle range attraction between nucleons which is expected. (author) 17 refs., 4 figs. 4. Analytical approach to quasiperiodic beam Coulomb field modeling Science.gov (United States) Rubtsova, I. D. 2016-09-01 The paper is devoted to modeling of space charge field of quasiperiodic axial- symmetric beam. Particle beam is simulated by charged disks. Two analytical Coulomb field expressions are presented, namely, Fourier-Bessel series and trigonometric polynomial. Both expressions permit the integral representation. It provides the possibility of integro-differential beam dynamics description. Consequently, when beam dynamics optimization problem is considered, it is possible to derive the analytical formula for quality functional gradient and to apply directed optimization methods. In addition, the paper presents the method of testing of space charge simulation code. 5. On the Analysis of Intermediate-Energy Coulomb Excitation Experiments CERN Document Server Scheit, Heiko; Glasmacher, Thomas; Motobayashi, Tohru 2008-01-01 In a recent publication (Bertulani et al., PLB 650 (2007) 233 and arXiv:0704.0060v2) the validity of analysis methods used for intermediate-energy Coulomb excitation experiments was called into question. Applying a refined theory large corrections of results in the literature seemed needed. We show that this is not the case and that the large deviations observed are due to the use of the wrong experimental parameters. We furthermore show that an approximate expression derived by Bertulani et al. is in fact equivalent to the theory of Winther and Alder (NPA 319 (1979) 518), an analysis method often used in the literature. 6. Measurement of Analyzing Power for Proton-Carbon Elastic Scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear Interference Region with a 22-GeV/c Polarized Proton Beam CERN Document Server Tojo, J; Bai, M; Bassalleck, B; Bunce, G M; Deshpande, A A; Doskow, J; Eilerts, S W; Fields, D E; Goto, Y; Huang, H; Hughes, V; Imai, K; Ishihara, M; Kanavets, V P; Kurita, K; Kwiatkowski, K K; Lewis, B; Lozowski, W R; Makdisi, Y I; Meyer, H O; Morozov, B V; Nakamura, M; Von Przewoski, B; Rinckel, T; Roser, T; Rusek, A; Saitô, N; Smith, B; Svirida, D N; Syphers, M J; Taketani, A; Thomas, T L; Underwood, D; Wolfe, D; Yamamoto, K; Zhu, L 2002-01-01 The analyzing power for proton-carbon elastic scattering in the coulomb-nuclear interference region of momentum transfer,$9.0\\times10^{-3}<-t<4.1\\times10^{-2}$(GeV/$c)^{2}$, was measured with a 21.7 GeV/$c$polarized proton beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ratio of hadronic spin-flip to non-flip amplitude,$r_5$, was obtained from the analyzing power to be$\\text{Re} r_5=0.088\\pm 0.058$and$\\text{Im} r_5=-0.161\\pm 0.226$. 7. Coherence of Auger and inter-Coulombic decay processes in the photoionization of Ar@C60 versus Kr@C60 CERN Document Server Magrakvelidze, Maia; Javani, Mohammad H; Madjet, Mohamed E; Manson, Steven T; Chakraborty, Himadri S 2015-01-01 For the asymmetric spherical dimer of an endohedrally confined atom and a host fullerene, an innershell vacancy of either system can decay through the continuum of an outer electron hybridized between the systems. Such decays, viewed as coherent superpositions of the single-center Auger and two-center inter-Coulombic (ICD) amplitudes, are found to govern leading decay mechanisms in noble-gas endofullerenes, and are likely omnipresent in this class of nanomolecules. A comparison between resulting autoionizing resonances calculated in the photoionization of Ar@C60 and Kr@C60 exhibits details of the underlying processes. 8. The two-loop six-point amplitude in ABJM theory CERN Document Server Huang, Yu-tin 2012-01-01 In this paper we present the first analytic computation of the six-point two-loop amplitude of ABJM theory. We show that the two-loop amplitude consist of corrections proportional to two distinct local Yangian invariants which can be identified as the tree- and the one-loop amplitude respectively. The two-loop correction proportional to the tree-amplitude is identical to the one-loop BDS result of N=4 SYM plus an additional remainder function, while the correction proportional to the one-loop amplitude is finite. Both the remainder and the finite correction are dual conformal invariant, which implies that the two-loop dual conformal anomaly equation for ABJM is again identical to that of one-loop N=4 SYM, as was first observed at four-point. We discuss the theory on the Higgs branch, showing that its amplitudes are infrared finite, but equal, in the small mass limit, to those obtained in dimensional regularization. 9. Designing an optimally proportional inorganic scintillator Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Singh, Jai, E-mail: jai.singh@cdu.edu.au [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Koblov, Alexander [School of Engineering and IT, B-Purple-12, Faculty of EHSE, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia) 2012-09-01 The nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators is studied theoretically as a function of the rates of bimolecular and Auger quenching processes occurring within the electron track initiated by a gamma- or X-ray photon incident on a scintillator. Assuming a cylindrical track, the influence of the track radius and concentration of excitations created within the track on the scintillator light yield is also studied. Analysing the calculated light yield a guideline for inventing an optimally proportional scintillator with optimal energy resolution is presented. 10. Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers Science.gov (United States) Hellbaum, R. F. 1976-01-01 An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000. 11. Cosmic Muon Detector Using Proportional Chambers CERN Document Server Varga, Dezső; Hamar, Gergő; Molnár, Janka Sára; Oláh, Éva; Pázmándi, Péter 2015-01-01 A set of classical multi-wire proportional chambers were designed and constructed with the main purpose of efficient cosmic muon detection. These detectors are relatively simple to construct, and at the same time are low cost, making them ideal for educational purposes. The detector layers have efficiencies above 99% for minimum ionizing cosmic muons, and their position resolution is about 1 cm, that is, particle trajectories are clearly observable. Visualization of straight tracks is possible using an LED array, with the discriminated and latched signal driving the display. Due to the exceptional operating stability of the chambers, the design can also be used for cosmic muon telescopes. 12. Coulomb Corrections to the Parameters of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal Effect Theory and its Analogue CERN Document Server Kuraev, E A; Torosyan, H T 2013-01-01 Using the Coulomb correction to the screening angular parameter of the Moliere multiple scattering theory we obtained analytically and numerically the Coulomb corrections to the quantities of the Migdal LPM effect theory. We showed that the Coulomb corrections to the spectral bremsstrahlung rate allow completely to eliminate the discrepancy between the predictions of the LPM effect theory and its measuremens and also additionally improve the agreement between predictions of the LPM effect theory analogue for a thin target and experimental data. 13. Quantized Coulomb branches of Jordan quiver gauge theories and cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebras CERN Document Server Kodera, Ryosuke 2016-01-01 We study quantized Coulomb branches of quiver gauge theories of Jordan type. We prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is isomorphic to the spherical graded Cherednik algebra in the unframed case, and is isomorphic to the spherical cyclotomic rational Cherednik algebra in the framed case. We also prove that the quantized Coulomb branch is a deformation of a subquotient of the Yangian of the affine$\\mathfrak{gl}(1)$. 14. The accuracy of the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method for the calculation of Coulomb integrals. Science.gov (United States) Przybytek, Michal; Helgaker, Trygve 2013-08-07 We analyze the accuracy of the Coulomb energy calculated using the Gaussian-and-finite-element-Coulomb (GFC) method. In this approach, the electrostatic potential associated with the molecular electronic density is obtained by solving the Poisson equation and then used to calculate matrix elements of the Coulomb operator. The molecular electrostatic potential is expanded in a mixed Gaussian-finite-element (GF) basis set consisting of Gaussian functions of s symmetry centered on the nuclei (with exponents obtained from a full optimization of the atomic potentials generated by the atomic densities from symmetry-averaged restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock theory) and shape functions defined on uniform finite elements. The quality of the GF basis is controlled by means of a small set of parameters; for a given width of the finite elements d, the highest accuracy is achieved at smallest computational cost when tricubic (n = 3) elements are used in combination with two (γ(H) = 2) and eight (γ(1st) = 8) Gaussians on hydrogen and first-row atoms, respectively, with exponents greater than a given threshold (αmin (G)=0.5). The error in the calculated Coulomb energy divided by the number of atoms in the system depends on the system type but is independent of the system size or the orbital basis set, vanishing approximately like d(4) with decreasing d. If the boundary conditions for the Poisson equation are calculated in an approximate way, the GFC method may lose its variational character when the finite elements are too small; with larger elements, it is less sensitive to inaccuracies in the boundary values. As it is possible to obtain accurate boundary conditions in linear time, the overall scaling of the GFC method for large systems is governed by another computational step-namely, the generation of the three-center overlap integrals with three Gaussian orbitals. The most unfavorable (nearly quadratic) scaling is observed for compact, truly three-dimensional systems 15. Revision of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma CERN Document Server Mulser, P; Murakami, M 2013-01-01 The standard picture of the Coulomb logarithm in the ideal plasma is controversial, the arguments for the lower cut off need revision. The two cases of far subthermal and of far superthermal electron drift motions are accessible to a rigorous analytical treatment. We show that the lower cut off$b_{\\min}$is a function of symmetry and shape of the shielding cloud, it is not universal. In the subthermal case shielding is spherical and$b_{\\min}$is to be identified with the de Broglie wavelength; at superthermal drift the shielding cloud exhibits cylindrical (axial) symmetry and$b_{\\min}$is the classical parameter of perpendicular deflection. In both situations the cut offs are determined by the electron-ion encounters at large collision parameters. This is in net contrast to the governing standard meaning that attributes$b_{\\min}$to the Coulomb singularity at vanishing collision parameters$b$and, consequently, assigns it universal validity. The origin of the contradictions in the traditional picture is ... 16. Absence of exponential clustering in quantum Coulomb fluids Science.gov (United States) Alastuey, A.; Martin, Ph. A. 1989-12-01 We show that the quantum corrections to the classical correlations of a Coulomb fluid do not decay exponentially fast for all values of the thermodynamical parameters. Specifically, the ħ4 term in the Wigner-Kirkwood expansion of the equilibrium charge-charge correlations of the quantum one-component plasma is found to decay like ||r||-10. More generally, using functional integration, we present a diagrammatic representation of the ħ expansion of the correlations in a multicomponent fluid with a locally regularized Coulomb potential and Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The ħ2n terms are found to decay algebraically for all n>=2. Furthermore, an analysis of the hierarchy equations for the correlations provides upper bounds that are compatible with the findings of the perturbative expansion. Except for the monopole, all higher-order multipole sum rules do not hold, in general, in the quantum system. This violation of the multipole sum rules as well as the related algebraic tails are due to the intrinsic quantum fluctuations that prevent a perfect organization of the screening clouds. This phenomenon is illustrated in a simpler model where the large-distance correlations between two quantum particles embedded in a classical plasma can be exactly computed. 17. Coulomb dissociation reactions on molybdenum isotopes for astrophysics applications Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Ershova, Olga 2012-03-09 Within the present work, photodissociation reactions on {sup 100}Mo, {sup 93}Mo and {sup 92}Mo isotopes were studied by means of the Coulomb dissociation method at the LAND setup at GSI. As a result of the analysis of the present experiment, integrated Coulomb excitation cross sections of the {sup 100}Mo({gamma},n), {sup 100}Mo({gamma},2n), {sup 93}Mo({gamma},n) and {sup 92}Mo({gamma},n) reactions were determined. A second important topic of the present thesis is the investigation of the efficiency of the CsI gamma detector. The data taken with the gamma calibration sources shortly after the experiment were used for the investigation. In addition, a test experiment in refined conditions was conducted within the framework of this thesis. Numerous GEANT3 simulations of the detector were performed in order to understand various aspects of its performance. As a result, the efficiency of the detector was determined to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than the efficiency expected from the simulation. (orig.) 18. Super-Coulombic atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media Science.gov (United States) Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin 2017-01-01 Dipole–dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole–dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom–atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon–polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media. PMID:28120826 19. Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media CERN Document Server Cortes, Cristian L 2016-01-01 Dipole-dipole interactions which govern phenomena like cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces, as well as resonance energy transfer rates are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here, we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic (QED) interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a Super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media and propose practical implementations with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride in the infrared spectral range and plasmonic super-lattice structures in the visible range. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms in hyperbolic media and the study of many-body atomic states where optical phonons mediate qua... 20. Controllability of the Coulomb charging energy in close-packed nanoparticle arrays. Science.gov (United States) Duan, Chao; Wang, Ying; Sun, Jinling; Guan, Changrong; Grunder, Sergio; Mayor, Marcel; Peng, Lianmao; Liao, Jianhui 2013-11-07 We studied the electronic transport properties of metal nanoparticle arrays, particularly focused on the Coulomb charging energy. By comparison, we confirmed that it is more reasonable to estimate the Coulomb charging energy using the activation energy from the temperature-dependent zero-voltage conductance. Based on this, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the parameters that could be used to tune the Coulomb charging energy in nanoparticle arrays. We found that four parameters, including the particle core size, the inter-particle distance, the nearest neighboring number, and the dielectric constant of ligand molecules, could significantly tune the Coulomb charging energy. 1. Room temperature Coulomb blockade mediated field emission via self-assembled gold nanoparticles Science.gov (United States) Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Chang, Shengli; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xueao; Xu, Hui 2017-02-01 Coulomb blockade mediated field-emission current was observed in single-electron tunneling devices based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles at 300 K. According to Raichev's theoretical model, by fixing a proper geometric distribution of source, island and drain, the transfer characteristics can be well explained through a combination of Coulomb blockade and field emission. Coulomb blockade and field emission alternately happen in our self-assembled devices. The Coulomb island size derived from the experimental data is in good agreement with the average size of the gold nanoparticles used in the device. The integrated tunneling can be adjusted via a gate electrode. 2. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Kim, Jinoh; Rotem, Doron 2010-09-09 Energy saving has become a crucial concern in datacenters as several reports predict that the anticipated energy costs over a three year period will exceed hardware acquisition. In particular, saving energy for storage is of major importance as storage devices (and cooling them off) may contribute over 25 percent of the total energy consumed in a datacenter. Recent work introduced the concept of energy proportionality and argued that it is a more relevant metric than just energy saving as it takes into account the tradeoff between energy consumption and performance. In this paper, we present a novel approach, called FREP (Fractional Replication for Energy Proportionality), for energy management in large datacenters. FREP includes areplication strategy and basic functions to enable flexible energy management. Specifically, our method provides performance guarantees by adaptively controlling the power states of a group of disks based on observed and predicted workloads. Our experiments, using a set of real and synthetic traces, show that FREP dramatically reduces energy requirements with a minimal response time penalty. 3. Tri-state Modulation Power Driving of Electro-hydraulic Proportional Amplifier Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) NIE Yong; WANG Qingfeng 2009-01-01 Switch electro-hydraulic proportional amplifier(PA) widely employs single switch modulation power driving(SSMPD) or reverse discharging power driving(RDPD) at present. SSMPD has slow dynamic response, and can't adjust independently the dither signal's amplitude and frequency;RDPD accelerates the current decay;consequently, it increases current ripple and power loss. For the purpose of solving the above mentioned problem, the tri-state modulation power driving(TSMPD) scheme was proposed for improving the performance of power driving. Detailedly, the hardware circuit for the tri-state modulation power driving is designed;the tri-state modulation algorithm is realized by digital signal processor(DSP). The tri-state modulation power driving is investigated by experiments, comparetive experiments among the single switch modulation power driving(SSMPD), reverse discharging power driving(RDPD), and the TSMPD are implemented, and the experimental results demonstrate that the linearity error of TSMDP meets the requirement of PA;the current response of TSMSP is the best;the amplitude of ripple current of the TSMPD can be reduced without increasing frequency of PWM, in addition, dither signal amplitude and frequency can be adjusted independently for each other. It is very meaningful to guide the development of high performance proportional amplifier for high frequency response proportional solenoid. 4. Cumulative Coulomb Stress Triggering as an Explanation for the Canterbury (New Zealand) Aftershock Sequence: Initial Conditions Are Everything? Science.gov (United States) Bebbington, Mark; Harte, David; Williams, Charles 2016-01-01 Using 2 years of aftershock data and three fault-plane solutions for each of the initial M7.1 Darfield earthquake and the larger (M >6) aftershocks, we conduct a detailed examination of Coulomb stress transfer in the Canterbury 2010-2011 earthquake sequence. Moment tensor solutions exist for 283 of the events with M ≥ 3.6, while 713 other events of M ≥ 3.6 have only hypocentre and magnitude information available. We look at various methods for deciding between the two possible mechanisms for the 283 events with moment tensor solutions, including conformation to observed surface faulting, and maximum ΔCFF transfer from the Darfield main shock. For the remaining events, imputation methods for the mechanism including nearest-neighbour, kernel smoothing, and optimal plane methods are considered. Fault length, width, and depth are arrived at via a suite of scaling relations. A large (50-70 %) proportion of the faults considered were calculated to have initial loading in excess of the final stress drop. The majority of faults that accumulated positive ΔCFF during the sequence were encouraged' by the main shock failure, but, on the other hand, of the faults that failed during the sequence, more than 50 % of faults appeared to have accumulated a negative ΔCFF from all preceding failures during the sequence. These results were qualitatively insensitive to any of the factors considered. We conclude that there is much unknown about how Coulomb stress triggering works in practice. 5. Coulomb dissociation of a fast pion into two jets CERN Document Server Ivanov, D Yu 2001-01-01 We calculate the electromagnetic contribution to the scattering amplitude of pion diffractive dissociation into di-jets which is described by one photon exchange. The result shows that the factorization procedure known for the description of exclusive reactions holds also for this quasi-exclusive process. We find that the longitudinal momentum distribution of di-jets does not depend on the form of the pion distribution amplitude. We discuss the magnitude of the cross section. 6. Information-Theoretic Properties of the Half-Line Coulomb Potential CERN Document Server Omiste, J J; Dehesa, J S 2009-01-01 The half-line one-dimensional Coulomb potential is possibly the simplest D-dimensional model with physical solutions which has been proved to be successful to describe the behaviour of Rydberg atoms in external fields and the dynamics of surface-state electrons in liquid helium, with potential applications in constructing analog quantum computers and other fields. Here, we investigate the spreading and uncertaintylike properties for the ground and excited states of this system by means of the logarithmic measure and the information-theoretic lengths of Renyi, Shannon and Fisher types; so, far beyond the Heisenberg measure. In particular, the Fisher length (which is a local quantity of internal disorder) is shown to be the proper measure of uncertainty for our system in both position and momentum spaces. Moreover the position Fisher length of a given physical state turns out to be not only directly proportional to the number of nodes of its associated wavefunction, but also it follows a square-root energy law. 7. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Foda, O. 1987-06-04 Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. 8. Discontinuities of multi-Regge amplitudes CERN Document Server Fadin, V S 2014-01-01 In the BFKL approach, discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes in invariant masses of produced particles are discussed. It turns out that they are in evident contradiction with the BDS ansatz for$n$-gluon amplitudes in the planar$N$=4 SYM at$n\\ge 6$. An explicit expression for the NLO discontinuity of the two-to-four amplitude in the invariant mass of two produced gluons is is presented. 9. Scaling and universality in proportional elections. Science.gov (United States) Fortunato, Santo; Castellano, Claudio 2007-09-28 A most debated topic of the last years is whether simple statistical physics models can explain collective features of social dynamics. A necessary step in this line of endeavor is to find regularities in data referring to large-scale social phenomena, such as scaling and universality. We show that, in proportional elections, the distribution of the number of votes received by candidates is a universal scaling function, identical in different countries and years. This finding reveals the existence in the voting process of a general microscopic dynamics that does not depend on the historical, political, and/or economical context where voters operate. A simple dynamical model for the behavior of voters, similar to a branching process, reproduces the universal distribution. 10. Microstrip proportional counter development at MSFC Science.gov (United States) Fulton, M. A.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D. 1992-01-01 Microstrip detectors are an exciting new development in proportional counter design fabricated using integrated circuit-type photolithography techniques; they therefore offer very high spatial accuracy and uniformity. A development program is underway at NASA-Marshall to produce large-area microstrips for use in an X-ray detector balloon flight program and to investigate the general performance limits of these new devices. Microstrips tested so far have been fabricated both in-house using standard photolithographic techniques and by an outside contractor using electron beam technology. Various substrate materials have been tested along with different electrode configurations. The distributions of pickup on subdivided cathodes on both top and bottom surfaces of the microstrips are also being investigated for use as two-dimensional imaging detectors. Data from these tests in the development of a large-area device will be presented. 11. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Strachan, J.D.; Diesso, M.; Jassby, D.; Johnson, L.; McCauley, S.; Munsat, T.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Loughlin, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.]|[JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom) 1995-06-01 The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments. 12. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit Science.gov (United States) Hughes, W.J. 1999-04-06 A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the reset input of a R-S flip flop, while an 0 crossing detector controls the set input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the reset and set inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs. 13. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms CERN Document Server Radyushkin, A V 2000-01-01 We compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude we include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. Our results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. We find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term. 14. Color-Flavor Locked Strangelets in a New Quark Model with Linear Confinement and Coulomb-Type Interactions Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 陈世武; 彭光雄 2012-01-01 The color-flavor locked （CFL） strangelets have been investigated in a new quark model with linear con- finement and one-gluon-exchange interactions. Considering Coulomb energy, we have studied the properties of three kinds of CFL strangelets, namely, positively charged, negatively charged and nearly neutral CFL strangelets. It is found that the one-gluon-exchange effect lowers the energy of a strangelet considerably and thus makes it much more stable than without considering the effect. The charge of a positive strangelet is larger than 0.15A^2/3 with A being the baryon number, but smaller than that in bag model. The charge of a negatively charged or nearly neutral CFL strangelet is nearly proportional to A^1/3. 15. Imaging of Coulomb-Driven Quantum Hall Edge States KAUST Repository Lai, Keji 2011-10-01 The edges of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime are divided into alternating metallic and insulating strips, with their widths determined by the energy gaps of the QHE states and the electrostatic Coulomb interaction. Local probing of these submicrometer features, however, is challenging due to the buried 2DEG structures. Using a newly developed microwave impedance microscope, we demonstrate the real-space conductivity mapping of the edge and bulk states. The sizes, positions, and field dependence of the edge strips around the sample perimeter agree quantitatively with the self-consistent electrostatic picture. The evolution of microwave images as a function of magnetic fields provides rich microscopic information around the ν=2 QHE state. © 2011 American Physical Society. 16. Quasi-exactly solvable relativistic soft-core Coulomb models CERN Document Server Agboola, Davids 2013-01-01 By considering a unified treatment, we present quasi exact polynomial solutions to both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with the family of soft-core Coulomb potentials$V_q(r)=-Z/\\left(r^q+\\beta^q\\right)^{1/q}$,$Z>0$,$\\beta>0$,$q\\geq 1$. We consider cases$q=1$and$q=2and show that both cases are reducible to the same basic ordinary differential equation. A systematic and closed form solution to the basic equation is obtain using the Bethe ansatz method. For each case, the expressions for the energies and the allowed parameters are obtained analytically and the wavefunctions are derive in terms of the roots of a set of Bethe ansatz equations. 17. Plunger lifetime measurements after Coulomb excitation at intermediate beam energies Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Hackstein, Matthias; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Ilie, Gabriela; Jolie, Jan; Melon, Barbara; Pissulla, Thomas; Rother, Wolfram; Zell, Karl-Oskar [University of Cologne (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [University of Cologne (Germany); INRNE (Bulgaria); Chester, Aaron; Adrich, Przemyslaw; Bazin, Daniel; Bowen, Matt; Gade, Alexandra; Glasmacher, Thomas; Miller, Dave; Moeller, Victoria; Starosta, Krzysztof; Stolz, Andreas; Vaman, Constantin; Voss, Philip; Weissharr, Dirk [Michigan State Univerity (United States); Moeller, Oliver [TU Darmstadt (Germany) 2008-07-01 Two recoil-distance-doppler-shift (RDDS) experiments were performed at the NSCL/MSU using Coulomb excitations of the projectile nuclei {sup 110}Pd, {sup 114}Pd at beam energies of 54 MeV/u in order to investigate the evolution of deformation of neutron rich paladium isotopes. The experimental set-up consisted of a dedicated plunger device, developed at the University of Cologne, the SEGA Ge-array and the S800 spectrometer. Lifetimes of the 2{sub 1}{sup +}-states in {sup 110}Pd and {sup 114}Pd were derived from the analysis of the {gamma}-line-shapes as well as from the measured decay-curves. Special features of the data analysis, e.g. features originating from the very high recoil velocities, are discussed. 18. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) J. Marganiec 2016-08-01 Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure. 19. Coulomb blockade and BLOCH oscillations in superconducting Ti nanowires. Science.gov (United States) Lehtinen, J S; Zakharov, K; Arutyunov, K Yu 2012-11-01 Quantum fluctuations in quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channels leading to spontaneous changes of the phase of the order parameter by 2π, alternatively called quantum phase slips (QPS), manifest themselves as the finite resistance well below the critical temperature of thin superconducting nanowires and the suppression of persistent currents in tiny superconducting nanorings. Here we report the experimental evidence that in a current-biased superconducting nanowire the same QPS process is responsible for the insulating state--the Coulomb blockade. When exposed to rf radiation, the internal Bloch oscillations can be synchronized with the external rf drive leading to formation of quantized current steps on the I-V characteristic. The effects originate from the fundamental quantum duality of a Josephson junction and a superconducting nanowire governed by QPS--the QPS junction. 20. Intershell resistance in multiwall carbon nanotubes: A Coulomb drag study DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lunde, Anders Mathias; Flensborg, Karsten; Jauho, Antti-Pekka 2005-01-01 We calculate the intershell resistance R-21 in a multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F) (e.g., a gate voltage), varying the chirality of the inner and outer tubes. This is done in a so-called Coulomb drag setup, where a current I-1 in one shell induces...... of the inner and outer tube and misalignment of inner and outer tube Fermi levels. However for any tube combination, we predict a dip (or peak) in R-21 as a function of gate voltage, since R-21 vanishes at the electron-hole symmetry point. As a by-product, we classified all metallic tubes into either... 1. Phase diagram of a bulk 1d lattice Coulomb gas Science.gov (United States) Démery, V.; Monsarrat, R.; Dean, D. S.; Podgornik, R. 2016-01-01 The exact solution, via transfer matrix, of the simple one-dimensional lattice Coulomb gas (1d LCG) model can reproduce peculiar features of ionic liquid capacitors, such as overscreening, layering, and camel- and bell-shaped capacitance curves. Using the same transfer matrix method, we now compute the bulk properties of the 1d LCG in the constant voltage ensemble. We unveil a phase diagram with rich structure exhibiting low-density disordered and high-density ordered phases, separated by a first-order phase transition at low temperature; the solid state at full packing can be ordered or not, depending on the temperature. This phase diagram, which is strikingly similar to its three-dimensional counterpart, also sheds light on the behaviour of the confined system. 2. The Coulomb Branch Formula for Quiver Moduli Spaces CERN Document Server Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke 2014-01-01 In recent series of works, by translating properties of multi-centered supersymmetric black holes into the language of quiver representations, we proposed a formula that expresses the Hodge numbers of the moduli space of semi-stable representations of quivers with generic superpotential in terms of a set of invariants associated to single-centered' or pure-Higgs' states. The distinguishing feature of these invariants is that they are independent of the choice of stability condition. Furthermore they are uniquely determined by the\\chi_y$-genus of the moduli space. Here, we provide a self-contained summary of the Coulomb branch formula, spelling out mathematical details but leaving out proofs and physical motivations. 3. Interatomic Coulombic decay widths of helium trimer: Ab initio calculations Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Kolorenč, Přemysl, E-mail: kolorenc@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Sisourat, Nicolas [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005 Paris (France) 2015-12-14 We report on an extensive study of interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) widths in helium trimer computed using a fully ab initio method based on the Fano theory of resonances. Algebraic diagrammatic construction for one-particle Green’s function is utilized for the solution of the many-electron problem. An advanced and universal approach to partitioning of the configuration space into discrete states and continuum subspaces is described and employed. Total decay widths are presented for all ICD-active states of the trimer characterized by one-site ionization and additional excitation of an electron into the second shell. Selected partial decay widths are analyzed in detail, showing how three-body effects can qualitatively change the character of certain relaxation transitions. Previously unreported type of three-electron decay processes is identified in one class of the metastable states. 4. Localized Coulomb Descriptors for the Gaussian Approximation Potential CERN Document Server Barker, James; Hamaekers, Jan; Mathias, Sonja 2016-01-01 We introduce a novel class of localized atomic environment representation functions, based upon the global Coulomb matrix, which have dimensionality either quadratic or linear in the number of atoms in the local atomic environment. By combining these functions with the Gaussian approximation potential approach, we present LC-GAP, a new system for generating atomic potentials through machine learning (ML). Tests on the QM7, QM7b and GDB9 biomolecular datasets demonstrate that potentials created with LC-GAP can successfully predict atomization energies for molecules larger than those used for training to chemical accuracy, and can (in the case of QM7b) also be used to predict a range of other atomic properties with accuracy in line with the recent literature. 5. Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters CERN Document Server Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301 2012-01-01 The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio... 6. Screening phase transitions in two-dimensional Coulomb gas Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Gallavotti, G.; Nicolo, F. 1984-07-01 Infrared properties of a Coulomb gas in two dimensions and with fixed ultraviolet cutoff are studied. The existence of infinitely many thresholds Tu = 1/Ke 1/8 pi (1-1/zu)sup-1 in the interval of temperatures 1/Ke1/8 pi, 1/4 pi, where K is the Boltzmann constant and e = /e/ is the charge of the positive particle, is proved. Such thresholds are conjectured to reflect a sequence of transitions from a pure multipole phase (the Koesterlitz-Thouless region) to the plasma phase via an infinite number of intermediate phases. Mathematically the free energy becomes more and more differentiable as a function of the activity lambda, near lambda = 0, as the temperature decreases. 7. Laser-driven recollisions under the Coulomb barrier CERN Document Server Keil, Th; Bauer, D 2016-01-01 Photoelectron spectra obtained from the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation can be in striking disagreement with predictions by the strong-field approximation (SFA) not only at low energy but also around twice the ponderomotive energy where the transition from the direct to the rescattered electrons is expected. In fact, the relative enhancement of the ionization probability compared to the SFA in this regime can be several orders of magnitude. We show for which laser and target parameters such an enhancement occurs and for which the SFA prediction is reasonably good. The enhancement is analyzed in terms of the Coulomb-corrected action along analytic quantum orbits in the complex-time plane, taking branch cuts due to soft-recollisions properly into account. 8. Investigation of uncertainty components in Coulomb blockade thermometry Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Hahtela, O. M.; Heinonen, M.; Manninen, A. [MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Tekniikantie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Meschke, M.; Savin, A.; Pekola, J. P. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Gunnarsson, D.; Prunnila, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Penttilä, J. S.; Roschier, L. [Aivon Oy, Tietotie 3, 02150 Espoo (Finland) 2013-09-11 Coulomb blockade thermometry (CBT) has proven to be a feasible method for primary thermometry in every day laboratory use at cryogenic temperatures from ca. 10 mK to a few tens of kelvins. The operation of CBT is based on single electron charging effects in normal metal tunnel junctions. In this paper, we discuss the typical error sources and uncertainty components that limit the present absolute accuracy of the CBT measurements to the level of about 1 % in the optimum temperature range. Identifying the influence of different uncertainty sources is a good starting point for improving the measurement accuracy to the level that would allow the CBT to be more widely used in high-precision low temperature metrological applications and for realizing thermodynamic temperature in accordance to the upcoming new definition of kelvin. 9. Role of transfer reactions in heavy-ion collisions at the Coulomb barrier Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Pollarolo Giovanni 2011-10-01 Full Text Available One and two neutron transfer reactions are discussed in the semiclassical formalism. The twoneutrons transfer cross sections are calculated in the successive approximation. Comparisons with new experimental data below the Coulomb barrier are discussed in term of transfer probabilities as a function of the distance of closest approach for Coulomb scattering. 10. Quantum Effects on the Coulomb Logarithm for Energetic IonsDuring the Initial Thermalization Phase Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 邓柏权; 严建成; 邓梅根; 彭利林 2002-01-01 We have discussed the quantum mechanical effects for the energetic charged particles produced in D - He3 fusionreactions. Our results show that it is better to use the proper Coulomb logarithm at the high-energy end indescribing the thermalization process, because the quantum mechanical effects on the Coulomb logarithm are notnegligible, based on an assumption of binary collision. 11. Influence of gun design on Coulomb interactions in a field emission gun NARCIS (Netherlands) Verduin, T.; Cook, B.; Kruit, P. 2011-01-01 The authors investigate by simulation the Coulomb effects on brightness and energy spread for cold field emitters. At first, we show that brightness is ultimately limited by Coulomb interactions. The authors analyze the maximum attainable brightness for tip radii ranging from 1 nm to 1 μm. Remarkabl 12. Interlimb coupling strength scales with movement amplitude. Science.gov (United States) Peper, C Lieke E; de Boer, Betteco J; de Poel, Harjo J; Beek, Peter J 2008-05-23 The relation between movement amplitude and the strength of interlimb interactions was examined by comparing bimanual performance at different amplitude ratios (1:2, 1:1, and 2:1). For conditions with unequal amplitudes, the arm moving at the smaller amplitude was predicted to be more strongly affected by the contralateral arm than vice versa. This prediction was based on neurophysiological considerations and the HKB model of coupled oscillators. Participants performed rhythmic bimanual forearm movements at prescribed amplitude relations. After a brief mechanical perturbation of one arm, the relaxation process back to the initial coordination pattern was examined. This analysis focused on phase adaptations in the unperturbed arm, as these reflect the degree to which the movements of this arm were affected by the coupling influences stemming from the contralateral (perturbed) arm. The thus obtained index of coupling (IC) reflected the relative contribution of the unperturbed arm to the relaxation process. As predicted IC was larger when the perturbed arm moved at a larger amplitude than did the unperturbed arm, indicating that coupling strength scaled with movement amplitude. This result was discussed in relation to previous research regarding sources of asymmetry in coupling strength and the effects of amplitude disparity on interlimb coordination. 13. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes NARCIS (Netherlands) Foda, O. 1987-01-01 Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are n 14. A study of the oscillator strengths and line strenghts of Agl and AuI Using the Coulomb approximation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Soltanolkotabi 1998-04-01 Full Text Available Single-valence electron atoms are an important class of atoms. Their oscillator strengths are their important properties. Knowing the oscillator strengths one can easity calculate the transition probabilities of the spectral lines and hence the lifetimes of energy levels of most atoms. The oscillator strengths of the spectral lines of most atoms are not knoen with sufficient accuracy due to the experimental difficulties. The results of most measurements are subject to large inaccuracies due to uncertainties in vapor pressure data. A quick and simple theoretical method for calculation of atomic oscillator strength seems to be the Coulomb approximation of Bates and Damagaard. This method reveals some interesting properties that are generally confirmed by experimental results. In this paper, we have studied oscillator strengths and line strengths of the different allowed transitions in AgI and AuI using the Coulomb approximation. The log (λfg curves(λ, f and g are the wavelength of transition, oscillator strength and statistical weight of upper level, respectively versus the reciprocal of the principal quantum number of upper level, 1/n, show a linear behavior only for large values of the principal quantum number of lower level. The effect of change of total angular momentum,Δ J, in the curvature and slope of the plotted curves has been also investigated. The deviation of the curves from straight lines, which indicates failure of the Coulomb approximation is due to the exchange forces. In addition, the n3fg curves (n , the effective total quantum number of upper level have been plotted versus n for different allowed transitions in AgL and AuI. It has been found that f is proportional to 1/n and this proportionality is linear for large values of n . For some transitions, however, there is a significant deviation from the linear dependence for large values of n , which can be attributed to the signature of total angular momentum quantum 15. Exact tests for Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Science.gov (United States) Engels, William R 2009-12-01 Exact conditional tests are often required to evaluate statistically whether a sample of diploids comes from a population with Hardy-Weinberg proportions or to confirm the accuracy of genotype assignments. This requirement is especially common when the sample includes multiple alleles and sparse data, thus rendering asymptotic methods, such as the common chi(2)-test, unreliable. Such an exact test can be performed using the likelihood ratio as its test statistic rather than the more commonly used probability test. Conceptual advantages in using the likelihood ratio are discussed. A substantially improved algorithm is described to permit the performance of a full-enumeration exact test on sample sizes that are too large for previous methods. An improved Monte Carlo algorithm is also proposed for samples that preclude full enumeration. These algorithms are about two orders of magnitude faster than those currently in use. Finally, methods are derived to compute the number of possible samples with a given set of allele counts, a useful quantity for evaluating the feasibility of the full enumeration procedure. Software implementing these methods, ExactoHW, is provided. 16. Plane density of induced vacuum charge in a supercritical Coulomb potential CERN Document Server Khalilov, V R 2016-01-01 An expression for the density of a planar induced vacuum charge is obtained in a strong Coulomb potential in coordinate space. Treatment is based on a self-adjoint extension approach for constructing of the Green's function of a charged fermion in this potential. Induced vacuum charge density is calculated and analyzed at the subcritical and supercritical Coulomb potentials for massless and massive fermions. The behavior of the obtained vacuum charge density is investigated at long and short distances from the Coulomb center. The induced vacuum charge has a screening sign. Screening of a Coulomb impurity in graphene is briefly discussed. We calculate the real vacuum polarization charge density that acquires the quantum electrodynamics vacuum in the supercritical Coulomb potential due to the so-called real vacuum polarization. It is shown that the vacuum charge densities essentially differ in massive and massless cases. We expect that our results can, as a matter of principle, be tested in graphene with a supe... 17. Resonance tuning due to Coulomb interaction in strong near-field coupled metamaterials Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Roy Chowdhury, Dibakar, E-mail: dibakar.roychowdhury@anu.edu.au [Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); College of Engineering, Mahindra Ecole Centrale, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad, 500043 (India); Xu, Ningning; Zhang, Weili [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 87074 (United States); Singh, Ranjan, E-mail: ranjans@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore) 2015-07-14 Coulomb's law is one of the most fundamental laws of physics that describes the electrostatic interaction between two like or unlike point charges. Here, we experimentally observe a strong effect of Coulomb interaction in tightly coupled terahertz metamaterials where the split-ring resonator dimers in a unit cell are coupled through their near fields across the capacitive split gaps. Using a simple analytical model, we evaluated the Coulomb parameter that switched its sign from negative to positive values indicating the transition in the nature of Coulomb force from being repulsive to attractive depending upon the near field coupling between the split ring resonators. Apart from showing interesting effects in the strong coupling regime between meta-atoms, Coulomb interaction also allows an additional degree of freedom to achieve frequency tunable dynamic metamaterials. 18. The Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude: Asymptotics CERN Document Server Engle, Jonathan; Zipfel, Antonia 2015-01-01 In previous work, the Lorentzian proper vertex amplitude for a spin-foam model of quantum gravity was derived. In the present work, the asymptotics of this amplitude are studied in the semi-classical limit. The starting point of the analysis is an expression for the amplitude as an action integral with action differing from that in the EPRL case by an extra projector' term which scales linearly with spins only in the asymptotic limit. New tools are introduced to generalize stationary phase methods to this case. For the case of boundary data which can be glued to a non-degenerate Lorentzian 4-simplex, the asymptotic limit of the amplitude is shown to equal the single Feynman term, showing that the extra term in the asymptotics of the EPRL amplitude has been eliminated. 19. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics. Science.gov (United States) Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F 2016-02-22 In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing. 20. Coulomb breakup effects on the elastic cross section of$^6$He+$^{209}$Bi scattering near Coulomb barrier energies CERN Document Server Matsumoto, T; Iseri, Y; Kamimura, M; Ogata, K; Yahiro, M 2006-01-01 We accurately analyze the$^6$He+$^{209}$Bi scattering at 19 and 22.5 MeV near the Coulomb barrier energy, using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) based on the$n$+$n$+$^4$He+$^{209}$Bi four-body model. The three-body breakup continuum of$^6$He is discretized by diagonalizing the internal Hamiltonian of$^6$He in a space spanned by the Gaussian basis functions. The calculated elastic and total reaction cross sections are in good agreement with the experimental data, while the CDCC calculation based on the di-neutron model of$^6$He, i.e., the$^2n$+$^{4}$He+$^{209}$Bi three-body model, does not reproduce the data. 1. Elastic Scattering of Low Energy Pions by Nuclei and the In-Medium Isovector πN Amplitude Science.gov (United States) Friedman, E.; Bauer, M.; Breitschopf, J.; Clement, H.; Denz, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Erhardt, A.; Hofman, G. J.; Kritchman, S.; Meier, R.; Wagner, G. J.; Yaari, G. 2006-07-01 Measurements of elastic scattering of 21.5 MeV π± by Si, Ca, Ni and Zr were made using a single arm magnetic spectrometer and absolute calibration was made by parallel measurements of Coulomb scattering of muons. Optical model fits to the data reveal the anomalous' s-wave repulsion known from pionic atoms. Introducing a chiral-motivated density dependence of the isovector scattering amplitude, and considering the energy dependence of the free πN interaction greatly improve fits to the data and remove the anomaly'. 2. Excitation and ionization of hydrogen and helium atoms by femtosecond laser pulses: theoretical approach by Coulomb-Volkov states; Excitation et ionisation des atomes d'hydrogene et d'helium par des impulsions laser femtosecondes: approche theorique par des etats de Coulomb-Volkov Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Guichard, R 2007-12-15 We present a theoretical approach using Coulomb-Volkov states that appears useful for the study of atomic multi-photonic processes induced by intense XUV femtosecond laser pulses. It predicts hydrogen ionization spectra when it is irradiated by laser pulses in perturbations conditions. Three ways have been investigated. Extension to strong fields when {Dirac_h}{omega} > I{sub p}: it requires to include the hydrogen ground state population, introducing it in standard Coulomb-Volkov amplitude leads to saturated multi-photonic ionization. Extension to multi-photonic transitions with {Dirac_h}{omega} < I{sub p}: new quantum paths are open by the possibility to excite the lower hydrogen bound states. Multiphoton excitation of these states is investigated using a Coulomb-Volkov approach. Extension to helium: two-photon double ionization study shows the influence of electronic correlations in both ground and final state. Huge quantity of information such as angular and energetic distributions as well as total cross sections is available. (author) 3. Softness and Amplitudes' Positivity for Spinning Particles CERN Document Server Bellazzini, Brando 2016-01-01 We derive positivity bounds for scattering amplitudes of particles with arbitrary spin using unitarity, analyticity and crossing symmetry. The bounds imply the positivity of certain low-energy coefficients of the effective action that controls the dynamics of the light degrees of freedom. We show that low-energy amplitudes strictly softer than$O(p^4)$do not admit unitary ultraviolet completions unless the theory is free. This enforces a bound on the energy growth of scattering amplitudes in the region of validity of the effective theory. We discuss explicit examples including the Goldstino from spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, and the theory of a spin-1/2 fermion with a shift symmetry. 4. Holographic Corrections to Meson Scattering Amplitudes CERN Document Server Armoni, Adi 2016-01-01 We compute meson scattering amplitudes using the holographic duality between confining gauge theories and string theory, in order to consider holographic corrections to the Veneziano amplitude and associated higher-point functions. The generic nature of such computations is explained, thanks to the well-understood nature of confining string backgrounds, and two different examples of the calculation in given backgrounds are used to illustrate the details. The effect we discover, whilst only qualitative, is re-obtainable in many such examples, in four-point but also higher point amplitudes. 5. Target tracking based on frequency spectrum amplitude Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Guo Huidong; Zhang Xinhua; Xia Zhijun 2006-01-01 The amplitude of frequency spectrum can be integrated with probabilistic data association (PDA) to distinguish the target with clutter echoes, especially in low SNR underwater environment. A new target-tracking algorithm is presented which adopts the amplitude of frequency spectrum to improve target tracking in clutter. The probabilistic density distribution of frequency spectrum amplitude is analyzed. By simulation, the results show that the algorithm is superior to PDA. This approach enhances stability for the association probability and increases the performance of target tracking. 6. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes CERN Document Server Várilly, Joseph C 2016-01-01 Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin. 7. Open string amplitudes of closed topological vertex CERN Document Server Takasaki, Kanehisa 2016-01-01 The closed topological vertex is the simplest "off-strip" case of non-compact toric Calabi-Yau threefolds with acyclic web diagrams. By the diagrammatic method of topological vertex, open string amplitudes of topological string theory therein can be obtained by gluing a single topological vertex to an "on-strip" subdiagram of the tree-like web diagram. If non-trivial partitions are assigned to just two parallel external lines of the web diagram, the amplitudes can be calculated with the aid of techniques borrowed from the melting crystal models. These amplitudes are thereby expressed as matrix elements, modified by simple prefactors, of an operator product on the Fock space of 2D charged free fermions. This fermionic expression can be used to derive$q$-difference equations for generating functions of special subsets of the amplitudes. These$q$-difference equations may be interpreted as the defining equation of a quantum mirror curve. 8. Off-shell Amplitudes in Superstring Theory CERN Document Server Sen, Ashoke 2014-01-01 Computing the renormalized masses and S-matrix elements in string theory, involving states whose masses are not protected from quantum corrections, requires defining off-shell amplitude with certain factorization properties. While in the bosonic string theory one can in principle construct such an amplitude from string field theory, there is no fully consistent field theory for superstring and heterotic string theory. In this paper we give a practical construction of off-shell amplitudes satisfying the desired factorization property using the formalism of picture changing operators. We describe a systematic procedure for dealing with the spurious singularities of the integration measure that we encounter when the supermoduli space is not holomorphically projected. This procedure is also useful for computing on-shell amplitudes, as we demonstrate by computing the effect of Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms in four dimensional heterotic string theory compactifications using this formalism. 9. Amplitudes for left-handed strings CERN Document Server Siegel, W 2015-01-01 We consider a class of string-like models introduced previously where all modes are left-handed, all states are massless, T-duality is manifest, and only a finite number of orders in the string tension can appear. These theories arise from standard string theories by a singular gauge limit and associated change in worldsheet boundary conditions. In this paper we show how to calculate amplitudes by using the gauge parameter as an infrared regulator. The amplitudes produce the Cachazo-He-Yuan delta-functions after some modular integration; the Mason-Skinner string-like action and amplitudes arise from the zero-tension (infinite-slope) limit. However, without the limit the amplitudes have the same problems as found in the Mason-Skinner formalism. 10. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods CERN Document Server Søgaard, Mads; Damgaard, Poul Henrik This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without Feynman diagrams. The study of multiloop scattering amplitudes is crucial for the new era of precision phenomenology at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Loop-level scattering amplitudes can be reduced to a basis of linearly independent integrals whose coefficients are extracted from generalized unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of ... 11. Feynman Amplitudes in Mathematics and Physics OpenAIRE Bloch, Spencer 2015-01-01 These are notes of lectures given at the CMI conference in August, 2014 at ICMAT in Madrid. The focus is on some mathematical questions associated to Feynman amplitudes, including Hodge structures, relations with string theory, and monodromy (Cutkosky rules). 12. Open String Amplitudes in Various Gauges CERN Document Server Fuji, H; Suzuki, H; Fuji, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Shinsaku; Suzuki, Hisao 2007-01-01 Recently, Schnabl constructed the analytic solution of the open string tachyon. Subsequently, the absence of the physical states at the vacuum was proved. The development relies heavily on the use of the gauge condition different from the ordinary one. It was shown that the choice of gauge simplifies the analysis drastically. When we perform the calculation of the amplitudes in Schnabl gauge, we find that the off-shell amplitudes of the Schnabl gauge is still very complicated. In this paper, we propose the use of the propagator in the modified Schnabl gauge and show that this modified use of the Schnabl gauge simplifies the computation of the off-shell amplitudes drastically. We also compute the amplitudes of open superstring in this gauge. 13. Feynman amplitudes and limits of heights Science.gov (United States) Amini, O.; Bloch, S. J.; Burgos Gil, J. I.; Fresán, J. 2016-10-01 We investigate from a mathematical perspective how Feynman amplitudes appear in the low-energy limit of string amplitudes. In this paper, we prove the convergence of the integrands. We derive this from results describing the asymptotic behaviour of the height pairing between degree-zero divisors, as a family of curves degenerates. These are obtained by means of the nilpotent orbit theorem in Hodge theory. 14. Nucleon distribution amplitudes from lattice QCD Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics; Kaltenbrunner, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (DE). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC] (and others) 2008-04-15 We calculate low moments of the leading-twist and next-to-leading twist nucleon distribution amplitudes on the lattice using two flavors of clover fermions. The results are presented in the MS scheme at a scale of 2 GeV and can be immediately applied in phenomenological studies. We find that the deviation of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form is less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. (orig.) 15. Amplitude metrics for cellular circadian bioluminescence reporters. Science.gov (United States) St John, Peter C; Taylor, Stephanie R; Abel, John H; Doyle, Francis J 2014-12-01 Bioluminescence rhythms from cellular reporters have become the most common method used to quantify oscillations in circadian gene expression. These experimental systems can reveal phase and amplitude change resulting from circadian disturbances, and can be used in conjunction with mathematical models to lend further insight into the mechanistic basis of clock amplitude regulation. However, bioluminescence experiments track the mean output from thousands of noisy, uncoupled oscillators, obscuring the direct effect of a given stimulus on the genetic regulatory network. In many cases, it is unclear whether changes in amplitude are due to individual changes in gene expression level or to a change in coherence of the population. Although such systems can be modeled using explicit stochastic simulations, these models are computationally cumbersome and limit analytical insight into the mechanisms of amplitude change. We therefore develop theoretical and computational tools to approximate the mean expression level in large populations of noninteracting oscillators, and further define computationally efficient amplitude response calculations to describe phase-dependent amplitude change. At the single-cell level, a mechanistic nonlinear ordinary differential equation model is used to calculate the transient response of each cell to a perturbation, whereas population-level dynamics are captured by coupling this detailed model to a phase density function. Our analysis reveals that amplitude changes mediated at either the individual-cell or the population level can be distinguished in tissue-level bioluminescence data without the need for single-cell measurements. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by modeling experimental bioluminescence profiles of light-sensitive fibroblasts, reconciling the conclusions of two seemingly contradictory studies. This modeling framework allows a direct comparison between in vitro bioluminescence experiments and in silico ordinary 16. Mechanical models of amplitude and frequency modulation Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Bellomonte, L; Guastella, I; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M [GRIAF - Research Group on Teaching/Learning Physics, DI.F.TE.R. -Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, 90128 Palermo (Italy) 2005-05-01 This paper presents some mechanical models for amplitude and frequency modulation. The equations governing both modulations are deduced alongside some necessary approximations. Computer simulations of the models are carried out by using available educational software. Amplitude modulation is achieved by using a system of two weakly coupled pendulums, whereas the frequency modulation is obtained by using a pendulum of variable length. Under suitable conditions (small oscillations, appropriate initial conditions, etc) both types of modulation result in significantly accurate and visualized simulations. 17. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation in SCET CERN Document Server Moult, Ian; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J 2016-01-01 Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries. 18. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Oprisa, D. 2006-05-15 In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI) 19. Quartic amplitudes for Minkowski higher spin CERN Document Server Bengtsson, Anders K H 2016-01-01 The problem of finding general quartic interaction terms between fields of higher helicities on the light-front is discussed from the point of view of calculating the corresponding amplitudes directly from the cubic vertices using BCFW recursion. Amplitude based no-go results that has appeared in the literature are reviewed and discussed and it is pointed out how they may perhaps be circumvented. 20. Dark Coulomb binding of heavy neutrinos of fourth family Science.gov (United States) Belotsky, K. M.; Esipova, E. A.; Khlopov, M. Yu.; Laletin, M. N. 2015-11-01 Direct dark matter searches put severe constraints on the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). These constraints cause serious troubles for the model of stable neutrino of fourth generation with mass around 50GeV. Though the calculations of primordial abundance of these particles make them in the charge symmetric case a sparse subdominant component of the modern dark matter, their presence in the universe would exceed the current upper limits by several orders of the magnitude. However, if quarks and leptons of fourth generation possess their own Coulomb-like y-interaction, recombination of pairs of heavy neutrinos and antineutrinos and their annihilation in the “neutrinium” atoms can play important role in their cosmological evolution, reducing their modern abundance far below the experimental upper limits. The model of stable fourth generation assumes that the dominant part of dark matter is explained by excessive Ū antiquarks, forming (ŪŪŪ)-- charged clusters, bound with primordial helium in nuclear-interacting O-helium (OHe) dark atoms. The y charge conservation implies generation of the same excess of fourth generation neutrinos, potentially dangerous WIMP component of this scenario. We show that due to y-interaction recombination of fourth neutrinos with OHe hides these WIMPs from direct WIMP searches, leaving the negligible fraction of free neutrinos, what makes their existence compatible with the experimental constraints. 1. Shape determination in Coulomb excitation of$^{72}$Kr CERN Multimedia Reiter, P; Kruecken, R; Paul, E S; Wadsworth, R; Heenen, P Nuclei with oblate shapes at low spins are very special in nature because of their rarity. Both theoretical and experimental shape co-existence studies in the mass 70 region for near proton drip-line nuclei suggest$^{72}$Kr to be the unique case with oblate low-lying and prolate high-lying levels. However, there is no direct experimental evidence in the literature to date for the oblate nature predicted for the first 2$^+$state in$^{72}$Kr. We propose to determine the sign of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of this state via the re-orientation effect in a low-energy Coulomb excitation measurement. In the inelastic excitation of the 2$^+$state in$^{72}$Kr beam of 3.1 MeV/u with an intensity of 800 pps at REX-ISOLDE impinging on$^{104}$Pd target, the re-orientation effect plays a significant role. The cross section measurement for the 2$^+$state should thus allow the model-independent determination of the sign of the quadrupole moment unambiguously and will shed light on the co-existing prolate and o... 2. Three-body quantum Coulomb problem: Analytic continuation Science.gov (United States) Turbiner, A. V.; Lopez Vieyra, J. C.; Olivares Pilón, H. 2016-08-01 The second (unphysical) critical charge in the three-body quantum Coulomb system of a nucleus of positive charge Z and mass mp, and two electrons, predicted by Stillinger has been calculated to be equal to ZB∞ = 0.904854 and ZBmp = 0.905138 for infinite and finite (proton) mass mp, respectively. It is shown that in both cases, the ground state energy E(Z) (analytically continued beyond the first critical charge Zc, for which the ionization energy vanishes, to ReZ 3. The Thermodynamic Limit of Quantum Coulomb Systems. Part II. Applications CERN Document Server Hainzl, Christian; Solovej, Jan Philip 2008-01-01 In a previous paper, we have developed a general theory of thermodynamic limits. We apply it here to three different Coulomb quantum systems, for which we prove the convergence of the free energy per unit volume. The first system is the crystal for which the nuclei are classical particles arranged periodically in space and only the electrons are quantum particles. We recover and generalize a previous result of Fefferman. In the second example, both the nuclei and the electrons are quantum particles, submitted to a periodic magnetic field. We thereby extend a seminal result of Lieb and Lebowitz. Finally, in our last example we take again classical nuclei but optimize their position. To our knowledge such a system was never treated before. The verification of the assumptions introduced in the previous paper uses several tools which have been introduced before in the study of large quantum systems. In particular, an electrostatic inequality of Graf and Schenker is one main ingredient of our new approach. 4. Many-Body Coulomb Gauge Exotic and Charmed Hybrids CERN Document Server Llanes-Estrada, F J; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Cotanch, Stephen R. 2001-01-01 Utilizing a QCD Coulomb gauge Hamiltonian with linear confinement specified by lattice, we report a relativistic many-body calculation for the light exotic and charmed hybrid mesons. The Hamiltonian successfully describes both quark and gluon sectors, with vacuum and quasiparticle properties generated by a BCS transformation and more elaborate TDA and RPA diagonalizations for the meson ($q\\bar{q}$) and glueball ($gg$) masses. Hybrids entail a computationally intense relativistic three quasiparticle ($q\\bar{q}g$) calculation with the 9 dimensional Hamiltonian matrix elements evaluated variationally by Monte Carlo techniques. Our new TDA spectrum for the nonexotic$1^{--}$charmed ($c\\bar{c}$and$c\\bar{c}g$) system provides an explanation for the overpopulation of the observed$J/\\psi$states. For the important$1^{-+}$light exotic channel we obtain hybrid masses above 2$GeV$, in broad agreement with lattice and flux tube models, indicating that the recently observed resonances at 1.4 and 1.6$GeVare of di... 5. Le probleme quantique bicomplexe du potentiel de Coulomb Science.gov (United States) Mathieu, Jeremie In this master's thesis, is gathered a great part of my work on bicomplex quantum mechanics. Bicomplex numbers are the second order multicomplex generalization of complex numbers. Equipped with the standard addition and multiplication, they form an algebraic structure called a commutative ring with unity and are one of many known generalizations of the real number system. It has been almost eighty years since it's been proposed to use an algebra of a superior dimension than the one of complex numbers to construct the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. However it's only been since less than a decade ago that the idea of using the bicomplex numbers to do so has been seriously considered. In that sense, the complete resolution of the quantum harmonic oscillator in a bicomplex Hilbert space was the first major achievement of this ambitious project. This thesis, by article style, is a continuation of this work of generalization. It presents, by an axiomatic approach, the complete differential solution of the bicomplex quantum Coulomb potential problem and half of its algebraic solution. 6. Coulomb pairing resonances in multiple-ring aromatic molecules CERN Document Server Huber, D L 2015-01-01 We present an analysis of the Coulomb pairing resonances observed in photo-double-ionization studies of CnHm aromatic molecules with multiple benzene-like rings. It is applied to naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene and coronene, all of which have six-member rings, and azulene which is comprised of a five-member and a seven-member ring. There is a high energy resonance at ~ 40 eV that is found in all of the molecules cited and is associated with paired electrons localized on carbon sites on the perimeter of the molecule, each of which having two carbon sites as nearest neighbors. The low energy resonance at 10 eV, which is found only in pyrene and coronene, is attributed to the formation of paired electrons localized on arrays of interior carbon atoms that have the point symmetry of the molecule with each carbon atom having three nearest neighbors. The origin of the anomalous increase in the doubly charged to singly charged parent-ion ratio that is found above the 40 eV resonance in all of the cited ... 7. Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia 2004-09-15 Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on {sup 104,106,108,110}Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12{sup 0} {<=}{theta}{sub lab} {<=}64{sup 0}. A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = {delta}{sub LC}/{delta}{sub LN}, the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of ({delta}{sub LN}){sup 2} were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For {sup 104}Pd, and preliminary for {sup 108}Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for {sup 106}Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for {sup 110}Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author) 8. A new graphene composite with a high coulombic efficiency Science.gov (United States) Protich, Z.; Wong, P.; Santhanam, K. S. V. 2016-11-01 Zinc-graphene composite has been electrolytically produced for the first time using a graphene quantum dot (GQD) electrode. The electrochemical reduction of zinc ion at a GQD electrode is shifted to a lesser negative potential with the complimentary anodic peak due to the oxidation of the composite shifted towards a positive potential as compared to zinc ion reduction in the GQD bath. The coulombic efficiency of the composite represents a gain of nearly 10% over the conventional Zn/Zn2+ in the energy storage systems. In galvanostatic electrolysis, the deposition of zinc-graphene composite is carried out under neutral and acidic conditions. The X-ray diffraction of the electrolytically prepared composite shows distinct features of 2 theta reflection at 8° due to (001) plane of graphene, in addition to the characteristic reflections at 38.9°,43.2°, 54.3°, 70.1° and 90° arising from Zn at (002), (100), (101), (102) and (110). A large scale preparation of the zinc-graphene composite has been achieved at a zinc plate as the working electrode in the GQD bath. The composite is stable up to 250 °C. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX) shows a string like structure with peaks for carbon and zinc in EDAX. 9. Coulomb drag and tunneling studies in quantum Hall bilayers Science.gov (United States) Nandi, Debaleena The bilayer quantum Hall state at total filling factor νT=1, where the total electron density matches the degeneracy of the lowest Landau level, is a prominent example of Bose-Einstein condensation of excitons. A macroscopically ordered state is realized where an electron in one layer is tightly bound to a "hole" in the other layer. If exciton transport were the only bulk transportmechanism, a current driven in one layer would spontaneously generate a current of equal magnitude and opposite sign in the other layer. The Corbino Coulomb drag measurements presented in this thesis demonstrate precisely this phenomenon. Excitonic superfluidity has been long sought in the νT=1 state. The tunneling between the two electron gas layers exihibit a dc Josephson-like effect. A simple model of an over-damped voltage biased Josephson junction is in reasonable agreement with the observed tunneling I -- V. At small tunneling biases, it exhibits a tunneling "supercurrent". The dissipation is carefully studied in this tunneling "supercurrent" and found to remain small but finite. 10. Enhanced current noise correlations in a Coulomb-Majorana device Science.gov (United States) Lü, Hai-Feng; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing 2016-06-01 Majorana bound states (MBSs) nested in a topological nanowire are predicted to manifest nonlocal correlations in the presence of a finite energy splitting between the MBSs. However, the signal of the nonlocal correlations has not yet been detected in experiments. A possible reason is that the energy splitting is too weak and seriously affected by many system parameters. Here we investigate the charging energy induced nonlocal correlations in a hybrid device of MBSs and quantum dots. The nanowire that hosts the MBSs is assumed in proximity to a mesoscopic superconducting island with a finite charging energy. Each end of the nanowire is coupled to one lead via a quantum dot with resonant levels. With a floating superconducting island, the devices show a negative differential conductance and giant super-Poissonian shot noise, due to the interplay between the nonlocality of the MBSs and dynamical Coulomb blockade effect. When the island is strongly coupled to a bulk superconductor, the current cross correlations at small lead chemical potentials are negative by tuning the dot energy levels. In contrast, the cross correlation is always positive in a non-Majorana setup. This difference may provide a signature for the existence of the MBSs. 11. Coulomb impurity effects on the zero-Landau level splitting of graphene on polar substrates Science.gov (United States) Xiao, Yao; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Zhi-Qing; Wang, Zi-Wu 2017-04-01 We theoretically investigate the effects of the Coulomb impurity on the zero-Landau level splitting of graphene on different polar substrates basing on the Fröhlich polaron model, in which the polaron is formed due to the carriers-surface optical phonon coupling. We discuss the influence of Coulomb impurity on the zero-Landau level splitting in the case of weak and strong coupling limits. We find that the splitting energy can be varied in a large scale due to the Coulomb impurity, which provides the possible theoretical explanation for the experimental measurements regarding the energy gap opened and zero-Landau level splitting in Landau quantized graphene. 12. Coulomb blockade effect simulation to the electrical characteristic of silicon based single electron transistor Science.gov (United States) Nugraha, Mohamad Insan; Darma, Yudi 2012-06-01 In this paper, we simulate the effect of interaction between electrons on the electrical characteristic of silicon based single electron transistor (SET). The interaction between electrons is defined in the term of Coulomb blockade effect. These electrical characteristics involve conductance and I-V characteristic in SET structure. The simulation results show that when Coulomb blockade effect is included, the characteristic of I-V and conductance in SET shift to right. In addition, by reducing the quantum dot size, Coulomb blockade effect contributes greater effect. These results are shown in the characteristic of I-V and conductance which shift greater to the right in smaller quantum dot. 13. Analytical expressions for partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices at ground-state energy Science.gov (United States) Kharchenko, V. F. 2016-11-01 Leaning upon the Fock method of the stereographic projection of the three-dimensional momentum space onto the four-dimensional unit sphere the possibility of the analytical solving of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation for the partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrix at the ground bound state energy has been studied. In this case new expressions for the partial p-, d- and f-wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices have been obtained in the simple analytical form. The developed approach can also be extended to determine analytically the partial wave Coulomb transition matrices at the energies of excited bound states. 14. Effect of Cluster Coulomb Fields on Electron Acceleration in Laser-Cluster Interaction Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) CANG Yu; DONG Quan-Li; WU Hui-Chun; SHENG Zheng-Ming; YU Wei; ZHANG Jie 2004-01-01 @@ Single particle simulations are used to investigate electron acceleration in the laser-clusterinteraction, taking into account the Coulomb fields around individual clusters. These Coulomb fields are induced from the cluster cores with positive charge when electrons escape from the cluster cores through ponderomotive push from the laser field. These Coulomb fields enable some stripped electrons to be stochastically in phases with the laser fields so that they can gain net energy from the laser efficiently. In this heating mechanism, circularly polarized lasers, larger cluster size and higher cluster densities make the acceleration more efficient. 15. Mathematically modelling proportions of Japanese populations by industry Science.gov (United States) Hirata, Yoshito 2016-10-01 I propose a mathematical model for temporal changes of proportions for industrial sectors. I prove that the model keeps the proportions for the primary, the secondary, and the tertiary sectors between 0 and 100% and preserves their total as 100%. The model fits the Japanese historical data between 1950 and 2005 for the population proportions by industry very well. The model also predicts that the proportion for the secondary industry becomes negligible and becomes less than 1% at least around 2080. 16. Elastic scattering of low energy pions by nuclei and the in-medium isovector pi N amplitude CERN Document Server Friedman, E; Breitschopf, J; Clement, H; Denz, H; Doroshkevich, E; Erhardt, A; Hofman, G J; Kritchman, S; Meier, R; Wagner, G J; Yaari, G 2005-01-01 Measurements of elastic scattering of 21.5 MeV pi+ and pi- by Si, Ca, Ni and Zr were made using a single arm magnetic spectrometer. Absolute calibration was made by parallel measurements of Coulomb scattering of muons. Parameters of a pion-nucleus optical potential were obtained from fits to all eight angular distributions put together. The anomalous' s-wave repulsion known from pionic atoms is clearly observed and could be removed by introducing a chiral-motivated density dependence of the isovector scattering amplitude, which also greatly improved the fits to the data. The empirical energy dependence of the isoscalar amplitude also improves the fits to the data but, contrary to what is found with pionic atoms, on its own is incapable of removing the anomaly. 17. Spatial Proportional Reasoning Is Associated with Formal Knowledge about Fractions Science.gov (United States) Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S.; Levine, Susan C.; Frick, Andrea 2016-01-01 Proportional reasoning involves thinking about parts and wholes (i.e., about fractional quantities). Yet, research on proportional reasoning and fraction learning has proceeded separately. This study assessed proportional reasoning and formal fraction knowledge in 8- to 10-year-olds. Participants (N = 52) saw combinations of cherry juice and water… 18. Growth of long fatigue cracks under non-proportional loadings – experiment and simulation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Y. Hos 2016-07-01 Full Text Available An experimental campaign was carried out on thin-walled tubes under tension and torsion. The results from experiments are measured and compared. It is observed that cracks follow a shear-dominated growth pattern with increasing crack length, instead of a tension-dominated one. The experiments are performed with high amplitudes applied to the specimens, resulting in large cyclic plastic deformations and crack growth rates up to 10-3 mm/cycle. Stress intensity factors were calculated for the proportional loading case. 19. Coulomb excitation: computer codes for the obtaining of spectroscopic information from experimental data Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Dragulescu, E.; Duma, M.; Ivascu, M.; Popescu, D.; Semenescu, G.; Mihu, R. 1981-01-01 This paper presents a package of computer programs, to be used as a tool for the obtaining of spectroscopic information, such as theoretical yields, reduced transition probabilities and multipole mixing ratios from experimental Coulomb excitation data. 12 references. 20. Deconvoluting nonaxial recoil in Coulomb explosion measurements of molecular axis alignment Science.gov (United States) Christensen, Lauge; Christiansen, Lars; Shepperson, Benjamin; Stapelfeldt, Henrik 2016-08-01 We report a quantitative study of the effect of nonaxial recoil during Coulomb explosion of laser-aligned molecules and introduce a method to remove the blurring caused by nonaxial recoil in the fragment-ion angular distributions. Simulations show that nonaxial recoil affects correlations between the emission directions of fragment ions differently from the effect caused by imperfect molecular alignment. The method, based on analysis of the correlation between the emission directions of the fragment ions from Coulomb explosion, is used to deconvolute the effect of nonaxial recoil from experimental fragment angular distributions. The deconvolution method is then applied to a number of experimental data sets to correct the degree of alignment for nonaxial recoil, to select optimal Coulomb explosion channels for probing molecular alignment, and to estimate the highest degree of alignment that can be observed from selected Coulomb explosion channels. 1. Effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials as limit cases of a multiparameter exponential-type potential Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) García-Ravelo, J., E-mail: g.ravelo@hotmail.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Menéndez, A.; García-Martínez, J. [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Schulze-Halberg, A. [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, IN 46408 (United States) 2014-06-13 We show that the effective Kratzer and Coulomb potentials can be obtained by taking particular limits of a multiparameter exponential potential that was studied recently. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bound state solutions of the exponential potential reduce correctly to their well-known counterparts associated with the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. As a byproduct, we obtain a new limit relation for the hypergeometric function. - Highlights: • Kratzer and Coulomb potentials are limit cases of an exponential-type potential. • From exact s-waves, approximate solutions for l-waves are obtained. • l-waves of the potential tend to the solutions of the Kratzer and Coulomb potentials. • A non-evident identity between hypergeometric functions is demonstrated. 2. Partial-wave Coulomb transition matrices for attractive interaction by Fock's method CERN Document Server Kharchenko, V F 2016-01-01 Leaning upon the Fock method of the stereographic projection of the three-dimensional momentum space onto the four-dimensional unit sphere the possibility of the analytical solving of the Lippmann-Schwinger integral equation for the partial wave two-body Coulomb transition matrix at the ground bound state energy has been studied. In this case new expressions for the partial p-, d- and f-wave two-body Coulomb transition matrices have been obtained in the simple analytical form. The developed approach can also be extended to determine analytically the partial wave Coulomb transition matrices at the energies of excited bound states. Keywords: Partial wave Coulomb transition matrix; Lippmann-Schwinger equation; Fock method; Analytical solution PACS Nos. 03.65.-w; 03.65.Nk; 34.20.Cf 3. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Schlotterer, Oliver 2011-07-15 The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all 4. Proportional counters aged anode wire recovering using an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture CERN Document Server Gavrilov, Gennady; Conti, Richard; Fetisov, Andrey; Maysuzenko, Dmitry; Shvecova, Natalia; Vakhtel, Victor 2011-01-01 A technique to recover a gas proportional counter having an aged anode wire using a glow discharge in an 80%CF4 + 20%CO2 gas mixture has been developed and tested. Studies of aging effects were carried out under sustained irradiation by an intense 90Sr -source of the straw proportional counters operated with a 60%Ar + 30%CO2 + 10%CF4 gas mixture. Special attention was paid to the aging mechanism of the anode wires. Our experience showed that using a given gas mixture the swelling of the anode wires is a typical mode of aging that leads to degradation of the gas gain. The proposed method of recovery provided a complete restoration of the gas gain and the signal amplitude in the damaged zone of the wire. SEM/XEM analysis confirmed successful cleaning WOx deposits from the wire surface. The application of this method to recover the aged gaseous detectors in real experimental conditions is discussed. 5. [Research on proportional control system of prosthetic hand based on FMG signals]. Science.gov (United States) Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Li, Panpan; Zhao, Shengnan 2013-02-01 The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system. 6. On the Klein-Gordon oscillator subject to a Coulomb-type potential Science.gov (United States) Bakke, K.; Furtado, C. 2015-04-01 By introducing the scalar potential as modification in the mass term of the Klein-Gordon equation, the influence of a Coulomb-type potential on the Klein-Gordon oscillator is investigated. Relativistic bound states solutions are achieved to both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials and the arising of a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of angular frequency of the Klein-Gordon oscillator on the quantum numbers of the system is shown. 7. Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Suemmerer, K.; Boue, F.; Baumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Hellstroem, M.; Koczon, P.; Schwab, E.; Schwab, W.; Senger, P.; Surowiecz, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Iwasa, N.; Ozawa, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)]|[RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan); Surowka, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Blank, B.; Czajkowski, S.; Marchand, C.; Pravikoff, M.S. [Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, 33 (France); Foerster, A.; Lauer, F.; Oeschler, H.; Speer, J.; Sturm, C.; Uhlig, F.; Wagner, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany); Gai, M. [Connecticut Univ., Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Grosse, E. [Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kohlmeyer, B. [Philipps Univ., Marburg (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Kulessa, R.; Walus, W. [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Motobayashi, T. [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Teranishi, T. [RIKEN Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan) 1998-06-01 As an alternative method for determining the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B reaction we have measured the Coulomb dissociation of {sup 8}B at 254 A MeV. From our preliminary results, we obtain good agreement with both the accepted direct-reaction measurements and the low-energy Coulomb dissociation study of Iwasa et al. performed at about 50 A MeV. (orig.) 8. Thermodynamic Curvature and Phase Transitions from Black Hole with a Coulomb-Like Field Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) HAN Yi-Wen; BAO Zhi-Qing; HONG Yun 2011-01-01 In this paper, we first investigate the thermodynamic features of the black hole with a coulomb-like field.Moreover, we obtain the geometric description of the black hole thermodynamics.We find that for the black hole with a coulomb-like field the Weinhold geometry is flat, whereas its Ruppeiner geometry is curved.For the heat capacity and curvature calculation shows the Ruppeiner geometry has a transition point. 9. A mechanical connector design for high-current, high-coulomb pulsed power systems Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Susoeff, A.R.; Hawke, R.S.; Leighton, K.S. 1992-02-25 A technique to make reliable high-current, high-coulomb electrical contact was developed for transmitting power into railguns. The method uses spring loaded removable connectors that are installed independently from the launcher. The simple rod-type design and absence of fastener holes allow maximum utilization of material mechanical properties. Repeated experiments with 9.5-mm diameter connectors demonstrated reliable pulsed charge transfer of 200 coulombs at currents of over 400kA. 20 refs. 10. One-Step Direct Return Method For Mohr-Coulomb Plasticity DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars; Andersen, Lars 2004-01-01 A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses.......A new return method for the Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria is presented. The idea is to transform the problem into the principal direction and thereby achieve very simple formulas for calculating the elastic return stresses.... 11. Strong-field ionization via high-order Coulomb corrected strong-field approximation CERN Document Server Klaiber, Michael; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z; Keitel, Christoph H 2016-01-01 Signatures of the Coulomb corrections in the photoelectron momentum distribution during laser-induced ionization of atoms or ions in tunneling and multiphoton regimes are investigated analytically in the case of an one-dimensional problem. High-order Coulomb corrected strong-field approximation is applied, where the exact continuum state in the S-matrix is approximated by the eikonal Coulomb-Volkov state including the second-order corrections to the eikonal. Although, without high-order corrections our theory coincides with the known analytical R-matrix (ARM) theory, we propose a simplified procedure for the matrix element derivation. Rather than matching the eikonal Coulomb-Volkov wave function with the bound state as in the ARM-theory to remove the Coulomb singularity, we calculate the matrix element via the saddle-point integration method as by time as well as by coordinate, and in this way avoiding the Coulomb singularity. The momentum shift in the photoelectron momentum distribution with respect to the A... 12. Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge; Yang-Mills-theorie in Coulombeichung Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Feuchter, C. 2006-07-01 In this thesis we study the Yang-Mills vacuum structure by using the functional Schroedinger picture in Coulomb gauge. In particular we discuss the scenario of colour confinement, which was originally formulated by Gribov. After a short introduction, we recall some basic aspects of Yang-Mills theories, its canonical quantization in the Weyl gauge and the functional Schroedinger picture. We then consider the minimal Coulomb gauge and the Gribov problem of the gauge theory. The gauge fixing of the Coulomb gauge is done by using the Faddeev-Popov method, which enables the resolution of the Gauss law - the constraint on physical states. In the third chapter, we variationally solve the stationary Yang-Mills Schroedinger equation in Coulomb gauge for the vacuum state. Therefor we use a vacuum wave functional, which is strongly peaked at the Gribov horizon. The vacuum energy functional is calculated and minimized resulting in a set of coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations for the gluon energy, the ghost and Coulomb form factors and the curvature in gauge orbit space. Using the angular approximation these integral equations have been solved analytically in both the infrared and the ultraviolet regime. The asymptotic analytic solutions in the infrared and ultraviolet regime are reasonably well reproduced by the full numerical solutions of the coupled Schwinger-Dyson equations. In the fourth chapter, we investigate the dependence of the Yang-Mills wave functional in Coulomb gauge on the Faddeev-Popov determinant. (orig.) 13. Parameter tuning method for dither compensation of a pneumatic proportional valve with friction Science.gov (United States) Wang, Tao; Song, Yang; Huang, Leisheng; Fan, Wei 2016-05-01 In the practical application of pneumatic control devices, the nonlinearity of a pneumatic control valve become the main factor affecting the control effect, which comes mainly from the dynamic friction force. The dynamic friction inside the valve may cause hysteresis and a dead zone. In this paper, a dither compensation mechanism is proposed to reduce negative effects on the basis of analyzing the mechanism of friction force. The specific dither signal (using a sinusoidal signal) was superimposed on the control signal of the valve. Based on the relationship between the parameters of the dither signal and the inherent characteristics of the proportional servo valve, a parameter tuning method was proposed, which uses a displacement sensor to measure the maximum static friction inside the valve. According to the experimental results, the proper amplitude ranges are determined for different pressures. In order to get the optimal parameters of the dither signal, some dither compensation experiments have been carried out on different signal amplitude and gas pressure conditions. Optimal parameters are determined under two kinds of pressure conditions. Using tuning parameters the valve spool displacement experiment has been taken. From the experiment results, hysteresis of the proportional servo valve is significantly reduced. And through simulation and experiments, the cut-off frequency of the proportional valve has also been widened. Therefore after adding the dither signal, the static and dynamic characteristics of the proportional valve are both improved to a certain degree. This research proposes a parameter tuning method of dither signal, and the validity of the method is verified experimentally. 14. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan 2013-01-01 The Lombard effect refers to the phenomenon where talkers automatically increase their level of speech in a noisy environment. While many studies have characterized how the Lombard effect influences different measures of speech production (e.g., F0, spectral tilt, etc.), few have investigated...... the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions... 15. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter 2000-01-01 Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach... 16. Analytic representations of Yang-Mills amplitudes Science.gov (United States) Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.; Feng, Bo 2016-12-01 Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space-fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Möbius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is the foundations of a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities. 17. A description of seismic amplitude techniques Science.gov (United States) Shadlow, James 2014-02-01 The acquisition of seismic data is a non-invasive technique used for determining the sub surface geology. Changes in lithology and fluid fill affect the seismic wavelet. Analysing seismic data for direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), such as full stack amplitude anomalies, or amplitude variation with offset (AVO), can help a seismic interpreter relate the geophysical response to real geology and, more importantly, to distinguish the presence of hydrocarbons. Inversion is another commonly used technique that attempts to tie the seismic data back to the geology. Much has been written about these techniques, and attempting to gain an understanding on the theory and application of them by reading through various journals can be quite daunting. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline DHI analysis, including full stack amplitude anomalies, AVO and inversion and show the relationship between all three. The equations presented have been included for completeness, but the reader can pass over the mathematical detail. 18. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs CERN Document Server CERN. Geneva 2016-01-01 I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results. 19. Spinfoam cosmology with the proper vertex amplitude CERN Document Server Vilensky, Ilya 2016-01-01 The proper vertex amplitude is derived from the EPRL vertex by restricting to a single gravitational sector in order to achieve the correct semi-classical behaviour. We apply the proper vertex to calculate a cosmological transition amplitude that can be viewed as the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction. To perform this calculation we deduce the integral form of the proper vertex and use extended stationary phase methods to estimate the large-volume limit. We show that the resulting amplitude satisfies an operator constraint whose classical analogue is the Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We find that the constraint dynamically selects the relevant family of coherent states and demonstrate a similar dynamic selection in standard quantum mechanics. 20. Analytic Representations of Yang-Mills Amplitudes CERN Document Server Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Damgaard, Poul H; Feng, Bo 2016-01-01 Scattering amplitudes in Yang-Mills theory can be represented in the formalism of Cachazo, He and Yuan (CHY) as integrals over an auxiliary projective space---fully localized on the support of the scattering equations. Because solving the scattering equations is difficult and summing over the solutions algebraically complex, a method of directly integrating the terms that appear in this representation has long been sought. We solve this important open problem by first rewriting the terms in a manifestly Mobius-invariant form and then using monodromy relations (inspired by analogy to string theory) to decompose terms into those for which combinatorial rules of integration are known. The result is a systematic procedure to obtain analytic, covariant forms of Yang-Mills tree-amplitudes for any number of external legs and in any number of dimensions. As examples, we provide compact analytic expressions for amplitudes involving up to six gluons of arbitrary helicities. 1. On Arbitrary Phases in Quantum Amplitude Amplification CERN Document Server Hoyer, P 2000-01-01 We consider the use of arbitrary phases in quantum amplitude amplification which is a generalization of quantum searching. We prove that the phase condition in amplitude amplification is given by\\tan(\\phi/2)=\\tan(\\phi/2)(1-2a)$, where$\\phi$and$\\phi$are the phases used and where$a$is the success probability of the given algorithm. Thus the choice of phases depends nontrivially and nonlinearly on the success probability. Utilizing this condition, we give methods for constructing quantum algorithms that succeed with certainty and for implementing arbitrary rotations. We also conclude that phase errors of order up to$\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{a}}$can be tolerated in amplitude amplification. 2. Nonlinear (Super)Symmetries and Amplitudes CERN Document Server Kallosh, Renata 2016-01-01 There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E_{7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N\\geq 5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory. 3. Modified π π amplitude with σ pole Science.gov (United States) Bydžovský, P.; Kamiński, R.; Nazari, V. 2014-12-01 A set of well-known once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multichannel S (π π , K K ¯, and η η ) and P (π π , ρ 2 π , and ρ σ ) wave amplitudes mostly below 1 GeV. Before the modifications, these amplitudes significantly did not satisfy the crossing symmetry condition and did not describe the π π threshold region. Moreover, the pole of the S wave amplitude related with the f0(500 ) meson (former f0(600 ) or σ ) had much smaller imaginary part and bigger real one in comparison with those in the newest Particle Data Group Tables. Here, these amplitudes are supplemented by near threshold expansion polynomials and refitted to the experimental data in the effective two pion mass from the threshold to 1.8 GeV and to the dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. In result the self consistent, i.e., unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry condition, S and P wave amplitudes are formed and the σ pole becomes much narrower and lighter. To eliminate doubts about the uniqueness of the so obtained sigma pole position short and purely mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the results is also presented. This analysis is addressed to a wide group of physicists and aims at providing a very effective and easy method of modification of, many presently used, π π amplitudes with a heavy and broad σ meson without changing of their original mathematical structure. 4. Topographic quantitative EEG amplitude in recovered alcoholics. Science.gov (United States) Pollock, V E; Schneider, L S; Zemansky, M F; Gleason, R P; Pawluczyk, S 1992-05-01 Topographic measures of electroencephalographic (EEG) amplitude were used to compare recovered alcoholics (n = 14) with sex- and age-matched control subjects. Delta, alpha, and beta activity did not distinguish the groups, but regional differences in theta distribution did. Recovered alcoholics showed more uniform distributions of theta amplitudes in bilateral anterior and posterior regions compared with controls. Because a minimum of 5 years had elapsed since the recovered alcoholic subjects fulfilled DSM-III-R criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence, it is unlikely these EEG theta differences reflect the effects of withdrawal. 5. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Talreja, R. 1979-01-01 A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution...... for the initial tensile strength and the fatigue life, the probability distributions for the residual tensile strength in both the crack initiation and the crack propagation stages of fatigue are determined. The method is illustrated for two-amplitude loads by means of experimental results obtained by testing... 6. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) 2016-09-01 This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed. 7. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States) 2007-06-15 We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov. 8. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy 2014-01-01 We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA).... 9. New structures in scattering amplitudes: A review Science.gov (United States) Benincasa, Paolo 2014-02-01 We review some recent developments in the understanding of field theories in the perturbative regime. In particular, we discuss the notions of analyticity, unitarity and locality, and therefore the singularity structure of scattering amplitudes in general interacting theories. We describe their tree-level structure and their on-shell representations, as well as the links between the tree-level structure itself and the structure of the loop amplitudes. Finally, we describe the on-shell diagrammatics recently proposed both on general grounds and in the remarkable example of planar supersymmetric theories. 10. Coulomb-influenced collisions in aerosols and dusty plasmas. Science.gov (United States) Gopalakrishnan, Ranganathan; Hogan, Christopher J 2012-02-01 In aerosol and dusty plasma systems, the behavior of suspended particles (grains) is often strongly influenced by collisions occurring between ions and particles, as well as between particles themselves. In determining the collision kernel or collision rate coefficient for such charged entities, complications arise in that the collision process can be completely described neither by continuum transport mechanics nor by free molecular (ballistic) mechanics; that is, collisions are transition regime processes. Further, both the thermal energy and the potential energy between colliding entities can strongly influence the collision rate and must be considered. Flux-matching theory, originally developed by Fuchs, is frequently applied for calculation of collision rate coefficients under these circumstances. However, recent work suggests that crucial assumptions in flux-matching theory are not appropriate to describe transition regime collisions in the presence of potential interactions. Here, we combine dimensional analysis and mean first passage time calculations to infer the collision kernel between dilute charged entities suspended in a light background gas at thermal equilibrium. The motion of colliding entities is described by a Langevin equation, and Coulombic interactions are considered. It is found that the dimensionless collision kernel for these conditions, H, is a function of the diffusive Knudsen number, Kn(D) (in contrast to the traditional Knudsen number), and the potential energy to thermal energy ratio, Ψ(E). For small and large Kn(D), it is found that the dimensionless collision kernels inferred from mean first passage time calculations collapse to the appropriate continuum and free molecular limiting forms, respectively. Further, for repulsive collisions (Ψ(E) negative) or attractive collisions with Ψ(E)0.5, it is found that flux-matching theory predictions substantially underestimate the collision kernel. We find that the collision process in this 11. The CMU Baryon Amplitude Analysis Program Science.gov (United States) Bellis, Matt 2007-05-01 The PWA group at Carnegie Mellon University has developed a comprehensive approach and analysis package for the purpose of extracting the amplitudes for photoproduced baryon resonances. The end goal is to identify any missing resonances that are predicted by the constituent quark model, but not definitively observed in experiments. The data comes from the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. 12. Amplitude Correction Factors of KVN Observations CERN Document Server Lee, Sang-Sung; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan 2015-01-01 We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3 and NRAO~512, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We found that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combinat... 13. Generalised Unitarity for Dimensionally Regulated Amplitudes CERN Document Server Bobadilla, W J Torres; Mastrolia, P; Mirabella, E 2015-01-01 We present a novel set of Feynman rules and generalised unitarity cut-conditions for computing one-loop amplitudes via d-dimensional integrand reduction algorithm. Our algorithm is suited for analytic as well as numerical result, because all ingredients turn out to have a four-dimensional representation. We will apply this formalism to NLO QCD corrections. 14. Audio steganography by amplitude or phase modification Science.gov (United States) Gopalan, Kaliappan; Wenndt, Stanley J.; Adams, Scott F.; Haddad, Darren M. 2003-06-01 This paper presents the results of embedding short covert message utterances on a host, or cover, utterance by modifying the phase or amplitude of perceptually masked or significant regions of the host. In the first method, the absolute phase at selected, perceptually masked frequency indices was changed to fixed, covert data-dependent values. Embedded bits were retrieved at the receiver from the phase at the selected frequency indices. Tests on embedding a GSM-coded covert utterance on clean and noisy host utterances showed no noticeable difference in the stego compared to the hosts in speech quality or spectrogram. A bit error rate of 2 out of 2800 was observed for a clean host utterance while no error occurred for a noisy host. In the second method, the absolute phase of 10 or fewer perceptually significant points in the host was set in accordance with covert data. This resulted in a stego with successful data retrieval and a slightly noticeable degradation in speech quality. Modifying the amplitude of perceptually significant points caused perceptible differences in the stego even with small changes of amplitude made at five points per frame. Finally, the stego obtained by altering the amplitude at perceptually masked points showed barely noticeable differences and excellent data recovery. 15. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A. 2009-08-28 Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. 16. Hyperlogarithms and periods in Feynman amplitudes CERN Document Server Todorov, Ivan 2016-01-01 The role of hyperlogarithms and multiple zeta values (and their generalizations) in Feynman amplitudes is being gradually recognized since the mid 1990's. The present lecture provides a concise introduction to a fast developing subjects that attracts the attention to a wide range of specialists - from number theorists to particle physicists. 17. Microwave Imaging using Amplitude-only Data DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy 2010-01-01 This paper discuss how the performance of an imaging system is affected when the phase information of the measurements are removed from the data, leaving only amplitude information as input for the imaging algorithm. Simulated data are used for this purpose, and the images resulting from using am... 18. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model Science.gov (United States) He, Song; Zhang, Yong 2017-03-01 Witten's twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors. 19. Taming Tree Amplitudes In General Relativity CERN Document Server Benincasa, Paolo; Cachazo, Freddy; 10.1088/1126-6708/2007/11/057 2008-01-01 We give a proof of BCFW recursion relations for all tree-level amplitudes of gravitons in General Relativity. The proof follows the same basic steps as in the BCFW construction and it is an extension of the one given for next-to-MHV amplitudes by one of the authors and P. Svr\\v{c}ek in hep-th/0502160. The main obstacle to overcome is to prove that deformed graviton amplitudes vanish as the complex variable parameterizing the deformation is taken to infinity. This step is done by first proving an auxiliary recursion relation where the vanishing at infinity follows directly from a Feynman diagram analysis. The auxiliary recursion relation gives rise to a representation of gravity amplitudes where the vanishing under the BCFW deformation can be directly proven. Since all our steps are based only on Feynman diagrams, our proof completely establishes the validity of BCFW recursion relations. This means that many results in the literature that were derived assuming their validity become true statements. 20. Taming tree amplitudes in general relativity Science.gov (United States) Benincasa, Paolo; Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Cachazo, Freddy 2007-11-01 We give a proof of BCFW recursion relations for all tree-level amplitudes of gravitons in General Relativity. The proof follows the same basic steps as in the BCFW construction and it is an extension of the one given for next-to-MHV amplitudes by one of the authors and P. Svrcek in hep-th/0502160. The main obstacle to overcome is to prove that deformed graviton amplitudes vanish as the complex variable parameterizing the deformation is taken to infinity. This step is done by first proving an auxiliary recursion relation where the vanishing at infinity follows directly from a Feynman diagram analysis. The auxiliary recursion relation gives rise to a representation of gravity amplitudes where the vanishing under the BCFW deformation can be directly proven. Since all our steps are based only on Feynman diagrams, our proof completely establishes the validity of BCFW recursion relations. This means that many results in the literature that were derived assuming their validity become true statements. 1. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Joseph C. Várilly 2016-11-01 Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin. 2. ABJM amplitudes and the positive orthogonal Grassmannian Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Huang, Yu-tin [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wen, CongKao [Centre for Research in String Theory, Department of Physics,Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom) 2014-02-25 A remarkable connection between perturbative scattering amplitudes of four dimensional planar SYM, and the stratification of the positive Grassmannian, was revealed in the seminal work of Arkani-Hamed et al. Similar extension for three-dimensional ABJM theory was proposed. Here we establish a direct connection between planar scattering amplitudes of ABJM theory, and singularities thereof, to the stratification of the positive orthogonal Grassmannian. In particular, scattering processes are constructed through on-shell diagrams, which are simply iterative gluing of the fundamental four-point amplitude. Each diagram is then equivalent to the merging of fundamental OG{sub 2} orthogonal Grassmannian to form a larger OG{sub k}, where 2k is the number of external particles. The invariant information that is encoded in each diagram is precisely this stratification. This information can be easily read off via permutation paths of the on-shell diagram, which also can be used to derive a canonical representation of OG{sub k} that manifests the vanishing of consecutive minors as the singularity of all on-shell diagrams. Quite remarkably, for the BCFW recursion representation of the tree-level amplitudes, the on-shell diagram manifests the presence of all physical factorization poles, as well as the cancellation of the spurious poles. After analytically continuing the orthogonal Grassmannian to split signature, we reveal that each on-shell diagram in fact resides in the positive cell of the orthogonal Grassmannian, where all minors are positive. In this language, the amplitudes of ABJM theory is simply an integral of a product of dlog forms, over the positive orthogonal Grassmannian. 3. Investigation of Adding Proportion of RAP in Recycled Asphalt Mixture Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Cao He 2016-01-01 Full Text Available According to the relationship between gradation and proportion of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP and design gradation of recycled mixture, the authors discussed the influence of proportion of RAP on gradation adjustment of recycled mixture. And then, recycled mixture with 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% of RAP were made, and Influence of proportion of RAP on high and low temperature performance, water stability and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture were discussed. The results and analysis indicate that gradation of recycled mixture would not be adjusted to aiming gradation if proportion of RAP was too big. With the increase of proportion of RAP, high temperature performance and anti-aging performance of recycled mixture enhanced, but low temperature performance and water stability decayed sharply. In practical application, reasonable proportion of RAP should be determined according to gradation, performance demand and economy of recycled mixture. 4. Measurements of proportional scintillation in liquid xenon using thin wires CERN Document Server Aprile, E; Goetzke, L W; Fernandez, A J Melgarejo; Messina, M; Naganoma, J; Plante, G; Rizzo, A; Shagin, P; Wall, R 2014-01-01 Proportional scintillation in liquid xenon has a promising application in the field of direct dark matter detection, potentially allowing for simpler, more sensitive detectors. However, knowledge of the basic properties of the phenomenon as well as guidelines for its practical use are currently limited. We report here on measurements of proportional scintillation light emitted in liquid xenon around thin wires. The maximum proportional scintillation gain of$287^{+97}_{-75}$photons per drift electron was obtained using 10$\\mu$m diameter gold plated tungsten wire. The thresholds for electron multiplication and proportional scintillation are measured as$725^{+48}_{-139}$and$412^{+10}_{-133}$kV/cm, respectively. The threshold for proportional scintillation is in good agreement with a previously published result, while the electron multiplication threshold represents a novel measurement. A complete set of parameters for the practical use of the electron multiplication and proportional scintillation processe... 5. Comparison of COULOMB-2, NASCAP-2k and SPIS codes for geostationary spacecrafts charging Science.gov (United States) Novikov, Lev; Makletsov, Andrei; Sinolits, Vadim In developing of international standards for spacecraft charging, it is necessary to compare results of spacecraft charging modeling obtained with various models. In the paper, electrical potentials for spacecraft 3D models were calculated with COULOMB-2, NASCAP-2k [1] and SPIS [2] software, and the comparison of obtained values was performed. To compare COULOMB-2 and NASCAP-2k codes we used a 3D geometrical model of a spacecraft given in [1]. Parameters of spacecraft surface materials were taken from [1], too. For COULOMB-2 and SPIS cross validation, we carried out calculations with SPIS code through SPENVIS web-interface and with COULOMB-2 software for a spacecraft geometrical model given in SPIS test examples [2]. In both cases, we calculated distributions of electric potentials on the spacecraft surface and visualized the obtained distributions with color code. Pictures of the surface potentials distribution calculated with COULOMB-2 and SPIS software are in good qualitative agreement. Absolute values of surface potentials calculated with these codes for different plasma conditions, are close enough. Pictures of the surface potentials distribution calculated for the spacecraft model [1] with COULOMB-2 software completely correspond to actual understanding of physical mechanisms of differential spacecraft surface charging. In this case, we compared only calculated values of the surface potential for the same space plasma conditions because the potential distributions on the spacecraft surface are absent in [1]. For all the plasma conditions considered, COULOMB-2 model gives higher absolute values of negative potential, than NASCAP-2k model. Differences in these values reach 2-3 kV. The possible explanations of the divergences indicated above are distinctions in calculation procedures of primary plasma currents and secondary emission currents. References 1. Ferguson D.С., Wimberly S.C. 51st AIAA Aerospace Science Meeting 2013 (AIAA 2013-0810). 2. http://dev.spis.org/projects/spine/home/spis 6. Direct evidence for a Coulombic phase in monopole-suppressed SU(2) lattice gauge theory Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Grady, Michael, E-mail: grady@fredonia.edu 2013-11-21 Further evidence is presented for the existence of a non-confining phase at weak coupling in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Using Monte Carlo simulations with the standard Wilson action, gauge-invariant SO(3)–Z2 monopoles, which are strong-coupling lattice artifacts, have been seen to undergo a percolation transition exactly at the phase transition previously seen using Coulomb gauge methods, with an infinite lattice critical point near β=3.2. The theory with both Z2 vortices and monopoles and SO(3)–Z2 monopoles eliminated is simulated in the strong-coupling (β=0) limit on lattices up to 60{sup 4}. Here, as in the high-β phase of the Wilson-action theory, finite size scaling shows it spontaneously breaks the remnant symmetry left over after Coulomb gauge fixing. Such a symmetry breaking precludes the potential from having a linear term. The monopole restriction appears to prevent the transition to a confining phase at any β. Direct measurement of the instantaneous Coulomb potential shows a Coulombic form with moderately running coupling possibly approaching an infrared fixed point of α∼1.4. The Coulomb potential is measured to 50 lattice spacings and 2 fm. A short-distance fit to the 2-loop perturbative potential is used to set the scale. High precision at such long distances is made possible through the use of open boundary conditions, which was previously found to cut random and systematic errors of the Coulomb gauge fixing procedure dramatically. The Coulomb potential agrees with the gauge-invariant interquark potential measured with smeared Wilson loops on periodic lattices as far as the latter can be practically measured with similar statistics data. 7. Direct evidence for a Coulombic phase in monopole-suppressed SU(2) lattice gauge theory Science.gov (United States) Grady, Michael 2013-11-01 Further evidence is presented for the existence of a non-confining phase at weak coupling in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. Using Monte Carlo simulations with the standard Wilson action, gauge-invariant SO(3)-Z2 monopoles, which are strong-coupling lattice artifacts, have been seen to undergo a percolation transition exactly at the phase transition previously seen using Coulomb gauge methods, with an infinite lattice critical point near β=3.2. The theory with both Z2 vortices and monopoles and SO(3)-Z2 monopoles eliminated is simulated in the strong-coupling (β=0) limit on lattices up to 604. Here, as in the high-β phase of the Wilson-action theory, finite size scaling shows it spontaneously breaks the remnant symmetry left over after Coulomb gauge fixing. Such a symmetry breaking precludes the potential from having a linear term. The monopole restriction appears to prevent the transition to a confining phase at any β. Direct measurement of the instantaneous Coulomb potential shows a Coulombic form with moderately running coupling possibly approaching an infrared fixed point of α˜1.4. The Coulomb potential is measured to 50 lattice spacings and 2 fm. A short-distance fit to the 2-loop perturbative potential is used to set the scale. High precision at such long distances is made possible through the use of open boundary conditions, which was previously found to cut random and systematic errors of the Coulomb gauge fixing procedure dramatically. The Coulomb potential agrees with the gauge-invariant interquark potential measured with smeared Wilson loops on periodic lattices as far as the latter can be practically measured with similar statistics data. 8. The proportionality as legal limit the right negotiating Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Lucas Augusto da Silva Zolet 2015-06-01 Full Text Available This paper proposes a maximum of proportionality study and its maximum partial, especially of the Negotiating law perspective and in the sphere of legal limitation for proportionality in the practice of commercial freedoms. The constant use of the maximum of proportionality, as the basis of judicial decisions without proper methodological rigor, triggers a debate about the use of the Theory of Fundamental Rights as a mere rhetorical reference, including criticism of an incomplete legal basis of the principle of proportionality, which by means of judicial decisions can take on a different character or subverted that provided in the doctrine of Robert Alexy. 9. Accurate approximate solution to nonlinear oscillators in which the restoring force is inversely proportional to the dependent variable Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Belendez, A; Gimeno, E; Mendez, D I; Alvarez, M L [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, E [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y AnatomIa, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es 2008-06-15 A modified generalized, rational harmonic balance method is used to construct approximate frequency-amplitude relations for a conservative nonlinear singular oscillator in which the restoring force is inversely proportional to the dependent variable. The procedure is used to solve the nonlinear differential equation approximately. The approximate frequency obtained using this procedure is more accurate than those obtained using other approximate methods and the discrepancy between the approximate frequency and the exact one is lower than 0.40%. 10. Experimental Study on Non-proportional Multiaxial Strain Cyclic Characteristics and Ratcheting of U71Mn Rail Steel Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 2002-01-01 An experimental study was carried out on the strain cyclic characteristics and ratcheting of U71Mn rail steel subjectedto non-proportional multiaxial cyclic loading. The strain cyclic characteristics were researched under the strain-controlled circular load path. The ratcheting was investigated for the stress-controlled multiaxial circular, ellipticaland rhombic load paths with different mean stresses, stress amplitudes and their histories. The experiment showsthat U71Mn rail steel features the cyclic non-hardening/softening, and its strain cyclic characteristics depend greatlyon the strain amplitude but slightly on its history. However, the ratcheting of U71Mn rail steel depends greatly notonly on the values of mean stress and stress amplitude, but also on their histories. In the meantime, the shape ofload path and its history also apparently influence the ratcheting. The ratcheting changes with the different loadingpaths. 11. Towards a Faddeev-AGS description of (d, p reactions with heavy nuclei: Regularizing integrals with Coulomb functions. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Eremenko V. 2016-01-01 Full Text Available The repulsive Coulomb force poses severe challenges when describing (d, p reactions for highly charged nuclei as a three-body problem. Casting Faddeev-AGS equations in a Coulomb basis avoids introducing screening of the Coulomb force. However, momentum space partial-wave t-matrix elements need to be evaluated in this basis. When those t-matrices are separable, the evaluation requires the folding of a form factor, depending on one momentum variable, with a momentum space partial-wave Coulomb function, which has a singular behavior at the external momentum q. We developed an improved regularization scheme to calculate Coulomb distorted form factors as the integral over the Coulomb function and complex nuclear form factors. 12. Towards a Faddeev-AGS description of$(d,p)$reactions with heavy nuclei: Regularizing integrals with Coulomb functions CERN Document Server Eremenko, V; Elster, Ch; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J; Arbanas, G; Escher, J E 2015-01-01 The repulsive Coulomb force poses severe challenges when describing$(d, p)$reactions for highly charged nuclei as a three-body problem. Casting Faddeev-AGS equations in a Coulomb basis avoids introducing screening of the Coulomb force. However, momentum space partial-wave$t$-matrix elements need to be evaluated in this basis. When those$t$-matrices are separable, the evaluation requires the folding of a form factor, depending on one momentum variable, with a momentum space partial-wave Coulomb function, which has a singular behavior at the external momentum$q$. We developed an improved regularization scheme to calculate Coulomb distorted form factors as the integral over the Coulomb function and complex nuclear form factors. 13. Acoustic emission signals frequency-amplitude characteristics of sandstone after thermal treated under uniaxial compression Science.gov (United States) Kong, Biao; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Zenghua; Wang, Xiaoran; Niu, Yue; Kong, Xiangguo 2017-01-01 Thermally treated sandstone deformation and fracture produced abundant acoustic emission (AE) signals. The AE signals waveform contained plentiful precursor information of sandstone deformation and fracture behavior. In this paper, uniaxial compression tests of sandstone after different temperature treatments were conducted, the frequency-amplitude characteristics of AE signals were studied, and the main frequency distribution at different stress level was analyzed. The AE signals frequency-amplitude characteristics had great difference after different high temperature treatment. Significant differences existed of the main frequency distribution of AE signals during thermal treated sandstone deformation and fracture. The main frequency band of the largest waveforms proportion was not unchanged after different high temperature treatments. High temperature caused thermal damage to the sandstone, and sandstone deformation and fracture was obvious than the room temperature. The number of AE signals was larger than the room temperature during the initial loading stage. The low frequency AE signals had bigger proportion when the stress was 0.1, and the maximum value of the low frequency amplitude was larger than high frequency signals. With the increase of stress, the low and high frequency AE signals were gradually increase, which indicated that different scales ruptures were broken in sandstone. After high temperature treatment, the number of high frequency AE signals was significantly bigger than the low frequency AE signals during the latter loading stage, this indicates that the small scale rupture rate of recurrence and frequency were more than large scale rupture. The AE ratio reached the maximum during the sandstone instability failure period, and large scale rupture was dominated in the failure process. AE amplitude increase as the loading increases, the deformation and fracture of sandstone was increased gradually. By comparison, the value of the low frequency 14. Hamiltonian Approach to 1+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge CERN Document Server Reinhardt, H 2008-01-01 We study the Hamiltonian approach to 1+1 dimensional Yang-Mills theory in Coulomb gauge, considering both the pure Coulomb gauge and the gauge where in addition the remaining constant gauge field is restricted to the Cartan algebra. We evaluate the corresponding Faddeev-Popov determinants, resolve Gauss' law and derive the Hamiltonians, which differ in both gauges due to additional zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel in the pure Coulomb gauge. By Gauss' law the zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov kernel constrain the physical wave functionals to zero colour charge states. We solve the Schroedinger equation in the pure Coulomb gauge and determine the vacuum wave functional. The gluon and ghost propagators and the static colour Coulomb potential are calculated in the first Gribov region as well as in the fundamental modular region, and Gribov copy effects are studied. We explicitly demonstrate that the Dyson-Schwinger equations do not specify the Gribov region while the propagators and vertices do depend on the ... 15. Limit analysis and homogenization of porous materials with Mohr-Coulomb matrix. Part I: Theoretical formulation Science.gov (United States) Anoukou, K.; Pastor, F.; Dufrenoy, P.; Kondo, D. 2016-06-01 The present two-part study aims at investigating the specific effects of Mohr-Coulomb matrix on the strength of ductile porous materials by using a kinematic limit analysis approach. While in the Part II, static and kinematic bounds are numerically derived and used for validation purpose, the present Part I focuses on the theoretical formulation of a macroscopic strength criterion for porous Mohr-Coulomb materials. To this end, we consider a hollow sphere model with a rigid perfectly plastic Mohr-Coulomb matrix, subjected to axisymmetric uniform strain rate boundary conditions. Taking advantage of an appropriate family of three-parameter trial velocity fields accounting for the specific plastic deformation mechanisms of the Mohr-Coulomb matrix, we then provide a solution of the constrained minimization problem required for the determination of the macroscopic dissipation function. The macroscopic strength criterion is then obtained by means of the Lagrangian method combined with Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. After a careful analysis and discussion of the plastic admissibility condition associated to the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, the above procedure leads to a parametric closed-form expression of the macroscopic strength criterion. The latter explicitly shows a dependence on the three stress invariants. In the special case of a friction angle equal to zero, the established criterion reduced to recently available results for porous Tresca materials. Finally, both effects of matrix friction angle and porosity are briefly illustrated and, for completeness, the macroscopic plastic flow rule and the voids evolution law are fully furnished. 16. Three-Body Coulomb Functions in the Hyperspherical Adiabatic Expansion Method Science.gov (United States) Garrido, E.; Kievsky, A.; Viviani, M. 2016-10-01 In this work we describe a numerical method devised to compute continuum three-body wave functions. The method is implemented using the hyperspherical adiabatic expansion for the three-body wave function imposing a box boundary condition. The continuum energy spectrum results discretized and, for specific quantum number values, all the possible incoming and outgoing channels are simultaneously computed. For a given energy, the hyperradial continuum functions form a matrix whose ij-term refers to specific incoming and outgoing channels. When applied to three-body systems interacting only through the Coulomb potential, this method provides the adiabatic representation of the regular three-body Coulomb wave function. The computation of the irregular Coulomb wave function representation is also discussed. These regular and irregular Coulomb functions can be used to extract the {S} -matrix for those reactions where, together with some short-range potential, the Coulomb interaction is also present. The method is illustrated in the case of the 3→ 3 process of three alpha particles. 17. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Georg Puhlfürst 2016-01-01 Full Text Available We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ϵ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ϵ-orders of a power series solution in ϵ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ϵ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ϵ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system. Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α′-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α′. 18. Differential equations, associators, and recurrences for amplitudes Science.gov (United States) Puhlfürst, Georg; Stieberger, Stephan 2016-01-01 We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for ɛ-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different ɛ-orders of a power series solution in ɛ of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the ɛ-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also apply our tools for computing ɛ-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we set up our methods to systematically get compact and explicit α‧-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in α‧. 19. New structures in scattering amplitudes: a review CERN Document Server Benincasa, Paolo 2013-01-01 We review some recent developments in the understanding of field theories in the perturbative regime. In particular, we discuss the notions of analyticity, unitarity and locality, and therefore the singularity structure of scattering amplitudes in general interacting theories. We describe their tree-level structure and their on-shell representations, as well as the links between the tree-level structure itself and the structure of the loop amplitudes. Finally, we describe the on-shell diagrammatics recently proposed both on general grounds and in the remarkable example of planar supersymmetric theories. This review is partially based on lectures given at: Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Universit\\a di Bologna; Departamento de F{\\i}sica de Part{\\i}culas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela; and as part of the program Strings@ar Lectures on Advanced Topics of High Energy Physics held at the IAFE 20. Optical twists in phase and amplitude DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper 2011-01-01 beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...... where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG... 1. Differential Equations, Associators, and Recurrences for Amplitudes CERN Document Server Puhlfuerst, Georg 2015-01-01 We provide new methods to straightforwardly obtain compact and analytic expressions for epsilon-expansions of functions appearing in both field and string theory amplitudes. An algebraic method is presented to explicitly solve for recurrence relations connecting different epsilon-orders of a power series solution in epsilon of a differential equation. This strategy generalizes the usual iteration by Picard's method. Our tools are demonstrated for generalized hypergeometric functions. Furthermore, we match the epsilon-expansion of specific generalized hypergeometric functions with the underlying Drinfeld associator with proper Lie algebra and monodromy representations. We also setup up our tools for computing epsilon-expansions for solutions to generic first-order Fuchsian equations (Schlesinger system). Finally, we apply our methods to systematically get compact and explicit alpha'-expansions of tree-level superstring amplitudes to any order in alpha'. 2. On Triple-Cut of Scattering Amplitudes CERN Document Server Mastrolia, Pierpaolo 2007-01-01 It is analysed the triple-cut of one-loop amplitudes in dimensional regularisation within spinor-helicity representation. The triple-cut is defined as a difference of two double-cuts with the same particle content, and a same propagator carrying, respectively, causal and anti-causal prescription in each of the two cuts. That turns out into an effective tool for extracting the coefficients of the three-point functions (and higher-point ones) from one-loop-amplitudes. The phase-space integration is oversimplified by using residues theorem to perform the integration over the spinor variables, via the holomorphic anomaly, and a trivial integration on the Feynman parameter. The results are valid for arbitrary values of dimensions. 3. Store-Forward and its implications for Proportional Scheduling NARCIS (Netherlands) Walton, N.S. 2014-01-01 The Proportional Scheduler was recently proposed as a scheduling algorithm for multi-hop switch networks. For these networks, the BackPressure scheduler is the classical benchmark. For networks with fixed routing, the Proportional Scheduler is maximum stable, myopic and, furthermore, will alleviate 4. 16 CFR 240.9 - Proportionally equal terms. Science.gov (United States) 2010-01-01 ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proportionally equal terms. 240.9 Section 240.9 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.9 Proportionally equal terms.... 5. The principle of proportionality and European contract law NARCIS (Netherlands) Cauffman, C.; Rutgers, J.; Sirena, P. 2015-01-01 The paper investigates the role of the principle of proportionality within contract law, in balancing the rights and obligations of the contracting parties. It illustrates that the principle of proportionality is one of the general principles which govern contractual relations, and as such it is an 6. The Fibonacci Sequence: Proportional Semantic Bases of Children's Aesthetic Preferences. Science.gov (United States) Neperud, Ronald W.; Serlin, Ronald C. 1984-01-01 Only at the third- and seventh-grade levels did proportional preferences for Fibonacci figures differ significantly from preferences for other kinds of proportional spatial divisions. Semantic patterns were similar among third and fifth graders, with a change occurring between fifth and seventh grades in keeping with the development of formal… 7. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Søgaard, Mads unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed...... in terms of certain linear combinations of multivariate residues and elliptic integrals computed from products of tree-level amplitudes. Several explicit examples are provided... 8. Nucleon and$N^* (1535)$Distribution Amplitudes CERN Document Server Braun, V M; Göckeler, M; Hagen, C; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schäfer, A; Schiel, R W; Schierholz, G; Stüben, H; Zanotti, J M 2010-01-01 The QCDSF collaboration has investigated the distribution amplitudes and wavefunction normalization constants of the nucleon and its parity partner, the$N^* (1535)$. We report on recent progress in the calculation of these quantities on configurations with two dynamical flavors of$\\mathcal{O}(a)$-improved Wilson fermions. New data at pion masses of approximately 270 MeV helps in significantly reducing errors in the extrapolation to the physical point. 9. Automatic generation of tree level helicity amplitudes CERN Document Server Stelzer, T 1994-01-01 The program MadGraph is presented which automatically generates postscript Feynman diagrams and Fortran code to calculate arbitrary tree level helicity amplitudes by calling HELAS[1] subroutines. The program is written in Fortran and is available in Unix and VMS versions. MadGraph currently includes standard model interactions of QCD and QFD, but is easily modified to include additional models such as supersymmetry. 10. Subleading Soft Factor for String Disk Amplitudes CERN Document Server Schwab, Burkhard U W 2014-01-01 We investigate the behavior of superstring disk scattering amplitudes in the presence of a soft external momentum at finite string tension. We prove that there are no$\\alpha'$-corrections to the field theory form of the subleading soft factor$S^{(1)}$. At the end of this work, we also comment on the possibility to find the corresponding subleading soft factors in closed string theory using our result and the KLT relations. 11. Automation of 2-loop Amplitude Calculations CERN Document Server Jones, S P 2016-01-01 Some of the tools and techniques that have recently been used to compute Higgs boson pair production at NLO in QCD are discussed. The calculation relies on the use of integral reduction, to reduce the number of integrals which must be computed, and expressing the amplitude in terms of a quasi-finite basis, which simplifies their numeric evaluation. Emphasis is placed on sector decomposition and Quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) integration which are used to numerically compute the master integrals. 12. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Bartles, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Lipatov, L.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Vacca, G.P. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna (Italy) 2012-05-15 Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel. 13. Organizing Filament of Small Amplitude Scroll Waves Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) ZHOU TianShou; ZHANG SuoChun 2001-01-01 We theoretically analyze the organizing filament of small amplitude scroll waves in general excitable media by perturbation method and explicitly give the expressions of coefficients in Keener theory. In particular for the excitable media with equal diffusion, we obtain a close system for the motion of the filament. With an example of the Oregonator model, our results are in good agreement with those simulated by Winfree.` 14. Connecting physical resonant amplitudes and lattice QCD CERN Document Server Bolton, Daniel R; Wilson, David J 2015-01-01 We present a determination of the isovector,$P$-wave$\\pi\\pi$scattering phase shift obtained by extrapolating recent lattice QCD results from the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using$m_\\pi =236$MeV. The finite volume spectra are described using extensions of L\\"uscher's method to determine the infinite volume Unitarized Chiral Perturbation Theory scattering amplitude. We exploit the pion mass dependence of this effective theory to obtain the scattering amplitude at$m_\\pi= 140$MeV. The scattering phase shift is found to be in good agreement with experiment up to center of mass energies of 1.2 GeV. The analytic continuation of the scattering amplitude to the complex plane yields a$\\rho$-resonance pole at$E_\\rho= \\left[755(2)(1)(^{20}_{02})-\\frac{i}{2}\\,129(3)(1)(^{7}_{1})\\right]~{\\rm MeV}$. The techniques presented illustrate a possible pathway towards connecting lattice QCD observables of few-body, strongly interacting systems to experimentally accessible quantities. 15. The parametrization of Coulomb barrier heights and positions using a new universal function in the proximity potential Science.gov (United States) Zhang, G. L.; Pan, M. 2016-10-01 The Coulomb barrier heights are calculated by using the proximity potential with a new universal function in comparison with the results of proximity potentials Prox77, AW95, Bass73, BW91, CW76, DP and Ng80. It is found that the new results of Coulomb barrier heights are better than those of most proximity potentials. Then this proximity potential with the new universal function was used to calculate the Coulomb barrier positions and heights from light fusion systems to heavy fusion systems. The parametrized formulas are obtained for Coulomb barrier height and position, and can reproduce most of calculated barrier heights and positions within the accuracy of ± 1%. 16. Dynamic adjustment: an electoral method for relaxed double proportionality CERN Document Server Linusson, Svante 2013-01-01 We describe an electoral system for distributing seats in a parliament. It gives proportionality for the political parties and close to proportionality for constituencies. The system suggested here is a version of the system used in Sweden and other Nordic countries with permanent seats in each constituency and adjustment seats to give proportionality on the national level. In the national election of 2010 the current Swedish system failed to give proportionality between parties. We examine here one possible cure for this unwanted behavior. The main difference compared to the current Swedish system is that the number of adjustment seats is not fixed, but rather dynamically determined to be as low as possible and still insure proportionality between parties. 17. Complete N-point superstring disk amplitude II. Amplitude and hypergeometric function structure Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Mafra, Carlos R., E-mail: crmafra@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schlotterer, Oliver, E-mail: olivers@mppmu.mpg.de [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Stieberger, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.stieberger@mpp.mpg.de [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany) 2013-08-21 Using the pure spinor formalism in part I (Mafra et al., preprint [1]) we compute the complete tree-level amplitude of N massless open strings and find a striking simple and compact form in terms of minimal building blocks: the full N-point amplitude is expressed by a sum over (N−3)! Yang–Mills partial subamplitudes each multiplying a multiple Gaussian hypergeometric function. While the former capture the space–time kinematics of the amplitude the latter encode the string effects. This result disguises a lot of structure linking aspects of gauge amplitudes as color and kinematics with properties of generalized Euler integrals. In this part II the structure of the multiple hypergeometric functions is analyzed in detail: their relations to monodromy equations, their minimal basis structure, and methods to determine their poles and transcendentality properties are proposed. Finally, a Gröbner basis analysis provides independent sets of rational functions in the Euler integrals. 18. Proportional myoelectric control of a virtual object to investigate human efferent control. Science.gov (United States) Gordon, Keith E; Ferris, Daniel P 2004-12-01 We used proportional myoelectric control of a one-dimensional virtual object to investigate differences in efferent control between the proximal and distal muscles of the upper limbs. Eleven subjects placed one of their upper limbs in a brace that restricted movement while we recorded electromyography (EMG) signals from elbow flexors/extensors or wrist flexors/extensors during isometric contractions. By activating their muscles, subjects applied virtual forces to a virtual object using a real-time computer interface. The magnitudes of these forces were proportional to EMG amplitudes. Subjects used this proportional EMG control to move the virtual object through two tracking tasks, one with a static target and one with a moving target (i.show$132#e., a sine wave). We hypothesized that subjects would have better control over the virtual object using their distal muscles rather than using their proximal muscles because humans typically use more distal joints to perform fine motor tasks. The results indicated that there was no difference in subjects' ability to control virtual object movements when using either upper arm muscles or forearm muscles. These results suggest that differences in control accuracy between elbow joint movements and wrist joint movements are more likely to be a result of motor practice, proprioceptive feedback or joint mechanics rather than inherent differences in efferent control.

19. Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Imaging Using Multiple Coulomb Scattering of Cosmic Muons

CERN Document Server

Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

2016-01-01

Cosmic ray muons passing through matter lose energy from inelastic collisions with electrons and are deflected from nuclei due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The strong dependence of scattering on atomic number Z and the recent developments on position sensitive muon detectors indicate that multiple Coulomb scattering could be an excellent candidate for spent nuclear fuel imaging. Muons present significant advantages over existing monitoring and imaging techniques and can play a central role in monitoring nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel stored in dense well shielded containers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of multiple Coulomb scattering for imaging of spent nuclear fuel dry casks stored within vertical and horizontal commercial storage dry casks. Calculations of muon scattering were performed for various scenarios, including vertical and horizontal fully loaded dry casks, half loaded dry casks, dry casks with one row of fuel assemblies missing, dry casks with one fu...

20. On the Klein–Gordon oscillator subject to a Coulomb-type potential

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br; Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br

2015-04-15

By introducing the scalar potential as modification in the mass term of the Klein–Gordon equation, the influence of a Coulomb-type potential on the Klein–Gordon oscillator is investigated. Relativistic bound states solutions are achieved to both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials and the arising of a quantum effect characterized by the dependence of angular frequency of the Klein–Gordon oscillator on the quantum numbers of the system is shown. - Highlights: • Interaction between the Klein–Gordon oscillator and a modified mass term. • Relativistic bound states for both attractive and repulsive Coulomb-type potentials. • Dependence of the Klein–Gordon oscillator frequency on the quantum numbers. • Relativistic analogue of a position-dependent mass system.

1. Effect of topological defects and Coulomb charge on the low energy quantum dynamics of gapped graphene

CERN Document Server

Chakraborty, Baishali; Sen, Siddhartha

2012-01-01

We study the combined effect of a conical topological defect and a Coulomb charge impurity on the dynamics of Dirac fermions in gapped graphene. Beyond a certain strength of the Coulomb charge, quantum instability sets in, which demarcates the boundary between sub and supercritical values of the charge. In the subcritical regime, for certain values of the system parameters, the allowed boundary conditions in gapped graphene cone can be classified in terms of a single real parameter. We show that the observables such as local density of states, scattering phase shifts and the bound state spectra are sensitive to the value of this real parameter, which is interesting from an empirical point of view. For a supercritical Coulomb charge, we analyze the system with a regularized potential as well as with a zigzag boundary condition and find the effect of the sample topology on the observable features of the system.

2. Long-Range Coulomb Effect in Intense Laser-Driven Photoelectron Dynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Quan, Wei; Hao, Xiaolei; Chen, Yongju; Yu, Shaogang; Xu, Songpo; Wang, Yanlan; Sun, Renping; Lai, Xuanyang; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; He, Xiantu; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Jing

2016-06-01

In strong field atomic physics community, long-range Coulomb interaction has for a long time been overlooked and its significant role in intense laser-driven photoelectron dynamics eluded experimental observations. Here we report an experimental investigation of the effect of long-range Coulomb potential on the dynamics of near-zero-momentum photoelectrons produced in photo-ionization process of noble gas atoms in intense midinfrared laser pulses. By exploring the dependence of photoelectron distributions near zero momentum on laser intensity and wavelength, we unambiguously demonstrate that the long-range tail of the Coulomb potential (i.e., up to several hundreds atomic units) plays an important role in determining the photoelectron dynamics after the pulse ends.

3. Treating Coulomb exchange contributions in relativistic mean field calculations: why and how

CERN Document Server

Van Giai, Nguyen; Gu, Huai-Qiang; Long, Wenhui; Meng, Jie

2014-01-01

The energy density functional (EDF) method is very widely used in nuclear physics, and among the various existing functionals those based on the relativistic Hartree (RH) approximation are very popular because the exchange contributions (Fock terms) are numerically rather onerous to calculate. Although it is possible to somehow 'mock up' the effects of meson-induced exchange terms by adjusting the meson-nucleon couplings, the lack of Coulomb exchange contributions hampers the accuracy of predictions. In this note, we show that the Coulomb exchange effects can be easily included with a good accuracy in a perturbative approach. Therefore, it would be desirable for future relativistic EDF models to incorporate Coulomb exchange effects, at least to some order of perturbation.

4. Upper-division Student Understanding of Coulomb's Law: Difficulties with Continuous Charge Distributions

CERN Document Server

Wilcox, Bethany R; Pepper, Rachel E; Pollock, Steven J

2012-01-01

Utilizing the integral expression of Coulomb's Law to determine the electric potential from a continuous charge distribution is a canonical exercise in Electricity and Magnetism (E&M). In this study, we use both think-aloud interviews and responses to traditional exam questions to investigate student difficulties with this topic at the upper-division level. Leveraging a theoretical framework for the use of mathematics in physics, we discuss how students activate, construct, execute and reflect on the integral form of Coulomb's Law when solving problems with continuous charge distributions. We present evidence that junior-level E&M students have difficulty mapping physical systems onto the mathematical expression for the Coulomb potential. Common challenges include difficulty expressing the difference vector in appropriate coordinates as well as determining expressions for the differential charge element and limits of integration for a specific charge distribution. We discuss possible implications of t...

5. Coulomb excitation of neutron-deficient polonium isotopes studied at ISOLDE

CERN Document Server

Neven, Michiel

The polonium isotopes represent an interesting region of the nuclear chart having only two protons outside the Z = 82 closed shell. These isotopes have already been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. The heavier isotopes (A > 200) seem to follow a "regular seniority-type regime" while for the lighter isotopes (A < 200) a more collective behavior is observed. Many questions remain regarding the transition between these two regimes and the configuration mixing between quantum states. Experiments in the lighter polonium isotopes point to the presence of shape coexistence, however the phenomenon is not fully understood. A Coulomb excitation study of the polonium isotopes whereby the dynamic properties are investigated can provide helpful insights in understanding the shape coexistence phenomena. In this thesis $^{202}$Po was studied via Coulomb excitation. The $^{202}$Po isotope was part of an experimental campaign in which the $^{196,198,200,206}$Po isotopes were studied as well via Coulomb...

6. Enhanced Bulk-Edge Coulomb Coupling in Fractional Fabry-Perot Interferometers.

Science.gov (United States)

von Keyserlingk, C W; Simon, S H; Rosenow, Bernd

2015-09-18

Recent experiments use Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometry to claim that the ν=5/2 quantum Hall state exhibits non-Abelian topological order. We note that the experiments appear inconsistent with a model neglecting bulk-edge Coulomb coupling and Majorana tunneling, so we reexamine the theory of FP devices. Even a moderate Coulomb coupling may strongly affect some fractional plateaus, but very weakly affect others, allowing us to model the data over a wide range of plateaus. While experiments are consistent with the ν=5/2 state harboring Moore-Read topological order, they may have measured Coulomb effects rather than an "even-odd effect" due to non-Abelian braiding.

7. Contribution of electric quadrupole and dipole-quadrupole interference terms in Coulomb breakup of 15C

Science.gov (United States)

Singh, P.; Kharb, S.; Singh, M.

2014-02-01

The effects of electric quadrupole ( E2) and dipole-quadrupole interference ( E1- E2) terms in the Coulomb breakup of 15C have been investigated within the framework of eikonal approximation. The sensitivity of Coulomb breakup cross section, differential in relative energy and Longitudinal Momentum Distribution (LMD) of core fragments, towards these terms have been examined. A very small (1% of E1) contribution of E2 transition has been predicted in integrated Coulomb breakup cross section. Further it is also found that the inclusion of E2 and E1- E2 terms introduces a small asymmetry in the peak of relative energy spectrum and also increases the peak height of the spectrum. The contribution of dipole-quadrupole interference terms is clearly shown in LMD, as it introduces an asymmetry in the shape of LMD and enhances the matching between the data and predictions.

8. Measurement of the 92,93,94,100Mo(g,n) reactions by Coulomb Dissociation

CERN Document Server

Göbel, K; Altstadt, S; Alvarez-Pol, H; Aksouh, F; Aumann, T; Babilon, M; Behr, K-H; Benlliure, J; Berg, T; Böhmer, M; Boretzky, K; Brünle, A; Beyer, R; Casarejos, E; Chartier, M; Cortina-Gil, D; Chatillon, A; Pramanik, U Datta; Deveaux, L; Elvers, M; Elze, T W; Emling, H; Erhard, M; Ershova, O; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Geissel, H; Górska, M; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Hellstroem, M; Ickert, G; Johansson, H; Junghans, A R; Käppeler, F; Kiselev, O; Klimkiewicz, A; Kratz, J V; Kulessa, R; Kurz, N; Labiche, M; Langer, C; Bleis, T Le; Lemmon, R; Lindenberg, K; Litvinov, Y A; Maierbeck, P; Movsesyan, A; Müller, S; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Paar, N; Palit, R; Paschalis, S; Plag, R; Prokopowicz, W; Reifarth, R; Rossi, D M; Schnorrenberger, L; Simon, H; Sonnabend, K; Sümmerer, K; Surówka, G; Vretenar, D; Wagner, A; Walter, S; Waluś, W; Wamers, F; Weick, H; Weigand, M; Winckler, N; Winkler, M; Zilges, A

2013-01-01

The Coulomb Dissociation (CD) cross sections of the stable isotopes 92,94,100Mo and of the unstable isotope 93Mo were measured at the LAND/R3B setup at GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. Experimental data on these isotopes may help to explain the problem of the underproduction of 92,94Mo and 96,98Ru in the models of p-process nucleosynthesis. The CD cross sections obtained for the stable Mo isotopes are in good agreement with experiments performed with real photons, thus validating the method of Coulomb Dissociation. The result for the reaction 93Mo(g,n) is especially important since the corresponding cross section has not been measured before. A preliminary integral Coulomb Dissociation cross section of the 94Mo(g,n) reaction is presented. Further analysis will complete the experimental database for the (g,n) production chain of the p-isotopes of molybdenum.

9. Coulomb charging energy of vacancy-induced states in graphene

Science.gov (United States)

Miranda, V. G.; Dias da Silva, Luis G. G. V.; Lewenkopf, C. H.

2016-08-01

Vacancies in graphene have been proposed to give rise to π -like magnetism in carbon materials, a conjecture which has been supported by recent experimental evidence. A key element in this "vacancy magnetism" is the formation of magnetic moments in vacancy-induced electronic states. In this work we compute the charging energy U of a single-vacancy-generated localized state for bulk graphene and graphene ribbons. We use a tight-binding model to calculate the dependency of the charging energy U on the amplitudes of the localized wave function on the graphene lattice sites. We show that for bulk graphene U scales with the system size L as (lnL) -2, confirming the predictions in the literature, based on heuristic arguments. In contrast, we find that for realistic system sizes U is of the order of eV, a value that is orders of magnitude higher than the previously reported estimates. Finally, when edges are considered, we show that U is very sensitive to the vacancy position with respect to the graphene flake boundaries. In the case of armchair nanoribbons, we find a strong enhancement of U in certain vacancy positions as compared to the value for vacancies in bulk graphene.

10. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

CERN Document Server

Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano

2015-01-01

We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

11. Investigating Proportional Reasoning in a University Quantitative Literacy Course

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Vera Frith

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The ability to reason with proportions is known to take a long time to develop and to be difficult to learn. We regard proportional reasoning (the ability to reason about quantities in relative terms as a threshold concept for academic quantitative literacy. Our study of the teaching and learning of proportional reasoning in a university quantitative literacy course for law students consisted of iterative action research, in which we introduced various teaching interventions and analysed students’ written responses to assessment questions requiring students to explain their reasoning in situations that call for proportional reasoning. For this analysis we used a modified phenomenographic method to develop and refine a framework to code the responses. This enabled us to broadly describe the responses in terms of the concept of the liminal space that a student must traverse in coming to a full understanding of a threshold concept, and to further define the liminal space to facilitate finer description of students’ responses. Our latest analysis confirmed that many university students cannot reason with proportions, that this kind of thinking is difficult to learn, and that it takes more time than is available in a one-semester course. The context and structure of the questions have a marked effect on students’ ability to apply proportional reasoning successfully. The fraction of students who were classified as ‘at or over the threshold’ (i.e., fairly competent at proportional reasoning after instruction ranged between 8% for the most difficult question and 48% for the easiest.

12. Spin and the Coulomb gap in the half-filled lowest Landau level

Science.gov (United States)

Eisenstein, J. P.; Khaire, T.; Nandi, D.; Finck, A. D. K.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

2016-09-01

The Coulomb gap observed in tunneling between parallel two-dimensional electron systems, each at half-filling of the lowest Landau level, is found to depend sensitively on the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. Especially at low electron density, the width of the Coulomb gap at first increases sharply with in-plane field, but then abruptly levels off. This behavior appears to coincide with the known transition from partial to complete spin polarization of the half-filled lowest Landau level. The tunneling gap therefore opens a window onto the spin configuration of two-dimensional electron systems at high magnetic field.

13. Role of Nuclear Coulomb Attraction in Nonsequential Double Ionization of Argon Atom

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

汤清彬; 张东玲; 李盈傧; 余本海

2011-01-01

The microscopic recollision dynamics in strong-field nonsequential double ionization of Ar atoms is in- vestigated using three-dimensional classical ensembles. By adjusting the nuclear Coulomb potential, we can excellently reproduce the experimental results both within the laser intensity regimes well above the reeollision threshold and well below the recollision threshold quantitatively. More importantly, our trajectory analysis clearly reveals the particular electronic dynamics in recollision process： the momentum of the recolliding electron encounters a sudden change both in magnitude and in direction when it approaches the nucleus closely, which show that the nuclear Coulomb attraction plays a key role in the recollision process of nonsequential double ionization of Ar atoms.

14. On the drift mobility of a molecular polaron in the presence of Coulomb traps

Science.gov (United States)

Rackovsky, S.; Scher, H.

1999-08-01

We study the drift mobility of a molecular polaron in the presence of an external applied field and Coulomb traps. The model is based on one previously developed for geminate recombination of photogenerated charge carriers. It is shown that the unusual combination of Poole-Frenkel-like field dependence and non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the mobility, measured experimentally in molecular films, is well reproduced by this model. Our key result is that this nearly universal experimental behavior of the mobility arises from competition between rates of polaron trapping and release from a very low density of Coulomb traps.

15. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of the nonlocal conductance in normalmetal/superconductor hybrid structures

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kolenda, Stefan; Wolf, Michael J.; Beckmann, Detlef [Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, KIT, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

2013-07-01

In normalmetal/superconductor hybrid structures nonlocal conductance is determined by crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) and elastic cotunneling (EC). This was investigated recently both experimentally and theoretically. Dynamical Coulomb blockade of EC and CAR was predicted theoretically. Here we report on experimental investigations of these effects. We found signatures of dynamical Coulomb blockade in local and nonlocal conductance in the normal state. In the superconducting state, we find s-shaped nonlocal differential conductance curves as a function of bias applied on both contacts. These curves were observed for bias voltages both below and above the gap. We compare our results to theory.

16. Dynamic gap generation in graphene under the long-range Coulomb interaction

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wang Jingrong; Liu Guozhu, E-mail: wangjr@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: gzliu@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230026 (China)

2011-08-31

Dynamic gap generation in graphene under the long-range Coulomb interaction is studied by the Dyson-Schwinger gap equation beyond the instantaneous approximation. Once the dependence of the dynamic gap on the energy has been considered, the critical interaction strength {alpha}{sub c} decreases to 0.542. If the renormalization of the fermion velocity is considered, {alpha}{sub c} will become {alpha}{sub c} = 1.02. This indicates that the dependence on the energy and the renormalization of the fermion velocity are both important for dynamic gap generation in graphene under long-range Coulomb interaction. (paper)

17. A shortcut through the Coulomb gas method for spectral linear statistics on random matrices

Science.gov (United States)

Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Vivo, Pierpaolo

2016-04-01

In the last decade, spectral linear statistics on large dimensional random matrices have attracted significant attention. Within the physics community, a privileged role has been played by invariant matrix ensembles for which a two-dimensional Coulomb gas analogy is available. We present a critical revision of the Coulomb gas method in random matrix theory (RMT) borrowing language and tools from large deviations theory. This allows us to formalize an equivalent, but more effective and quicker route toward RMT free energy calculations. Moreover, we argue that this more modern viewpoint is likely to shed further light on the interesting issues of weak phase transitions and evaporation phenomena recently observed in RMT.

18. Strong-field S -matrix theory with final-state Coulomb interaction in all orders

Science.gov (United States)

Faisal, F. H. M.

2016-09-01

During the last several decades the so-called Keldysh-Faisal-Reiss or strong-field approximation (SFA) has been highly useful for the analysis of atomic and molecular processes in intense laser fields. However, it is well known that SFA does not account for the final-state Coulomb interaction which is, however, unavoidable for the ubiquitous ionization process. In this Rapid Communication we solve this long-standing problem and give a complete strong-field S -matrix expansion that accounts for the final-state Coulomb interaction in all orders, explicitly.

19. Natural and Unnatural Parity Resonance States in the Positron-Hydrogen System with Screened Coulomb Interactions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ye Ning

2015-12-01

Full Text Available In the present work, we report calculations of resonances in the positron-hydrogen system interacting with screened Coulomb potentials using the method of complex scaling together with employing correlated Hylleraas wave functions. Resonances with natural and unnatural parities are investigated. For the natural parity case, resonance parameters (energy and width for D-wave resonance states with even parity lying below various positronium and hydrogen thresholds up to the H(N = 4 level are determined. For the unnatural parity case, results for P-even and D-odd resonance states with various screened Coulomb interaction strengths are located below different lower-lying Ps and H thresholds.

20. Effects of the Lorentz invariance violation in Coulomb interaction in nuclei and atoms

CERN Document Server

Flambaum, V V

2016-01-01

Anisotropy in the speed of light (studied in the Michelson-Morley experiment ) generates anisotropy in the Coulomb interaction. This anisotropy manifests itself in the nuclear and atomic experiments. The experimental results for 21Ne are used to improve the limits on the tensor components characterising the asymmetry of the speed of light and the Coulomb interaction (violation of the Lorentz symmetry in the photon sector) by 7 orders of magnitude in comparison with previous experiments: the speed of light is isotropic to a part in 10E-28.