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Sample records for amplifies nutritional regulation

  1. Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorten, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Verpoorten, D. (2012). Reflection amplifiers in self-regulated learning. Doctoral thesis. November, 9, 2012, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit (CELSTEC). Datawyse / Universitaire Pers Maastricht.

  2. High-Gm Differential Regulated Cascode Transimpedance Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢生; 陶希子; 毛陆虹; 高谦; 吴思聪

    2016-01-01

    A differential cross-coupled regulated cascode(RGC)transimpedance amplifier(TIA)is proposed. The theory of multi-stage common-source(CS) configuration as an auxiliary amplifier to enhance the bandwidth and output impedance of RGC topology is analyzed. Additionally, negative Miller capacitance and shunt active inductor compensation are exploited to further expand the bandwidth. The proposed RGC TIA is simulated based on UMC 0.18μm standard CMOS process. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed TIA has a high transim-pedance of 60.5 dBΩ, and a-3 dB bandwidth of 5.4 GHz is achieved for 0.5 pF input capacitance. The average equivalent input noise current spectral density is about 20 pA/Hz1/2 in the interested frequency, and the TIA con-sumes 20 mW DC power under 1.8 V supply voltage. The voltage swing is 460 mVpp, and the saturation input cur-rent is 500μA.

  3. Molecular nutrition: Interaction of nutrients, gene regulations and performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kan

    2016-07-01

    Nutrition deals with ingestion of foods, digestion, absorption, transport of nutrients, intermediary metabolism, underlying anabolism and catabolism, and excretion of unabsorbed nutrients and metabolites. In addition, nutrition interacts with gene expressions, which are involved in the regulation of animal performances. Our laboratory is concerned with the improvement of animal productions, such as milks, meats and eggs, with molecular nutritional aspects. The present review shows overviews on the nutritional regulation of metabolism, physiological functions and gene expressions to improve animal production in chickens and dairy cows. PMID:27110862

  4. 75 FR 3985 - Trade Regulation Rule Relating to Power Output Claims for Amplifiers Utilized in Home...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... CFR Part 432 Trade Regulation Rule Relating to Power Output Claims for Amplifiers Utilized in Home Entertainment Products AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Confirmation of Rule. SUMMARY: The Federal... regulations and guides, and has determined to retain the Rule in its current form. The Commission also...

  5. Hkat, a novel nutritionally regulated transmembrane protein in adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Zhang

    2012-01-01

    White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ regulating many aspects of whole body physiology and pathology. Adipogenesis, a process in which premature cells differentiate into adipocytes, is a complex process that includes orchestrated changes in gene expression and cell morphology in response to various nutritional and hormonal stimuli. To profile transcriptome changes in response to nutritional stimulation, we performed RNA-seq on fat in mice treated with either a high-fat diet or fas...

  6. Nutrition-Labeling Regulation Impacts on Restaurant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E.; Chan, Nadine; Krieger, James; Nelson, Young; Boles, Myde; Colburn, Trina; Glanz, Karen; Ta, Myduc; Bruemmer, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent attempts to improve the healthfulness of away-from-home eating include regulations requiring restaurants to post nutrition information. The impact of such regulations on restaurant environments is unknown. Purpose To examine changes in restaurant environments from before to after nutrition-labeling regulation in a newly regulated county versus a nonregulated county. Methods Using the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys–Restaurant version audit, environments within the same quick-service chain restaurants were evaluated in King County (regulated) before and 6 and 18 months after regulation enforcement and in Multnomah County (nonregulated) restaurants over a 6-month period. Data were collected in 2008–2010 and analyses conducted in 2011. Results Overall availability of healthy options and facilitation of healthy eating did not differentially increase in King County versus Multnomah County restaurants aside from the substantial increase in onsite nutrition information posting in King County restaurants required by the new regulation. Barriers to healthful eating decreased in King County relative to Multnomah County restaurants, particularly in food-oriented establishments. King County restaurants demonstrated modest increases in signage that promotes healthy eating, although the frequency of such promotion remained low, and the availability of reduced portions decreased in these restaurants. The healthfulness of children’s menus improved modestly over time, but not differentially by county. Conclusions A restaurant nutrition-labeling regulation was accompanied by some, but not uniform, improvements in other aspects of restaurant environments in the regulated compared to the nonregulated county. Additional opportunities exist for improving the healthfulness of awayfrom- home eating beyond menu labeling. PMID:23079173

  7. Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.

    2001-01-01

    Fat build-up is determined by the balance between lipogenesis and lipolysis/fatty acid oxidation. In the past few years, our understanding of the nutritional, hormonal and particularly transcriptional regulation of lipogenesis has expanded greatly. Lipogenesis is stimulated by a high carbohydrate di

  8. Nutritional status influences socially regulated foraging ontogeny in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Amy L; Kantarovich, Sara; Meisel, Adam F; Robinson, Gene E

    2005-12-01

    In many social insects, including honey bees, worker energy reserve levels are correlated with task performance in the colony. Honey bee nest workers have abundant stored lipid and protein while foragers are depleted of these reserves; this depletion precedes the shift from nest work to foraging. The first objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that lipid depletion has a causal effect on the age at onset of foraging in honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). We found that bees treated with a fatty acid synthesis inhibitor (TOFA) were more likely to forage precociously. The second objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between social interactions, nutritional state and behavioral maturation. Since older bees are known to inhibit the development of young bees into foragers, we asked whether this effect is mediated nutritionally via the passage of food from old to young bees. We found that bees reared in social isolation have low lipid stores, but social inhibition occurs in colonies in the field, whether young bees are starved or fed. These results indicate that although social interactions affect the nutritional status of young bees, social and nutritional factors act independently to influence age at onset of foraging. Our findings suggest that mechanisms linking internal nutritional physiology to foraging in solitary insects have been co-opted to regulate altruistic foraging in a social context.

  9. Effect of Government Regulation on the Evolution of Sports Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rick; Kalman, Douglas

    The sports nutrition segment of the dietary supplement industry enjoyed nearly a decade of unfettered growth under federal legislation passed in 1994. A series of breakthroughs in the dietary supplement field led to the development and marketing of innovative products designed to enhance performance, build muscle, or lose excess fat. As the popularity of these products soared and evolved into a multi-billion dollar industry, the sports nutrition supplement market drew the attention of federal and state regulatory bodies and sports antidoping authorities. Growing concerns over potential health risks and unfair athletic advantages have spurred government regulators and legislators to heighten the scrutiny of this market, leading to recent legislative amendments and increased government enforcement action.

  10. 75 FR 81831 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Regulation Restructuring: Issuance Regulation Update...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... 7 CFR part 274 and was published at 75 FR 18377 on April 12, 2010. Dated: November 24, 2010. Julia... coupon issuance and EBT pilot regulations that are no longer applicable, revise regulatory language to... Food and Nutrition Service adopted as a final rule the direct final rule published at 75 FR 18377...

  11. Characterization of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus spp. Germplasm in South West Nigeria Using Morphological, Nutritional, and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela E. Akin-Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient utilization of plant genetic resources for nutrition and crop improvement requires systematic understanding of the important traits. Amaranthus species are distributed worldwide with an interesting diversity of landraces and cultivars whose leaves and seeds are consumed. Despite their potential to enhance food security and economic livelihoods, grain amaranth breeding to improve nutritional quality and adoption by farmers in sub-Saharan Africa is scanty. This study assessed the variation among 29 grain amaranth accessions using 27 phenotypic (10 morphological and 17 nutritional characters and 16 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers. Multivariate analysis of phenotypic characters showed the first four principal components contributing 57.53% of observed variability, while cluster analysis yielded five groups at 87.5% similarity coefficient. RAPD primers generated a total of 193 amplicons with an average of 12.06 amplicons per primer, 81% of which were polymorphic. Genetic similarities based on Jaccard’s coefficient ranged from 0.61 to 0.88. The RAPD-based unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram grouped the accessions into nine clusters, with the same species clustering together. RAPD primers distinguished the accessions more effectively than phenotypic markers. Accessions in the different clusters as obtained can be exploited for heterotic gain in desired nutritional traits.

  12. A feed-forward loop amplifies nutritional regulation of PNPLA3

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yongcheng; He, Shaoqing; Li, John Zhong; Seo, Young-Kyo; Osborne, Timothy F; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2010-01-01

    The upsurge in prevalence of obesity has spawned an epidemic of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previously, we identified a sequence variant (I148M) in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) that confers susceptibility to both hepatic triglyceride (TG) deposition and liver injury. To glean insights into the biological role of PNPLA3, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which nutrient status controls hepatic expression of PNPLA3. PNPLA3 mRNA levels, which...

  13. School Nutrition Directors' Perspectives on Preparing for and Implementing USDA's New School Meal Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Bethany A.; Amin, Sarah A.; Taylor, Jennifer C.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) new school meals regulations went into effect in July 2012. The purpose of this research was to explore school nutrition director's (SNDs) perspectives and attitudes about the new regulations and to identify strategies used to prepare for and subsequently implement the regulations.…

  14. A High-Voltage class-D power amplifier with switching frequency regulation for improved high-efficiency output power range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Haifeng; Zee, van der Ronan; Nauta, Bram

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the power dissipation analysis and the design of an efficiency-improved high-voltage class-D power amplifier. The amplifier adaptively regulates its switching frequency for optimal power efficiency across the full output power range. This is based on detecting the switching outp

  15. CodY of Streptococcus pneumoniae : Link between nutritional gene regulation and colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Wouter T.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Estevao, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; de Jong, Anne; de Groot, Ronald; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Hermans, Peter W. M.

    2008-01-01

    CodY is a nutritional regulator mainly involved in amino acid metabolism. It has been extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis and Lactococcus lactis. We investigated the role of CodY in gene regulation and virulence of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. We constructed a codY mutant and ex

  16. Simulating Welfare Effects of Europe’s Nutrition and Health Claims regulation: the Italian Yogurt Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanno, A.; Huang, R.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    With the enactment of Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006, 20 December 2006, ‘On nutrition and health claims made on foods’ several health claims can no longer be used on food products in European markets. We simulate the overall impact of the regulation on consumers and producers using the Italian yogurt

  17. Experimental evidence for nutrition regulated stress resistance in Drosophila ananassae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sisodia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The amount and quality of nutrients consumed by organisms have a strong impact on stress resistance, life-history traits and reproduction. The balance between energy acquisition and expenditure is crucial to the survival and reproductive success of animals. The ability of organisms to adjust their development, physiology or behavior in response to environmental conditions, called phenotypic plasticity, is a defining property of life. One of the most familiar and important examples of phenotypic plasticity is the response of stress tolerance and reproduction to changes in developmental nutrition. Larval nutrition may affect a range of different life-history traits as well as responses to environmental stress in adult. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the effect of larval nutrition on desiccation, starvation, chill-coma recovery, heat resistance as well as egg to adult viability, egg production and ovariole number in Drosophila ananassae. We raised larvae on either protein rich diet or carbohydrate rich diet. We found that flies consuming protein rich diet have higher desiccation and heat shock resistance whereas flies developed on carbohydrate rich diet have higher starvation and cold resistance. Egg production was higher in females developed on protein rich diet and we also found trade-off between egg production and Egg to adult viability of the flies. Viability was higher in carbohydrate rich diet. However, sex specific viability was found in different nutritional regimes. Higher Egg production might be due to higher ovariole number in females of protein rich diet. CONCLUSION: Thus, Drosophila ananassae adapts different stress tolerance and life-history strategies according to the quality of the available diet, which are correlated with phenotypic adjustment at anatomical and physiological levels.

  18. Nutrition and related claims used on packaged Australian foods--implications for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Zakrzewski, Sally; Aboozaid, Brooke; Henshaw, Simon; Ingram, Kendall; Rankine, Alex; Walcott, Sara; Ghani, Fatima

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the use of nutrition and related claims on packaged food for sale in Australia and measure the compliance of such claims with regulations governing their use. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 6662 products in 40 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2001. Levels of compliance were assessed by comparing the claims on the label and data in the nutrition information panel with requirements of the Foods Standards Code and the Code of Practice on Nutrient Claims. Half of the products (51.3%) carried some type of nutrition related claim and 36.2% made at least one nutrient claim, with an average of 1.2 nutrition related claims on every food product. The foods with the highest use of nutrient claims were sports drinks, breakfast cereals, meat substitutes, pretzels and rice cakes, muesli bars and yoghurt. The most common nutrient claims were for fat, cholesterol, vitamins, minerals, and sugar. More than 20% of products carried claims related to additives. Many nutrient claims (12.9%) did not comply with current regulations, especially those in the voluntary Code of Practice. Adoption of mandatory requirements for all claims within the Food Standards Code may improve the levels of compliance. Implications for the regulation of nutrition and related claims are discussed. The impact of nutrition claims on consumer purchasing and consumption behaviour deserves further study.

  19. Nutritional conditions regulate transcriptional activity of SF-1 by controlling sumoylation and ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon; Yang, Dong Joo; Lee, Syann; Hammer, Gary D; Kim, Ki Woo; Elmquist, Joel K

    2016-01-11

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) is a transcription factor expressed in the ventral medial nucleus of the hypothalamus that regulates energy homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms of SF-1 in the control of energy balance are largely unknown. Here, we show that nutritional conditions, such as the presence or absence of serum, affect SF-1 action. Serum starvation significantly decreased hypothalamic SF-1 levels by promoting ubiquitin-dependent degradation, and sumoylation was required for this process. SF-1 transcriptional activity was also differentially regulated by nutritional status. Under normal conditions, the transcriptional activity of hypothalamic SF-1 was activated by SUMO, but this was attenuated during starvation. Taken together, these results indicate that sumoylation and ubiquitination play crucial roles in the regulation of SF-1 function and that these effects are dependent on nutritional conditions, further supporting the importance of SF-1 in the control of energy homeostasis.

  20. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you would like to see a registered dietitian nutritionist for nutritional guidance when you have lung cancer. ... seek out the expertise of a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) who works with lung cancer patients. This ...

  1. [Role of histaminergic system in the regulation of nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfer'ian, R A; Mil'chenko, N O; Solntseva, T N; Gabueva, Zh V; Radzhabkadiev, R M

    2013-01-01

    In the review modern data on a role of various humoral factors (neuromediators, hormones, adipocytokines etc.) in regulation of appetite, food consumption and obesity are presented. The special attention is paid to the role of histamine and histamine receptors of H3-type in processes of regulation of a food intake. Interaction of various humoral factors is discussed at obesity and other alimentary-dependent diseases.

  2. Essential amino acids: master regulators of nutrition and environmental footprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessari, Paolo; Lante, Anna; Mosca, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    The environmental footprint of animal food production is considered several-fold greater than that of crops cultivation. Therefore, the choice between animal and vegetarian diets may have a relevant environmental impact. In such comparisons however, an often neglected issue is the nutritional value of foods. Previous estimates of nutrients' environmental footprint had predominantly been based on either food raw weight or caloric content, not in respect to human requirements. Essential amino acids (EAAs) are key parameters in food quality assessment. We re-evaluated here the environmental footprint (expressed both as land use for production and as Green House Gas Emission (GHGE), of some animal and vegetal foods, titrated to provide EAAs amounts in respect to human requirements. Production of high-quality animal proteins, in amounts sufficient to match the Recommended Daily Allowances of all the EAAs, would require a land use and a GHGE approximately equal, greater o smaller (by only ±1-fold), than that necessary to produce vegetal proteins, except for soybeans, that exhibited the smallest footprint. This new analysis downsizes the common concept of a large advantage, in respect to environmental footprint, of crops vs. animal foods production, when human requirements of EAAs are used for reference. PMID:27221394

  3. Amplified in Breast Cancer Regulates Transcription and Translation in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Ochnik

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.

  4. Cell cycle regulation and cytoskeletal remodelling are critical processes in the nutritional programming of embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common "gatekeepers" which may drive nutritional programming.Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (P<0.05. This occurred in the absence of damage to the glomerular ultrastructure. Microarray, proteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency.The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel

  5. Nutritional regulation of muscle protein synthesis with resistance exercise: strategies to enhance anabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churchward-Venne Tyler A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Provision of dietary amino acids increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS, an effect that is enhanced by prior resistance exercise. As a fundamentally necessary process in the enhancement of muscle mass, strategies to enhance rates of MPS would be beneficial in the development of interventions aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass particularly when combined with chronic resistance exercise. The purpose of this review article is to provide an update on current findings regarding the nutritional regulation of MPS and highlight nutrition based strategies that may serve to maximize skeletal muscle protein anabolism with resistance exercise. Such factors include timing of protein intake, dietary protein type, the role of leucine as a key anabolic amino acid, and the impact of other macronutrients (i.e. carbohydrate on the regulation of MPS after resistance exercise. We contend that nutritional strategies that serve to maximally stimulate MPS may be useful in the development of nutrition and exercise based interventions aimed at enhancing skeletal muscle mass which may be of interest to elderly populations and to athletes.

  6. Nutritional regulation of division of labor in honey bees: toward a systems biology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Seth A; Wang, Ying; Robinson, Gene E

    2010-01-01

    Organisms adapt their behavior and physiology to environmental conditions through processes of phenotypic plasticity. In one well-studied example, the division of labor among worker honey bees involves a stereotyped yet plastic pattern of behavioral and physiological maturation. Early in life, workers perform brood care and other in-hive tasks and have large internal nutrient stores; later in life, they forage for nectar and pollen outside the hive and have small nutrient stores. The pace of maturation depends on colony conditions, and the environmental, physiological, and genomic mechanisms by which this occurs are being actively investigated. Here we review current knowledge of the mechanisms by which a key environmental variable, nutritional status, influences worker honey bee division of labor. These studies demonstrate that changes in individual nutritional status and conserved food-related molecular and hormonal pathways regulate the age at which individual bees begin to forage. We then outline ways in which systems biology approaches, enabled by the sequencing of the honey bee genome, will allow researchers to gain deeper insight into nutritional regulation of honey bee behavior, and phenotypic plasticity in general.

  7. Nutritional regulation of genome-wide association obesity genes in a tissue-dependent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoganathan Piriya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have recently identified several new genetic variants associated with obesity. The majority of the variants are within introns or between genes, suggesting they affect gene expression, although it is not clear which of the nearby genes they affect. Understanding the regulation of these genes will be key to determining the role of these variants in the development of obesity and will provide support for a role of these genes in the development of obesity. Methods We examined the expression of 19 GWAS obesity genes in the brain and specifically the hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of mice by real-time quantitative PCR. To determine whether these genes are nutritionally regulated, as may be expected for genes affecting obesity, we compared tissues from fasting and non-fasting animals and tissues from mice consuming a high fat high sucrose diet in comparison to standard rodent chow. Results We found complex, tissue-dependent patterns of nutritional regulation of most of these genes. For example, Bat2 expression was increased ~10-fold in the brain of fed mice but was lower or unchanged in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Kctd15 expression was upregulated in the hypothalamus, brain and adipose tissue of fed mice and downregulated by high fat feeding in liver, adipose tissue and the hypothalamus but not the remainder of the brain. Sh2b1 expression in the brain and Faim2 expression in adipose tissue were specifically increased >20-fold in fed mice. Tmem18 expression in adipose tissue but not the brain was reduced 80% by high fat feeding. Few changes in the expression of these genes were observed in liver. Conclusions These data show nutritional regulation of nearly all these GWAS obesity genes, particularly in the brain and adipose tissue, and provide support for their role in the development of obesity. The complex patterns of nutritional and tissue-dependent regulation also highlight

  8. Nutritional regulation of genome-wide association obesity genes in a tissue-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have recently identified several new genetic variants associated with obesity. The majority of the variants are within introns or between genes, suggesting they affect gene expression, although it is not clear which of the nearby genes they affect. Understanding the regulation of these genes will be key to determining the role of these variants in the development of obesity and will provide support for a role of these genes in the development of obesity. Methods We examined the expression of 19 GWAS obesity genes in the brain and specifically the hypothalamus, adipose tissue and liver of mice by real-time quantitative PCR. To determine whether these genes are nutritionally regulated, as may be expected for genes affecting obesity, we compared tissues from fasting and non-fasting animals and tissues from mice consuming a high fat high sucrose diet in comparison to standard rodent chow. Results We found complex, tissue-dependent patterns of nutritional regulation of most of these genes. For example, Bat2 expression was increased ~10-fold in the brain of fed mice but was lower or unchanged in the hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Kctd15 expression was upregulated in the hypothalamus, brain and adipose tissue of fed mice and downregulated by high fat feeding in liver, adipose tissue and the hypothalamus but not the remainder of the brain. Sh2b1 expression in the brain and Faim2 expression in adipose tissue were specifically increased >20-fold in fed mice. Tmem18 expression in adipose tissue but not the brain was reduced 80% by high fat feeding. Few changes in the expression of these genes were observed in liver. Conclusions These data show nutritional regulation of nearly all these GWAS obesity genes, particularly in the brain and adipose tissue, and provide support for their role in the development of obesity. The complex patterns of nutritional and tissue-dependent regulation also highlight the difficulty that may be

  9. Organisation, regulations, preparation and logistics of parenteral nutrition in hospitals and homes; the role of the nutrition support team – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 8

    OpenAIRE

    Kester, L.; Bischoff, S C; Thul, P.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine; Schwab, D; Radziwill, R; Meier, R.

    2009-01-01

    PN (parenteral nutrition) should be standardised to ensure quality and to reduce complications, and it should be carried out in consultation with a specialised nutrition support team whenever possible. Interdisciplinary nutrition support teams should be established in all hospitals because effectiveness and efficiency in the implementation of PN are increased. The tasks of the team include improvements of quality of care as well as enhancing the benefit to cost ratio. Therapeutic decisions mu...

  10. Organisation, regulations, preparation and logistics of parenteral nutrition in hospitals and homes; the role of the nutrition support team - Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 8

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, SC; Kester, L.; Meier, R.; Radziwill, R; Schwab, D; Thul, P.; Working group for developing the guidelines for parenteral nutrition of The German Association for Nutritional Medicine

    2009-01-01

    PN (parenteral nutrition) should be standardised to ensure quality and to reduce complications, and it should be carried out in consultation with a specialised nutrition support team whenever possible. Interdisciplinary nutrition support teams should be established in all hospitals because effectiveness and efficiency in the implementation of PN are increased. The tasks of the team include improvements of quality of care as well as enhancing the benefit to cost ratio. Therapeutic decisions mu...

  11. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  12. Revisiting macronutrient regulation in the polyphagous herbivore Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): New insights via nutritional geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Carrie A; Sword, Gregory A; Behmer, Spencer T

    2015-10-01

    Insect herbivores that ingest protein and carbohydrates in physiologically-optimal proportions and concentrations show superior performance and fitness. The first-ever study of protein-carbohydrate regulation in an insect herbivore was performed using the polyphagous agricultural pest Helicoverpa zea. In that study, experimental final instar caterpillars were presented two diets - one containing protein but no carbohydrates, the other containing carbohydrates but no protein - and allowed to self-select their protein-carbohydrate intake. The results showed that H. zea selected a diet with a protein-to-carbohydrate (p:c) ratio of 4:1. At about this same time, the geometric framework (GF) for the study of nutrition was introduced. The GF is now established as the most rigorous means to study nutrient regulation (in any animal). It has been used to study protein-carbohydrate regulation in several lepidopteran species, which exhibit a range of self-selected p:c ratios between 0.8 and 1.5. Given the economic importance of H. zea, and it is extremely protein-biased p:c ratio of 4:1 relative to those reported for other lepidopterans, we decided to revisit its protein-carbohydrate regulation. Our results, using the experimental approach of the GF, show that H. zea larvae self-select a p:c ratio of 1.6:1. This p:c ratio strongly matches that of its close relative, Heliothis virescens, and is more consistent with self-selected p:c ratios reported for other lepidopterans. Having accurate protein and carbohydrate regulation information for an insect herbivore pest such as H. zea is valuable for two reasons. First, it can be used to better understand feeding patterns in the field, which might lead to enhanced management. Second, it will allow researchers to develop rearing diets that more accurately reflect larval nutritional needs, which has important implications for resistance bioassays and other measures of physiological stress. PMID:26141409

  13. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takashi; Mirth, Christen K

    2016-02-01

    In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s) to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP) synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1) and CG11395 (GBP2), are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs) specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size. PMID:26928023

  14. An integrated 80V 45W class-D power amplifier with optimal-efficiency-tracking switching frequency regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Haifeng; Zee, van der Ronan; Nauta, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in smart materials for vibration and noise control, precision actuators, etc. [1]. These actuators are largely capacitive and the reactive power applied on them can go to several tens of Watts. Highvoltage, high-power class-D amplifiers [2]-[5] are ideal drive

  15. Organisation, regulations, preparation and logistics of parenteral nutrition in hospitals and homes; the role of the nutrition support team – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kester, L.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available PN (parenteral nutrition should be standardised to ensure quality and to reduce complications, and it should be carried out in consultation with a specialised nutrition support team whenever possible. Interdisciplinary nutrition support teams should be established in all hospitals because effectiveness and efficiency in the implementation of PN are increased. The tasks of the team include improvements of quality of care as well as enhancing the benefit to cost ratio. Therapeutic decisions must be taken by attending physicians, who should collaborate with the nutrition support team. “All-in-One” bags are generally preferred for PN in hospitals and may be industrially manufactured, industrially manufactured with the necessity to add micronutrients, or be prepared “on-demand” within or outside the hospital according to a standardised or individual composition and under consideration of sterile and aseptic conditions. A standardised procedure should be established for introduction and advancement of enteral or oral nutrition. Home PN may be indicated if the expected duration of when PN exceeds 4 weeks. Home PN is a well established method for providing long-term PN, which should be indicated by the attending physician and be reviewed by the nutrition support team. The care of home PN patients should be standardised whenever possible. The indication for home PN should be regularly reviewed during the course of PN.

  16. Gluconeogenesis is Not Regulated by Either Glucose or Insulin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Ordonez, Jorge; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Study design Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 1

  17. A four step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki eMurakami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is thought autoimmune diseases are caused by the breakdown of self-tolerance, which suggests the recognition of specific antigens by autoreactive CD4+ T cells contribute to the specificity of autoimmune diseases. In several cases, however, even for diseases associated with class II MHC alleles, the causative tissue-specific antigens recognized by memory/activated CD4+ T cells have not been established. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and arthritis in F759 knock-in mouse line (F759 mice are such examples, even though evidences support a pathogenic role for CD4+ T cells in both diseases. We have recently shown local events such as microbleeding together with an accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in a manner independent of tissue antigen-recognitions induces arthritis in the joints of F759 mice. For example, local microbleeding-mediated CCL20 expression induced such an accumulation, causing arthritis development via chronic activation of an IL-17A-dependent IL-6 signaling amplification loop in type 1 collagen+ cells that is triggered by CD4+ T cell-derived cytokine(s such as IL-17A, which leads to the synergistic activation of STAT3 and NFκB in non hematopoietic cells in the joint. We named this loop the IL-6-mediated inflammation amplifier, or IL-6 amplifier. Thus, certain class II MHC–associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a Four Step Model for MHC class II associated autoimmune diseases. The interaction of four local events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier, leading to the manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, we have concluded the IL-6 amplifier is a critical regulator of chromic inflammations in tissue specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  18. A four-step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    short (Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Thus, certain class II MHC-associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases, including some RA subtypes, may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. In other words, in certain cases, the target tissue itself may determine the specificity of the autoimmune disease via activation of the IL-6 amplifier. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a four-step model for MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases (Murakami et al., 2011): (1) T cell activation regardless of antigen specificity; (2) local events inducing a tissue-specific accumulation of activated T cells; (3) transient activation of the IL-6 amplifier; and (4) enhanced sensitivity to cytokines in the target tissue. The interaction of these events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier and subsequent manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, the IL-6 amplifier, which is chronically activated by these four events, is a critical regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  19. Cell Cycle Regulation and Cytoskeletal Remodelling Are Critical Processes in the Nutritional Programming of Embryonic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Angelina Swali; Sarah McMullen; Helen Hayes; Lorraine Gambling; McArdle, Harry J.; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2011-01-01

    Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream...

  20. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  1. Nutritional regulation of the anabolic fate of amino acids within the liver in mammals: concepts arising from in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, T J; Kraft, G; Dardevet, D; Polakof, S; Ortigues-Marty, I; Rémond, D; Savary-Auzeloux, I

    2015-06-01

    At the crossroad between nutrient supply and requirements, the liver plays a central role in partitioning nitrogenous nutrients among tissues. The present review examines the utilisation of amino acids (AA) within the liver in various physiopathological states in mammals and how the fates of AA are regulated. AA uptake by the liver is generally driven by the net portal appearance of AA. This coordination is lost when demands by peripheral tissues is important (rapid growth or lactation), or when certain metabolic pathways within the liver become a priority (synthesis of acute-phase proteins). Data obtained in various species have shown that oxidation of AA and export protein synthesis usually responds to nutrient supply. Gluconeogenesis from AA is less dependent on hepatic delivery and the nature of nutrients supplied, and hormones like insulin are involved in the regulatory processes. Gluconeogenesis is regulated by nutritional factors very differently between mammals (glucose absorbed from the diet is important in single-stomached animals, while in carnivores, glucose from endogenous origin is key). The underlying mechanisms explaining how the liver adapts its AA utilisation to the body requirements are complex. The highly adaptable hepatic metabolism must be capable to deal with the various nutritional/physiological challenges that mammals have to face to maintain homeostasis. Whereas the liver responds generally to nutritional parameters in various physiological states occurring throughout life, other complex signalling pathways at systemic and tissue level (hormones, cytokines, nutrients, etc.) are involved additionally in specific physiological/nutritional states to prioritise certain metabolic pathways (pathological states or when nutritional requirements are uncovered). PMID:26156215

  2. A model for the description of feeding regulation by mesozooplankton under different conditions of temperature and prey nutritional status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, Emmanuel; Hense, Inga; St. John, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling studies that consider mesozooplankton feeding regulation have primarily focused on the impact of prey nutritional status and temperature separately, despite experimental evidence for strong links between these two factors. Here, we propose a method based on optimal feeding...... and structural biochemical substances. They then regulate their feeding behaviour as well as metabolic physiology in order to satisfy their specific biochemical requirements for maintenance and growth. The approach is applicable to all heterotrophic plankton. In the example presented here the model has been...

  3. 6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thing-Fong Tzeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-3-decanone, a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 μmol/L treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB, which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation.

  4. PPARgamma-dependent regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 amplifies the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Michael; Schubert, Thomas; Schreiber, Andrea; Mayer, Sandra; Friedrich, Björn; Artunc, Ferruh; Todorov, Vladimir T

    2010-11-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays an important role in the regulation of renin gene expression. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is known to stimulate renin gene transcription acting through PPARγ-binding sequences in renin promoter. We show now that activation of PPARγ by unsaturated fatty acids or thiazolidinediones drastically augments the cAMP-dependent increase of renin mRNA in the human renin-producing cell line Calu-6. The underlying mechanism involves potentiation of agonist-induced cAMP increase and up-regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6) gene expression. We identified a palindromic element with a 3-bp spacer (Pal3) in AC6 intron 1 (AC6Pal3). AC6Pal3 bound PPARγ and mediated trans-activation by PPARγ agonist. AC6 knockdown decreased basal renin mRNA level and attenuated the maximal PPARγ-dependent stimulation of the cAMP-induced renin gene expression. AC6Pal3 decoy oligonucleotide abrogated the PPARγ-dependent potentiation of cAMP-induced renin gene expression. Treatment of mice with PPARγ agonist increased AC6 mRNA kidney levels. Our data suggest that in addition to its direct effect on renin gene transcription, PPARγ "sensitizes" renin gene to cAMP via trans-activation of AC6 gene. AC6 has been identified as PPARγ target gene with a functional Pal3 sequence.

  5. Scientific Method and the Regulation of Health and Nutritional Claims by the European Food Safety Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Darren

    2011-01-01

    The protection of European consumers from the false or misleading scientific and nutritional claims of food manufacturers took a step forward with the recent opinions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). As a risk assessment agency, the EFSA recently assessed and rejected a vast number of food claim forcing the withdrawal of many claims…

  6. Nutritional regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in the bovine mammary gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in milk is believed to be beneficial in terms of human health, thereby increasing the nutritional quality of milk. The proportion of UFA in milk is mainly dependent on the proportion of UFA in the diet, the degree of biohydrogenation of UFA

  7. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  8. Regulation of sulfur nutrition in wild-type and transgenic poplar over-expressing gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase in the cytosol as affected by atmospheric H2S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herschbach, C; van der Zalm, E; Schneider, A; Jouanin, L; De Kok, LJ; Rennenberg, H

    2000-01-01

    This study with poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) cuttings was aimed to test the hypothesis that sulfate uptake is regulated by demand-driven control and that this regulation is mediated by phloem-transported glutathione as a shoot-to-root signal. Therefore, sulfur nutrition was investigated a

  9. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies. PMID:25321635

  10. The Policy Environment for Food Safety and Nutrition: Regulating Quality and Quality Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Caswell, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    The policy environment surrounding issues of the safety and nutritional quality of the U.S. food supply is in considerable,although not unusual,turmoil. Calls for reform touch on every aspect of the regulatory effort,including standards,methods of achieving standards,and the choice of agencies for regulatory responsibility. The most recent large scale incident was in Washington,Idaho,California,and Nevada in early 1993 where approximately 500 people suffered cases of hemorrhagic colitis assoc...

  11. Nutrition function, health and related claims on packaged Australian food products--prevalence and compliance with regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter; Yeatman, Heather; Ridges, Leisa; Houston, Annalie; Rafferty, Jillianan; Ridges, Anna; Roesler, Leisa; Sobierajski, Megan; Spratt, Bronwyn

    2006-01-01

    Australia and New Zealand are currently reviewing the regulations governing nutrition function, health and related claims on foods. Health claims currently are not permitted on food labels, with one exception. The aim of this study was to describe the use of such claims on packaged food for sale in Australia (excluding nutrient content claims) prior to any changes to the regulations, and measure compliance with existing regulations. A survey was conducted of the labelling of 7850 products (including multiple pack sizes of individual foods) in 47 different food categories on sale in New South Wales in 2003. A total of 2098 nutrition function, health or related claims and 12 therapeutic claims were recorded. Fourteen percent of products carried some sort of claim. If nutrient function and general health maintenance claims are excluded, 8.1% of products carried a health or related claim. Using the claims categorisation proposed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand for a new standard on claims, general-level claims were found on 9.8% of products and high-level and therapeutic claims (illegal at the time) on 1.2%. The food categories with the highest proportion of products carrying claims were sports drinks (92%), energy drinks (84%), sports bars (57%) and breakfast cereals (54%). 118 high-level and therapeutic claims did not conform to current food standards and there were many general-level claims for ingredient benefits that were unlikely to be able to be scientifically substantiated. The results of this survey suggest that more than 5% of claims were not complying with the current regulations and that the standards were not being fully enforced. To be effective, the new standard will need to be accompanied by clear guidelines for manufacturers on requirements for substantiating claims. Comprehensive education and enforcement frameworks also will be needed, to reduce the number of illegal or apparently unsubstantiated claims.

  12. Chlorophyll-derived fatty acids regulate expression of lipid metabolizing enzymes in liver - a nutritional opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfrum Christian

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional values of fatty acid classes are normally discussed on the basis of their saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated structures with implicit understanding that they are straight-chain. Here we focus on chlorophyll-derived phytanic and pristanic acids that are minor isoprenoid branched-chain lipid constituents in food, but of unknown nutritional value. After describing the enzyme machinery that degrades these nutrient fatty acids in the peroxisome, we show by the criteria of a mouse model and of a human cell culture model that they induce with high potency expression of enzymes responsible for beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acids in the peroxisome. We summarize present mechanistic knowledge on fatty acid signaling to the nucleus, which involves protein/protein contacts between peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR and fatty acid binding protein (FABP. In this signaling event the branched-chain fatty acids are the most effective ones. Finally, on the basis of this nutrient-gene interaction we discuss nutritional opportunities and therapeutic aspects of the chlorophyll-derived fatty acids.

  13. Gain ranging amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gain ranging amplifier system is provided for use in the acquisition of data. Voltage offset compensation is utilized to correct errors in the gain ranging amplifier system caused by thermal drift and temperature dependent voltage offsets, both of which are associated with amplifiers in the gain ranging amplifier system

  14. CaCDPK15 positively regulates pepper responses to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and forms a positive-feedback loop with CaWRKY40 to amplify defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Wei; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; Liu, Zhiqin; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is a positive regulator of pepper (Capsicum annum) response to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterize CaCDPK15 in the defense signaling mediated by CaWRKY40. Pathogen-responsive TGA, W, and ERE boxes were identified in the CaCDPK15 promoter (pCaCDPK15), and pCaCDPK15-driven GUS expression was significantly enhanced in response to RSI and exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethephon. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaCDPK15 significantly increased the susceptibility of pepper to RSI and downregulated the immunity-associated markers CaNPR1, CaPR1, and CaDEF1. By contrast, transient CaCDPK15 overexpression significantly activated hypersensitive response associated cell death, upregulated the immunity-associated marker genes, upregulated CaWRKY40 expression, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its targets genes. Although CaCDPK15 failed to interact with CaWRKY40, the direct binding of CaWRKY40 to pCaCDPK15 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, which was significantly potentiated by RSI in pepper plants. These combined results suggest that RSI in pepper induces CaCDPK15 and indirectly activates downstream CaWRKY40, which in turn potentiates CaCDPK15 expression. This positive-feedback loop would amplify defense signaling against RSI and efficiently activate strong plant immunity. PMID:26928570

  15. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  16. Changes in self-efficacy for exercise and improved nutrition fostered by increased self-regulation among adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; McEwen, Kristin L

    2015-10-01

    Behavioral theory suggests that treatments that increase participants' use of self-regulatory skills and/or their feelings of ability (self-efficacy) will improve exercise and nutrition behaviors. In addition, psychosocial factors associated with increased exercise may carry over to improved eating. Self-regulation might enhance self-efficacy through feelings of ability to manage barriers to maintaining weight-loss behaviors. Sedentary adults with severe or morbid obesity (M age = 43 years; M BMI = 40.1 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month study within a community-based YMCA center. We randomly assigned participants to one of the two groups that incorporated the same cognitive-behavioral support of exercise paired with methods for controlled, healthy eating emphasizing either (a) self-efficacy (n = 138), or (b) self-regulation (n = 136) methods. Mixed model repeated measures ANOVAs indicated significant improvements in exercise- and eating-related self-regulation over 3 months, and exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy over 6 months. The Self-Regulation Treatment Group demonstrated greater improvements in self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake than the Self-Efficacy Group. Regression analyses indicated that for both exercise and eating, self-regulation change significantly predicted self-efficacy change. In separate equations, changes in exercise and fruit and vegetable intake mediated those relationships, and change in self-efficacy and the corresponding behavioral changes demonstrated reciprocal, mutually reinforcing, relationships. There was evidence of carry-over, or generalization, of both self-regulation and self-efficacy changes from an exercise context to an eating context. We discussed findings in terms of leveraging self-regulation to improve self-efficacy, and provide a rationale for why exercise is the strongest predictor of success with weight loss. Results may be used to inform future behavioral weight

  17. High voltage distributed amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, D.; Bahl, I.; Wirsing, K.

    1991-12-01

    A high-voltage distributed amplifier implemented in GaAs MMIC technology has demonstrated good circuit performance over at least two octave bandwidth. This technique allows for very broadband amplifier operation with good efficiency in satellite, active-aperture radar, and battery-powered systems. Also, by increasing the number of FETs, the amplifier can be designed to match different voltage rails. The circuit does require a small amount of additional chip size over conventional distributed amplifiers but does not require power dividers or additional matching networks. This circuit configuration should find great use in broadband power amplifier design.

  18. Twin children in The Gambia: evidence for genetic regulation of physical characteristics in the presence of sub-optimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, A; Banya, W; Hassan-King, M; Sisay, F; Bennett, S; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical growth characteristics are subject to genetic regulation. However, in developing countries, environmental factors such as food availability and frequent infections are associated with growth faltering which is particularly marked in infancy. We have conducted anthropometric measurements of a cohort of twin children aged less than 14 years living in a rural area of The Gambia to ascertain the extent to which genetic factors influence physical growth in the presence of a sub-optimal diet. Almost 25% of the children were more than 2SD below the median of the reference population in terms of their height-for-age Z score, indicating a marked level of undernutrition. Nevertheless, the within-pair variances were significantly less for monozygous than for dizygous twin pairs for the following variables: height, head circumference and body mass index (p < 0.01); weight (p < 0.02) and mid upper arm circumference (p < 0.1), indicating that there is a strong genetic influence on growth regulation despite the sub-optimal nutrition. PMID:7880093

  19. 香港食品营养标签修订规例浅析%Analysis of Revised Rood Nutrition Labelling Regulation of HongKong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林涛; 刘真真; 詹少彤; 黄伟; 杨雪娇

    2011-01-01

    本文从涵盖范围、罚则、营养标鉴标示项目、基本格式、规管容忍限、营养声称、豁兜等方面对香港食品营养标签修订规例进行分析,为食品生产者和消费者提供帮助和参考.%The range, punishment, remission, nutrition labelling, basic format, nutrition claims of the revised food nntrition labelling regulation of HongKong were analyzed, to provide reference for food manufacturers and consumers.

  20. Digital system provides superregulation of nanosecond amplifier-discriminator circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forges, K. G.

    1966-01-01

    Feedback system employing a digital logic comparator to detect and correct amplifier drift provides stable gain characteristics for nanosecond amplifiers used in counting applications. Additional anticoincidence logic enables application of the regulation circuit to the amplifier and discriminator while they are mounted in an operable circuit.

  1. Characterization of VuMATE1 expression in response to iron nutrition and aluminum stress reveals adaptation of rice bean (Vigna umbellata to acid soils through cis regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiya eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acidic soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released.

  2. The nutritional status of Methanosarcina acetivorans regulates glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis and glycolysis fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Martínez, Michel Geovanni; Encalada, Rusely; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Pineda, Erika; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Reyes-García, Marco Antonio; Saavedra, Emma; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Marín-Hernández, Alvaro; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-05-01

    Gluconeogenesis is an essential pathway in methanogens because they are unable to use exogenous hexoses as carbon source for cell growth. With the aim of understanding the regulatory mechanisms of central carbon metabolism in Methanosarcina acetivorans, the present study investigated gene expression, the activities and metabolic regulation of key enzymes, metabolite contents and fluxes of gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and glycogen synthesis/degradation pathways. Cells were grown with methanol as a carbon source. Key enzymes were kinetically characterized at physiological pH/temperature. Active consumption of methanol during exponential cell growth correlated with significant methanogenesis, gluconeogenic flux and steady glycogen synthesis. After methanol exhaustion, cells reached the stationary growth phase, which correlated with the rise in glycogen consumption and glycolytic flux, decreased methanogenesis, negligible acetate production and an absence of gluconeogenesis. Elevated activities of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthetase complex and pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase suggested the generation of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate for glycogen synthesis. In the early stationary growth phase, the transcript contents and activities of pyruvate phosphate dikinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and glycogen synthase decreased, whereas those of glycogen phosphorylase, ADP-phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase increased. Therefore, glycogen and gluconeogenic metabolites were synthesized when an external carbon source was provided. Once such a carbon source became depleted, glycolysis and methanogenesis fed by glycogen degradation provided the ATP supply. Weak inhibition of key enzymes by metabolites suggested that the pathways evaluated were mainly transcriptionally regulated. Because glycogen metabolism and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis are not present in all methanogens, the overall data suggest that glycogen storage might represent an environmental

  3. Oscillators and operational amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation...... of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed....

  4. The liver-enriched transcription factor CREBH is nutritionally regulated and activated by fatty acids and PPAR{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danno, Hirosuke; Ishii, Kiyo-aki; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Mikami, Motoki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yabe, Sachiko; Furusawa, Mika; Kumadaki, Shin; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yatoh, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi, E-mail: hshimano@md.tsukuba.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine (Endocrinology and Metabolism), Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2010-01-08

    To elucidate the physiological role of CREBH, the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of CREBH were estimated in various feeding states of wild and obesity mice. In the fast state, the expression of CREBH mRNA and nuclear protein were high and profoundly suppressed by refeeding in the wild-type mice. In ob/ob mice, the refeeding suppression was impaired. The diet studies suggested that CREBH expression was activated by fatty acids. CREBH mRNA levels in the mouse primary hepatocytes were elevated by addition of the palmitate, oleate and eicosapenonate. It was also induced by PPAR{alpha} agonist and repressed by PPAR{alpha} antagonist. Luciferase reporter gene assays indicated that the CREBH promoter activity was induced by fatty acids and co-expression of PPAR{alpha}. Deletion studies identified the PPRE for PPAR{alpha} activation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that PPAR{alpha} directly binds to the PPRE. Activation of CREBH at fasting through fatty acids and PPAR{alpha} suggest that CREBH is involved in nutritional regulation.

  5. Paradoxical regulation of human FGF21 by both fasting and feeding signals: is FGF21 a nutritional adaptation factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Uebanso

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has recently emerged as a metabolic hormone involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in mouse, but the regulatory mechanisms and actions of FGF21 in humans remain unclear. Here we have investigated the regulatory mechanisms of the human FGF21 gene at the transcriptional level. A deletion study of the human FGF21 promoter (-1672 to +230 bp revealed two fasting signals, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and glucagon signals, that independently induced human FGF21 gene transcription in mouse primary hepatocytes. In addition, two feeding signals, glucose and xylitol, also dose-dependently induced human FGF21 gene transcription and mRNA expression in both human HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. FGF21 protein expression and secretion were also induced by high glucose stimulation. The human FGF21 promoter (-1672 to +230 bp was found to have a carbohydrate-responsive element at -380 to -366 bp, which is distinct from the PPAR response element (PPRE. Knock-down of the carbohydrate response element binding protein by RNAi diminished glucose-induced human FGF21 transcription. Moreover, we found that a region from -555 to -443 bp of the human FGF21 promoter region exerts an important role in the activation of basic transcription. In conclusion, human FGF21 gene expression is paradoxically and independently regulated by both fasting and feeding signals. These regulatory mechanisms suggest that human FGF21 is increased with nutritional crisis, including starvation and overfeeding.

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungi enhance nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Nothofagus dombeyi under drought conditions by regulating assimilative enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maricel; Huygens, Dries; Olivares, Erick; Saavedra, Isabel; Alberdi, Miren; Valenzuela, Eduardo

    2009-08-01

    Drought stress conditions (DC) reduce plant growth and nutrition, restraining the sustainable reestablishment of Nothofagus dombeyi in temperate south Chilean forest ecosystems. Ectomycorrhizal symbioses have been documented to enhance plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake under drought, but the regulation of involved assimilative enzymes remains unclear. We studied 1-year-old N. dombeyi (Mirb.) Oerst. plants in association with the ectomycorrhizal fungi Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch. and Descolea antartica Sing. In greenhouse experiments, shoot and root dry weights, mycorrhizal colonization, foliar N and P concentrations, and root enzyme activities [glutamate synthase (glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT), EC 1.4.1.13-14), glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2-4), nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.6.1), and acid phosphomonoesterase (PME, EC 3.1.3.1-2)] were determined as a function of soil-water content. Inoculation of N. dombeyi with P. tinctorius and D. antartica significantly stimulated plant growth and increased plant foliar N and P concentrations, especially under DC. Ectomycorrhizal inoculation increased the activity of all studied enzymes relative to non-mycorrhizal plants under drought. We speculate that GDH is a key enzyme involved in the enhancement of ectomycorrhizal carbon (C) availability by fuelling the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under conditions of drought-induced carbon deficit. All studied assimilative enzymes of the ectomycorrhizal associations, involved in C, N, and P transfers, are closely interlinked and interdependent. The up-regulation of assimilative enzyme activities by ectomycorrhizal fungal root colonizers acts as a functional mechanism to increase seedling endurance to drought. We insist upon incorporating ectomycorrhizal inoculation in existing Chilean afforestation programs.

  7. Nutritional Control of DNA Replication Initiation through the Proteolysis and Regulated Translation of DnaA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, David J; Heinen, Christian; Schramm, Frederic D; Thüring, Marietta; Aakre, Christopher D; Murray, Sean M; Laub, Michael T; Jonas, Kristina

    2015-07-01

    Bacteria can arrest their own growth and proliferation upon nutrient depletion and under various stressful conditions to ensure their survival. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppressing growth and arresting the cell cycle under such conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify post-transcriptional mechanisms that help enforce a cell-cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus following nutrient limitation and during entry into stationary phase by limiting the accumulation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator protein. DnaA is rapidly degraded by the Lon protease following nutrient limitation. However, the rate of DnaA degradation is not significantly altered by changes in nutrient availability. Instead, we demonstrate that decreased nutrient availability downregulates dnaA translation by a mechanism involving the 5' untranslated leader region of the dnaA transcript; Lon-dependent proteolysis of DnaA then outpaces synthesis, leading to the elimination of DnaA and the arrest of DNA replication. Our results demonstrate how regulated translation and constitutive degradation provide cells a means of precisely and rapidly modulating the concentration of key regulatory proteins in response to environmental inputs. PMID:26134530

  8. Nutritional Control of DNA Replication Initiation through the Proteolysis and Regulated Translation of DnaA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leslie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can arrest their own growth and proliferation upon nutrient depletion and under various stressful conditions to ensure their survival. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for suppressing growth and arresting the cell cycle under such conditions remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify post-transcriptional mechanisms that help enforce a cell-cycle arrest in Caulobacter crescentus following nutrient limitation and during entry into stationary phase by limiting the accumulation of DnaA, the conserved replication initiator protein. DnaA is rapidly degraded by the Lon protease following nutrient limitation. However, the rate of DnaA degradation is not significantly altered by changes in nutrient availability. Instead, we demonstrate that decreased nutrient availability downregulates dnaA translation by a mechanism involving the 5' untranslated leader region of the dnaA transcript; Lon-dependent proteolysis of DnaA then outpaces synthesis, leading to the elimination of DnaA and the arrest of DNA replication. Our results demonstrate how regulated translation and constitutive degradation provide cells a means of precisely and rapidly modulating the concentration of key regulatory proteins in response to environmental inputs.

  9. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of plant sulphate starvation and resupply provides novel information on transcriptional regulation of metabolism associated with sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional responses in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Monika eBielecka; Mutsumi eWatanabe; Wolf Rüdiger Scheible; Rosa eMorcuende; Malcolm John Hawkesford; Holger eHesse; Rainer eHoefgen

    2015-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Reaching a thorough understanding of the molecular basis for changes in plant metabolism depending on the sulphur-nutritional status at the systems level will advance our basic knowledge and help target future crop improvement. Although the transcriptional responses induced by sulphate starvation have been studied in the past, knowledge of the regulation of sulphur metabolism is still fragmentary. This work focuses on the...

  10. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of plant sulfate starvation and resupply provides novel information on transcriptional regulation of metabolism associated with sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional responses in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Bielecka, Monika; Watanabe, Mutsumi; Morcuende, Rosa; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Hesse, Holger; Hoefgen, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Reaching a thorough understanding of the molecular basis for changes in plant metabolism depending on the sulfur-nutritional status at the systems level will advance our basic knowledge and help target future crop improvement. Although the transcriptional responses induced by sulfate starvation have been studied in the past, knowledge of the regulation of sulfur metabolism is still fragmentary. This work focuses on the dis...

  11. Nutritional and hormonal regulation of the TOR effector 4E-binding protein (4E-BP) in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Saurabh G.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes require blood for egg development, and, as a consequence, they transmit pathogens of devastating diseases. Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a key pathway linking blood feeding and egg development in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We show that the regulation of the TOR effector translational repressor 4E-BP is finely tuned to the nutritional requirements of the female mosquito, and it occurs at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Immediately after blood feeding, 4E-BP ...

  12. Catabolic signaling pathways, atrogenes, and ubiquitinated proteins are regulated by the nutritional status in the muscle of the fine flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N Fuentes

    Full Text Available A description of the intracellular mechanisms that modulate skeletal muscle atrophy in early vertebrates is still lacking. In this context, we used the fine flounder, a unique and intriguing fish model, which exhibits remarkably slow growth due to low production of muscle-derived IGF-I, a key growth factor that has been widely acknowledged to prevent and revert muscle atrophy. Key components of the atrophy system were examined in this species using a detailed time-course of sampling points, including two contrasting nutritional periods. Under basal conditions high amounts of the atrogenes MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1 were observed. During fasting, the activation of the P38/MAPK and Akt/FoxO signaling pathways decreased; whereas, the activation of the IκBα/NFκB pathway increased. These changes in signal transduction activation were concomitant with a strong increase in MuRF-1, Atrogin-1, and protein ubiquitination. During short-term refeeding, the P38/MAPK and Akt/FoxO signaling pathways were strongly activated, whereas the activation of the IκBα/NFκB pathway decreased significantly. The expression of both atrogenes, as well as the ubiquitination of proteins, dropped significantly during the first hour of refeeding, indicating a strong anti-atrophic condition during the onset of refeeding. During long-term refeeding, Akt remained activated at higher than basal levels until the end of refeeding, and Atrogin-1 expression remained significantly lower during this period. This study shows that the components of the atrophy system in skeletal muscle appeared early in the evolution of vertebrates and some mechanisms have been conserved, whereas others have not. These results represent an important achievement for the area of fish muscle physiology, showing an integrative view of the atrophy system in a non-mammalian species and contributing to novel insights on the molecular basis of muscle growth regulation in earlier vertebrates.

  13. Cloning, functional characterization and nutritional regulation of Δ6 fatty acyl desaturase in the herbivorous euryhaline teleost Scatophagus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; Wang, Shuqi; You, Cuihong; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish are generally unable or have low ability for the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from C18 PUFA precursors, with some notable exceptions including the herbivorous marine teleost Siganus canaliculatus in which such a capability was recently demonstrated. To determine whether this is a unique feature of S. canaliculatus or whether it is common to the herbivorous marine teleosts, LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways were investigated in the herbivorous euryhaline Scatophagus argus. A putative desaturase gene was cloned and functionally characterized, and tissue expression and nutritional regulation were investigated. The full-length cDNA was 1972 bp, containing a 1338 bp open-reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 445 amino acids, which possessed all the characteristic features of fatty acyl desaturase (Fad). Functional characterization by heterologous expression in yeast showed the protein product of the cDNA efficiently converted 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6 to 18:4n-3 and 18:3n-6, respectively, indicating Δ6 desaturation activity. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that highest Δ6 fad mRNA expression was detected in liver followed by brain, with lower expression in other tissues including intestine, eye, muscle, adipose, heart kidney and gill, and lowest expression in stomach and spleen. The expression of Δ6 fad was significantly affected by dietary lipid and, especially, fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in liver of fish fed a diet with a ratio of 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 of 1.72:1. The results indicated that S. argus may have a different LC-PUFA biosynthetic system from S. canaliculatus despite possessing similar habitats and feeding habits suggesting that LC-PUFA biosynthesis may not be common to all marine herbivorous teleosts.

  14. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research is focused on all-optical signal processing, aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for an efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods, involving high-temperature processes performed in highly pure environment, slow down the fabrication and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, ...

  15. RF Power Amplifier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lokay

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available The special program is presented for the demonstration of RF power transistor amplifiers for the purposes of the high-school education in courses of radio transmitters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal 6. 0 and enables to study the waveforms in selected points of the amplifier and to draw the trajectories of the working point in a plot of output transistor characteristics.

  16. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  17. Nutritional treatment for inborn errors of metabolism: indications, regulations, and availability of medical foods and dietary supplements using phenylketonuria as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Kathryn M; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A; Huntington, Kathleen L

    2012-09-01

    Medical foods and dietary supplements are used to treat rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) identified through state-based universal newborn screening. These products are regulated under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and dietary supplement statutes. The lack of harmony in terminology used to refer to medical foods and dietary supplements and the misuse of words that imply that FDA regulates these products as drugs have led to confusion. These products are expensive and, although they are used for medical treatment of IEM, third-party payer coverage of these products is inconsistent across the United States. Clinicians and families report termination of coverage in late adolescence, failure to cover treatment during pregnancy, coverage for select conditions only, or no coverage. We describe the indications for specific nutritional treatment products for IEM and their regulation, availability, and categorization. We conclude with a discussion of the problems that have contributed to the paradox of identifying individuals with IEM through newborn screening but not guaranteeing that they receive optimal treatment. Throughout the paper, we use the nutritional treatment of phenylketonuria as an example of IEM treatment. PMID:22854513

  18. Mechanisms of dietary response in mice and primates: a role for EGR1 in regulating the reaction to human-specific nutritional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Weng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans have a widely different diet from other primate species, and are dependent on its high nutritional content. The molecular mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the human diet are currently unknown. Here, we addressed this question by investigating whether the gene expression response observed in mice fed human and chimpanzee diets involves the same regulatory mechanisms as expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. RESULTS: Using mouse and primate transcriptomic data, we identified the transcription factor EGR1 (early growth response 1 as a putative regulator of diet-related differential gene expression between human and chimpanzee livers. Specifically, we predict that EGR1 regulates the response to the high caloric content of human diets. However, we also show that close to 90% of the dietary response to the primate diet found in mice, is not observed in primates. This might be explained by changes in tissue-specific gene expression between taxa. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the gene expression response to the nutritionally rich human diet is partially mediated by the transcription factor EGR1. While this EGR1-driven response is conserved between mice and primates, the bulk of the mouse response to human and chimpanzee dietary differences is not observed in primates. This result highlights the rapid evolution of diet-related expression regulation and underscores potential limitations of mouse models in dietary studies.

  19. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  20. To the Federal Trade Commission in the Matter of a Trade Regulation Rule on Food/Nutrition Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Robert B.

    Food advertising and its effects on children are discussed in this document petitioning the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to amend a proposed rule on food promotion for the benefit of children under twelve. Extensive information is presented on television food commercials and their influence on children's nutritional beliefs and eating habits.…

  1. A micropower electrocardiogram amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, L; Misra, V; Sarpeshkar, R

    2009-10-01

    We introduce an electrocardiogram (EKG) preamplifier with a power consumption of 2.8 muW, 8.1 muVrms input-referred noise, and a common-mode rejection ratio of 90 dB. Compared to previously reported work, this amplifier represents a significant reduction in power with little compromise in signal quality. The improvement in performance may be attributed to many optimizations throughout the design including the use of subthreshold transistor operation to improve noise efficiency, gain-setting capacitors versus resistors, half-rail operation wherever possible, optimal power allocations among amplifier blocks, and the sizing of devices to improve matching and reduce noise. We envision that the micropower amplifier can be used as part of a wireless EKG monitoring system powered by rectified radio-frequency energy or other forms of energy harvesting like body vibration and body heat. PMID:23853270

  2. A vircator amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cavity vircator has demonstrated that formation of a virtual cathode in a cavity can improve microwave production efficiency and narrow the radiation bandwidth. When the virtual cathode radiates the microwave fields grow from noise. For each cavity, there is only one or a limited number of allowable modes for a given frequency. In this paper, a novel device - a vircator amplifier is described. The device consists of a relativistic magnetron and a cavity vircator with both devices powered by a 1 MeV, 3 Ω, 65 ns FWHM pulser. The idea is to inject a signal from the magnetron before and during virtual cathode formation in a cavity. The injected signal should lock the frequency and enhance electron bunching and therefore improve efficiency further. Experiments underway to evaluate the amplifier operating characteristics are discussed. The applicability of vircator amplifiers to the next generation of high-power microwave devices are addressed

  3. 植物占位立体营养调控研究%Study on Regulation and Control of Space-occupying Stereo Nutrition in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永科; 王立祥; 廖允成

    2012-01-01

    Taking maize plants cultivated in the field by 4 different modes as test materials, this paper analyzed the space - occupying stereo nutrition in plant and its regulation and control by using the systematical analysis method. The results indicated that: in the process of close planting of population crop, the occupation of stereo space of plant together with light, heat, water, gas (CO2) and fertilizer (mineral elements) were the essential factors affecting plant growth and population yield; they were also the basement of plant survival, growth, canopy nutrition and soil nutrition. The nutrition status of population crop could be quantificationally compared by the incircle area of single plant or by the incircle canopy cylinder volume of single plant and the cylinder volume of rhizospheric soil. In conclusion, the space -occupying stereo nutrition in plant can be regulated and controlled by changing the row spacing and plant spacing of plants, and by taking different configuration modes of plants in the field.%目的:分析研究植物占位立体空间营养及其调控.方法:以4种不同玉米田间种植型式为素材,采用系统分析的方法.结果:群体作物密植过程中,植物占位立体空间与光、热、水、气( CO2)、肥(矿质元素)同是影响植物生长发育和群体产量的要素;是植物存活和生长发育冠层营养和土体营养的承载依托;可以用植物单株内切圆面积或单株内切圆冠层圆柱体和根系土体的圆柱体体积大小对群体作物的营养状况进行量化比较.结论:人类可通过植物田间株、行距调节和采用不同田间配置型式对植物占位立体空间营养进行调控.

  4. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  5. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahy; Goldberg, Lew

    2002-12-17

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  6. 维生素E对动物营养调控的研究进展%Research Progress of Vitamin E on the Regulation of Animal Nutrition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方福平; 夏先林; 顾明

    2012-01-01

    Vitmnin E is a major nutrition - regulating liposoluble vitamin in nutritions of animals with a biological function of biological antioxidation, better immunization, anti - irritability and stable reproductive function of animals. Therefore, this article collects and arranges some materials of vitamin E such as function principle, method and effect of nutritionregulating only for reference.%维生素E是一种脂溶性维生素,在动物体内具有生物抗氧化、增强免疫、抗应激及维持动物正常生殖机能等生物学功能,是动物营养中的重要营养调控剂。文章就维生素E的作用原理、营养调控方法及效果等方面综述了维生素E对动物营养调控的研究进展。

  7. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V

    2010-01-01

    We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd. Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances found were: ZNT1, mature leaves of young plants; ZNT5, young leaves of young plants; MTP1 (= ZTP1 = ZAT), young leaves of both young and mature plants. Surprisingly different cellular expression patterns were found for ZNT1 and ZNT5, both belonging to the ZIP family of transition metal transporters: ZNT1, photosynthetic mesophyll and bundle sheath cells; ZNT5, nonphotosynthetic epidermal metal storage cells and bundle sheath cells. Thus, ZNT1 may function in micronutrient nutrition while ZNT5 may be involved in metal storage associated with hyperaccumulation. Cadmium inhibited the uptake of Zn, iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn), probably by competing for transporters or by interfering with the regulation of transporter gene expression. Cadmium-induced changes in cellular expression for ZNT1, ZNT5 and MTP1 could also be part of plant acclimatization to Cd toxicity. Defence against Cd toxicity involved enhanced uptake of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and sulphur (S). PMID:19843304

  8. Electronic amplifiers for automatic compensators

    CERN Document Server

    Polonnikov, D Ye

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Amplifiers for Automatic Compensators presents the design and operation of electronic amplifiers for use in automatic control and measuring systems. This book is composed of eight chapters that consider the problems of constructing input and output circuits of amplifiers, suppression of interference and ensuring high sensitivity.This work begins with a survey of the operating principles of electronic amplifiers in automatic compensator systems. The succeeding chapters deal with circuit selection and the calculation and determination of the principal characteristics of amplifiers, as

  9. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  10. Effects of the Non-Nutritive Sweeteners on Glucose Metabolism and Appetite Regulating Hormones: Systematic Review of Observational Prospective Studies and Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Romo, Alonso; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Brito-Córdova, Griselda X.; Gómez Díaz, Rita A.; Vilchis Valentín, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones are not clear. There is an ongoing debate concerning NNS use and deleterious changes in metabolism. Objectives The aim of this review is to analyze the scientific available evidence regarding the effects of NNS on glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones. Data Sources and Study Eligibility Criteria We identified human observational studies evaluating the relation between NNS consumption and obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, in addition to clinical trials evaluating the effects of NNS in glucose metabolism and appetite regulating hormones. Results Fourteen observational studies evaluating the association between NNS consumption and the development of metabolic diseases and twenty-eight clinical trials studying the effects of NNS on metabolism were included. Finally, two meta-analyses evaluating the association between the consumption of NNS-containing beverages and the development of type 2 diabetes were identified. Conclusions Some observational studies suggest an association between NNS consumption and development of metabolic diseases; however, adiposity is a confounder frequently found in observational studies. The effects of the NNS on glucose metabolism are not clear. The results of the identified clinical trials are contradictory and are not comparable because of the major existing differences between them. Studies evaluating specific NNS, with an adequate sample size, including a homogeneous study group, identifying significant comorbidities, with an appropriate control group, with an appropriate exposure time, and considering adjustment for confounder variables such as adiposity are needed. PMID:27537496

  11. Wideband amplifier design

    CERN Document Server

    Hollister, Allen L

    2007-01-01

    In this book, the theory needed to understand wideband amplifier design using the simplest models possible will be developed. This theory will be used to develop algebraic equations that describe particular circuits used in high frequency design so that the reader develops a ""gut level"" understanding of the process and circuit. SPICE and Genesys simulations will be performed to show the accuracy of the algebraic models. By looking at differences between the algebraic equations and the simulations, new algebraic models will be developed that include parameters originally left out of the model

  12. Building valve amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Building Valve Amplifiers is a unique hands-on guide for anyone working with tube audio equipment--as an electronics hobbyist, audiophile or audio engineer. This 2nd Edition builds on the success of the first with technology and technique revisions throughout and, significantly, a major new self-build project, worked through step-by-step, which puts into practice the principles and techniques introduced throughout the book. Particular attention has been paid to answering questions commonly asked by newcomers to the world of the valve, whether audio enthusiasts tackling their first build or

  13. Alterations in Hepatic FGF21, Co-Regulated Genes, and Upstream Metabolic Genes in Response to Nutrition, Ketosis and Inflammation in Peripartal Holstein Cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Akbar

    Full Text Available In rodents, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 has emerged as a key metabolic regulator produced by liver. To gather preliminary data on the potential importance of FGF1, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes, we examined the hepatic mRNA expression in response to nutrition and inflammation in dairy cows. In experiment 1, induction of ketosis through feed restriction on d 5 postpartum upregulated FGF21, its co-receptor KLB, and PPARA but only elicited a numerical increase in serum FGF21 concentration. In experiment 2, cows in control (CON or receiving 50 g/d of L-carnitine (C50 from -14 through 21 d had increased FGF21, PPARA, and NFIL3 on d 10 compared with d 2 postpartum. In contrast, compared with CON and C50, 100 g/d L-carnitine (C100 resulted in lower FGF21, KLB, ANGPTL4, and ARNTL expression on d 10. In experiment 3, cows were fed during the dry period either a higher-energy (OVE; 1.62 Mcal/kg DM or lower-energy (CON; 1.34 Mcal/kg DM diet and received 0 (OVE:N, CON:N or 200 μg of LPS (OVE:Y, CON:Y into the mammary gland at d 7 postpartum. For FGF21 mRNA expression in CON, the LPS challenge (CON:Y prevented a decrease in expression between d 7 and 14 postpartum such that cows in CON:N had a 4-fold lower expression on d 14 compared with d 7. The inflammatory stimulus induced by LPS in CON:Y resulted in upregulation of PPARA on d 14 to a similar level as cows in OVE:N. In OVE:Y, expression of PPARA was lower than CON:N on d 7 and remained unchanged on d 14. On d 7, LPS led to a 4-fold greater serum FGF21 only in OVE but not in CON cows. In fact, OVE:Y reached the same serum FGF21 concentration as CON:N, suggesting a carryover effect of dietary energy level on signaling mechanisms within liver. Overall, results indicate that nutrition, ketosis, and inflammation during the peripartal period can alter hepatic FGF21, co-regulated genes, and upstream metabolic genes to various extents. The functional outcome of these changes merits

  14. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  15. DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMEDLEY,J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BOHON, J.; CHANG, X.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; RAO, T.; WU, Q.

    2007-11-26

    High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while protecting the cathode from the accelerator. The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.

  16. Nutrition Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  17. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  18. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  19. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  20. The centenary of the British Food Journal, 1899-1999 - changing issues in food safety regulation and nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Describes the life history of the British Food Journal, its changing editorial team, ownership and editorial focus. The authors have used much wider source material than the archives of the journal, now in its 100th year. The journal was always closely identified with the safety of food, its adulteration and the government’s duty to safeguard the public. The second section reviews the profession and role of the public analyst, in particular the history and development of the Society of Public Analysts. The next and longest section of the monograph is devoted to an interesting examination of food safety, nutrition and food manufacturing issues over the last 100 years. Many of the points raised are illustrated by excerpts from papers written in BFJ and included as Appendices to the monograph. Food irradiation was first raised as a subject in the journal in 1928! Bread and milk as staples in the British diet are looked at in some detail in terms of their ingredients and health properties

  1. Identification of a novel transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β6 gene in fish: regulation in skeletal muscle by nutritional state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakowlew Sonia B

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The potential role of TGF-βs in fish muscle growth is not known. Results Here we report the molecular characterization, developmental and tissue expression and regulation by nutritional state of a novel TGF-β gene from a marine fish, the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata. S. aurata TGF-β6 is encoded by seven exons 361, 164, 133, 111, 181, 154, and 156 bp in length and is translated into a 420-amino acid peptide. The exons are separated by six introns: >643, 415, 93, 1250, 425 and >287 bp in length. Although the gene organization is most similar to mouse and chicken TGF-β2, the deduced amino acid sequence represents a novel TGF-β that is unique to fish that we have named TGF-β6. The molecule has conserved putative functional residues, including a cleavage motif (RXXR and nine cysteine residues that are characteristic of TGF-β. Semi-quantitative analysis of TGF-β6 expression revealed differential expression in various tissues of adult fish with high levels in skin and muscle, very low levels in liver, and moderate levels in other tissues including brain, eye and pituitary. TGF-β6 is expressed in larvae on day of hatching and increases as development progresses. A fasting period of five days of juvenile fish resulted in increased levels of TGF-β6 expression in white skeletal muscle compared to that in fed fish, which was slightly attenuated by one injection of growth hormone. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights about genomic information and nutritional regulation of TGF-β6 which will aid the further investigation of the S. aurata TGF-β6 gene in association with muscle growth. The finding of a novel TGF-β6 molecule, unique to fish, will contribute to the understanding of the evolution of the TGF

  2. Nanoscale electromechanical parametric amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose; Zettl, Alexander

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to a parametric amplifier. In one aspect, a device includes an electron source electrode, a counter electrode, and a pumping electrode. The electron source electrode may include a conductive base and a flexible conductor. The flexible conductor may have a first end and a second end, with the second end of the flexible conductor being coupled to the conductive base. A cross-sectional dimension of the flexible conductor may be less than about 100 nanometers. The counter electrode may be disposed proximate the first end of the flexible conductor and spaced a first distance from the first end of the flexible conductor. The pumping electrode may be disposed proximate a length of the flexible conductor and spaced a second distance from the flexible conductor.

  3. Effects of Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) venom and parasitism on nutritional content regulation in host Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Zhi-Hang; Yang, Wei; Xu, Dan-Ping; Yang, Chun-Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    To explore the mechanisms by which the wasp Scleroderma sichuanensis Xiao regulates the physiology and biochemistry of its host, effects of S. sichuanensis venom and parasitism on host the Tenebrio molitor L. pupae were examined. Significant differences in nutritional content were noted between parasitized and non-parasitized pupae and between venom- and phosphate buffered saline-injected pupae. When pupae were injected with venom, the fat body could not be disintegrated into granules; however, when pupae were parasitized, fat-body disintegration occurred. Electrophoresis showed no differences in hemolymph protein content between parasitized pupae and those injected with venom, indicating that the wasp did not have narrow-spectrum peptides. These findings confirmed that S. sichuanensis was a typical idiobiont ectoparasitoid wasp, and that nutrient regulation was similar between idiobiont and koinobiont wasps. The strong similarities between the two treatments suggest that venom injection is a major factor responsible for changes in host nutrient content. The wasp fed mainly on reducing sugars, free amino acids, and fat-body tissues; larval fat bodies were derived from hemolymph and from host tissue. Our findings suggest that lipid catabolism might be accelerated, and that lipid biosynthesis might be inhibited, when host pupae are parasitized or injected with venom. In addition to venom, physiological and biochemical changes that occur during the parasitic process might be caused by venom, ovarian proteins, saliva, or secretions. PMID:27441136

  4. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther;

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  5. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  6. Rationale for New York City’s Regulations on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Screen Time in Early Child Care Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura; Leviton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with health risks in childhood, and it increases the risk of adult obesity, which is associated with many chronic diseases. Therefore, implementing policies that may prevent obesity at young ages is important. In 2007, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene implemented new regulations for early childhood centers to increase physical activity, limit screen time, and provide healthful beverage offerings (ie, restrict sugar-sweetened beverages f...

  7. A modular positive feedback-based gene amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao Kaustubh D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive feedback is a common mechanism used in the regulation of many gene circuits as it can amplify the response to inducers and also generate binary outputs and hysteresis. In the context of electrical circuit design, positive feedback is often considered in the design of amplifiers. Similar approaches, therefore, may be used for the design of amplifiers in synthetic gene circuits with applications, for example, in cell-based sensors. Results We developed a modular positive feedback circuit that can function as a genetic signal amplifier, heightening the sensitivity to inducer signals as well as increasing maximum expression levels without the need for an external cofactor. The design utilizes a constitutively active, autoinducer-independent variant of the quorum-sensing regulator LuxR. We experimentally tested the ability of the positive feedback module to separately amplify the output of a one-component tetracycline sensor and a two-component aspartate sensor. In each case, the positive feedback module amplified the response to the respective inducers, both with regards to the dynamic range and sensitivity. Conclusions The advantage of our design is that the actual feedback mechanism depends only on a single gene and does not require any other modulation. Furthermore, this circuit can amplify any transcriptional signal, not just one encoded within the circuit or tuned by an external inducer. As our design is modular, it can potentially be used as a component in the design of more complex synthetic gene circuits.

  8. Nutritional regulation of glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression in liver of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)

    OpenAIRE

    Caseras Surribas, Anna; Metón Teijeiro, Isidoro; Vives, C.; Egea Liria, Miriam; Fernández González, Felipe Javier; Vázquez Baanante, Ma. Isabel

    2002-01-01

    To examine the role of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in glucose homeostasis in the diabeteslike experimental model of carnivorous fish, we analysed postprandial variations and the effect of starvation, ration size and diet composition on the regulation of G6Pase expression at the enzyme activity and mRNA level in the liver of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata ). G6Pase expression increased in long-term starved or energy-restricted fish. In contrast to data reported for other fish species, sh...

  9. Nutritional regulation and role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta in fatty acid catabolism in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Dorte; Luquet, Serge; Nogueira, Véronique;

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors primarily involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARdelta displays strong expression in tissues with high lipid metabolism, such as adipose, intestine and muscle. Its role in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. After a 24-h...... of genes involved in lipid metabolism and increment of fatty acid oxidation. Overexpression of PPARdelta enhanced these cellular responses, whereas expression of the dominant-negative mutant exerts opposite effects. These data strongly support a role for PPARdelta in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation...... in skeletal muscle and in adaptive response of this tissue to lipid catabolism....

  10. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...

  11. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis of plant sulphate starvation and resupply provides novel information on transcriptional regulation of metabolism associated with sulphur, nitrogen and phosphorus nutritional responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eBielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth and development. Reaching a thorough understanding of the molecular basis for changes in plant metabolism depending on the sulphur-nutritional status at the systems level will advance our basic knowledge and help target future crop improvement. Although the transcriptional responses induced by sulphate starvation have been studied in the past, knowledge of the regulation of sulphur metabolism is still fragmentary. This work focuses on the discovery of candidates for regulatory genes such as transcription factors (TFs using ‘omics technologies. For this purpose a short term sulphate-starvation / re-supply approach was used. ATH1 microarray studies and metabolite determinations yielded 21 TFs which responded more than 2-fold at the transcriptional level to sulphate starvation. Categorization by response behaviors under sulphate-starvation / re-supply and other nutrient starvations such as nitrate and phosphate allowed determination of whether the TF genes are specific for or common between distinct mineral nutrient depletions. Extending this co-behavior analysis to the whole transcriptome data set enabled prediction of putative downstream genes. Additionally, combinations of transcriptome and metabolome data allowed identification of relationships between TFs and downstream responses, namely, expression changes in biosynthetic genes and subsequent metabolic responses. Effect chains on glucosinolate and polyamine biosynthesis are discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from this study provides a blueprint for an integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabolomics and application for the identification of uncharacterized genes.

  12. International Standardization Activities for Optical Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haruo Okamura

    2003-01-01

    International standardization activities for Optical Amplifiers at IECTC86 and ITU-T SG15 are reviewed. Current discussions include Optical Amplifier safety guideline, Reliability standard, Rest methods of Noise and PMD, Definitions of Raman amplifier parameters and OA classification.

  13. [Community nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta Bartrina, J; Pérez Rodrigo, C; Serra Majem, L I

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of scientific and epidemiological evidence indicates that diet and health are related: diet may be a risk factor or have potential protective effects. As a consequence, the focus of nutrition research has experienced a shift towards qualitative aspects of diet which could influence chronic disease, longevity, quality of life and physical and cognitive performance, leading to the development of Community Nutrition. The main undertakings in a Community Nutrition Unit are related to the identification, assessment and monitoring of nutrition problems at the community level and to planning, design, implementation and evaluation of nutrition intervention programs. Such programs combine a number of suitable strategies in a whole population approach, a high risk approach or an approach targeted at specific population groups, and are implemented in different settings, such as the work place, schools or community organizations. Community nutrition interventions aim to gradually achieve change in eating patterns towards a healthier profile. Community Nutrition programs require the use of a combination of strategies and a working group of people from different backgrounds. Many factors influence the nutritional status of an individual or a population. In order to gain effective work output, sound understanding of these patterns and a practical surveillance system are required. PMID:17424768

  14. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to selenium and protection of DNA, proteins a nd lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to ...

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to zinc and normal function of the immune system pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...

  17. Nutrition in Cardioskeletal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Weaver, Connie M; Towler, Dwight A; Thuppal, Sowmyanarayanan V; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-05-01

    Bone and heart health are linked through a variety of cellular, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms, including the bidirectional effects of mineral-regulating hormones parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23. Nutrition plays an important role in the development of both cardiovascular and bone disease. This review describes current knowledge on the relations between the cardiovascular system and bone and the influence of key nutrients involved in mineral metabolism-calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus-on heart and bone health, as well as the racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis and the influence that nutrition has on these disparities. PMID:27184281

  18. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  19. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thorsness, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Suratwala, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Steele, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rogowski, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  20. TARC: Carlo Rubbia's Energy Amplifier

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) is Carlo Rubbia's energy amplifier. This CERN experiment demonstrated that long-lived fission fragments, such as 99-TC, can be efficiently destroyed.

  1. A KIND OF NEW AMPLIFIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN XUN-HE; FENG RU-PENG; REN YONG

    2000-01-01

    Chaotic characteristics in the iteration of logistic map (one-dimensional discrete dynamic system) are simulatedand analyzed. The circuit implementation of a kind of chaotic amplifier model is based on the chaotic characteristicsthat chaos is sensitively dependent on its initial conditions, and the circuit simulation result is given using simulationprogram with integrated circuit emphasis for personal computer (PSPICE), and is compared with linear amplifier.Advantages and disadvantages of such a model are indicated.

  2. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition information on a label of a packaged poultry product shall appear...

  3. RELATIONSHIP OF INITIAL SELF-REGULATORY ABILITY WITH CHANGES IN SELF-REGULATION AND ASSOCIATED FRUIT AND VEGETABLE CONSUMPTION IN SEVERELY OBESE WOMEN INITIATING AN EXERCISE AND NUTRITION TREATMENT: MODERATION OF MOOD AND SELF-EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Annesi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An emphasis on increasing self-regulation is an alternate to nutrition education, which has had poor results in the behavioral treatment of obesity. Although appropriately designed weight-loss treatments may enhance one's self-regulatory ability to control eating, whether improvements are moderated by psychosocial factors such as initial self-regulatory skills use, self-efficacy to control eating, and mood is unknown. Severely obese women (BMI 35-50 kg·m-2 were randomized into 26-week treatments of exercise supported by cognitive-behavioral methods paired with either nutrition education (n = 114 or cognitive-behavioral methods applied to controlled eating (n = 121. Improvement in self-regulation for controlled eating was 36.9% greater (p < 0.01 for the group incorporating cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating. Change in self-regulation was significantly associated with self-regulation at baseline (β = -0.33. Both mood and self-efficacy for controlled eating significantly moderated this relationship. Increased self-regulation was associated with both increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and fruit and vegetable intake at treatment end. The present findings increase our understanding of psychosocial variables associated with increased self-regulatory skills usage and improvements in eating that, after replication, may be used to improve the effects of behavioral weight-loss treatments

  4. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 4: the "nutritional systems biology level"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Cavallieri, D.; Roche, H.M.; Klein, U.I.; Daniel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional systems biology may be defined as the ultimate goal of molecular nutrition research, where all relevant aspects of regulation of metabolism in health and disease states at all levels of its complexity are taken into account to describe the molecular physiology of nutritional processes. T

  5. Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. PMID:27364967

  6. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in MS is growing. Resources Find a dietician / nutritionist Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics – Provides an online search tool to locate registered dietician nutritionists (RDNs). Offers many consumer-geared resources. Food assistance ...

  7. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  8. EMI-resilient amplifier circuits

    CERN Document Server

    van der Horst, Marcel J; Linnenbank, André C

    2014-01-01

    This book enables circuit designers to reduce the errors introduced by the fundamental limitations and electromagnetic interference (EMI) in negative-feedback amplifiers.  The authors describe a systematic design approach for application specific negative-feedback amplifiers, with specified signal-to-error ratio (SER).  This approach enables designers to calculate noise, bandwidth, EMI, and the required bias parameters of the transistors used in  application specific amplifiers in order to meet the SER requirements.   ·         Describes design methods that incorporate electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the design of application specific negative-feedback amplifiers; ·         Provides designers with a structured methodology to avoid the use of trial and error in meeting signal-to-error ratio (SER) requirements; ·         Equips designers to increase EMI immunity of the amplifier itself, thus avoiding filtering at the input, reducing the number of components and avoiding detr...

  9. Low-Noise Band-Pass Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    Circuit uses standard components to overcome common limitation of JFET amplifiers. Low-noise band-pass amplifier employs JFET and operational amplifier. High gain and band-pass characteristics are achieved with suitable choice of resistances and capacitances. Circuit should find use as low-noise amplifier, for example as first stage instrumentation systems.

  10. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to zinc and normal growth pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to zinc and normal growth. The food constituent, zinc, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Normal growth is a beneficial physiological effect for infants and young children. The Panel considers that the role of zinc in normal growth......Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... is well established. Growth retardation is one of the clinical manifestations of severe zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation has been reported to stimulate growth and development in zinc-deficient infants and young children. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and increased calcium absorption pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -palmitate and increased calcium absorption. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim referring to children’s development and health. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is beta-palmitate, a structured triglyceride with a high content of palmitic acid at the sn-2......Following an application from IDACE, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta......, including healthy infants consuming follow-on formula, preterm infants and infants needing foods for particular nutritional uses including foods for special medical purposes. The Panel considers that an increase in calcium absorption might be a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence...

  13. Gaussian amplifier for nuclear spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major goals of nuclear spectrometry is the determination of the energy spectrum of a radioactive source. To measure this spectrum with electronic instrumentation one need to use a nuclear spectrometry chain of which the amplifier is part of, and whose filter shaping considerably influences the final energy resolution achieved. The amplifier released accomplishes a 7th order Gaussian filter shape with Taylor series approximation synthesized by the Shifted Companion Form and mounted using only electronic components availablein Brazil. The final version has been tested and the results showed a very good performance and the energy resolution achieved was equivalent to the imported models. (Author)

  14. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  15. Molecular cloning of type I collagen cDNA and nutritional regulation of type I collagen mRNA expression in grass carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E M; Liu, B H; Wang, G J; Yu, D G; Xie, J; Xia, Y; Gong, W B; Wang, H H; Li, Z F; Wei, N

    2014-08-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) are important Chinese freshwater fish, and in China, the faba bean has been used as the sole food source for grass carp to transform them into crisp grass carp. Because of this, crisp grass carp has become an economically important fish because of its increased muscle hardness. To study the nutritional regulation of type I collagen in faba bean-fed grass carp, we isolated type I collagen alpha 2 (COL1A2) on the basis of our isolation of COL1A1. The COL1A2 cDNA was found to be 4899 bp in length and included a 4059-bp coding sequence (CDS) and encoded a polypeptide of 1352 AA. The protein peptide molecular weight was 127.39 kD, and the theoretical isoelectric point was 9.37. The COL1A2 protein possessed five α-helixes, eight β-sheets, 16 regions of triple helical repeats, 21 low-complexity regions, 10 function domains and two zinc-binding sites; however, no calcium-binding sites were observed. The mRNA expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was assessed in eight tissues (muscle, hepatopancreas, intestine, gills, skin, fin, kidney and spleen) from grass carp and crisp grass carp by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of COL1A1 in the muscle, intestines and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp, and expression of COL1A2 in the muscle, gills, fin and skin of crisp grass carp was higher than that in grass carp. In the muscle of crisp grass carp, expression of COL1A1 and COL1A2 was higher than that in grass carp, which was further confirmed by real-time PCR, and collagen content also was enhanced. These results demonstrated that type I collagen was closely related to the increased muscle hardness of faba bean-fed grass carp. PMID:24127725

  16. Dielectric waveguide amplifiers and lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, M.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of semiconductor amplifiers and lasers has made them the preferred choice for optical gain on a micro-chip. In the past few years, we have demonstrated that also rare-earth-ion-doped dielectric waveguides show remarkable performance, ranging from a small-signal gain per unit length o

  17. Thermal recovery of NIF amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, S.; Marshall, C.; Petty, C.; Smith, L.; van Wonterghem, B.; Mills, S.

    1997-02-01

    The issue of thermal recovery of the NIF amplifiers has taken on increased emphasis as program goals move toward increasing the shot rate to once every four hours. This paper addresses the technical issues associated with achieving thermal recovery in the NIF amplifiers. We identify two temperature related thermal recovery quantities: (1) the difference between the average slab temperature and the temperature of other surfaces in the amplifier cavity, and (2) the temperature difference in the slab over the aperture. The first quantity relates to optical disturbances in the gas column in the system, while the second quantity is associated with optical aberrations in the laser media itself. Calculations and experiments are used to quantify recovery criteria, and develop cooling approaches. The cooling approaches discussed are (1) active cooling of the flashlamps with ambient gas and chilled gas, and (2) active cooling of the slab edge cladding. Calculations indicate that the NIF baseline cooling approach of 20 cfm per lamp ambient temperature gas flow in both the central and side flashlamp cassettes is capable of meeting thermal recovery requirements for an 8 hour shot period, while to achieve a 4 hour shot period requires use of chilled gas and edge cladding cooling. In addition, the effect of changing the amplifier cavity and beamtube fill gas from nitrogen to helium is addressed, showing that a factor of 8 reduction in the sensitivity to thermal disturbances is possible. 6 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A wideband dc-coupled amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described whereby an ac-coupled high-frequency amplifier and a dc-coupled low-frequency amplifier are connected in parallel in order to obtain a dc-coupled wideband amplifier. By using an operational amplifier which compares the output voltage with the input voltage, the low-frequency amplifier contributes to the overall gain only when the gain of the ac-coupled amplifier droops at low frequencies. Thus, no frequency splitting networks are necessary and the excellent low-frequency features of an operational amplifier are added to those of the ac-coupled wideband amplifier. As an example, a low noise amplifier is described which exhibits a hundredfold gain, a bandwidth from dc to 550 MHz, an input bias current of less than 1 nA, and an output voltage range of ±1 V

  19. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITIONNutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the Non-transfused ... booklet ▶ 3 Simple Suggestions for a Healthy Diet Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  20. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources > Diet and Nutrition Go Back Diet and Nutrition Email Print + Share Diet and nutrition concerns of ... you. NEW!! Test your knowledge of diet and nutrition by taking this self-assessment for an opportunity ...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to iron and maintenance of normal hair growth. Iron is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “reduction of excessive hair loss”. The target population proposed by the applicant is non-menopausal women, aged between 19 and 49......Following an application from Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine and maintenance of normal joint cartilage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Merck Consumer Healthcare, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... to studies in patients with osteoarthritis, in healthy subjects, in animals and in vitro as being pertinent to the health claim. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that no human studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn on the effect of dietary glucosamine...

  3. Computer-Assisted Glucose Regulation During Rapid Step-Wise Increases of Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients : A Proof of Concept Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J. K. Goetz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN

  4. Nutrition marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  5. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  6. The psychology of nutrition messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health. PMID:19548517

  7. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.;

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  8. Analog circuit design designing high performance amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The third volume Designing High Performance Amplifiers applies the concepts from the first two volumes. It is an advanced treatment of amplifier design/analysis emphasizing both wideband and precision amplification.

  9. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk;

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  10. Quantum Theory of Laser Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Gillian Linda

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. We calculate the input-output characteristics of a below threshold laser amplifier. Expressions are derived for the output second- and fourth-order spectral and temporal correlation functions in terms of the corresponding input quantities, and for the photocount first and second factorial moments for both homodyne and direct detection. The general results are applied to several cases of practical interest, including specific non-classical input states. We show that a maximum of twofold amplification is permitted if squeezing in the input is to survive at the output. Similarly, for preservation of photon antibunching in amplification we show that only very small gains are allowed. The model treated here provides a detailed example of the amplifier noise limitations imposed by quantum mechanics. In particular, we show that minimum noise occurs in a cavity that is asymmetric with respect to the mirror reflectivities. The latter part of this work treats the above threshold laser amplifier. The laser output is back-scattered from a moving target to provide a weak Doppler-shifted signal which re-enters the laser cavity and is amplified. We show that the three-level atomic lasing medium is equivalent to a two-level medium pumped by an inverted bath. We use the methods of quantum statistical analysis to obtain time -evolution equations for the c-number amplitudes of the laser and signal fields. We show that the results may be applied to the below threshold regime for appropriate values of the pump parameter. By considering the amplitude differential gain we show explicitly that the behaviour of the laser around threshold is characteristic of a second -order phase transition. We calculate the output intensity gain appropriate to a heterodyne detection process, and find good agreement between the predicted gain profiles and measured data for both carbon dioxide and argon-ion lasers.

  11. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

  12. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  13. SPS RF System Amplifier plant

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The picture shows a 2 MW, 200 MHz amplifier plant with feeder lines. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X.

  14. Improved charge amplifier using hybrid hysteresis compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Shahidi, Darya; Trumper, David L.

    2013-08-01

    We present a novel charge amplifier, with a robust feedback circuit and a method for compensating piezoelectric actuator's hysteresis at low frequencies. The amplifier uses a modified feedback circuit which improves robustness to the addition of series load impedance such as in cabling. We also describe a hybrid hysteresis compensation method for enabling the charge amplifier to reduce hysteresis at low frequencies. Experimental results demonstrate the utility of the new amplifier design.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to the normal function of the immune system pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    Following an application from VAB-nutrition, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to the normal function of the immune system. The Panel considers that vitamin D is sufficiently characterised. Contribution ...

  16. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact on ac...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  17. European Research on THz Vacuum Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, F.; Cojocarua, C.-S.; de Rossi, A.;

    2010-01-01

    The OPTHER (OPtically Driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within this project is a consolidation of efforts at the international level from the main players of the Eu...

  18. A High-performance Small Signal Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    According to questions in the design of high quality small signal amplifier, this paper gave a new-type high performance small signal amplifier. The paper selected the operational amplifier of ICL Company and designed a new-type circuit with simple, low cost and excellent performance.

  19. Radio frequency amplifier with effective decoupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besling, W.F.A.; Bakker, T.W.; Lamy, Y.; Kochupurackal, J.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    A variety of circuits, methods and devices are implemented for radiofrequency amplifiers. According to one such implementation, a radiofrequency amplifier circuit is implemented in a SMD package. The circuit amplifies a radiofrequency signal having a base-band portion and a plurality of carrier sign

  20. low pump power photonic crystal fibre amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Kristian G.; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2003-01-01

    Designs of low pump power optical amplifiers, based on photonic crystal fibres are presented. The potential of these fibre amplifiers is investigated, and it is demonstrated that such amplifiers may deliver gains of more than 15 dB at 1550 nm with less than 1 mW of optical pump power....

  1. Advanced Research in Biological Activities and Functions of Nutritional Regulation of Amino Acids%氨基酸的生物活性及其营养调控功能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪荣; 季昀

    2013-01-01

    随着氨基酸营养研究的深入,发现部分氨基酸及其代谢产物在体内具有的生物活性对营养物质代谢、神经内分泌调节、基因表达、信号转导及免疫功能等都具有调控作用,这些氨基酸包括精氨酸、谷氨酰胺、亮氨酸、色氨酸、苏氨酸等,本文综述了这些氨基酸在动物体内的代谢途径以及它们的营养调控功能的研究进展.%With the continuous research on amino acid nutrition, it was found that biological activities of certain amino acids and their metabolites in animal body had regulation functions on nutrient metabolism, neuroen-docrine modulation, gene expression, signal transduction, immunity, etc. These amino acids include arginine, glutamine, leucine, tryptophan, threonine, etc. The metabolic pathways and functions of nutritional regulation of these amino acids were reviewed in this paper.

  2. Nutrition Integrity in School Menu Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenshaw, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Nutrition integrity ensures that all foods available in schools for children are consistent with recommended dietary allowances and contribute to the development of lifelong, healthy eating habits. Attaining nutrition integrity is the goal of numerous changes in National School Lunch and Breakfast Program regulations. Outlines new federal…

  3. Transcriptional regulation of metal transport genes and mineral nutrition during acclimatization to cadmium and zinc in the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges population)

    OpenAIRE

    Küpper, Hendrik; Kochian, Leon V.

    2010-01-01

    - We investigated changes in mineral nutrient uptake and cellular expression levels for metal transporter genes in the cadmium (Cd)/zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, Thlaspi caerulescens during whole plant and leaf ontogenesis under different long-term treatments with Zn and Cd.- Quantitative mRNA in situ hybridization (QISH) revealed that transporter gene expression changes not only dependent on metal nutrition/toxicity, but even more so during plant and leaf development. The main mRNA abundances ...

  4. A New Principle for a High Efficiency Power Audio Amplifier for Use with a Digital Preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1986-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amlifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore, a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the current principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made possible...

  5. Nutrition in neurocritical care

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Azim; Armin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutritional therapy is essential for recovery from critical illness. Nutritional requirement varies in different patients and varies daily in a single patient. Both under and over feeding are associated with complications. Besides this, not all patients behave in a similar way to nutritional therapy. Appropriate nutritional therapy requires identification of patients “at nutritional risk” and providing aggressive nutritional support to them. The current article deals with nutritional...

  6. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  7. Cultivating nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Carol E.; Long, Jennifer; Simler, Kenneth R.; Johnson-Welch, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    "Over the past decade, donor-funded policies and programs designed to address undernutrition in the Global South have shifted away from agriculture-based strategies toward nutrient supplementation and food fortification programs. Given the potential benefits resulting from agriculture-based nutrition interventions, this study uses Q methodology to explore the views of a range of stakeholders from both developed and developing countries on the value of—and constraints related to—gender-sensiti...

  8. Nutritional Rickets

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short− or long−term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseas...

  9. Nutritional Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Preston Mercer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questions concerning the fundamental effects of nutrition on gene function are now being elucidated as the human genome project has been completed. Nutritional genomics seeks to expand the use of foods to achieve human genetic potential, while reducing the risk of diseases. As issues such as nutrigenomics (dietary influence on gene function and nutrigenetics (genomic reaction to diet are unraveled, thepotential for personalized nutrition becomes attainable. It has been stated that “genomics is to the 21st century what infectious disease was to the 20th century”. The nucleotide sequence of DNA was once seen as the only mechanism by which genetic information could be transmitted between generations. Phenotypic variation resulted from recombination and, occasionally, genetic mutation. This widely accepted concept is now undergoing modification as evidence builds to support the idea that reversible, heritable changes in gene function - termed “epigenetics”- can occur without a change in the sequence of nuclear DNA (i.e., non-Mendelian inheritance. The word epigenetics is of Greek origin and literallymeans over and above (epi the genome. The terminology“same genome, different epigenome” has been demonstrated in several experiments. As research and understanding advances, dietary advice based on the human genome will become more prevalent and new pharmacological interventions may be developed.

  10. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  11. Semiconductor quantum-dot lasers and amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Borri, Paola; Ledentsov, N. N.;

    2002-01-01

    -power surface emitting VCSELs. We investigated the ultrafast dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. The dephasing time at room temperature of the ground-state transition in semiconductor quantum dots is around 250 fs in an unbiased amplifier, decreasing to below 50 fs when the amplifier...... is biased to positive net gain. We have further measured gain recovery times in quantum dot amplifiers that are significantly lower than in bulk and quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifiers. This is promising for future demonstration of quantum dot devices with high modulation bandwidth...

  12. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department

  13. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  14. A new principle for a high-efficiency power audio amplifier for use with a digital preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1987-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amplifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the usual principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made possible...

  15. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  16. 9 CFR 381.409 - Nutrition label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nomenclature are established for the following vitamins and minerals which are essential in human nutrition... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition label content. 381.409... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.409...

  17. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  18. Cathode-follower power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In circular accelerators and particularly in storage rings it is essential that the total impedance, as seen by the beam, be kept below some critical value. A model of the accelerating system was built using a single-ended cathode-follower amplifier driving a ferrite-loaded cavity. The system operated at 234.5 kHz with a peak output voltage of +-10 kV on the gap. The dynamic output impedance, as measured on the gap, was < 15 ohms

  19. Jointly amplified basal and pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion and increased process irregularity in women with anorexia nervosa: indirect evidence for disruption of feedback regulation within the GH-insulin-like growth factor I axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Veldhuis, J D; Flyvbjerg, A;

    1999-01-01

    pulsatility in AN using the techniques of deconvolution analysis and approximate entropy, which quantify secretory activity and serial irregularity of underlying hormone release not reflected in peak occurrence or amplitudes. To this end, 24-h GH profiles were obtained by continuous blood sampling aliquoted....... Accordingly, GH secretion in AN probably reflects altered neuroendocrine feedback regulation, e.g. associated with increased hypothalamic GHRH discharge superimposed on reduced hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone....

  20. Priority nutrition messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness.

  1. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Help Contact Us FAQ En Espanol Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Search Tips Browse by Subject What's In Food Smart Nutrition 101 Life Stages Weight Management Nutrition and Health ...

  2. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreas Foundation > Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get nutrition from a special formula through a vein in the ... you can also eat and drink while getting nutrition from TPN. Your nurse will teach you how ...

  4. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NSIP) The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) Child Nutrition Programs Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program National School Lunch Program (NSLP) School Breakfast Program ... Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) WIC (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program ...

  5. 围产期奶牛代谢与营养调控研究进展%Advances in Metabolic and Nutritional Regulation of Dairy Cows during the Transition Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦彤; 王皓宇; 郝海生; 杜卫华; 朱化彬

    2013-01-01

    围产期是奶牛泌乳周期中最为关键的阶段,该阶段奶牛代谢的最大特点是能量摄入减少而需求增加从而导致能量负平衡.改善围产期奶牛的营养条件,最大限度地缓解能量负平衡,对于充分发挥奶牛的生产性能至关重要.本文综述了围产期奶牛的代谢特点以及营养调控研究进展,旨在为提高奶牛的生产性能和健康水平提供新的思路.%The transition period is the most critical stage for dairy cows. The decrease in DMI before parturition combined with gradually increasing energy demands in early lactation, which makes dairy cows go through some degree of negative energy balance (NEB) around calving. The nutritional management strategy of transition cows is essential to minimize the NEB and give full play to the cow genetic potential. In this paper, metabolic characteristics and nutritional regulation of the transition cows were reviewed, which provide new ideas for improving the performance and health of dairy cows.

  6. Geriatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M

    1989-01-01

    In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian. PMID:2646815

  7. YANG-MILLS FIELD AMPLIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a project of the Yang-Mills amplifier. Amplifier model is a multilayer spherical shell with increasing density towards the center. In the center of the amplifier is the core of high-density material. It is shown that in such a system, the amplitude of the Yang-Mills waves rises from the periphery to the center of several orders of magnitude. The role of the Yang-Mills field in the processes occurring in the nuclei of galaxies, stars and planets is discussed. The data modeling to strengthen the Yang-Mills field in the bowels of the planet, with an atomic explosion, and in some special devices such as the voltaic pile. To describe the mechanism of amplification chromodynamics field used as accurate results in Yang-Mills theory and numerical models developed based on an average and the exact equations as well. Among the exact solutions of the special role played by the centralsymmetric metric describing the contribution of the Yang-Mills field in the speed of recession of galaxies. Among the approximate numerical models can be noted the eight-scalar model we have developed for the simulation of non-linear color oscillations and chaos in the Yang-Mills theory. Earlier models were investigated spatio-temporal oscillations of the YangMills theory in the case of three and eight colors. The results of numerical simulation show that the nonlinear interaction does not lead to a spatial mixing of colors as it might be in the case of turbulent diffusion. Depending on the system parameters there is a suppression of the amplitude of the oscillations the first three by five colors or vice versa. The kinetic energy fluctuations or shared equally between the color components, or dominated by the kinetic energy of repressed groups of colors. In the present study, we found that amplification chromodynamic field leads to a sharp increase in the amplitude of the suppressed color, which can lead to an increase in entropy, excitation of nuclear

  8. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  9. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  10. Locoregional MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales La Madrid, Andres; Volchenboum, Samuel; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Pyatt, Robert; Liu, Don; Pytel, Peter; Lavarino, Cinzia; Rodriguez, Eva; Cohn, Susan L

    2012-10-01

    MYCN-amplification is strongly associated with other high-risk prognostic factors and poor outcome in neuroblastoma. Infrequently, amplification of MYCN has been identified in localized tumors with favorable biologic features. Outcome for these children is difficult to predict and optimal treatment strategies remain unclear. We report a 5-month-old who presented with an MYCN-amplified INSS stage 3, pelvic neuroblastoma. The tumor had favorable histology, hyperdiploidy, and lacked 1p36 and 11q23 aberrations. Although the patient met the criteria for high-risk neuroblastoma, because of the discordant prognostic markers we elected to treat her according to an intermediate-risk protocol. She remains event-free more than 18 months.

  11. Linearisation of RF Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with linearisation techniques of RF power amplifiers (PA), PA design techniques and integration of the necessary building blocks in a CMOS technology. The opening chapters introduces the theory of transmitter architectures, RF-signal representation and the principles of digital...... of linearisation systems with focus on polar modulation feedback, and a chip oriented part focusing on integrating of separate building blocks of the system on a chip. The system oriented part of this thesis deals with analog feedback linearisation systems. The Polar modulation feedback system is compared...... that utilize properties of the polar loop are presented. Analysis of the envelope feedback loop shows some fundamental limitations of the loop gain and the loop bandwidth due to the varying PA gain. Based on these observation a set of design guidelines for an envelope feedback loop is given. The guidelines...

  12. Optical latches using optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2013-05-01

    Optical latches are important for a wide range of applications including communication systems, optical logic systems, optical random access memory (RAM) and encryption. All optical logic operations using quantum dot (QD) based semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) have been studied. The building block of an optical latch such as NAND gate has been fabricated and their operation experimentally demonstrated at ~ 80 GHz. A rate equation model has been developed for the QD-SOA-MZI and it has been used to analyze the Boolean logic operation. The model has been used to analyze the Set-Reset (S-R) latch and the D-Flip-Flop (DFF) devices. The DFF is the basic device for building larger logic circuits. The results show that the latches would work to speeds of ~ 250 Gb/s.

  13. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2001-01-01

    on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0.5 μm CMOS single poly, n-well process. The prototype amplifier features a gain of 80 dB over a 3.6 kHz bandwidth, a CMRR of more than 87 dB and a PSRR...

  14. Enhanced Gain in Photonic Crystal Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara; Semenova, Elizaveta; Hansen, Per Lunnemann;

    2012-01-01

    study of a 1 QW photonic crystal amplifier. Net gain is achieved which enables laser oscillation in photonic crystal micro cavities. The ability to freely tailor the dispersion in a semiconductor optical amplifier makes it possible to raise the optical gain considerably over a certain bandwidth. These...... results are promising for short and efficient semiconductor optical amplifiers. This effect will also benefit other devices, such as mode locked lasers....

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific opinion on the safety of 2'-O-fucosyllactose as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on 2'-O-fucosyllactose as a novel food ingredient (NFI) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council...... added to follow-on and young-child formulae, at concentrations up to 1.2 g/L of 2’-FL (alone or in combination with LNnT, at concentrations up to 0.6 g/L, at a ratio of 2:1). The Panel also concludes that 2’-FL is safe when added to other foods at the uses and use levels proposed by the applicant....

  16. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific opinion on the Safety of lacto-N-neotetraose as a novel food ingredient pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on lacto-N-neotetraose as a novel food ingredient (NFI) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council...... added to follow-on and young-child formulae, at concentrations up to 0.6 g/L of LNnT (alone or in combination with 2’-FL, at concentrations up to 1.2 g/L, at a ratio of 1:2). The Panel also concludes that LNnT is safe when added to other foods at the uses and use levels proposed by the applicant....

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucosamine and maintenance of joints pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim based on newly developed scientific evidence related to glucosamine and maintenance of joints. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucosamine, which is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “contributes to the protection of joint cartilage exposed......Following an application from Béres Pharmaceuticals Ltd., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Hungary, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... periods of three months can predict net changes in collagen type II in joint cartilage. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of glucosamine and maintenance of joints. © European Food Safety Authority, 2011...

  18. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “increasing faecal bulk”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. The Panel considers that sugar beet fibre is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of sugar beet fibre and increasing faecal bulk. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Sugar beet fibre increases faecal bulk”. In order to bear the claim a food should be at least “high in fibre” as per...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight (ID 1701) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to phaseolamine and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food...... assumes that the claimed effect refers to a reduction in body weight. The Panel considers that reduction in body weight is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that although one short-term (30 day) intervention study in humans showed an effect...

  1. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... performance of the amplifier is also investigated for both configurations. Our results show an on/off gain exceeding 20 dB at 1810 nm for which the obtained effective noise figure is below 3 dB....

  2. Dynamics of Soliton Cascades in Fiber Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga-Sierra, F R; Agrawal, Govind P

    2016-01-01

    We study numerically the formation of cascading solitons when femtosecond optical pulses are launched into a fiber amplifier with less energy than required to form a soliton of equal duration. As the pulse is amplified, cascaded fundamental solitons are created at different distances, without soliton fission, as each fundamental soliton moves outside the gain bandwidth through the Raman-induced spectral shifts. As a result, each input pulse creates multiple, temporally separated, ultrashort pulses of different wavelengths at the amplifier output. The number of pulses depends not only on the total gain of the amplifier but also on the width of input pulses.

  3. Nutritional Treatment for Inborn Errors of Metabolism: Indications, Regulations, and Availability of Medical Foods and Dietary Supplements Using Phenylketonuria as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Camp, Kathryn M.; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Huntington, Kathleen L.

    2012-01-01

    Medical foods and dietary supplements are used to treat rare inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) identified through state-based universal newborn screening. These products are regulated under Food and Drug Administration (FDA) food and dietary supplement statutes. The lack of harmony in terminology used to refer to medical foods and dietary supplements and the misuse of words that imply that FDA regulates these products as drugs have led to confusion. These products are expensive and, although ...

  4. Distributed feedback laser amplifiers combining the functions of amplifiers and channel filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Durhuus, T.; Mikkelsen, Benny;

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic model for distributed feedback amplifiers, including the mode coupled equations and the carrier rate equation, is established. The presented mode coupled equations have taken into account the interaction between fast changing optical signal and the waveguide with corrugations. By showin...... the possibility of amplifying 100 ps pulses without pulse broadening, we anticipate that a distributed feedback amplifier can be used as a combined amplifier and channel filter in high bit rate transmission systems....

  5. Amplified spontaneous emission and its restraint in a terawatt Ti:sapphire amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and its restraint in a femtosecond Ti: sapphire chirped_pulse amplifier were investigated. The noises arising from ASE were effectively filtered out in the spatial, temporal and spectral domain. Pulses as short as 38 fs were amplified to peak power of 1.4 TW. The power ratio between the amplified femtosecond pulse and the ASE was higher than 106:1.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Saccharomyces boulardii ATY-SB-101 (BCCM/MUCL 53837) (ID 1010, 1011, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on health claims pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Saccharomyces boulardii A...

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lycopene, vitamin E, lutein and selenium and “ helps to prepare and activate tannin g ” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health clai...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “non - fermentable ” carbohydrates and maintenance of tooth mineralisation by decreasing tooth demineralisation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Roquette Frères, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the s...

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of lutein and zeaxanthin and improved vision under bright light conditions pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006....

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) water extract and increase in glucose tolerance pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Comvita New Zealand Limited, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Bimuno® GOS and reducing gastro-intestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Clasado Limited, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Malta, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...

  12. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torović Ljilja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered dieticians, standardized terminology as well as nutrition diagnosis categorization. It consists of four distinct, but interrelated and connected steps: (a nutrition assessment, (b nutrition diagnosis, (c nutrition intervention, and (d nutrition monitoring and evaluation. An individual approach is essential for successful medical nutrition therapy. Nutrition guidelines facilitate the process of understanding and application of medical nutrition therapy. Conclusion. The Nutrition Care process provides dietetic professionals information on high-quality client nutrition care. The success of medical nutrition therapy rests not only upon the advice of the dietician, but also upon the client’s compliance.

  13. An Implantable CMOS Amplifier for Nerve Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Hammel; Lehmann, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    . A continuous-time current-steering offset-compensation technique is utilized in order to minimize the noise contribution and to minimize dynamic impact on the amplifier input nodes. The method for signal recovery from noisy nerve signals is presented. A prototype amplifier is realized in a standard digital 0...

  14. Self-pulsation in Raman fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated.......Dynamic behavior caused by Brillouin scattering in Raman fiber amplifiers is studied. Modes of self-pulsation steady state oscillations are found. Their dependence on amplification scheme is demonstrated....

  15. Waveguide optical amplifier for telecom applications

    OpenAIRE

    Taccheo, Stefano; Zannin, Marcelo; Ennser, Karin; Careglio, Davide; Solé Pareta, Josep; Aracil Rico, Javier

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review progress in optical gain clamped waveguide amplifiers for applications to optical communications. We demonstrate that compact waveguide devices may offer advantages compared to standard fiber amplifiers. In particular we focus on the application of gain clamping and optical burst switching networks where physical impairments may occur due to variation of the input power. Peer Reviewed

  16. BROADBAND TRAVELLING WAVE SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Broadband travelling wave semiconductor optical amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) for amplification of light, wherein the amplifier (100, 200, 300, 400, 800) comprises a waveguide region (101, 201, 301, 401, 801) for providing confinement of the light in transverse directions and adapted...

  17. Design and performance of the beamlet amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlandson, A.C.; Rotter, M.D.; Frank, M.D.; McCracken, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    In future laser systems, such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), multi-segment amplifiers (MSAs) will be used to amplify the laser beam to the required levels. As a prototype of such a laser architecture, the authors have designed, built, and tested flash-lamp-pumped, Nd:Glass, Brewster-angle slab MSAs for the Beamlet project. In this article, they review the fundamentals of Nd:Glass amplifiers, describe the MSA geometry, discuss parameters that are important in amplifier design, and present our results on the characterization of the Beamlet MSAs. In particular, gain and beam steering measurements show that the Beamlet amplifiers meet all optical performance specifications and perform close to model predictions.

  18. Qubit readout with a directional parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, K. M.; Abdo, B.; Narla, A.; Shankar, S.; Hatridge, M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-03-01

    Josephson junction based quantum limited parametric amplifiers play an essential role in superconducting qubit measurements. These measurements necessitate circulators and isolators between the amplifier and qubit to add directionality and/or isolation. Unfortunately, this extra hardware limits both quantum measurement efficiency and experimental scalability. Here we present a quantum-limited Josephson-junction-based directional amplifier (JDA) based on a novel coupling between two nominally identical Josephson parametric converters (JPCs). The device achieves a forward gain of 11 dB with a 15 MHz dynamical bandwidth, but higher gains are possible at the expense of bandwidth. We also present measurements of a transmon qubit made with the JDA, and show minimal measurement back-action despite the absence of any isolator or circulator before the amplifier. These results provide a first step toward realizing on-chip integration of qubits and parametric amplifiers. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  19. Detection of Non-Amplified Genomic DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This book offers a state-of-the-art overview on non amplified DNA detection methods and provides chemists, biochemists, biotechnologists and material scientists with an introduction to these methods. In fact all these fields have dedicated resources to the problem of nucleic acid detection, each contributing with their own specific methods and concepts. This book will explain the basic principles of the different non amplified DNA detection methods available, highlighting their respective advantages and limitations. The importance of non-amplified DNA sequencing technologies will be also discussed. Non-amplified DNA detection can be achieved by adopting different techniques. Such techniques have allowed the commercialization of innovative platforms for DNA detection that are expected to break into the DNA diagnostics market. The enhanced sensitivity required for the detection of non amplified genomic DNA has prompted new strategies that can achieve ultrasensitivity by combining specific materials with specifi...

  20. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  1. Identification of druggable cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA projects have advanced our understanding of the driver mutations, genetic backgrounds, and key pathways activated across cancer types. Analysis of TCGA datasets have mostly focused on somatic mutations and translocations, with less emphasis placed on gene amplifications. Here we describe a bioinformatics screening strategy to identify putative cancer driver genes amplified across TCGA datasets. We carried out GISTIC2 analysis of TCGA datasets spanning 16 cancer subtypes and identified 486 genes that were amplified in two or more datasets. The list was narrowed to 75 cancer-associated genes with potential "druggable" properties. The majority of the genes were localized to 14 amplicons spread across the genome. To identify potential cancer driver genes, we analyzed gene copy number and mRNA expression data from individual patient samples and identified 42 putative cancer driver genes linked to diverse oncogenic processes. Oncogenic activity was further validated by siRNA/shRNA knockdown and by referencing the Project Achilles datasets. The amplified genes represented a number of gene families, including epigenetic regulators, cell cycle-associated genes, DNA damage response/repair genes, metabolic regulators, and genes linked to the Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, JAK/STAT, NF-KB and MAPK signaling pathways. Among the 42 putative driver genes were known driver genes, such as EGFR, ERBB2 and PIK3CA. Wild-type KRAS was amplified in several cancer types, and KRAS-amplified cancer cell lines were most sensitive to KRAS shRNA, suggesting that KRAS amplification was an independent oncogenic event. A number of MAP kinase adapters were co-amplified with their receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the FGFR adapter FRS2 and the EGFR family adapters GRB2 and GRB7. The ubiquitin-like ligase DCUN1D1 and the histone methyltransferase NSD3 were also identified as novel putative cancer driver genes. We discuss the patient tailoring implications

  2. Role of nuclear factor κB-mediated inflammatory pathways in cancer-related symptoms and their regulation by nutritional agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Reuter, Simone; Dougherty, Patrick M; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2011-06-01

    Cancer is a disease characterized by dysregulation of multiple genes and is associated with symptoms such as cachexia, anorexia, fatigue, depression, neuropathic pain, anxiety, cognitive impairment, sleep disorders and delirium (acute confusion state) in medically ill patients. These symptoms are caused by either the cancer itself or the cancer treatment. During the past decade, increasing evidence has shown that the dysregulation of inflammatory pathways contributes to the expression of these symptoms. Cancer patients have been found to have higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB is a major mediator of inflammatory pathways. Therefore, anti-inflammatory agents that can modulate the NF-κB activation and inflammatory pathways may have potential in improving cancer-related symptoms in patients. Because of their multitargeting properties, low cost, low toxicity and immediate availability, natural agents have gained considerable attention for prevention and treatment of cancer-related symptoms. How NF-κB and inflammatory pathways contribute to cancer-related symptoms is the focus of this review. We will also discuss how nutritional agents such as curcumin, genistein, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and lycopene can modulate inflammatory pathways and thereby reduce cancer-related symptoms in patients.

  3. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  4. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Songlin; Yuan, Yuhui; Wang, Tianjiao; Xu, Wei; Li, Mingzhu; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2016-01-01

    The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail), including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3) and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3) PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 and liver X receptor (LXR) α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species.

  5. Molecular Cloning, Functional Characterization and Nutritional Regulation of the Putative Elongase Elovl5 in the Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songlin Li

    Full Text Available The enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs are widely studied in fish species, as fish are the main source of n-3 LC-PUFAs for human beings. In the present study, a putative gene for elovl5, which encodes a key enzyme involved in LC-PUFA synthesis, was cloned and functionally characterized, and its transcription in response to dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure was investigated. Moreover, cell transfection and luciferase assays were used to explore the mechanism underlying the regulation of elovl5. The full-length cDNA of elovl5 was 1242 bp (excluding the polyA tail, including an 885 bp coding region encoding a 295 amino acid protein that possesses all of the characteristic features of elovl proteins. Functional characterization of heterologously expressed grouper Elovl5 indicated that it effectively elongates both C18 (18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6 and 18:4n-3 and C20 (20:4n-6 and C20:5n-3 PUFAs, but not the C22 substrates. The expression of elovl5 was significantly affected by dietary n-3 LC-PUFA exposure: a high n-3 LC-PUFA level repressed the expression of elovl5 by slightly down-regulating the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1 and liver X receptor (LXR α, which are major regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Promoter studies showed that grouper elovl5 reporter activity was induced by over-expression of LXRα but not SREBP-1. This finding suggests that elovl5 is a direct target of LXRα, which is involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs via transcriptional regulation of elovl5. These findings may contribute to a further understanding of the mechanism underlying the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in marine fish species.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following an application from Raisio Nutrition Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters per day and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol by 12 % and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease. The applicant has further requested that the min...

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake and reduced risk of neural tube defects pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Rank Nutrition Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... characterised. Increasing maternal folate status by supplemental folate intake is a beneficial physiological effect in the context of reducing the risk of neural tube defects. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the association between low maternal folate intakes and an increased risk...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-palmitate and contribution to softening of stools pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... physiological effect for infants. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that, out of two human intervention studies with important methodological limitations, one suggested a stool-softening effect of beta-palmitate whereas the second did not, that one animal study did not support a stool...

  9. [Nutrition and stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappy, L; Berger, M M; Chiolero, R L

    2000-11-01

    Acute illness induces major physiological responses, which favor the adaptation of the organism to stress and injury. The metabolic response plays key roles in maintenance of vital functions and promotion of the healing mechanisms. All the components of energy expenditure are modified, particularly the resting metabolism. The regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is also markedly altered. Such patients are characterized by fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and by a stimulation of the hepatic glucose production in fasted and fed states. Lipolysis and increased fat oxidation are typically observed. Ketogenesis processes are inhibited, concurring to alter the adaptation to starvation. Protein turnover is stimulated with a preponderance of the catabolic processes, even during full nutritional support. This induces a state of resistance to feeding, leading to a progressive depletion of the fat free mass. Such progressive tissue catabolism cannot be reversed by hypercaloric nutrition or growth factors. Specific nutrients (aminoacids, micronutrients, PUFA) may offer interesting perspectives in stimulating immunity, improving the antioxidant balance or modulating the inflammatory response. PMID:11139659

  10. Nutritional value of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statements made in 2 reports by the European Parliamentary Commission on the Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection, chaired on both occasions by members of the German Green Party, that irradiated foods have no nutritional value are challenged. Attempts by the European Commission to regulate food irradiation in the European Community have been turned down by the European Parliament on the basis of these reports

  11. Effect of Soliton Propagation in Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of optical solitons in fiber amplifiers is discussed by considering a model that includes linear high order dispersion, two-photon absorption, nonlinear high-order dispersion, self-induced Ramam and five-order nonlinear effects. Based on travelling wave method, the solutions of the nonlinear Schrdinger equations, and the influence on soliton propagation as well as high-order effect in the fiber amplifier are discussed in detail. It is found that because of existing five-order nonlinear effect, the solution is not of secant hyperbola type, but shows high gain state of the fiber amplifier which is very favourable to the propagation of solitons.

  12. Quantum electronics maser amplifiers and oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 2: Maser Amplifiers and Oscillators deals with the experimental and theoretical aspects of maser amplifiers and oscillators which are based on the principles of quantum electronics. It shows how the concepts and equations used in quantum electronics follow from the basic principles of theoretical physics.Comprised of three chapters, this volume begins with a discussion on the elements of the theory of quantum oscillators and amplifiers working in the microwave region, along with the practical achievements in this field. Attention is paid to two-level paramagnetic ma

  13. Laser Cooled High-Power Fiber Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Nemova, Galina

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical model for laser cooled continuous-wave fiber amplifier is presented. The amplification process takes place in the Tm3+-doped core of the fluoride ZBLAN (ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF) glass fiber. The cooling process takes place in the Yb3+:ZBLAN fiber cladding. It is shown that for each value of the pump power and the amplified signal there is a distribution of the concentration of the Tm3+ along the length of the fiber amplifier, which provides its athermal operation. The influence ...

  14. Fundamentals of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Inder J

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive and Up-to-Date Treatment of RF and Microwave Transistor Amplifiers This book provides state-of-the-art coverage of RF and microwave transistor amplifiers, including low-noise, narrowband, broadband, linear, high-power, high-efficiency, and high-voltage. Topics covered include modeling, analysis, design, packaging, and thermal and fabrication considerations. Through a unique integration of theory and practice, readers will learn to solve amplifier-related design problems ranging from matching networks to biasing and stability. More than 240 problems are included to help read

  15. Pro-inflammatory wnt5a and anti-inflammatory sFRP5 are differentially regulated by nutritional factors in obese human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Schulte

    of anti-inflammatory sFRP5 in such subjects. These findings suggest a novel regulatory system in low grade inflammation in obesity, which can be influenced by nutritional therapy.

  16. 放牧藏羊冷季营养调控试验报告%Test on Nutritional Regulation of Grazing Tibetan sheep in Cold Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁生元; 雷良煜(执笔)

    2012-01-01

    Tibetan sheep were divided into four groups after lambing and supplemented for 90 d. The results showed that group I with only feeding high quality fresh dry forage of 0.5kg every day inereased 1.57kg and 5.29kg respecti - rely in body weight for ewes and lambs. Group II with only feeding concentrate of 0.25kg every day increased 2.36kg and 7.9kg respectively in body weight for ewes and lambs. Group III with only feeding concentrate of 0.5kg every day increased 4.25kg and 10.02kg respectively in body weight for ewes and lambs. Group 1V with only feeding nutritional lick-block of 0.15kg every day increased 1.7kg and 6.51kg respectively in body weight for ewes and lambs. The four test groups are effective in protecting ewes fat and lamb survival. The gaining weight of group III in ewes and Iambs were highest and feed costs was also highest; Gaining weight of group I ewes and lambs were at least, supplementary cost was the lowest.%藏系绵羊在产羔后分为4组,进行为期90天的补饲试验,结果:试验1组只均日补饲优质青干草0.5 kg,母羊和羔羊的增重分别为1.57kg和5.29kg;试验2组只均日补饲精料0.25kg,母羊和羔羊的增重分别为2.36 kg和7.9kg;试验3组只均日补饲精料0.5kg,母羊和羔羊的增重分别为4.25 kg和10.02kg;试验4组只均日补饲营养添砖0.15kg,母羊和羔羊的增重分别为1.7kg和6.51kg。4个试验组均达到了母羊保膘和羔羊成活的目的。其中,第3组母羊和羔羊的增重最高,饲料成本也最高;第1组母羊和羔羊的增重最少,但补饲成本最低。

  17. Sensor/amplifier for weak light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D. J.; Jason, A. J.; Parr, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Light sensor/amplifier circuit detects weak light converts it into strong electrical signal in electrically noisy environment. Circuit is relatively simple and uses inexpensive, readily available components. Device is useful in such applications as fire detection and photographic processing.

  18. High Energy Single Frequency Resonant Amplifier Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR phase I project proposes a single frequency high energy resonant amplifier for remote sensing. Current state-of-art technologies can not provide all...

  19. MedlinePlus: Toddler Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toddler Nutrition -- see more articles Reference Desk Toddler Nutrition and Health Resource List (Department of Agriculture) - PDF Find an ... Related Health Topics Child Nutrition Infant and Newborn Nutrition National Institutes of Health The primary NIH organization for research on Toddler ...

  20. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation

  1. Proposal of Switching Power Amplifier Using Small Capacity Linear Amplifier and LC Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Jo; Funato, Hirohito; Ogasawara, Satoshi

    The higher efficiency and the low noise in output voltage and current has been required in some applications, i.e. audio-video equipment, medical equipment and so on. This paper proposes a power amplifier in which a PWM inverter is used as a main circuit. In the proposed power amplifier, a hybrid filter composed of a simple and general LC filter and a small capacity linear amplifier is connected to the output of the inverter. The linear amplifier is inserted in series to the filter capacitor to improve the filtering effect of the LC filter. Switching ripples and LC resonances are considerably suppressed by controlling the amplifier using the proposed method and a low distortion switching power amplifier is realized. The effects of the proposal circuit are verified by simulations and experiments. As a result, the proposed circuit achieves low noise about THD=0.68% in simulation and THD=1.7% in experiment.

  2. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will help you or your child get ...

  3. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  4. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002458.htm Nutrition and athletic performance To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle ...

  5. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function Pots, pans, and other tools used in ...

  6. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  7. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Join / Renew Donate Online Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Enteral Nutrition ...

  8. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P energy balance values in supplemented cows were improved after parturition (P supplements improved milk production (P supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows. PMID:27501393

  9. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P energy balance values in supplemented cows were improved after parturition (P energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows.

  10. 香港食品营养标签修订规例应对研究%Countermeasures for Revised Food Nutrition Labelling Regulation of Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹少彤; 林涛; 黄伟; 杨雪娇

    2011-01-01

    By questionary, regulation training, professional consultation services, label testing and designing, electronic pre-alert, spot checking, a series of scientific and effective countermeasures were discussed for the food manufacturers.%本文在深入研究香港食品营养标签修订规例的基础上,通过问卷调查、法规培训、建立平台、标签检测和设计、电子预警、现场核查等方式,建立一套科学有效的应对机制,帮助出口企业应对修订规例,确保食品贸易健康发展.

  11. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows. PMID:27501393

  12. Nutritional modulation of guinea pig skin hyperproliferation by essential fatty acid deficiency is associated with selective down regulation of protein kinase C-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y; Ziboh, V A

    1995-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), a 15-lipoxygenase metabolite of linoleic acid is incorporated into epidermal phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns 4,5-P2) and released as 13-HODE-containing-diacylglycerol (13-HODE-DAG). In vitro, 13-HODE-DAG was shown to selectively inhibit epidermal total protein kinase C (PKC-beta) activity. To determine whether these observations are relevant in vivo, guinea pigs were made essential fatty acid deficient (EFAD) by feeding them a basal diet supplemented with 4% hydrogenated coconut oil for 8 wk. Tissue levels of putative 13-HODE-DAG, protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes and tissue hyperproliferation were determined in the epidermal preparations from skin of control safflower oil-fed guinea pigs, those fed EFAD diet and those fed EFAD diet followed by the control diet for 2 wk. Our data revealed that cutaneous 13-HODE and 13-HODE-DAG were significantly lower in EFAD animals than in safflower-fed controls. These reductions were associated with both elevated epidermal hyperproliferation and elevated expressions and activities of PKC-alpha and beta-isozymes. Refeeding the animals with safflower oil for 2 wk replenished tissue levels of 13-HODE-DAG, which inversely correlated with the selective down regulation of PKC-beta expression and activity and the reversal of hyperproliferation. In contrast, although, the expression and activity of PKC-alpha was elevated in the epidermis of the EFAD guinea pigs, this elevated PKC-alpha expression was not down regulated after refeeding the safflower oil diet to the animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  14. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth > For Parents > Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  15. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  16. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Richard B; Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem; Campbell, Bill; Almada, Anthony L; Collins, Rick; Cooke, Mathew; Earnest, Conrad P; Greenwood, Mike; Kalman, Douglas S; Kerksick, Chad M; Kleiner, Susan M; Leutholtz, Brian; Lopez, Hector; Lowery, Lonnie M; Mendel, Ron; Smith, Abbie; Spano, Marie; Wildman, Robert; Willoughby, Darryn S; Ziegenfuss, Tim N; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  17. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  18. Nutrition education: linking research, theory, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contento, Isobel R

    2008-01-01

    The increase in obesity and chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease worldwide reflects the complex interactions of biology, personal behaviour and environment. Consequently there has been a greater recognition of the importance of nutrition education. An analysis of the evidence from 300+ studies shows that nutrition education is more likely to be effective when it focuses on behaviour/ action (rather than knowledge only) and systematically links theory, research and practice. There are three essential components to nutrition education: 1. A motivational component, where the goal is to increase awareness and enhance motivation by addressing beliefs, attitudes through effective communication strategies. 2. An action component, where the goal is to facilitate people's ability to take action through goal setting and cognitive self-regulation skills. 3. An environmental component, where nutrition educators work with policymakers and others to promote environmental supports for action. Each component needs to be based on appropriate theory and research. The procedure for program design can use the logic model: Inputs are the resources needed as well as the needs analysis process. The outputs are the activities within the three components of nutrition education described above. Here the behavioural focus is selected and theory and research are used to design appropriate educational strategies to achieve the targeted behaviours. The outcomes are the short, medium or long-term impacts of the nutrition program. These are evaluated through the use of appropriate designs and instruments. Nutrition education programs that link research, theory, and practice are more likely to be effective.

  19. 营养因子对燕麦生长及K+、Na+含量的耐盐性调控研究%Regulation of Salt Tolerance of Nutritional Factor on Growth and K + and Na + Content of Oat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武俊英; 刘景辉; 张磊; 马建华; 杨进

    2011-01-01

    为研究盐碱地燕麦高产栽培中的营养配比,利用生物方法提高土地利用率、改善生态环境.采用防雨棚土培方法,进行了氮、磷、钙营养元素不同配比对燕麦耐盐性的研究,结果表明:营养因子氮、磷、钙剂不同调控处理能够促进燕麦植株的生长发育,减弱盐胁迫对细胞质膜的损伤,不同程度增加燕麦植株体内K+含量、减少Na+含量,增加K+/Na+值,可提高燕麦产量.燕麦耐盐性最优营养调控组合是高氮(2.00 g/盆)低磷(0.65 g/盆)加钙(10 g/盆)处理,在各处理中,燕麦表现出较强的耐盐性,增大K+/Na+值和可提高产量.%The bioavailability of saline soil is an effective measure to improve the land utilization and improve the ecological environment. Oat has extensive adaptability in arid, semi-arid areas with highly vulnerable environment ; it is the characteristics and green health crop in Inner Mongolia and has good effect improving saline soil. The study of different ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium on the salt tolerance of oat was conducted with a method of soil culture in flowerpot in a rainproof shed. The main research results showed that through the study of grown, plasma lemma and K + , Na + content of oat, different adjustable treatments of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium could promote the oat plant growth and development, reduce the injury of salt stress on plasma membrane, increase the K + content,decrease Na+ content in various degree and increase K + /Na+in oat, and increase oat yield. The optimal combination of nutrition and regulation of salt tolerance of oat was high nitrogen (2. 00 g/pot) , low phosphorus (0.65 g/pot) and added calcium (10 g/pot)( T5 ). The oat showed strong salt tolerance, high K + /Na+value and yield in all treatments. The research has practical application value for the nutrition ratio in high yielding cultivation of oat on saline and alkaline land.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to alpha-cyclodextrin and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 2926, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to alpha-cyclodextrin and r......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to alpha......), may be a beneficial physiological effect. The proposed target population is individuals who wish to reduce their post-prandial glycaemic responses. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two intervention studies showed a significant effect of alpha-cyclodextrin added to starch...

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lutein and maintenance of normal vision (ID 1603, 1604, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to lutein and mainte......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to lutein...... into account that one human intervention study in healthy subjects did not show an effect of lutein on visual acuity or glare sensitivity, that the results of this study were inconsistent as regards contrast sensitivity, and that the evidence provided for a mechanism by which lutein could exert the claimed...

  2. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Slendesta® Potato Extract and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 19 24/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scient......Following an application from Kemin Foods LC, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... effect for overweight individuals. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that all four human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim did not show an effect of Slendesta® Potato Extract on the reduction of body weight...

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Sc ientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vichy Catalan carbonated natural mineral water and reduction of post - prandial lip a emic response pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from S.A. Vichy Catalan, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scie......Following an application from S.A. Vichy Catalan, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion......, reduction of post-prandial lipaemic response, is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that the results of the only study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim do not support an effect of Vichy Catalan...

  4. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish.

  5. Trib3 is developmentally and nutritionally regulated in the brain but is dispensable for spatial memory, fear conditioning and sensing of amino acid-imbalanced diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiit Örd

    Full Text Available Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3 is a mammalian pseudokinase that is induced in neuronal cell cultures in response to cell death-inducing stresses, including neurotrophic factor deprivation. TRIB3 is an inhibitor of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4, the central transcriptional regulator in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α phosphorylation pathway that is involved in the cellular stress response and behavioral processes. In this article, we study the expression of Trib3 in the mouse brain, characterize the brain morphology of mice with a genetic ablation of Trib3 and investigate whether Trib3 deficiency alters eIF2α-dependent cognitive abilities. Our data show that the consumption of a leucine-deficient diet induces Trib3 expression in the anterior piriform cortex, the brain region responsible for detecting essential amino acid intake imbalance. However, the aversive response to leucine-devoid diet does not differ in Trib3 knockout and wild type mice. Trib3 deletion also does not affect long-term spatial memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze and auditory or contextual fear conditioning. During embryonic development, Trib3 expression increases in the brain and persists in the early postnatal stadium. Neuroanatomical characterization of mice lacking Trib3 revealed enlarged lateral ventricles. Thus, although the absence of Trib3 does not alter the eIF2α pathway-dependent cognitive functions of several areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior piriform cortex, Trib3 may serve a role in other central nervous system processes and molecular pathways.

  6. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P ruminal choline and methionine elevated the blood antioxidant status, as indicated by total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the vitamin E concentration (P < 0.05), and reduced the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, RPM and RPC elevated the plasma interleukin 2 (IL-2) concentration and the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood (P < 0.05). Alternatively, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 were decreased by RPM and RPC (P < 0.05). Overall, the regulatory responses of RPC and RPM were highly correlated with time and were more effective in the postpartum cows. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows. PMID:27501393

  7. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in the euryhaline herbivorous teleost Scatophagus argus: Functional characterization, tissue expression and nutritional regulation of two fatty acyl elongases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dizhi; Chen, Fang; Lin, Siyuan; You, Cuihong; Wang, Shuqi; Zhang, Qinghao; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R; Li, Yuanyou

    2016-08-01

    Both the spotted scat Scatophagus argus and rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus belong to the few cultured herbivorous marine teleost, however, their fatty acyl desaturase (Fad) system involved in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is different. The S. argus has a △6 Fad, while the rabbitfish has △4 and △6/△5 Fads, which were the first report in vertebrate and marine teleost, respectively. In order to compare the characteristics of elongases of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) between them, two Elovl cDNAs were cloned from S. argus in the present study. One has 885bp of open read fragment (ORF) encoding a protein with 294 amino acid (aa) showing Elovl5 activity functionally characterized by heterologous expression in yeast, which was primarily active for the elongation of C18 and C20 PUFAs. The other has 915bp of ORF coding for a 305 aa protein showing Elovl4 activity, which was more efficient in the elongation of C20 and C22 PUFAs. Tissue distribution analyses by RT-PCR showed that elovl5 was highly expressed in the liver compared to other tissues determined, whereas elovl4 transcripts were only detected in the eye. The expression of elovl5 and elovl4 were significantly affected by dietary fatty acid composition, with highest expression of mRNA in the liver and eye of fish fed a diet with an 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratio of 1.7:1. These results indicated that the S. argus has a similar Elovl system in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway to that of rabbitfish although their Fad system was different, suggesting that the diversification of fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis specificities is more associated with its Fad system. These new insights expand our knowledge and understanding of the molecular basis and regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in fish. PMID:27050407

  8. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  9. The OPTHER Project: Progress toward the THz Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paoloni, C; Brunetti, F; Di Carlo, A;

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the OPTHER (OPtically driven TeraHertz AmplifiERs) project and progress toward the THz amplifier realization. This project represents a considerable advancement in the field of high frequency amplification. The design and realization of a THz amplifier within th...

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals (ID 646, 1224, 1238, 1339) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to foods with reduced lactose content and decreasing gastro-intestinal discomfort caused by lactose intake in lactose intolerant individuals. The scientific substantiation is based on ...

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies) , 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Hassia Mineralquellen GmbH & Co KG, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to Rosbacher drive® and increased attention. The Panel considers that Rosbacher drive®, which contains natural mineral water ...

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 661, 1831, 1832, 2891, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (further reassessment)

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, the tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP), is sufficiently ...

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to “αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate” and alleviation of psychological stress (ID 656, 1819, 4253) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to “αS1-casein tryptic hydrolysate” and alleviation of psychological stress. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil and maintenance of normal hair pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following two applications from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, D-biotin and pumpkin seed oil (Cucurbita pepo L.) and maintenance of normal hair. The Panel considers that t...

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to ribose and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 4226) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to ribose and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Ar...

  16. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400...

  17. Nutritional influences on epigenetics and age-related disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional epigenetics has emerged as a novel mechanism underlying gene–diet interactions, further elucidating the modulatory role of nutrition in aging and age-related disease development. Epigenetics is defined as a heritable modification to the DNA that regulates chromosome architecture and modu...

  18. Design Of A Doherty Power Amplifier For GSM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Wasmi Osman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and analysis of Doherty power amplifier. The Doherty amplifier is used in  a base station for mobile system because of its high efficiency. The class AB power amplifier used in the configuration of the main and auxiliary amplifier. The result obtained shows that the Doherty power amplifier can be used on a wide band spectrum, the amplifier works at 900MHz and has very good power added efficiency (PAE and gain. The amplifier can also work at 1800MHz at input power greater than 20dBm. 

  19. The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, R. M.; Baxendale, J. F.

    1980-07-01

    The Electron Beam Semiconductor (EBS) concept has existed for three decades; but only within the last decade has an active, well-defined program been underway to develop devices that can operate as high-power radio frequency(RF) amplifiers, fast risetime switches, and current and voltage pulse amplifiers. This report discusses the test procedures, data and results of reliability testing of RF and video pulse EBS amplifiers at Electronics Research and Development Command (ERADCOM), Fort Monmouth, New Jersey. Also, the experimental analysis of the series connected diode EBS device is described in detail. Finally, the report concludes with a discussion of the state-of-the-art of EBS and future trends of the technology.

  20. Wideband pulse amplifiers for the NECTAr chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuy, A., E-mail: asanuy@ecm.ub.es [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Delagnes, E. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gascon, D. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Sieiro, X. [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); Bolmont, J.; Corona, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Feinstein, F. [LUPM, Universite Montpellier II and IN2P3/CNRS, CC072, bat. 13, place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier (France); Glicenstein, J-F. [IRFU/DSM/CEA, CE-Saclay, Bat. 141 SEN Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Naumann, C.L.; Nayman, P. [LPNHE, Universite Paris VI and Universite Paris VII and IN2P3/CNRS, Barre 12-22, 1er etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Ribo, M. [Dept. AM i Dept. ECM, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona. Marti i Franques 1, E08028, Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2012-12-11

    The NECTAr collaboration's FE option for the camera of the CTA is a 16 bits and 1-3 GS/s sampling chip based on analog memories including most of the readout functions. This works describes the input amplifiers of the NECTAr ASIC. A fully differential wideband amplifier, with voltage gain up to 20 V/V and a BW of 400 MHz. As it is impossible to design a fully differential OpAmp with an 8 GHz GBW product in a 0.35 CMOS technology, an alternative implementation based on HF linearized transconductors is explored. The output buffer is a class AB miller operational amplifier, with special non-linear current boost.

  1. An automated test facility for neutronic amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutronic amplifiers are used at the Chalk River Laboratory in applications such as neutron flux monitoring and reactor control systems. Routine preventive maintenance of control and safety systems included annual calibration and characterization of the neutronic amplifiers. An investigation into the traditional methods of annual routine maintenance of amplifiers concluded that frequency and phase response measurements in particular were labour intensive and subject to non-repeatable errors. A decision was made to upgrade testing methods and facilities by using programmable test equipment under the control of a computer. In order to verify the results of the routine measurements, expressions for the transfer functions were derived from the circuit diagrams. Frequency and phase responses were then calculated and plotted thus providing a bench-mark to which the test results can be compared. (author)

  2. Linear Amplifier Model for Optomechanical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Botter, Thierry; Brahms, Nathan; Schreppler, Sydney; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2011-01-01

    We model optomechanical systems as linear optical amplifiers. This provides a unified treatment of diverse optomechanical phenomena. We emphasize, in particular, the relationship between ponderomotive squeezing and optomechanically induced transparency, two foci of current research. We characterize the amplifier response to quantum and deliberately applied fluctuations, both optical and mechanical. Further, we apply these results to establish quantum limits on external force sensing both on and off cavity resonance. We find that the maximum sensitivity attained on resonance constitutes an absolute upper limit, not surpassed when detuning off cavity resonance. The theory can be extended to a two-sided cavity with losses and limited detection efficiency.

  3. Operational amplifier circuits analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, J C C

    1995-01-01

    This book, a revised and updated version of the author's Basic Operational Amplifiers (Butterworths 1986), enables the non-specialist to make effective use of readily available integrated circuit operational amplifiers for a range of applications, including instrumentation, signal generation and processing.It is assumed the reader has a background in the basic techniques of circuit analysis, particularly the use of j notation for reactive circuits, with a corresponding level of mathematical ability. The underlying theory is explained with sufficient but not excessive, detail. A range of compu

  4. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold;

    2014-01-01

    Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  5. Beyond nonlinear saturation of backward Raman amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Ido; Toroker, Zeev; Balakin, Alexey A.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-06-01

    Backward Raman amplification is limited by relativistic nonlinear dephasing resulting in saturation of the leading spike of the amplified pulse. Pump detuning is employed to mitigate the relativistic phase mismatch and to overcome the associated saturation. The amplified pulse can then be reshaped into a monospike pulse with little precursory power ahead of it, with the maximum intensity increasing by a factor of two. This detuning can be employed advantageously both in regimes where the group velocity dispersion is unimportant and where the dispersion is important but small.

  6. Optimization of Pr3+:ZBLAN fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, B.; Miniscalco, J. W.; Quimby, R. S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental parameters have been measured and used in a quantitative model of Pr3+-doped fluorozirconate fiber amplifiers. The optimum cutoff wavelength was determined to be 800 nm and the gain for 400 mW of pump was found to increase from 12 to 34 dB if the NA was increased from 0.15 to 0.......25. Lengthening the metastable state lifetime from 110 to 300 μs would significantly improve amplifier performance while concentration quenching can appreciably degrade it...

  7. 76 FR 35095 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Exclusion of Combat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... regulations governing the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) a... Act), enacted on October 21, 2009, amended Section 17(d)(2) of the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S... 246--SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN (WIC) 0 1. The...

  8. 78 FR 79567 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Regulations ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AE09 National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods Sold in... Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim final rule; notice of approval...

  9. Nutrition Program Quality Assurance through a Formalized Process of On-Site Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Joan Doyle; Dollahite, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    A protocol for a systematic onsite review of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education was developed to support quality programming and ensure compliance with state guidelines and federal regulations. Onsite review of local nutrition program operations is one strategy to meet this…

  10. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  11. [Nutrition and liver failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plauth, M

    2013-06-01

    In the critically ill liver patient, nutrition support is not very different from that given for other illnesses. In hyperacute liver failure, nutrition support is of less importance than in the other subtypes of acute liver failure that take a more protracted course. Nasoenteral tube feeding using a polymeric standard formula should be the first-line approach, while parenteral nutrition giving glucose, fat, amino acids, vitamins, and trace elements is initiated when enteral nutrition is insufficient or impracticable. In chronic liver disease, notably cirrhosis, there is frequently protein malnutrition indicating a poor prognosis and requiring immediate initiation of nutrition support. Enteral nutrition ensuring an adequate provision of energy and protein should be preferred. Particular care should be taken to avoid refeeding syndrome and to treat vitamin and trace element deficiency.

  12. Feedback analysis of transimpedance operational amplifier circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1993-01-01

    The transimpedance or current feedback operational amplifier (CFB op-amp) is reviewed and compared to a conventional voltage mode op-amp using an analysis emphasizing the basic feedback characteristics of the circuit. With this approach the paradox of the constant bandwidth obtained from CFB op...

  13. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique, wh...

  14. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  15. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  16. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  17. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS...

  18. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Anker, Stefan D.; Morley, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appea...

  19. Nutrition and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, Heather

    2015-05-01

    Research is providing compelling evidence for Hippocrates' oft quoted "Let food be thy medicine." Despite this, most graduating physicians receive only a few hours of instruction about nutrition and coaching to help patients change their eating habits. Appropriate nutritional interventions may be one of the most useful tools doctors have to improve overall health outcomes in their patients and specifically reduce inflammation. Whether doctors choose to do this themselves or collaborate with other professionals trained in nutritional coaching, the benefits of attending to nutritional status can enhance outcomes of other therapies. PMID:25952067

  20. Nutrition for Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  1. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  2. Nutrition Education Needs Assessment for Licensed Group Day Care Centers in the State of Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Barksdale, Almina

    1980-01-01

    In November 1977 Congress established the Nutrition Education and Training Program (NETP) with the passage of Public Law 95-166. Section 227.37 of the NETP Regulations (1978) mandates that each state establish a plan of action for the use of any federally appropriated funds earmarked for "nutrition education" , and further, the plan should contain a proposal to instruct all students in the state about the nutritional value of foods as well as the relationship between food , nutrition, and hea...

  3. Nutritional Regulation of IGFs in Channel Catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined changes in hepatic IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA, insulin like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2) mRNA, muscle IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in fed (fed daily for 45 days) and restricted (not fed for 30 days followed by feeding for 15 days) channel catfish. By day 30, liver IGF-I mRNA...

  4. Amplified spontaneous emission spectrum and gain characteristic of a two-electrode semiconductor optical amplifier*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hanchao; Huang Lirong; Shi Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    A two-electrode multi-quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier is designed and fabricated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectrum and gain were measured and analyzed. It is shown that the ASE spectrum and gain characteristic are greatly influenced by the distribution of the injection current density. By changing the injection current density of two electrodes, the full width at half maximum, peak wavelength, peak power of the ASE spectrum and the gain characteristic can be easily controlled.

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells. The food constituent, iron, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells is a beneficial...... physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells in the general population has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iron in normal formation of haemoglobin...

  6. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to DHA and contribution to normal brain development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from DSM Nutritional Products, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and contribution to normal brain development. The Panel considers that DHA is sufficiently characterised, and that contribution to normal brain development is a beneficial physiological effect for infants...... and contribution to normal brain development. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “DHA contributes to normal brain development”. In order to bear the claim, foods for older infants and young children below the age of 24 months should provide a daily intake of 100 mg DHA in one or more servings...

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal cognitive development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to iodine and contribution to normal cognitive development. The food constituent, iodine, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal cognitive development is a beneficial physiological effect for infants and young......Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... children. A claim on iodine and contribution to normal cognitive and neurological function in the general population has already been assessed with a favourable outcome. In addition, there is a large body of evidence indicating a crucial role for iodine in growth and development. The Panel notes the well...

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to choline and “development of brain” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to choline and “development of brain”. The food constituent, choline, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “development of brain” and the target......Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked...... population is infants and young children from birth to three years of age. Taking into account that no evidence was provided for an effect of dietary choline deficiency in the normal development of the brain in infants and young children, the Panel considers that the claimed effect, “development of brain...

  9. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014 . Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal bone and tooth development pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to normal development of bones and teeth. The food constituent, vitamin D, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal development of bones and teeth is a beneficial physiological effect......Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... and young children (from birth to three years). The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin D and contribution to normal development of bones and teeth....

  10. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  11. Indications for nutritional support.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Y A

    1986-01-01

    In this review different types of patients who usually require nutritional support are considered and recommendations made as to when nutritional support should be started, how long it should be continued, and which substrates should be preferentially used by which route.

  12. Physician nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  13. Future of enteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been agreement that enteral nutrition remains an excellent means of providing nutritional support to malnourished patients with normal or near normal gastrointestinal function, it is clear that areas of controversy do exist, and attention needs to be directed towards these in the future.

  14. Nutrition in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with ω-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. PMID:26544599

  15. Test Your Nutrition IQ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李井岗

    2004-01-01

    All of us eat every day, but most of us don't understand nutrition. How much do you know about good nutrition? Please answer these twelve questions based on current ideas about food and health. The answers may surprise you.

  16. [Perioperatory artificial nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2008-06-01

    Malnutrition increases post surgical morbimortality, hospital stance and economical costs. Possibilities of nutritional intervention in surgical patients are important. Early enteral nutrition is better than total parenteral nutrition in patients under surgery. Periroperaoty nutritional support must be administrated to patients with severe or middle undernutrition and will be under surgery, during 7-14 days before surgical intervention, if this intervention could be delayed. Total parenteral nutrition will be not used regularly in patients under mayor digestive surgical procedures. Inmunonutrition has been demonstrated useful in surgical patients. Evidence demonstrates that inmunotritional formulas decrease incidence of infections, hospital stance and time of ventilation in patients in UCI wards. New research areas have been explored in this topic area, carbohydrate utility in presurgical patients and probiotic in enteral formulas.

  17. First lasing of the regenerative amplifier FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regenerative amplifier free-electron laser (RAFEL) is a high-gain RF-linac FEL capable of producing high optical power from a compact design. The combination of a high-gain and small optical feedback enables the FEL to reach saturation and produce a high optical power and high extraction efficiency without the risk of optical damage to the mirrors. This paper summarizes the first lasing of the regenerative amplifier FEL and describes recent experimental results. The highest optical energy achieved thus far at 16.3 μm is 1.7 J over a train of 900 micropulses. We infer pulse energy of 1.9 mJ in each 16 ps micropulse, corresponding to a peak power of 120 MW

  18. Behavioral modeling of Digitally Adjustable Current Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Polak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the digitally adjustable current amplifier (DACA and its analog behavioral model (ABM, which is suitable for both ideal and advanced analyses of the function block using DACA as active element. There are four levels of this model, each being suitable for simulation of a certain degree of electronic circuits design (e.g. filters, oscillators, generators. Each model is presented through a schematic wiring in the simulation program OrCAD, including a description of equations representing specific functions in the given level of the simulation model. The design of individual levels is always verified using PSpice simulations. The ABM model has been developed based on practically measured values of a number of DACA amplifier samples. The simulation results for proposed levels of the ABM model are shown and compared with the results of the real easurements of the active element DACA.

  19. High power single-frequency Innoslab amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ke-Zhen; Ning, Jian; Zhang, Bai-Tao; Wang, Yi-Ran; Zhang, Hai-Kun; Nie, Hong-Kun; Sun, Xiao-Li; He, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-10

    A laser diode array (LDA) end-pumped continuous-wave single-frequency Innoslab amplifier has been demonstrated. The Gaussian ray bundle method was used to model the light propagation in the Innoslab amplifier for the first time to the best of our knowledge. With discrete reflectors, the maximum output of 60 W with a linewidth of 44 MHz was achieved under the pump power of 245 W, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 24.5%. The beam quality factor M2 at the output power of 51 W in the horizontal and vertical direction was measured to be 1.4 and 1.3, respectively. The long-term power instability in 2 h was less than 0.25%. PMID:27409308

  20. Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

  1. Linear control of oscillator and amplifier flows*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Peter J.; Sipp, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Linear control applied to fluid systems near an equilibrium point has important applications for many flows of industrial or fundamental interest. In this article we give an exposition of tools and approaches for the design of control strategies for globally stable or unstable flows. For unstable oscillator flows a feedback configuration and a model-based approach is proposed, while for stable noise-amplifier flows a feedforward setup and an approach based on system identification is advocated. Model reduction and robustness issues are addressed for the oscillator case; statistical learning techniques are emphasized for the amplifier case. Effective suppression of global and convective instabilities could be demonstrated for either case, even though the system-identification approach results in a superior robustness to off-design conditions.

  2. Design of an 1800 nm Raman Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    Different approaches are being explored to increase the capacity of communication systems [1,2], both long and short range systems. One approach is by exploiting new optical wavelength bands, outside the conventional communication window from 1530 nm to 1625 nm. Hollow core fibers have been...... in the pump power requirement and deteriorated noise properties. Here we demonstrate a Raman amplifier designed for signal wavelengths around 1800 nm. The amplification fiber is an OFS PM Raman fiber, and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1680 nm [4]. The amplifier was pumped co......-polarized and backward, with respect to the singal. In Fig. 2 a measured Raman on/off gain exceeding 9 dB for 285 mW of injected pump power is obtained in a 4.35 km long fiber. A broadband supercontinuum source was used as a signal from 1700 nm to 1900 nm....

  3. Noise Gain Features of Fiber Raman Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgii S. Felinskyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation dynamics of the optical noise in a silica single mode fiber (SMF as function of the pump power variation in the counter pumped fiber Raman amplifier (FRA is experimentally studied. The ratio between the power of amplified spontaneous emission and the power of incoherent optical noise is quantitatively determined by detailed analysis of experimental data in the pump powers range of 100–300 mW within the full band of Stokes frequencies, including FRA working wavelengths over the C + L transparency windows. It is found out the maximum of Raman gain coefficient for optical noise does not exceed ~60% of corresponding peak at the gain profile maximum of coherent signal. It is shown that the real FRA noise figure may be considerably less than 3 dB over a wide wavelength range (100 nm at a pump power of several hundreds of mW.

  4. Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perin J.P.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz. The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K–170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m−2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

  5. Amplifying the Hawking Signal in BECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Balbinot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider simple models of Bose-Einstein condensates to study analog pair-creation effects, namely, the Hawking effect from acoustic black holes and the dynamical Casimir effect in rapidly time-dependent backgrounds. We also focus on a proposal by Cornell to amplify the Hawking signal in density-density correlators by reducing the atoms’ interactions shortly before measurements are made.

  6. Electrically Pumped Vertical-Cavity Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Tine

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the design of electrically pumped vertical cavity semiconductor optical amplifiers (eVCAs) for use in a mode-locked external-cavity laser has been developed, investigated and analysed. Four different eVCAs, one top-emitting and three bottom emitting structures, have been designed...... and discussed. The thesis concludes with recommendations for further work towards the realisation of compact electrically pumped mode-locked vertical externalcavity surface emitting lasers....

  7. Quantum noise in ideal operational amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Jean-Michel; Grassia, Francesca; Reynaud, Serge

    1998-01-01

    We consider a model of quantum measurement built on an ideal operational amplifier operating in the limit of infinite gain, infinite input impedance and null output impedance and with a feddback loop. We evaluate the intensity and voltage noises which have to be added to the classical amplification equations in order to fulfill the requirements of quantum mechanics. We give a description of this measurement device as a quantum network scattering quantum fluctuations from input to output ports.

  8. Inhomogeneously broadened fiber-amplifier cascades for transparent multiwavelength lightwave networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, E. L.; Eskildsen, L.; da Silva, V.; Andrejco, M.; Silberberg, Y.

    1995-05-01

    The emergence of practical fiber-amplifier chains has swiftly raised the prospect of transparent lightwave networks, in which signals travel from source to destination through a sequence of intermediate nodes without optoelectronic conversion. When such networks employ multiple wavelengths, however, some of the most substantial new research challenges are those posed by the amplifier chains themselves. Such networks suffer from accumulating interchannel power spread, from sensitivity to interamplifier loss variations, and from transient cross saturation, as the network undergoes reconfiguration. All of these difficulties effectively vanish in a chain of saturated lightwave amplifiers whose per-channel gains are decoupled by, e.g., inhomogeneous broadening. Unlike conventional, homogeneously broadened systems, saturated fiber-amplifier chains with decoupled gain dynamics provide automatic channel-by-channel power regulation, tolerance to interamplifier loss variations, and immunity to transient cross saturation. Thus, if amplifiers with such decoupled gain dynamics can be implemented in a practical way, they promise to solve - in a single stroke - several of the most substantial technological challenges facing transparent multiwavelength lightwave networks.

  9. Charge sensitive amplifies. The state of arts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kunishiro [Clear Pulse Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the radiation detectors, signals are essentially brought with charges produced by radiation, then it is naturally the best way to use a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) system to extract those signals. The CSA is thought to be the best amplifier suitable to almost all the radiation detectors, if neglecting economical points of view. The CSA has been only applied to special fields like radiation detection because the concept of `charges` is not so universal against the concepts of `voltage` and `current`. The CSA, however, is low in noise and a high speed amplifier and may be applicable not only to radiation measurement but also piezoelectric devices and also bolometers. In this article, noise in the CSA, basic circuit on the CSA, concepts of `equivalent noise charge` (ENC), a method for the ENC, and importance of the `open-loop gain` in the CSA to achieve better performance of it and how to realize in a practical CSA were described. And, characteristics on a counting rate of the CSA, various circuit used in the CSA, and CSAs which are commercially available at present and special purpose CSAs were also introduced. (G.K.)

  10. Microstrip SQUID amplifiers for quantum information science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, M. P.; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2012-02-01

    Recent progress in SQUID amplifiers suggests that these devices might approach quantum-limited sensitivity in the microwave range, thus making them a viable option for measurement of superconducting quantum systems. In the microstrip SQUID amplifier configuration, gains of around 20dB are possible at frequencies of several hundred MHz, and the gain is limited by the maximum voltage modulation available from the SQUID. One route for increasing the voltage modulation involves using larger resistive shunts, however maintaining non-hysteretic device operation requires smaller junction capacitances than is possible with conventional photolithographically patterned junctions. Operating at higher frequencies requires a shorter input coil which reduces mutual inductance between the coil and washer and therefore gain. We have fabricated microstrip SQUID amplifiers using submicron Al-AlOx-Al junctions and large shunts. The input coil and SQUID washer are optimized for producing high gain at frequencies in the gigahertz range. Recent measurements of gain and noise temperature will be discussed as well as demonstrations of these devices as a first stage of amplification for a superconducting system

  11. The development of DUV chemically amplified resists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thackeray, J.W.; Fedynyshyn, T.H.; Small, R.D. [Shipley Co. Inc., Marlboro, MA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The development of deep ultraviolet (DUV) resists has necessitated the introduction of new concepts in resist materials and chemistry. Successful DUV resist systems now employ the concept of chemical amplification. This catalytic reaction leads to a substantial enhancement in the imaging dose. Another benefit of chemical amplified resists is that they allow the design of materials which can be transparent to DUV exposure wavelengths, yet they can still have high sensitivity. Commercial and prototype positive- and negative-tone resists are now readily available and these resists have been used in pilot production to make the most advanced integrated circuits with {le}0.35 {mu}m design rules. At Shipley, we have undertaken to develop both negative- and positive-tone chemically amplified resists for DUV lithography. These resists are capable of high resolution (0.3 {mu}m), fast photospeed ({le}30 mJ/sq. cm), and excellent etch resistance. This presentation will discuss the chemical and lithographic properties of the Shipley negative- and positive-tone DUV chemically amplified resists. General discussion of the importance of activation energy for the catalytic process, catalytic chain length, and environmental stability will be given.

  12. Parallel reservoir computing using optical amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, Kristof; Dambre, Joni; Verstraeten, David; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Reservoir computing (RC), a computational paradigm inspired on neural systems, has become increasingly popular in recent years for solving a variety of complex recognition and classification problems. Thus far, most implementations have been software-based, limiting their speed and power efficiency. Integrated photonics offers the potential for a fast, power efficient and massively parallel hardware implementation. We have previously proposed a network of coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers as an interesting test case for such a hardware implementation. In this paper, we investigate the important design parameters and the consequences of process variations through simulations. We use an isolated word recognition task with babble noise to evaluate the performance of the photonic reservoirs with respect to traditional software reservoir implementations, which are based on leaky hyperbolic tangent functions. Our results show that the use of coherent light in a well-tuned reservoir architecture offers significant performance benefits. The most important design parameters are the delay and the phase shift in the system's physical connections. With optimized values for these parameters, coherent semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) reservoirs can achieve better results than traditional simulated reservoirs. We also show that process variations hardly degrade the performance, but amplifier noise can be detrimental. This effect must therefore be taken into account when designing SOA-based RC implementations.

  13. Application module of universal amplifier in education process

    OpenAIRE

    CHALOUPEK, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the teaching and implementation module for teaching in secondary schools and their role in education. Following the theory being discussed in relation to a valid educational program. Learning amplifier module implemented by the assignment to DPS. The activity of the amplifier module to simulate in Multisim simulation program. Next is made circuitry design in discrete amplifier module. There evaluated the feasibility and simulation of realizations amplifier module in sec...

  14. Noise and saturation properties of semiconductor quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved.......We present a detailed theoretical analysis of quantum dot optical amplifiers. Due to the presence of a reservoir of wetting layer states, the saturation and noise properties differ markedly from bulk or QW amplifiers and may be significantly improved....

  15. Efficiency of low power audio amplifiers and loudspeakers

    OpenAIRE

    Burrow, SG; Grant, Duncan A

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we look at the load presented to audio amplifiers by real transducers. We consider the power losses in Class-AB and Class-D amplifier topologies, and determine that in order to predict efficiency it is necessary to consider the amplifier/transducer combination. The ability of the class-D amplifier to recycle quadrature load current offers new ways to improve efficiency.

  16. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range. PMID:19405681

  17. The Dynamics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers – Modeling and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Berg, Tommy Winther

    2003-01-01

    The importance of semiconductor optical amplifiers is discussed. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is a semiconductor laser with anti-reflection coated facets that amplifies an injected light signal by means of stimulated emission. SOAs have a number of unique properties that open up...

  18. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhic, Michel E.; Andrekson, Peter A.; Petropoulos, Periklis;

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time...

  19. Polarization of Tapered Semiconductor Travelling-Wave Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦明星; 张书练; 梁晋文

    2001-01-01

    The polarization of a tapered semi-conductor travelling-wave amplifier has been investigated with the transfer matrix method based on convective equation. It is shown that the apparent polarization mode competition exists, and polarization-independent tapered semiconductor travellingwave amplifiers can be obtained through the optimization of amplifier parameters.

  20. Effects of Three Plant Growth Regulators on Yield and Nutritional Quality of Potato%3种植物生长调节剂对马铃薯产量和营养品质的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项洪涛; 冯乃杰; 王立志; 王连敏; 郑殿峰

    2015-01-01

    以马铃薯品种‘费乌瑞它’、‘大西洋’和‘克新13号’为试验材料,于盛花期进行叶面喷施2-N,N-二乙氨基乙基己酸酯(Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate),简称DTA-6;烯效唑(Uniconazole),简称S3307;氯化胆碱(Cho⁃line chloride),简称Cc。通过比较块茎重量和块茎内可溶性蛋白含量、维生素C含量、淀粉含量、还原糖含量以及酚类物质含量,分析3种植物生长调节剂对马铃薯产量和品质的调控效应。结果表明,DTA-6可显著提高‘大西洋’和‘克新13号’大薯重量,Cc可显著提高‘大西洋’大薯重量;各处理对可溶性蛋白含量没有显著性影响,但都显著提高了‘费乌瑞它’酚类物质的含量;DTA-6可显著提高‘费乌瑞它’和‘克新13号’维生素C的含量,而Cc可显著提高‘费乌瑞它’淀粉含量,DTA-6和Cc处理可显著提高‘克新13号’还原糖含量。%A field experiment was conducted with three potato cultivars, 'Favorita', 'Atlantic' and 'Kexin 13' in this study. Three regulators, 'Diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate (DTA-6)', 'Uniconazole (S3307)' and 'Choline chloride (Cc)' were used by foliar application. The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of plant growth regulators (PGRs) on yield and nutritional qualities of potatoes by comparing the change of tuber weight and the content of soluble protein, vitamin C, starch, reduced sugar and hydroxybenzene. DTA-6 increased the weight of large-sized tubers of 'Atlantic' and 'Kexin 13', and Cc had the same effect on 'Atlantic'. There was no significant impact on soluble protein content with those three treatments, but they significantly increased the content of hydroxybenzene of 'Favorita'. DTA-6 significantly increased the content of vitamin C of 'Favorita' and 'Kexin 13', and Cc increased the starch content of 'Favorita', significantly. DTA-6 and Cc significantly increased the content of the reducing sugar

  1. 76 FR 24820 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Review of Major Changes in Program Design and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Stamp Program) regulations to implement Section 4116 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008..., or Phrase symbol Code of Federal Regulations CFR. Federal Register FR. Federal Fiscal Year FY. Food and Nutrition Act of 2008......... Act. Food and Nutrition Service FNS. Food, Conservation, and...

  2. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  3. Nutrition and Imagenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we present the close, although little explored, relationship between Nutrition and Imagenology, relying mainly on an important number of images which will allow us to explain all the ways an Imagenology can influence upon the nutritional support of a patient.We primarily emphasize the diagnostic aspects of non-operated patients, as well as of those who have undergone surgical treatment, by showing both normality and the resulting surgical complications. We finally describe several interventionist Imagenology techniques used to achieve an adequate enteral nutrition

  4. [Practical guideline for nutritional care in geriatric institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, D

    2009-04-01

    Malnutrition is widespread in geriatric patients, but often unrecognized and untreated. The main barriers against implementation of adequate nutritional care are seen in low nutritional awareness, lack of knowledge, interest and responsibilities but also in established procedures and lack of standard protocols for nutritional screening and therapy. It is, thus, the aim of the present publication to provide a comprehensive, practice oriented guideline for quality assurance of nutritional care of elderly people in geriatric institutions. The guideline includes routine assessment of individual nutritional status as well as the planning and implementation of appropriate interventions and measurement of results. The guideline is aimed at the prevention and adequate treatment of weight loss and malnutrition and is composed of the following sections: 1) screening, 2) assessment, 3) definition of aims, 4) intervention, 5) monitoring with adaptation of aims and interventions, 6) planning of nutritional care after discharge. Appropriate interventions aim, on the one hand, at the elimination of underlying causes of malnutrition and, on the other hand, at adequate and sufficient dietary intake to meet the requirements. Dietetic, nursing and medical actions should be implemented in a coordinated manner in order to use all options to achieve the best nutritional care for each patient. As a prerequisite for high quality individual nutritional care, several basic conditions have to be established, e.g. appropriate supply of food and beverages to meet patient needs, well-organized caring processes during meals, willingness of all involved persons for interdisciplinary teamwork, and well-regulated responsibilities. This general guideline has to be adapted to the local conditions of each institution and consistently put into practice. For implementation of the guideline, a nutrition team with members of all relevant professions should be organized with regular meetings. In the long

  5. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; Ganse, Éric; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, Thomas; Poley, Marten; Salminen, Seppo; Nuijten, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to est...

  6. Improving Nutrition through Multisectoral Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the nutrition sensitive social protection are: 1) target activities to the most nutritionally vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children less than 24 months; 2) include nutrition education and counseling activities within social protection interventions to increase household awareness of care giving and health seeking behaviors; 3) integrate nutrition serv...

  7. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  8. An on-chip temperature compensation circuit for an InGaP/GaAs HBT RF power amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chengzhan; Chen Zhijian; Huang Jiwei; Wang Yongping; Ma Chuanhui; Yang Hanbing; Liao Yinghao; Zhou Yong; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    A new on-chip temperature compensation circuit for a GaAs-based HBT RF amplifier applied to wireless communication is presented.The simple compensation circuit is composed of one GaAs HBT and five resistors with various values,which allow the power amplifier to achieve better thermal characteristics with a little degradation in performance.It effectively compensates for the temperature variation of the gain and the output power of the power amplifier by regulating the base quiescent bias current.The temperature compensation circuit is applied to a 3-stage integrated power amplifier for wireless communication applications,which results in an improvement in the gain variation from 4.0 to 1.1 dB in the temperature range between -20 and +80 ℃.

  9. Child nutrition and growth: butterfly effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2008-02-01

    The international symposium organised by the Danone Institute as a pre-congress satellite of the European Nutrition Societies Congress, in Paris, in July 2007, brought together experts of child nutrition and behaviour. These experts coming from several countries of Europe and North America shared their views on the impact of numerous factors affecting child eating and health in present-day developed societies. Topics included nutritional influences during foetal life, early life development of food likes and dislikes, neophobia, ability for energy regulation, impact of media and advertisement, etc. Most contributions addressed the obesity epidemics and the problems associated with body weight control. Other aspects of child health were also considered, for example the nutritional challenge of adequately feeding children with type 1 diabetes. The nine speakers were asked to underline practical strategies to improve nutrition in early life, so as to maximise health, growth and quality of life in today's environment. The present paper is a summary of the ideas expressed by the experts, highlighting agreements, convergences, and occasional disagreements between expert opinions. PMID:18257951

  10. Analysis of multipass laser amplifier systems for storage laser media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance characteristics of single pass and multipass storage laser amplifiers are presented and compared. The effects of the multipass amplifier parameters on the extraction characteristics are examined. For a wide range of conditions the multipass amplifier is found to provide high energy gain and high efficiency simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over the single pass laser amplifier. Finally, three specific storage laser amplifier systems, flashlamp pumped V:MgF2, XeF laser pumped Tm:Glass, and photolytically pumped Selenium, are examined. The performance characteristics for each of the three systems are calculated and compared

  11. Analysis of multipass laser amplifier systems for storage laser media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, J.F.

    1980-03-25

    The performance characteristics of single pass and multipass storage laser amplifiers are presented and compared. The effects of the multipass amplifier parameters on the extraction characteristics are examined. For a wide range of conditions the multipass amplifier is found to provide high energy gain and high efficiency simultaneously. This is a significant advantage over the single pass laser amplifier. Finally, three specific storage laser amplifier systems, flashlamp pumped V:MgF/sub 2/, XeF laser pumped Tm:Glass, and photolytically pumped Selenium, are examined. The performance characteristics for each of the three systems are calculated and compared.

  12. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  13. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “hypo-caloric snacks (KOT products)” and “contributes to reduce adipocyte size at the abdominal level in the context of a low-calorie diet” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following an application from Ceprodi KOT, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “hypo-caloric snacks (KOT products)” and “contributes to reduce adipocyte size at the abdominal level in the context of a low-calorie diet”. The target population is overweight individuals who wish...

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous tone pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Omikron Italia S.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... claim related to a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and maintenance of normal venous tone. The food that is a subject of the health claim, a combination of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal venous tone...... of diosmin, troxerutin and hesperidin and the maintenance of normal venous tone....

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to flaxseed oil and vitamin E and maintenance of the skin permeability barrier function pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim....... The applicant identified two published human intervention studies as being pertinent to the health claim. Owing to the very limited information provided regarding key methodological aspects, and to the important limitations of the statistical analysis performed, the Panel considers that no conclusions can...

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to citrulline-malate and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Biocodex, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... to the methodological limitations of the study. A number of mechanistic, animal and in vitro studies were submitted. In the absence of evidence for an effect of consumption of citrulline-malate on a faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise in humans, these studies cannot be used as a source of data...

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim....... The applicant identified two human intervention studies as pertinent to the health claim. Owing to the very limited information provided in relation to one study, and that the second study was conducted with a food not complying with the characterisation of the food which is the subject of the health claim...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to glucose and contribution to energy-yielding metabolism pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to glucose and “contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is glucose, which is sufficiently......Following an application from Dextro Energy GmbH & Co. KG, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...

  20. EFSA Panel on Di etetic Products, Nutrition and Allergie s (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim relate d to OXY 280 and reduction of body weight pur suant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Actina, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... for overweight subjects. One unpublished human intervention study was provided by the applicant as pertinent to the health claim. This randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled study investigated the effect of OXY 280 vs placebo on body weight, BMI, and waist, hip and thigh circumferences in 60 overweight...

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis in Colief® and a reduction of gastrointestinal discomfort pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Cross Vetpharm Group UK Ltd, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver...... mechanism by which β-galactosidase could exert the claimed effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one study with methodological limitations showed an effect of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis in Colief® on infant crying time, that no other human studies in which...

  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Symbiosal® and lowering of blood pressure and reduced risk of hypertension pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Han-Asiabiotech GmbH, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion....... Lowering of blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect for people who want to lower their blood pressure. Increased blood pressure is a risk factor for hypertension. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human study with methodological limitations showed a decrease...

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to cocoa flavanols and maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Barry Callebaut Belgium nv, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... by the applicant is the general healthy adult population. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that cocoa flavanols consumed for 12 weeks have been shown to increase fasting ED...

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI), submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes) from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to dried plums of „prune‟ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function (ID 1164, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to plums of ‘prune....... The proposed target population is the general population. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two human intervention studies showed an effect of dried plums on bowel function, that one study with considerable limitations showed an effect of dried plums on stool consistency...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin K2 and contribution to the normal function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 125, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to vitamin K2 and contribution to the normal function of the heart....... In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account the absence of human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, the inconsistency of the results reported in two cross-sectional studies regarding arterial calcification in women...

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following an application from Tchibo GmbH, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to isoleucyl-prolyl-proline (IPP) and valyl-prolyl-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Valio Ltd submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... of which were adequately powered to detect small between-group differences in systolic BP (SBP), did not observe an effect of IPP and VPP on SBP or diastolic BP. The interpretation of the results from seven out of the eight studies which reported an effect of IPP and VPP on office SBP was hampered by major...

  9. Nutrition and Wellness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ways to Give Get Involved Home Run Challenge Golf Programs Athletes for a Cure Movember Other Ways ... us how much more we have yet to learn about how key nutritional strategies can affect the ...

  10. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  11. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know about Wilson Disease Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... and arthritis; cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmias; pancreatitis; hypoparathyroidism; menstrual irregularities: infertility, repeated miscarriages From: A Diagnostic Tool for Physicians ( ...

  12. Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002437.htm Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease that causes ...

  13. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  14. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  15. Low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; García-Delgado, L. A.; Gómez-Fuentes, R.; García-Juárez, A.

    2016-09-01

    A low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications is presented and described. The amplifier is based on a class-D half-bridge amplifier with a voltage mirror driver. The RF amplifier is composed of an RF class-D amplifier, an envelope modulator to ramp up the RF voltage during the ion analysis stage, a detector or amplitude demodulation circuit for sensing the output signal amplitude, and a feedback amplifier that linearizes the steady state output of the amplifier. The RF frequency is set by a crystal oscillator and the series resonant circuit is tuned to the oscillator frequency. The resonant circuit components have been chosen, in this case, to operate at 1 MHz. In testings, the class-D stage operated at a maximum of 78 mW at 1.1356 MHz producing 225 V peak.

  16. K-band FET amplifier for satellite downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, J.; Cheung, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    State-of-the-art performance is demonstrated with solid-state amplifiers in K-band. The amplifier provides 8.2 watts of power with 39 dB gain over a frequency band of 1.4 GHz. Nonlinearity analyses of solid-state amplifiers suggest that system performance can be improved significantly by using an FET amplifier. Preliminary investigations reveal that the solid-state amplifiers can be space-qualified and can be expected to replace the TWTA in many communication links in the near future. It is pointed out that with improvements in device technology, the power, bandwidth and efficiency of solid-state amplifiers using FETs can be further improved. With FETs operating at a junction temperature of less than 125 C, solid-state amplifiers are inherently reliable, indicating a ten-year mean time to failure.

  17. Investigations of electronic amplifiers supplying a piezobimorph actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milecki, Andrzej; Regulski, Roman

    2016-10-01

    Piezoelectric bending actuators, also known as bimorphs, are characterized by very good dynamic properties and by displacements in a range of a few millimeters. Therefore these actuators are used in a wide range of applications. However their usage is limited because they require supplying amplifiers with output voltage of about 200 V, which are rather expensive. This paper presents investigation results of such amplifiers with high voltage output. The model of a piezobending actuator is proposed and implemented in Matlab-Simulink software in order to simulate the behavior of the actuator supplied by the amplifiers. The simulation results are presented and compared with investigation results of high voltage amplifier used for supplying a piezoactuator. The influence of current limitation of operational amplifier on the actuator current is tested. Finally, a low cost audio power amplifier is proposed to control the piezobender actuator (as a cheaper alternative to the high-voltage amplifier) and its investigations results are presented in the paper.

  18. Time amplifying techniques towards atomic time resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI JingZhen

    2009-01-01

    High speed imaging technology has opened applications in many fields,such as collision,detonating,high voltage discharge,disintegration and transfer of phonon and exciton in solid,photosynthesis primitive reaction,and electron dynamics inside atom shell.In principle,all of the transient processes need to be explained theoretically and,st the same time,the time amplifying technique is required for observations of these processes.The present review concerns the atomic time amplifying mechanism of optical information and the extremely-high speed imaging methods,which are expressed in terms of the short time amplifying techniques.It is well-known that for extremely-high speed imaging with the converter tube,the temporal resolution is in the order of sub-picosecond of the streak imaging,and the imaging frequency is 6×10~8-5×10~9 fps(frame per second)of the frame imaging.On the other hand,for the tubeless extremely-high speed imaging,the imaging frequency is 10~7-10~(14) fps,and its mechanism of forming high speed and framing could involve a lot of factors of the light under investigation,for instance,light speed,light parallelism,the parameters of light wave such as amplitude,phase,polarization and wavelength,and even quantum properties of photon.In the cascaded system of electromagnetic wave and particle wave,it is possible to simultaneously realize extremely-high resolution in time and space,which is higher than a kite resolution.Then it would be possible to break the limit of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation of the optical frequency band.

  19. Time amplifying techniques towards atomic time resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    High speed imaging technology has opened applications in many fields,such as collision,detonating, high voltage discharge,disintegration and transfer of phonon and exciton in solid,photosynthesis primitive reaction,and electron dynamics inside atom shell.In principle,all of the transient processes need to be explained theoretically and,at the same time,the time amplifying technique is required for observations of these processes.The present review concerns the atomic time amplifying mechanism of optical information and the extremely-high speed imaging methods,which are expressed in terms of the short time amplifying techniques.It is well-known that for extremely-high speed imaging with the converter tube,the temporal resolution is in the order of sub-picosecond of the streak imaging,and the imaging frequency is 6×10 8 ―5×10 9 fps(frame per second)of the frame imaging.On the other hand,for the tubeless extremely-high speed imaging,the imaging frequency is 10 7 ―10 14 fps,and its mechanism of forming high speed and framing could involve a lot of factors of the light under investigation,for instance,light speed,light parallelism,the parameters of light wave such as amplitude,phase,polari- zation and wavelength,and even quantum properties of photon.In the cascaded system of electro- magnetic wave and particle wave,it is possible to simultaneously realize extremely-high resolution in time and space,which is higher than a kite resolution.Then it would be possible to break the limit of the Heisenberg uncertainty relation of the optical frequency band.

  20. High sensitivity amplifier/discriminator for PWC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The facility support group at Fermilab is designing and building a general purpose beam chamber for use in several locations at the laboratory. This pwc has 128 wires per plane spaced 1 mm apart. An initial production of 25 signal planes is anticipated. In proportional chambers, the size of the signal depends exponentially on the charge stored per unit of length along the anode wire. As the wire spacing decreases, the capacitance per unit length decreases, thereby requiring increased applied voltage to restore the necessary charge per unit length. In practical terms, this phenomenon is responsible for difficulties in constructing chambers with less than 2 mm wire spacing. 1 mm chambers, therefore, are frequently operated very near to their breakdown point and/or a high gain gas containing organic compounds such as magic gas is used. This argon/iso-butane mixture has three drawbacks: it is explosive when exposed to the air, it leaves a residue on the wires after extended use and is costly. An amplifier with higher sensitivity would reduce the problems associated with operating chambers with small wire spacings and allow them to be run a safe margin below their breakdown voltage even with an inorganic gas mixture such as argon/CO2, this eliminating the need to use magic gas. Described here is a low cost amplifier with a usable threshold of less than 0.5 μA. Data on the performance of this amplifier/discriminator in operation on a prototype beam chamber are given. This data shows the advantages of the high sensitivity of this design

  1. Nutritional management of cystic fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    A MacDonald

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional support is an integral part of the management of cystic fibrosis patients. It is arguably best provided by a qualified dietitian and nutritional care sister working in conjunction with the rest of the cystic fibrosis team. The patient's nutritional needs should be assessed, regularly reviewed, and nutritional treatment tailored to meet the changing clinical and psychosocial needs of the patient. Nutritional intervention is not without complications, and in particular attention to ...

  2. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  3. Undulations from amplified low frequency surface waves

    CERN Document Server

    Coutant, Antonin

    2012-01-01

    We study the scattering of gravity waves in longitudinal stationary flows. When the flow velocity becomes supercritical, counterflow propagating waves are amplified in such a way that, in the zero-frequency limit, the free surface develops an undu- lation, i.e., a zero-frequency wave of large amplitude with nodes located at specific places. From this, we show that the unperturbed flat surface is unstable against perturbations of arbitrary small amplitude. We then show that this instability also appears when treating low frequency waves by a stochastic ensemble. The relation between the generation of undulations and black hole radiation (the Hawking effect) is discussed.

  4. Envelope tracking power amplifiers for wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhancang

    2014-01-01

    Envelope tracking technology is seen as the most promising efficiency enhancement technology for RF power amplifiers for 4G and beyond wireless communications. More and more organizations are investing and researching on this topic with huge potential in academic and commercial areas.This is the first book on the market to offer complete introduction, theory, and design considerations on envelope tracking for wireless communications. This resource presents you with a full introduction to the subject and covers underlying theory and practical design considerations.

  5. Nutrition and sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Chin, w Dat N

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional support in critically ill patients with sepsis has received much attention in recent years. However, many of the studies have produced conflicting results. As for all critically ill patients, nutritional support, preferably via the enteral route, should be commenced once initial resuscitation and adequate perfusion pressure is achieved. Where enteral feeding is impossible or not tolerated, parenteral nutrition (either as total or complimentary therapy) may safely be administered. Most positive studies relating to nutritional support and sepsis have been in the setting of sepsis prevention. Thus, the administration of standard nutrition formulas to critically ill patients within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission may decrease the incidence of pneumonia. Both arginine-supplemented enteral diets, given in the perioperative period, and glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition have been shown to decrease infections in surgical patients. Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions as well as probiotics given in the perioperative period may also reduce infections in patients undergoing major abdominal operations, such as liver transplantation. There is little support at the present time for the positive effect of specific pharmaconutrients, in particular fish oil, probiotics, or antioxidants, in the setting of established sepsis. More studies are clearly required on larger numbers of more homogeneous groups of patients. PMID:23075593

  6. The Costs of Suppressing Negative Emotions and Amplifying Positive Emotions During Parental Caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Bonnie M; Impett, Emily A

    2016-03-01

    How do parents feel when they regulate their emotional expressions in ways that are incongruent with their genuine feelings? In an experimental study, parents reported experiencing lower authenticity, emotional well-being, relationship quality, and responsiveness to their children's needs when they recalled caregiving experiences in which they suppressed negative emotions and amplified positive emotions, relative to a control condition. In a 10-day daily experience study, parents tended to use both regulation strategies simultaneously. In addition, assessing their unique effects indicated that positive emotion amplification, but not negative emotion suppression, had an indirect effect on parental outcomes via authenticity, with negative emotion suppression no longer being costly. This indirect effect was dampened when accounting for care difficulty. In both studies, effects were independent of a child's mood. The current results suggest that parents' attempts to suppress negative and amplify positive emotions during child care can detract from their well-being and high-quality parent-child bonds. PMID:26865288

  7. 76 FR 28727 - Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program; Request for Extension and Revision of a... collection for the Child Nutrition Labeling Program. DATES: Comments on this document must be received by....regulations.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Child Nutrition Labeling Program. OMB Number:...

  8. 7 CFR 1150.153 - Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., research or nutrition education programs. 1150.153 Section 1150.153 Agriculture Regulations of the... § 1150.153 Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs... nutrition education program may apply to the Secretary for certification of qualification so that...

  9. Silicon on Insulator MESFETs for RF Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Seth J; Balijepalli, Asha; Ervin, Joseph; Lepkowski, William; Thornton, Trevor J

    2010-03-01

    CMOS compatible, high voltage SOI MESFETs have been fabricated using a standard 3.3V CMOS process without any changes to the process flow. A 0.6μm gate length device operates with a cut-off frequency of 7.3GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 21GHz. There is no degradation in device performance up to its breakdown voltage, which greatly exceeds that of CMOS devices on the same process. Other figures of merit of relevance to RF front-end design are presented, including the maximum stable gain and noise figure. An accurate representation of the device in SPICE has been developed using the commercially available TOM3 model. Using the SOI MESFET model, a source degenerated low noise RF amplifier targeting operation near 1GHz has been designed. The amplifier was fabricated on a PCB board and operates at 940MHz with a minimum NF of 3.8dB and RF gain of 9.9dB while only consuming 5mW of DC power. PMID:20657816

  10. Design criteria for ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, C.; Cerullo, G.

    2016-10-01

    Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) exploit second-order nonlinearity to transfer energy from a fixed frequency pump pulse to a variable frequency signal pulse, and represent an easy way of tuning over a broad range the frequency of an otherwise fixed femtosecond laser system. OPAs can also act as broadband amplifiers, transferring energy from a narrowband pump to a broadband signal and thus considerably shortening the duration of the pump pulse. Due to these unique properties, OPAs are nowadays ubiquitous in ultrafast laser laboratories, and are employed by many users, such as solid state physicists, atomic/molecular physicists, chemists and biologists, who are not experts in ultrafast optics. This tutorial paper aims at providing the non-specialist reader with a self-consistent guide to the physical foundations of OPAs, deriving the main equations describing their performance and discussing how they can be used to understand their most important working parameters (frequency tunability, bandwidth, pulse energy/repetition rate scalability, control over the carrier-envelope phase of the generated pulses). Based on this analysis, we derive practical design criteria for OPAs, showing how their performance depends on the type of the nonlinear interaction (crystal type, phase-matching configuration, crystal length), on the characteristics of the pump pulse (frequency, duration, energy, repetition rate) and on the OPA architecture.

  11. Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Drung, Dietmar; Becker, Ulrich; Scherer, Hansjörg; Ahlers, Franz Josef

    2014-01-01

    An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MOhm reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA's transfer coefficient is extremely stable versus time, temperature and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of +/-5 nA. A low noise level of 2.4 fA/sqrt(Hz) helps to keep averaging times low at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Typically, within one day after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations of the transresistance is below one part in 10^7. The long-term stability is expected to be better than one part in 10^5 over a year. A ...

  12. Graphene oxide amplifies the phytotoxicity of arsenic in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiangang; Kang, Jia; Lu, Kaicheng; Zhou, Ruiren; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-08-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is widely used in various fields and is considered to be relatively biocompatible. Herein, ``indirect'' nanotoxicity is first defined as toxic amplification of toxicants or pollutants by nanomaterials. This work revealed that GO greatly amplifies the phytotoxicity of arsenic (As), a widespread contaminant, in wheat, for example, causing a decrease in biomass and root numbers and increasing oxidative stress, which are thought to be regulated by its metabolisms. Compared with As or GO alone, GO combined with As inhibited the metabolism of carbohydrates, enhanced amino acid and secondary metabolism and disrupted fatty acid metabolism and the urea cycle. GO also triggered damage to cellular structures and electrolyte leakage and enhanced the uptake of GO and As. Co-transport of GO-loading As and transformation of As(V) to high-toxicity As(III) by GO were observed. The generation of dimethylarsinate, produced from the detoxification of inorganic As, was inhibited by GO in plants. GO also regulated phosphate transporter gene expression and arsenate reductase activity to influence the uptake and transformation of As, respectively. Moreover, the above effects of GO were concentration dependent. Given the widespread exposure to As in agriculture, the indirect nanotoxicity of GO should be carefully considered in food safety.

  13. Nutrition and the circadian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Gregory D M; Cade, Janet E; Grant, Peter J; Hardie, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    The human circadian system anticipates and adapts to daily environmental changes to optimise behaviour according to time of day and temporally partitions incompatible physiological processes. At the helm of this system is a master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN are primarily synchronised to the 24-h day by the light/dark cycle; however, feeding/fasting cycles are the primary time cues for clocks in peripheral tissues. Aligning feeding/fasting cycles with clock-regulated metabolic changes optimises metabolism, and studies of other animals suggest that feeding at inappropriate times disrupts circadian system organisation, and thereby contributes to adverse metabolic consequences and chronic disease development. 'High-fat diets' (HFD) produce particularly deleterious effects on circadian system organisation in rodents by blunting feeding/fasting cycles. Time-of-day-restricted feeding, where food availability is restricted to a period of several hours, offsets many adverse consequences of HFD in these animals; however, further evidence is required to assess whether the same is true in humans. Several nutritional compounds have robust effects on the circadian system. Caffeine, for example, can speed synchronisation to new time zones after jetlag. An appreciation of the circadian system has many implications for nutritional science and may ultimately help reduce the burden of chronic diseases. PMID:27221157

  14. The effectiveness of nutritional interventions in malnutrition and cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a common diagnosis and leading cause of death worldwide. Amounts of weight loss vary but it is associated with considerable morbidity, poorer quality of life and reduced survival. Nutritional intervention has the potential to maximise response to treatment and improve functioning and quality of life. The aim of this paper was to review the evidence for oral nutritional interventions in the management of weight loss in patients with cancer. Comparison of studies of nutritional support interventions in people with cancer is complicated by variations in understanding of what constitutes a compromised nutritional status. There are similarities and differences between definitions of both malnutrition and cachexia and studies of oral nutritional interventions have failed to use standard criteria at study inclusion contributing to heterogeneity amongst studies. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials has suggested limited evidence of benefit to nutritional and clinical outcomes but some improvements to aspects of quality of life. The presence of cachexia in patients with cancer might explain the limited efficacy of simple oral nutritional interventions, which lack a component designed to address metabolic abnormalities associated with cachexia. Novel strategies combining nutritional support with therapeutic agents designed to down-regulate the metabolic aberrations have failed to demonstrate consistent benefits and the results of multimodal treatments combining several interventions are awaited. There is a need for intervention studies recruiting patients early in the disease course, which underlines the need for definitions which predict poor outcome and hence allow early recognition of vulnerable patients. PMID:26087760

  15. Adaptive collective foraging in groups with conflicting nutritional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Charleston, Michael A; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Collective foraging, based on positive feedback and quorum responses, is believed to improve the foraging efficiency of animals. Nutritional models suggest that social information transfer increases the ability of foragers with closely aligned nutritional needs to find nutrients and maintain a balanced diet. However, whether or not collective foraging is adaptive in a heterogeneous group composed of individuals with differing nutritional needs is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an evolutionary agent-based model using concepts of nutritional ecology to address this knowledge gap. Our aim was to evaluate how collective foraging, mediated by social retention on foods, can improve nutrient balancing in individuals with different requirements. The model suggests that in groups where inter-individual nutritional needs are unimodally distributed, high levels of collective foraging yield optimal individual fitness by reducing search times that result from moving between nutritionally imbalanced foods. However, where nutritional needs are highly bimodal (e.g. where the requirements of males and females differ) collective foraging is selected against, leading to group fission. In this case, additional mechanisms such as assortative interactions can coevolve to allow collective foraging by subgroups of individuals with aligned requirements. Our findings indicate that collective foraging is an efficient strategy for nutrient regulation in animals inhabiting complex nutritional environments and exhibiting a range of social forms. PMID:27152206

  16. Adaptive collective foraging in groups with conflicting nutritional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Charleston, Michael A; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    Collective foraging, based on positive feedback and quorum responses, is believed to improve the foraging efficiency of animals. Nutritional models suggest that social information transfer increases the ability of foragers with closely aligned nutritional needs to find nutrients and maintain a balanced diet. However, whether or not collective foraging is adaptive in a heterogeneous group composed of individuals with differing nutritional needs is virtually unexplored. Here we develop an evolutionary agent-based model using concepts of nutritional ecology to address this knowledge gap. Our aim was to evaluate how collective foraging, mediated by social retention on foods, can improve nutrient balancing in individuals with different requirements. The model suggests that in groups where inter-individual nutritional needs are unimodally distributed, high levels of collective foraging yield optimal individual fitness by reducing search times that result from moving between nutritionally imbalanced foods. However, where nutritional needs are highly bimodal (e.g. where the requirements of males and females differ) collective foraging is selected against, leading to group fission. In this case, additional mechanisms such as assortative interactions can coevolve to allow collective foraging by subgroups of individuals with aligned requirements. Our findings indicate that collective foraging is an efficient strategy for nutrient regulation in animals inhabiting complex nutritional environments and exhibiting a range of social forms.

  17. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus paracasei LPC 01 (CNCM I-1390) and treatment of disease (ID 3055, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to Lactobacillus...... paracasei LPC 01 (CNCM I-1390) and treatment of disease. The food constituent, L. paracasei LPC 01 (CNCM I-1390), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed for further assessment is “relieve symptoms typically associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), especially diarrhoea......”. The Panel considers that the claimed effect is related to the treatment of a disease and does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006....

  18. Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10-8 A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10-10 A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with very different

  19. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management.

  20. [Nutrition and cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuramaki, T; Hirata, K; Isobe, M

    1998-03-01

    Nutritional therapy for cancer patients includes various objectives such as improvement of cachexia, elucidation of the mechanism of malnutrition, development of therapy for anorexia, nutrition support during chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and inhibition of tumor growth under controlled caloric intake. This review describes recent remarkable developments in nutritional therapy for cancer patients. Cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor which induce proteolysis and lipolysis are involved in the cause of malnutrition and cachexia in cancer patients. IL-1 also plays a significant role in the development of cancer anorexia via direct action in the brain. For anorexia therapy, progestogens have been shown to improve appetite and food intake in cancer patients. Moreover, glutamine supplementation improves the host protein metabolism without enhancement of tumor growth during chemotherapy. Among the effects of caloric intake on anticancer therapy, AO-90, a methionine-free intravenous amino acid solution, has been shown to increase the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil in clinical studies. From these observations, recent progress in nutritional therapy for cancer patients has been remarkable. Further study of nutritional therapy is required in order to maintain or improve the quality of life of cancer patients in the future.

  1. Nutritional plans for boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional plans for boars. Four hundred animals of 67 to 135 days of age and initial weight of 27.75±1.61 kg were distributed in a randomized block design with seven nutritional plans for boars (9.0-8.0; 9.0-9.0; 10.0-9.0; 10.0-10.0; 11.0-10.0; 11.0-11.0 and 12.0-11.0 g/kg of digestible lysine from 67 to 107 days and from 108 to 135 days, respectively with four repetitions and a control plan for barrows (11.0-10.0 g/kg of digestible lysine with eight repetitions and ten animals each. Uncastrated male swine presented better feed conversion; however they showed a lower marbling degree in relation to barrows, regardless of the nutritional plan. The nutritional plan that corresponds to the sequence of 11.0-10.0 g/kg of digestible lysine from the 67 to the 107 days and from the 108 to the 135 days, respectively, meets the nutritional needs of boars.

  2. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  3. Gender Differences on the Use of Amplifiers in Academic Writings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申利芬

    2012-01-01

      This study aims to investigate the use of amplifiers in term of gender and disciplinary groups in academic research arti⁃cles, which is based on the British Academic Written English Corpus (BAWE).18 amplifiers were examined across two dimen⁃sions:gender and disciplinary groups. The results show amplifiers are more common in males’ academic writings than in those of females in general, amplifiers are used more often in AH discipline. However, not all amplifiers show significant gender differ⁃ences between men and women. Six words show a significant difference between male and female writers:pretty, by far, perfect⁃ly, quite, a great deal, totally, which are used more often by males. However, the interesting is in LS discipline, most amplifiers are used more often by female than male writers and males tend to use by far more frequently than females.

  4. ANALYSIS OF INTERNALLY GENERATED NOISE OF BIOELECTRIC AMPLIFIERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mashhour Mustafa; Bani Amer

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with internally generated noise of bioelectric amplifiers that are usually used for processing of bioelectric events. The main purpose of this paper is to present a procedure for analysis of the effects of internal noise generated by the active circuits and to evaluate the output noise of the author's new designed bioelectric amplifier that caused by internal effects to the amplifier circuit itself in order to compare it with the noise generated by conventional amplifiers. The obtained analysis results of internally generated noise showed that the total output noise of bioelectric active circuits does not increase when some of their resistors have a larger value. This behavior is caused by the different transfer functions for the signal and the respective noise sources associated with these resistors. Moreover, the new designed bioelectric amplifier has an output noise less than that for conventional amplifiers. The obtained analysis results were also experimentally verified and the final conclusions were drawn.

  5. Measurement of microdosimetric spectra using an amplifier with logarithmic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3-1/2 decade logarithmic pulse amplifier was developed for use in microdosimetry. A block diagram of the instrument is given. The input shaping amplifier is designed to accept output pulses from a charge sensitive preamplifier with a maximum full scale amplitude of 8 volts. Output of the shaping amplifier is a bipolar, positive lobe leading RC shaped pulse with a maximum linear range approximately 200 millivolts. Following the logarithmic converter is a voltage amplifier which is used to increase the signal level before it is applied through the linear gate to the output buffer-amplifier. The signal at the output connector is a positive pulse compatible with most conventional pulse height analyzers. The gain of the linear amplifier is adjustable over 10 to 1 range by means of front panel controls

  6. Josephson parametric amplifiers for the ADMX-HF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnou, Maxime; Palken, Daniel; Hilton, Gene; Vale, Leila; Lehnert, Konrad

    2016-03-01

    Dark matter search in the ADMX-HF experiment aims at detecting power generated by the axion-photon conversion, of a few hundred of yoctowatts, in the 4 - 12 GHz band. The sensitivity of detection directly depends on the amplifier noise temperature, and therefore requires state of the art microwave amplifiers. In contrast to amplifiers with dissipation on-chip, superconducting Josephson parametric amplifiers (JPA) reach and even circumvent the quantum limit. Over the past years, we have developed JPAs fabricated with arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices. Their gain, bandwidth and tunability are particularly well suited for efficient amplification in the band of interest. In this talk we will present numerical modeling of the behavior of our amplifiers, along with the first results from new designs that cover the 4-12 GHz band. Finally, we will present the ongoing work to increase the gain-bandwidth product and gain stability of our amplifiers.

  7. Low-noise amplifiers for satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelehan, J.

    1984-02-01

    It is pointed out that over the past several years significant advances have been made in the overall capability of both microwave and mm-wave receivers. This is particularly apparent in the telecom market. Integral parts of advanced receiver technology are low-noise receivers. The advances currently being achieved in low-noise technology are partly based on developments in GaAs semiconductor technology. The development of high-cutoff-frequency beam lead mixer diodes has led to the development of mm-wave low-noise mixers with excellent low-noise capability. The advanced techniques are now being employed in field-deployable systems. Low noise is an important factor in satellite communications applications. Attention is given to C-band fixed satellite service, C-band parametric amplifiers, C-band FET, and X band, the Ku band, and the 30/20 GHz band.

  8. Gain Characteristics of Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明义; 姜淳; 胡卫生

    2004-01-01

    The theory model of fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) was introduced, which is based on optical nonlinear effect. And then numerical simulation was done to analyze and discuss the gain spectral characteristics of one-pump and two-pump FOPA. The results show that for one-pump FOPA, when pump wavelength is near to fiber zero-dispersion wavelength(ZDW), the gain flatness is better, and with the increase of the pump power, fiber length and its nonlinear coefficient, the gain value will increase while the gain bandwidth will become narrow. For two-pump FOPA, when the pump central wavelength is near to fiber ZDW, the gain flatness is better. Moreover, by decreasing the space of two pumps wavelength, the gain flatness can be improved. Finally, some problems existing in FOPA were addressed.

  9. The spectacular human nose: An amplifier of individual quality?

    OpenAIRE

    Åse Kristine Rognmo Mikalsen; Ivar Folstad; Nigel Gilles Yoccoz; Bruno Laeng

    2014-01-01

    Amplifiers are signals that improve the perception of underlying differences in quality. They are cost free and advantageous to high quality individuals, but disadvantageous to low quality individuals, as poor quality is easier perceived because of the amplifier. For an amplifier to evolve, the average fitness benefit to the high quality individuals should be higher than the average cost for the low quality individuals. The human nose is, compared to the nose of most other primates, extraordi...

  10. Thermodynamic indistinguishability and field state fingerprint of quantum optical amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Perl, Yossi; Band, Yehuda B.; Boukobza, Erez

    2016-01-01

    Dissipation tends to wash out dynamical features observed at early evolution times. In this paper we analyze a resonant single--atom two--photon quantum optical amplifier both dynamically and thermodynamically. A detailed thermodynamic balance shows that the non--linear amplifier is thermodynamically equivalent to the linear amplifier discussed in (Phys. Rev. A, 74 (2006), 063822). However, by calculating the Wigner quasi--probability distribution for various initial field states, we show tha...

  11. Modeling and design techniques for RF power amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Raghavan, Arvind; Laskar, Joy

    2008-01-01

    The book covers RF power amplifier design, from device and modeling considerations to advanced circuit design architectures and techniques. It focuses on recent developments and advanced topics in this area, including numerous practical designs to back the theoretical considerations. It presents the challenges in designing power amplifiers in silicon and helps the reader improve the efficiency of linear power amplifiers, and design more accurate compact device models, with faster extraction routines, to create cost effective and reliable circuits.

  12. A high performance switching audio amplifier using sliding mode control

    OpenAIRE

    Pillonnet, Gael; Cellier, Rémy; Abouchi, Nacer; Chiollaz, Monique

    2008-01-01

    International audience The switching audio amplifiers are widely used in various portable and consumer electronics due to their high efficiency, but suffers from low audio performances due to inherent nonlinearity. This paper presents an integrated class D audio amplifier with low consumption and high audio performances. It includes a power stage and an efficient control based on sliding mode technique. This monolithic class D amplifier is capable of delivering up to 1W into 8Ω load at les...

  13. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    OpenAIRE

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication.

  14. Nutrition in Medicine: Nutrition Education for Medical Students and Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly M.; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and...

  15. Vision Based Extraction of Nutrition Information from Skewed Nutrition Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Tanwir

    2016-01-01

    An important component of a healthy diet is the comprehension and retention of nutritional information and understanding of how different food items and nutritional constituents affect our bodies. In the U.S. and many other countries, nutritional information is primarily conveyed to consumers through nutrition labels (NLs) which can be found in all packaged food products. However, sometimes it becomes really challenging to utilize all this information available in these NLs even for consumers...

  16. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  17. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  18. Nutrition in Severe Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Akiko Kamikado Pivi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

  19. The Multidimensional Nutritional Niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Senior, Alistair M; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-05-01

    The dietary generalist-specialist distinction plays a pivotal role in theoretical and applied ecology, conservation, invasion biology, and evolution and yet the concept remains poorly characterised. Diets, which are commonly used to define niche breadth, are almost exclusively considered in terms of foods, with little regard for the mixtures of nutrients and other compounds they contain. We use nutritional geometry (NG) to integrate nutrition with food-level approaches to the dietary niche and illustrate the application of our framework in the important context of invasion biology. We use an example that involves a model with four hypothetical nonexclusive scenarios. We additionally show how this approach can provide fresh theoretical insight into the ways nutrition and food choices impact trait evolution and trophic interactions.

  20. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

  1. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kh Dzgoeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  2. Saturation effects in degenerate phase sensitive fiber optic parametric amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Kakande J.; Parmigiani F.; Slavik R.; Gruner-Nielsen L.; Jakobsen D.; Herstrom S.; Petropoulos P.; Richardson D.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally study saturation effects in degenerate phase sensitive amplifiers, revealing and explaining a gain regime suitable for all-optical signal processing functions such as phase regeneration.

  3. Parametric Amplifiers for Microwave Kinectic Inductance Detector (MKID) Readout Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Find numerical solutions to the non-linear partial differential equations describing our amplifier transmission lines. Optimize periodic choke structure to block...

  4. Dual Band High Efficiency Power Amplifier Based on CRLH Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the use of Composite Right/Left Hand (CRLH and Extended Composite Right/Left Hand (ECRLH transmission lines for the design of dual band high efficiency power amplifiers working in CE class. The harmonic termination can be synthesized using the meta-lines is particularly suitable for CE class amplifiers, which have a termination not as sensitive to the third harmonic as F class amplifier. This paper presents the design procedure and the design equations. The nonlinear phase response of a CRLH and ECRLH transmission line has been utilized to design arbitrary dual-band amplifiers.

  5. Nylon Sleeve for Cavity Amplifier Holds Tuning Despite Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derr, Lloyd

    1964-01-01

    The problem: Detuning of cavity amplifiers with change in temperature. This results in deterioration of the performance of the amplifier at its design frequency. In cavity amplifiers and filters it is desirable that constant performance be maintained regardless of thermal changes. These changes often cause an "off resonance shift" in a cavity filter and a deterioration of performance in a cavity amplifier. The solution: Mount the tuning probe in a nylon sleeve. Thermal expansion and contraction of the nylon nullifies unwanted capacitive and inductive changes in the resonant elements.

  6. Compensation of pulse-distortion in saturated laser amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Damian N; Ruchert, Clemens; Nodop, Dirk; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Salin, Francois

    2008-10-27

    We derive an expression describing pre-compensation of pulse-distortion due to saturation effects in short pulse laser-amplifiers. The analytical solution determines the optimum input pulse-shape required to obtain any arbitrary target pulse-shape at the output of the saturated laser-amplifier. The relation is experimentally verified using an all-fiber amplifier chain that is seeded by a directly modulated laser-diode. The method will prove useful in applications of high power, high energy laser-amplifier systems that need particular pulse-shapes to be efficient, e.g. micromachining and scientific laser-matter-interactions. PMID:18958044

  7. Pathogenesisandtreatmentofparenteral nutrition-associatedliverdisease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Wei Xu; You-Sheng Li

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) has been common in patients who require long-term parenteral nutrition. PNALD develops in 40%-60%of infants on long-term parenteral nutrition compared with 15%-40%of adults on home parenteral nutrition for intestinal failure. The pathogenesis of PNALD is multifactorial and remains unclear. There is no speciifc treatment. Management strategies for its prevention and treatment depend on an understanding of many risk factors. This review aims to provide an update on the pathogenesis and treatment of this disease. DATA SOURCES: A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE and Web of Science databases for articles published up to October 2011, using the keywords: parenteral nutrition associated liver disease, intestinal failure associated liver disease, lipid emulsions and ifsh oil. The available data reported in the relevant literatures were analyzed. RESULTS: The literature search provided a huge amount of evidence about the pathogenesis and management strategies on PNALD. Currently, lack of enteral feeding, extended duration of parenteral nutrition, recurrent sepsis, and nutrient deifciency or excess may play important roles in the pathogenesis of PNALD. Recent studies found that phytosterols, present as contaminants in soy-based lipid emulsions, are also an important factor in the pathogenesis. Moreover, the treatment of PNALD is discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The use of lipid emulsions, phytosterols in particular, is associated with PNALD. Management strategies for the prevention and treatment of PNALD include consideration of early enteral feeding, the use of specialized lipid emulsions such as ifsh oil emulsions, and isolated small bowel or combined liver and small bowel transplantation. A greater understanding of the pathogenesis of PNALD has led to promising interventions to prevent and treat this condition. Future work should aim to better understand the mechanisms of PNALD and the long

  8. Does lower birth order amplify the association between high socio-economic status and central adiposity in young adult Filipino males?

    OpenAIRE

    Dahly, Darren L; Adair, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that lower birth order amplifies the positive association between socioeconomic status and central adiposity in young adult males from a lower-income, developing country context. Design The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is an ongoing community-based, observational study of a one year birth cohort (1983). Subjects 970 young adult males, mean age 21.5 y (2005). Measurements Central adiposity measured by waist circumference; birth order; perinatal...

  9. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  10. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  11. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  12. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lenoir-Wijnkoop (Irene); M. Dapoigny; D. Dubois; E. Ganse (Éric); I. Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea (Iñaki); J. Hutton; P. Jones; T. Mittendorf (Thomas); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Salminen (Seppo); M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for develo

  13. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...

  14. 77 FR 25127 - Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Disaster Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (D-SNAP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  15. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is follo

  16. Iron and Zinc Nutrition in the Economically-Developed World: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison O. Booth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes.

  17. Iron and zinc nutrition in the economically-developed world: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Karen H C; Riddell, Lynn J; Nowson, Caryl A; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2013-08-01

    This review compares iron and zinc food sources, dietary intakes, dietary recommendations, nutritional status, bioavailability and interactions, with a focus on adults in economically-developed countries. The main sources of iron and zinc are cereals and meat, with fortificant iron and zinc potentially making an important contribution. Current fortification practices are concerning as there is little regulation or monitoring of intakes. In the countries included in this review, the proportion of individuals with iron intakes below recommendations was similar to the proportion of individuals with suboptimal iron status. Due to a lack of population zinc status information, similar comparisons cannot be made for zinc intakes and status. Significant data indicate that inhibitors of iron absorption include phytate, polyphenols, soy protein and calcium, and enhancers include animal tissue and ascorbic acid. It appears that of these, only phytate and soy protein also inhibit zinc absorption. Most data are derived from single-meal studies, which tend to amplify impacts on iron absorption in contrast to studies that utilize a realistic food matrix. These interactions need to be substantiated by studies that account for whole diets, however in the interim, it may be prudent for those at risk of iron deficiency to maximize absorption by reducing consumption of inhibitors and including enhancers at mealtimes. PMID:23945676

  18. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  19. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  20. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  1. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Clinician Press Room Career Center Advertising and Sponsorship Join / Renew Donate Online Store Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support ...

  2. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  3. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workout Nutrition Timing Your Pre- and Post-Workout Nutrition weights and fruits Building Muscle on a Vegetarian Diet For Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Enjoy a Healthy and Happy Halloween Halloween is ...

  4. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home About Porphyria Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobacilli and/or decreasing the proportion of potentially pathogenic bacteria and/or yeasts (ID 945) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (ATCC 55826) in combination with Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 (ATCC 55845) and defence against vaginal pathogens by increasing the proportion of lactobac...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1747, 1748, 1864, 1951, 1954, 4693) and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1747, 1748, 1864, 1951, 1954, 4693) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substa...

  7. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740

  8. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed.

  9. Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buul, Vincent J; Brouns, Fred J P H

    2015-01-01

    European regulations mandate that only substantiated and approved statements can be used as nutrition- and health-related claims in food marketing. A thorough understanding of consumer perceptions of these approved claims is needed to assess their impact on both the purchase intention of functional foods and the development of innovative functional food concepts. In this paper, a conceptual framework on the European consumers' perception of nutrition and health claims on these functional foods is proposed. Through a literature review, common independent variables are structured, and an analysis of these variables shows that nutrition and health claims are mostly only perceived positive by specific target consumers (who need the product, accept the ingredient, understand the benefit, and trust the brand). These consumers indicate that the products with substantiated and approved claims help them in reaching overall health goals. This increased expectation in functional efficacy may mediate an increase in repurchase intent, overall liking, and the amount consumers are willing to spend. Other consumers, however, may have adverse reactions towards nutrition and health claims on functional foods. Implications for the consumer and the industry are discussed. PMID:24364816

  10. Nutrition in the hospital setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Felicia Jan Ee SHEN

    2012-01-01

    Nutrition is essential for human health. Malnutrition in the hospital setting is common, and often underrecognised. Malnutrition increases morbidity, length of stay and mortality in patients, and increases postoperative complications. Patients’ nutritional status should be screened upon admission and if there is evidence of a poor nutritional state, the patient should be referred for further evaluation and management. Nutritional requirements may vary in disease states and the route of feedin...

  11. Nutritional support in critically ill patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, P W; Enriquez, A; Barrera, R

    2001-07-01

    Nutritional depletion is a common problem seen in critically ill patients with cancer and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Infection and injury activate a cascade of metabolic events that leads to a poor nutritional state and wasteful energy consumption. The goals of nutritional support entail minimizing starvation, preventing nutrient deficiencies, supporting or improving immune function, and facilitating tissue repair and wound healing. Further understanding of the metabolic changes of illness will improve effective regulation of the inflammatory events occurring in critically ill patients. Multiple clinical parameters are available to assess the nutritional status in critically ill patients, but no standard recommendations can be made at this time. The use of these parameters can be appropriate, provided that their limitations are understood clearly. The development and standardization of objective parameters to identify patients at risk or with subclinical malnutrition are needed. Enteral and parenteral feedings are safe and effective methods to deliver nutrients to critically ill patients with cancer who are unable to ingest adequate amounts orally. Early nutritional support should be instituted in the appropriate clinical setting. Specialized nutritional solutions and supplements require careful consideration in patients with renal, hepatic, cardiac, or pulmonary disorders. The unselective use of nutritional support is not indicated in well-nourished patients with cancer undergoing surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy in whom adequate oral intake is anticipated. Nutritional support remains an important adjunctive therapy in the overall management of critically ill patients. Continued clinical investigations in nutrition are necessary to identify other groups of patients who can benefit from nutritional interventions. PMID:11525056

  12. X-Band, 17-Watt Solid-State Power Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Stone, Ernest; Boger, William; Burgess, David; Honda, Richard; Nuckolls, Carl

    2005-01-01

    An advanced solid-state power amplifier that can generate an output power of as much as 17 W at a design operating frequency of 8.4 GHz has been designed and constructed as a smaller, lighter, less expensive alternative to traveling-wave-tube X-band amplifiers and to prior solid-state X-band power amplifiers of equivalent output power. This amplifier comprises a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier module and a power-converter module integrated into a compact package (see Figure 1). The amplifier module contains an input variable-gain amplifier (VGA), an intermediate driver stage, a final power stage, and input and output power monitors (see Figure 2). The VGA and the driver amplifier are 0.5-m GaAs-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The final power stage contains four parallel high-efficiency, GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMTs). The gain of the VGA is voltage-variable over a range of 10 to 24 dB. To provide for temperature compensation of the overall amplifier gain, the gain-control voltage is generated by an operational-amplifier circuit that includes a resistor/thermistor temperature-sensing network. The driver amplifier provides a gain of 14 dB to an output power of 27 dBm to drive the four parallel output PHEMTs, each of which is nominally capable of putting out as much as 5 W. The driver output is sent to the input terminals of the four parallel PHEMTs through microstrip power dividers; the outputs of these PHEMTs are combined by microstrip power combiners (which are similar to the microstrip power dividers) to obtain the final output power of 17 W.

  13. Impact of microbial inoculation on biomass accumulation by Sulla carnosa provenances, and in regulating nutrition, physiological and antioxidant activities of this species under non-saline and saline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidri, R; Barea, J M; Mahmoud, O Metoui-Ben; Abdelly, C; Azcón, Rosario

    2016-08-20

    Bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp.) and/or the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus intraradices were able to improve growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of four Sulla carnosa Desf. provenances (Sidi khlif, Thelja, Kalbia and Kerker) from Tunisia under both saline and non-saline conditions. S. carnosa is a salt-tolerant legume plant, native from North Africa. The intrinsic bacterial characteristics evidenced the fitness of these bacteria to support salt stress and to stimulate plant growth. Bacillus sp. produced more indol acetic acid (IAA) than Pseudomonas sp. and showed a great surviving capacity under salt conditions supporting its capacity to improve plant growth under stress conditions. The microorganisms applied also have a different potential to increase the nutritional and related plant growth parameters. It is noticeable that some provenances reached the highest level of growth when inoculated with Bacillus sp. in Sidi khlif or by Bacillus plus AMF in Kalbia, which increased shoot by 318% and root by 774%. In contrast, in Thelja and Kerker the impact of the test microorganisms was mainly evidenced at increasing nutritional and physiological functions. Salinity reduced some growth and physiological variables as stomatal conductance, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic efficiency and increased electrolyte leakage. However, the microbial inoculants compensated these detrimental effects in a degree depending on the S. carnosa provenance. These microorganisms also orchestrate antioxidant activities involved in adaptative responses in S. carnosa provenances. The intrinsic ability of inoculants allow us to select the provenance/microorganism combination which maximizes S. carnosa growth, nutrition and physiological/biochemical responses under salt and non-salt conditions. The results obtained support that the target microbial inocula are beneficial for the ecological stability if this Mediterranean legume. PMID:27393918

  14. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Teens > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... or the flu. With the right balance of nutrition, extra fat and calories , and prescribed supplements, though, ...

  15. Personalised nutrition: Status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.-G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Görman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.; Ommen, B. van; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing e

  16. Personalised nutrition: status and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost, H.G.; Gibney, M.J.; Cashman, K.D.; Gorman, U.; Hesketh, J.E.; Mueller, M.A.; Ommen, van B.; Williams, C.M.; Mathers, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Personalised, genotype-based nutrition is a concept that links genotyping with specific nutritional advice in order to improve the prevention of nutrition-associated, chronic diseases. This review describes the current scientific basis of the concept and discusses its problems. There is convincing e

  17. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  18. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  19. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  20. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández;

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  1. The Science of Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

  2. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  3. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  4. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  5. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  6. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  7. Nutrition & Pancreatic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this thesis was to determine the optimal feeding strategy after pancreatoduodenectomy. The available nutritional guidelines give conflicting recommendations and are all based on studies after major gastrointestinal surgery for cancer in general. We systematically reviewe

  8. FRUIT NUTRITIVE FACTOR NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqing QU; Yumei JIANG; Daren HE

    2009-01-01

    As an research example of the widely existing cooperation-competition systems, the authors present an empirical investigation on a fruit nutritive factor network. It is described by a node-weighted bipartite graph. The fruit nutritive factors are defined as the nodes, and two nodes are connected by an edge if at least one fruit contains these two nutritive factors. The fruits are defined as the collaboration acts. The node-weight Writ, which signifies the "importance degree" of each actor node, is defined as the content of a nutritive factor in a fruit. The empirical investigation results show some unique features.The node-weight distributions take so-called "shifted power law" function forms, but the act-weight distribution takes a normal form. The degree and act-degree distributions show impulsive-spectrum like forms. These observations may be helpful for the study of fruits. The network description method proposed in this article may be universal for a kind of cooperation-competition systems.

  9. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

  10. Psoriasis and Nutrition Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Tevfikoğlu Alceylan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic complex inflammatory disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Nutrition and diet has been suggested to play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis. Diets poor in energy and saturated fatty acids and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have positive effects on the treatment of psoriasis. Vitamin A and D modulate immune system and their receptors shows an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Patients with psoriasis are often Vitamin D deficient, they should be therefore evaluated considering their vitamin D levels. If they take a vitamin D supplementation, they should be monitored for side effects. Consumption levels of minerals such as copper, zinc and iron, and antioxidant compounds, including carotenoids and flavonoids involve in antioxidant reactions should be followed-up. A diet including a variety of vegetables and fruit can help reduce the risk of oxidative stress. Selenium levels are lower in patients, and selenium is effective in the prognosis of the disease when combined with antioxidant treatment. Alcohol consumption has a negative impact on the nutrition of the patients and the prognosis of the disease and should be avoided. The follow-up of the disease at an early stage, adequate and balanced nutrition are important in the treatment of psoriasis. Weight controls should be provided and diets with individual specific nutrition variety should be set.

  11. Child Care as an Untapped Setting for Obesity Prevention: State Child Care Licensing Regulations Related to Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Media Use for Preschool-Aged Children in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kaphingst, Karen M; Story, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Child care is a potential setting for obesity prevention; 8.6 million preschool-aged children participated in child care in 2001. Each US state creates and enforces its own child care licensing regulations. We analyzed obesity-related child care licensing regulations of US states. Methods We downloaded state licensing regulations for children in child care centers (CCCs), small family child care homes (SFHs), and large family or group child care homes (LFGHs) in each state and th...

  12. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  13. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.

  14. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  15. Phase Sensitive Amplifier Based on Ultrashort Pump Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Gershikov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a narrow band phase sensitive amplifier in the pump degenerate configuration which employs ps pump pulses. Control of the amplifier bandwidth is achieved via changes of the pump spectral width. A phase sensitive gain between -6 and 6 decibels, with an overall system gain of 28dB was demonstrated.

  16. Externally pumped millimeter-wave Josephson-junction parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, M.T; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, Ole;

    1980-01-01

    A unified theory of the singly and doubly degenerate Josephson-junction parametric amplifier is presented. Experiments with single junctions on both amplifier modes at frequencies 10, 35, and 70 GHz are discussed. Low-noise temperature (∼100 K, single sideband (SSB)) and reasonable gain (∼8 dB) w...

  17. Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...

  18. Saturation and noise properties of quantum-dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Based on extensive numerical calculations, quantum-dot (QD) amplifiers are predicted to offer higher output power and lower noise figure compared to bulk as well as quantum well amplifiers. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed in detail, leading to the identification of a few key requi...

  19. Subjective test of class D amplifiers without output filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Fenger, Lars M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of subjective listening tests designed to determine whether the output filter on class D amplifiers used in active loudspeakers can be omitted without audible errors occurring. The frequency range of the amplifiers was limited to 0-3 kHz corresponding to a woofer...

  20. External Peltier Cooler For Low-Noise Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Terry A.

    1990-01-01

    Inexpensive Peltier-effect cooling module made of few commercially available parts used to reduce thermal noise in microwave amplifier. Retrofitted to almost any microwave low-noise amplifier or receiver preamplifier used in communication, telemetry, or radar. Includes copper or aluminum cold plate held tightly against unit to be cooled by strap-type worm-gear clamps.

  1. Design and Analysis of Hybrid CMOS SRAM Sense Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Bajaj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sense amplifiers are one of the very important peripheral components of CMOS memories. In a Hybrid Sense amplifier both current and voltage sensing techniques are used which makes it a better selection than a conventional current or voltage sense amplifiers. The hybrid sense amplifier works in three phases-Offset cancellation (200ps, Access phase (500ps and Evaluation phase. The offset cancellation is done simultaneously with word line decoding, so as to speed up the process. The sensing range of the hybrid sense amplifier is improved from 1.18mV to 92mV. Also hybrid sense amplifier consumes very low energy of about 6.84fj. This sense amplifier is analyzed with a column of 512 SRAM cells at 180nm technology node and compared to CMOS conventional voltage sense amplifier. The circuit consumes an average power of 1.57 µW with a negligible offset of 149.3µV.

  2. Gain characteristics of a saturated fiber optic parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny;

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss saturation performance of a fiber optic parametric amplifier. A simple numerical model is described and applied to specific cases. A system experiment using a saturated amplifier illustrates a 4 dB improvement in required signal to noise ratio for a fixed bit error ratio....

  3. Power Amplifier Design for E-band Wireless System Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadziabdic, Dzenan; Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2008-01-01

    a power amplifier design satisfying the E-band system specifications. The designed power amplifier achieves a maximum output power of ges 20 dBm with a state-of-the-art power-added efficiency of 15%. The power is realized using InP DHBT technology. To the best of our knowledge it is the highest output...

  4. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens

    2008-01-01

    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  5. Optically amplifying planar glass waveguides: Laser on a chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldberg-Kjær, Søren Andreas

    The objective of this work was to devlop optically amplifying planar wavguides, using erbium-doped germano-silicate glass films deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition). The waveguides should exhibit enough gain to be useful as optical amplifiers in integrated planar lightw...

  6. Implantable neurotechnologies: a review of integrated circuit neural amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kian Ann; Greenwald, Elliot; Xu, Yong Ping; Thakor, Nitish V

    2016-01-01

    Neural signal recording is critical in modern day neuroscience research and emerging neural prosthesis programs. Neural recording requires the use of precise, low-noise amplifier systems to acquire and condition the weak neural signals that are transduced through electrode interfaces. Neural amplifiers and amplifier-based systems are available commercially or can be designed in-house and fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) technologies, resulting in very large-scale integration or application-specific integrated circuit solutions. IC-based neural amplifiers are now used to acquire untethered/portable neural recordings, as they meet the requirements of a miniaturized form factor, light weight and low power consumption. Furthermore, such miniaturized and low-power IC neural amplifiers are now being used in emerging implantable neural prosthesis technologies. This review focuses on neural amplifier-based devices and is presented in two interrelated parts. First, neural signal recording is reviewed, and practical challenges are highlighted. Current amplifier designs with increased functionality and performance and without penalties in chip size and power are featured. Second, applications of IC-based neural amplifiers in basic science experiments (e.g., cortical studies using animal models), neural prostheses (e.g., brain/nerve machine interfaces) and treatment of neuronal diseases (e.g., DBS for treatment of epilepsy) are highlighted. The review concludes with future outlooks of this technology and important challenges with regard to neural signal amplification.

  7. Frequency-Offset Cartesian Feedback Based on Polyphase Difference Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Zanchi, Marta G.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C

    2010-01-01

    A modified Cartesian feedback method called “frequency-offset Cartesian feedback” and based on polyphase difference amplifiers is described that significantly reduces the problems associated with quadrature errors and DC-offsets in classic Cartesian feedback power amplifier control systems.

  8. Switching-mode Audio Power Amplifiers with Direct Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new class of switching-mode audio power amplifiers, which are capable of direct energy conversion from the AC mains to the audio output. They represent an ultimate integration of a switching-mode power supply and a Class D audio power amplifier, where the intermediate DC bus...

  9. Ultrafast Dynamics of Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2007-01-01

    We report on a series of experiments on the dynamical properties of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers. We show how the amplifier responds to one or several ultrafast (170 fs) pulses in rapid succession and our results demonstrate applicability and ultimate limitations to application...

  10. Variable-Voltage Class-E Power Amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acar, Mustafa; Annema, Anne Johan; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    The Class-E power amplifier is widely used due to its high efficiency, resulting from switching at zero voltage and zero slope of the switch voltage. In this paper, we extend general analytical solutions for the Class-E power amplifier to the ideal single-ended Variable-Voltage Class-E (Class-EVV) p

  11. Optimisation of High-Power Amplifiers using non linear models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, A.P. de; Bogaart, F.L.M. van den

    1999-01-01

    This paper identifies the areas where the use of non-linear simulations for the design of high-power amplifiers is useful. The identified areas are: operating class selection, determination source and load impedance for matching network design, overall amplifier simulations and stability analysis un

  12. A Power Efficient Audio Amplifier Combining Switching and Linear Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der R.A.R.; Tuijl, van A.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Integrated Class D audio amplifiers are very power efficient, but require an external filter which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realise, so that the load influences the distortion- and transfer characteristics. The amplifier presented in t

  13. An RF Power Amplifier in a Digital CMOS Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Asbeck; Fallesen, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    A two stage class B power amplifier for 1.9 GHz is presented. The amplifier is fabricated in a standard digital EPI-CMOS process with low resistivity substrate. The measured output power is 29 dBm in a 50 Omega load. A design method to find the large signal parameters of the output transistor...

  14. Models of reduced-noise, probabilistic linear amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Joshua; Walk, Nathan; Lund, A. P.; Ralph, T. C.; Caves, Carlton M.

    2016-05-01

    We construct an amplifier that interpolates between a nondeterministic, immaculate linear amplifier and a deterministic, ideal linear amplifier and beyond to nonideal linear amplifiers. The construction involves cascading an immaculate linear amplifier that has amplitude gain g1 with a (possibly) nonideal linear amplifier that has gain g2. With respect to normally ordered moments, the device has output noise μ2(G2-1 ) where G =g1g2 is the overall amplitude gain and μ2 is a noise parameter. When μ2≥1 , our devices realize ideal (μ2=1 ) and nonideal (μ2>1 ) linear amplifiers. When 0 ≤μ2devices work effectively only over a restricted region of phase space and with some subunity success probability p✓. We investigate the performance of our μ2 amplifiers in terms of a gain-corrected probability-fidelity product and the ratio of input to output signal-to-noise ratios corrected for success probability.

  15. Advances in Solid Core Photonic Bandgap Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner;

    2012-01-01

    We present recent development of photonic crystal fiber amplifiers containing photonic bandgap structures for enhanced spectral and modal filtering functionality.......We present recent development of photonic crystal fiber amplifiers containing photonic bandgap structures for enhanced spectral and modal filtering functionality....

  16. Amplifying Islam : Pluralism, Secularism, and Religious Sounds in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamimi Arab, P.

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation is an ethnographic study of the amplified azan, the Islamic call to prayer, in the Netherlands, adding a sonic dimension to analyses of the politics of Islamic aesthetics in the western world. Often rejected by opponents as noise pollution, facilitating the amplified azan is an exa

  17. PHEMT Distributed Power Amplifier Adopting Broadband Impedance Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narendra, K.; Limiti, E.; Paoloni, C.;

    2013-01-01

    A non-uniform drain line distributed power amplifier (DPA) employing a broadband impedance transformer is presented. The DPA is based on GaAs PHEMT technology. The impedance transformer employs asymmetric coupled lines and transforms a low output impedance of the amplifier to a standard 50 Ω...

  18. Updates on nutrition and health claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Perales-Albert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is concern about the influence of social determinants related to advertising, communication and information on the selection of food for healthy eating and safe. From this point of view, Spain created the European Regulation 1924/2006 (ER1924/2006, its aim is to ensure and promote access to safe food that benefit health and prevent information received by consumers is inaccurate, ambiguous or misleading. The aims of regulation are to prevent nutritional and attributed health claims to food without reason or if there is sufficient scientific evidence. In this sense, a group of professionals from the University of Alicante in December 2012 performed the First Day of Food and Nutrition, organized by the Center Alinua of the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, related to updates on nutrition and health claims and its implications public health.By the interest and importance of this topic, this is a summary of the position papers from agents involved: consumers, government, food business, the gremial’s dietitian, the Academy and public health.

  19. INFORMATION SOURCE FOR FOOD NUTRITION

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti L. Vaja

    2015-01-01

    We live in a knowledge society – knowledge is power – isn’t it? But the status and role of nutrition knowledge is decidedly uncertain. The status and explanatory role of nutrition knowledge is uncertain in public health nutrition. Much of the uncertainty about this area has been generated by conceptual confusion about the nature of nutrition Information in particular. So the research describes several key concepts in some detail. The main research is that ‘nutrition information source ’ is a ...

  20. Pulse laser imaging amplifier for advanced ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir; Tomov, Ivan; Murrell, David

    2016-05-01

    Security measures sometimes require persistent surveillance of government, military and public areas Borders, bridges, sport arenas, airports and others are often surveilled with low-cost cameras. Their low-light performance can be enhanced with laser illuminators; however various operational scenarios may require a low-intensity laser illumination with the object-scattered light intensity lower than the sensitivity of the Ladar image detector. This paper discusses a novel type of high-gain optical image amplifier. The approach enables time-synchronization of the incoming and amplifying signals with accuracy <= 1 ns. The technique allows the incoming signal to be amplified without the need to match the input spectrum to the cavity modes. Instead, the incoming signal is accepted within the spectral band of the amplifier. We have gauged experimentally the performance of the amplifier with a 40 dB gain and an angle of view 20 mrad.