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Sample records for amplifications 2-10 ul

  1. HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress mediated by UL31 in association with UL34 is impeded by cellular transmembrane protein 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Ying [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Science, Kunming, Yunnan 650106 (China); Guo, Lei; Yang, Erxia; Liao, Yun; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lichun; Wang, Jingjing [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China); Li, Qihan, E-mail: imbcams.lq@gmail.com [Department of Viral Immunology, Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medicine Science, Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118 (China)

    2014-09-15

    During HSV-1 infection, the viral UL31 protein forms a complex with the UL34 protein at the cellular nuclear membrane, where both proteins play important roles in the envelopment of viral nucleocapsids and their egress into the cytoplasm. To characterize the mechanism of HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress, we screened host proteins to identify proteins that interacted with UL31 via yeast two-hybrid analysis. Transmembrane protein 140 (TMEM140), was identified and confirmed to bind to and co-localize with UL31 during viral infection. Further studies indicated that TMEM140 inhibits HSV-1 proliferation through selectively blocking viral nucleocapsid egress during the viral assembly process. The blockage function of TMEM140 is mediated by impeding the formation of the UL31–UL34 complex due to competitive binding to UL31. Collectively, these data suggest the essentiality of the UL31–UL34 interaction in the viral nucleocapsid egress process and provide a new anti-HSV-1 strategy in viral assembly process of nucleocapsid egress. - Highlights: • Cellular TMEM140 protein interacts with HSV-1 UL31 protein during viral infection. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 leads to inhibition of HSV-1 proliferation. • Increasing expression of TMEM140 blocks HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress process. • Binding to UL31 of TMEM140 impedes formation of HSV-1 UL31–UL34 complex.

  2. A subset of herpes simplex virus replication genes induces DNA amplification within the host cell genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilbronn, R.; zur Hausen, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))

    1989-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) induces DNA amplification of target genes within the host cell chromosome. To characterize the HSV genes that mediate the amplification effect, combinations of cloned DNA fragments covering the entire HSV genome were transiently transfected into simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster cells. This led to amplification of the integrated SV40 DNA sequences to a degree comparable to that observed after transfection of intact virion DNA. Transfection of combinations of subclones and of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter-driven expression constructs for individual open reading frames led to the identification of sic HSV genes which together were necessary and sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification: UL30 (DNA polymerase), UL29 (major DNA-binding protein), UL5, UL8, UL42, and UL52. All of these genes encode proteins necessary for HSV DNA replication. However, an additional gene coding for an HSV origin-binding protein (UL9) was required for origin-dependent HSV DNA replication but was dispensable for SV40 DNA amplification. The results show that a subset of HSV replication genes is sufficient for the induction of DNA amplification. This opens the possibility that HSV expresses functions sufficient for DNA amplification but separate from those responsible for lytic viral growth. HSV infection may thereby induce DNA amplification within the host cell genome without killing the host by lytic viral growth. This may lead to persistence of a cell with a new genetic phenotype, which would have implications for the pathogenicity of the virus in vivo.

  3. Direct quantification of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early and late mRNA levels in blood of lung transplant recipients by competitive nucleic acid sequence-based amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijer, AE; Verschuuren, EAM; Harmsen, MC; Dekkers, CAJ; Adriaanse, HMA; The, TH; Middeldorp, JM

    The dynamics of active human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored by competitive nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays for quantification of IE1 (UL123) and pp67 (UL65) mRNA expression levels In the blood of patients after lung transplantation. RNA was isolated from 339

  4. AWI Moored ULS Data, Weddell Sea (1990-1998)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of moored Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) data from 14 stations in the Weddell Sea. Parameters in the processed data files are water pressure,...

  5. Identification and characterization of the pseudorabies virus UL43 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klupp, Barbara G.; Altenschmidt, Jan; Granzow, Harald; Fuchs, Walter; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Among the least characterized herpesvirus membrane proteins are the homologs of UL43 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). To identify and characterize the UL43 protein of pseudorabies virus (PrV), part of the open reading frame was expressed in Escherichia coli and used for immunization of a rabbit. The antiserum recognized in Western blots a 34-kDa protein in lysates of PrV infected cells and purified virions, demonstrating that the UL43 protein is a virion component. In indirect immunofluorescence analysis, the antiserum labeled vesicular structures in PrV infected cells which also contained glycoprotein B. To functionally analyze UL43, a deletion mutant was constructed lacking amino acids 23-332 of the 373aa protein. This mutant was only slightly impaired in replication as assayed by one-step growth kinetics, measurement of plaque sizes, and electron microscopy. Interestingly, the PrV UL43 protein was able to inhibit fusion induced by PrV glycoproteins in a transient expression-fusion assay to a similar extent as gM. Double mutant viruses lacking, in addition to UL43, the multiply membrane spanning glycoproteins K or M did not show a phenotype beyond that observed in the gK and gM single deletion mutants

  6. Identification of interaction domains within the UL37 tegument protein of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucks, Michelle A; Murphy, Michael A; O'Regan, Kevin J; Courtney, Richard J

    2011-07-20

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL37 is a 1123 amino acid tegument protein that self-associates and binds to the tegument protein UL36 (VP1/2). Studies were undertaken to identify regions of UL37 involved in these protein-protein interactions. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that residues within the carboxy-terminal half of UL37, amino acids 568-1123, are important for interaction with UL36. Coimmunoprecipitation assays also revealed that amino acids 1-300 and 568-1123 of UL37 are capable of self-association. UL37 appears to self-associate only under conditions when UL36 is not present or is present in low amounts, suggesting UL36 and UL37 may compete for binding. Transfection-infection experiments were performed to identify domains of UL37 that complement the UL37 deletion virus, K∆UL37. The carboxy-terminal region of UL37 (residues 568-1123) partially rescues the K∆UL37 infection. These results suggest the C-terminus of UL37 may contribute to its essential functional role within the virus-infected cell. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori

    2011-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

  8. Intracellular Distribution of Capsid-Associated pUL77 of Human Cytomegalovirus and Interactions with Packaging Proteins and pUL93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen-Rung, Pánja; Dittmer, Alexandra; Bogner, Elke

    2016-07-01

    DNA packaging into procapsids is a common multistep process during viral maturation in herpesviruses. In human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), the proteins involved in this process are terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL89, which are responsible for site-specific cleavage and insertion of the DNA into the procapsid via portal protein pUL104. However, additional viral proteins are required for the DNA packaging process. We have shown previously that the plasmid that encodes capsid-associated pUL77 encodes another potential player during capsid maturation. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that pUL77 is stably expressed during HCMV infection. Time course analysis demonstrated that pUL77 is expressed in the early late part of the infectious cycle. The sequence of pUL77 was analyzed to find nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), revealing monopartite NLSm at the N terminus and bipartite NLSb in the middle of pUL77. The potential NLSs were inserted into plasmid pHM829, which encodes a chimeric protein with β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein. In contrast to pUL56, neither NLSm nor NLSb was sufficient for nuclear import. Furthermore, we investigated by coimmunoprecipitation whether packaging proteins, as well as pUL93, the homologue protein of herpes simplex virus 1 pUL17, are interaction partners of pUL77. The interactions between pUL77 and packaging proteins, as well as pUL93, were verified. We showed that the capsid-associated pUL77 is another potential player during capsid maturation of HCMV. Protein UL77 (pUL77) is a conserved core protein of HCMV. This study demonstrates for the first time that pUL77 has early-late expression kinetics during the infectious cycle and an intrinsic potential for nuclear translocation. According to its proposed functions in stabilization of the capsid and anchoring of the encapsidated DNA during packaging, interaction with further DNA packaging proteins is required. We identified physical interactions with terminase subunits pUL56 and pUL

  9. Mutations in the putative zinc-binding motif of UL52 demonstrate a complex interdependence between the UL5 and UL52 subunits of the human herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase/primase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Carrington-Lawrence, Stacy D; Bai, Ping; Weller, Sandra K

    2005-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a heterotrimeric helicase-primase (UL5/8/52) complex. UL5 contains seven motifs found in helicase superfamily 1, and UL52 contains conserved motifs found in primases. The contributions of each subunit to the biochemical activities of the complex, however, remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that a mutation in the putative zinc finger at UL52 C terminus abrogates not only primase but also ATPase, helicase, and DNA-binding activities of a UL5/UL52 subcomplex, indicating a complex interdependence between the two subunits. To test this hypothesis and to further investigate the role of the zinc finger in the enzymatic activities of the helicase-primase, a series of mutations were constructed in this motif. They differed in their ability to complement a UL52 null virus: totally defective, partial complementation, and potentiating. In this study, four of these mutants were studied biochemically after expression and purification from insect cells infected with recombinant baculoviruses. All mutants show greatly reduced primase activity. Complementation-defective mutants exhibited severe defects in ATPase, helicase, and DNA-binding activities. Partially complementing mutants displayed intermediate levels of these activities, except that one showed a wild-type level of helicase activity. These data suggest that the UL52 zinc finger motif plays an important role in the activities of the helicase-primase complex. The observation that mutations in UL52 affected helicase, ATPase, and DNA-binding activities indicates that UL52 binding to DNA via the zinc finger may be necessary for loading UL5. Alternatively, UL5 and UL52 may share a DNA-binding interface.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus UL145 gene is highly conserved among ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    capable of causing infections that persist lifelong, and normally ... 1 Virus Laboratory, Affiliated ShengJing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, P. R. China. 2Department of .... Elmer, USA), and negative controls were included in each round of .... variability of the UL145 gene in field isolates. To answer this.

  11. The UL5 and UL52 subunits of the herpes simplex virus type 1 helicase-primase subcomplex exhibit a complex interdependence for DNA binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, N; Weller, S K

    2001-05-18

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 encodes a heterotrimeric helicase-primase complex composed of the products of the UL5, UL52, and UL8 genes. The UL5 protein contains seven motifs found in all members of helicase Superfamily 1 (SF1), and the UL52 protein contains several conserved motifs found in primases; however, the contributions of each subunit to the biochemical activities of the subcomplex are not clear. In this work, the DNA binding properties of wild type and mutant subcomplexes were examined using single-stranded, duplex, and forked substrates. A gel mobility shift assay indicated that the UL5-UL52 subcomplex binds more efficiently to the forked substrate than to either single strand or duplex DNA. Although nucleotides are not absolutely required for DNA binding, ADP stimulated the binding of UL5-UL52 to single strand DNA whereas ATP, ADP, and adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated the binding to a forked substrate. We have previously shown that both subunits contact single-stranded DNA in a photocross-linking assay (Biswas, N., and Weller, S. K. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 8068-8076). In this study, photocross-linking assays with forked substrates indicate that the UL5 and UL52 subunits contact the forked substrates at different positions, UL52 at the single-stranded DNA tail and UL5 near the junction between single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. Neither subunit was able to cross-link a forked substrate when 5-iododeoxyuridine was located within the duplex portion. Photocross-linking experiments with subcomplexes containing mutant versions of UL5 and wild type UL52 indicated that the integrity of the ATP binding region is important for DNA binding of both subunits. These results support our previous proposal that UL5 and UL52 exhibit a complex interdependence for DNA binding (Biswas, N., and Weller, S. K. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 8068-8076) and indicate that the UL52 subunit may play a more active role in helicase activity than had previously been

  12. 78 FR 28812 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of UL Verification Services Inc. for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... are engineers. UL today is comprised of five businesses, Product Safety, Verification Services, Life..., Director--Global Technical Research, UL Verification Services. Subscribed and sworn to before me this 20... (431.447(c)(4)) General Personnel Overview UL is a global independent safety science company with more...

  13. CRISPR/Cas9 Mutagenesis of UL21 in Multiple Strains of Herpes Simplex Virus Reveals Differential Requirements for pUL21 in Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée L. Finnen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies from multiple laboratories using different strains or species of herpes simplex virus (HSV with deletions in UL21 have yielded conflicting results regarding the necessity of pUL21 in HSV infection. To resolve this discrepancy, we utilized CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to isolate pUL21 deficient viruses in multiple HSV backgrounds, and performed a side-by-side comparison of the cell-to-cell spread and replication phenotypes of these viruses. These analyses confirmed previous studies implicating the involvement of pUL21 in cell-to-cell spread of HSV. Cell-to-cell spread of HSV-2 was more greatly affected by the lack of pUL21 than HSV-1, and strain-specific differences in the requirement for pUL21 in cell-to-cell spread were also noted. HSV-2 strain 186 lacking pUL21 was particularly crippled in both cell-to-cell spread and viral replication in non-complementing cells, in comparison to other HSV strains lacking pUL21, suggesting that the strict requirement for pUL21 by strain 186 may not be representative of the HSV-2 species as a whole. This work highlights CRISPR/Cas9 technology as a useful tool for rapidly constructing deletion mutants of alphaherpesviruses, regardless of background strain, and should find great utility whenever strain-specific differences need to be investigated.

  14. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  15. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  16. Analysis of irradiated materials in Ul-chin unit 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Kim, H. M.; Joo, Y. S.

    2007-02-01

    The microstructure examination, the fracture surface observation, the composition analysis and the micro-hardness measurement were carried out for investigation of debris apart from structure in Ul-chin uint 5. As the results of investigation, those of debris were found out screw bolts and the washer. The screw bolts and the washer were coincident with materials from ASTM A-193 by quantitative analysis. The screw bolts and the washer were made by STS 304. Finally, all of screw bolts were parts of the LPSI pump case even though one of them was found in different place. The washer was part of the heat exchanger

  17. QUALITATIVE ASPECTS OF CRIŞUL REPEDE RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGH MELINDA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative aspects of Crisul Repede River. The evolution of water quality over the Crişul Repede River is atypical because of natural and anthropic factors. The most significant factors are the geological substrate, and the settlements with their agricultural and industrial activity. The study was performed at three gauging stations for the period 1996-2006, taking into account the annual average values. The considered elements were: the discharge values, temperature, suspensions, oxygen regime, nutrients and phosphorus, taking into consideration their temporal and spatial variation. By comparing them with the admitted limits we could enroll them in various quality classes.

  18. Search for inclusive b→ulν decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, S.E.; Battle, M.O.; Thorndike, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have performed an inclusive analysis of the decay B→Xlν, measuring the lepton and neutrino momentum. They open-quotes detectclose quotes neutrinos via the missing 4-momentum in events, taking advantages of the hermeticity of the CLEO-II detector. The Υ(4S) resonance produces B mesons nearly at rest, and this, coupled with measurements of the lepton and neutrino momenta, provides a reasonable measurement of M X . By studying the distribution of M X they attempt a separation of semileptonic B decays into b→clν and b→ulν components, and infer a value of |V ub /V cb |

  19. UL146 variability among clinical isolates of Human Cytomegalovirus from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Aguayo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a herpesvirus associated with serious diseases in immunocompromised subjects. The region between ORF UL133 and UL151 from HCMV, named ULb' is frequently deleted in attenuated AD169 and in highly passaged laboratory strains. However, this region is conserved in low-passaged and more virulent HCMV, like the Toledo strain. The UL146 gene, which is located in the ULb' region, encodes a CXC-chemokine analogue. The diversity of UL146 gene was evaluated among fifty-six clinical isolates of HCMV from Japan. Results show that UL146 gene was successfully amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR in only 17/56 strains (30%, while the success rate for UL145/UL147 gene was 18/56 strains (32%. After DNA sequencing, the 35 amplified strains were classified into 8 groups. When compared, variability of UL146 ranged from 25.1% to 52.9% at the DNA level and from 34.5% to 67% at the amino acid level. Seven groups had the interleukin-8 (IL-8 motif ERL (Glu-Leu-Arg CXC and one group had only the CXC motif, suggesting the absence of the IL-8 function of UL146. In conclusion, we found that UL146 gene of HCMV is hyper-variable in clinical strains from Japan suggesting the possibility of a different function in each sequence group.

  20. Identification of a novel linear B-cell epitope in the UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of Duck Enteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Xiangang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Unique Long 26 (UL26 and UL26.5 proteins of herpes simplex virus are known to function during the assembly of the viruses. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV, which is an unassigned member of the family Herpesviridae, little information is available about the function of the two proteins. In this study, the C-terminus of DEV UL26 protein (designated UL26c, which contains the whole of UL26.5, was expressed, and the recombinant UL26c protein was used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb. The mAb 1C8 was generated against DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins and used subsequently to map the epitope in this region. Both the mAb and its defined epitope will provide potential tools for further study of DEV. Results A mAb (designated 1C8 was generated against the DEV UL26c protein, and a series of 17 partially overlapping fragments that spanned the DEV UL26c were expressed with GST tags. These peptides were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting analysis using mAb 1C8 to identify the epitope. A linear motif, 520IYYPGE525, which was located at the C-terminus of the DEV UL26 and UL26.5 proteins, was identified by mAb 1C8. The result of the ELISA showed that this epitope could be recognized by DEV-positive serum from mice. The 520IYYPGE525 motif was the minimal requirement for reactivity, as demonstrated by analysis of the reactivity of 1C8 with several truncated peptides derived from the motif. Alignment and comparison of the 1C8-defined epitope sequence with those of other alphaherpesviruses indicated that the motif 521YYPGE525 in the epitope sequence was conserved among the alphaherpesviruses. Conclusion A mAb, 1C8, was generated against DEV UL26c and the epitope-defined minimal sequence obtained using mAb 1C8 was 520IYYPGE525. The mAb and the identified epitope may be useful for further study of the design of diagnostic reagents for DEV.

  1. Expression and characterization of the UL31 protein from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Dekang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that the UL31 protein and its homology play similar roles in nuclear egress of all herpesviruses. However, there is no report on the UL31 gene product of DEV. In this study, we expressed and presented the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. Results The entire ORF of the UL31 was cloned into pET 32a (+ prokaryotic expression vector. Escherichia coli BL21(DE3 competent cells were transformed with the construct followed by the induction of protein expression by the addition of IPTG. Band corresponding to the predicted sizes (55 kDa was produced on the SDS-PAGE. Over expressed 6×His-UL31 fusion protein was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The DEV UL31 gene product has been identified by using a rabbit polyclonal antiserum raised against the purified protein. A protein of approximate 35 kDa that reacted with the antiserum was detected in immunoblots of DEV-infected cellular lysates, suggesting that the 35 kDa protein was the primary translation product of the UL31 gene. RT-PCR analyses revealed that the UL31 gene was transcribed most abundantly during the late phase of replication. Subsequently, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the protein was widespread speckled structures in the nuclei of infected cells. Western blotting of purified virion preparations showed that UL31 was a component of intracellular virions but was absent from mature extracellular virions. Finally, an Immunofluorescence assay was established to study the distribution of the UL31 antigen in tissues of artificially DEV infected ducks. The results showed that the UL31 antigen was primarily located in the cells of digestive organs and immunological organs. Conclusion In this work, we present the basic properties of the DEV UL31 product. The results indicate that DEV UL31 shares many similarities with its HSV or PRV homolog UL31 and suggest that functional cross-complementation is possible between members of the

  2. The herpes simplex virus 1 UL51 protein interacts with the UL7 protein and plays a role in its recruitment into the virion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Richard J; Fetters, Rachel

    2015-03-01

    The alphaherpesvirus UL51 protein is a tegument component that interacts with the viral glycoprotein E and functions at multiple steps in virus assembly and spread in epithelial cells. We show here that pUL51 forms a complex in infected cells with another conserved tegument protein, pUL7. This complex can form in the absence of other viral proteins and is largely responsible for recruitment of pUL7 to cytoplasmic membranes and into the virion tegument. Incomplete colocalization of pUL51 and pUL7 in infected cells, however, suggests that a significant fraction of the population of each protein is not complexed with the other and that they may accomplish independent functions. The ability of herpesviruses to spread from cell to cell in the face of an immune response is critical for disease and shedding following reactivation from latency. Cell-to-cell spread is a conserved ability of herpesviruses, and the identification of conserved viral genes that mediate this process will aid in the design of attenuated vaccines and of novel therapeutics. The conserved UL51 gene of herpes simplex virus 1 plays important roles in cell-to-cell spread and in virus assembly in the cytoplasm, both of which likely depend on specific interactions with other viral and cellular proteins. Here we identify one of those interactions with the product of another conserved herpesvirus gene, UL7, and show that formation of this complex mediates recruitment of UL7 to membranes and to the virion. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Interaction and interdependent packaging of tegument protein UL11 and glycoprotein e of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Chadha, Pooja; Meckes, David G; Baird, Nicholas L; Wills, John W

    2011-09-01

    The UL11 tegument protein of herpes simplex virus plays a critical role in the secondary envelopment; however, the mechanistic details remain elusive. Here, we report a new function of UL11 in the budding process in which it directs efficient acquisition of glycoprotein E (gE) via a direct interaction. In vitro binding assays showed that the interaction required only the first 28, membrane-proximal residues of the cytoplasmic tail of gE, and the C-terminal 26 residues of UL11. A second, weaker binding site was also found in the N-terminal half of UL11. The significance of the gE-UL11 interaction was subsequently investigated with viral deletion mutants. In the absence of the gE tail, virion packaging of UL11, but not other tegument proteins such as VP22 and VP16, was reduced by at least 80%. Reciprocally, wild-type gE packaging was also drastically reduced by about 87% in the absence of UL11, and this defect could be rescued in trans by expressing U(L)11 at the U(L)35 locus. Surprisingly, a mutant that lacks the C-terminal gE-binding site of UL11 packaged nearly normal amounts of gE despite its strong interaction with the gE tail in vitro, indicating that the interaction with the UL11 N terminus may be important. Mutagenesis studies of the UL11 N terminus revealed that the association of UL11 with membrane was not required for this function. In contrast, the UL11 acidic cluster motif was found to be critical for gE packaging and was not replaceable with foreign acidic clusters. Together, these results highlight an important role of UL11 in the acquisition of glycoprotein-enriched lipid bilayers, and the findings may also have important implications for the role of UL11 in gE-mediated cell-to-cell spread.

  4. Expression and characterization of UL16 gene from duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Mingshu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have indicated that the UL16 protein and its homologs from herpesvirus were conserved and played similar roles in viral DNA packaging, virion assembly, budding, and egress. However, there was no report on the UL16 gene product of duck enteritis virus (DEV. In this study, we analyzed the amino acid sequence of UL16 using bioinformatics tools and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3 induced by isopropy1-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG. The recombinant protein was produced, purified using a Ni-NTA column and used to generate the polyclonal antibody against UL16. The intracellular distribution of the DEV UL16 product was carried out using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Results In our study, UL16 gene of DEV was composed of 1089 nucleotides, which encoded 362 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the UL16 gene was highly conserved in herpesvirus family. The UL16 gene was cloned into a pET prokaryotic expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli Rossetta (DE3 induced by IPTG. A 60kDa fusion protein band corresponding to the predicted size was produced on the SDS-PAGE, purified using a Ni-NTA column. Anti-UL16 polyclonal sera was prepared by immunizing rabbits, and reacted with a band in the IPTG induced cell lysates with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa. In vivo expression of the UL16 protein in DEV infected duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs was localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions The UL16 gene of DEV was successfully cloned, expressed and detected in DEV infected DEFs for the first time. The UL16 protein localized mostly around perinuclear cytoplasmic area and in cytosol in DEV infected DEFs. DEV UL16 shared high similarity with UL16 family members, indicating that DEV UL16 many has similar function with its homologs. All these results may provide some insight for further research about

  5. Involvement of UL24 in herpes-simplex-virus-1-induced dispersal of nucleolin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, Maria H.; Pearson, Angela

    2007-01-01

    UL24 of herpes simplex virus 1 is important for efficient viral replication, but its function is unknown. We generated a recombinant virus, vHA-UL24, encoding UL24 with an N-terminal hemagglutinin tag. By indirect immunofluorescence at 9 h post-infection (hpi), we detected HA-UL24 in nuclear foci and in cytoplasmic speckles. HA-UL24 partially co-localized with nucleolin, but not with ICP8 or coilin, markers for nucleoli, viral replication compartments, and Cajal bodies respectively. HA-UL24 staining was often juxtaposed to that of another nucleolar protein, fibrillarin. Analysis of HSV-1-induced nucleolar modifications revealed that by 18 hpi, nucleolin staining had dispersed, and fibrillarin staining went from clusters of small spots to a few separate but prominent spots. Fibrillarin redistribution appeared to be independent of UL24. In contrast, cells infected with a UL24-deficient virus retained foci of nucleolin staining. Our results demonstrate involvement of UL24 in dispersal of nucleolin during infection

  6. Human Cytomegalovirus pUL47 Modulates Tegumentation and Capsid Accumulation at the Viral Assembly Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadona, Ilaria; Villinger, Clarissa; Schutzius, Gabi; Mertens, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL47 is an interaction partner of pUL48 and highly conserved among herpesviruses. It is closely associated with the capsid and has an important function early in infection. Here, we report a specific role of pUL47 in the tegumentation of capsids in the cytoplasm. A newly generated mutant virus (TB-47stop), in which expression of pUL47 is blocked, exhibited a severe impairment in cell-to-cell spread and release of infectivity from infected cells. Ultrastructural analysis of TB-47stop-infected cells clearly showed cytoplasmic accumulations of nonenveloped capsids that were only partially tegumented, indicating that these capsids failed to complete tegumentation. Nevertheless, these accumulations were positive for HCMV inner tegument proteins pp150 and pUL48, suggesting that their attachment to capsids occurs independently of pUL47. Despite these morphological alterations, fully enveloped virus particles were found in the extracellular space and at the viral assembly complex (vAC) of TB-47stop-infected cells, indicating that pUL47 is not essential for the generation of virions. We confirmed findings that incorporation of pUL48 into virions is impaired in the absence of pUL47. Interestingly, pUL47 exhibited a strong nuclear localization in transfected cells, whereas it was found exclusively at the vAC in the context of virus infection. Colocalization of pUL47 and pUL48 at the vAC is consistent with their interaction. We also found a shift to a more nuclear localization of pUL47 when the expression of pUL48 was reduced. Summarizing our results, we hypothesize that pUL48 directs pUL47 to the vAC to promote tegumentation and secondary envelopment of capsids. IMPORTANCE Generation of infectious HCMV particles requires an organized and multistep process involving the action of several viral and cellular proteins as well as protein-protein interactions. A better understanding of these processes is important for

  7. SEASONAL AVERAGE FLOW IN RÂUL NEGRU HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGH MELINDA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Râul Negru hydrographic basin is a well individualised physical-geographical unit inside the Braşov Depression. The flow is controlled by six hydrometric stations placed on the main river and on two important tributaries. The data base for seasonal flow analysis contains the discharges from 1950-2012. The results of data analysis show that there significant space-time differences between multiannual seasonal averages. Some interesting conclusions can be obtained by comparing abundant and scarce periods. Flow analysis was made using seasonal charts Q = f(T. The similarities come from the basin’s relative homogeneity, and the differences from flow’s evolution and trend. Flow variation is analysed using variation coefficient. In some cases appear significant Cv values differences. Also, Cv values trends are analysed according to basins’ average altitude.

  8. MONTHLY AVERAGE FLOW IN RÂUL NEGRU HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIGH MELINDA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Râul Negru hydrographic basin represents a well individualised and relatively homogenous physical-geographical unity from Braşov Depression. The flow is controlled by six hydrometric stations placed on the main collector and on two of the most powerful tributaries. Our analysis period is represented by the last 25 years (1988 - 2012 and it’s acceptable for make pertinent conclusions. The maximum discharge month is April, that it’s placed in the high flow period: March – June. Minimum discharges appear in November - because of the lack of pluvial precipitations; in January because of high solid precipitations and because of water volume retention in ice. Extreme discharge frequencies vary according to their position: in the mountain area – small basin surface; into a depression – high basin surface. Variation coefficients point out very similar variation principles, showing a relative homogeneity of flow processes.

  9. Identification of conserved amino acids in the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL8 protein required for DNA synthesis and UL52 primase interaction in the virus replisome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylaert, Isabella; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Andersson, Torbjörn; Elias, Per

    2012-09-28

    We have used oriS-dependent transient replication assays to search for species-specific interactions within the herpes simplex virus replisome. Hybrid replisomes derived from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) failed to support DNA replication in cells. Moreover, the replisomes showed a preference for their cognate origin of replication. The results demonstrate that the herpesvirus replisome behaves as a molecular machine relying on functionally important interactions. We then searched for functional interactions in the replisome context by subjecting HSV-1 UL8 protein to extensive mutagenesis. 52 mutants were made by replacing single or clustered charged amino acids with alanines. Four mutants showed severe replication defects. Mutant A23 exhibited a lethal phenotype, and mutants A49, A52 and A53 had temperature-sensitive phenotypes. Mutants A49 and A53 did not interact with UL52 primase as determined by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Using GFP-tagged UL8, we demonstrate that all mutants were unable to support formation of ICP8-containing nuclear replication foci. Extended mutagenesis suggested that a highly conserved motif corresponding to mutant A49 serves an important role for establishing a physical contact between UL8 and UL52. The replication-defective mutations affected conserved amino acids, and similar phenotypes were observed when the corresponding mutations were introduced into EHV-1 UL8.

  10. The Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Ortholog pUL97 of Human Cytomegalovirus Interacts with Cyclins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Graf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV-encoded protein kinase, pUL97, is considered a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK ortholog, due to shared structural and functional characteristics. The primary mechanism of CDK activation is binding to corresponding cyclins, including cyclin T1, which is the usual regulatory cofactor of CDK9. This study provides evidence of direct interaction between pUL97 and cyclin T1 using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Confocal immunofluorescence revealed partial colocalization of pUL97 with cyclin T1 in subnuclear compartments, most pronounced in viral replication centres. The distribution patterns of pUL97 and cyclin T1 were independent of HCMV strain and host cell type. The sequence domain of pUL97 responsible for the interaction with cyclin T1 was between amino acids 231–280. Additional co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed cyclin B1 and cyclin A as further pUL97 interaction partners. Investigation of the pUL97-cyclin T1 interaction in an ATP consumption assay strongly suggested phosphorylation of pUL97 by the CDK9/cyclin T1 complex in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. This is the first demonstration of interaction between a herpesviral CDK ortholog and cellular cyclins.

  11. Structural changes in human cytomegalovirus cytoplasmic assembly sites in the absence of UL97 kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzeh, Maysa; Honigman, Alik; Taraboulos, Albert; Rouvinski, Alexander; Wolf, Dana G.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 kinase deletion mutant (ΔUL97) indicated a multi-step role for this kinase in early and late phases of the viral life cycle, namely, in DNA replication, capsid maturation and nuclear egress. Here, we addressed its possible involvement in cytoplasmic steps of HCMV assembly. Using the ΔUL97 and the UL97 kinase inhibitor NGIC-I, we demonstrate that the absence of UL97 kinase activity results in a modified subcellular distribution of the viral structural protein assembly sites, from compact structures impacting upon the nucleus to diffuse perinuclear structures punctuated by large vacuoles. Infection by either wild type or ΔUL97 viruses induced a profound reorganization of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-positive Golgi-related structures. Importantly, the viral-induced Golgi remodeling along with the reorganization of the nuclear architecture was substantially altered in the absence of UL97 kinase activity. These findings suggest that UL97 kinase activity might contribute to organization of the viral cytoplasmic assembly sites

  12. Analysis of the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL6 gene in patients with stromal keratitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Aaron R.; Yang Li; Cevallos, A. Vicky; Margolis, Todd P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent work suggests that herpes simplex virus (HSV) stromal keratitis in the mouse is caused by autoreactive T lymphocytes triggered by a 16 amino acid region of the HSV UL6 protein (aa299-314) , Science 279, 1344-1347). In the present study we sought to determine whether genetic variation of this presumed autoreactive UL6 epitope is responsible for different pathogenic patterns of human HSV keratitis. To accomplish this, we sequenced the HSV UL6 gene from ocular isolates of 10 patients with necrotizing stromal keratitis, 7 patients with recurrent epithelial keratitis, and 8 patients with other forms of HSV keratitis. The sequences obtained predicted identical UL6(299-314) epitopes for all 25 viral isolates. Furthermore, the upstream sequence of all isolates was free of insertions, deletions, and stop codons. We conclude that different pathogenic patterns of human HSV keratitis occur independent of genetic variation of the HSV UL6 (299-314) epitope

  13. Residues of the UL25 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus That Are Required for Its Stable Interaction with Capsids ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Shelley K.; Huffman, Jamie B.; Toropova, Katerina; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2011-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL25 gene product is a minor capsid component that is required for encapsidation, but not cleavage, of replicated viral DNA. UL25 is located on the capsid surface in a proposed heterodimer with UL17, where five copies of the heterodimer are found at each of the capsid vertices. Previously, we demonstrated that amino acids 1 to 50 of UL25 are essential for its stable interaction with capsids. To further define the UL25 capsid binding domain, we generated recombinant viruses with either small truncations or amino acid substitutions in the UL25 N terminus. Studies of these mutants demonstrated that there are two important regions within the capsid binding domain. The first 27 amino acids are essential for capsid binding of UL25, while residues 26 to 39, which are highly conserved in the UL25 homologues of other alphaherpesviruses, were found to be critical for stable capsid binding. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of capsids containing either a small tag on the N terminus of UL25 or the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused between amino acids 50 and 51 of UL25 demonstrate that residues 1 to 27 of UL25 contact the hexon adjacent to the penton. A second region, most likely centered on amino acids 26 to 39, contacts the triplex that is one removed from the penton. Importantly, both of these UL25 capsid binding regions are essential for the stable packaging of full-length viral genomes. PMID:21411517

  14. The Ribosomal Protein uL22 Modulates the Shape of the Protein Exit Tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekselman, Itai; Zimmerman, Ella; Davidovich, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Erythromycin is a clinically useful antibiotic that binds to an rRNA pocket in the ribosomal exit tunnel. Commonly, resistance to erythromycin is acquired by alterations of rRNA nucleotides that interact with the drug. Mutations in the β hairpin of ribosomal protein uL22, which is rather distal...... of the β hairpin of the mutated uL22 toward the interior of the exit tunnel, triggering a cascade of structural alterations of rRNA nucleotides that propagate to the erythromycin binding pocket. Our findings support recent studies showing that the interactions between uL22 and specific sequences within...

  15. AWI Moored ULS Data, Greenland Sea and Fram Strait, 1991-2002, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) data from 11 moorings in the Greenland Sea. Parameters in the processed data files include ice draft, water...

  16. AWI Moored ULS Data, Greenland Sea and Fram Strait, 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) data from 11 moorings in the Greenland Sea. Parameters in the processed data files include ice draft, water...

  17. pUL34 binding near the human cytomegalovirus origin of lytic replication enhances DNA replication and viral growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayton, Mark; Hossain, Tanvir; Biegalke, Bonita J

    2018-05-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL34 gene encodes sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins (pUL34) which are required for viral replication. Interactions of pUL34 with DNA binding sites represses transcription of two viral immune evasion genes, US3 and US9. 12 additional predicted pUL34-binding sites are present in the HCMV genome (strain AD169) with three binding sites concentrated near the HCMV origin of lytic replication (oriLyt). We used ChIP-seq analysis of pUL34-DNA interactions to confirm that pUL34 binds to the oriLyt region during infection. Mutagenesis of the UL34-binding sites in an oriLyt-containing plasmid significantly reduced viral-mediated oriLyt-dependent DNA replication. Mutagenesis of these sites in the HCMV genome reduced the replication efficiencies of the resulting viruses. Protein-protein interaction analyses demonstrated that pUL34 interacts with the viral proteins IE2, UL44, and UL84, that are essential for viral DNA replication, suggesting that pUL34-DNA interactions in the oriLyt region are involved in the DNA replication cascade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resistance to maribavir is associated with the exclusion of pUL27 from nucleoli during human cytomegalovirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakki, Morgan; Drummond, Coyne; Houser, Benjamin; Marousek, Gail; Chou, Sunwen

    2011-01-01

    Select mutations in the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL27 confer low-grade resistance to the HCMV UL97 kinase inhibitor maribavir (MBV). It has been reported that the 608-amino acid UL27 gene product (pUL27) normally localizes to cell nuclei and nucleoli, whereas its truncation at codon 415, as found in a MBV-resistant mutant, results in cytoplasmic localization. We now show that in the context of full-length pUL27, diverse single amino acid substitutions associated with MBV resistance result in loss of its nucleolar localization when visualized after transient transfection, whereas substitutions representing normal interstrain polymorphism had no such effect. The same differences in localization were observed during a complete infection cycle with recombinant HCMV strains over-expressing full-length fluorescent pUL27 variants. Nested UL27 C-terminal truncation expression plasmids showed that amino acids 596–599 were required for the nucleolar localization of pUL27. These results indicate that the loss of a nucleolar function of pUL27 may contribute to MBV resistance, and that the nucleolar localization of pUL27 during HCMV infection depends not only on a carboxy-terminal domain but also on a property of pUL27 that is affected by MBV-resistant mutations, such as an interaction with component(s) of the nucleolus. PMID:21906628

  19. Screening and identification of host factors interacting with UL14 of herpes simplex virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuqing; Xing, Junji; Wang, Shuai; Li, Meili; Zheng, Chunfu

    2011-08-01

    The UL14 protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is highly conserved in herpesvirus family. However, its exact function during the HSV-1 replication cycle is little known. In the present study, a high throughput yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen the cellular factors interacting with UL14, and five target candidates were yielded: (1) TSC22 domain family protein 3 (TSC22D3); (2) Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 8 isoform 1(MED8); (3) Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3); (4) Arrestin beta-2 (ARRB2); (5) Cereblon (CRBN). Indirect immunofluorescent assay showed that both TSC22D3 and MED8 co-localized with UL14. Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that UL14 could be immunoprecipitated by TSC22D3, suggesting that UL14 interacted with TSC22D3 under physiological condition. In summary, this study opened up new avenues toward delineating the function and physiological significance of UL14 during the HSV-1 replication cycle.

  20. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Andreopoulos, C. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Athar, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Bodek, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Christy, E. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coopersmith, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dennis, S. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept .of Physics; Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Gallagher, H. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Geary, N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Golan, T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hatcher, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hoshina, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics. Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center; Liu, J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mahn, K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Marshall, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Nirkko, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics. Lab. for High Energy Physics (LHEP); Nowak, J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Perdue, G. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarba, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-12-25

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  1. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Athar, M.; Hatcher, R.; Hoshina, K.; Nowak, J.; Yarba, J.

    2015-01-01

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 1 gene UL14: phenotype of a null mutant and identification of the encoded protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C; Davison, A J; MacLean, A R; Taus, N S; Baines, J D

    2000-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) gene UL14 is located between divergently transcribed genes UL13 and UL15 and overlaps the promoters for both of these genes. UL14 also exhibits a substantial overlap of its coding region with that of UL13. It is one of the few HSV-1 genes for which a phenotype and protein product have not been described. Using mass spectrometric and immunological approaches, we demonstrated that the UL14 protein is a minor component of the virion tegument of 32 kDa which is expressed late in infection. In infected cells, the UL14 protein was detected in the nucleus at discrete sites within electron-dense nuclear bodies and in the cytoplasm initially in a diffuse distribution and then at discrete sites. Some of the UL14 protein was phosphorylated. A mutant with a 4-bp deletion in the central region of UL14 failed to produce the UL14 protein and generated small plaques. The mutant exhibited an extended growth cycle at low multiplicity of infection and appeared to be compromised in efficient transit of virus particles from the infected cell. In mice injected intracranially, the 50% lethal dose of the mutant was reduced more than 30,000-fold. Recovery of the mutant from the latently infected sacral ganglia of mice injected peripherally was significantly less than that of wild-type virus, suggesting a marked defect in the establishment of, or reactivation from, latent infection.

  3. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  4. Social amplification of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Kasperson, J.X.; Emani, S.

    1989-01-01

    The risks associated with radioactive and other hazardous waste disposal may be expected to interact with societal processes to enlarge or attenuate the consequences of risks and risk events. This article summarizes a conceptual framework that depicts the social amplification of risk. Using a data base of 128 hazard events that have occurred largely over the past ten years, the authors examine the role of physical consequences, media coverage, and public perceptions of risk in generating social and economic impacts. The analysis concludes that social amplification processes substantially shape the nature and magnitude of those impacts but also that such social amplification appears to be systematically related to characteristics of the risks and risk events

  5. Dynamic and nucleolin-dependent localization of human cytomegalovirus UL84 to the periphery of viral replication compartments and nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Brian J; Coen, Donald M; Strang, Blair L

    2014-10-01

    Protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions within subcellular compartments are required for viral genome replication. To understand the localization of the human cytomegalovirus viral replication factor UL84 relative to other proteins involved in viral DNA synthesis and to replicating viral DNA in infected cells, we created a recombinant virus expressing a FLAG-tagged version of UL84 (UL84FLAG) and used this virus in immunofluorescence assays. UL84FLAG localization differed at early and late times of infection, transitioning from diffuse distribution throughout the nucleus to exclusion from the interior of replication compartments, with some concentration at the periphery of replication compartments with newly labeled DNA and the viral DNA polymerase subunit UL44. Early in infection, UL84FLAG colocalized with the viral single-stranded DNA binding protein UL57, but colocalization became less prominent as infection progressed. A portion of UL84FLAG also colocalized with the host nucleolar protein nucleolin at the peripheries of both replication compartments and nucleoli. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nucleolin resulted in a dramatic elimination of UL84FLAG from replication compartments and other parts of the nucleus and its accumulation in the cytoplasm. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of viral proteins from infected cell lysates revealed association of UL84, UL44, and nucleolin. These results indicate that UL84 localization during infection is dynamic, which is likely relevant to its functions, and suggest that its nuclear and subnuclear localization is highly dependent on direct or indirect interactions with nucleolin. Importance: The protein-protein interactions among viral and cellular proteins required for replication of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA genome are poorly understood. We sought to understand how an enigmatic HCMV protein critical for virus replication, UL84, localizes relative to other viral and cellular

  6. WATER QUALITY EVALUATION OF CRIŞUL ALB AND CRIŞUL NEGRU RIVERS CATCHMENTS, FROM CODRU-MOMA MOUNTAINS (WEST OF ROMANIA, USING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea VARGA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality evaluation of the two watersheds involved the collection of thirteen samples from the tributaries of Crişul Alb and Crişul Negru rivers. The samples were collected in june 2010 with a benthic net, which had the mesh size of 250 µm, by disturbing the substrate, being thus qualitative samples. To get an overview, a series of physical-chemical parameters (water temperature, pH, oxygen, conductivity, cyanide, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates was studied in parallel with the study of benthic community. In most of the sampling points the major group of benthic macroinvertebrates were found and in some EPT group (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera prevailed even, which is known as a clean freshwater group, sensitive to pollution and human impact.

  7. Localization of HCMV UL33 and US27 in endocytic compartments and viral membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraile-Ramos, Alberto; Pelchen-Matthews, Annegret; Kledal, Thomas N

    2002-01-01

    and undergoes constitutive endocytosis and recycling. Here we studied the cellular distributions and trafficking of two other human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor-like proteins, UL33 and US27, in transfected and human cytomegalovirus-infected cells. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that UL33 and US27......The human cytomegalovirus genome encodes four putative seven transmembrane domain chemokine receptor-like proteins. Although important in viral pathogenesis, little is known about the properties or functions of these proteins. We previously reported that US28 is located in endocytic vesicles......27 undergoes endocytosis. By immunogold labeling of cryosections and electron microscopy, UL33 was seen to localize to multivesicular bodies (MVBs or multivesicular endosomes). Electron microscopy analysis of human cytomegalovirus-infected cells showed that most virus particles wrapped individually...

  8. Identification of binding domains in the herpes simplex virus type 1 small capsid protein pUL35 (VP26).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apcarian, Arin; Cunningham, Anthony L; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2010-11-01

    In this study, fragments of the small capsid protein pUL35 (VP26) from herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were generated to identify binding domains for a number of known ligands. Analysis of the binding of dynein light chain subunits, DYNLT1 and DYNLT3, as well the HSV-1 structural proteins pUL19 (VP5) and pUL37 was then undertaken using the LexA yeast two-hybrid assay. The N-terminal half of pUL35, in particular residues 30-43, was identified as a common region for the binding of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. Additional distinct regions in the C terminus of pUL35 also contribute to the binding of DYNLT1 and DYNLT3. In contrast, only the C-terminal half of pUL35 was found to mediate the binding of pUL19 and pUL37 through distinct regions. The relevance of this information to the role of pUL35 in viral transport and assembly is discussed.

  9. Biomaterials in light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  10. Inhibition of Human Cytomegalovirus pUL89 Terminase Subunit Blocks Virus Replication and Genome Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Mao, Lili; Kankanala, Jayakanth; Wang, Zhengqiang; Geraghty, Robert J

    2017-02-01

    The human cytomegalovirus terminase complex cleaves concatemeric genomic DNA into unit lengths during genome packaging and particle assembly. This process is an attractive drug target because cleavage of concatemeric DNA is not required in mammalian cell DNA replication, indicating that drugs targeting the terminase complex could be safe and selective. One component of the human cytomegalovirus terminase complex, pUL89, provides the endonucleolytic activity for genome cleavage, and the domain responsible is reported to have an RNase H-like fold. We hypothesize that the pUL89 endonuclease activity is inhibited by known RNase H inhibitors. Using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format as a screening assay, we found that a hydroxypyridonecarboxylic acid compound, previously reported to be an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus RNase H, inhibited pUL89 endonuclease activity at low-micromolar concentrations. Further characterization revealed that this pUL89 endonuclease inhibitor blocked human cytomegalovirus replication at a relatively late time point, similarly to other reported terminase complex inhibitors. Importantly, this inhibitor also prevented the cleavage of viral genomic DNA in infected cells. Taken together, these results substantiate our pharmacophore hypothesis and validate our ligand-based approach toward identifying novel inhibitors of pUL89 endonuclease. Human cytomegalovirus infection in individuals lacking a fully functioning immune system, such as newborns and transplant patients, can have severe and debilitating consequences. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-human cytomegalovirus drugs mainly target the viral polymerase, and resistance to these drugs has appeared. Therefore, anti-human cytomegalovirus drugs from novel targets are needed for use instead of, or in combination with, current polymerase inhibitors. pUL89 is a viral ATPase and endonuclease and is an attractive target for anti-human cytomegalovirus

  11. Cyclin A degradation by primate cytomegalovirus protein pUL21a counters its innate restriction of virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Caffarelli

    Full Text Available Cyclin A is critical for cellular DNA synthesis and S phase progression of the cell cycle. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV can reduce cyclin A levels and block cellular DNA synthesis, and cyclin A overexpression can repress HCMV replication. This interaction has only been previously observed in HCMV as murine CMV does not downregulate cyclin A, and the responsible viral factor has not been identified. We previously reported that the HCMV protein pUL21a disrupted the anaphase-promoting complex (APC, but a point mutant abrogating this activity did not phenocopy a UL21a-deficient virus, suggesting that pUL21a has an additional function. Here we identified a conserved arginine-x-leucine (RxL cyclin-binding domain within pUL21a, which allowed pUL21a to interact with cyclin A and target it for proteasome degradation. Homologous pUL21a proteins from both chimpanzee and rhesus CMVs also contained the RxL domain and similarly degraded cyclin A, indicating that this function is conserved in primate CMVs. The RxL point mutation disabled the virus' ability to block cellular DNA synthesis and resulted in a growth defect similar to pUL21a-deficient virus. Importantly, knockdown of cyclin A rescued growth of UL21a-deficient virus. Together, these data show that during evolution, the pUL21a family proteins of primate CMVs have acquired a cyclin-binding domain that targets cyclin A for degradation, thus neutralizing its restriction on virus replication. Finally, the combined proteasome-dependent degradation of pUL21a and its cellular targets suggests that pUL21a may act as a novel suicide protein, targeting its protein cargos for destruction.

  12. Human cytomegalovirus uracil DNA glycosylase associates with ppUL44 and accelerates the accumulation of viral DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Melissa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus UL114 encodes a uracil-DNA glycosylase homolog that is highly conserved in all characterized herpesviruses that infect mammals. Previous studies demonstrated that the deletion of this nonessential gene delays significantly the onset of viral DNA synthesis and results in a prolonged replication cycle. The gene product, pUL114, also appears to be important in late phase DNA synthesis presumably by introducing single stranded breaks. Results A series of experiments was performed to formally assign the observed phenotype to pUL114 and to characterize the function of the protein in viral replication. A cell line expressing pUL114 complemented the observed phenotype of a UL114 deletion virus in trans, confirming that the observed defects were the result of a deficiency in this gene product. Stocks of recombinant viruses without elevated levels of uracil were produced in the complementing cells; however they retained the phenotype of poor growth in normal fibroblasts suggesting that poor replication was unrelated to uracil content of input genomes. Recombinant viruses expressing epitope tagged versions of this gene demonstrated that pUL114 was expressed at early times and that it localized to viral replication compartments. This protein also coprecipitated with the DNA polymerase processivity factor, ppUL44 suggesting that these proteins associate in infected cells. This apparent interaction did not appear to require other viral proteins since ppUL44 could recruit pUL114 to the nucleus in uninfected cells. An analysis of DNA replication kinetics revealed that the initial rate of DNA synthesis and the accumulation of progeny viral genomes were significantly reduced compared to the parent virus. Conclusion These data suggest that pUL114 associates with ppUL44 and that it functions as part of the viral DNA replication complex to increase the efficiency of both early and late phase viral DNA synthesis.

  13. Transcription pattern of UL131A-128 mRNA in clinical strains of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) mRNA was obtained from human embryonic lung fibroblast cells infected by HCMV clinical strains from urine samples of infants at different kinetic periods. The cDNA of UL131A-128 mRNAs was amplified using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and analysed by ...

  14. Experimental Study of an Offshore Wind Turbine TLP in ULS Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wehmeyer, Christof; Ferri, Francesco; Skourup, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    An extensive model test program has been carried out in order to assess the behavior of a tension leg moored substructure as support of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT). The floater was inspired by an industrial design. The tests focused on the ultimate limit state (ULS) behavior, therefor...

  15. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N215; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...

  16. 75 FR 54381 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N078; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, MT AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability: Draft comprehensive conservation plan and draft...

  17. Down-regulation of human cytomegalovirus UL138, a novel latency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-07-12

    Jul 12, 2013 ... observed a 74.6% decrease in luciferase activity and a 46.2% decrease in HCMV UL138 protein expression. Our .... Trizol agent (Takara, Dalian, China), according to the man- ... hybrid primer and polyA structure were found in the se- quence. ..... resolution profiling and analysis of viral and host small RNAs.

  18. Pioneering the human development revolution: Analysing the trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMahbub ul Haq's work to coordinate, establish and propagate the human development approach offers an example of effective leadership in promoting more ethical socio-economic development. This article reviews Pioneering the Human Development Revolution-An Intellectual Biography of Mahbub

  19. Analysis of contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL43 protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate whether UL43 protein, which is highly conserved in alpha- and gamma herpes viruses, and a non-glycosylated transmembrane protein, is involved in virus entry and virus-induced cell fusion. Methods: Mutagenesis was accomplished by a markerless two-step Red recombination mutagenesis system ...

  20. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal Half of the Traffic Controller UL37 from Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigsberg, Andrea L.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; Sandri-Goldin, Rozanne M.

    2017-08-02

    Inner tegument protein UL37 is conserved among all three subfamilies of herpesviruses. Studies of UL37 homologs from two alphaherpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), have suggested that UL37 plays an essential albeit poorly defined role in intracellular capsid trafficking. At the same time, HSV and PRV homologs cannot be swapped, which suggests that in addition to a conserved function, UL37 homologs also have divergent virus-specific functions. Accurate dissection of UL37 functions requires detailed maps in the form of atomic-resolution structures. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of the N-terminal half of UL37 (UL37N) from PRV. Here, we report the crystal structure of HSV-1 UL37N. Comparison of the two structures reveals that UL37 homologs differ in their overall shapes, distributions of surface charges, and locations of projecting loops. In contrast, the previously identified R2 surface region is structurally conserved. We propose that within the N-terminal half of UL37, functional conservation is centered within the R2 surface region, whereas divergent structural elements pinpoint regions mediating virus-specific functions and may engage different binding partners. Together, the two structures can now serve as templates for a structure-guided exploration of both conserved and virus-specific functions of UL37.

    IMPORTANCEThe ability to move efficiently within host cell cytoplasm is essential for replication in all viruses. It is especially important in the neuroinvasive alphaherpesviruses, such as human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, and veterinarian pseudorabies virus (PRV), that infect the peripheral nervous system and have to travel long distances along axons. Capsid movement in these viruses is controlled by capsid-associated tegument proteins, yet their specific roles have not yet been defined. Systematic exploration of the roles of tegument proteins in capsid trafficking requires

  1. Identification of host cell proteins which interact with herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument protein pUL37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Barbara J; Diefenbach, Eve; Fraefel, Cornel; Diefenbach, Russell J

    2012-01-20

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) structural tegument protein pUL37, which is conserved across the Herpesviridae family, is known to be essential for secondary envelopment during the egress of viral particles. To shed light on additional roles of pUL37 during viral replication a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human brain cDNA library was undertaken. This screen identified ten host cell proteins as potential pUL37 interactors. One of the interactors, serine threonine kinase TAOK3, was subsequently confirmed to interact with pUL37 using an in vitro pulldown assay. Such host cell/pUL37 interactions provide further insights into the multifunctional role of this herpesviral tegument protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Involvement of the UL24 protein in herpes simplex virus 1-induced dispersal of B23 and in nuclear egress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymberopoulos, Maria H.; Bourget, Amelie; Abdeljelil, Nawel Ben; Pearson, Angela

    2011-01-01

    UL24 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widely conserved within the Herpesviridae family. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that UL24, which we have previously shown to induce the redistribution of nucleolin, also affects the localization of the nucleolar protein B23. We found that HSV-1-induced dispersal of B23 was dependent on UL24. The conserved N-terminal portion of UL24 was sufficient to induce the redistribution of B23 in transient transfection assays. Mutational analysis revealed that the endonuclease motif of UL24 was important for B23 dispersal in both transfected and infected cells. Nucleolar protein relocalization during HSV-1 infection was also observed in non-immortalized cells. Analysis of infected cells by electron microscopy revealed a decrease in the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear viral particles in cells infected with a UL24-deficient strain compared to KOS-infected cells. Our results suggest that UL24 promotes nuclear egress of nucleocapsids during HSV-1 infection, possibly though effects on nucleoli.

  3. End-joining inhibition at telomeres requires the translocase and polySUMO-dependent ubiquitin ligase Uls1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescasse, Rachel; Pobiega, Sabrina; Callebaut, Isabelle; Marcand, Stéphane

    2013-03-20

    In eukaryotes, permanent inhibition of the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway at telomeres ensures that chromosome ends do not fuse. In budding yeast, binding of Rap1 to telomere repeats establishes NHEJ inhibition. Here, we show that the Uls1 protein is required for the maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres. Uls1 protein is a non-essential Swi2/Snf2-related translocase and a Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier (SUMO)-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL) with unknown targets. Loss of Uls1 results in telomere-telomere fusions. Uls1 requirement is alleviated by the absence of poly-SUMO chains and by rap1 alleles lacking SUMOylation sites. Furthermore, Uls1 limits the accumulation of Rap1 poly-SUMO conjugates. We propose that one of Uls1 functions is to clear non-functional poly-SUMOylated Rap1 molecules from telomeres to ensure the continuous efficiency of NHEJ inhibition. Since Uls1 is the only known STUbL with a translocase activity, it can be the general molecular sweeper for the clearance of poly-SUMOylated proteins on DNA in eukaryotes.

  4. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-12

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world's high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  5. The structure of cytomegalovirus immune modulator UL141 highlights structural Ig-fold versatility for receptor binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemčovičová, Ivana [La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK 84505 Bratislava (Slovakia); Zajonc, Dirk M., E-mail: dzajonc@liai.org [La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 9420 Athena Circle, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The crystal structure of Human cytomegalovirus immune modulator UL141 was solved at 3.25 Å resolution. Here, a detailed analysis of its intimate dimerization interface and the biophysical properties of its receptor (TRAIL-R2 and CD155) binding interactions are presented. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical components of the innate immune system as they rapidly detect and destroy infected cells. To avoid immune recognition and to allow long-term persistence in the host, Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has evolved a number of genes to evade or inhibit immune effector pathways. In particular, UL141 can inhibit cell-surface expression of both the NK cell-activating ligand CD155 as well as the TRAIL death receptors (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2). The crystal structure of unliganded HCMV UL141 refined to 3.25 Å resolution allowed analysis of its head-to-tail dimerization interface. A ‘dimerization-deficient’ mutant of UL141 (ddUL141) was further designed, which retained the ability to bind to TRAIL-R2 or CD155 while losing the ability to cross-link two receptor monomers. Structural comparison of unliganded UL141 with UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 further identified a mobile loop that makes intimate contacts with TRAIL-R2 upon receptor engagement. Superposition of the Ig-like domain of UL141 on the CD155 ligand T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) revealed that UL141 can potentially engage CD155 similar to TIGIT by using the C′C′′ and GF loops. Further mutations in the TIGIT binding site of CD155 (Q63R and F128R) abrogated UL141 binding, suggesting that the Ig-like domain of UL141 is a viral mimic of TIGIT, as it targets the same binding site on CD155 using similar ‘lock-and-key’ interactions. Sequence alignment of the UL141 gene and its orthologues also showed conservation in this highly hydrophobic (L/A)X{sub 6}G ‘lock’ motif for CD155 binding as well as conservation of the TRAIL-R2 binding patches, suggesting that these host

  6. The structure of cytomegalovirus immune modulator UL141 highlights structural Ig-fold versatility for receptor binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemčovičová, Ivana; Zajonc, Dirk M.

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of Human cytomegalovirus immune modulator UL141 was solved at 3.25 Å resolution. Here, a detailed analysis of its intimate dimerization interface and the biophysical properties of its receptor (TRAIL-R2 and CD155) binding interactions are presented. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical components of the innate immune system as they rapidly detect and destroy infected cells. To avoid immune recognition and to allow long-term persistence in the host, Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has evolved a number of genes to evade or inhibit immune effector pathways. In particular, UL141 can inhibit cell-surface expression of both the NK cell-activating ligand CD155 as well as the TRAIL death receptors (TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2). The crystal structure of unliganded HCMV UL141 refined to 3.25 Å resolution allowed analysis of its head-to-tail dimerization interface. A ‘dimerization-deficient’ mutant of UL141 (ddUL141) was further designed, which retained the ability to bind to TRAIL-R2 or CD155 while losing the ability to cross-link two receptor monomers. Structural comparison of unliganded UL141 with UL141 bound to TRAIL-R2 further identified a mobile loop that makes intimate contacts with TRAIL-R2 upon receptor engagement. Superposition of the Ig-like domain of UL141 on the CD155 ligand T-cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT) revealed that UL141 can potentially engage CD155 similar to TIGIT by using the C′C′′ and GF loops. Further mutations in the TIGIT binding site of CD155 (Q63R and F128R) abrogated UL141 binding, suggesting that the Ig-like domain of UL141 is a viral mimic of TIGIT, as it targets the same binding site on CD155 using similar ‘lock-and-key’ interactions. Sequence alignment of the UL141 gene and its orthologues also showed conservation in this highly hydrophobic (L/A)X 6 G ‘lock’ motif for CD155 binding as well as conservation of the TRAIL-R2 binding patches, suggesting that these host–receptor interactions

  7. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  8. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 UL24 Abrogates the DNA Sensing Signal Pathway by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiyan; Su, Chenhe; Pearson, Angela; Mody, Christopher H; Zheng, Chunfu

    2017-04-01

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a newly identified DNA sensor that recognizes foreign DNA, including the genome of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Upon binding of viral DNA, cGAS produces cyclic GMP-AMP, which interacts with and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING) to trigger the transcription of antiviral genes such as type I interferons (IFNs), and the production of inflammatory cytokines. HSV-1 UL24 is widely conserved among members of the herpesviruses family and is essential for efficient viral replication. In this study, we found that ectopically expressed UL24 could inhibit cGAS-STING-mediated promoter activation of IFN-β and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and UL24 also inhibited interferon-stimulatory DNA-mediated IFN-β and IL-6 production during HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, UL24 selectively blocked nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) but not IFN-regulatory factor 3 promoter activation. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that UL24 bound to the endogenous NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 in HSV-1-infected cells, and UL24 was also found to bind the Rel homology domains (RHDs) of these subunits. Furthermore, UL24 reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. Finally, mutational analysis revealed that the region spanning amino acids (aa) 74 to 134 of UL24 [UL24(74-134)] is responsible for inhibiting cGAS-STING-mediated NF-κB promoter activity. For the first time, UL24 was shown to play an important role in immune evasion during HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE NF-κB is a critical component of the innate immune response and is strongly induced downstream of most pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), leading to the production of IFN-β as well as a number of inflammatory chemokines and interleukins. To establish persistent infection, viruses have evolved various mechanisms to counteract the host NF-κB pathway. In the present study, for the first time, HSV-1 UL24 was demonstrated to inhibit the activation of NF

  10. Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV, the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE, the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. Results DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa, whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i. and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. Conclusions DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15

  11. Identification of a spliced gene from duck enteritis virus encoding a protein homologous to UL15 of herpes simplex virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Li, Huixin; Han, Zongxi; Shao, Yuhao; Wang, Yu; Kong, Xiangang

    2011-04-06

    In herpesviruses, UL15 homologue is a subunit of terminase complex responsible for cleavage and packaging of the viral genome into pre-assembled capsids. However, for duck enteritis virus (DEV), the causative agent of duck viral enteritis (DVE), the genomic sequence was not completely determined until most recently. There is limited information of this putative spliced gene and its encoding protein. DEV UL15 consists of two exons with a 3.5 kilobases (kb) inron and transcribes into two transcripts: the full-length UL15 and an N-terminally truncated UL15.5. The 2.9 kb UL15 transcript encodes a protein of 739 amino acids with an approximate molecular mass of 82 kiloDaltons (kDa), whereas the UL15.5 transcript is 1.3 kb in length, containing a putative 888 base pairs (bp) ORF that encodes a 32 kDa product. We also demonstrated that UL15 gene belonged to the late kinetic class as its expression was sensitive to cycloheximide and phosphonoacetic acid. UL15 is highly conserved within the Herpesviridae, and contains Walker A and B motifs homologous to the catalytic subunit of the bacteriophage terminase as revealed by sequence analysis. Phylogenetic tree constructed with the amino acid sequences of 23 herpesvirus UL15 homologues suggests a close relationship of DEV to the Mardivirus genus within the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further, the UL15 and UL15.5 proteins can be detected in the infected cell lysate but not in the sucrose density gradient-purified virion when reacting with the antiserum against UL15. Within the CEF cells, the UL15 and/or UL15.5 localize(s) in the cytoplasm at 6 h post infection (h p. i.) and mainly in the nucleus at 12 h p. i. and at 24 h p. i., while accumulate(s) in the cytoplasm in the absence of any other viral protein. DEV UL15 is a spliced gene that encodes two products encoded by 2.9 and 1.3 kb transcripts respectively. The UL15 is expressed late during infection. The coding sequences of DEV UL15 are very similar to those of alphaherpesviruses and

  12. DNAzyme Feedback Amplification: Relaying Molecular Recognition to Exponential DNA Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Yin, Qingxin; McConnell, Erin M; Chang, Yangyang; Brennan, John D; Li, Yingfu

    2018-03-26

    Technologies capable of linking DNA amplification to molecular recognition are very desirable for ultrasensitive biosensing applications. We have developed a simple but powerful isothermal DNA amplification method, termed DNAzyme feedback amplification (DFA), that is capable of relaying molecular recognition to exponential DNA amplification. The method incorporates both an RNA-cleaving DNAzyme (RCD) and rolling circle amplification (RCA) carried out by a special DNA polymerase using a circular DNA template. DFA begins with a stimulus-dependent RCA reaction, producing tandemly linked RCDs in long-chain DNA products. These RCDs cleave an RNA-containing DNA sequence to form additional primers that hybridize to the circular DNA molecule, giving rise to DNA assemblies that act as the new inputs for RCA. The RCA reaction and the cleavage event keep on feeding each other autonomously, resulting in exponential growth of repetitive DNA sequences that can be easily detected. This method can be used for the detection of both nucleic acid based targets and non-nucleic acid analytes. In this article, we discuss the conceptual framework of the feedback amplification approach, the essential features of this method as well as remaining challenges and possible solutions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Next generation Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J; Biswal, S; Mourou, G [Univ. Michigan, Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nishimura, Akihiko; Takuma, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    The limiting factors of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) are discussed and experimental results of CPA in Yb:glass regenerative amplifier are given. Scaling of Yb:glass to the petawatt level is briefly discussed. (author)

  14. The ribosomal protein uL22 modulates the shape of the nascent protein exit tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wekselman, I.; Zimmerman, E.; Davidovich, C.

    2017-01-01

    in the entrance of theribosomal exit tunnel and interferes with the progression of nas-cent chains. Commonly, resistance to erythromycin is acquiredby alterations of rRNA nucleotides that interact with the drug.Mutations in theb-hairpin of ribosomal protein uL22, which israther distal to the erythromycin binding...... to erythromycin binding pocket and increases its flexi-bility. Based on our results, we suggest a feasble mechanism thatexplains how nanscent proteins can be translated when ery-thromycin is bound to the ribosome. Furthermore, our findingssupport recent studies showing that the interactions betweenuL22...

  15. The Potential of Flexible UL/DL Slot Assignment in 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Davide; Gatnau, Marta; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio

    2014-01-01

    5th Generation (5G) small cells are expected to satisfy the increasing demand for wireless data traffic. In the presence of large scale dense and randomly deployed cells, autonomous and distributed configuration mechanisms are highly desirable. However, small cells typically serve a small number...... of users, such that sudden traffic imbalances between downlink (DL) and uplink (UL) are expected in the new 5G system. We exploit the flexibility of time-division duplex (TDD) to deal with such imbalances by adapting swiftly to instantaneously varying traffic needs. In this paper we propose a distributed...

  16. Bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein K (gK) interacts with UL20 and is required for infectious virus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, Muzammel; Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.

    2016-12-15

    We have previously shown that the HSV-1 gK and UL20 proteins interact and function in virion envelopment, membrane fusion, and neuronal entry. Alignment of the predicted secondary structures of gKs encoded by BoHV-1, HSV-1, HSV-2, EHV-1 and VZV indicated a high degree of domain conservation. Two BoHV-1 gK-null mutant viruses were created by either gK gene deletion or stop codon insertion. In addition, a V5 epitope-tag was inserted at the carboxyl terminus of gK gene to detect gK. The engineered gK-null mutant viruses failed to replicate and produce viral plaques. Co-immunoprecipitation of gK and UL20 expressed via different methods revealed that gK and UL20 physically interacted in the presence or absence of other viral proteins. Confocal microscopy showed that gK and UL20 colocalized in infected cells. These results indicate that BoHV-1 gK and UL20 may function in a similar manner to other alphaherpesvirus orthologues specified by HSV-1, PRV and EHV-1. -- Highlights: •Glycoprotein K(gK) is conserved among alphaherpesviruses and serves similar functions. •The bovine herpesvirus-1 gK and UL20 proteins physically interact in a similar manner to herpes simplex virus type 1 and equine herpesvirus-1. •The bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) gK interacts with UL20 and is essential for virus replication and spread.

  17. Bovine herpesvirus type-1 glycoprotein K (gK) interacts with UL20 and is required for infectious virus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Muzammel; Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin G.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that the HSV-1 gK and UL20 proteins interact and function in virion envelopment, membrane fusion, and neuronal entry. Alignment of the predicted secondary structures of gKs encoded by BoHV-1, HSV-1, HSV-2, EHV-1 and VZV indicated a high degree of domain conservation. Two BoHV-1 gK-null mutant viruses were created by either gK gene deletion or stop codon insertion. In addition, a V5 epitope-tag was inserted at the carboxyl terminus of gK gene to detect gK. The engineered gK-null mutant viruses failed to replicate and produce viral plaques. Co-immunoprecipitation of gK and UL20 expressed via different methods revealed that gK and UL20 physically interacted in the presence or absence of other viral proteins. Confocal microscopy showed that gK and UL20 colocalized in infected cells. These results indicate that BoHV-1 gK and UL20 may function in a similar manner to other alphaherpesvirus orthologues specified by HSV-1, PRV and EHV-1. -- Highlights: •Glycoprotein K(gK) is conserved among alphaherpesviruses and serves similar functions. •The bovine herpesvirus-1 gK and UL20 proteins physically interact in a similar manner to herpes simplex virus type 1 and equine herpesvirus-1. •The bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) gK interacts with UL20 and is essential for virus replication and spread.

  18. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... Hydrology. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that the geohydrologic setting of the...

  19. Resource Allocation and Cluster Formation for Imperfect NOMA in DL/UL Decoupled HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir; Radaydeh, Redha; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz; Abd El-Malek, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Being capable of serving multiple users with the same radio resource, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) can provide desirable performance enhancements in a fair and spectral efficient manner. In this paper, we investigate the resource allocation (RA) and cluster formation (CF) aspects of NOMA for downlink (DL) uplink (UL) decoupled (DUDe) heterogeneous networks (HetNets). A non-ideal NOMA scheme is considered with power disparity and sensitivity constraints (PDSCs), delay tolerance, and residual interference after cancellation. Taking the PDSCs into account, we analytically show that using the DL decoding order limits UL-NOMA performance by that of OMA, while employing an inverse order result in a performance gain that is mainly determined by the channel gain disparity of users. Thereafter, a generic CF method is proposed for any type of user graph, which iteratively forms clusters using Blossom algorithm. Finally, highly non-convex RA problem is converted into a convex form by employing geometric programming (GP) where power and bandwidth are optimized to maximize network sumrate and max-min fairness objectives.

  20. Resource Allocation and Cluster Formation for Imperfect NOMA in DL/UL Decoupled HetNets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir

    2017-04-15

    Being capable of serving multiple users with the same radio resource, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) can provide desirable performance enhancements in a fair and spectral efficient manner. In this paper, we investigate the resource allocation (RA) and cluster formation (CF) aspects of NOMA for downlink (DL) uplink (UL) decoupled (DUDe) heterogeneous networks (HetNets). A non-ideal NOMA scheme is considered with power disparity and sensitivity constraints (PDSCs), delay tolerance, and residual interference after cancellation. Taking the PDSCs into account, we analytically show that using the DL decoding order limits UL-NOMA performance by that of OMA, while employing an inverse order result in a performance gain that is mainly determined by the channel gain disparity of users. Thereafter, a generic CF method is proposed for any type of user graph, which iteratively forms clusters using Blossom algorithm. Finally, highly non-convex RA problem is converted into a convex form by employing geometric programming (GP) where power and bandwidth are optimized to maximize network sumrate and max-min fairness objectives.

  1. Labeling and localization of the herpes simplex virus capsid protein UL25 and its interaction with the two triplexes closest to the penton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James F.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Copeland, Anna Maria; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Homa, Fred L.

    2010-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) UL25 protein is one of seven viral proteins that are required for DNA cleavage and packaging. Together with UL17, UL25 forms part of an elongated molecule referred to as the C-capsid-specific component or CCSC. Five copies of the CCSC are located at each of the capsid vertices on DNA-containing capsids. To study the conformation of UL25 as it is folded on the capsid surface, we identified the sequence recognized by a UL25-specific monoclonal antibody and localized the epitope on the capsid surface by immunogold electron microscopy. The epitope mapped to amino acids 99-111 adjacent to the region of the protein (amino acids 1-50) that is required for capsid binding. In addition, cryo-EM reconstructions of C-capsids in which the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused within the N-terminus of UL25 localized the point of contact between UL25 and GFP. The result confirmed the modeled location of the UL25 protein in the CCSC density as the region that is distal to the penton with the N-terminus of UL25 making contact with the triplex one removed from the penton. Immunofluorescence experiments at early times during infection demonstrated that UL25-GFP was present on capsids located within the cytoplasm and adjacent to the nucleus. These results support the view that UL25 is present on incoming capsids with the capsid binding domain of UL25 located on the surface of the mature DNA-containing capsid. PMID:20109467

  2. A Monte Carlo study comparing PIV, ULS and DWLS in the estimation of dichotomous confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Steffen

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a Monte Carlo study to investigate the performance of the polychoric instrumental variable estimator (PIV) in comparison to unweighted least squares (ULS) and diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) in the estimation of a confirmatory factor analysis model with dichotomous indicators. The simulation involved 144 conditions (1,000 replications per condition) that were defined by a combination of (a) two types of latent factor models, (b) four sample sizes (100, 250, 500, 1,000), (c) three factor loadings (low, moderate, strong), (d) three levels of non-normality (normal, moderately, and extremely non-normal), and (e) whether the factor model was correctly specified or misspecified. The results showed that when the model was correctly specified, PIV produced estimates that were as accurate as ULS and DWLS. Furthermore, the simulation showed that PIV was more robust to structural misspecifications than ULS and DWLS. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Multiple phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus regulate nuclear import of HCMV DNA polymerase processivity factor ppUL44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvisi, Gualtiero; Marin, Oriano; Pari, Gregory; Mancini, Manuela; Avanzi, Simone; Loregian, Arianna; Jans, David A.; Ripalti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    The processivity factor of human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase, phosphoprotein ppUL44, is essential for viral replication. During viral infection ppUL44 is phosphorylated by the viral kinase pUL97, but neither the target residues on ppUL44 nor the effect of phosphorylation on ppUL44's activity are known. We report here that ppUL44 is phosphorylated when transiently expressed in mammalian cells and coimmunoprecipitates with cellular kinases. Of three potential phosphorylation sites (S413, S415, S418) located upstream of ppUL44's nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one (T427) within the NLS itself, protein kinase CK2 (CK2) specifically phosphorylates S413, to trigger a cascade of phosphorylation of S418 and S415 by CK1 and CK2, respectively. Negative charge at the CK2/CK1 target serine residues facilitates optimal nuclear accumulation of ppUL44, whereas negative charge on T427, a potential cyclin-dependent 1 phosphorylation site, strongly decreases nuclear accumulation. Thus, nuclear transport of ppUL44 is finely tuned during viral infection through complex phosphorylation events.

  4. The UL24 protein of herpes simplex virus 1 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Abdeljelil, Nawel; Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Pearson, Angela, E-mail: angela.pearson@iaf.inrs.ca

    2013-09-15

    Mutations in UL24 of herpes simplex virus type 1 can lead to a syncytial phenotype. We hypothesized that UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins involved in fusion. In non-immortalized human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) we detected viral glycoproteins B (gB), gD, gH and gL present in extended blotches throughout the cytoplasm with limited nuclear membrane staining; however, in HFFs infected with a UL24-deficient virus (UL24X), staining for the viral glycoproteins appeared as long, thin streaks running across the cell. Interestingly, there was a decrease in co-localized staining of gB and gD with F-actin at late times in UL24X-infected HFFs. Treatment with chemical agents that perturbed the actin cytoskeleton hindered the formation of UL24X-induced syncytia in these cells. These data support a model whereby the UL24 syncytial phenotype results from a mislocalization of viral glycoproteins late in infection. - Highlights: • UL24 affects the sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins required for fusion. • Sub-cellular distribution of viral glycoproteins varies in cell-type dependent manner. • Drugs targeting actin microfilaments affect formation of UL24-related syncytia in HFFs.

  5. Current Developments in Prokaryotic Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, Danielle; Nath, Nandita; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Malmstrom, Rex

    2014-03-14

    Our approach to prokaryotic single-cell Whole Genome Amplification at the JGI continues to evolve. To increase both the quality and number of single-cell genomes produced, we explore all aspects of the process from cell sorting to sequencing. For example, we now utilize specialized reagents, acoustic liquid handling, and reduced reaction volumes eliminate non-target DNA contamination in WGA reactions. More specifically, we use a cleaner commercial WGA kit from Qiagen that employs a UV decontamination procedure initially developed at the JGI, and we use the Labcyte Echo for tip-less liquid transfer to set up 2uL reactions. Acoustic liquid handling also dramatically reduces reagent costs. In addition, we are exploring new cell lysis methods including treatment with Proteinase K, lysozyme, and other detergents, in order to complement standard alkaline lysis and allow for more efficient disruption of a wider range of cells. Incomplete lysis represents a major hurdle for WGA on some environmental samples, especially rhizosphere, peatland, and other soils. Finding effective lysis strategies that are also compatible with WGA is challenging, and we are currently assessing the impact of various strategies on genome recovery.

  6. UL36 Rescues Apoptosis Inhibition and In vivo Replication of a Chimeric MCMV Lacking the M36 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zeeshan Chaudhry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is an important defense mechanism mounted by the immune system to control virus replication. Hence, cytomegaloviruses (CMV evolved and acquired numerous anti-apoptotic genes. The product of the human CMV (HCMV UL36 gene, pUL36 (also known as vICA, binds to pro-caspase-8, thus inhibiting death-receptor apoptosis and enabling viral replication in differentiated THP-1 cells. In vivo studies of the function of HCMV genes are severely limited due to the strict host specificity of cytomegaloviruses, but CMV orthologues that co-evolved with other species allow the experimental study of CMV biology in vivo. The mouse CMV (MCMV homolog of the UL36 gene is called M36, and its protein product (pM36 is a functional homolog of vICA that binds to murine caspase-8 and inhibits its activation. M36-deficient MCMV is severely growth impaired in macrophages and in vivo. Here we show that pUL36 binds to the murine pro-caspase-8, and that UL36 expression inhibits death-receptor apoptosis in murine cells and can replace M36 to allow MCMV growth in vitro and in vivo. We generated a chimeric MCMV expressing the UL36 ORF sequence instead of the M36 one. The newly generated MCMVUL36 inhibited apoptosis in macrophage lines RAW 264.7, J774A.1, and IC-21 and its growth was rescued to wild type levels. Similarly, growth was rescued in vivo in the liver and spleen, but only partially in the salivary glands of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, we determined that an immune-evasive HCMV gene is conserved enough to functionally replace its MCMV counterpart and thus allow its study in an in vivo setting. As UL36 and M36 proteins engage the same molecular host target, our newly developed model can facilitate studies of anti-viral compounds targeting pUL36 in vivo.

  7. Krymskokaraimska wersja Melukhat Sha’ul. Wydanie krytyczne i analiza językoznawcza

    OpenAIRE

    Smętek, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Wydział Neofilologii: Katedra Studiów Azjatyckich Rozprawa doktorska udostępnia w wydaniu krytycznym dramat p.t. Melukhat Sha’ul znajdujący się w krymskokaraimskim rękopisie zwanym medżumą i jest pierwszym opracowaniem naukowym tego dzieła. Oryginał rękopisu, o numerze VI-3/22, znajduje się na Krymie. Został on spisany przez Samuela Kohena w drugiej połowie dziewiętnastego wieku, to znaczy w roku 1876 z krótkimi fragmentami zapisanymi w 1875 i 1879. Rękopis zawiera turkijskie tłumaczenie d...

  8. Visual analysis and Schmidt rebound hammer test of Taj-ul-Masajid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hussain

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taj-ul-Masajid, literally, the crown among mosques is an embodiment of genius structural engineering located in the heart of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal. A unique combination of the Mughal Architecture in complete stone masonry and modern day RCC work, it is a liaison between the past and the present of structural engineering. A wonder in its own right, the structure is often neglected by technicians and conservationalists alike, a satire on their ingenuity. Now, in a severely dilapidated condition, the structure is in pressing need of structural rehabilitation. The authors intend to perform in-situ Non-Destructive Testing & Evaluation (NDT&E of this structure and thereby suggest steps to better its present condition. As a first step, they’ve performed the visual analysis and Schmidt Rebound Hammer Test on the concrete portion of the structure which has been presented herein. The authors have also suggested a new approach for the verification of results obtained.

  9. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Funk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary

  10. Genome position and gene amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Pavla; Snijders, A.M.; Kwek, S.; Roydasgupta, R.; Fridlyand, J.; Tokuyasu, T.; Pinkel, D.; Albertson, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2007), r120 ISSN 1474-760X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene amplification * array comparative genomic hybridization * oncogene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.589, year: 2007

  11. Health Information in Modern Standard Arabic (al-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - English MP3 Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - al-ʻArabīyat ul-fuṣḥá (Modern Standard Arabic) MP3 Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth (Part 1) - English ...

  12. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbradt, Jens; Sonntag, Eric; Wagner, Sabrina; Strojan, Hanife; Wangen, Christina; Lenac Rovis, Tihana; Lisnic, Berislav; Jonjic, Stipan; Sticht, Heinrich; Britt, William J; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Marschall, Manfred

    2018-01-13

    The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC) that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Capsids Associate with the Core Nuclear Egress Complex and the Viral Protein Kinase pUL97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Milbradt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear phase of herpesvirus replication is regulated through the formation of regulatory multi-component protein complexes. Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. The latter has been studied intensely pointing to the formation of a viral core nuclear egress complex (NEC that recruits a multimeric assembly of viral and cellular factors for the reorganization of the nuclear envelope. To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. Specifically, immunogold labelling of the core NEC constituent pUL53 and NEC-associated viral kinase pUL97 suggested an intranuclear NEC-capsid interaction. Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. Important data were provided by co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase analyses using lysates from HCMV-infected cells, nuclear fractions, or infectious virions. Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction.

  14. Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

    2011-04-21

    Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented.

  15. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.

  16. Measuring the amplification of attention

    OpenAIRE

    Blaser, Erik; Sperling, George; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    1999-01-01

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red–green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to ...

  17. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, τ REC , which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI TOR 2 /dt ∼ I 2 /τ REC - I TOR 2 /τ closed where I is the gun current, I TOR is the spheromak toroidal current and τ CLOSED is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I TOR >> I, requires τ REC CLOSED . For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that τ REC actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B ∝ I, or I TOR ∼ I. Program implications are discussed

  18. Novel Structure and Unexpected RNA-Binding Ability of the C-Terminal Domain of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tegument Protein UL21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metrick, Claire M.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E. (Tufts-MED)

    2016-04-06

    Proteins forming the tegument layers of herpesviral virions mediate many essential processes in the viral replication cycle, yet few have been characterized in detail. UL21 is one such multifunctional tegument protein and is conserved among alphaherpesviruses. While UL21 has been implicated in many processes in viral replication, ranging from nuclear egress to virion morphogenesis to cell-cell spread, its precise roles remain unclear. Here we report the 2.7-Å crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) UL21 (UL21C), which has a unique α-helical fold resembling a dragonfly. Analysis of evolutionary conservation patterns and surface electrostatics pinpointed four regions of potential functional importance on the surface of UL21C to be pursued by mutagenesis. In combination with the previously determined structure of the N-terminal domain of UL21, the structure of UL21C provides a 3-dimensional framework for targeted exploration of the multiple roles of UL21 in the replication and pathogenesis of alphaherpesviruses. Additionally, we describe an unanticipated ability of UL21 to bind RNA, which may hint at a yet unexplored function.

    IMPORTANCEDue to the limited genomic coding capacity of viruses, viral proteins are often multifunctional, which makes them attractive antiviral targets. Such multifunctionality, however, complicates their study, which often involves constructing and characterizing null mutant viruses. Systematic exploration of these multifunctional proteins requires detailed road maps in the form of 3-dimensional structures. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of UL21, a multifunctional tegument protein that is conserved among alphaherpesviruses. Structural analysis pinpointed surface areas of potential functional importance that provide a starting point for mutagenesis. In addition, the unexpected RNA-binding ability of UL21 may expand its functional repertoire

  19. DB2 10.1 fundamentals certification study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an explanation of the certification process and working through fundamental exam objectives, this guide gives test-takers all they need to know to pass IBM's DB2 10.1 Fundamentals certification exam (Exam 610). All the subjects covered on the exam are included: planning, security, data concurrency, working with databases and database objects, working with data using SQL and XQuery, working with DB2 tables, views, and indexes-and more. The book concludes with an

  20. The Conservation Measures of NATURA 2000 "Someşul Rece" Site Management Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Proorocu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Natura 2000 is a European network of protected natural areas including a significant number of natural habitats and wild species for the interest of comunnity. Natura 2000 ROSCI 0233 "Someşul Rece"  Site is situated in the south-western county of Cluj, on the administrative territory of Măguri-Răcătău and Ierii Valley. It has an area of 8529 ha and is a framed area of the Apuseni Mountains Alpine bioregions. The site preserves the following natural habitats: Rough mountain beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum, beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum, forests acidophilous Picea Abies mountain region and protect important species and active fish fauna, flora and fauna of the Apuseni Mountains. It is also home for several species (mammals, amphibians, fish and beetles like: lynx, wolf or otter. The conservation measures of Natura 2000 Somesul Rece Site, elaborated in order to protect the habitats and the species are part of the management plan. These measures were developed in close connection with the conservation status of habitats and species, but also taking into account the needs of local communities. These measures include: maintaining habitats in favorable conservation status; maintain the current habitat areas; preventing and combating poaching and overfishing;ensuring peace in areas of rock (for large mammals.

  1. USING THE FOURNIER INDEXES IN ESTIMATING RAINFALL EROSIVITY. CASE STUDY - THE SECAŞUL MARE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. COSTEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the Fournier Index in Estimating Rainfall Erosivity. Case Study - The Secaşul Mare Basin. Climatic aggressiveness is one of the most important factors in relief dynamic. Of all climatic parameters, rainfall is directly involved in versant dynamic, in the loss of soil quality and through pluvial denudation and the processes associated with it, through the erosivity of torrential rain. We analyzed rainfall aggressiveness based on monthly and annual average values through the Fournier's index (1970 and Fournier's index modified by Arnoldus (1980. They have the advantage that they can be used not only for evaluating the land susceptibility to erosion and the calculation of erodibility of land and soil losses, but also in assessing land susceptibility to sliding (Aghiruş, 2010. The literature illustrates the successful use of this index which provides a summary assessment of the probability of rainfall with significant erosive effects. The results obtained allow observation of differences in space and time of the distribution of this index.

  2. Sa Rocca Ulàri Cave, near S. Pietro di Sorres, Borutta (SS: archaeological aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Soro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cave of Sa Rocca Ulàri, in the municipality of Borutta (SS, is fully inserted into the dense settlement of the natural cavities of Sardinia during the prehistory and early history. Its size and the particular relation to the configuration of the land in relation to the richness of the Mejlogu landscape, allowed small groups of people to settle in the cavity that opens into the northern slope of the Hill of Sorres. Attendance could be certified without interruption from the Neolithic until the Middle Ages. The preliminary study of materials, has determined that the most popular period for residential purposes is referring to the end of the Neolithic culture of Ozieri, and the first Eneolithic Sub Ozieri. The funerary use is assumed for the subsequent cultural phases Monte Claro (Evolved Eneolithic and Bonnanaro I facies Corona Moltana (Bronze Age. In the Nuragic Era (Middle Bronze / Late / Final and early Iron Age the cavity was initially used for storing food, then for other purposes probably linked to the cult.

  3. The human cytomegalovirus UL11 protein interacts with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, resulting in functional paralysis of T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildar Gabaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (CMV exerts diverse and complex effects on the immune system, not all of which have been attributed to viral genes. Acute CMV infection results in transient restrictions in T cell proliferative ability, which can impair the control of the virus and increase the risk of secondary infections in patients with weakened or immature immune systems. In a search for new immunomodulatory proteins, we investigated the UL11 protein, a member of the CMV RL11 family. This protein family is defined by the RL11 domain, which has homology to immunoglobulin domains and adenoviral immunomodulatory proteins. We show that pUL11 is expressed on the cell surface and induces intercellular interactions with leukocytes. This was demonstrated to be due to the interaction of pUL11 with the receptor tyrosine phosphatase CD45, identified by mass spectrometry analysis of pUL11-associated proteins. CD45 expression is sufficient to mediate the interaction with pUL11 and is required for pUL11 binding to T cells, indicating that pUL11 is a specific CD45 ligand. CD45 has a pivotal function regulating T cell signaling thresholds; in its absence, the Src family kinase Lck is inactive and signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR is therefore shut off. In the presence of pUL11, several CD45-mediated functions were inhibited. The induction of tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple signaling proteins upon TCR stimulation was reduced and T cell proliferation was impaired. We therefore conclude that pUL11 has immunosuppressive properties, and that disruption of T cell function via inhibition of CD45 is a previously unknown immunomodulatory strategy of CMV.

  4. The Cytomegalovirus UL146 Gene Product vCXCL1 Targets Both CXCR1 and CXCR2 as an Agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luttichau, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Large DNA viruses, such as herpesvirus and poxvirus, encode proteins that target and exploit the chemokine system of their host. UL146 and UL147 in the cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome encode the two CXC chemokines vCXCL1 and vCXCL2. In this study, vCXCL1 was probed against a panel of the 18 classified...... human chemokine receptors. In calcium mobilization assays vCXCL1 acted as an agonist on both CXCR1 and CXCR2 but did not activate or block any of the other 16 chemokine receptors. vCXCL1 was characterized and compared with CXCL1/GRO alpha, CXCL2/GRO beta, CXCL3/GRO gamma, CXCL5/ENA-78, CXCL6/GCP2, CXCL7...

  5. A proteomic perspective of inbuilt viral protein regulation: pUL46 tegument protein is targeted for degradation by ICP0 during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aaron E; Greco, Todd M; Döhner, Katinka; Sodeik, Beate; Cristea, Ileana M

    2013-11-01

    Much like the host cells they infect, viruses must also regulate their life cycles. Herpes simples virus type 1 (HSV-1), a prominent human pathogen, uses a promoter-rich genome in conjunction with multiple viral trans-activating factors. Following entry into host cells, the virion-associated outer tegument proteins pUL46 and pUL47 act to increase expression of viral immediate-early (α) genes, thereby helping initiate the infection life cycle. Because pUL46 has gone largely unstudied, we employed a hybrid mass spectrometry-based approach to determine how pUL46 exerts its functions during early stages of infection. For a spatio-temporal characterization of pUL46, time-lapse microscopy was performed in live cells to define its dynamic localization from 2 to 24 h postinfection. Next, pUL46-containing protein complexes were immunoaffinity purified during infection of human fibroblasts and analyzed by mass spectrometry to investigate virus-virus and virus-host interactions, as well as post-translational modifications. We demonstrated that pUL46 is heavily phosphorylated in at least 23 sites. One phosphorylation site matched the consensus 14-3-3 phospho-binding motif, consistent with our identification of 14-3-3 proteins and host and viral kinases as specific pUL46 interactions. Moreover, we determined that pUL46 specifically interacts with the viral E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0. We demonstrated that pUL46 is partially degraded in a proteasome-mediated manner during infection, and that the catalytic activity of ICP0 is responsible for this degradation. This is the first evidence of a viral protein being targeted for degradation by another viral protein during HSV-1 infection. Together, these data indicate that pUL46 levels are tightly controlled and important for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression throughout the virus life cycle. The concept of a structural virion protein, pUL46, performing nonstructural roles is likely to reflect a theme common to many viruses

  6. [Prevalence of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in workers of the upholstered furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, S; Carino, M; Di Leone, G; Trani, G; Carella, F; Rubino, G; Leone, E; Popolizio, R; Colafiglio, S; Ambrosi, L

    2008-01-01

    The upholstered furniture industry, the so-called "triangle of the sofa industry", is a geographic area of national and strategic economic importance in southern Italy. The single tasks are carried out mostly manually, with the characteristics of a handicraft approach. The aim of the survey was to assess the prevalence of upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in 30 factories of the sofa industry located in a large geographic area of the Puglia and Basilicata Regions. In the period 1 January-31 December 2003 a network of occupational physicians investigated a population of 5.477 subjects (exposed n=3481, controls n=1996, M=3865, F=1612) in 30 different factories of the area. More than 60 percent of the total workforce studied was employed in large-sized companies (>500 employees). The following work tasks were considered: filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. Case-definition was assessed through standardized procedures: symptoms by questionnaire plus physical and laboratory/imaging findings. Cumulative prevalence rates of UL-WMSDs as at 31 December 2003 reached values of up to 30% in high risk groups. Prevalence rates showed good correlation with the concise OCRA index used for assessment of exposure to repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb. The most frequently occurring disorders were tendon-related cysts and wrist tendonitis. Shoulder disorders were more frequent in male and female leather-cutting operators. This survey showed a significantly high prevalence of UL-WMSDs in sofa industry workers. It did not seem to be confirmed in this study that there was a greater female susceptibility to UL-WMSDs with the exception of carpal tunnel syndrome: gender difference seems to be less relevant at increasing levels of occupational exposure to repetitive movements and exertion of the upper limbs.

  7. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...

  8. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-11-20

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al. , 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC - counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al. , 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  9. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunshan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  10. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  11. The early UL31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the C-terminus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seongman; Chul Ahn, Byung; O' Callaghan, Dennis J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States); Kim, Seong Kee, E-mail: skim1@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932 (United States)

    2012-10-25

    The amino acid sequence of the UL31 protein (UL31P) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has homology to that of the ICP8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Here we show that the UL31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the IEP and the UL5P (EICP27). Detection of the UL31 RNA transcript and the UL31P in EHV-1-infected cells at 6 h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that UL31 is an early gene. The UL31P preferentially bound to single-stranded DNA over double-stranded DNA in gel shift assays. Subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-UL31 fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of the UL31P are responsible for the nuclear localization. These findings may contribute to defining the role of the UL31P single-stranded DNA-binding protein in EHV-1 DNA replication.

  12. The early UL31 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 encodes a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that has a nuclear localization signal sequence at the C-terminus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seongman; Chul Ahn, Byung; O’Callaghan, Dennis J.; Kim, Seong Kee

    2012-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the UL31 protein (UL31P) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has homology to that of the ICP8 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Here we show that the UL31 gene is synergistically trans-activated by the IEP and the UL5P (EICP27). Detection of the UL31 RNA transcript and the UL31P in EHV-1-infected cells at 6 h post-infection (hpi) as well as metabolic inhibition assays indicated that UL31 is an early gene. The UL31P preferentially bound to single-stranded DNA over double-stranded DNA in gel shift assays. Subcellular localization of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)–UL31 fusion proteins revealed that the C-terminal 32 amino acid residues of the UL31P are responsible for the nuclear localization. These findings may contribute to defining the role of the UL31P single-stranded DNA-binding protein in EHV-1 DNA replication.

  13. Multiple 5' ends of human cytomegalovirus UL57 transcripts identify a complex, cycloheximide-resistant promoter region that activates oriLyt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehl, Anita; Huang, Lili; Franchi, David; Anders, David G.

    2003-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL57 gene lies adjacent to HCMV oriLyt, from which it is separated by an organizationally conserved, mostly noncoding region that is thought to both regulate UL57 expression and activate oriLyt function. However, the UL57 promoter has not been studied. We determined the 5' ends of UL57 transcripts toward an understanding of the potential relationship between UL57 expression and oriLyt activation. The results presented here identified three distinct 5' ends spread over 800 bp, at nt 90302, 90530, and 91138; use of these sites exhibited differential sensitivity to phosphonoformic acid treatment. Interestingly, a 10-kb UL57 transcript accumulated in cycloheximide-treated infected cells, even though other early transcripts were not detectable. However, the 10-kb transcript did not accumulate in cells treated with the more stringent translation inhibitor anisomycin. Consistent with the notion that the identified 5' ends arise from distinct transcription start sites, the sequences upstream of sites I and II functioned as promoters responsive to HCMV infection in transient assays. However, the origin-proximal promoter region III required downstream sequences for transcriptional activity. Mutation of candidate core promoter elements suggested that promoter III is regulated by an initiator region (Inr) and a downstream promoter element. Finally, a 42-bp sequence containing the candidate Inr activated a minimal oriLyt core construct in transient replication assays. Thus, these studies showed that a large, complex promoter region with novel features controls UL57 expression, and identified a sequence that regulates both UL57 transcription and oriLyt activation

  14. Vaccination with a HSV-2 UL24 mutant induces a protective immune response in murine and guinea pig vaginal infection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Robert J; Natuk, Robert J; Kowalski, Jacek; Guo, Min; Blakeney, Susan; Gangolli, Seema; Cooper, David

    2014-03-10

    The rational design and development of genetically attenuated HSV-2 mutant viruses represent an attractive approach for developing both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for genital herpes. Previously, HSV-2 UL24 was shown to be a virulence determinant in both murine and guinea pig vaginal infection models. An UL24-βgluc insertion mutant produced syncytial plaques and replicated to nearly wild type levels in tissue culture, but induced little or no pathological effects in recipient mice or guinea pigs following vaginal infection. Here we report that immunization of mice or guinea pigs with high or low doses of UL24-βgluc elicited a highly protective immune response. UL24-βgluc immunization via the vaginal or intramuscular routes was demonstrated to protect mice from a lethal vaginal challenge with wild type HSV-2. Moreover, antigen re-stimulated splenic lymphocytes harvested from immunized mice exhibited both HSV-2 specific CTL activity and IFN-γ expression. Humoral anti-HSV-2 responses in serum were Th1-polarized (IgG2a>IgG1) and contained high-titer anti-HSV-2 neutralizing activity. Guinea pigs vaccinated subcutaneously with UL24-βgluc or the more virulent parental strain (186) were challenged with a heterologous HSV-2 strain (MS). Acute disease scores were nearly indistinguishable in guinea pigs immunized with either virus. Recurrent disease scores were reduced in UL24-βgluc immunized animals but not to the same extent as those immunized with strain 186. In addition, challenge virus was not detected in 75% of guinea pigs subcutaneously immunized with UL24-βgluc. In conclusion, disruption of the UL24 gene is a prime target for the development of a genetically attenuated live HSV-2 vaccine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  16. Measuring the amplification of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, E; Sperling, G; Lu, Z L

    1999-09-28

    An ambiguous motion paradigm, in which the direction of apparent motion is determined by salience (i.e., the extent to which an area is perceived as figure versus ground), is used to assay the amplification of color by attention to color. In the red-green colored gratings used in these experiments, without attention instructions, salience depends on the chromaticity difference between colored stripes embedded in the motion sequence and the yellow background. Selective attention to red (or to green) alters the perceived direction of motion and is found to be equivalent to increasing the physical redness (or greenness) by 25-117%, depending on the observer and color. Whereas attention to a color drastically alters the salience of that color, it leaves color appearance unchanged. A computational model, which embodies separate, parallel pathways for object perception and for salience, accounts for 99% of the variance of the experimental data.

  17. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  18. An Overview of «Umdet ul-Ahbar» by Abdulgaffar Qirimi »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.М. Mirgaleev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the manuscript book of Abdulgaffar Qirimi by the name of «Umdet ul-Ahbar» («The Support of Communications». This work is written in Ottoman language according to the tradition of Ottoman historical writings. Authors of the article briefly recount Abdulgaffar Qirimi’s information contained in his work and dedicated to Genghis Khan, the Golden Horde, and the Crimean Khanate. Recently in Kazan have been published the facsimile and transcription of this work. Therefore, the authors decided to introduce into scholarly circulation the Russian summary of this work (the work being translated into Russian. Using a continuous method, the authors have made an overview of the main political events mentioned in the book. This information will be useful for the specialists studying the history of the Golden Horde and Tatar khanates. The importance of this source is beyond any doubt since Abdulgaffar Qirimi reports many original details and, especially for the 18th century, his information is authentic and based on personal observations. The manuscript book consists of several parts. It contains information about world history, the history of the prophets, the history of the Seljuks and Ottomans. The main part of the work is devoted to the Golden Horde (starting from Genghis Khan and his descendants, Crimean Khanate, Girayids and murzas. Abdulgaffar Qirimi sought to write a history of the descendants of Jochi khan. He used in his book more than 20 historical works. Abdulgaffar Qirimi reports the names of these works and indicates where he got this or that information. At the same time, he had access to the archives of the Crimean Khanate and used his family legends as well as popular traditions. Plenty of space in his work occupy his own observations as of a participant in military campaigns and court life. Although Abdulgaffar Qirimi makes some mistakes, however his work contains a complete history of the Golden Horde. His

  19. Diagnostic Devices for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chen Chang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development.

  20. Diagnostic devices for isothermal nucleic acid amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lu, Hui-Hsin; Liang, Yang-Hung; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development.

  1. La expedición a Veracruz y la defensa de San Juan de Ulúa (1819-1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Escalona Jiménez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1819 una expedición militar al mando del teniente general Manuel Cagigal partió de Cádiz hacia La Habana. En 1821 el cuerpo expedicionario, compuesto de unos 200 hombres, ocupó Veracruz, pero pronto se vio obligado a replegarse a la isla de San Juan de Ulúa, donde consiguió resistir hasta 1825, a pesar de estar sometido al severo bloqueo de las fuerzas independentistas mexicanas y combatir en las condiciones más precarias, de tal modo que este episodio militar se ganó la admiración general.In 1819, a military expedition, under the command of Lieutenant General Manuel Cagigal, sailed from Cádiz bound to La Habana. In 1821, the army corps, around 200 soldiers, got hold of Veracruz, but was soon obliged to retire to the island of San Juan de Ulúa, where they managed to resist untill 1825, in spite of the blockade by the Mexican independentist Mexican force and the arduous circumstances of the fight to the extent of getting a general admiration.

  2. Cellular homeoproteins, SATB1 and CDP, bind to the unique region between the human cytomegalovirus UL127 and major immediate-early genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Jialing; Klase, Zachary; Gao Xiaoqi; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Stinski, Mark F.; Kashanchi, Fatah; Chao, S.-H.

    2007-01-01

    An AT-rich region of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome between the UL127 open reading frame and the major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer is referred to as the unique region (UR). It has been shown that the UR represses activation of transcription from the UL127 promoter and functions as a boundary between the divergent UL127 and MIE genes during human CMV infection [Angulo, A., Kerry, D., Huang, H., Borst, E.M., Razinsky, A., Wu, J., Hobom, U., Messerle, M., Ghazal, P., 2000. Identification of a boundary domain adjacent to the potent human cytomegalovirus enhancer that represses transcription of the divergent UL127 promoter. J. Virol. 74 (6), 2826-2839; Lundquist, C.A., Meier, J.L., Stinski, M.F., 1999. A strong negative transcriptional regulatory region between the human cytomegalovirus UL127 gene and the major immediate-early enhancer. J. Virol. 73 (11), 9039-9052]. A putative forkhead box-like (FOX-like) site, AAATCAATATT, was identified in the UR and found to play a key role in repression of the UL127 promoter in recombinant virus-infected cells [Lashmit, P.E., Lundquist, C.A., Meier, J.L., Stinski, M.F., 2004. Cellular repressor inhibits human cytomegalovirus transcription from the UL127 promoter. J. Virol. 78 (10), 5113-5123]. However, the cellular factors which associate with the UR and FOX-like region remain to be determined. We reported previously that pancreatic-duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX1) bound to a 45-bp element located within the UR [Chao, S.H., Harada, J.N., Hyndman, F., Gao, X., Nelson, C.G., Chanda, S.K., Caldwell, J.S., 2004. PDX1, a Cellular Homeoprotein, Binds to and Regulates the Activity of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early Promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (16), 16111-16120]. Here we demonstrate that two additional cellular homeoproteins, special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) and CCAAT displacement protein (CDP), bind to the human CMV UR in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CDP is identified as a FOX-like binding protein

  3. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  4. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  5. NKGB-UL SOVIETIC PE FRONTUL INVIZIBIL ÎN BASARABIA, MARTIE-IUNIE 1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru MALACENCO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O incursiune sumară în tematica cercetării atestă că în anii celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial activitatea serviciilor speciale ale URSS, ca instrument coercitiv al puterii politice, era determinată „în funcție de acțiunea ofensivă sau defensivă a trupelor sovietice. Apariția NKGB-ului sovietic – structură menită să lupte cu dușmanii statului/regimului sovietic – se producea ori de câte ori armata sovietică urma să se lanseze în ofensivă, scopul fiind, desigur, „purificarea” de ele­mente ostile a teritoriului” recucerit, ce constituia o etapă inerentă în procesul (resovietizării acestor spații.Istoria celui de-al Doilea Război Mondial arată că acolo unde călca Armata Roșie se impunea și regimul comunist. Grosso modo, URSS în anii războiului opera cu mai multe armate pe câmpul de luptă în misiunea de „eliberare” a țărilor din Europa: Armata Roșie, care lupta pe frontul militar și Armata de trupe speciale, care lupta pe frontul invizibil.Așadar, la sfârșitul lunii martie 1944, trupele Armatei Roșii au reușit să forțeze linia frontului peste Nistru și să reocupe partea de nord a Basarabiei, iar pentru scurt timp orașul Soroca a devenit capitala administrativă a Moldovei sovietice. Odată cu trupele sovietice, în nordul Basarabiei au revenit și structurile de securitate ale URSS. Printre primele instituții sovietice care s-au stabilit inițial cu sediulla Sorocaa fost Comisariatul Poporului pentru Securitatea Statului – NKGB. În fruntea NKGB-ului din RSSM a fost numit ucraineanul Iosif Mordoveț (1944-1955, care a avut ca obiectiv reorganizarea aparatului de securitate pe teritoriul Basarabiei reocupate, fapt ce a determinat soarta acestui spațiu aproximativ pentru jumătate de secol înainte.SOVIET NKGB ON THE INVISIBLE FRONT IN BASARABIA, MARCH - JUNE 1944A short insight into the subject of this study highlights that in the period of the Second World War the activity of

  6. A Tyrosine-Based Trafficking Motif of the Tegument Protein pUL71 Is Crucial for Human Cytomegalovirus Secondary Envelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Andrea N; Villinger, Clarissa; Becker, Stefan; Frick, Manfred; von Einem, Jens

    2018-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) tegument protein pUL71 is required for efficient secondary envelopment and accumulates at the Golgi compartment-derived viral assembly complex (vAC) during infection. Analysis of various C-terminally truncated pUL71 proteins fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) identified amino acids 23 to 34 as important determinants for its Golgi complex localization. Sequence analysis and mutational verification revealed the presence of an N-terminal tyrosine-based trafficking motif (YXXΦ) in pUL71. This led us to hypothesize a requirement of the YXXΦ motif for the function of pUL71 in infection. Mutation of both the tyrosine residue and the entire YXXΦ motif resulted in an altered distribution of mutant pUL71 at the plasma membrane and in the cytoplasm during infection. Both YXXΦ mutant viruses exhibited similarly decreased focal growth and reduced virus yields in supernatants. Ultrastructurally, mutant-virus-infected cells exhibited impaired secondary envelopment manifested by accumulations of capsids undergoing an envelopment process. Additionally, clusters of capsid accumulations surrounding the vAC were observed, similar to the ultrastructural phenotype of a UL71-deficient mutant. The importance of endocytosis and thus the YXXΦ motif for targeting pUL71 to the Golgi complex was further demonstrated when clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited either by coexpression of the C-terminal part of cellular AP180 (AP180-C) or by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin. Both conditions resulted in a plasma membrane accumulation of pUL71. Altogether, these data reveal the presence of a functional N-terminal endocytosis motif that is an important determinant for intracellular localization of pUL71 and that is furthermore required for the function of pUL71 during secondary envelopment of HCMV capsids at the vAC. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of birth defects among congenital virus infections and can

  7. Antibodies against human cytomegalovirus late protein UL94 in the pathogenesis of scleroderma-like skin lesions in chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastano, Rocco; Dell'Agnola, Chiara; Bason, Caterina; Gigli, Federica; Rabascio, Cristina; Puccetti, Antonio; Tinazzi, Elisa; Cetto, Gianluigi; Peccatori, Fedro; Martinelli, Giovanni; Lunardi, Claudio

    2012-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection and its reactivation correlate both with the increased risk and with the worsening of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Because scleroderma-like skin lesions can occur in chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in allogeneic stem-cell transplant (HCT) patients and hCMV is relevant in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc), we evaluated the possible pathogenetic link between hCMV and skin cGVHD. Plasma from 18 HCT patients was tested for anti-UL94 and/or anti-NAG-2 antibodies, identified in SSc patients, by direct ELISA assays. Both donors and recipients were anti-hCMV IgG positive, without autoimmune diseases. Patients' purified anti-UL94 and anti-NAG-2 IgG binding to human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and fibroblasts was performed by FACS analysis and ELISA test. HUVECs apoptosis and fibroblasts proliferation induced by patients' anti-NAG-2 antibodies were measured by DNA fragmentation and cell viability, respectively. About 11/18 patients developed cGVHD and all of them showed skin involvement, ranging from diffuse SSc-like lesions to limited erythema. Eight of eleven cGVHD patients were positive for anti-UL94 and/or anti-NAG-2 antibodies. Remarkably, 4/5 patients who developed diffuse or limited SSc-like lesions had antibodies directed against both UL94 and NAG-2; their anti-NAG-2 IgG-bound HUVECs and fibroblasts induce both endothelial cell apoptosis and fibroblasts proliferation, similar to that induced by purified anti-UL94 and anti-NAG-2 antibodies obtained from SSc patients. In conclusion, our data suggest a pathogenetic link between hCMV infection and scleroderma-like skin cGVHD in HCT patients through a mechanism of molecular mimicry between UL94 viral protein and NAG-2 molecule, as observed in patients with SSc.

  8. Conserved retinoblastoma protein-binding motif in human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase minimally impacts viral replication but affects susceptibility to maribavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou Sunwen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The UL97 kinase has been shown to phosphorylate and inactivate the retinoblastoma protein (Rb and has three consensus Rb-binding motifs that might contribute to this activity. Recombinant viruses containing mutations in the Rb-binding motifs generally replicated well in human foreskin fibroblasts with only a slight delay in replication kinetics. Their susceptibility to the specific UL97 kinase inhibitor, maribavir, was also examined. Mutation of the amino terminal motif, which is involved in the inactivation of Rb, also renders the virus hypersensitive to the drug and suggests that the motif may play a role in its mechanism of action.

  9. [Investigation of RNA viral genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zheng; Li, Jian-Dong; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    In order to facilitate the detection of newly emerging or rare viral infectious diseases, a negative-strand RNA virus-severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome bunyavirus, and a positive-strand RNA virus-dengue virus, were used to investigate RNA viral genome unspecific amplification by multiple displacement amplification technique from clinical samples. Series of 10-fold diluted purified viral RNA were utilized as analog samples with different pathogen loads, after a series of reactions were sequentially processed, single-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA, double-strand cDNA treated with ligation without or with supplemental RNA were generated, then a Phi29 DNA polymerase depended isothermal amplification was employed, and finally the target gene copies were detected by real time PCR assays to evaluate the amplification efficiencies of various methods. The results showed that multiple displacement amplification effects of single-strand or double-strand cDNA templates were limited, while the fold increases of double-strand cDNA templates treated with ligation could be up to 6 X 10(3), even 2 X 10(5) when supplemental RNA existed, and better results were obtained when viral RNA loads were lower. A RNA viral genome amplification system using multiple displacement amplification technique was established in this study and effective amplification of RNA viral genome with low load was achieved, which could provide a tool to synthesize adequate viral genome for multiplex pathogens detection.

  10. NNLO corrections to anti B {yields} X{sub u}l anti {nu} in the shape-function region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asatrian, H.M. [Erevanskij Fizicheskij Inst., Erevan (Armenia); Greub, C. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Pecjak, B.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The inclusive decay anti B {yields} X{sub u}l anti {nu} is of much interest because of its potential to constrain the CKM element vertical stroke V{sub ub} vertical stroke. Experimental cuts required to suppress charm background restrict measurements of this decay to the shape-function region, where the hadronic final state carries a large energy but only a moderate invariant mass. In this kinematic region, the differential decay distributions satisfy a factorization formula of the form H.J x S, where S is the non-perturbative shape function, and the object H.J is a perturbatively calculable hard-scattering kernel. In this paper we present the calculation of the hard function H at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbation theory. Combined with the known NNLO result for the jet function J, this completes the perturbative part of the NNLO calculation for this process. (orig.)

  11. Helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yun; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Li, Ying; Kong, Huimin; Lemieux, Bertrand

    2013-10-11

    Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) is a novel method for the isothermal in vitro amplification of nucleic acids. The HDA reaction selectively amplifies a target sequence by extension of two oligonucleotide primers. Unlike the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HDA uses a helicase enzyme to separate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands, rather than heat denaturation. This allows DNA amplification without the need for thermal cycling. The helicase used in HDA is a helicase super family II protein obtained from a thermophilic organism, Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis (TteUvrD). This thermostable helicase is capable of unwinding blunt-end nucleic acid substrates at elevated temperatures (60° to 65°C). The HDA reaction can also be coupled with reverse transcription for ribonucleic acid (RNA) amplification. The products of this reaction can be detected during the reaction using fluorescent probes when incubations are conducted in a fluorimeter. Alternatively, products can be detected after amplification using a disposable amplicon containment device that contains an embedded lateral flow strip. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  12. Resource Allocation and Interference Management for D2D-Enabled DL/UL Decoupled Het-Nets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir

    2017-10-06

    In this paper, resource allocation and interference mitigation are investigated for heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where the lowest tier consists of device-to-device (D2D) cells. In order to alleviate dead-zone problem, we first consider downlink/ uplink (DL/UL) decoupling (DUDe) user association and quantify its capability on interference management and networkwide D2D performance enhancement. Secondly, we propose an UL fractional frequency reuse (FFR) scheme where subband (SB) bandwidths are adaptively determined based on: i) user equipment (UE) density, ii) e-node-B (eNB) density, and iii) ON/OFF switching frequency of smallcells. Obtained results show that the adaptive method significantly reduces the number of outage users. Thereafter, a novel concatenated bi-partite matching (CBM) method is proposed for joint SB assignment (SA) and resource block allocation (RA) of cellular UEs (CUEs). Numerical results show that the CBM provides a close performance to exhaustive solution with greatly reduced running time. The CBM is then extended to a centralized mode selection, SA, and RA for D2D cells. Alternatively, we develop offline and online semidistributed approaches where a D2D-cell can reuse white-list RBs (WRBs), which are not occupied by the adjacent smallcells. In the former, D2D-cell members are not aware of intra-cell and inter-cell interference and uniformly distribute their maximum permissible power to WRBs. In the latter, we put D2D sumrate maximization into a convex form by exploiting the proximity gain of D2D UEs (DUEs). Online distributed solution is then developed by message passing of dual variables and consistency prices. Finally, virtues and drawbacks of the developed approaches are compared and explained.

  13. Resource Allocation and Interference Management for D2D-Enabled DL/UL Decoupled Het-Nets

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Abdulkadir; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Al-Qahtani, Fawaz S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, resource allocation and interference mitigation are investigated for heterogeneous networks (HetNets) where the lowest tier consists of device-to-device (D2D) cells. In order to alleviate dead-zone problem, we first consider downlink/ uplink (DL/UL) decoupling (DUDe) user association and quantify its capability on interference management and networkwide D2D performance enhancement. Secondly, we propose an UL fractional frequency reuse (FFR) scheme where subband (SB) bandwidths are adaptively determined based on: i) user equipment (UE) density, ii) e-node-B (eNB) density, and iii) ON/OFF switching frequency of smallcells. Obtained results show that the adaptive method significantly reduces the number of outage users. Thereafter, a novel concatenated bi-partite matching (CBM) method is proposed for joint SB assignment (SA) and resource block allocation (RA) of cellular UEs (CUEs). Numerical results show that the CBM provides a close performance to exhaustive solution with greatly reduced running time. The CBM is then extended to a centralized mode selection, SA, and RA for D2D cells. Alternatively, we develop offline and online semidistributed approaches where a D2D-cell can reuse white-list RBs (WRBs), which are not occupied by the adjacent smallcells. In the former, D2D-cell members are not aware of intra-cell and inter-cell interference and uniformly distribute their maximum permissible power to WRBs. In the latter, we put D2D sumrate maximization into a convex form by exploiting the proximity gain of D2D UEs (DUEs). Online distributed solution is then developed by message passing of dual variables and consistency prices. Finally, virtues and drawbacks of the developed approaches are compared and explained.

  14. ESTIMATION OF AMPLIFICATION FACTOR IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Yuriy Pavlovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors are the developers of Odyssey Software (Eurosoft Co. for the analysis of seismological data and computing of seismic loads and their parameters. While communicating with the users of the software, the authors have revealed some uncertainty about both understanding of the term "amplification factor (AF" and calculation of the amplification factor using various methods. In this article, a simple example shows that the determination of the amplification factor as the ratio of the acceleration’s spectrum to the maximal acceleration is derived from the classical definition of AF in the form of the ratio of maximal dynamic displacement to the displacement by the action of static load. Deterministic and probabilistic ap-proaches for the calculating of the AF were discussed. There was an example of AFs calculation and their envelopes for translational and rotational components of seismic impact by using Odyssey Software.

  15. Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

    2014-07-03

    We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ≈ xylitol ≈ meso-erythritol alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration.

  16. Lidar using the backscatter amplification effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razenkov, Igor A.; Banakh, Victor A.

    2018-04-01

    Experimental data proving the possibility of lidar measurement of the refractive turbulence strength based on the effect of backscatter amplification (BSA) are reported. It is shown that the values of the amplification factor correlate with the variance of random jitter of optical image of an incoherent light source depending on the value of the structure constant of the air refractive index turbulent fluctuations averaged over the probing path. This paper presents the results of measurements of the BSA factor in comparison with the simultaneous measurements of the BSA peak, which is very narrow and only occurs on the laser beam axis. It is constructed the range-time images of the derivative of the amplification factor gives a comprehensive picture of the location of turbulent zones and their temporal dynamics.

  17. Identification of a Genetic Variation in ERAP1 Aminopeptidase that Prevents Human Cytomegalovirus miR-UL112-5p-Mediated Immunoevasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Romania

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we demonstrate that HCMV miR-UL112-5p targets ERAP1, thereby inhibiting the processing and presentation of the HCMV pp65495-503 peptide to specific CTLs. In addition, we show that the rs17481334 G variant, naturally occurring in the ERAP1 3′ UTR, preserves ERAP1 from miR-UL112-5p-mediated degradation. Specifically, HCMV miR-UL112-5p binds the 3′ UTR of ERAP1 A variant, but not the 3′ UTR of ERAP1 G variant, and, accordingly, ERAP1 expression is reduced both at RNA and protein levels only in human fibroblasts homozygous for the A variant. Consistently, HCMV-infected GG fibroblasts were more efficient in trimming viral antigens and being lysed by HCMV-peptide-specific CTLs. Notably, a significantly decreased HCMV seropositivity was detected among GG individuals suffering from multiple sclerosis, a disease model in which HCMV is negatively associated with adult-onset disorder. Overall, our results identify a resistance mechanism to HCMV miR-UL112-5p-based immune evasion strategy with potential implications for individual susceptibility to infection and other diseases.

  18. Down-regulation of MHC class I by the Marek's disease virus (MDV) UL49.5 gene product mildly affects virulence in a haplotype-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosinski, Keith W; Hunt, Henry D; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-09-30

    Marek's disease is a devastating neoplastic disease of chickens caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV). MDV down-regulates surface expression of MHC class I molecules, although the mechanism has remained elusive. MDV harbors a UL49.5 homolog that has been shown to down-regulate MHC class I expression in other Varicelloviruses. Using in vitro assays, we showed that MDV pUL49.5 down-regulates MHC class I directly and identified its cytoplasmic tail as essential for this function. In vivo, viruses lacking the cytoplasmic tail of pUL49.5 showed no differences in MD pathogenesis compared to revertant viruses in highly susceptible chickens of the B(19)B(19) MHC class I haplotype, while there was a mild reduction in pathogenic potential of the deletion viruses in chickens more resistant to MD pathogenesis (MHC:B(21)B(21)). We concluded that the pathogenic effect of MHC class I down-regulation mediated by pUL49.5 is small because virus immune evasion possibly requires more than one viral protein. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amplification in Technical Manuals: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines how amplification (rhetorical techniques by which discourse is extended to enhance its appeal and information value) tends to increase and improve the coverage, rationale, warnings, behavioral alternatives, examples, previews, and general emphasis of technical manuals. Shows how classical and modern rhetorical theories can be applied to…

  20. Intelligence amplification framework for enhancing scheduling processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrkovic, Andrej; Liu, Luyao; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2016-01-01

    The scheduling process in a typical business environment consists of predominantly repetitive tasks that have to be completed in limited time and often containing some form of uncertainty. The intelligence amplification is a symbiotic relationship between a human and an intelligent agent. This

  1. Social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Brown, H.S.; Emel, J.; Goble, R.; Kasperson, J.X.; Ratick, S.

    1988-01-01

    One of the most perplexing problems in risk analysis is why some relatively minor risks or risk events, as assessed by technical experts, often elicit strong public concerns and result in substantial impacts upon society and economy. This article sets forth a conceptual framework that seeks to link systematically the technical assessment of risk with psychological, sociological, and cultural perspectives of risk perception and risk-related behavior. The main thesis is that hazards interact with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural processes in ways that may amplify or attenuate public responses to the risk or risk event. A structural description of the social amplification of risk is now possible. Amplification occurs at two stages: in the transfer of information about the risk, and in the response mechanisms of society. Signals about risk are processed by individual and social amplification stations, including the scientist who communicates the risk assessment, the news media, cultural groups, interpersonal networks, and others. Key steps of amplifications can be identified at each stage. The amplified risk leads to behavioral responses, which, in turn, result in secondary impacts. Models are presented that portray the elements and linkages in the proposed conceptual framework

  2. Comparison of the Soil Dynamic Amplification Factor and Soil Amplification by Using Microtremor and MASW Methods Respectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Aykut; Cevdet Özdag, Özkan; Pamuk, Eren; Akgün, Mustafa

    2017-12-01

    Single Station Microtremor method, which is widely used nowadays, is an effective and easy applicable method. In this study, dynamic amplification factor distributions of the study area were obtained using scenario earthquake parameters with single station microtremor data gathered at 112 points. In addition, a surface wave active method, which is known as MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves), was applied at 43 profiles to calculate the soil amplification values. Dynamic amplification factor (DAF), soil amplification, the predominant soil period (PSP), geology and topography data of the study area were analysed together. Dynamic amplification factor and soil amplification values were obtained 2 or higher at about sea level parts of the study area which are generally composed of alluvial units. Additionally, in high altitude regions that are composed of volcanic rocks, relatively lower dynamic amplification factor and soil amplification values were obtained. The minimum amplification value in the study area was 1.15, while the maximum amplification value was 3.05 according to the dynamic amplification results and the soil amplification values were between 1.16 and 3.85 in harmony. It is seen that the obtained DAF values and the soil amplification values calculated from the seismic velocities are very similar to each other numerically and regionally. Because of this, it is concluded that the values of the soil amplification obtained by the MASW method and the calculated DAF values in this study are in harmony with each other. Although the depths of research in these two calculation methods are different from each other, the similarity of the results allows us to arrive at the result of how effective the ground layer is on the amplification. It has a great importance to calculate the amplification values and other dynamic parameters by in situ measurements for a planned plot because geological units can vary even at very short distances in heterogeneously

  3. Standard model Wilson coefficients for c → ul{sup +}l{sup -} transitions at next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Stefan de [TU Dortmund (Germany); Mueller, Bastian; Seidel, Dirk [Uni Siegen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The standard theoretical framework to deal with exclusive, weak decays of heavy mesons is the so-called weak effective Hamiltonian. It involves the short-distance Wilson coefficients, which depend on the renormalization scale μ. For specific calculations one has to evolve the Wilson coefficients down from the electroweak scale μ{sub W} to the typical mass scale of the decay under consideration. This is done by solving a renormalization group equation for the effective operator basis. In this talk the results of a consistent two-step running of the c → ul{sup +}l{sup -} Wilson coefficients are presented. This running involves the intermediate scale μ{sub b} (with μ{sub W} > μ{sub b} > μ{sub c}) where the bottom quark is integrated out. All the matching coefficients and anomalous dimensions are taken to the required order by generalizing and extending results from b → s or s → d transitions available in the literature.

  4. Pendidikan Hati Perspektif al-Ghazālī dalam Kitab Ihya’ Ulūm al-Dīn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hasyim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Al-Ghazālī in Sufism has had big influenced of his thought in the world. He was Syafi’i follower in fiqih law and Asy’ariyah in theology, when he was in Baghdad he hung out with many mazhabs. Ihya’ Ulūm al-Dīn is outlined with sharp thought method. The discussion is divided to systematic parts. It combined outward and inner fiqh, in explaining the difficult terms, this book uses tamstil. Al Ghazali has written heart diseases and its medicine. It also inserted many advantage stories as refreshing phase. Heart education is the soul controlling process. This soul consequently is able to encourage the physical activity in daily life appropriate with syari’ah of Allah through riyadhoh, fasting, praying or other worships. It also makes person becomes obidient people from birth to death, through many education and teaching and learning gradually, in which the learning peocess is parents and society responsibility toward a pious (shalih person. The purpose of psychology according to Ghazali is forming pious or shalih people.

  5. RNA amplification for successful gene profiling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study of clinical samples is often limited by the amount of material available to study. While proteins cannot be multiplied in their natural form, DNA and RNA can be amplified from small specimens and used for high-throughput analyses. Therefore, genetic studies offer the best opportunity to screen for novel insights of human pathology when little material is available. Precise estimates of DNA copy numbers in a given specimen are necessary. However, most studies investigate static variables such as the genetic background of patients or mutations within pathological specimens without a need to assess proportionality of expression among different genes throughout the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization of DNA samples represents a crude exception to this rule since genomic amplification or deletion is compared among different specimens directly. For gene expression analysis, however, it is critical to accurately estimate the proportional expression of distinct RNA transcripts since such proportions directly govern cell function by modulating protein expression. Furthermore, comparative estimates of relative RNA expression at different time points portray the response of cells to environmental stimuli, indirectly informing about broader biological events affecting a particular tissue in physiological or pathological conditions. This cognitive reaction of cells is similar to the detection of electroencephalographic patterns which inform about the status of the brain in response to external stimuli. As our need to understand human pathophysiology at the global level increases, the development and refinement of technologies for high fidelity messenger RNA amplification have become the focus of increasing interest during the past decade. The need to increase the abundance of RNA has been met not only for gene specific amplification, but, most importantly for global transcriptome wide, unbiased amplification. Now gene

  6. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coelho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Microfluidics (DMF has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  7. Light amplification by seeded Kerr instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampa, G.; Hammond, T. J.; Nesrallah, M.; Naumov, A. Yu.; Corkum, P. B.; Brabec, T.

    2018-02-01

    Amplification of femtosecond laser pulses typically requires a lasing medium or a nonlinear crystal. In either case, the chemical properties of the lasing medium or the momentum conservation in the nonlinear crystal constrain the frequency and the bandwidth of the amplified pulses. We demonstrate high gain amplification (greater than 1000) of widely tunable (0.5 to 2.2 micrometers) and short (less than 60 femtosecond) laser pulses, up to intensities of 1 terawatt per square centimeter, by seeding the modulation instability in an Y3Al5O12 crystal pumped by femtosecond near-infrared pulses. Our method avoids constraints related to doping and phase matching and therefore can occur in a wider pool of glasses and crystals even at far-infrared frequencies and for single-cycle pulses. Such amplified pulses are ideal to study strong-field processes in solids and highly excited states in gases.

  8. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  9. Hormonal Involvement in Breast Cancer Gene Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    been shown to induce DN A amplification in yeast (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2001; Nguy en et al., 2001; Green et al., 2006) an d increased Cdt1 results in...re-replication in human cells (Dorn et al., 2008). The N- terminus of Cdt1 is important for re-replication, perhaps through interactions with PCNA...evolution of a cancer genome. Genome Res. (Epub. Dec. 3, 2008). Harris TD, Buzby PR, Babcock H, Beer E, Bowers J, Bras lavsky I, Causey M

  10. Fast amplification system for gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, E.F.O.; Lopes, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    An amplification system for gamma spectroscopy with high counting rates was developed. The system was constructed with operational amplifiers, and tested and compared with ORTEC conventional system, using Iridium-192 as source of 9,25 x 10 1 0 Bq of activity and NaI (Tl) detector. The constructed system showed a better performance in relation to efficiency and resolution parameters, tested before. (C.G.C.)

  11. Optimized thermal amplification in a radiative transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prod' homme, Hugo; Ordonez-Miranda, Jose; Ezzahri, Younes, E-mail: younes.ezzahri@univ-poitiers.fr; Drevillon, Jeremie; Joulain, Karl [Institut Pprime, CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ISAE-ENSMA, F-86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil (France)

    2016-05-21

    The thermal performance of a far-field radiative transistor made up of a VO{sub 2} base in between a blackbody collector and a blackbody emitter is theoretically studied and optimized. This is done by using the grey approximation on the emissivity of VO{sub 2} and deriving analytical expressions for the involved heat fluxes and transistor amplification factor. It is shown that this amplification factor can be maximized by tuning the base temperature close to its critical one, which is determined by the temperature derivative of the VO{sub 2} emissivity and the equilibrium temperatures of the collector and emitter. This maximization is the result of the presence of two bi-stable temperatures appearing during the heating and cooling processes of the VO{sub 2} base and enables a thermal switching (temperature jump) characterized by a sizeable variation of the collector-to-base and base-to-emitter heat fluxes associated with a slight change of the applied power to the base. This switching effect leads to the optimization of the amplification factor and therefore it could be used for thermal modulation purposes.

  12. HER-2 amplification in tubular carcinoma of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Gerard J; Tubbs, Raymond R; Crowe, Joseph; Sebek, Bruce; Budd, G Thomas; Patrick, Rebecca J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    The prognostic and therapeutic implications of HER-2 gene amplification and estrogen and progesterone receptor status in breast cancer are well described. To address the relative paucity of information concerning HER-2 amplification for tubular carcinomas, we assessed the frequency of gene amplification in 55 tubular carcinomas of the breast from 54 patients, 5 of which had axillary node metastases. The HER-2 gene copy number was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the majority of tumors analyzed, whereas estrogen and progesterone receptor status was achieved by immunohistochemical analysis. HER-2 gene amplification was not observed in any of the tumors examined, and most were estrogen receptor-positive. This HER-2 gene amplification frequency was significantly lower than the frequency of gene amplification previously reported for all invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (P < .01). HER-2 gene amplification likely occurs infrequently, or not at all, in tubular carcinomas of the breast, whereas most express estrogen receptors.

  13. A large ungated TPC with GEM amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M.; Ball, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Ketzer, B.; Arora, R.; Beck, R.; Böhmer, F. V.; Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Dørheim, S.; García, F.; Hehner, J.; Herrmann, N.; Höppner, C.; Kaiser, D.; Kis̆, M.; Kleipa, V.; Konorov, I.; Kunkel, J.; Kurz, N.; Leifels, Y.; Müllner, P.; Münzer, R.; Neubert, S.; Rauch, J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitz, R.; Soyk, D.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Voss, B.; Walther, D.; Zmeskal, J.

    2017-10-01

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is an ideal device for the detection of charged particle tracks in a large volume covering a solid angle of almost 4 π. The high density of hits on a given particle track facilitates the task of pattern recognition in a high-occupancy environment and in addition provides particle identification by measuring the specific energy loss for each track. For these reasons, TPCs with Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) amplification have been and are widely used in experiments recording heavy-ion collisions. A significant drawback, however, is the large dead time of the order of 1 ms per event generated by the use of a gating grid, which is mandatory to prevent ions created in the amplification region from drifting back into the drift volume, where they would severely distort the drift path of subsequent tracks. For experiments with higher event rates this concept of a conventional TPC operating with a triggered gating grid can therefore not be applied without a significant loss of data. A continuous readout of the signals is the more appropriate way of operation. This, however, constitutes a change of paradigm with considerable challenges to be met concerning the amplification region, the design and bandwidth of the readout electronics, and the data handling. A mandatory prerequisite for such an operation is a sufficiently good suppression of the ion backflow from the avalanche region, which otherwise limits the tracking and particle identification capabilities of such a detector. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a promising candidate to combine excellent spatial resolution with an intrinsic suppression of ions. In this paper we describe the design, construction and the commissioning of a large TPC with GEM amplification and without gating grid (GEM-TPC). The design requirements have driven innovations in the construction of a light-weight field-cage, a supporting media flange, the GEM amplification and the readout system, which are

  14. Venture from the Interior-Herpesvirus pUL31 Escorts Capsids from Nucleoplasmic Replication Compartments to Sites of Primary Envelopment at the Inner Nuclear Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Susanne M.

    2017-11-25

    Herpesviral capsid assembly is initiated in the nucleoplasm of the infected cell. Size constraints require that newly formed viral nucleocapsids leave the nucleus by an evolutionarily conserved vescular transport mechanism called nuclear egress. Mature capsids released from the nucleoplasm are engaged in a membrane-mediated budding process, composed of primary envelopment at the inner nuclear membrane and de-envelopment at the outer nuclear membrane. Once in the cytoplasm, the capsids receive their secondary envelope for maturation into infectious virions. Two viral proteins conserved throughout the herpesvirus family, the integral membrane protein pUL34 and the phosphoprotein pUL31, form the nuclear egress complex required for capsid transport from the infected nucleus to the cytoplasm. Formation of the nuclear egress complex results in budding of membrane vesicles revealing its function as minimal virus-encoded membrane budding and scission machinery. The recent structural analysis unraveled details of the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex and the hexagonal coat it forms at the inside of budding vesicles to drive primary envelopment. With this review, I would like to present the capsid-escort-model where pUL31 associates with capsids in nucleoplasmic replication compartments for escort to sites of primary envelopment thereby coupling capsid maturation and nuclear egress.

  15. Preface: The Oligotrophy to the UlTra-oligotrophy PACific Experiment (OUTPACE cruise, 18 February to 3 April 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutin, Thierry; Michelangelo Doglioli, Andrea; de Verneil, Alain; Bonnet, Sophie

    2017-07-01

    The overall goal of OUTPACE (Oligotrophy to UlTra-oligotrophy PACific Experiment) was to obtain a successful representation of the interactions between planktonic organisms and the cycle of biogenic elements in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean across trophic and N2 fixation gradients. Within the context of climate change, it is necessary to better quantify the ability of the oligotrophic ocean to sequester carbon through biological processes. OUTPACE was organized around three main objectives, which were (1) to perform a zonal characterization of the biogeochemistry and biological diversity of the western tropical South Pacific during austral summer conditions, (2) to study the production and fate of organic matter (including carbon export) in three contrasting trophic regimes (increasing oligotrophy) with a particular emphasis on the role of dinitrogen fixation, and (3) to obtain a representation of the main biogeochemical fluxes and dynamics of the planktonic trophic network. The international OUTPACE cruise took place between 18 February and 3 April 2015 aboard the RV L'Atalante and involved 60 scientists (30 onboard). The west-east transect covered ˜ 4000 km from the western part of the Melanesian archipelago (New Caledonia) to the western boundary of the South Pacific gyre (French Polynesia). Following an adaptive strategy, the transect initially designed along the 19° S parallel was adapted along-route to incorporate information coming from satellite measurements of sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, currents, and diazotroph quantification. After providing a general context and describing previous work done in this area, this introductory paper elucidates the objectives of OUTPACE, the implementation plan of the cruise and water mass and climatological characteristics and concludes with a general overview of the other papers that will be published in this special issue.

  16. Natural levels of {sup 2}10Po in human urine; Niveles naturales de {sup 2}10Po en orina humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J.; Manjon, G.

    2013-07-01

    The daily activity of {sup 2}10Po concentrations in the urine of a volunteer for a month analyzed studies show a high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between the maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the type of diet followed in the various phases of the experiment. (Author)

  17. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.

  18. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease.

  19. 46 CFR 2.10-105 - Prepayment of annual vessel inspection fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prepayment of annual vessel inspection fees. 2.10-105... VESSEL INSPECTIONS Fees § 2.10-105 Prepayment of annual vessel inspection fees. (a) Vessel owners may prepay the annual vessel inspection fee for any period of not less than three years, and not more than...

  20. 46 CFR 2.10-120 - Overseas inspection and examination fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overseas inspection and examination fees. 2.10-120... VESSEL INSPECTIONS Fees § 2.10-120 Overseas inspection and examination fees. (a) In addition to any other fee required by this subpart, an overseas inspection and examination fee of $4,585 must be paid for...

  1. UL145/ORF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SEARCHU

    559. Two-component. Sub classification and targeted characterization of prophage- ... 921. Anand Chaitali. Presence of two types of flowers with respect to nectar sugar in ... Incorporating evolution of transcription factor binding sites into annotated ... Specific and unspecific responses of plants to cold and drought stress. 501.

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Mutant with Point Mutations in UL39 Is Impaired for Acute Viral Replication in Mice, Establishment of Latency, and Explant-Induced Reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Heba H; Thompson, Thornton W; Konen, Adam J; Haenchen, Steve D; Hilliard, Joshua G; Macdonald, Stuart J; Morrison, Lynda A; Davido, David J

    2018-04-01

    In the process of generating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) mutations in the viral regulatory gene encoding infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), we isolated a viral mutant, termed KOS-NA, that was severely impaired for acute replication in the eyes and trigeminal ganglia (TG) of mice, defective in establishing a latent infection, and reactivated poorly from explanted TG. To identify the secondary mutation(s) responsible for the impaired phenotypes of this mutant, we sequenced the KOS-NA genome and noted that it contained two nonsynonymous mutations in UL39 , which encodes the large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, ICP6. These mutations resulted in lysine-to-proline (residue 393) and arginine-to-histidine (residue 950) substitutions in ICP6. To determine whether alteration of these amino acids was responsible for the KOS-NA phenotypes in vivo , we recombined the wild-type UL39 gene into the KOS-NA genome and rescued its acute replication phenotypes in mice. To further establish the role of UL39 in KOS-NA's decreased pathogenicity, the UL39 mutations were recombined into HSV-1 (generating UL39 mut ), and this mutant virus showed reduced ocular and TG replication in mice comparable to that of KOS-NA. Interestingly, ICP6 protein levels were reduced in KOS-NA-infected cells relative to the wild-type protein. Moreover, we observed that KOS-NA does not counteract caspase 8-induced apoptosis, unlike wild-type strain KOS. Based on alignment studies with other HSV-1 ICP6 homologs, our data suggest that amino acid 950 of ICP6 likely plays an important role in ICP6 accumulation and inhibition of apoptosis, consequently impairing HSV-1 pathogenesis in a mouse model of HSV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HSV-1 is a major human pathogen that infects ∼80% of the human population and can be life threatening to infected neonates or immunocompromised individuals. Effective therapies for treatment of recurrent HSV-1 infections are limited, which emphasizes a critical need to understand in

  3. Social amplification of risk: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.; Slovic, P.; Kasperson, R.; Kasperson, J.; Renn, O.; Emani, S.

    1990-09-01

    The social amplification of risk is a theoretical framework that addresses an important deficiency of formal risk assessment methods and procedures. Typically assessments of risk from technological mishaps have been based upon the expected number of people who could be killed or injured or the amount of property that might be damaged. The diverse and consequential impacts that followed in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident make it clear that risk assessments that exclude the role of public perceptions of risk will greatly underestimate the potential costs of certain types of hazards. The accident at Three Mile Island produced no direct fatalities and few, if any, expected deaths due to cancer, yet few other accidents in history have had such costly societal impacts. The experience of amplified impacts argues for the development of a broadened theoretical and methodological perspective capable of integrating technical assessment of risk with public perceptions. This report presents the results to date in an ongoing research effort to better understand the complex processes by which adverse events produce impacts. In particular this research attempts to construct a framework that can account for those events that have produced, or are capable of producing, greater societal impacts than would be forecast by traditional risk assessment methods. This study demonstrates that the social amplification of risk involves interactions between sophisticated technological hazards, public and private institutions, and subtle individual and public perceptions and behaviors. These factors, and the variables underlying the intricate processes of social amplification that occur in modern society, are not fully defined and clarified in this report. 19 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  4. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jeannine

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  5. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  6. Amplification of curvature perturbations in cyclic cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Liu Zhiguo; Piao Yunsong

    2010-01-01

    We analytically and numerically show that through the cycles with nonsingular bounce, the amplitude of curvature perturbation on a large scale will be amplified and the power spectrum will redden. In some sense, this amplification will eventually destroy the homogeneity of the background, which will lead to the ultimate end of cycles of the global universe. We argue that for the model with increasing cycles, it might be possible that a fissiparous multiverse will emerge after one or several cycles, in which the cycles will continue only at corresponding local regions.

  7. Parametric Amplification of Gravitational Fluctuations during Reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, F.; Brandenberger, R.; Finelli, F.

    1999-01-01

    Cosmological perturbations can undergo amplification by parametric resonance during preheating even on scales larger than the Hubble radius, without violating causality. A unified description of gravitational and matter fluctuations is crucial to determine the strength of the instability. To extract specific signatures of the oscillating inflaton field during reheating, it is essential to focus on a variable describing metric fluctuations which is constant in the standard analyses of inflation. For a massive inflaton without self-coupling, we find no additional growth of superhorizon modes during reheating beyond the usual predictions. For a massless self-coupled inflaton, there is a sub-Hubble scale resonance. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  8. An aptasensor for staphylococcus aureus based on nicking enzyme amplification reaction and rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingguo; Guo, Jia; Maina, Sarah Wanjiku; Yang, Yumeng; Hu, Yimin; Li, Xuanxuan; Qiu, Jiarong; Xin, Zhihong

    2018-05-15

    An ultra-sensitive aptamer-based biosensor for the detection of staphylococcus aureus was established by adopting the nicking enzyme amplification reaction (NEAR) and the rolling circle amplification (RCA) technologies. Aptamer-probe (AP), containing an aptamer and a probe sequence, was developed to act as the recognition unit of the biosensor, which was specifically bound to S. aureus. The probe was released from AP and initiated into the subsequent DNA amplification reactions where S. aureus was present, converting the detection of S. aureus to the investigation of probe oligonucleotide. The RCA amplification products contained a G-quadruplex motif and formed a three dimensional structure in presence of hemin. The G4/hemin complex showed horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimic activity and catalyzed the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol mediated by H 2 O 2 . The results showed that the established biosensor could detect S. aureus specifically with a good linear correlation at 5-10 4  CFU/mL. The signal values based on NEAR-RCA two-step cycle were boosted acutely, much higher than that relied on one-cycle magnification. The limit of detection (LoD) was determined to be as low as 5 CFU/mL. The established aptasensor exhibited a good discrimination of living against dead S. aureus, and can be applied to detect S. aureus in the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comerţul intraindustrial cu produse agroalimentare in Republica Moldova: aspecte şi tendinţe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CIMPOIEŞ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the agri-food trade of Moldova from different aspects of intra-industry trade. The aim is to estimate the trend and extent of intra-industry trade in agri-food products of Moldova. The time series from 2001-2015 are examined. According to the obtained results, the level of intra-industry trade in agricultural and food products for Moldova is quite high (78%, fact which indicates a decline of trade relationships with EU countries and an increase with CIS countries. For most commodity groups the values of Grubel Lloyd index present a high average variability over time, fact which reflects the structural changes in Moldova’s agri-food trade. The values of A indices are very low and indicate that most of changes in trade flows had been inter-industrial in nature and probably generated high adjustment costs. The switching results of the B index of marginal intra-industry trade indicate that Moldova’s position on these markets considerably improved and strengthened. Rezumat. În lucrarea dată se analizează fluxurile comerciale cu produse agroalimentare din Republica Moldova sub diferite aspecte ale comerţului intraindustrial. Scopul lucrării este de a estima tendinţa şi dimensiunea comerţului intraindustrial cu produse agroalimentare din Republica Moldova. Perioada analizată include datele din anii 2001-2015. Conform rezultatelor obţinute, nivelul comerţului intraindustrial cu produse agroalimentare pentru Republica Moldova este destul de înalt (78%, şi indică asupra unei diminuări în relaţiile comerciale cu ţările Uniunii Europene (UE şi o majorare în ceea ce priveşte ţările din Comunitatea Statelor Independente (CSI. Pentru majoritatea grupelor de mărfuri indicele Grubel Lloyd prezintă o variabilitate medie înaltă pe parcursul perioadei analizate, ceea ce reflectă schimbările structurale ce au avut loc în comerţul agroalimentar al Republicii Moldova. Indicele A prezintă valori joase, ceea ce

  10. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  11. Earthquake acceleration amplification based on single microtremor test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Syahbana, Arifan; Kurniawan, Rahmat; Soebowo, Eko

    2018-02-01

    Understanding soil dynamics is needed to understand soil behaviour, including the parameters of earthquake acceleration amplification. Many researchers now conduct single microtremor tests to obtain amplification of velocity and natural periods of soil at test sites. However, these amplification parameters are rarely used, so a method is needed to convert the velocity amplification to acceleration amplification. This paper will discuss the proposed process of changing the value of amplification. The proposed method is to integrate the time histories of the synthetic earthquake acceleration of the soil surface under the deaggregation at that location so the time histories of the velocity earthquake will be obtained. Next is to conduct a “fitting curve” between amplification by a single microtremor test with amplification of the synthetic earthquake velocity time histories. After obtaining the fitting curve time histories of velocity, differentiation will be conducted to obtain fitting curve acceleration time histories. The final step after obtaining the fitting curve is to compare the acceleration of the “fitting curve” against the histories time of the acceleration of synthetic earthquake at bedrocks to obtain single microtremor acceleration amplification factor.

  12. Quantum tomography enhanced through parametric amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, E.; Spasibko, K. Yu; Chekhova, M. V.; Khalili, F. Ya

    2018-01-01

    Quantum tomography is the standard method of reconstructing the Wigner function of quantum states of light by means of balanced homodyne detection. The reconstruction quality strongly depends on the photodetectors quantum efficiency and other losses in the measurement setup. In this article we analyze in detail a protocol of enhanced quantum tomography, proposed by Leonhardt and Paul [1] which allows one to reduce the degrading effect of detection losses. It is based on phase-sensitive parametric amplification, with the phase of the amplified quadrature being scanned synchronously with the local oscillator phase. Although with sufficiently strong amplification the protocol enables overcoming any detection inefficiency, it was so far not implemented in the experiment, probably due to the losses in the amplifier. Here we discuss a possible proof-of-principle experiment with a traveling-wave parametric amplifier. We show that with the state-of-the-art optical elements, the protocol enables high fidelity tomographic reconstruction of bright non-classical states of light. We consider two examples: bright squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon state, with the latter being a non-Gaussian state and both strongly affected by the losses.

  13. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  14. The rolling circle amplification and next generation sequencing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rolling circle amplification is a simple approach of enriching populations of single-stranded DNA plant begomovirus genomes (genus, Begomovirus; family, Geminiviridae). This is an innovative approach that utilizes the robustness of the bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase used in circle amplification, together with deep ...

  15. Amplification of Chirality in Hydrogen-Bonded Tetrarosette Helices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos timoneda, Miguel; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2006-01-01

    The amplification of chirality in hydrogen-bonded tetrarosette assemblies under thermodynamic equilibrium is described. The extent of the chiral amplification obtained by means of “sergeants-and-soldiers” experiments depends only on the structure of the assembly and it is independent of the

  16. Centrosome Amplification Is Sufficient to Promote Spontaneous Tumorigenesis in Mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levine, Michelle S.; Bakker, Bjorn; Boeckx, Bram; Moyett, Julia; Lu, James; Vitre, Benjamin; Spierings, Diana C.; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Cleveland, Don W.; Lambrechts, Diether; Foijer, Floris; Holland, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Centrosome amplification is a common feature of human tumors, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of cancer remains unclear. Here, we test the consequence of centrosome amplification by creating mice in which centrosome number can be chronically increased in the absence of additional

  17. Explanatory Model for Sound Amplification in a Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with…

  18. An enzymatic signal amplification system for calorimetric studies of cellobiohydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Leigh; Baumann, Martin Johannes; Borch, Kim

    2010-01-01

    amplification method has been developed to measure even slow hydrolytically active enzymes such as cellobiohydrolases. This method is explained in detail for the amplification of the heat signal by more than 130 times by using glucose oxidase and catalase. The kinetics of this complex coupled reaction system...

  19. Chirped pulse amplification: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maine, P.; Strickland, D.; Pessot, M.; Squier, J.; Bado, P.; Mourou, G.; Harter, D.

    1988-01-01

    Short pulses with ultrahigh peak powers have been generated in Nd: glass and Alexandrite using the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. This technique has been successful in producing picosecond terawatt pulses with a table-top laser system. In the near future, CPA will be applied to large laser systems such as NOVA to produce petawatt pulses (1 kJ in a 1 ps pulse) with focused intensities exceeding 10/sup /plus/21/ W/cm 2 . These pulses will be associated with electric fields in excess of 100 e/a/sub o/ 2 and blackbody energy densities equivalent to 3 /times/ 10 10 J/cm 3 . This petawatt source will have important applications in x-ray laser research and will lead to fundamentally new experiments in atomic, nuclear, solid-state, plasma, and high-energy density physics. A review of present and future designs are discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs

  20. Raman amplification in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Fiber Raman amplifiers are investigated with the purpose of identifying new applications and limitations for their use in optical communication systems. Three main topics are investigated, namely: New applications of dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers, the use Raman amplification to increase...... fiberbaserede Raman-forstærkere med henblik på at identificere både deres begrænsninger og nye anvendelsesmuligheder i optiske kommunikationssystemer. En numerisk forstærkermodel er blevet udviklet for bedre at forstå forstærkerens dynamik, dens gain- og støjbegrænsninger. Modellen bruges til at forudsige...... forstærkerens statiske og dynamiske egenskaber, og det eftervises at dens resultater er i god overensstemmelse med eksperimentelle forstærkermålinger. Dispersions-kompenserende fiber er på grund af sin store udbredelse og fiberens høje Raman gain effektivitet et meget velegnet Raman gain-medium. Tre nye...

  1. Pain Amplification Syndrome: A Biopsychosocial Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namerow, Lisa B; Kutner, Emily C; Wakefield, Emily C; Rzepski, Barbara R; Sahl, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric neurologists frequently encounter patients who present with significant musculoskeletal pain that cannot be attributed to a specific injury or illness, which can often be defined as pain amplification syndrome (PAS). PAS in children and adolescents is the result of a heightened pain sensitivity pathway, which is intensified by significant biological, psychological, and social contributors. Appropriate assessment and multimodal intervention of PAS are crucial to treatment success, including neurology and behavioral health collaborative treatment plans to restore patient function and reduce pain perception. Pediatric neurologists are imperative in the identification of patients with PAS, providing the family assurance in diagnosis and validation of pain, and directing patients to the appropriate multidisciplinary treatment pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying-ming; Wang, Ning; Li, Lei; Jin, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) refers to a procedure for genetically analyzing embryos prior to implantation, improving the chance of conception for patients at high risk of transmitting specific inherited disorders. This method has been widely used for a large number of genetic disorders since the first successful application in the early 1990s. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) are the two main methods in PGD, but there are some inevitable shortcomings limiting the scope of genetic diagnosis. Fortunately, different whole genome amplification (WGA) techniques have been developed to overcome these problems. Sufficient DNA can be amplified and multiple tasks which need abundant DNA can be performed. Moreover, WGA products can be analyzed as a template for multi-loci and multi-gene during the subsequent DNA analysis. In this review, we will focus on the currently available WGA techniques and their applications, as well as the new technical trends from WGA products. PMID:21194180

  3. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Takeo; Suzuki, Takamasa; Mineki, Shigeru; Ohuchi, Shokichi

    2015-01-01

    Rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  4. Social and political amplification of technological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibitayo, Olurominiyi O.; Mushkatel, Alvin; Pijawka, K. David

    2004-01-01

    Using an industrial explosion in Henderson, Nevada, as a case study, this paper examines three main issues: the efficacy of a technological hazard event in amplifying otherwise latent issues, the extent to which the hazard event can serve as a focusing event for substantive local and state policy initiatives, and the effect of fragmentation of political authority in managing technological hazards. The findings indicate that the explosion amplified several public safety issues and galvanized the public into pressing for major policy initiatives. However, notwithstanding the amplification of several otherwise latent issues, and the flurry of activities by the state and local governments, the hazard event did not seem to be an effective focusing event or trigger mechanism for substantive state and local policy initiatives. In addition, the study provides evidence of the need for a stronger nexus between political authority, land-use planning and technological hazard management

  5. Resistive wall modes and error field amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    Resistive wall modes and the rapid damping of plasma rotation by the amplification of magnetic field errors are related physical phenomena that affect the performance of the advanced tokamak and spherical torus plasma confinement devices. Elements of our understanding of these phenomena and the code that is used to design the major experimental facilities are based on the electrical circuit representation of the response of the plasma to perturbations. Although the circuit representation of the plasma may seem heuristic, this representation can be rigorously obtained using Maxwell's equations and linearity for plasmas that evolve on a disparate time scale from that of external currents. These and related results are derived. In addition methods are given for finding the plasma information that the circuit representation requires using post-processors for codes that calculate perturbed plasma equilibria

  6. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov Luke amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaila, C.; Boslau, O.; Coppi, C.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Goldstraß, P.; Jagemann, T.; Jochum, J.; Kemmer, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Pahlke, A.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.; Stark, M.; Wernicke, D.; Westphal, W.

    2006-04-01

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO 4 crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO 4 crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented.

  7. Raman Amplification with a Flying Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, D.; Bucht, S.; Davies, A.; Haberberger, D.; Kessler, T.; Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new laser amplifier scheme utilizing stimulated Raman scattering in plasma in conjunction with a "flying focus"—a chromatic focusing system combined with a chirped pump beam that provides spatiotemporal control over the pump's focal spot. Pump intensity isosurfaces are made to propagate at v =-c so as to be in sync with the injected counterpropagating seed pulse. By setting the pump intensity in the interaction region to be just above the ionization threshold of the background gas, an ionization wave is produced that travels at a fixed distance ahead of the seed. Simulations show that this will make it possible to optimize the plasma temperature and mitigate many of the issues that are known to have impacted previous Raman amplification experiments, in particular, the growth of precursors.

  8. Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification of Infectious Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, or prion diseases, are a group of incurable disorders caused by the accumulation of an abnormally folded prion protein (PrP Sc ) in the brain. According to the "protein-only" hypothesis, PrP Sc is the infectious agent able to propagate the disease by acting as a template for the conversion of the correctly folded prion protein (PrP C ) into the pathological isoform. Recently, the mechanism of PrP C conversion has been mimicked in vitro using an innovative technique named protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). This technology represents a great tool for studying diverse aspects of prion biology in the field of basic research and diagnosis. Moreover, PMCA can be expanded for the study of the misfolding process associated to other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kaiser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA. The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.

  10. Markovian Dynamics of Josephson Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Waldemar; Haider, Michael; Russer, Johannes A.; Russer, Peter; Jirauschek, Christian

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we derive the dynamics of the lossy DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier (DCPJPA). The main element in a DCPJPA is the superconducting Josephson junction. The DC bias generates the AC Josephson current varying the nonlinear inductance of the junction. By this way the Josephson junction acts as the pump oscillator as well as the time varying reactance of the parametric amplifier. In quantum-limited amplification, losses and noise have an increased impact on the characteristics of an amplifier. We outline the classical model of the lossy DCPJPA and derive the available noise power spectral densities. A classical treatment is not capable of including properties like spontaneous emission which is mandatory in case of amplification at the quantum limit. Thus, we derive a quantum mechanical model of the lossy DCPJPA. Thermal losses are modeled by the quantum Langevin approach, by coupling the quantized system to a photon heat bath in thermodynamic equilibrium. The mode occupation in the bath follows the Bose-Einstein statistics. Based on the second quantization formalism, we derive the Heisenberg equations of motion of both resonator modes. We assume the dynamics of the system to follow the Markovian approximation, i.e. the system only depends on its actual state and is memory-free. We explicitly compute the time evolution of the contributions to the signal mode energy and give numeric examples based on different damping and coupling constants. Our analytic results show, that this model is capable of including thermal noise into the description of the DC pumped non-degenerate Josephson parametric amplifier.

  11. Parametric amplifications in the nonlinear transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawata, T; Sakai, J; Inoue, H [Toyama Univ., Takaoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1980-03-01

    The parametric amplification in a transmission line with nonlinear capacitors is analysed theoretically using the equations of three wave interactions. Since this line has two modes, high frequency and low frequency modes, there may occur some mode coupling phenomena through the resonant interactions. We consider three waves with wave number k sub(j) and frequency ..omega..sub(j) in resonance with each other, that is, ..omega../sub 1/ + ..omega../sub 2/ = ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 1/ + k/sub 2/ = k/sub 3/, where 0 <= ..omega../sub 1/ <= ..omega../sub 2/ <= ..omega../sub 3/ and k/sub 3/ >= 0. Such conditions are realized in our network and there exist two states: ''forward state'' (each group velocity is positive) and ''backward state'' (one of the group velocities is negative). The coupled equations of three waves has two constant pumps: high frequency (HF) pump and low frequency (LF) pump. Using linear approximations, we examine the possible types of parametric amplification and obtain the power gains depending on the frequency deviation. For only the case of HF pump we get the gain between signals with seme frequency and also get the gain from the low frequency signal to the high frequency signal (''up-conversion'') for the LF pump. The nonlinear analysis gives the exact relation between input and output signals. For the forward state the gain is absolutely suppressed by the ratio of pumping power to input power, while the gain of backward state has no finite maximum and there may appear an ''oscillating state'' if the pumping power is comparatively small.

  12. Ground amplification determined from borehole accelerograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archuleta, R.J.; Seale, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Garner Valley downhole array (GVDA) consists of one surface accelerometer and four downhole accelerometers at depths of 6 m, 15 m, 22m, and 220 m. The five, three-component vertical array of dual-gain accelerometers are capable of measuring accelerations from 3 x 10 -6 g to 2.0 g over a frequency range from 0.0 Hz (0.025, high-gain) Hz to 100 Hz. The site (33 degree 41.60' N, 116 degree 40.20 degree W) is only seven kilometers off the trace of the San Jacinto fault, the most active strand of the San Andreas fault system in southern California and only about 35 km from the San Andreas fault itself. Analysis of individual spectra and spectral ratios for the various depths shows that the zone of weathered granite has a pronounced effect on the spectral amplitudes for frequencies greater than 40 Hz. The soil layer impedance may amplify the high frequencies more than it attenuates. This result must be checked more thoroughly with special consideration of the spectra of the P-wave coda on the horizontal components. Analysis of the P-wave spectra and the spectral ratios shows an increased amplification in the same frequency range (60-90 Hz) where the S-wave spectral ratios imply a change in the attenuation. Comparison of acceleration spectra from two earthquakes, M L 4.2 and M L 2.5 that have nearly the same hypocenter, shows that the near surface amplification and attenuation is nearly the same for both earthquakes. However, the earthquakes themselves are different if we can assume that the recording at 220 m reflects the source spectra with a slight attenuation. The M L 2.5 earthquake has significantly greater high frequency content if the spectra are normalized at the low frequency, i.e., normalization by seismic moment

  13. Cascade DNA nanomachine and exponential amplification biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianguo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Weiyu; Xu, Huo; Li, Hongling; Jia, Lee

    2015-11-15

    DNA is a versatile scaffold for the assembly of multifunctional nanostructures, and potential applications of various DNA nanodevices have been recently demonstrated for disease diagnosis and treatment. In the current study, a powerful cascade DNA nanomachine was developed that can execute the exponential amplification of p53 tumor suppressor gene. During the operation of the newly-proposed DNA nanomachine, dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (dual-CNDP) was ingeniously introduced, where the target trigger is repeatedly used as the fuel molecule and the nicked fragments are dramatically accumulated. Moreover, each displaced nicked fragment is able to activate the another type of cyclical strand-displacement amplification, increasing exponentially the value of fluorescence intensity. Essentially, one target binding event can induce considerable number of subsequent reactions, and the nanodevice was called cascade DNA nanomachine. It can implement several functions, including recognition element, signaling probe, polymerization primer and template. Using the developed autonomous operation of DNA nanomachine, the p53 gene can be quantified in the wide concentration range from 0.05 to 150 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM. If taking into account the final volume of mixture, the detection limit is calculated as lower as 6.2 pM, achieving an desirable assay ability. More strikingly, the mutant gene can be easily distinguished from the wild-type one. The proof-of-concept demonstrations reported herein is expected to promote the development and application of DNA nanomachine, showing great potential value in basic biology and medical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on high gain broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.K.; Fujita, M.; Yamanaka, C.; Yoshida, H.; Kodama, R.; Fujita, H.; Nakatsuka, M.; Izawa, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has apparent advantages over the current schemes for high energy ultrashort pulse amplification. High gain in a single pass amplification, small B-integral, low heat deposition, high contrast ratio and, especially the extremely broad gain bandwidth with large-size crystals available bring people new hope for over multi-PW level at which the existing Nd:glass systems suffered difficulties. In this paper we present simulation and experimental studies for a high gain optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system which may be used as a preamplifier to replace the current complicated regenerative system or multi-pass Ti:sapphire amplifiers. Investigations on the amplification bandwidth and gain with BBO are performed. Analysis and discussions are also given. (author)

  15. Clinical application of somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many patients with somatoform disorders are frequently encountered in psychosomatic clinics as well as in primary care clinics. To assess such patients objectively, the concept of somatosensory amplification may be useful. Somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience a somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. It may have a role in a variety of medical conditions characterized by somatic symptoms that are disproportionate to demonstrable organ pathology. It may also explain some of the variability in somatic symptomatology found among different patients with the same serious medical disorder. It has been assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. This instrument was developed in a clinical setting in the U.S., and the reliability and validity of the Japanese and Turkish versions have been confirmed as well. Many studies have attempted to clarify the specific role of somatosensory amplification as a pathogenic mechanism in somatization. It has been reported that somatosensory amplification does not correlate with heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and that emotional reactivity exerts its influence on somatization via a negatively biased reporting style. According to our recent electroencephalographic study, somatosensory amplification appears to reflect some aspects of long-latency cognitive processing rather than short-latency interoceptive sensitivity. The concept of somatosensory amplification can be useful as an indicator of somatization in the therapy of a broad range of disorders, from impaired self-awareness to various psychiatric disorders. It also provides useful information for choosing appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy. While somatosensory amplification has a role in the presentation of somatic symptoms, it is closely associated with other factors, namely, anxiety, depression, and alexithymia that may also influence the same

  16. Linear uranium complexes X2UL5 with L=cyanide, iso-cyanate: DFT evidence for similarities between uranyl (X = O) and uranocene (X = Cp) derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iche-Tarrat, N.; Marsden, Colin J.; Barros, N.; Maron, L.; Barros, N.

    2008-01-01

    A DFT study of the isostructural compounds [UO 2 L 5 ] n- with n=3-5 and linear [Cp 2 UL 5 ] m- with m=1-3 has been carried out for two different anionic ligands. Structurally stable structures are obtained for all systems. The coordination competition between cyanide (CN - ) and isocyanide (NC - ) as well as between cyanate (OCN - ) and iso-cyanate (NCO - ) has been studied in the uranyl case. A clear preference for cyanide and iso-cyanate complexes is reported. The coordination of five ligands in the equatorial plane is rationalized by the analysis of the MO diagram of both systems. Moreover, the qualitative comparison of the two MO diagrams shows a high similarity in agreement with the isolobality concept. The existence of linear [Cp 2 UL 5 ] - organometallic U(VI) complexes is thus proposed, as well as the possibility of obtaining complexes of both types for U(VI) and U(V) with OCN - ligands. In addition, the U(IV) linear metallocene is calculated to be stable for the latter ligand. (authors)

  17. Validation of the FACT-B+4-UL questionnaire and exploration of its predictive value in women submitted to surgery for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Ortega, Juan Alfonso; Millán Gómez, Ana Pilar; Ribeiro González, Marisa; Martínez Piró, Pilar; Jiménez Anula, Juan; Sánchez Andújar, María Belén

    2017-06-21

    The early detection of upper limb complications is important in women operated on for breast cancer. The "FACT-B+4-UL" questionnaire, a specific variant of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast (FACT-B) is available among others to measure the upper limb function. The Spanish version of the upper limb subscale of the FACT-B+4 was validated in a prospective cohort of 201 women operated on for breast cancer (factor analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to change were determined). Its predictive capacity of subsequent lymphoedema and other complications in the upper limb was explored using logistic regression. This subscale is unifactorial and has a great internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.87), its test-retest reliability and construct validity are strong (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.986; Pearson's R with "Quick DASH": 0.81) as is its sensitivity to change. It didn't predict the onset of lymphedema. Its predictive capacity for other upper limb complications is low. FACT-B+4-UL is useful in measuring upper limb disability in women surgically treated for breast cancer; but it does not predict the onset of lymphoedema and its predictive capacity for others complications in the upper limb is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Mobile platform for fish migration upstream from the discharge sill situated near Dacia bridge on Crișul Repede River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan VOICU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal connectivity represent the way in which organisms move the energy and material exchanges located throughout the water. Fragmentation the longitudinal connectivity of watercourses caused by dams or other hydrotechnical constructions represent a major impact on sediment transport, hydrological regime, downstream moving and biota migration. The hydromorphological elements (river continuity, as well as chemical, biological, physicochemical elements characterize the ecological status of rivers. Migratory fish species: nase (Chondrostoma nasus - protected by Bern Convention - Appendix III, barbel (Barbus barbus - rare species, protected Habitats Directive (Annex V, annex 4A of Low nr.462 and Red List of RBDD and Freshwater bream (Abramis brama - protected by Bern Convention (Appendix III are blocked by the hydrotechnical constructions (discharge sills, dams located across the watercourse Crișul Repede River. One of the important think of this system is the gravitational fall of water. This solution will lead to the restoration of the longitudinal connection of the Crișul Repede River in the Oradea City, near Dacia Bridge. Romania is part of the European Union and it has the obligation to implement the provisions of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, transposed into Romanian legislation by the Water Law 107/1996 as supplemented and amended (Act 310/2004.

  19. Plasma membrane profiling defines an expanded class of cell surface proteins selectively targeted for degradation by HCMV US2 in cooperation with UL141.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye-Lin Hsu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV US2, US3, US6 and US11 act in concert to prevent immune recognition of virally infected cells by CD8+ T-lymphocytes through downregulation of MHC class I molecules (MHC-I. Here we show that US2 function goes far beyond MHC-I degradation. A systematic proteomic study using Plasma Membrane Profiling revealed US2 was unique in downregulating additional cellular targets, including: five distinct integrin α-chains, CD112, the interleukin-12 receptor, PTPRJ and thrombomodulin. US2 recruited the cellular E3 ligase TRC8 to direct the proteasomal degradation of all its targets, reminiscent of its degradation of MHC-I. Whereas integrin α-chains were selectively degraded, their integrin β1 binding partner accumulated in the ER. Consequently integrin signaling, cell adhesion and migration were strongly suppressed. US2 was necessary and sufficient for degradation of the majority of its substrates, but remarkably, the HCMV NK cell evasion function UL141 requisitioned US2 to enhance downregulation of the NK cell ligand CD112. UL141 retained CD112 in the ER from where US2 promoted its TRC8-dependent retrotranslocation and degradation. These findings redefine US2 as a multifunctional degradation hub which, through recruitment of the cellular E3 ligase TRC8, modulates diverse immune pathways involved in antigen presentation, NK cell activation, migration and coagulation; and highlight US2's impact on HCMV pathogenesis.

  20. Direct amplification of casework bloodstains using the Promega PowerPlex(®) 21 PCR amplification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kerryn; Crowle, Damian; Scott, Pam

    2014-09-01

    A significant number of evidence items submitted to Forensic Science Service Tasmania (FSST) are blood swabs or bloodstained items. Samples from these items routinely undergo phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol organic extraction and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) testing prior to PowerPlex(®) 21 amplification. This multi-step process has significant cost and timeframe implications in a fiscal climate of tightening government budgets, pressure towards improved operating efficiencies, and an increasing emphasis on rapid techniques better supporting intelligence-led policing. Direct amplification of blood and buccal cells on cloth and Whatman FTA™ card with PowerPlex(®) 21 has already been successfully implemented for reference samples, eliminating the requirement for sample pre-treatment. Scope for expanding this method to include less pristine casework blood swabs and samples from bloodstained items was explored in an endeavour to eliminate lengthy DNA extraction, purification and qPCR steps for a wider subset of samples. Blood was deposited onto a range of substrates including those historically found to inhibit STR amplification. Samples were collected with micro-punch, micro-swab, or both. The potential for further fiscal savings via reduced volume amplifications was assessed by amplifying all samples at full and reduced volume (25 and 13μL). Overall success rate data showed 80% of samples yielded a complete profile at reduced volume, compared to 78% at full volume. Particularly high success rates were observed for the blood on fabric/textile category with 100% of micro-punch samples yielding complete profiles at reduced volume and 85% at full volume. Following the success of this trial, direct amplification of suitable casework blood samples has been implemented at reduced volume. Significant benefits have been experienced, most noticeably where results from crucial items have been provided to police investigators prior to interview of

  1. A mechanism of gene amplification driven by small DNA fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Mukherjee

    Full Text Available DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s. Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation

  2. HER2 amplification, overexpression and score criteria in esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingchuan; Bandla, Santhoshi; Godfrey, Tony E.; Tan, Dongfeng; Luketich, James D.; Pennathur, Arjun; Qiu, Xing; Hicks, David G.; Peters, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhongren

    2011-01-01

    The HER2 oncogene was recently reported to be amplified and overexpressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the relationship of HER2 amplification in esophageal adenocarcinoma with prognosis has not been well defined. The scoring systems for clinically evaluating HER2 in esophageal adenocarcinoma are not established. The aims of the study were to establish a HER2 scoring system and comprehensively investigate HER2 amplification and overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesion. Using a tissue microarray, containing 116 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, 34 cases of BE, 18 cases of low grade dysplasia and 15 cases of high grade dysplasia, HER2 amplification and overexpression were analyzed by HercepTest and CISH methods. The amplification frequency in an independent series of 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma samples was also analyzed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays. In our studies, we have found that HER2 amplification does not associate with poor prognosis in total 232 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients by CISH and high density microarrays. We further confirm the similar frequency of HER2 amplification by CISH (18.10%; 21/116) and SNP 6.0 microarrays (16.4%, 19/116) in esophageal adenocarcinoma. HER2 protein overexpression was observed in 12.1 % (14/116) of esophageal adenocarcinoma and 6.67% (1/15) of HGD. No HER2 amplification or overexpression was identified in BE or LGD. All HER2 protein overexpression cases showed HER2 gene amplification. Gene amplification was found to be more frequent by CISH than protein overexpression in esophageal adenocarcinoma (18.10% vs 12.9%). A modified two-step model for esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 testing is recommend for clinical esophageal adenocarcinoma HER-2 trial. PMID:21460800

  3. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, P.E.; Martin, M.A.; Rabson, A.B.; Bryan, T.; O'Brien, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked

  4. PCR amplification on microarrays of gel immobilized oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhkov, Boris; Tillib, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2003-11-04

    The invention relates two general methods for performing PCR amplification, combined with the detection and analysis of the PCR products on a microchip. In the first method, the amplification occurs both outside and within a plurality of gel pads on a microchip, with at least one oligonucleotide primer immobilized in a gel pad. In the second method, PCR amplification also takes place within gel pads on a microchip, but the pads are surrounded by a hydrophobic liquid such as that which separates the individual gel pads into environments which resemble micro-miniaturized test tubes.

  5. Small sample whole-genome amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Christine; Nguyen, Christine; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Karen; Arroyo, Erin; Vrankovich, Greg; Christian, Allen

    2005-11-01

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  6. Controlled Microwave Heating Accelerates Rolling Circle Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Yoshimura

    Full Text Available Rolling circle amplification (RCA generates single-stranded DNAs or RNA, and the diverse applications of this isothermal technique range from the sensitive detection of nucleic acids to analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Microwave chemistry is widely applied to increase reaction rate as well as product yield and purity. The objectives of the present research were to apply microwave heating to RCA and indicate factors that contribute to the microwave selective heating effect. The microwave reaction temperature was strictly controlled using a microwave applicator optimized for enzymatic-scale reactions. Here, we showed that microwave-assisted RCA reactions catalyzed by either of the four thermostable DNA polymerases were accelerated over 4-folds compared with conventional RCA. Furthermore, the temperatures of the individual buffer components were specifically influenced by microwave heating. We concluded that microwave heating accelerated isothermal RCA of DNA because of the differential heating mechanisms of microwaves on the temperatures of reaction components, although the overall reaction temperatures were the same.

  7. Static and Dynamic Amplification Using Strong Mechanical Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio of resonant sensors is vital toward the effort to miniaturize devices into the sub-micro and nano regimes. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally, amplification through mechanically

  8. Three-dimensional Simulation of Backward Raman Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.A.; Fraiman, G.M.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations for the Backward Raman Amplification (BRA) are presented. The images illustrate the effects of pump depletion, pulse diffraction, non-homogeneous plasma density, and plasma ionization

  9. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, G.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    . In the proposed system, nonlinearity naturally arises from the mechanism of cooperative stability, which regulates the concentration of a protein produced during a transcription process. In this elemental model, bistability results from the coherent amplification

  10. Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-genus amplification and characterisation of microsatellite loci in the little free tailed bat, Chaerephon pumilus s. l. (Molossidae) from South Eastern Africa. Theshnie Naidoo, Angus Macdonald, Jennifer M Lamb ...

  11. Radiation-induced gene amplification in rodent and human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke-Huhle, C.; Gloss, B.; Herrlich, P.

    1990-01-01

    Ionizing and UV radiations induce amplification of SV40 DNA sequences integrated in the genome of Chinese hamster cells and increase amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene during methotrexate selection in human skin fibroblasts of a patient with ataxia telangiectasia. Various types of external (60-Co-γ-rays, 241-Am-α-particles, UV) or internal radiation (caused by the decay of 125 I incorporated into DNA in form of I-UdR) were applied. By cell fusion experiments it could be shown that SV40 gene amplification is mediated by one or several diffusible trans-acting factors induced or activated in a dose dependent manner by all types of radiation. One of these factors binds to a 10 bp sequence within the minimal origin of replication of SV40. In vivo competition with an excess of a synthetic oligonucleotide comprising this sequence blocks radiation-induced amplification. (author) 25 refs.; 8 figs

  12. DNA amplification is rare in normal human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.A.; Watt, F.M.; Hudson, D.L.; Stark, G.R.; Smith, H.S.; Hancock, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Three types of normal human cells were selected in tissue culture with three drugs without observing a single amplification event from a total of 5 x 10 8 cells. No drug-resistant colonies were observed when normal foreskin keratinocytes were selected with N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate or with hydroxyurea or when normal mammary epithelial cells were selected with methotrexate. Some slightly resistant colonies with limited potential for growth were obtained when normal diploid fibroblast cells derived from fetal lung were selected with methotrexate or hydroxyurea but careful copy-number analysis of the dihydrofolate reductase and ribonucleotide reductase genes revealed no evidence of amplification. The rarity of DNA amplification in normal human cells contrasts strongly with the situation in tumors and in established cell lines, where amplification of onogenes and of genes mediating drug resistance is frequent. The results suggest that tumors and cell lines have acquired the abnormal ability to amplify DNA with high frequency

  13. An actively accreting massive black hole in the dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Amy E; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Johnson, Kelsey E; Brogan, Crystal L

    2011-02-03

    Supermassive black holes are now thought to lie at the heart of every giant galaxy with a spheroidal component, including our own Milky Way. The birth and growth of the first 'seed' black holes in the earlier Universe, however, is observationally unconstrained and we are only beginning to piece together a scenario for their subsequent evolution. Here we report that the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10 (refs 5 and 6) contains a compact radio source at the dynamical centre of the galaxy that is spatially coincident with a hard X-ray source. From these observations, we conclude that Henize 2-10 harbours an actively accreting central black hole with a mass of approximately one million solar masses. This nearby dwarf galaxy, simultaneously hosting a massive black hole and an extreme burst of star formation, is analogous in many ways to galaxies in the infant Universe during the early stages of black-hole growth and galaxy mass assembly. Our results confirm that nearby star-forming dwarf galaxies can indeed form massive black holes, and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts. Moreover, the lack of a substantial spheroidal component in Henize 2-10 indicates that supermassive black-hole growth may precede the build-up of galaxy spheroids.

  14. Detection of biological molecules using chemical amplification and optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal.

  15. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  16. Current amplification models of sensorineurall and conductive hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Ostojić, Sanja; Mikić, Branka; Mirić, Danica

    2012-01-01

    The main function of a hearing aid is to improve auditory and language abilities of hearing impaired users. The amplification model has to be adapted according to age, degree and type of hearing loss. The goal of this paper is to analyze the current amplification models of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss which can provide a high quality of speech perception and sounds at any degree of hearing loss. The BAHA is a surgically implantable system for treatment of conductive hearing loss ...

  17. The Effectiveness of Model Learning CUPs: Impact on The Higher Order Thinking Skill Students at Madrasah Aliyah Mathla'ul Anwar Gisting Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antomi Saregar

    2016-10-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas model pembelajaran CUPs (Conceptual Understanding Procedures terhadap kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik kelas X IPA MA Mathla’ul Anwar Gisting. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen dengan desain non equivalent control group. Populasi dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 52 peserta didik, dengan sampel X IPA 1 sebagai kelas eksperimen dan X IPA 2 sebagai kelas kontrol. Uji independent sample t-test digunakan untuk mengetahui perbedaan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik menggunakan model CUPs dengan model pembelajaran langsung. Hasil analisis menyatakan bahwa terdapat perbedaan rata-rata kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik antara menggunakan model CUPs dengan model pembelajaran langsung. efektivitas penggunaan model CUPs lebih baik dalam meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi peserta didik, dapat diketahui dari nilai effect size yang diperoleh sebesar 0,3 termasuk dalam kategori sedang. Kata kunci: conceptual understanding procedures, HOTS, kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi, model CUPs

  18. Two loop virtual corrections to b → (d, s)l{sup +}l{sup -} and c → ul{sup +}l{sup -} for arbitrary momentum transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Stefan de [TU Dortmund, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Dortmund (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Non-factorizable two loop corrections to heavy to light flavor changing neutral current transitions due to matrix elements of current-current operators are calculated analytically for arbitrary momentum transfer. This extends previous work on b → (d, s)l{sup +}l{sup -} transitions. New results for c → ul{sup +}l{sup -} transitions are presented. Recent work on polylogarithms is used for the master integrals. For b → sl{sup +}l{sup -} transitions, the corrections are most significant for the imaginary parts of the effective Wilson coefficients in the large hadronic recoil range. Analytical results and ready-to-use fitted results for a specific set of parameters are provided. (orig.)

  19. Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection with an internal amplification control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan-Lan; Wei, Shuang; Gooneratne, Ravi; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Ma, Xue-Jun; Tang, Shu-Ze; Wu, Xi-Yang

    2018-04-01

    A novel RPA-IAC assay using recombinase polymerase and an internal amplification control (IAC) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus detection was developed. Specific primers were designed based on the coding sequence for the toxR gene in V. parahaemolyticus. The recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reaction was conducted at a constant low temperature of 37 °C for 20 min. Assay specificity was validated by using 63 Vibrio strains and 10 non-Vibrio bacterial species. In addition, a competitive IAC was employed to avoid false-negative results, which co-amplified simultaneously with the target sequence. The sensitivity of the assay was determined as 3 × 10 3 CFU/mL, which is decidedly more sensitive than the established PCR method. This method was then used to test seafood samples that were collected from local markets. Seven out of 53 different raw seafoods were detected as V. parahaemolyticus-positive, which were consistent with those obtained using traditional culturing method and biochemical assay. This novel RPA-IAC assay provides a rapid, specific, sensitive, and more convenient detection method for V. parahaemolyticus.

  20. Realization of the conceptual ideal for x-ray amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Alex B; Racz, Ervin; Zhang Ping; McCorkindale, John C; Khan, Shahab F; Poopalasingam, Sankar; Zhao Ji; Rhodes, Charles K [Laboratory for X-Ray Microimaging and Bioinformatics, Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States)

    2008-05-28

    The Xe(L) system is an amplifier with fundamentally different dynamic characteristics from all previously developed laser amplifiers; it represents the conceptual ideal through full utilization of the Kramers-Kronig relations that fundamentally couple the dispersive and absorptive components. The dispersive response of the system, through optimal governance of the power compression, rules the amplification and establishes a minimum gain for the amplifier. Accordingly, the amplification requires a minimum value of the dispersion to be surpassed; the corresponding gain follows automatically. As a leading consequence, since this minimum gain is sufficiently high, the key experimental observation is the uniform presence of saturated amplification signaled by strong spectral hole burning on all transitions exhibiting amplification, including double-vacancy lines. This cardinal signature demonstrates that the amplification is legislated by the saturated gain g{sub s}, not the corresponding small signal value g{sub 0}. The chief outcome is that explosive dispersion yields perforce explosive amplification and the efficient generation of maximally bright coherent power.

  1. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hisato [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Okamoto, Isamu, E-mail: okamotoi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okamoto, Wataru [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Division of Transrlational Research, Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8577 (Japan); Tanizaki, Junko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, HIM223, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Nakagawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Nishio, Kazuto [Department of Genome Biology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan)

    2014-07-22

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  2. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu; Okamoto, Wataru; Tanizaki, Junko; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy

  3. Population diversity of ammonium oxidizers investigated by specific PCR amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B.B.; Voytek, M.A.; Witzel, K.-P.

    1997-01-01

    The species composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments was investigated using PCR primers for 16S rRNA genes to amplify specific subsets of the total ammonia-oxidizer population. The specificity of the amplification reactions was determined using total genomic DNA from known nitrifying strains and non-nitrifying strains identified as having similar rDNA sequences. Specificity of amplification was determined both for direct amplification, using the nitrifier specific primers, and with nested amplification, in which the nitrifier primers were used to reamplify a fragment obtained from direct amplification with Eubacterial universal primers. The present level of specificity allows the distinction between Nitrosomonas europaea, Nitrosomonas sp. (marine) and the other known ammonia-oxidizers in the beta subclass of the Proteobacteria. Using total DNA extracted from natural samples, we used direct amplification to determine presence/absence of different species groups. Species composition was found to differ among depths in vertical profiles of lake samples and among samples and enrichments from various other aquatic environments. Nested PCR yielded several more positive reactions, which implies that nitrifier DNA was present in most samples, but often at very low levels.

  4. Safety of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children 2-10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartof, Sara Yee; Sy, Lina S; Ackerson, Bradley K; Hechter, Rulin C; Haag, Mendel; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Luo, Yi; Fischetti, Christine A; Takhar, Harp S; Miao, Yan; Solano, Zendi; Jacobsen, Steven J; Tseng, Hung-Fu

    2017-11-01

    Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended for children, adolescents and adults at increased risk of meningococcal disease. In 2011, MenACWY-CRM (Menveo, GSK, Siena, Italy) was approved for children 2-10 years of age in the United States. Although no safety concerns arose from clinical trials, it remains important to monitor its safety in routine clinical settings. Kaiser Permanente Southern California members 2-10 years old who received MenACWY-CRM between September 2011 and September 2014 were included. Electronic health records were searched using a validated algorithm to identify 26 prespecified events of interests (EOIs) and serious medically attended events (SMAEs) from inpatient or emergency settings up to 1 year after MenACWY-CRM vaccination. SMAEs were categorized by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision diagnostic categories. All events were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and symptom onset date. The study was descriptive (NCT01452438); no statistical tests were performed. Among 387 vaccinated children, 327 with ≥6 months membership before vaccination were analyzed. Among EOIs, 9 asthma cases and 1 myasthenia gravis case underwent chart review which confirmed 1 incident asthma case occurring 237 days after concomitant vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and typhoid vaccine. Thirty-one children experienced SMAEs, most commonly because of unrelated injury and poisoning. The remaining events occurred sporadically after vaccination and most were unlikely related to vaccination based on medical record review. One incident EOI of asthma late in the 1-year observation period and sporadic distribution of SMAEs were observed. These data do not suggest safety concerns associated with MenACWY-CRM vaccination in children 2-10 years old.

  5. ASAP: Amplification, sequencing & annotation of plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of DNA sequence information is vital for pursuing structural, functional and comparative genomics studies in plastids. Traditionally, the first step in mining the valuable information within a chloroplast genome requires sequencing a chloroplast plasmid library or BAC clones. These activities involve complicated preparatory procedures like chloroplast DNA isolation or identification of the appropriate BAC clones to be sequenced. Rolling circle amplification (RCA is being used currently to amplify the chloroplast genome from purified chloroplast DNA and the resulting products are sheared and cloned prior to sequencing. Herein we present a universal high-throughput, rapid PCR-based technique to amplify, sequence and assemble plastid genome sequence from diverse species in a short time and at reasonable cost from total plant DNA, using the large inverted repeat region from strawberry and peach as proof of concept. The method exploits the highly conserved coding regions or intergenic regions of plastid genes. Using an informatics approach, chloroplast DNA sequence information from 5 available eudicot plastomes was aligned to identify the most conserved regions. Cognate primer pairs were then designed to generate ~1 – 1.2 kb overlapping amplicons from the inverted repeat region in 14 diverse genera. Results 100% coverage of the inverted repeat region was obtained from Arabidopsis, tobacco, orange, strawberry, peach, lettuce, tomato and Amaranthus. Over 80% coverage was obtained from distant species, including Ginkgo, loblolly pine and Equisetum. Sequence from the inverted repeat region of strawberry and peach plastome was obtained, annotated and analyzed. Additionally, a polymorphic region identified from gel electrophoresis was sequenced from tomato and Amaranthus. Sequence analysis revealed large deletions in these species relative to tobacco plastome thus exhibiting the utility of this method for structural and

  6. Alternative Chemical Amplification Methods for Peroxy Radical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Peroxy radicals (HO2, CH3O2, etc.) are commonly detected by the chemical amplification technique, in which ambient air is mixed with high concentrations of CO and NO, initiating a chain reaction that produces 30 - 200 NO2 molecules per sampled peroxy radical. The NO2 is then measured by one of several techniques. With the exception of CIMS-based techniques, the chemical amplification method has undergone only incremental improvements since it was first introduced in 1982. The disadvantages of the technique include the need to use high concentrations of CO and the greatly reduced sensitivity of the amplification chain length in the presence of water vapor. We present a new chemical amplification scheme in which either ethane or acetaldehyde is used in place of CO, with the NO2 product detected using Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift spectroscopy (CAPS). Under dry conditions, the amplification factor of the alternative amplifiers are approximately six times lower than the CO-based amplifier. The relative humidity "penalty" is not as severe, however, such that at typical ambient relative humidity (RH) values the amplification factor is within a factor of three of the CO-based amplifier. Combined with the NO2 sensitivity of CAPS and a dual-channel design, the detection limit of the ethane amplifier is less than 2 ppt (1 minute average, signal-to-noise ratio 2). The advantages of these alternative chemical amplification schemes are improved safety, a reduced RH correction, and increased sensitivity to organic peroxy radicals relative to HO2.

  7. Empirical Site Amplification Factors Incorporating Soil Nonlinearity in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C. H.; Chung, C. H.; Che-Min, L.; Huang, J. Y.; Wen, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of site amplifications caused by both crustal and subduction earthquakes are important in Taiwan. For example, seismic waves were amplified and led to significant building damages in the Taipei Basin by the 1986 Hualien offshore (subduction interface) and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquakes (crustal), for which the epicentral distances were about 100 km. To understand local site amplifications in Taiwan, empirical site amplification factors for horizontal ground motions are studied using recently constructed strong motion and site databases for the free-field TSMIP stations in Taiwan. Records of large magnitude earthquakes of ML larger than six from 1994 to 2014 were selected for this study. Site amplification factors at site conditions with Vs30 of 120 m/s to 1500 m/s and base accelerations up to 0.7g were inferred from intensity ratios of station pairs within specific distances. The reference site condition is assumed as Vs30 of 760 m/s (B/C boundary). Preliminary results indicate: 1. Soil nonlinearity is more obviously at short periods (PGA, Sa0.3) than long periods (PGV, Sa1.0). 2. Soil nonlinearity is significant for stations belong to site classes of B, C, D, and E in Taiwan. 3. Effect of station-pair distance is seen at short periods (PGA and Sa0.3). 4. No significant different is found in site amplifications of crustal and subduction earthquakes. The result could be a reference for the Fa and Fv in Taiwan's building code.

  8. DNA sequence responsible for the amplification of adjacent genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, S G; Hartigan, J A; Kumar, V; Biswas, D K

    1987-10-01

    A 10.3-kb DNA fragment in the 5'-flanking region of the rat prolactin (rPRL) gene was isolated from F1BGH(1)2C1, a strain of rat pituitary tumor cells (GH cells) that produces prolactin in response to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Following transfection and integration into genomic DNA of recipient mouse L cells, this DNA induced amplification of the adjacent thymidine kinase gene from Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1TK). We confirmed the ability of this "Amplicon" sequence to induce amplification of other linked or unlinked genes in DNA-mediated gene transfer studies. When transferred into the mouse L cells with the 10.3-5'rPRL gene sequence of BrdU-responsive cells, both the human growth hormone and the HSV1TK genes are amplified in response to 5-bromodeoxyuridine. This observation is substantiated by BrdU-induced amplification of the cotransferred bacterial Neo gene. Cotransfection studies reveal that the BrdU-induced amplification capability is associated with a 4-kb DNA sequence in the 5'-flanking region of the rPRL gene of BrdU-responsive cells. These results demonstrate that genes of heterologous origin, linked or unlinked, and selected or unselected, can be coamplified when located within the amplification boundary of the Amplicon sequence.

  9. Magnetic field amplification in interstellar collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that it is commonly assumed that a simple compression of the magnetic field occurs in interstellar shock waves. Recent space observations of the Earth's bow shock have shown that turbulent amplification of the magnetic field can occur in a collisionless shock. It is shown here that radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant indicate the presence of a shock wave with such magnetic field amplification. There is at present no theory for the microinstabilities that give rise to turbulent amplification of the magnetic field. Despite the lack of theoretical understanding the possibility of field amplification in interstellar shock waves is here considered. In Tycho's supernova remnant there is evidence for the presence of a collisionless shock, and this is discussed. On the basis of observations of the Earth's bow shock, it is expected that turbulent magnetic field amplification occurs in the shock wave of this remnant, and this is supported by radio observations of the remnant. Consideration is given as to what extent the magnetic field is amplified in the shock wave on the basis of the non-thermal radio flux. (U.K.)

  10. Modeling the amplification dynamics of human Alu retrotransposons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale J Hedges

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons have had a considerable impact on the overall architecture of the human genome. Currently, there are three lineages of retrotransposons (Alu, L1, and SVA that are believed to be actively replicating in humans. While estimates of their copy number, sequence diversity, and levels of insertion polymorphism can readily be obtained from existing genomic sequence data and population sampling, a detailed understanding of the temporal pattern of retrotransposon amplification remains elusive. Here we pose the question of whether, using genomic sequence and population frequency data from extant taxa, one can adequately reconstruct historical amplification patterns. To this end, we developed a computer simulation that incorporates several known aspects of primate Alu retrotransposon biology and accommodates sampling effects resulting from the methods by which mobile elements are typically discovered and characterized. By modeling a number of amplification scenarios and comparing simulation-generated expectations to empirical data gathered from existing Alu subfamilies, we were able to statistically reject a number of amplification scenarios for individual subfamilies, including that of a rapid expansion or explosion of Alu amplification at the time of human-chimpanzee divergence.

  11. Modeling the amplification dynamics of human alu retrotransposons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons have had a considerable impact on the overall architecture of the human genome. Currently, there are three lineages of retrotransposons (Alu, L1, and SVA that are believed to be actively replicating in humans. While estimates of their copy number, sequence diversity, and levels of insertion polymorphism can readily be obtained from existing genomic sequence data and population sampling, a detailed understanding of the temporal pattern of retrotransposon amplification remains elusive. Here we pose the question of whether, using genomic sequence and population frequency data from extant taxa, one can adequately reconstruct historical amplification patterns. To this end, we developed a computer simulation that incorporates several known aspects of primate Alu retrotransposon biology and accommodates sampling effects resulting from the methods by which mobile elements are typically discovered and characterized. By modeling a number of amplification scenarios and comparing simulation-generated expectations to empirical data gathered from existing Alu subfamilies, we were able to statistically reject a number of amplification scenarios for individual subfamilies, including that of a rapid expansion or explosion of Alu amplification at the time of human-chimpanzee divergence.

  12. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse

    Aim Complete genome amplification of viral RNA provides a new tool for generation of modified pestiviruses. We have recently reported a full genome amplification strategy for direct recovery of infectious pestivirus (Rasmussen et al., 2008). This comprised rescue of BDV strain “Gifhorn” from a full......-length RT-PCR amplicon demonstrating that long RT-PCR can be used for direct generation of an infectious pestivirus. The strategy is not limited to amplification of BDV “Gifhorn”, but can be further utilized for amplification of a diverse selection of pestivirus strains and for the generation of modified...... was reverse transcribed to cDNA at 50C for 90 minutes using SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). Full-length PCR amplification was performed using primers specific for the extreme 5’- and 3’-ends of the viral genomes. A T7 promoter was incorporated in the 5’-primers for direct in vitro...

  13. [Individual Identification of Cartilage by Direct Amplification in Mass Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C H; Xu, C; Li, X Q; Wu, Y; Du, Z

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effectiveness of direct amplification for the STR analysis of cartilage, and to accelerate the effectiveness of disaster victim identification. Eighty-eight cartilage samples were directly amplified by PowerPle® 21 kit, and the results of genotyping were compared with that obtained by the magnetic beads method. In 88 cartilage samples, the STR genotypes were successfully detected from 84 samples by direct amplification and magnetic beads method, and both the results of genotyping by two method were consistent. Direct amplification with PowerPlex® 21 kit can be used for STR genotyping of cartilages. This method is operated easily and promptly, which has a potential application in the individual identification of mass disasters. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  14. Multi-chamber nucleic acid amplification and detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence

    2017-10-25

    A nucleic acid amplification and detection device includes an amplification cartridge with a plurality of reaction chambers for containing an amplification reagent and a visual detection reagent, and a plurality of optically transparent view ports for viewing inside the reaction chambers. The cartridge also includes a sample receiving port which is adapted to receive a fluid sample and fluidically connected to distribute the fluid sample to the reaction chamber, and in one embodiment, a plunger is carried by the cartridge for occluding fluidic communication to the reaction chambers. The device also includes a heating apparatus having a heating element which is activated by controller to generate heat when a trigger event is detected. The heating apparatus includes a cartridge-mounting section which positioned a cartridge in thermal communication with the heating element so that visual changes to the contents of the reaction chambers are viewable through the view ports.

  15. Radioactive wastes and the social amplification of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Emel, J.; Goble, R.; Hohenemser, C.; Kasperson, J.X.; Renn, O.

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem in radioactive waste facility siting is that apparent small risks or minor risks events produce substantial public concern and social impacts. The reasons for this difference in public health and societal impacts is not well understood. This paper explores the issues involved in the social amplification of risk, using the risk associated with site characterization as the example. Noteworthy as sources of amplification are the information flow associated with risks and risk events including the large volume of information, the extent of dispute, and misinformation and rumor. Such information passes through the mass media and interpersonal networks. The major mechanisms involved in risk amplifications are discussed and their likely impacts on society described

  16. Development and evaluation of an immunochromatographic strip test based on the recombinant UL51 protein for detecting antibody against duck enteritis virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duck enteritis virus (DEV infection causes substantial economic losses to the worldwide duck-producing areas. The monitoring of DEV-specific antibodies is a key to evaluate the effect of DEV vaccine and develop rational immunization programs. Thus, in this study, an immunochromatographic strip (ICS test was developed for detecting DEV serum antibodies. Results The ICS test is based on membrane chromatography, and uses both the purified recombinant UL51 protein conjugated with colloidal gold and goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugated with colloidal gold as tracers, the purified recombinant UL51 protein as the capture reagent at the test line, and rabbit IgG as the capture reagent at the control line. The specificity of the ICS was evaluated by sera against DEV, Duck hepatitis virus (DHV, Riemerella anatipestifer (RA, Duck E. coli, Muscovy duck parvovirus (MPV, or Duck Influenza viruses (DIV. Only sera against DEV showed the strong positive results. In order to determine the sensitivity of the ICS, anti-DEV serum diluted serially was tested, and the minimum detection limit of 1:128 was obtained. The ICS components, which are provided in a sealed package, require no refrigeration and are stable for 12 months. To evaluate the effect of the ICS, 110 duck serum samples collected from several non-immune duck flocks were simultaneously tested by the ICS test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and neutralization test (NT. The results showed that the sensitivity of the ICS test was almost consistent with ELISA and much higher than NT, has low cost, and is rapid (15 min and easy to perform with no requirement of specialized equipment, reagent or technicians. Conclusions In this work, we successfully developed a simple and rapid ICS test for detecting DEV serum antibodies for the first time. The ICS test was high specific and sensitive for the rapid detection of anti-DEV antibodies, and has great potential to be used for the serological

  17. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  18. Weak value amplification via second-order correlated technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ting; Huang Jing-Zheng; Zeng Gui-Hua; Liu Xiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new framework combining weak measurement and second-order correlated technique. The theoretical analysis shows that weak value amplification (WVA) experiment can also be implemented by a second-order correlated system. We then build two-dimensional second-order correlated function patterns for achieving higher amplification factor and discuss the signal-to-noise ratio influence. Several advantages can be obtained by our proposal. For instance, detectors with high resolution are not necessary. Moreover, detectors with low saturation intensity are available in WVA setup. Finally, type-one technical noise can be effectively suppressed. (paper)

  19. Amplification-free liquid biopsy by fluorescence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhd, Jesper; Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jargen

    2017-01-01

    Liquid biopsy is an attractive new paradigm of modern cancer research and clinical oncology. Synergy of fluorescence microscopy with mutation specific molecular probes is a method that we developed for the detection of tumor related circulating DNA, ctDNA. The present detection methods of ctDNA...... samples include amplification-based techniques that have multiple challenges, are often time consuming and rather expensive. In this work, we successfully applied the hybridization assay and advanced microscopy for the reliable amplification-free detection and quantification of cancer associated mutations...... in ctDNA....

  20. [Prognostic significance of MYCN amplification in children neuroblastic tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huilin; Xu, Tao; Wang, Fenghua; Chen, Zhengrong; Gao, Qiu; Yi, Peng; Xia, Jianqing

    2015-02-01

    To summarize the clinicopathologic features of neuroblastic tumors (NT), and to explore the prognostic significance of MYCN amplification in NT. The clinicopathologic data of 267 NT were reviewed. MYCN gene amplification was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 119 cases and the relationship with pathological characteristics and prognostic significance were analyzed. The study included 267 cases of children NT from patients aged from 1 day to 13 years (median 27 months). The male to female ratio was 1.43. There were 38 cases (14.2%), 43 cases (16.1%), 71 cases (26.6%), and 115 cases (43.1%) of INSS stages I, II, III and IV respectively.Favorable histology group had 157 cases (59.9%); unfavorable histology group had 110 cases (40.1%).Of the 119 NT cases with MYCN FISH performed, 18 cases (15.1%) showed amplification and the signal ratio of MYCN to CEP2 was 4.08-43.29. One hundred and one cases of non-amplified MYCN included MYCN gain in 79 cases (66.3%) and MYCN negative in 22 cases (18.5%). MYCN expression showed significant difference (P = 0.000) between ages, gender, NT type and MKI, but not INPC and clinical stage (P > 0.05).Of the 18 cases with MYCN amplification, 3 were undifferentiated, and 15 poorly differentiated; 17 had high MKI and one moderate MKI. All 18 cases were in unfavorable histology group; the overall survival rate was 3/18, with an average survival time of (17.9 ± 2.4) months.Of the 101 MYCN non-amplification cases, the overall survival rate was 68.3% (69/101), with an average survival time of (29.8 ± 1.3) months. Survival analysis showed the cases with MYCN amplification had worse prognosis (P < 0.05). NT were commonly diagnosed in early ages and easily to metastasize. Most of cases with favorable histology. The cases of MYCN amplification showed unfavorable histology, and the majority cases with high MKI; The patients with MYCN gene amplification had poor prognosis.

  1. A return to the Qur’ānic paradigm of development and integrated knowledge: The Ulū al-Albāb model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights that the secular and modernistic paradigm of development that lacks spiritual and ethical moorings is partly responsible for the 2009 global economic and financial crisis. Muslim policy-makers, intellectuals and scholars are duty-bound to promote the Tawḥīdic paradigm of holistic development and holistic knowledge. Closely related to the paradigm of development is the issue of the epistemology of autonomous human reason which denies the importance and validity of Divine revelation as a higher source of knowledge and wisdom. The Qur’ān projects the model of the Ulū al-Albāb, “people of sound reason” as intellectuals and scholars par excellence who combine the understanding of the Book of Nature with the Book of Revelation, and integrate human reason with Divine revelation. The paper ends by suggesting that Muslim countries develop institutions of learning or systems of education which integrates worldly knowledge with religious knowledge in a harmonious and symbiotic manner.

  2. MARKETING RESEARCH REGARDING TOURISM BUSINESS READINESS FOR ECO-LABEL ACHIEVEMENT (CASE STUDY: NATURA 2000 CRIŞUL REPEDE GORGE-PĂDUREA CRAIULUI PASS SITE, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Iuliana BAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is an approach that aims to preserve the environment and the culture of communities hosting tourists and at the same time to meet the needs of tourists and to maintain the growth of tourism industry. These objectives are more and more related to eco-labelling, which provides the certification based on a series of benchmarks developed and verified by a third party. The labelling of an organization as an ecotourism organization requires the compliance with certain criteria as those required by the European Ecotourism Labelling Standard. Natura 2000 Crişul Repede Gorge– Pădurea Craiului Pass site will have to prove that it is in compliance with the prerequisites to become an ecotourism destination. The objectives of this paper are: to identify the prerequisites that a destination must comply with in order to be labelled an ecotourism destination, focusing on the prerequisites related to the existence and behaviour of tourist reception structures; to identify the extent to which tour operators are open  and willing to support the labelling of the destination where they operate as being ecotourism.  

  3. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclical amplification with beads (PMCAb)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chad J.; Aiken, Judd M.; McKenzie, Debbie; Samuel, Michael D.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2012-01-01

    Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb) has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results). Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7×10−13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain). Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP)1536+/−mice) allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10−6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 105. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  4. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (PMCAb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results. Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7 × 10(-13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain. Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP1536(+/- mice allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10(-6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 10(5. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  5. TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharples, Paul; Popat, Kris; Llobet, Lau; Santos, Patricia; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Miao, Yongwu; Griffiths, David; Beauvoir, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Sharples, P., Popat, K., Llobet, L., Santos, P., Hernandez-Leo, D., Miao, Y., Griffiths, D. & Beauvoir, P. (2009) TENCompetence Learning Design Toolkit, Runtime component, ccsi_v3_2_10c_v1_4 This release is composed of three files corresponding to CopperCore Service Integration (CCSI) v3.2-10cv1.4,

  6. Classification of human cancers based on DNA copy number amplification modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutila Sakari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA amplifications alter gene dosage in cancer genomes by multiplying the gene copy number. Amplifications are quintessential in a considerable number of advanced cancers of various anatomical locations. The aims of this study were to classify human cancers based on their amplification patterns, explore the biological and clinical fundamentals behind their amplification-pattern based classification, and understand the characteristics in human genomic architecture that associate with amplification mechanisms. Methods We applied a machine learning approach to model DNA copy number amplifications using a data set of binary amplification records at chromosome sub-band resolution from 4400 cases that represent 82 cancer types. Amplification data was fused with background data: clinical, histological and biological classifications, and cytogenetic annotations. Statistical hypothesis testing was used to mine associations between the data sets. Results Probabilistic clustering of each chromosome identified 111 amplification models and divided the cancer cases into clusters. The distribution of classification terms in the amplification-model based clustering of cancer cases revealed cancer classes that were associated with specific DNA copy number amplification models. Amplification patterns – finite or bounded descriptions of the ranges of the amplifications in the chromosome – were extracted from the clustered data and expressed according to the original cytogenetic nomenclature. This was achieved by maximal frequent itemset mining using the cluster-specific data sets. The boundaries of amplification patterns were shown to be enriched with fragile sites, telomeres, centromeres, and light chromosome bands. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that amplifications are non-random chromosomal changes and specifically selected in tumor tissue microenvironment. Furthermore, statistical evidence showed that specific chromosomal features

  7. Amplification and Attenuation across USArray using Ambient Noise Wavefront Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Bowden, Daniel C.

    2017-11-15

    As seismic travel-time tomography continues to be refined using data from the vast USArray dataset, it is advantageous to also exploit the amplitude information carried by seismic waves. We use ambient noise cross correlation to make observations of surface-wave amplification and attenuation at shorter periods (8 – 32 seconds) than can be observed with only traditional teleseismic earthquake sources. We show that the wavefront tracking approach of [Lin et al., 2012a] can be successfully applied to ambient noise correlations, yielding results quite similar to those from earthquake observations at periods of overlap. This consistency indicates that the wavefront tracking approach is viable for use with ambient noise correlations, despite concerns of the inhomogeneous and unknown distribution of noise sources. The resulting amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with known tectonic and crustal structure; at the shortest periods, our amplification and attenuation maps correlate well with surface geology and known sedimentary basins, while our longest period amplitudes are controlled by crustal thickness and begin to probe upper mantle materials. These amplification and attenuation observations are sensitive to crustal materials in different ways than travel-time observations and may be used to better constrain temperature or density variations. We also value them as an independent means of describing the lateral variability of observed Rayleigh-wave amplitudes without the need for 3D tomographic inversions.

  8. Single primer amplification reaction methods reveal exotic and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mulberry varieties using three different PCR based single primer amplification ..... the results of a multi- variate analysis using Mahalanobis D2 statistic in case of .... Rajan M V, Chaturvedi H K and Sarkar A 1997 Multivariate analysis as an aid ...

  9. Nucleic Acid Amplification as used in the Diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nucleic Acid Amplification as used in the Diagnosis and Management of Viral Diseases: A Review. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... are highly unculturable, fastidious or hazardous to the laboratory personnel and diagnosis depends on serological methods or culture in an expensive bio-safety level.

  10. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  11. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better efficiency, higher level of integration and lower component count.

  12. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... 2 months for growing in a culture. Therefore, to control .... The LAMP reaction is carried out in a 25 µL reaction mixture containing ..... J. Fish Dis. 32(6):491-497. Goto M, Honda E, Ogura A, Nomoto A, Hanaki K (2009). Colorimetric detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification reaction by using hydroxy ...

  13. Whole genome amplification: Use of advanced isothermal method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-29

    Dec 29, 2010 ... 1Ph.D. Student, Department of Animal Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University(IAU), ... sequence has a large effect on both the denaturation of ..... performance of multiple displacement amplification and OmniPlex ... Dean FB, Hosono S, Fang L, Wu L, Faruqi AF, Bray-Ward P, Sun Z,.

  14. Controlling the amplification of chirality in hydrogen-bonded assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateos timoneda, Miguel; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    The amplification of chirality (a high enantiomeric or diastereomeric excess induced by a small initial amount of chiral bias) on hydrogen-bonded assemblies has been studied using “sergeants-and-soldiers” experiments under thermodynamically controlled conditions. Here it is shown that different

  15. Particle creation amplification in curved space due to thermal effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laciana, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    A physical system composed by a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity and a thermal reservoir as in thermo field dynamics, all of them in curved space-time, is considered. When the formalism of thermo field dynamics is generalized to the above case, an amplification in the number of created particles is predicted

  16. Probabilistic Sensitivity Amplification Control for Lower Extremity Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likun Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To achieve ideal force control of a functional autonomous exoskeleton, sensitivity amplification control is widely used in human strength augmentation applications. The original sensitivity amplification control aims to increase the closed-loop control system sensitivity based on positive feedback without any sensors between the pilot and the exoskeleton. Thus, the measurement system can be greatly simplified. Nevertheless, the controller lacks the ability to reject disturbance and has little robustness to the variation of the parameters. Consequently, a relatively precise dynamic model of the exoskeleton system is desired. Moreover, the human-robot interaction (HRI cannot be interpreted merely as a particular part of the driven torque quantitatively. Therefore, a novel control methodology, so-called probabilistic sensitivity amplification control, is presented in this paper. The innovation of the proposed control algorithm is two-fold: distributed hidden-state identification based on sensor observations and evolving learning of sensitivity factors for the purpose of dealing with the variational HRI. Compared to the other state-of-the-art algorithms, we verify the feasibility of the probabilistic sensitivity amplification control with several experiments, i.e., distributed identification model learning and walking with a human subject. The experimental result shows potential application feasibility.

  17. Two-photon stimulated emission and pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    Threshold conditions are given for the sustained operation of standing-wave and long-pulse traveling-wave two-photon lasers. Pulse shortening in long-pulse two-photon amplification, a behavior absent in the one-photon case, is also demonstrated analytically. (U.S.)

  18. Resonant amplification of quantum fluctuations in a spinor gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topic, O.; Scherer, M.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with non-zero spin are known to constitute an ideal system to investigate fundamental properties of magnetic superfluids. More recently it was realized that they also provide the fascinating opportunity to investigate the macroscopic amplification of quantum...

  19. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Christopher A [Albuquerque, NM; Denton, M Bonner [Tucson, AZ; Sperline, Roger P [Tucson, AZ

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  20. Parametric amplification in a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; Droogendijk, H.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the application of parametric amplification to a micro Coriolis mass flow sensor. We demonstrate that this mechanism allows for reduction of the system's power dissipation while retaining sensitivity to flow. By reducing this power dissipation, less heat will be transferred to the fluid

  1. Development of an electronic system for signals amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Italo S.; Tobias, Carmen C.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the obtained results with a spectrometer for electromagnetic radiation whose detector, a Si PIN type diode, was directly coupled to a signal amplification system developed in this project for scientific initiation. The linearity conditions and the gain operational limits, constituted of two stages of amplification based on the employment of devices from AMTEK A225 and A206, were determined using a precision pulse generator. The obtained results shown that the developed system is stable and linear in the gain range of 50-150. The spectrometric response of the electronic system coupled to the Siemens SFH-00206 type diode, were studied in view of the register of the 59.5 keV gamma ray spectra proceeding from 241 Am as function of the reversal polarization voltage. The influence pf the voltage and the electronic contribution in the energy resolution of the registered spectra under room temperature (22 degree Celsius) had also investigated considering the more adequate value of the coupling capacitance of the amplification system diode. Up to the present. the best energy resolution (FWHM = 4.85 keV) of the 59.5 keV line was obtained for the condition of the detector polarization at 16 V. This result proves that the signal amplification system developed coupled to the SFH00206 diode, besides the low cost, excellent operational condition for the detection and spectrometry or low energy electromagnetic radiation

  2. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel assay method to detect the highly virulent Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) termed reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), was reported by using hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) as the LAMP product colorimetric judgment. By the set of special primers, ...

  3. Amplification and Re-Generation of LNA-Modified Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doessing, Holger; Hansen, Lykke H.; Veedu, Rakesh N.

    2012-01-01

    Locked nucleic acids (LNA) confer high thermal stability and nuclease resistance to oligonucleotides. The discovery of polymerases that accept LNA triphosphates has led us to propose a scheme for the amplification and re-generation of LNA-containing oligonucleotide libraries. Such libraries could...

  4. Quality control for quantitative PCR based on amplification compatibility test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichopád, Aleš; Bar, T.; Pecen, Ladislav; Kitchen, R.R.; Kubista, Mikael; Pfaffl, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2010), s. 308-312 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809; GA AV ČR IAA500970904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Quantitative PCR * Quality control * Amplification efficiency Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  5. Amplification biases: possible differences among deviating gene expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piumi Francois

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling has become a tool of choice to study pathological or developmental questions but in most cases the material is scarce and requires sample amplification. Two main procedures have been used: in vitro transcription (IVT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the former known as linear and the latter as exponential. Previous reports identified enzymatic pitfalls in PCR and IVT protocols; however the possible differences between the sequences affected by these amplification defaults were only rarely explored. Results Screening a bovine cDNA array dedicated to embryonic stages with embryonic (n = 3 and somatic tissues (n = 2, we proceeded to moderate amplifications starting from 1 μg of total RNA (global PCR or IVT one round. Whatever the tissue, 16% of the probes were involved in deviating gene expressions due to amplification defaults. These distortions were likely due to the molecular features of the affected sequences (position within a gene, GC content, hairpin number but also to the relative abundance of these transcripts within the tissues. These deviating genes mainly encoded housekeeping genes from physiological or cellular processes (70% and constituted 2 subsets which did not overlap (molecular features, signal intensities, gene ID. However, the differential expressions identified between embryonic stages were both reliable (minor intersect with biased expressions and relevant (biologically validated. In addition, the relative expression levels of those genes were biologically similar between amplified and unamplified samples. Conclusion Conversely to the most recent reports which challenged the use of intense amplification procedures on minute amounts of RNA, we chose moderate PCR and IVT amplifications for our gene profiling study. Conclusively, it appeared that systematic biases arose even with moderate amplification procedures, independently of (i the sample used: brain, ovary or embryos, (ii

  6. New perspectives on microbial community distortion after whole-genome amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-genome amplification (WGA) has become an important tool to explore the genomic information of microorganisms in an environmental sample with limited biomass, however potential selective biases during the amplification processes are poorly understood. Here, we describe the e...

  7. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong; Gao, Zhaoming; Xu, Ying; Li, Guangyu; He, Lisheng; Qian, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    -generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms

  8. MET amplification, expression, and exon 14 mutations in colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Li, Guichao; Sun, Xiangjie; Ni, Shujuan; Tan, Cong; Xu, Midie; Huang, Dan; Ren, Fei; Li, Dawei; Wei, Ping; Du, Xiang

    2018-04-08

    MET amplification, expression, and splice mutations at exon 14 result in dysregulation of the MET signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between MET amplification, protein or mRNA expression, and mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC). MET immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used for MET protein expression analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for MET amplification detection. Both analyses were performed in tissue microarrays (TMA) containing 294 of colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples and 131 samples of adjacent normal epithelial tissue. MET mRNA expression was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 72 fresh colorectal adenocarcinoma tissue samples and adjacent normal colon tissue. PCR sequencing was performed to screen for MET exon 14 splice mutations in 59 fresh CRC tissue samples. Our results showed that MET protein expression was higher in colorectal tumor tissue than in adjacent normal intestinal epithelium. Positive MET protein expression was associated with significantly poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Multivariate analysis revealed that positive MET protein expression was an independent risk factor for DFS, but not for OS. MET mRNA expression was upregulated in tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. The incidence of MET amplification was 4.4%. None of the patients was positive for MET mutation. Collectively, MET was overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinoma, and its positive protein expression predicted a poorer outcome in CRC patients. Furthermore, according to our results, MET amplification and 14 exon mutation are extremely rare events in colorectal adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Voltage-dependent amplification of synaptic inputs in respiratory motoneurones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez Denton, M; Wienecke, J; Zhang, M; Hultborn, H; Kirkwood, P A

    2012-01-01

    The role of persistent inward currents (PICs) in cat respiratory motoneurones (phrenic inspiratory and thoracic expiratory) was investigated by studying the voltage-dependent amplification of central respiratory drive potentials (CRDPs), recorded intracellularly, with action potentials blocked with the local anaesthetic derivative, QX-314. Decerebrate unanaesthetized or barbiturate-anaesthetized preparations were used. In expiratory motoneurones, plateau potentials were observed in the decerebrates, but not under anaesthesia. For phrenic motoneurones, no plateau potentials were observed in either state (except in one motoneurone after the abolition of the respiratory drive by means of a medullary lesion), but all motoneurones showed voltage-dependent amplification of the CRDPs, over a wide range of membrane potentials, too wide to result mainly from PIC activation. The measurements of the amplification were restricted to the phase of excitation, thus excluding the inhibitory phase. Amplification was found to be greatest for the smallest CRDPs in the lowest resistance motoneurones and was reduced or abolished following intracellular injection of the NMDA channel blocker, MK-801. Plateau potentials were readily evoked in non-phrenic cervical motoneurones in the same (decerebrate) preparations. We conclude that the voltage-dependent amplification of synaptic excitation in phrenic motoneurones is mainly the result of NMDA channel modulation rather than the activation of Ca2+ channel mediated PICs, despite phrenic motoneurones being strongly immunohistochemically labelled for CaV1.3 channels. The differential PIC activation in different motoneurones, all of which are CaV1.3 positive, leads us to postulate that the descending modulation of PICs is more selective than has hitherto been believed. PMID:22495582

  10. Breakdown of hot-spot model in determining convective amplification in large homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounaix, Philippe; Divol, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Convective amplification in large homogeneous systems is studied, both analytically and numerically, in the case of a linear diffraction-free stochastic amplifier. Overall amplification does not result from successive amplifications in small scale high intensity hot spots, but from a single amplification in a delocalized mode of the driver field spreading over the whole interaction length. For this model, the hot-spot approach is found to systematically underestimate the gain factor by more than 50%

  11. Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification: Tests of a Model for Inverted DNA Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonita J Brewer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication errors are a major driver of evolution--from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale copy number variations (CNVs. Here we test a specific replication-based model to explain the generation of interstitial, inverted triplications. While no genetic information is lost, the novel inversion junctions and increased copy number of the included sequences create the potential for adaptive phenotypes. The model--Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification (ODIRA-proposes that a replication error at pre-existing short, interrupted, inverted repeats in genomic sequences generates an extrachromosomal, inverted dimeric, autonomously replicating intermediate; subsequent genomic integration of the dimer yields this class of CNV without loss of distal chromosomal sequences. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to test the feasibility of the proposed replication error and its downstream consequences on chromosome structure in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the proposed replication error-the ligation of leading and lagging nascent strands to create "closed" forks-can occur in vitro at short, interrupted inverted repeats. The removal of molecules with two closed forks results in a hairpin-capped linear duplex that we show replicates in vivo to create an inverted, dimeric plasmid that subsequently integrates into the genome by homologous recombination, creating an inverted triplication. While other models have been proposed to explain inverted triplications and their derivatives, our model can also explain the generation of human, de novo, inverted amplicons that have a 2:1 mixture of sequences from both homologues of a single parent--a feature readily explained by a plasmid intermediate that arises from one homologue and integrates into the other homologue prior to meiosis. Our tests of key features of ODIRA lend support to this mechanism and suggest further avenues of enquiry to unravel the origins

  12. Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification: Tests of a Model for Inverted DNA Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Bonita J; Payen, Celia; Di Rienzi, Sara C; Higgins, Megan M; Ong, Giang; Dunham, Maitreya J; Raghuraman, M K

    2015-12-01

    DNA replication errors are a major driver of evolution--from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale copy number variations (CNVs). Here we test a specific replication-based model to explain the generation of interstitial, inverted triplications. While no genetic information is lost, the novel inversion junctions and increased copy number of the included sequences create the potential for adaptive phenotypes. The model--Origin-Dependent Inverted-Repeat Amplification (ODIRA)-proposes that a replication error at pre-existing short, interrupted, inverted repeats in genomic sequences generates an extrachromosomal, inverted dimeric, autonomously replicating intermediate; subsequent genomic integration of the dimer yields this class of CNV without loss of distal chromosomal sequences. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches to test the feasibility of the proposed replication error and its downstream consequences on chromosome structure in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that the proposed replication error-the ligation of leading and lagging nascent strands to create "closed" forks-can occur in vitro at short, interrupted inverted repeats. The removal of molecules with two closed forks results in a hairpin-capped linear duplex that we show replicates in vivo to create an inverted, dimeric plasmid that subsequently integrates into the genome by homologous recombination, creating an inverted triplication. While other models have been proposed to explain inverted triplications and their derivatives, our model can also explain the generation of human, de novo, inverted amplicons that have a 2:1 mixture of sequences from both homologues of a single parent--a feature readily explained by a plasmid intermediate that arises from one homologue and integrates into the other homologue prior to meiosis. Our tests of key features of ODIRA lend support to this mechanism and suggest further avenues of enquiry to unravel the origins of interstitial

  13. Identification and Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Demonstration that it Interacts with ICP8, the Major DNA Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-20

    R . 1974 . Recovery of herpes simplex virus from human sacral gangl ions. N. Engl. J. Med. 291 :828-830. Baringer, J.R . 1975. Herpes simplex virus...AII’I fORCE MEDICAL C(NTEIt Title of Dissertation : "Ideatification and Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and...Demonstration that It Interacts with reps. the Major DNA Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus" Name of Candidate: Lisa Shelton Doctor of

  14. Amplification of surface acoustic waves by transverse electric current in piezoelectric semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulyaev, Yuri V.

    1974-01-01

    acoustoelectric effect but also lead to amplification of surface acoustic waves by electron drift perpendicular to the surface. For Love waves in a piezoelectric semiconductor film on a highly conducting substrate, the amplification coefficient is found and the conditions necessary for amplification...

  15. Exponential isothermal amplification of nucleic acids and amplified assays for proteins, cells, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michael S; Le, X Chris; Zhang, Hongquan

    2018-04-27

    Isothermal exponential amplification techniques, such as strand-displacement amplification (SDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), have great potential for on-site, point-of-care, and in-situ assay applications. These amplification techniques eliminate the need for temperature cycling required for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while achieving comparable amplification yield. We highlight here recent advances in exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR) for the detection of nucleic acids, proteins, enzyme activities, cells, and metal ions. We discuss design strategies, enzyme reactions, detection techniques, and key features. Incorporation of fluorescence, colorimetric, chemiluminescence, Raman, and electrochemical approaches enables highly sensitive detection of a variety of targets. Remaining issues, such as undesirable background amplification resulting from non-specific template interactions, must be addressed to further improve isothermal and exponential amplification techniques. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Added Value of HER-2 Amplification Testing by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification in Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Chantal C. H. J.; Moelans, Cathy B.; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Horstman, Anja; Hinrichs, John W. J.; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; van Diest, Paul J.; Jiwa, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background HER-2 is a prognostic and predictive marker, but as yet no technique is perfectly able to identify patients likely to benefit from HER-2 targeted therapies. We aimed to prospectively assess the added value of first-line co-testing by IHC, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Methods As local validation, HER-2 MLPA and CISH were compared in 99 breast cancers. Next, we reviewed 937 invasive breast cancers, from 4 Dutch pathology laboratories, that were prospectively assessed for HER-2 by IHC and MLPA (and CISH in selected cases). Results The validation study demonstrated 100% concordance between CISH and MLPA, if both methods were assessable and conclusive (81.8% of cases). Significant variation regarding percentages IHC 0/1+ and 2+ cases was observed between the laboratories (pCISH was 98.1% (575/586) (Kappa = 0.94). Of the IHC 3+ cases, 6.7% failed to reveal gene amplification, whereas 0.8% of the IHC 0/1+ cases demonstrated gene amplification. Results remained discordant after retrospective review in 3/11 discordant cases. In the remaining 8 cases the original IHC score was incorrect or adapted after repeated IHC staining. Conclusions MLPA is a low-cost and quantitative high-throughput technique with near perfect concordance with CISH. The use of MLPA in routinely co-testing all breast cancers may reduce HER-2 testing variation between laboratories, may serve as quality control for IHC, will reveal IHC 0/1+ patients with gene amplification, likely responsive to trastuzumab, and identify IHC 3+ cases without gene amplification that may respond less well. PMID:24324739

  17. Added value of HER-2 amplification testing by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in invasive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal C H J Kuijpers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HER-2 is a prognostic and predictive marker, but as yet no technique is perfectly able to identify patients likely to benefit from HER-2 targeted therapies. We aimed to prospectively assess the added value of first-line co-testing by IHC, and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. METHODS: As local validation, HER-2 MLPA and CISH were compared in 99 breast cancers. Next, we reviewed 937 invasive breast cancers, from 4 Dutch pathology laboratories, that were prospectively assessed for HER-2 by IHC and MLPA (and CISH in selected cases. RESULTS: The validation study demonstrated 100% concordance between CISH and MLPA, if both methods were assessable and conclusive (81.8% of cases. Significant variation regarding percentages IHC 0/1+ and 2+ cases was observed between the laboratories (p<0.0001. Overall concordance between IHC and MLPA/CISH was 98.1% (575/586 (Kappa = 0.94. Of the IHC 3+ cases, 6.7% failed to reveal gene amplification, whereas 0.8% of the IHC 0/1+ cases demonstrated gene amplification. Results remained discordant after retrospective review in 3/11 discordant cases. In the remaining 8 cases the original IHC score was incorrect or adapted after repeated IHC staining. CONCLUSIONS: MLPA is a low-cost and quantitative high-throughput technique with near perfect concordance with CISH. The use of MLPA in routinely co-testing all breast cancers may reduce HER-2 testing variation between laboratories, may serve as quality control for IHC, will reveal IHC 0/1+ patients with gene amplification, likely responsive to trastuzumab, and identify IHC 3+ cases without gene amplification that may respond less well.

  18. Production and Its Anti-hyperglycemic Effects of γ-Aminobutyric Acid from the Wild Yeast Strain Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang-Min; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from wild yeast as well as investigate its anti-hyperglycemic effects. Among ten GABA-producing yeast strains, Pichia silvicola UL6-1 and Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1 produced high GABA concentration of 134.4 µg/mL and 179.2 µg/mL, respectively. P. silvicola UL6-1 showed a maximum GABA yield of 136.5 µg/mL and 200.8 µg/mL from S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 when they were cultured for 30 hr at 30℃ in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium. The cell-free extract from P. silvicola UL6-1 and S. carnicolor 402-JB-1 showed very high anti-hyperglycemic α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of 72.3% and 69.9%, respectively. Additionally, their cell-free extract-containing GABA showed the anti-hyperglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats.

  19. Improved multiple displacement amplification (iMDA) and ultraclean reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, S Timothy; Picuri, John M; Crowder, Chris D; Minich, Jeremiah J; Hofstadler, Steven A; Eshoo, Mark W

    2014-06-06

    Next-generation sequencing sample preparation requires nanogram to microgram quantities of DNA; however, many relevant samples are comprised of only a few cells. Genomic analysis of these samples requires a whole genome amplification method that is unbiased and free of exogenous DNA contamination. To address these challenges we have developed protocols for the production of DNA-free consumables including reagents and have improved upon multiple displacement amplification (iMDA). A specialized ethylene oxide treatment was developed that renders free DNA and DNA present within Gram positive bacterial cells undetectable by qPCR. To reduce DNA contamination in amplification reagents, a combination of ion exchange chromatography, filtration, and lot testing protocols were developed. Our multiple displacement amplification protocol employs a second strand-displacing DNA polymerase, improved buffers, improved reaction conditions and DNA free reagents. The iMDA protocol, when used in combination with DNA-free laboratory consumables and reagents, significantly improved efficiency and accuracy of amplification and sequencing of specimens with moderate to low levels of DNA. The sensitivity and specificity of sequencing of amplified DNA prepared using iMDA was compared to that of DNA obtained with two commercial whole genome amplification kits using 10 fg (~1-2 bacterial cells worth) of bacterial genomic DNA as a template. Analysis showed >99% of the iMDA reads mapped to the template organism whereas only 0.02% of the reads from the commercial kits mapped to the template. To assess the ability of iMDA to achieve balanced genomic coverage, a non-stochastic amount of bacterial genomic DNA (1 pg) was amplified and sequenced, and data obtained were compared to sequencing data obtained directly from genomic DNA. The iMDA DNA and genomic DNA sequencing had comparable coverage 99.98% of the reference genome at ≥1X coverage and 99.9% at ≥5X coverage while maintaining both balance

  20. [Upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in a large factory of the upholstered furniture industry: risk management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, S; Castoro, V; Iacobellis, M; Loizzo, N; Monopoli, L

    2008-01-01

    The industrial production of upholstered furniture exposes workers to significant risk of occupational disorders due to ergonomics-related problems, such as repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb, manual load lifting, prolonged static postures. This paper describes the main measures taken by the biggest company in the "sofa sector" in southern Italy in order to solve such problems in the years 1996-2004. the classic instruments of ergonomics were used such as risk assessment, medical surveillance, training and information programmes, technological reorganization of the manufacturing process and of single working tasks. The accident rate (number of accidents per million working hours) which showed an increasing trend in the previous years, rose from a value of 31 in 1996 to 51 in the years 1999-2000 (with a percentage of accidents related to load lifting in the range 25-35%). At the same time the incidence rate of work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in the population of workers (which had increased in the meantime from 2500 to 3500 employees) reached nearly 5% in 2001, with peaks of 8-9% in the work tasks with higher exposure. Accident rates progressively fell in the following three years until a value of 20 was reached in 2004 and 2005, while the mean incidence rate of WMSDs reached a value of nearly 1%. The data need to be compared with the trends in the other companies of the sector in the same period, with an average incidence rate of WMSDs around 2% and a generally increasing trend. Ergonomic interventions not only concur in the management and control of negative events for workers health but also in achieving advantages in terms of lower costs and greater productivity.

  1. STRUCTURILE DE DEFLECTORI, FACTORI DE ÎMBUNĂTĂŢIRE AI HABITATULUI PISCICOL- STUDIU DE CAZ, RÂUL NICOLET (QUEBEC-CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius DULGHERU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflection structures factors for improve the fish habitat. Case study nicolet river (Quebec-Canada. Există câţiva factori care joacă un rol important în definirea calităţii habitatului fizic al râurilor, speciile de peşti manifestând preferinţe pentru anumite elemente hidraulice (viteză, adâncime, tipul sedimentelor etc. Un habitat sănătos este în mod normal caracterizat printr-o succesiune morfologică de vaduri şi adâncuri cu impact în oxigenarea apei, reproducerea şi hrănirea peştilor etc. Datorită importanţei recreaţionale a pescuitului, în Canada există un număr foarte mare de proiecte de îmbunătăţire a habitatului piscicol. In acest sens, deflectorii amplasaţi în albiile cursurilor de apă s-au dovedit a fi metoda cea mai de succes pentru habitatul păstrăvilor. Pe râul Nicolet (Quebec-Canada a fost monitorizată influenţa unor astfel de structuri inginereşti asupra menţinerii în timp a structurii de adânc. Din analiza evoluţiei morfologice şi morfometrice a adâncurilor (prin folosirea diferitelor ridicări topografice succesive din perioada 2000-2007, rezultă faptul că structurile inginereşti au un rol benefic în menţinerea unui habitat propice pentru peşti.

  2. Cell-cycle-dependent localization of human cytomegalovirus UL83 phosphoprotein in the nucleolus and modulation of viral gene expression in human embryo fibroblasts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Rodighiero, Isabella; Mirandola, Prisco; De Conto, Flora; Covan, Silvia; Germini, Diego; Razin, Sergey; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    The nucleolus is a multifunctional nuclear compartment widely known to be involved in several cellular processes, including mRNA maturation and shuttling to cytoplasmic sites, control of the cell cycle, cell proliferation, and apoptosis; thus, it is logical that many viruses, including herpesvirus, target the nucleolus in order to exploit at least one of the above-mentioned functions. Recent studies from our group demonstrated the early accumulation of the incoming ppUL83 (pp65), the major tegument protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), in the nucleolus. The obtained results also suggested that a functional relationship might exist between the nucleolar localization of pp65, rRNA synthesis, and the development of the lytic program of viral gene expression. Here we present new data which support the hypothesis of a potentially relevant role of HCMV pp65 and its nucleolar localization for the control of the cell cycle by HCMV (arrest of cell proliferation in G1-G1/S), and for the promotion of viral infection. We demonstrated that, although the incoming pp65 amount in the infected cells appears to be constant irrespective of the cell-cycle phase, its nucleolar accumulation is prominent in G1 and G1/S, but very poor in S or G2/M. This correlates with the observation that only cells in G1 and G1/S support an efficient development of the HCMV lytic cycle. We propose that HCMV pp65 might be involved in regulatory/signaling pathways related to nucleolar functions, such as the cell-cycle control. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments have permitted to identify nucleolin as one of the nucleolar partners of pp65.

  3. Influence of low dose ionizing radiation on amplification and antitumor activity of LAK/TIL cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Hou Dianjun; Qiao Jianwei; Shang Ximei; Li Jieqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of low dose ionization on amplification and antitumor activity of LAK/TIL cells. Methods: TIL cells isolated from Lewis lung cancer tissues and LAK cells from spleen of tumor-bearing mouse were irradiated with different low doses of X-rays and were cultured after irradiation. Results: Low dose ionizing radiation improved the amplification volume of LAK/TIL cells, decreased the cell death ratio in amplification process, and increased the toxicity of LAK/TIL cells, Conclusions: Low dose ionizing radiation can result in amplification of biologically activated lymphocytes, and decreases the death ratio of the cells in amplification process

  4. Spin noise amplification and giant noise in optical microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S. [Spin-Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kavokin, A. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin-Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lagoudakis, P. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-14

    When studying the spin-noise-induced fluctuations of Kerr rotation in a quantum-well microcavity, we have found a dramatic increase of the noise signal (by more than two orders of magnitude) in the vicinity of anti-crossing of the polariton branches. The effect is explained by nonlinear optical instability of the microcavity giving rise to the light-power-controlled amplification of the polarization noise signal. In the framework of the developed model of built-in amplifier, we also interpret the nontrivial spectral and intensity-related properties of the observed noise signal below the region of anti-crossing of polariton branches. The discovered effect of optically controllable amplification of broadband polarization signals in microcavities in the regime of optical instability may be of interest for detecting weak oscillations of optical anisotropy in fundamental research and for other applications in optical information processing.

  5. Whole genome amplification - Review of applications and advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, Trevor L.; Detter, J.C.; Richardson, Paul

    2001-11-15

    The concept of Whole Genome Amplification is something that has arisen in the past few years as modifications to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been adapted to replicate regions of genomes which are of biological interest. The applications here are many--forensics, embryonic disease diagnosis, bio terrorism genome detection, ''imoralization'' of clinical samples, microbial diversity, and genotyping. The key question is if DNA can be replicated a genome at a time without bias or non random distribution of the target. Several papers published in the last year and currently in preparation may lead to the conclusion that whole genome amplification may indeed be possible and therefore open up a new avenue to molecular biology.

  6. Surface plasmon polariton amplification in semiconductor-graphene-dielectric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadoenkova, Yuliya S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod (Russian Federation); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk (Ukraine); Moiseev, Sergey G. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Abramov, Aleksei S. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Kadochkin, Aleksei S.; Zolotovskii, Igor O. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnologies of Microelectronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 32A Leninskiy Prosp., 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Fotiadi, Andrei A. [Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Universite de Mons (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanism of amplification of surface plasmon polaritons due to the transfer of electromagnetic energy from a drift current wave into a far-infrared surface wave propagating along a semiconductor-dielectric boundary in waveguide geometry is proposed. A necessary condition of the interaction of these waves is phase matching condition, i. e., when the phase velocity of the surface wave approaches the drift velocity of charge carriers. It is shown that in the spectral region of the surface plasmon polariton slowing-down its amplification coefficient can reach values substantially exceeding the ohmic loss coefficient of the surface wave in the structure. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Microfluidic "Pouch" Chips for Immunoassays and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Qiu, Xianbo; Chen, Dafeng; Song, Jinzhao; Bau, Haim H

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic cassettes ("chips") for processing and analysis of clinical specimens and other sample types facilitate point-of-care (POC) immunoassays and nucleic acid based amplification tests. These single-use test chips can be self-contained and made amenable to autonomous operation-reducing or eliminating supporting instrumentation-by incorporating laminated, pliable "pouch" and membrane structures for fluid storage, pumping, mixing, and flow control. Materials and methods for integrating flexible pouch compartments and diaphragm valves into hard plastic (e.g., acrylic and polycarbonate) microfluidic "chips" for reagent storage, fluid actuation, and flow control are described. We review several versions of these pouch chips for immunoassay and nucleic acid amplification tests, and describe related fabrication techniques. These protocols thus offer a "toolbox" of methods for storage, pumping, and flow control functions in microfluidic devices.

  8. Circulation and Directional Amplification in the Josephson Parametric Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatridge, Michael

    Nonreciprocal transport and directional amplification of weak microwave signals are fundamental ingredients in performing efficient measurements of quantum states of flying microwave light. This challenge has been partly met, as quantum-limited amplification is now regularly achieved with parametrically-driven, Josephson-junction based superconducting circuits. However, these devices are typically non-directional, requiring external circulators to separate incoming and outgoing signals. Recently this limitation has been overcome by several proposals and experimental realizations of both directional amplifiers and circulators based on interference between several parametric processes in a single device. This new class of multi-parametrically driven devices holds the promise of achieving a variety of desirable characteristics simultaneously- directionality, reduced gain-bandwidth constraints and quantum-limited added noise, and are good candidates for on-chip integration with other superconducting circuits such as qubits.

  9. Quantum Privacy Amplification for a Sequence of Single Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2006-01-01

    We present a scheme for quantum privacy amplification (QPA) for a sequence of single qubits. The QPA procedure uses a unitary operation with two controlled-not gates and a Hadamard gate. Every two qubits are performed with the unitary gate operation, and a measurement is made on one photon and the other one is retained. The retained qubit carries the state information of the discarded one. In this way, the information leakage is reduced. The procedure can be performed repeatedly so that the information leakage is reduced to any arbitrarily low level. With this QPA scheme, the quantum secure direct communication with single qubits can be implemented with arbitrarily high security. We also exploit this scheme to do privacy amplification on the single qubits in quantum information sharing for long-distance communication with quantum repeaters.

  10. Nondeterministic noiseless amplification via non-symplectic phase space transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walk, Nathan; Lund, Austin P; Ralph, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the action of an ideal noiseless linear amplifier operator, g a-hat † a-hat, using the Wigner function phase space representation. In this setting we are able to clarify the gain g for which a physical output is produced when this operator is acted upon inputs other than coherent states. We derive compact closed form expressions for the action of N local amplifiers, with potentially different gains, on arbitrary N-mode Gaussian states and provide several examples of the utility of this formalism for determining important quantities including amplification and the strength and purity of the distilled entanglement, and for optimizing the use of the amplification in quantum information protocols. (paper)

  11. Search for methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms in mutant figs

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M. G F; Martins, A. B G [UNESP; Bertoni, B. W.; Figueira, A.; Giuliatti, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fig (Ficus carica) breeding programs that use conventional approaches to develop new cultivars are rare, owing to limited genetic variability and the difficulty in obtaining plants via gamete fusion. Cytosine methylation in plants leads to gene repression, thereby affecting transcription without changing the DNA sequence. Previous studies using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers revealed no polymorphisms among select fig mutants that ori...

  12. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Paral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site.

  13. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  14. Research on amplification multiple of source neutron number for ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Guisheng; Zhao Zhixiang; Zhang Baocheng; Shen Qingbiao; Ding Dazhao

    1998-01-01

    NJOY-91.91 and MILER code systems was applied to process and generate 44 group cross sections in AMPX master library format from CENDL-2 and ENDF/B-6. It is important an ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) assembly spectrum is used as the weighting spectrum for generating multi-group constants. Amplification multiples of source neutron number for several fast assemblies were calculated

  15. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Divoký, Martin; Huynh, Jaroslav; Straka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), 1-7 ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0814; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase matching * phase mismatch * beam mismatch * broadband amplification * parametric amplifiers * OPCPA * iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.458, year: 2014

  16. Soft x-ray amplification in an ablative capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwek, K.H.; Low, K.S.; Tan, C.A.; Lim, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Soft x-ray amplification in CVI 18.2 nm line is observed in an ablative UHMW-PE capillary discharge. The gain coefficient is measured to be 1.9 cm -1 . The electron density is about 2 x 10 19 cm -3 . This indicates that capillary discharge pumping device can be a source for a compact soft x-ray laser. (author)

  17. Field and current amplification in the SSPX spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N. . hilld@llnl.gov; Bulmer, R.H.; Cohen, B.I.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented from experiments relating to magnetic field generation and current amplification in the SSPX spheromak. The SSPX spheromak plasma is driven by DC coaxial helicity injection using a 2MJ capacitor bank. Peak toroidal plasma currents of up to 0.7MA and peak edge poloidal fields of 0.3T are produced; lower current discharges can be sustained up to 3.5msec. When edge magnetic fluctuations are reduced below 1% by driving the plasma near threshold, it is possible to produce plasmas with Te > 150eV, e >∼4% and core χ e ∼30m 2 /s. Helicity balance for these plasmas suggests that sheath dissipation can be significant, pointing to the importance of maximizing the voltage on the coaxial injector. For most operational modes we find a stiff relationship between peak spheromak field and injector current, and little correlation with plasma temperature, which suggests that other processes than ohmic dissipation may limit field amplification. However, slowing spheromak buildup by limiting the initial current pulse increases the ratio of toroidal current to injected current and points to new operating regimes with more favorable current amplification. (author)

  18. Arctic amplification: does it impact the polar jet stream?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin P. Meleshko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesised that the Arctic amplification of temperature changes causes a decrease in the northward temperature gradient in the troposphere, thereby enhancing the oscillation of planetary waves leading to extreme weather in mid-latitudes. To test this hypothesis, we study the response of the atmosphere to Arctic amplification for a projected summer sea-ice-free period using an atmospheric model with prescribed surface boundary conditions from a state-of-the-art Earth system model. Besides a standard global warming simulation, we also conducted a sensitivity experiment with sea ice and sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arctic. We show that when global climate warms, enhancement of the northward heat transport provides the major contribution to decrease the northward temperature gradient in the polar troposphere in cold seasons, causing more oscillation of the planetary waves. However, while Arctic amplification significantly enhances near-surface air temperature in the polar region, it is not large enough to invoke an increased oscillation of the planetary waves.

  19. Device-independent randomness amplification with a single device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesch, Martin; Pivoluska, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Expansion and amplification of weak randomness with untrusted quantum devices has recently become a very fruitful topic of research. Here we contribute with a procedure for amplifying a single weak random source using tri-partite GHZ-type entangled states. If the quality of the source reaches a fixed threshold R=log 2 ⁡(10), perfect random bits can be produced. This technique can be used to extract randomness from sources that can't be extracted neither classically, nor by existing procedures developed for Santha–Vazirani sources. Our protocol works with a single fault-free device decomposable into three non-communicating parts, that is repeatedly reused throughout the amplification process. - Highlights: • We propose a protocol for device independent randomness amplification. • Our protocol repeatedly re-uses a single device decomposable into three parts. • Weak random sources with min-entropy rate greater than 1/4 log 2 ⁡(10) can be amplified. • Security against all-quantum adversaries is achieved

  20. Current amplification models of sensorineurall and conductive hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of a hearing aid is to improve auditory and language abilities of hearing impaired users. The amplification model has to be adapted according to age, degree and type of hearing loss. The goal of this paper is to analyze the current amplification models of sensorineural and conductive hearing loss which can provide a high quality of speech perception and sounds at any degree of hearing loss. The BAHA is a surgically implantable system for treatment of conductive hearing loss that works through direct bone conduction. BAHA is used to help people with chronic ear infections, congenital external auditory canal atresia and single sided deafness who cannot benefit from conventional hearing aids. The last generation of hearing aid for sensorineural hearing loss is cochlear implant. Bimodal amplification improves binaural hearing. Hearing aids alone do not make listening easier in all situations. The things that can interfere with listening are background noises, distance from a sound and reverberation or echo. The device used most often today is the Frequency Modulated (FM system.

  1. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  2. Raman laser amplification in preformed and ionizing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D S; Fisch, N J

    2004-01-01

    The recently proposed backward Raman laser amplification scheme utilizes the stimulated Raman backscattering in plasma of a long pumping laser pulse to amplify a short, frequency downshifted seed pulse. The output intensity for this scheme is limited by the development of forward Raman scattering (FRS) or modulational instabilities of the highly amplified seed. Theoretically, focused output intensities as high as 1025 W/cm 2 and pulse lengths of less than 100 fs could be accessible by this technique for 1 (micro)m lasers--an improvement of 10 4 -10 5 in focused intensity over current techniques. Simulations with the particle-in-cell (PIC) code Zohar are presented which investigate the effects of FRS and modulational instabilities and of Langmuir wave breaking on the output intensity for Raman amplification. Using the intense seed pulse to photoionize the plasma simultaneous with its amplification (and hence avoid plasmas-based instabilities of the pump) is also investigated by PIC simulations. It is shown that both approaches can access focused intensities in the 1025 W/cm 2 range

  3. [Upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs): a retrospective cohort study in three large factories of the upholstered furniture industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, S; Consonni, D; Carino, M; Di Leone, G; Trani, G; Battevi, N; Colombini, Daniela; Ambrosi, L

    2008-01-01

    The epidemiological evidence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) due to repetitive strain and movements in the various industries has been collected in the literature mainly through cross-sectional surveys. In particular there are no contributions so far regarding the upholstered furniture industry with a longitudinal design. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence rate of WMSDs such as hand-wrist and shoulder tendonitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and epicondylitis in exposed workers of three large companies of the upholstered furniture industry in a large geographic area of southern Italy. The OCRA method, recommended by international standard ISO 11228-3 and EN 1005-5, was used for risk assessment. The following work tasks were considered:.filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. A total population of 5,278 subjects (exposed n=2927, controls n=2351) was investigated. The person/year at risk parameters were calculated from 1 January 2000, or from the date of engagement if later, until the first diagnosis of WMSD or, in absence of disorders, until the end of the study, i.e. 31 December 2004. Disorders occurring after the first were not considered. A multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate relationships between rates. Incidence rates correlated with risk classes of the OCRA index. An incidence rate of WMSDs higher than 1.2 cases per 100 person/year may be considered as a threshold value to suspect an occupational exposure to repetitive strain and movements warranting further investigation. The analysis of single factors did not show a greater predisposition of the female gender, with the single exception of the carpal tunnel syndrome (RR 2.92; 95% CI 1.57-5.43). Shoulder disorders affected mainly male leather-cutting operators (RR 4.97; 95% CI 2.03-12.16) and among all the factors influencing risk (frequency, force, posture, additional risk factors, pauses) posture seems to

  4. Holocene palaeohydrological history of the Tǎul Muced peat bog (Northern Carpathians, Romania) based on testate amoebae (Protozoa) and plant macrofossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmin Diaconu, Andrei; Feurdean, Angelica; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Gałka, Mariusz; Tanţǎu, Ioan

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past local vs. regional hydro-climate variability is a priority in climate research. This is because ecosystems and human depend on local climatic conditions and the magnitude of these climate changes is more variable at local and regional rather than at global scales. Ombrotrophic bogs are highly suitable for hydro-climate reconstructions as they are entirely dependent on the water from precipitation. We used stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, testate amoebae (TA) and plant macrofossils on a peat profile from an ombrotrophic bog (Tǎul Muced) located in the Biosphere Reserve of the Rodna National Park Romania. We performed quantitative reconstruction of the depth to water table (DWT) and pH over the last 8000 years in a continental area of CE Europe. We identified six main stages in the development of the bog based on changes in TA assemblages in time. Wet conditions and pH between 2 and 4.5 were recorded between 4600-2750 and 1300-400 cal. yr BP, by the occurrence of Archerella flavum, Amphitrema wrightianum and Hyalosphenia papilio. This was associated to a local vegetation primarily composed of Sphagnum magellanicum and S. angustifolium. Dry stages and pH of 2.5 to 5 were inferred between 7550-4600, 2750-1300 and -50 cal. yr BP, by the dominance of Nebela militaris, Difflugia pulex and Phryganella acropodia. These overall dry conditions were also connected with increased abundance of Eriophorum vaginatum. The period between 400 and -50 cal. yr BP was characterized by a rapid shift from dry to wet conditions on the surface of the bog. Vegetation shifted from Sphagnum magellanicum to Sphagnum russowii dominated community. Our reconstruction remains in relatively good agreement with other palaeohydrological records from Central Eastern Europe. However, it shows contrasting conditions to others particularly with records from NW Europe. The valuable information regarding bog hydrology offered by our record puts an accent on the need of more regional TA

  5. GAB2 amplifications refine molecular classification of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernoff, Karen A; Bordone, Lindsey; Horst, Basil; Simon, Katherine; Twadell, William; Lee, Keagan; Cohen, Jason A; Wang, Shuang; Silvers, David N; Brunner, Georg; Celebi, Julide Tok

    2009-07-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in BRAF, NRAS, or KIT are associated with distinct melanoma subtypes with KIT mutations and/or copy number changes frequently observed among melanomas arising from sun-protected sites, such as acral skin (palms, soles, and nail bed) and mucous membranes. GAB2 has recently been implicated in melanoma pathogenesis, and increased copy numbers are found in a subset of melanomas. We sought to determine the association of increased copy numbers of GAB2 among melanoma subtypes in the context of genetic alterations in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT. A total of 85 melanomas arising from sun-protected (n = 23) and sun-exposed sites (n = 62) were analyzed for copy number changes using array-based comparative genomic hybridization and for gain-of-function mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT. GAB2 amplifications were found in 9% of the cases and were associated with melanomas arising from acral and mucosal sites (P = 0.005). Increased copy numbers of the KIT locus were observed in 6% of the cases. The overall mutation frequencies for BRAF and NRAS were 43.5% and 14%, respectively, and were mutually exclusive. Among the acral and mucosal melanomas studied, the genetic alteration frequency was 26% for GAB2, 13% for KIT, 30% for BRAF, and 4% for NRAS. Importantly, the majority of GAB2 amplifications occurred independent from genetic events in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT. GAB2 amplification is critical for melanomas arising from sun-protected sites. Genetic alterations in GAB2 will help refine the molecular classification of melanomas.

  6. Combined Amplification and Sound Generation for Tinnitus: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutaj, Lindsey; Hoare, Derek J; Sereda, Magdalena

    In most cases, tinnitus is accompanied by some degree of hearing loss. Current tinnitus management guidelines recognize the importance of addressing hearing difficulties, with hearing aids being a common option. Sound therapy is the preferred mode of audiological tinnitus management in many countries, including in the United Kingdom. Combination instruments provide a further option for those with an aidable hearing loss, as they combine amplification with a sound generation option. The aims of this scoping review were to catalog the existing body of evidence on combined amplification and sound generation for tinnitus and consider opportunities for further research or evidence synthesis. A scoping review is a rigorous way to identify and review an established body of knowledge in the field for suggestive but not definitive findings and gaps in current knowledge. A wide variety of databases were used to ensure that all relevant records within the scope of this review were captured, including gray literature, conference proceedings, dissertations and theses, and peer-reviewed articles. Data were gathered using scoping review methodology and consisted of the following steps: (1) identifying potentially relevant records; (2) selecting relevant records; (3) extracting data; and (4) collating, summarizing, and reporting results. Searches using 20 different databases covered peer-reviewed and gray literature and returned 5959 records. After exclusion of duplicates and works that were out of scope, 89 records remained for further analysis. A large number of records identified varied considerably in methodology, applied management programs, and type of devices. There were significant differences in practice between different countries and clinics regarding candidature and fitting of combination aids, partly driven by the application of different management programs. Further studies on the use and effects of combined amplification and sound generation for tinnitus are

  7. Precision phase estimation based on weak-value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Liu, Xiong; Luo, Lan; Li, Zhaoxue; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a precision method for phase estimation based on the weak-value amplification (WVA) technique using a monochromatic light source. The anomalous WVA significantly suppresses the technical noise with respect to the intensity difference signal induced by the phase delay when the post-selection procedure comes into play. The phase measured precision of this method is proportional to the weak-value of a polarization operator in the experimental range. Our results compete well with the wide spectrum light phase weak measurements and outperform the standard homodyne phase detection technique.

  8. Amplification of magnetic modes in laser-created plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matte, J.P.; Bendib, A.; Luciani, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The amplification of magnetic (Weibel) modes in laser-plasma interaction is investigated by use of unperturbed distribution functions given by Fokker-Planck simulations and a dispersion relation valid for all collisionality regimes. In the five cases studied, a strongly growing mode is found in the underdense plasma, where v-bar/sub x/ 2 2 , and the usual slowly growing one in the overdense plasma. The first mode grows convectively outwards by more than 10 4 . The convection velocities are found to be very different from Nernst values

  9. Processes of synchronization, chaotization and amplification in a germanium oscillistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abakarova, N.S.; Aliev, K.M.; Ibragimov, Kh.O.; Kamilov, I.K. [Institute of Physics, Dagestan Science Centre, RAS, Makhachkala (Russian Federation)

    2001-12-03

    The effect of an external harmonic signal on the screw instability of the current in the electron-hole plasma has been studied experimentally in Ge at 77 K and 300 K. The influence exerted by external signals with various amplitudes and frequencies, applied to a sample both additively and multiplicatively, on the synchronization, amplification and stability of the system in absolute and convective modes of instability excitation has been investigated at points of bifurcation in a wide region of the parametric space. (author)

  10. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Boyle

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB has been designated a public health priority by the World Health Organisation. In high burden TB countries nucleic acid based TB tests have been restricted to centralised laboratories and specialised research settings. Requirements such as a constant electrical supply, air conditioning and skilled, computer literate operators prevent implementation of such tests in many settings. Isothermal DNA amplification technologies permit the use of simpler, less energy intensive detection platforms more suited to low resource settings that allow the accurate diagnosis of a disease within a short timeframe. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA is a rapid, low temperature isothermal DNA amplification reaction. We report here RPA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC DNA in <20 minutes at 39 °C. Assays for two MTC specific targets were investigated, IS6110 and IS1081. When testing purified MTC genomic DNA, limits of detection of 6.25 fg (IS6110 and 20 fg (IS1081were consistently achieved. When testing a convenience sample of pulmonary specimens from suspected TB patients, RPA demonstrated superior accuracy to indirect fluorescence microscopy. Compared to culture, sensitivities for the IS1081 RPA and microscopy were 91.4% (95%CI: 85, 97.9 and 86.1% (95%CI: 78.1, 94.1 respectively (n = 71. Specificities were 100% and 88.6% (95% CI: 80.8, 96.1 respectively. For the IS6110 RPA and microscopy sensitivities of 87.5% (95%CI: 81.7, 93.2 and 70.8% (95%CI: 62.9, 78.7 were obtained (n = 90. Specificities were 95.4 (95% CI: 92.3,98.1 and 88% (95% CI: 83.6, 92.4 respectively. The superior specificity of RPA for detecting tuberculosis was due to the reduced ability of fluorescence microscopy to distinguish Mtb complex from other acid fast bacteria. The rapid nature of the RPA assay and its low energy requirement compared to other amplification technologies suggest RPA-based TB

  11. Quantum quench in one dimension: coherent inhomogeneity amplification and "supersolitons".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Matthew S; Yuzbashyan, Emil A; Altshuler, Boris L

    2010-09-24

    We study a quantum quench in a 1D system possessing Luttinger liquid (LL) and Mott insulating ground states before and after the quench, respectively. We show that the quench induces power law amplification in time of any particle density inhomogeneity in the initial LL ground state. The scaling exponent is set by the fractionalization of the LL quasiparticle number relative to the insulator. As an illustration, we consider the traveling density waves launched from an initial localized density bump. While these waves exhibit a particular rigid shape, their amplitudes grow without bound.

  12. Sheared flow amplification by vacuum magnetic islands in stellarator plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.

    2001-01-01

    There is some experimental evidence that the E x B flows have radial structure that may be linked to rational surfaces. This flow structure may result from a self-organization process involving nonlinear flow amplification through Reynolds stress and fluctuation reduction by sheared flows. In stellarators, a large contribution to the Reynolds stress comes from the coupling of the magnetic field component of a vacuum field island with a plasma instability. In this process, the self-organization principle seems to be marginal stability for the fluctuations driving the flow

  13. Soft X-Ray amplification in laser plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis-Jacquet, M.

    1988-01-01

    The principles, experiments and theoretical models of soft x-ray, amplification, produced in laser plasmas, are studied. In the discussion of the principles, the laser plasma medium, the definition of the gain, the population inversions, saturation and superradiance are described. The results concerning recombination and collisional excitation experiments, as well as experimental devices are shown. A complete physical simulation to design and interpret x-ray laser experiments is given. Applications of x-ray lasers in grating production techniques, in contact microscopy and holography are considered

  14. Josephson Parametric Amplification for Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics: Theory and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    especially Will McFaul and Anasua Chatterjee. I (and all other lab members) also thank Mr. Bean , our coffee /espresso machine, for always being there. Next, I...a chain of amplifiers [15,16], an initial amplification with a low noise figure and high gain will lead to an effective SNR at later stages of...product of such a state is the minimum possible for the harmonic oscillator. The expectation value rotates clockwise about the origin of the Re[a], Im[a

  15. Standard Procedure for Dose Assessment using the film holder NRPB/AERE and the film AGFA Monitoring 2/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the calculation method to assess dose and energy using the film holder from NRPB/AERE and the film Agfa Monitoring 2/10. Also includes all the steps since preparing the standard curve, fitting of calibration curve, dose assesment, description of filtration of the film holder and the form of the calibration curve

  16. A 2-10 GHz GaAs MMIC opto-electronic phase detector for optical microwave signal generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Marlene; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Petersen, Anders Kongstad

    1994-01-01

    Optical transmission of microwave signals becomes increasingly important. Techniques using beat between optical carriers of semiconductor lasers are promising if efficient optical phase locked loops are realized. A highly efficient GaAs MMIC optoelectronic phase detector for a 2-10 GHz OPLL...

  17. Further Characterization of the UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with ICP8, the Major DNA-Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Baringer, J.R. 1974. Recovery of herpes simplex virus from human sacral ganglions. N. Eng!. J. Med. 291:828-830. Baringer, J.R. 1976. The biology of herpes ...UL37 Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with [CPS, the Major DNA~Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus" beyond brief...Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and its Interaction with [CPS, the Major DNA-Binding Protein of Herpes Simplex Virus Allen G. Albright Doctor of

  18. Laser light triggers increased Raman amplification in the regime of nonlinear Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Masson-Laborde, P.E.; Yahia, V.; Loisel, G.; Labaune, C.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS) has many unwanted effects in megajoule-scale inertially confined fusion (ICF) plasmas. Moreover, attempts to harness SRS to amplify short laser pulses through backward Raman amplification have achieved limited success. In high temperature fusion plasmas, SRS usually occurs in a kinetic regime where the nonlinear response of the Langmuir wave to the laser drive and its host of complicating factors make it difficult to predict the degree of amplification that can be achieved under given experimental conditions. Here we present experimental evidence of reduced Landau damping with increasing Langmuir wave amplitude and determine its effects on Raman amplification. The threshold for trapping effects to influence the amplification is shown to be very low. Above threshold, the complex SRS dynamics results in increased amplification factors, which partly explains previous ICF experiments. These insights could aid the development of more efficient backward Raman amplification schemes in this regime. (authors)

  19. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Optical parametric amplification/oscillation provide a powerful tool for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency {\\it down-conversion} process, and thus it can not be realized for signal waves at a frequency $\\omega_3$ {\\it higher} than the frequency of the pump wave $\\omega_1$. In this work we suggest a route toward the realization of {\\it up-conversion} optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e. amplification ...

  20. A cascade amplification strategy based on rolling circle amplification and hydroxylamine amplified gold nanoparticles enables chemiluminescence detection of adenosine triphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Tonghuan; Yang, Taoyi; Jin, Nan; Zhao, Yanjun; Fan, Aiping

    2014-08-07

    A highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescent (CL) biosensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed by taking advantage of the ATP-dependent enzymatic reaction (ATP-DER), the powerful signal amplification capability of rolling circle amplification (RCA), and hydroxylamine-amplified gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The strategy relies on the ability of ATP, a cofactor of T4 DNA ligase, to trigger the ligation-RCA reaction. In the presence of ATP, the T4 DNA ligase catalyzes the ligation reaction between the two ends of the padlock probe, producing a closed circular DNA template that initiates the RCA reaction with phi29 DNA polymerase and dNTP. Therein, many complementary copies of the circular template can be generated. The ATP-DER is eventually converted into a detectable CL signal after a series of processes, including gold probe hybridization, hydroxylamine amplification, and oxidative gold metal dissolution coupled with a simple and sensitive luminol CL reaction. The CL signal is directly proportional to the ATP level. The results showed that the detection limit of the assay is 100 pM of ATP, which compares favorably with those of other ATP detection techniques. In addition, by taking advantage of ATP-DER, the proposed CL sensing system exhibits extraordinary specificity towards ATP and could distinguish the target molecule ATP from its analogues. The proposed method provides a new and versatile platform for the design of novel DNA ligation reaction-based CL sensing systems for other cofactors. This novel ATP-DER based CL sensing system may find wide applications in clinical diagnosis as well as in environmental and biomedical fields.

  1. Chaotic amplification of neutrino chemical potentials by neutrino oscillations in big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, X.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate in detail the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino oscillations that amplifies neutrino chemical potentials at the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis. We calculate the magnitude of the amplification and show evidence of chaos in the amplification process. We also discuss the implications of the neutrino chemical potential amplification in big bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that with a ∼1 eV ν e , the amplification of its chemical potential by active-sterile neutrino oscillations can lower the effective number of neutrino species at big bang nucleosynthesis to significantly below three. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Chaotic amplification of neutrino chemical potentials by neutrino oscillations in big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. [Department of Physics, Queen`s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (CANADA)

    1996-08-01

    We investigate in detail the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino oscillations that amplifies neutrino chemical potentials at the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis. We calculate the magnitude of the amplification and show evidence of chaos in the amplification process. We also discuss the implications of the neutrino chemical potential amplification in big bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that with a {approximately}1 eV {nu}{sub {ital e}}, the amplification of its chemical potential by active-sterile neutrino oscillations can lower the effective number of neutrino species at big bang nucleosynthesis to significantly below three. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. CDK4 amplification predicts recurrence of well-differentiated liposarcoma of the abdomen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    Full Text Available The absence of CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas is associated with favorable prognosis. We aimed to identify the factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients with well-differentiated (WD and dedifferentiated (DD liposarcomas.From 2000 to 2010, surgical resections for 101 WD and DD liposarcomas were performed. Cases in which complete surgical resections with curative intent were carried out were selected. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR.There were 31 WD and 17 DD liposarcomas. Locoregional recurrence was observed in 11 WD and 3 DD liposarcomas. WD liposarcomas showed better patient survival compared to DD liposarcomas (P<0.05. Q-PCR analysis of the liposarcomas revealed the presence of CDK4 amplification in 44 cases (91.7% and MDM2 amplification in 46 cases (95.8%. WD liposarcomas with recurrence after surgical resection had significantly higher levels of CDK4 amplification compared to those without recurrence (P = 0.041. High level of CDK4 amplification (cases with CDK4 amplification higher than the median 7.54 was associated with poor recurrence-free survival compared to low CDK4 amplification in both univariate (P = 0.012 and multivariate analyses (P = 0.020.Level of CDK4 amplification determined by Q-PCR was associated with the recurrence of WD liposarcomas after surgical resection.

  4. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on MNAzyme-mediated signal amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao, Wei; Tang, Min; Ding, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ye; Yang, Jianru; Cheng, Wenbin; Mo, Fei; Wen, Bo; Xu, Lulu; Yan, Yurong

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an electrochemical sensing strategy for highly sensitive and specific detection of target (analyte) DNA based on an amplification scheme mediated by a multicomponent nucleic acid enzyme (MNAzyme). MNAzymes were formed by multicomponent complexes which produce amplified “output” signals in response to specific “input” signal. In the presence of target nucleic acid, multiple partial enzymes (partzymes) oligonucleotides are assembled to form active MNAzymes. These can cleave H0 substrate into two pieces, thereby releasing the activated MNAzyme to undergo an additional cycle of amplification. Here, the two pieces contain a biotin-tagged sequence and a byproduct. The biotin-tagged sequences are specifically captured by the detection probes immobilized on the gold electrode. By employing streptavidinylated alkaline phosphatase as an enzyme label, an electrochemical signal is obtained. The electrode, if operated at a working potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in solution of pH 7.5, covers the 100 pM to 0.25 μM DNA concentration range, with a 79 pM detection limit. In our perception, the strategy introduced here has a wider potential in that it may be applied to molecular diagnostics and pathogen detection. (author)

  5. Static and Dynamic Amplification Using Strong Mechanical Coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2016-07-28

    Amplifying the signal-to-noise ratio of resonant sensors is vital toward the effort to miniaturize devices into the sub-micro and nano regimes. In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically and experimentally, amplification through mechanically coupled microbeams. The device is composed of two identical clamped-clamped beams, made of polyimide, connected at their middle through a third beam, which acts as a mechanical coupler. Each of the clamped-clamped microbeams and the coupler are designed to be actuated separately, hence providing various possibilities of actuation and sensing. The coupled resonator is driven into resonance near its first resonance mode and its dynamic behavior is explored via frequency sweeps. The results show significant amplification in the resonator amplitude when the signal is measured at the midpoint of the coupler compared with the response of the individual uncoupled beams. The static pull-in characteristics of the resonator are also studied. It is shown that the compliant mechanical coupler can serve as a low-power radio frequency switch actuated at low voltage loads. [2016-0100

  6. Primer Extension Mutagenesis Powered by Selective Rolling Circle Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Tuomas; Brockmann, Eeva-Christine; Akter, Sultana; Perez-Gamarra, Susan; Ylä-Pelto, Jani; Liu, Yuan; Lamminmäki, Urpo

    2012-01-01

    Primer extension mutagenesis is a popular tool to create libraries for in vitro evolution experiments. Here we describe a further improvement of the method described by T.A. Kunkel using uracil-containing single-stranded DNA as the template for the primer extension by additional uracil-DNA glycosylase treatment and rolling circle amplification (RCA) steps. It is shown that removal of uracil bases from the template leads to selective amplification of the nascently synthesized circular DNA strand carrying the desired mutations by phi29 DNA polymerase. Selective RCA (sRCA) of the DNA heteroduplex formed in Kunkel's mutagenesis increases the mutagenesis efficiency from 50% close to 100% and the number of transformants 300-fold without notable diversity bias. We also observed that both the mutated and the wild-type DNA were present in at least one third of the cells transformed directly with Kunkel's heteroduplex. In contrast, the cells transformed with sRCA product contained only mutated DNA. In sRCA, the complex cell-based selection for the mutant strand is replaced with the more controllable enzyme-based selection and less DNA is needed for library creation. Construction of a gene library of ten billion members is demonstrated with the described method with 240 nanograms of DNA as starting material. PMID:22355397

  7. Health Risk Information Engagement and Amplification on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A

    2017-04-01

    Emerging pandemics call for unique health communication and education strategies in which public health agencies need to satisfy the public's information needs about possible risks while preventing risk exaggeration and dramatization. As a route to providing a framework for understanding public information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, this study examined the characteristics of communicative behaviors of social media audiences in response to Ebola outbreak news. Grounded in the social amplification of risks framework, this study adds to an understanding of information behaviors of online audiences by showing empirical differences in audience engagement with online health information. The data were collected from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Facebook channel. The final data set included 809 CDC posts and 35,916 audience comments. The analysis identified the differences in audience information behaviors in response to an emerging pandemic, Ebola, and health promotion posts. While the CDC had fewer posts on Ebola than health promotion topics, the former received more attention from active page users. Furthermore, audience members who actively engaged with Ebola news had a small overlap with those who engaged with non-Ebola information during the same period. Overall, this study demonstrated that information behavior and audience engagement is topic dependent. Furthermore, audiences who commented on news about an emerging pandemic were homogenous and varied in their degree of information amplification.

  8. Beyond Words: Amplification of Cancer Risk Communication on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-10-01

    Social media provide a unique channel for disseminating evidence-based information to diverse audiences and organizational and private stakeholders, thus facilitating a dialog about health and health risks. Guided by the social amplification of risk framework, the goal of this study was to assess the level of audience engagement with messages posted on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Facebook page and evaluate the differences in the audience information behavior toward risk-related and non-risk posts. Data included 1,975 posts published on the NCI Facebook page as well as the corresponding 4,537 comments, 77,298 shares, and 145,462 likes. Links and images were the top two most frequent types of content for both risk-related and non-risk posts, but risk-related messages were more amplified through comments, shares, and likes. Comparing the modality of risk-related messages, videos, contrary to the prediction, were not more effective in attracting audience engagement than images. Finally, comments to risk-related posts did not repeat risk-related language suggesting that future studies should examine risk signal recognition and dissemination as separate behaviors. This study's findings emphasize the importance of focused investigation of message design strategies and message effects on the dissemination and amplification of communication related to health risks.

  9. Tumor target amplification: Implications for nano drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidi, Khaled; Neubauer, Heidi A; Moriggl, Richard; Jahanban-Esfahlan, Rana; Javaheri, Tahereh

    2018-04-10

    Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse. Since target inefficiency is only problematic for cancer treatment and not for treatment of other pathological conditions such as viral/bacterial infections, target amplification or the generation of novel targets is key to providing eligible antigenic markers for effective targeted therapy. This review summarizes the limitations of current ligand-directed targeting strategies and provides a comprehensive overview of tumor target amplification strategies, including self-amplifying systems, dual targeting, artificial markers and peptide modification. We also discuss the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of these approaches, the underlying mechanism(s) and established methodologies, mostly in the context of different nanodelivery systems, to facilitate more effective ligand-directed cancer cell monitoring and targeting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative Role of Horizontal and Vertical Processes in Arctic Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The physical mechanism of Arctic amplification is still controversial. Specifically, relative role of vertical processes resulting from the reduction of sea ice in the Barents-Kara Seas is not clearly understood in comparison with the horizontal advection of heat and moisture. Using daily data, heat and moisture budgets are analyzed during winter (Dec. 1-Feb. 28) over the region of sea ice reduction in order to delineate the relative roles of horizontal and vertical processes. Detailed heat and moisture budgets in the atmospheric column indicate that the vertical processes, release of turbulent heat fluxes and evaporation, are a major contributor to the increased temperature and specific humidity over the Barents-Kara Seas. In addition, greenhouse effect caused by the increased specific humidity, also plays an important role in Arctic amplification. Horizontal processes such as advection of heat and moisture are the primary source of variability (fluctuations) in temperature and specific humidity in the atmospheric column. Advection of heat and moisture, on the other hand, is little responsible for the net increase in temperature and specific humidity over the Barents-Kara Seas.

  11. Ultrashort pulse shaping by optical parametric chirped amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelet, Ambre

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose new laser architectures based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). Common goals of OPCPA pre-amplifiers are to reach high energy level while maintaining the spectrum width and to adapt geometry of the amplified beam to the high power laser chain optics. We consider OPCPA as a way to control and to sculpt ultrashort pulses. Our first set-up aims at thwarting possible time recovery default between pump and signal pulses, which lower the energy extraction. A regenerative OPCPA, idler resonant, is a way to produce a high-intensity and high-repetition rate train of amplified signal replicas. Our second laser system pre-compensates the spectral gain narrowing by sculpting pulses directly within the OPCPA section, where a temporal shaping of the pump beam permits a spectro-spectral shaping of the amplified signal. Finally, we propose an OPCPA based on spatial coding and uniform amplification of spectral signal components by using a fan-out periodically poled crystal and a zero dispersion line. (author) [fr

  12. Amplification of terahertz pulses in gases beyond thermodynamic equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, G. W.; Schroeck, K.; Havenith, M.

    2007-03-01

    In Ebbinghaus [Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 15, 72 (2006)] we reported terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in a plasma at low pressure, we observed a simultaneous absorption and amplification process within each single rotational transition. Here we show that this observation is a direct consequence of the short interaction time of the pulsed terahertz radiation with the plasma, which is shorter than the average collision time between the molecules. Thus, during the measurement time the molecular states may be considered entangled. Solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation yields a linear term that may be neglected for long observation times, large frequencies, or nonentangled states. We determine the restrictions for the observation of this effect and calculate the spectrum of a simple diatomic molecule. Using this model we are able to explain the spectral features showing a change from emission to absorption as observed previously. In addition we find that the amplification and absorption do not follow the typical Lambert-Beer exponential law but an approximate square law.

  13. Social amplification of risk in the Internet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ik Jae

    2011-12-01

    This article analyzes the dynamic process of risk amplification in the Internet environment with special emphasis on public concern for environmental risks from a high-speed railway tunnel construction project in South Korea. Environmental organizations and activists serving as social stations collected information about the project and its ecological impact, and communicated this with the general public, social groups, and institutions. The Internet provides social stations and the public with an efficient means for interactive communication and an open space for active information sharing and public participation. For example, while the website of an organization such as an environmental activist group can initially trigger local interest, the Internet allows this information to be disseminated to a much wider audience in a manner unavailable to the traditional media. Interaction among social stations demonstrates an amplifying process of public attention to the risk. Analyses of the volume of readers' comments to online newspaper articles and public opinions posted on message board of public and nonprofit organizations show the ripple effects of the amplification process as measured along temporal, geographical, and sectoral dimensions. Public attention is also influenced by the symbolic connotations of risk information. Interpretations of risk in religious, political, or legal terms intensify public concern for the environmental risk. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Impaired conscious access and abnormal attentional amplification in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berkovitch

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that the conscious perception of a masked stimulus is impaired in schizophrenia, while unconscious bottom-up processing of the same stimulus, as assessed by subliminal priming, can be preserved. Here, we test this postulated dissociation between intact bottom-up and impaired top-down processing and evaluate its brain mechanisms using high-density recordings of event-related potentials. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and sixteen controls were exposed to peripheral digits with various degrees of visibility, under conditions of either focused attention or distraction by another task. In the distraction condition, the brain activity evoked by masked digits was drastically reduced in both groups, but early bottom-up visual activation could still be detected and did not differ between patients and controls. By contrast, under focused top-down attention, a major impairment was observed: in patients, contrary to controls, the late non-linear ignition associated with the P3 component was reduced. Interestingly, the patients showed an essentially normal attentional amplification of the P1 and N2 components. These results suggest that some but not all top-down attentional amplification processes are impaired in schizophrenia, while bottom-up processing seems to be preserved. Keywords: Attention, Psychosis, Visual awareness, Masking, Top-down, Bottom-up

  15. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with neuroblastoma presenting genomic amplification of loci other than MYCN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guimier

    Full Text Available Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA are key features of neuroblastoma (NB, the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s distinct from MYCN.Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected.In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 8 presented regional amplification(s without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases. This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n = 26 had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n = 22. Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05.NBs harbouring regional amplification(s without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy.

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Patients with Neuroblastoma Presenting Genomic Amplification of Loci Other than MYCN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimier, Anne; Ferrand, Sandrine; Pierron, Gaëlle; Couturier, Jérôme; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Combaret, Valérie; Mosseri, Véronique; Thebaud, Estelle; Gambart, Marion; Plantaz, Dominique; Marabelle, Aurélien; Coze, Carole; Rialland, Xavier; Fasola, Sylvie; Lapouble, Eve; Fréneaux, Paul; Peuchmaur, Michel; Michon, Jean; Delattre, Olivier; Schleiermacher, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA) are key features of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s) distinct from MYCN. Methods Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected. Results In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 8) presented regional amplification(s) without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases). This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n = 26) had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n = 22). Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05). Conclusion NBs harbouring regional amplification(s) without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy. PMID:25013904

  17. Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU

  18. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  19. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

    2014-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  20. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  1. {sup 2}10Po in engraulis encrasilocus in the North of the Valencian community; {sup 2}10Po en Engraulis Encrasilocus en el Norte de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Belmar, V.; Camara Garcia, T.; Ferrero Calabuig, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of natural radiation, one of the most studied radionuclides is currently radon and their descendants. The doses due to this radionuclide are the most high and dangerous, not only in areas where there is radon this is already inhaled by the population but it also swallowed their descendants via food, contributing to a dose rate more. The objective of this work is the study of the concentration of {sup 2}10Po in anchovy (Engraulis Encrasilocus) in an area with a coastal lagoon with high concentration of {sup 2}22 Rn. (Author)

  2. Dihydrofolate reductase amplification and sensitization to methotrexate of methotrexate-resistant colon cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Torres, Christina; García, Maria J; Ribas, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Gene amplification is one of the most frequent manifestations of genomic instability in human tumors and plays an important role in tumor progression and acquisition of drug resistance. To better understand the factors involved in acquired resistance to cytotoxic drugs via gene amplification, we ...

  3. 78 FR 66940 - Regulatory Requirements for Hearing Aid Devices and Personal Sound Amplification Products; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... for such products. These inconsistent interpretations of the definitions may inadvertently result in... amplification products (PSAPs), as well as the regulatory controls that apply to each. This draft guidance is... of clarity regarding how the Agency defines a hearing aid versus a personal sound amplification...

  4. Evaluation of current state of amplification-based DDoS attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohte, Edgar; Stamatogiannakis, Manolis; Bos, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Amplification-based DDoS attacks are still a big threat to the availability of the internet. In quite some time there is no new paper published that gave an update on the current state of amplification DDoS attacks, taken into consideration it was a huge problem a few years ago. We performed

  5. An ultrasensitive colorimeter assay strategy for p53 mutation assisted by nicking endonuclease signal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Guiyun; Liu, Qida; Qiu, Bin; Cai, Zongwei; Chen, Guonan

    2011-08-28

    A novel catalytic colorimetric assay assisted by nicking endonuclease signal amplification (NESA) was developed. With the signal amplification, the detection limit of the p53 target gene can be as low as 1 pM, which is nearly 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of other previously reported colorimetric DNA detection strategies based on catalytic DNAzyme.

  6. Signal amplification of microRNAs with modified strand displacement-based cycling probe technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Huning; Bu, Ying; Zou, Bingjie; Wang, Jianping; Kumar, Shalen; Pitman, Janet L; Zhou, Guohua; Song, Qinxin

    2016-10-24

    Micro ribose nucleic acids (miRNAs) play an important role in biological processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore, miRNAs are potentially a powerful marker for monitoring cancer and diagnosis. Here, we present sensitive signal amplification for miRNAs based on modified cycling probe technology with strand displacement amplification. miRNA was captured by the template coupled with beads, and then the first cycle based on SDA was repeatedly extended to the nicking end, which was produced by the extension reaction of miRNA. The products generated by SDA are captured by a molecular beacon (MB), which is designed to initiate the second amplification cycle, with a similar principle to the cycling probe technology (CPT), which is based on repeated digestion of the DNA-RNA hybrid by the RNase H. After one sample enrichment and two steps of signal amplification, 0.1 pM of let-7a can be detected. The miRNA assay exhibits a great dynamic range of over 100 orders of magnitude and high specificity to clearly discriminate a single base difference in miRNA sequences. This isothermal amplification does not require any special temperature control instrument. The assay is also about signal amplification rather than template amplification, therefore minimising contamination issues. In addition, there is no need for the reverse transcription (RT) process. Thus the amplification is suitable for miRNA detection.

  7. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  8. The effect of whole genome amplification on samples originating from more than one donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thacker, C.R.; Balogh, M.K.; Børsting, Claus

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the GenomiPhi(TM) DNA Amplification Kit (Amersham Biosciences) was used to investigate the potential of whole genome amplification (WGA) when considering samples originating from more than one donor. DNA was extracted from blood samples, quantified and normalised before being mixed...

  9. Optimization of an Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification System for the OMEGA EP Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begishev, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Guardalben, M.; Waxer, L.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 We report on the experimental achievements of the optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system, including 29% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency and 107 gain using two LBO crystals configured as a single amplification stage. Temporal and spatial shaping of the pump laser pulse is required to achieve both high-gain and high-conversion efficiency

  10. Polymorphic microsatellites developed by cross-species amplifications in common pheasant breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baratti, M.; Alberti, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veenendaal, T.; Fulgheri, F.D.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic variability was analysed in two common breeds of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L. 1758) by means of cross-species amplifications of microsatellite loci: 154 chicken, Gallus gallus and 32 turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, primers were tested for amplification of pheasant DNA. Thirty-six primers

  11. The Media and Genetically Modified Foods : Evidence in Support of Social Amplification of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.; Marsh, R.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with

  12. Digital holographic amplification of interferograms in the Michelson interferometer using the phase-only LCOS modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekin, Nikolay; Petrov, Nikolay; Pul'kin, Sergey; Shoev, Vladislav; Sevryugin, Alexander; Tursunov, Ibrohim; Venediktov, Dmitrii; Venediktov, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    The method of amplification of hologram was applied to the so-called Rozhdestvenskiy hooks, that were obtained in the Rozhdestvenskiy interferometer (Michelson interferometer, combined with a grating spectrograph). In such a device the absorption lines reveal themselves as specific "hooks", whose curvature provides the information about the atomic oscillator force. The holographic amplification "smoothes" the hooks and thus makes their analysis much simpler.

  13. Quantification of HER2 autoantibodies in the amplification phenomenon of HER2 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterlein, Jens-Jacob L; Petersen, Eva R B; Olsen, Dorte Aa

    2011-01-01

    Gene amplification of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) is a well-known phenomenon in various cancers. However, little is known about the mechanism of the gene amplification phenomenon itself. Autoantibodies to cellular receptors have been described in several cancer types. We hypot...

  14. Hydromagnetic instabilities and magnetic field amplification in core collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda-Duran, P; Obergaulinger, M; Mueller, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-st. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aloy, M A; Font, J A, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-22

    Some of the most violent events in the universe, the gamma ray burst, could be related to the gravitational collapse of massive stellar cores. The recent association of long GRBs to some class of type Ic supernova seems to support this view. In such scenario fast rotation, strong magnetic fields and general relativistic effects are key ingredients. It is thus important to understand the mechanism that amplifies the magnetic field under that conditions. I present global simulations of the magneto-rotational collapse of stellar cores in general relativity and semi-global simulations of hydromagnetic instabilities under core collapse conditions. I discuss effect of the magneto-rotational instability and the magnetic field amplification during the collapse, the uncertainties in this process and the dynamical effects in the supernova explosion.

  15. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov-Luke amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaila, C. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: cisaila@ph.tum.de; Boslau, O. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Coppi, C. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Feilitzsch, F. von [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Goldstrass, P. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Jagemann, T. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Jochum, J. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Kemmer, J. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Lachenmaier, T. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lanfranchi, J.-C. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pahlke, A. [Ketek GmbH, Gustav Heinemann Ring 125, 81739 Munich (Germany); Potzel, W. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Rau, W. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Stark, M. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wernicke, D. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); VeriCold Technologies GmbH, Bahnhofstrasse 21, 85737 Ismaning (Germany); Westphal, W. [Physik Department E15, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James Franck Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO{sub 4} crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO{sub 4} crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented.

  16. Gelation induced supramolecular chirality: chirality transfer, amplification and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Pengfei; Cao, Hai; Zhang, Li; Liu, Minghua

    2014-08-14

    Supramolecular chirality defines chirality at the supramolecular level, and is generated from the spatial arrangement of component molecules assembling through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals interactions, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interactions and so on. During the formation of low molecular weight gels (LMWGs), one kind of fascinating soft material, one frequently encounters the phenomenon of chirality as well as chiral nanostructures, either from chiral gelators or even achiral gelators. A view of gelation-induced supramolecular chirality will be very helpful to understand the self-assembly process of the gelator molecules as well as the chiral structures, the regulation of the chirality in the gels and the development of the "smart" chiral materials such as chiroptical devices, catalysts and chiral sensors. It necessitates fundamental understanding of chirality transfer and amplification in these supramolecular systems. In this review, recent progress in gelation-induced supramolecular chirality is discussed.

  17. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  18. Signal amplification for impedimetric genosensing using gold-streptavidin nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, A.; Esplandiu, M.J. [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Valle, M. del [Sensors and Biosensors Group, Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: manel.delvalle@uab.es

    2008-04-20

    Streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles (strept-AuNPs) were used in this work to amplify the impedimetric signal generated in a biosensor detecting the DNA hybridization event. Probe oligomer was adsorbed onto a graphite epoxy composite (GEC) electrode surface and the impedance measurement was performed in a solution containing the redox marker ferrocyanide/ferricyanide. The biotinylated complementary oligomer was used as target. The change of interfacial charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), experimented by the redox marker, was recorded to confirm the hybrid formation. The addition of strept-AuNPs, binding to the target due to the strong streptavidin-biotin interaction, led to a further increment of R{sub ct} thus obtaining significant signal amplification. Strept-AuNPs on the electrode surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after silver enhancement treatment. A competitive binding assay was also performed using unlabelled DNA target to demonstrate its applicability to real sample analysis.

  19. Near quantum limited amplification from inelastic Cooper-pair tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Max; Jebari, Salha; Blanchet, Florian; Grimm, Alexander; Hazra, Dibyendu; Albert, Romain; Portier, Fabien

    Josephson parametric amplifiers approach quantum-limited noise performance but require strong external microwave pump tones which make them more difficult to use than DC powered amplifiers: The pump tone can affect the device under test and requires expensive room-temperature equipment. Inelastic Cooper pair tunneling processes through a small DC voltage-biased Josephson junction, where a tunneling Cooper pair dissipates its energy 2 eV in the form of two photons are reminiscent of parametric down conversion. We show that these processes can be used to provide amplification near the quantum limit without external microwave pump tone. We explain the measured gain and noise based on the P (E) theory of inelastic Cooper pair tunneling and general fluctuation-dissipation relations.

  20. Amplification of large-scale magnetic field in nonhelical magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit

    2017-08-11

    It is typically assumed that the kinetic and magnetic helicities play a crucial role in the growth of large-scale dynamo. In this paper, we demonstrate that helicity is not essential for the amplification of large-scale magnetic field. For this purpose, we perform nonhelical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and show that the large-scale magnetic field can grow in nonhelical MHD when random external forcing is employed at scale 1/10 the box size. The energy fluxes and shell-to-shell transfer rates computed using the numerical data show that the large-scale magnetic energy grows due to the energy transfers from the velocity field at the forcing scales.

  1. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov-Luke amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaila, C.; Boslau, O.; Coppi, C.; Feilitzsch, F. von; Goldstrass, P.; Jagemann, T.; Jochum, J.; Kemmer, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Pahlke, A.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.; Stark, M.; Wernicke, D.; Westphal, W.

    2006-01-01

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO 4 crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO 4 crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented

  2. Multiplex amplification of large sets of human exons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porreca, Gregory J; Zhang, Kun; Li, Jin Billy; Xie, Bin; Austin, Derek; Vassallo, Sara L; LeProust, Emily M; Peck, Bill J; Emig, Christopher J; Dahl, Fredrik; Gao, Yuan; Church, George M; Shendure, Jay

    2007-11-01

    A new generation of technologies is poised to reduce DNA sequencing costs by several orders of magnitude. But our ability to fully leverage the power of these technologies is crippled by the absence of suitable 'front-end' methods for isolating complex subsets of a mammalian genome at a scale that matches the throughput at which these platforms will routinely operate. We show that targeting oligonucleotides released from programmable microarrays can be used to capture and amplify approximately 10,000 human exons in a single multiplex reaction. Additionally, we show integration of this protocol with ultra-high-throughput sequencing for targeted variation discovery. Although the multiplex capture reaction is highly specific, we found that nonuniform capture is a key issue that will need to be resolved by additional optimization. We anticipate that highly multiplexed methods for targeted amplification will enable the comprehensive resequencing of human exons at a fraction of the cost of whole-genome resequencing.

  3. Signal amplification and Pierce's instability in convergent particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnavi, G.; Gratton, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    Relativistic electron beams flowing between cylindrical and spherical electrodes (or solid angles sections of electrodes with these geometries) are studied. The beams are focused through the axis in the cylindrical case or through the center when spherical electrodes are considered. It is assumed that the external electrode is part of a device which accelerates the particles, the inner electrode is passive and removes the beams from the system. Electrons move by inertia in the interelectrode space, neutralized by an ion background. Properties of radial, small amplitude, perturbations are analyzed theoretically. Previous analyses of counterstreaming beams indicated that convergence modifies considerably the oscillations spectrum. Here, results on the amplification of signals when a beam is modulated at the external electrode are reported. Then, conditions for the instability of a beam when it flows through grounded electrodes (Pierce's instability of only one beam) are examined

  4. Cognitive and affective matching effects in persuasion: an amplification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Joshua J; Tormala, Zakary L; Rucker, Derek D

    2011-11-01

    Past research suggests that cognitive and affective attitudes are more open to change toward cognitive and affective (i.e., matched) persuasive attacks, respectively. The present research investigates how attitude certainty influences this openness. Although an extensive literature suggests that certainty generally reduces an attitude's openness to change, the authors explore the possibility that certainty might increase an attitude's openness to change in the context of affective or cognitive appeals. Based on the recently proposed amplification hypothesis, the authors posit that high (vs. low) attitude certainty will boost the resistance of attitudes to mismatched attacks (e.g., affective attitudes attacked by cognitive messages) but boost the openness of attitudes to matched attacks (e.g., affective attitudes attacked by affective messages). Two experiments provide support for this hypothesis. Implications for increasing the openness of attitudes to both matched and mismatched attacks are discussed.

  5. Phase Sensitive Amplification using Parametric Processes in Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning

    . Further, phase sensitive parametric processes in a nano-engineered silicon waveguide have been measured experimentally for the first time. Numerical optimizations show that with reduced waveguide propagation loss and reduced carrier life time, larger signal phase sensitive extinction ratio is achievable......Phase sensitive amplification using the parametric processes in fiber has the potential of delivering high gain and broadband operation with ultralow noise. It is able to regenerate both amplitude and phase modulated signals, simultaneously, with the appropriate design. This thesis concerns...... types. The regeneration capability of PSAs on phase encoded signal in an optical link has been optimized. Flat-top phase sensitive profile has been synthesized. It is able to provide simultaneous amplitude and phase noise squeezing, with enhanced phase noise margin compared to conventional designs...

  6. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnostics of Dengue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd El Wahed

    Full Text Available Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF. Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV. Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA assays were developed to detect DENV1-4.Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4 to 241 (DENV1-3 RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal and in Bangkok (Thailand. In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38 °C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31 and 100% (n=23, respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90 and 100%(n=41, respectively.During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations.

  7. Integrated Microfluidic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Isothermal Amplification, and Amplicon Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mauk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min, low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of “lab on a chip” NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (polymerase-chain reaction-based tests in clinical laboratories can be realized with a disposable, palm-sized, plastic microfluidic chip in which: (1 nucleic acids (NAs are extracted from relatively large (~mL volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase (“membrane” to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2 NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C amplified; (3 amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4 paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD better than 103 virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed.

  8. Method for decoupling error correction from privacy amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    In a standard quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme such as BB84, two procedures, error correction and privacy amplification, are applied to extract a final secure key from a raw key generated from quantum transmission. To simplify the study of protocols, it is commonly assumed that the two procedures can be decoupled from each other. While such a decoupling assumption may be valid for individual attacks, it is actually unproven in the context of ultimate or unconditional security, which is the Holy Grail of quantum cryptography. In particular, this means that the application of standard efficient two-way error-correction protocols like Cascade is not proven to be unconditionally secure. Here, I provide the first proof of such a decoupling principle in the context of unconditional security. The method requires Alice and Bob to share some initial secret string and use it to encrypt their communications in the error correction stage using one-time-pad encryption. Consequently, I prove the unconditional security of the interactive Cascade protocol proposed by Brassard and Salvail for error correction and modified by one-time-pad encryption of the error syndrome, followed by the random matrix protocol for privacy amplification. This is an efficient protocol in terms of both computational power and key generation rate. My proof uses the entanglement purification approach to security proofs of QKD. The proof applies to all adaptive symmetric methods for error correction, which cover all existing methods proposed for BB84. In terms of the net key generation rate, the new method is as efficient as the standard Shor-Preskill proof.

  9. Comparison of bulk Micromegas with different amplification gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Purba, E-mail: purba.bhattacharya@saha.ac.in [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Sudeb [Emeritus Scientist (CSIR), Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Majumdar, Nayana; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Sarkar, Sandip [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Colas, Paul; Attie, David [DSM/IRFU, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette CEDEX (France)

    2013-12-21

    The bulk Micromegas detector is considered to be a promising candidate for building TPCs for several future experiments including the projected linear collider. The standard bulk with a spacing of 128μm has already established itself as a good choice for its performances in terms of gas gain uniformity, energy and space point resolution, and its capability to efficiently pave large readout surfaces with minimum dead zone. The present work involves the comparison of this standard bulk with a relatively less used bulk Micromegas detector having a larger amplification gap of 192μm. Detector gain, energy resolution and electron transparency of these Micromegas have been measured under different conditions in various Argon-based gas mixtures to evaluate their performance. These measured characteristics have also been compared in detail to numerical simulations using the Garfield framework that combines packages such as neBEM, Magboltz and Heed. Further, we have carried out another numerical study to determine the effect of dielectric spacers on different detector features. A comprehensive comparison of the two detectors has been presented and analyzed in this work. -- Highlights: •We present a comparative study between bulk Micromegas having different amplification gaps. •Various detector characteristics such as gain, electron transparency, energy resolution have been measured experimentally. •Successful comparisons of these measured data with the simulation results indicate that the device physics is quite well understood. •A numerical study to determine the effect of dielectric spacers on different detect or features has been carried out.

  10. Mechanism of chimera formation during the Multiple Displacement Amplification reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockwell Timothy B

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA is a method used for amplifying limiting DNA sources. The high molecular weight amplified DNA is ideal for DNA library construction. While this has enabled genomic sequencing from one or a few cells of unculturable microorganisms, the process is complicated by the tendency of MDA to generate chimeric DNA rearrangements in the amplified DNA. Determining the source of the DNA rearrangements would be an important step towards reducing or eliminating them. Results Here, we characterize the major types of chimeras formed by carrying out an MDA whole genome amplification from a single E. coli cell and sequencing by the 454 Life Sciences method. Analysis of 475 chimeras revealed the predominant reaction mechanisms that create the DNA rearrangements. The highly branched DNA synthesized in MDA can assume many alternative secondary structures. DNA strands extended on an initial template can be displaced becoming available to prime on a second template creating the chimeras. Evidence supports a model in which branch migration can displace 3'-ends freeing them to prime on the new templates. More than 85% of the resulting DNA rearrangements were inverted sequences with intervening deletions that the model predicts. Intramolecular rearrangements were favored, with displaced 3'-ends reannealing to single stranded 5'-strands contained within the same branched DNA molecule. In over 70% of the chimeric junctions, the 3' termini had initiated priming at complimentary sequences of 2–21 nucleotides (nts in the new templates. Conclusion Formation of chimeras is an important limitation to the MDA method, particularly for whole genome sequencing. Identification of the mechanism for chimera formation provides new insight into the MDA reaction and suggests methods to reduce chimeras. The 454 sequencing approach used here will provide a rapid method to assess the utility of reaction modifications.

  11. Method for decoupling error correction from privacy amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2003-01-01

    In a standard quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme such as BB84, two procedures, error correction and privacy amplification, are applied to extract a final secure key from a raw key generated from quantum transmission. To simplify the study of protocols, it is commonly assumed that the two procedures can be decoupled from each other. While such a decoupling assumption may be valid for individual attacks, it is actually unproven in the context of ultimate or unconditional security, which is the Holy Grail of quantum cryptography. In particular, this means that the application of standard efficient two-way error-correction protocols like Cascade is not proven to be unconditionally secure. Here, I provide the first proof of such a decoupling principle in the context of unconditional security. The method requires Alice and Bob to share some initial secret string and use it to encrypt their communications in the error correction stage using one-time-pad encryption. Consequently, I prove the unconditional security of the interactive Cascade protocol proposed by Brassard and Salvail for error correction and modified by one-time-pad encryption of the error syndrome, followed by the random matrix protocol for privacy amplification. This is an efficient protocol in terms of both computational power and key generation rate. My proof uses the entanglement purification approach to security proofs of QKD. The proof applies to all adaptive symmetric methods for error correction, which cover all existing methods proposed for BB84. In terms of the net key generation rate, the new method is as efficient as the standard Shor-Preskill proof

  12. Isothermal amplification detection of nucleic acids by a double-nicked beacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chao; Zhou, Meiling; Pan, Mei; Zhong, Guilin; Ma, Cuiping

    2016-03-01

    Isothermal and rapid amplification detection of nucleic acids is an important technology in environmental monitoring, foodborne pathogen detection, and point-of-care clinical diagnostics. Here we have developed a novel method of isothermal signal amplification for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) detection. The ssDNA target could be used as an initiator, coupled with a double-nicked molecular beacon, to originate amplification cycles, achieving cascade signal amplification. In addition, the method showed good specificity and strong anti-jamming capability. Overall, it is a one-pot and isothermal strand displacement amplification method without the requirement of a stepwise procedure, which greatly simplifies the experimental procedure and decreases the probability of contamination of samples. With its advantages, the method would be very useful to detect nucleic acids in point-of-care or field use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fast implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification in quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chun-Mei; Li Mo; Huang Jing-Zheng; Li Hong-Wei; Li Fang-Yi; Wang Chuan; Yin Zhen-Qiang; Chen Wei; Han Zhen-Fu; Treeviriyanupab Patcharapong; Sripimanwat Keattisak

    2014-01-01

    Post-processing is indispensable in quantum key distribution (QKD), which is aimed at sharing secret keys between two distant parties. It mainly consists of key reconciliation and privacy amplification, which is used for sharing the same keys and for distilling unconditional secret keys. In this paper, we focus on speeding up the privacy amplification process by choosing a simple multiplicative universal class of hash functions. By constructing an optimal multiplication algorithm based on four basic multiplication algorithms, we give a fast software implementation of length-adaptive privacy amplification. “Length-adaptive” indicates that the implementation of privacy amplification automatically adapts to different lengths of input blocks. When the lengths of the input blocks are 1 Mbit and 10 Mbit, the speed of privacy amplification can be as fast as 14.86 Mbps and 10.88 Mbps, respectively. Thus, it is practical for GHz or even higher repetition frequency QKD systems. (general)

  14. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoung Rhee

    Full Text Available Multiple displacement amplification (MDA is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet, ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.

  15. MYC and MYCN amplification can be reliably assessed by aCGH in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeaut, Franck; Grison, Camille; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Laquerriere, Annie; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Michalak, Sophie; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Doz, François; Richer, Wilfrid; Pierron, Gaelle; Miquel, Catherine; Delattre, Olivier; Couturier, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    As prognostic factors, MYC and MYCN amplifications are routinely assessed in medulloblastomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is currently considered as the technique of reference. Recently, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has been developed as an alternative technique to evaluate genomic abnormalities in other tumor types; however, this technique has not been widely adopted as a replacement for FISH in medulloblastoma. In this study, 34 tumors were screened by both FISH and aCGH. In all cases showing amplification by FISH, aCGH also unambiguously revealed the abnormality. The aCGH technique was also performed on tumors showing no amplification by FISH, and the absence of amplification was confirmed in all cases. Interestingly, one tumor showed a subclonal MYC amplification by FISH. This subclonal amplification was observed in approximately 20% of tumor cells and was clearly evident on aCGH. In conclusion, our analysis confirms that aCGH is as safe as FISH for the detection of MYC/MYCN gene amplification. Given its cost efficiency in comparison to two FISH tests and the global genomic information additionally provided by an aCGH experiment, this reproducible technique can be safely retained as an alternative to FISH for routine investigation of medulloblastoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. N-myc oncogene amplification is correlated to trace metal concentrations in neuroblastoma cultured cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouget, B.; Sergeant, C.; Benard, J.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.

    2000-01-01

    N-myc oncogene amplification is a powerful predictor of aggressive behavior of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common solid tumor of the early childhood. Since N-myc overexpression - subsequent to amplification - determines a phenotype of invasiveness and metastatic spreading, it is assumed that N-myc amplified neuroblasts synthesize zinc metalloenzymes leading to tumor invasion and formation of metastases. In order to test a possible relation between N-myc oncogene amplification and trace metal contents in human NB cells, Fe, Cu and Zn concentrations have been measured by nuclear microprobe analysis in three human neuroblastoma cell lines with various degrees of N-myc amplification. Elemental determinations show uniform distribution of trace metals within the cells, but variations of intracellular trace metal concentrations with respect to the degree of N-myc amplification are highly dependent on the nature of the element. Zinc concentration is higher in both N-myc amplified cell lines (IMR-32 and IGR-N-91) than in the non-amplified cells (SK-N-SH). In contrast, intracellular iron content is particularly low in N-myc amplified cell lines. Moreover, copper concentrations showed an increase with the degree of N-myc amplification. These results indicate that a relationship exists between intracellular trace metals and N-myc oncogene amplification. They further suggest that trace metals very probably play a determinant role in mechanisms of the neuroblastoma invasiveness

  17. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2016-02-23

    The low biomass in environmental samples is a major challenge for microbial metagenomic studies. The amplification of a genomic DNA was frequently applied to meeting the minimum requirement of the DNA for a high-throughput next-generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms is examined. The DNA template of 10 pg in each reaction of the MALBAC amplification may generate enough DNA for Illumina sequencing. Using 10 pg and 100 pg templates for each reaction set, the MALBAC kit shows a stable and homogeneous amplification as indicated by the highly consistent coverage of the reads from the two amplified samples on the contigs assembled by the original unamplified sample. Although GenomePlex whole genome amplification kit allows one to generate enough DNA using 100 pg of template in each reaction, the minority of the mixed bacterial species is not linearly amplified. For both of the kits, the GC-rich regions of the genomic DNA are not efficiently amplified as suggested by the low coverage of the contigs with the high GC content. The high efficiency of the MALBAC kit is supported for the amplification of environmental microbial DNA samples, and the concerns on its application are also raised to bacterial species with the high GC content.

  18. Basin amplification of seismic waves in the city of Pahrump, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, Robert E.

    2005-07-01

    Sedimentary basins can increase the magnitude and extend the duration of seismic shaking. This potential for seismic amplification is investigated for Pahrump Valley, Nevada-California. The Pahrump Valley is located approximately 50 km northwest of Las Vegas and 75 km south of the Nevada Test Site. Gravity data suggest that the city of Pahrump sits atop a narrow, approximately 5 km deep sub-basin within the valley. The seismic amplification, or ''site effect'', was investigated using a combination of in situ velocity modeling and comparison of the waveforms and spectra of weak ground motion recorded in the city of Pahrump, Nevada, and those recorded in the nearby mountains. Resulting spectral ratios indicate seismic amplification factors of 3-6 over the deepest portion of Pahrump Valley. This amplification predominantly occurs at 2-2.5 Hz. Amplification over the deep sub-basin is lower than amplification at the sub-basin edge, location of the John Blume and Associates PAHA seismic station, which recorded many underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. A comprehensive analysis of basin amplification for the city of Pahrump should include 3-D basin modeling, due to the extreme basement topography of the Pahrump Valley.

  19. Real-time correction of tsunami site effect by frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, H.

    2017-12-01

    For tsunami early warning, I developed frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor and used it to design a recursive digital filter that can be applicable for real-time correction of tsunami site response. In this study, I assumed that a tsunami waveform at an observing point could be modeled by convolution of source, path and site effects in time domain. Under this assumption, spectral ratio between offshore and the nearby coast can be regarded as site response (i.e. frequency-dependent amplification factor). If the amplification factor can be prepared before tsunamigenic earthquakes, its temporal convolution to offshore tsunami waveform provides tsunami prediction at coast in real time. In this study, tsunami waveforms calculated by tsunami numerical simulations were used to develop frequency-dependent tsunami-amplification factor. Firstly, I performed numerical tsunami simulations based on nonlinear shallow-water theory from many tsuanmigenic earthquake scenarios by varying the seismic magnitudes and locations. The resultant tsunami waveforms at offshore and the nearby coastal observing points were then used in spectral-ratio analysis. An average of the resulted spectral ratios from the tsunamigenic-earthquake scenarios is regarded as frequency-dependent amplification factor. Finally, the estimated amplification factor is used in design of a recursive digital filter that can be applicable in time domain. The above procedure is applied to Miyako bay at the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan. The averaged tsunami-height spectral ratio (i.e. amplification factor) between the location at the center of the bay and the outside show a peak at wave-period of 20 min. A recursive digital filter based on the estimated amplification factor shows good performance in real-time correction of tsunami-height amplification due to the site effect. This study is supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI grant 15K16309.

  20. MDM2 and CDK4 amplifications are rare events in salivary duct carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünewald, Inga; Trautmann, Marcel; Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Huss, Sebastian; Schweinshaupt, Petra; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Odenthal, Margarete; Quaas, Alexander; Büttner, Reinhard; Meyer, Moritz F; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Wardelmann, Eva; Stenner, Markus; Hartmann, Wolfgang

    2016-11-15

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is an aggressive adenocarcinoma of the salivary glands associated with poor clinical outcome. SDCs are known to carry TP53 mutations in about 50%, however, only little is known about alternative pathogenic mechanisms within the p53 regulatory network. Particularly, data on alterations of the oncogenes MDM2 and CDK4 located in the chromosomal region 12q13-15 are limited in SDC, while genomic rearrangements of the adjacent HMGA2 gene locus are well documented in subsets of SDCs. We here analyzed the mutational status of the TP53 gene, genomic amplification of MDM2, CDK4 and HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification as well as protein expression of TP53 (p53), MDM2 and CDK4 in 51 de novo and ex pleomorphic adenoma SDCs.25 of 51 cases were found to carry TP53 mutations, associated with extreme positive immunohistochemical p53 staining levels in 13 cases. Three out of 51 tumors had an MDM2 amplification, one of them coinciding with a CDK4 amplification and two with a HMGA2 rearrangement/amplification. Two of the MDM2 amplifications occurred in the setting of a TP53 mutation. Two out of 51 cases showed a CDK4 amplification, one synchronously being MDM2 amplified and the other one displaying concurrent low copy number increases of both, MDM2 and HMGA2.In summary, we here show that subgroups of SDCs display genomic amplifications of MDM2 and/or CDK4, partly in association with TP53 mutations and rearrangement/amplification of HMGA2. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of chromosomal region 12q13-15 alterations in SDC tumorigenesis and their potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance.

  1. Anisotropic amplification of proton transport in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Fawaz, Mohammed; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Gautam, Manu; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2017-07-01

    Though graphene oxide (GO) membrane shuttles protons under humid conditions, it suffer severe disintegration and anhydrous conditions lead to abysmal ionic conductivity. The trade-off between mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity challenge the amplification of GO's ionic transport under anhydrous conditions. We show anisotropic amplification of GO's ionic transport with a selective amplification of in plane contribution under anhydrous conditions by doping it with a plant extract, phytic acid (PA). The hygroscopic nature of PA stabilized interlayer water molecules and peculiar geometry of sbnd OH functionalities around saturated hydrocarbon ring anisotropically enhanced ionic transport amplifying the fuel cell performance metrics.

  2. Dynamic Characteristics of a Hydraulic Amplification Mechanism for Large Displacement Actuators Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Arouette

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM and studied its dynamic response when combined with a piezoelectric actuator. The HDAM consists of an incompressible fluid sealed in a microcavity by two largely deformable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS membranes. The geometry with input and output surfaces having different cross-sectional areas creates amplification. By combining the HDAM with micro-actuators, we can amplify the input displacement generated by the actuators, which is useful for applications requiring large deformation, such as tactile displays. We achieved a mechanism offering up to 18-fold displacement amplification for static actuation and 12-fold for 55 Hz dynamic actuation.

  3. Amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerkararyan, Kh.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of amplification of electromagnetic radiation in the exciton region of the spectrum of a semiconductor was first discussed by Haken. The possibility of amplification of an electromagnetic wave under conditions of Bose condensation of biexcitons was considered in Ref. 2. However, the difficulties encountered in the creation of a Bose condensed state of biexcitons complicate greatly the performance of an experiment of this kind. The authors shall show that amplification is possible also in a gaseous mixture of excitons and biexcitons which is in thermal equilibrium and can be described by the Maxwellian distribution function of the velocities

  4. Realization of quantum state privacy amplification in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Liang; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu

    2010-01-01

    Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single-particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree well with theory.

  5. Search for methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms in mutant figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M G F; Martins, A B G; Bertoni, B W; Figueira, A; Giuliatti, S

    2013-07-08

    Fig (Ficus carica) breeding programs that use conventional approaches to develop new cultivars are rare, owing to limited genetic variability and the difficulty in obtaining plants via gamete fusion. Cytosine methylation in plants leads to gene repression, thereby affecting transcription without changing the DNA sequence. Previous studies using random amplification of polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism markers revealed no polymorphisms among select fig mutants that originated from gamma-irradiated buds. Therefore, we conducted methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism analysis to verify the existence of variability due to epigenetic DNA methylation among these mutant selections compared to the main cultivar 'Roxo-de-Valinhos'. Samples of genomic DNA were double-digested with either HpaII (methylation sensitive) or MspI (methylation insensitive) and with EcoRI. Fourteen primer combinations were tested, and on an average, non-methylated CCGG, symmetrically methylated CmCGG, and hemimethylated hmCCGG sites accounted for 87.9, 10.1, and 2.0%, respectively. MSAP analysis was effective in detecting differentially methylated sites in the genomic DNA of fig mutants, and methylation may be responsible for the phenotypic variation between treatments. Further analyses such as polymorphic DNA sequencing are necessary to validate these differences, standardize the regions of methylation, and analyze reads using bioinformatic tools.

  6. Using DNS amplification DDoS attack for hiding data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehić, M.; Voznak, M.; Safarik, J.; Partila, P.; Mikulec, M.

    2014-05-01

    This paper concerns available steganographic techniques that can be used for sending hidden data through public network. Typically, in steganographic communication it is advised to use popular/often used method for sending hidden data and amount of that data need to be high as much as possible. We confirmed this by choosing a Domain Name System (DNS) as a vital protocol of each network and choosing Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that are most popular network attacks currently represented in the world. Apart from characterizing existing steganographic methods we provide new insights by presenting two new techniques. The first one is network steganography solution which exploits free/unused protocols fields and is known for IP, UDP or TCP protocols, but has never been applied to DNS (Domain Name Server) which are the fundamental part of network communications. The second explains the usage of DNS Amplification DDoS Attack to send seamlessly data through public network. The calculation that was performed to estimate the total amount of data that can be covertly transferred by using these technique, regardless of steganalysis, is included in this paper.

  7. Hypsometric Amplification of Greenland Ice Sheet Meltwater Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, D.; Hasholt, B.; Mikkelsen, A. B.; Holtegaard Nielsen, M.; Box, J.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.; Lindback, K.; Pitcher, L. H.

    2017-12-01

    Proglacial discharge monitoring provides valuable insights in Greenland ice sheet meltwater release. We use a 2006-2016 discharge time series from the Watson River draining 12000 km2 of the ice sheet in southwest Greenland to investigate the large variability in catchment-total meltwater production. An observationally-constrained reconstruction of past discharge shows that meltwater release has on average increased by a factor of 1.5 since 2003 compared to the 1949-2002 period, and that interannual variability has disproportionally increased by a factor of 2.1, suggesting that melt amplifiers are at play. We derive a hypsometric amplification factor of 1.6, which is the result of the exponential melt area increase with rising temperature. Peak meltwater discharge events such as during the July 2012 flooding are due to this and other melt amplifiers, but also require intense melting over a period exceeding the multi-day transit time for high-elevation meltwater to pass through the glacial drainage system.

  8. The amplification of risk in experimental diffusion chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Brighton, Henry; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2015-05-05

    Understanding how people form and revise their perception of risk is central to designing efficient risk communication methods, eliciting risk awareness, and avoiding unnecessary anxiety among the public. However, public responses to hazardous events such as climate change, contagious outbreaks, and terrorist threats are complex and difficult-to-anticipate phenomena. Although many psychological factors influencing risk perception have been identified in the past, it remains unclear how perceptions of risk change when propagated from one person to another and what impact the repeated social transmission of perceived risk has at the population scale. Here, we study the social dynamics of risk perception by analyzing how messages detailing the benefits and harms of a controversial antibacterial agent undergo change when passed from one person to the next in 10-subject experimental diffusion chains. Our analyses show that when messages are propagated through the diffusion chains, they tend to become shorter, gradually inaccurate, and increasingly dissimilar between chains. In contrast, the perception of risk is propagated with higher fidelity due to participants manipulating messages to fit their preconceptions, thereby influencing the judgments of subsequent participants. Computer simulations implementing this simple influence mechanism show that small judgment biases tend to become more extreme, even when the injected message contradicts preconceived risk judgments. Our results provide quantitative insights into the social amplification of risk perception, and can help policy makers better anticipate and manage the public response to emerging threats.

  9. NEW ERBIUM DOPED ANTIMONY GLASSES FOR LASER AND GLASS AMPLIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tioua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the special spectroscopic properties of the rare earth ions, rare earth doped glasses are widely used in bulk and fiber lasers or amplifiers. The modelling of lasers and searching for new laser transitions require a precise knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of rare earth ions in different host glasses. In this poster will offer new doped erbium glasses synthesized in silicate crucibles were obtained in the combination Sb2O3-WO3-Na2O. Several properties are measured and correlated with glass compositions. The absorption spectral studies have been performed for erbium doped glasses. The intensities of various absorption bands of the doped glasses are measured and the Judd-Ofelt parameters have been computed. From the theory of Judd-Ofelt, various radiative properties, such as transition probability, branching ratio and radiative life time for various emission levels of these doped glasses have been determined and reported. These results confirm the ability of antimony glasses for glass amplification.

  10. Current Technologies of Electrochemical Immunosensors: Perspective on Signal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il-Hoon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical immunosensor employs antibodies as capture and detection means to produce electrical charges for the quantitative analysis of target molecules. This sensor type can be utilized as a miniaturized device for the detection of point-of-care testing (POCT. Achieving high-performance analysis regarding sensitivity has been one of the key issues with developing this type of biosensor system. Many modern nanotechnology efforts allowed for the development of innovative electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity by employing various nanomaterials that facilitate the electron transfer and carrying capacity of signal tracers in combination with surface modification and bioconjugation techniques. In this review, we introduce novel nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotube, graphene, indium tin oxide, nanowire and metallic nanoparticles in order to construct a high-performance electrode. Also, we describe how to increase the number of signal tracers by employing nanomaterials as carriers and making the polymeric enzyme complex associated with redox cycling for signal amplification. The pros and cons of each method are considered throughout this review. We expect that these reviewed strategies for signal enhancement will be applied to the next versions of lateral-flow paper chromatography and microfluidic immunosensor, which are considered the most practical POCT biosensor platforms.

  11. Amplification of local changes along the timescale processing hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Yaara; Nguyen, Mai; Hasson, Uri

    2017-08-29

    Small changes in word choice can lead to dramatically different interpretations of narratives. How does the brain accumulate and integrate such local changes to construct unique neural representations for different stories? In this study, we created two distinct narratives by changing only a few words in each sentence (e.g., "he" to "she" or "sobbing" to "laughing") while preserving the grammatical structure across stories. We then measured changes in neural responses between the two stories. We found that differences in neural responses between the two stories gradually increased along the hierarchy of processing timescales. For areas with short integration windows, such as early auditory cortex, the differences in neural responses between the two stories were relatively small. In contrast, in areas with the longest integration windows at the top of the hierarchy, such as the precuneus, temporal parietal junction, and medial frontal cortices, there were large differences in neural responses between stories. Furthermore, this gradual increase in neural differences between the stories was highly correlated with an area's ability to integrate information over time. Amplification of neural differences did not occur when changes in words did not alter the interpretation of the story (e.g., sobbing to "crying"). Our results demonstrate how subtle differences in words are gradually accumulated and amplified along the cortical hierarchy as the brain constructs a narrative over time.

  12. PRC1 Prevents Replication Stress during Chondrogenic Transit Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Spaapen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transit amplification (TA, a state of combined, rapid proliferative expansion and differentiation of stem cell-descendants, remains poorly defined at the molecular level. The Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 protein BMI1 has been localized to TA compartments, yet its exact role in TA is unclear. PRC1 proteins control gene expression, cell proliferation and DNA-damage repair. Coordination of such DNA-templated activities during TA is predicted to be crucial to support DNA replication and differentiation-associated transcriptional programming. We here examined whether chondrogenesis provides a relevant biological context for synchronized coordination of these chromatin-based tasks by BMI1. Taking advantage of a prominently featuring TA-phase during chondrogenesis in vitro and in vivo, we here report that TA is completely dependent on intact PRC1 function. BMI1-depleted chondrogenic progenitors rapidly accumulate double strand DNA breaks during DNA replication, present massive non-H3K27me3-directed transcriptional deregulation and fail to undergo chondrogenic TA. Genome-wide accumulation of Topoisomerase 2α and Geminin suggests a model in which PRC1 synchronizes replication and transcription during rapid chondrogenic progenitor expansion. Our combined data reveals for the first time a vital cell-autonomous role for PRC1 during chondrogenesis. We provide evidence that chondrocyte hyper-replication and hypertrophy represent a unique example of programmed senescence in vivo. These findings provide new perspectives on PRC1 function in development and disease.

  13. Optimization and characterization of dual-chirped optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-01-01

    We report optimization and characterization of a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme (2011 Opt. Express 19 7190). By increasing a pump pulse energy to 100 mJ, a total (signal + idler) output energy exceeding 30 mJ was recorded with higher than 30% conversion efficiency. The feasibility of further increasing the output energy to a higher scale using the DC-OPA scheme was confirmed by a proof-of-principle experiment, in which 30%–40% conversion efficiency was observed. The signal pulse with the center wavelength of 1.4 μm was compressed to 27 fs (FWHM), which was very close to a transform-limited pulse duration of 25 fs. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient for generating high-energy infrared (IR) pulses with excellent scaling ability, the design parameters for obtaining hundred-mJ-level and even joule-level IR pulses are discussed and presented in detail. (invited article)

  14. Mutually incoherent beam combining through optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropheme, B.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a technique of combination of coherent beams: Optical Parametric Amplification (OPA) with Multiple Pumps. This technique is used to instantly transfer the energy of several pumps on one beam, without energy storage and thus avoiding thermal effects in the amplifying media. It can be useful to combine energy of numerous fiber lasers and to amplify with a high repetition rate very high energy lasers or broadband pulses. With a numerical and experimental study using BBO and LBO as nonlinear crystal, we determine how to dispose the pumps around the signal and the corresponding angular tolerances of such set up. Then we focus our attention on recombining mechanisms between a pump and a non-corresponding idler. We demonstrate experimentally that these cascading effects may decrease the spatial and spectral quality of the amplified signal, and that these phenomena can be avoided with a minimum angle between the different pumps. A novel modelling of multi-pumps OPA links these cascading effects to the gratings generated by the interaction between the pumps. The last part presents a 5 pump OPA experiment. We achieve a pump-to-signal efficiency of 27% and so that a signal more powerful than each pump is obtained. (author) [fr

  15. Review:Whole genome amplification in preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-ming ZHENG; Ning WANG; Lei LI; Fan JIN

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis(PGD)refers to a procedure for genetically analyzing embryos prior to implantation,improving the chance of conception for patients at high risk of transmitting specific inherited disorders.This method has been widely used for a large number of genetic disorders since the first successful application in the early 1990s.Polymerase chain reaction(PCR)and fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH)are the two main methods in PGD,but there are some inevitable shortcomings limiting the scope of genetic diagnosis.Fortunately,different whole genome amplification(WGA)techniques have been developed to overcome these problems.Sufficient DNA can be amplified and multiple tasks which need abundant DNA can be performed.Moreover,WGA products can be analyzed as a template for multi-loci and multi-gene during the subsequent DNA analysis.In this review,we will focus on the currently available WGA techniques and their applications,as well as the new technical trends from WGA products.

  16. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant Shukla, Shiva; Resa López, Pablo; Sierra Sánchez, Carlos; Urréjola, José; Segura, Luis Elvira

    2012-10-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 105 cells ml-1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity.

  17. Comparison Between Vocal Function Exercises and Voice Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Letícia Caldas; Behlau, Mara

    2015-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) versus voice amplification (VA) after a 6-week therapy for teachers diagnosed with behavioral dysphonia. A total of 162 teachers with behavioral dysphonia were randomly allocated into two intervention groups and one control group (CG). Outcomes were assessed using auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice, laryngeal status assessment, self-ratings of the impact of dysphonia, and acoustic analysis. The VFE group showed effective changes across treatment outcome measures: overall severity of dysphonia relative to the CG, laryngeal evaluation, and self-perceived dysphonia. The VA group showed positive outcomes in some measures of self-rated dysphonia. The CG had poorer outcomes across self-assessment dimensions. The VFE method is effective in treating the behavioral dysphonia of teachers, can change the overall severity and the self-perception of the impact of dysphonia, and the laryngeal evaluation outcomes. The use of a voice amplifier is effective as a preventive measure because it results in an improved self-perception of dysphonia, especially in the work-related dimension. One case of dysphonia aggravation can be prevented in every three patients with behavioral dysphonia engaged in VFE, and one case in every five patients using VA. The lack of a therapeutic intervention worsens teachers' behavioral dysphonia in a period of 6 weeks. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards rapid prototyped convective microfluidic DNA amplification platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajit, Smrithi; Praveen, Hemanth Mithun; Puneeth, S. B.; Dave, Abhishek; Sesham, Bharat; Mohan, K. N.; Goel, Sanket

    2017-02-01

    Today, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based DNA amplification plays an indispensable role in the field of biomedical research. Its inherent ability to exponentially amplify sample DNA has proven useful for the identification of virulent pathogens like those causing Multiple Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The intervention of Microfluidics technology has revolutionized the concept of PCR from being a laborious and time consuming process into one that is faster, easily portable and capable of being multifunctional. The Microfluidics based PCR outweighs its traditional counterpart in terms of flexibility of varying reaction rate, operation simplicity, need of a fraction of volume and capability of being integrated with other functional elements. The scope of the present work involves the development of a real-time continuous flow microfluidic device, fabricated by 3D printing-governed rapid prototyping method, eventually leading to an automated and robust platform to process multiple DNA samples for detection of MDRTB-associated mutations. The thermal gradient characteristic to the PCR process is produced using peltier units appropriate to the microfluidic environment fully monitored and controlled by a low cost controller driven by a Data Acquisition System. The process efficiency achieved in the microfluidic environment in terms of output per cycle is expected to be on par with the traditional PCR and capable of earning the additional advantages of being faster and minimizing the handling.

  19. Human minisatellite alleles detectable only after PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J A; Crosier, M; Jeffreys, A J

    1992-01-01

    We present evidence that a proportion of alleles at two human minisatellite loci is undetected by standard Southern blot hybridization. In each case the missing allele(s) can be identified after PCR amplification and correspond to tandem arrays too short to detect by hybridization. At one locus, there is only one undetected allele (population frequency 0.3), which contains just three repeat units. At the second locus, there are at least five undetected alleles (total population frequency 0.9) containing 60-120 repeats; they are not detected because these tandem repeats give very poor signals when used as a probe in standard Southern blot hybridization, and also cross-hybridize with other sequences in the genome. Under these circumstances only signals from the longest tandemly repeated alleles are detectable above the nonspecific background. The structures of these loci have been compared in human and primate DNA, and at one locus the short human allele containing three repeat units is shown to be an intermediate state in the expansion of a monomeric precursor allele in primates to high copy number in the longer human arrays. We discuss the implications of such loci for studies of human populations, minisatellite isolation by cloning, and the evolution of highly variable tandem arrays.

  20. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, G.

    2014-11-18

    Rhythms of life are dictated by oscillations, which take place in a wide rage of biological scales. In bacteria, for example, oscillations have been proven to control many fundamental processes, ranging from gene expression to cell divisions. In genetic circuits, oscillations originate from elemental block such as autorepressors and toggle switches, which produce robust and noise-free cycles with well defined frequency. In some circumstances, the oscillation period of biological functions may double, thus generating bistable behaviors whose ultimate origin is at the basis of intense investigations. Motivated by brain studies, we here study an “elemental” genetic circuit, where a simple nonlinear process interacts with a noisy environment. In the proposed system, nonlinearity naturally arises from the mechanism of cooperative stability, which regulates the concentration of a protein produced during a transcription process. In this elemental model, bistability results from the coherent amplification of environmental fluctuations due to a stochastic resonance of nonlinear origin. This suggests that the period doubling observed in many biological functions might result from the intrinsic interplay between nonlinearity and thermal noise.

  1. Stochastic amplification of fluctuations in cortical up-states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hidalgo

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons are bistable; as a consequence their local field potentials can fluctuate between quiescent and active states, generating slow 0.5 2 Hz oscillations which are widely known as transitions between Up and Down States. Despite a large number of studies on Up-Down transitions, deciphering its nature, mechanisms and function are still today challenging tasks. In this paper we focus on recent experimental evidence, showing that a class of spontaneous oscillations can emerge within the Up states. In particular, a non-trivial peak around 20 Hz appears in their associated power-spectra, what produces an enhancement of the activity power for higher frequencies (in the 30-90 Hz band. Moreover, this rhythm within Ups seems to be an emergent or collective phenomenon given that individual neurons do not lock to it as they remain mostly unsynchronized. Remarkably, similar oscillations (and the concomitant peak in the spectrum do not appear in the Down states. Here we shed light on these findings by using different computational models for the dynamics of cortical networks in presence of different levels of physiological complexity. Our conclusion, supported by both theory and simulations, is that the collective phenomenon of "stochastic amplification of fluctuations"--previously described in other contexts such as Ecology and Epidemiology--explains in an elegant and parsimonious manner, beyond model-dependent details, this extra-rhythm emerging only in the Up states but not in the Downs.

  2. An extended parametrization of gas amplification in proportional wire chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beingessner, S.P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Hargrove, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    It is normally assumed that the gas amplification in proportional chambers is a function of Townsend's first ionization coefficient, α, and that α is a function of the anode surface electric field only. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating the breakdown of the latter assumption for electric fields, X, greater than about 150 V/cm/Torr on the anode wire surface for a gas mixture of 80/20 argon/methane. For larger values of X, the parametrization of the proportional gas gain data requires an additional term related to the gradient of the electric field near the wire. This extended gain parametrization remains valid until the onset of nonproportional contributions such as positive ion space charge saturation effects. Furthermore, deviations of the data from this parametrization are used to measure the onset of these space charge effects. A simple scaling dependence of the gain data on the product of pressure and wire radius over the whole proportional range is also demonstrated. (orig.)

  3. A new ultrasonic signal amplification method for detection of bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Shiva Kant; López, Pablo Resa; Sánchez, Carlos Sierra; Segura, Luis Elvira; Urréjola, José

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented that increases the sensitivity of ultrasound-based techniques for detection of bacteria. The technique was developed for the detection of catalase-positive microorganisms. It uses a bubble trapping medium containing hydrogen peroxide that is mixed with the sample for microbiological evaluation. The enzyme catalase is present in catalase-positive bacteria, which induces a rapid hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide, forming bubbles which remain in the medium. This reaction results in the amplification of the mechanical changes that the microorganisms produce in the medium. The effect can be detected by means of ultrasonic wave amplitude continuous measurement since the bubbles increase the ultrasonic attenuation significantly. It is shown that microorganism concentrations of the order of 10 5 cells ml −1 can be detected using this method. This allows an improvement of three orders of magnitude in the ultrasonic detection threshold of microorganisms in conventional culture media, and is competitive with modern rapid microbiological methods. It can also be used for the characterization of the enzymatic activity. (paper)

  4. New insights into siRNA amplification and RNAi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Ruvkun, Gary

    2012-08-01

    In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), gene inactivation by RNA interference can achieve remarkable potency due to the amplification of initial silencing triggers by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). RdRPs catalyze the biogenesis of an abundant species of secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) using the target mRNA as template. The interaction between primary siRNAs derived from the exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger and the target mRNA is required for the recruitment of RdRPs. Other genetic requirements for RdRP activities have not been characterized. Recent studies have identified the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex which interacts with the primary siRNA bound target mRNA and acts upstream of the RdRPs. rde-10 and rde-11 mutants show an RNAi defective phenotype because the biogenesis of secondary siRNAs is completely abolished. In addition, the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex plays a similar role in the endogenous RNAi pathway for the biogenesis of a subset of siRNAs targeting recently acquired, duplicated genes.

  5. Two-Tone Interference Caused by Active Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, T. A. J.; Andor, D.; Jülicher, F.

    2003-02-01

    To capture faint sounds, the ear uses an active system of amplification. We and our colleagues have put forward the idea that the amplifier comprises a set of "self-tuned critical oscillators": each hair cell contains a force-generating dynamical system which is maintained at the threshold of an oscillatory instability, or Hopf bifurcation. Our analysis shows that the active response to a pure tone is perfectly suited to the ear's needs, since it provides frequency selectivity, exquisite sensitivity and wide dynamic range. However, the intrinsic nonlinearity of the mechanism causes tones of different frequency to interfere with one another in the cochlea. In order to provide a framework for understanding how the ear processes the more complex sounds of speech and music, we have examined the response of a critical Hopf oscillator to two tones. Our calculations indicate how the response to one tone is suppressed by the presence of a second tone of similar frequency. They also show how a characteristic spectrum of distortion products is generated. Based on this analysis, we discuss to what extent psychophysical phenomena such as the sensation of dissonance and auditory illusions can be attributed to the physical nature of the peripheral detection apparatus.

  6. Risks, media and the social amplification of soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouboter, S. [NOK, Networkorganisation for Environmental Quality, Gouda (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Soil experts think of the risks of contaminated sites in terms of adverse effects of toxic substances on human health or environmental quality. In other words, the risk is attributed to the contamination. Social scientists define risk as a situation or event in which something of human value (including humans themselves) has been put at stake and where the outcome is uncertain. Since situations or events are constructions of the human mind, risks are also constructed. A relevant question for a psychologist is to learn how these constructions evolve in the mind of an individual and how this perceived risk influences the individuals' behaviour and well-being. A relevant question for a sociologist is how individuals with their own perceptions, feelings and behaviour interact. Many soil contamination experts experienced that one a site is seen as contaminated by a loathsome source, a chain of adverse reactions can easily put a stigma on that specific location and groups of people associated with that contaminated site. The case of Love Canal is worldwide known as an example of this phenomenon, but many countries have their own national symbol, like Lekkerkerk in the Netherlands. Modern media play an important role in this process. This process is often believed to be irrational and therefore uncontrollable. The question of this workshop is to what level technical soil experts can influence the psychological and social effects of soil contamination, using the social amplification metaphor. (orig.)

  7. Shaping of picosecond pulses for pumping optical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Major, Zs.; Horvath, B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The use of temporally shaped pump pulses for optical parametric amplification (OPA) is expected to facilitate an increase of efficiency and suppression of possible spectral distortions in this process, since the gain sensitively depends on the pump intensity. Our simulations confirmed such beneficial effect of temporally shaped pump pulses on the OPA process. With the aim to realize an optimized OPA stage pumped by shaped pulses, a novel method for passively shaping narrow band picosecond pulses has been developed. The method is based on the pulse-stacking principle, where replicas of the incoming pulse are created in a specially designed four-beam interferometer. The replicas are recombined with appropriate delays. The interferometer design allows for a unique flexibility in varying the pulse shape, since all relevant degrees of freedom, such as relative intensities and delays between the pulse replicas are independently adjustable. According to our calculations a pulse with a flat-top time profile would provide optimal conditions in the OPA process. Usually the pump pulse needs to be amplified in a conventional laser amplifier prior to the OPA. Our cross-correlation measurements showed that we are able to obtain shaped amplified pulses by shaping the amplifier input. Furthermore, by precompensating the distortions introduced by the amplifier we demonstrated our capability to produce amplified pulses with a flat-top time profile.

  8. Dimerization-Induced Allosteric Changes of the Oxyanion-Hole Loop Activate the Pseudorabies Virus Assemblin pUL26N, a Herpesvirus Serine Protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zühlsdorf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses encode a characteristic serine protease with a unique fold and an active site that comprises the unusual triad Ser-His-His. The protease is essential for viral replication and as such constitutes a promising drug target. In solution, a dynamic equilibrium exists between an inactive monomeric and an active dimeric form of the enzyme, which is believed to play a key regulatory role in the orchestration of proteolysis and capsid assembly. Currently available crystal structures of herpesvirus proteases correspond either to the dimeric state or to complexes with peptide mimetics that alter the dimerization interface. In contrast, the structure of the native monomeric state has remained elusive. Here, we present the three-dimensional structures of native monomeric, active dimeric, and diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inhibited dimeric protease derived from pseudorabies virus, an alphaherpesvirus of swine. These structures, solved by X-ray crystallography to respective resolutions of 2.05, 2.10 and 2.03 Å, allow a direct comparison of the main conformational states of the protease. In the dimeric form, a functional oxyanion hole is formed by a loop of 10 amino-acid residues encompassing two consecutive arginine residues (Arg136 and Arg137; both are strictly conserved throughout the herpesviruses. In the monomeric form, the top of the loop is shifted by approximately 11 Å, resulting in a complete disruption of the oxyanion hole and loss of activity. The dimerization-induced allosteric changes described here form the physical basis for the concentration-dependent activation of the protease, which is essential for proper virus replication. Small-angle X-ray scattering experiments confirmed a concentration-dependent equilibrium of monomeric and dimeric protease in solution.

  9. c-myc Amplification Is Frequent in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Correlated with the Upregulation of VEGF-A Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard H.A. von Rahden

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deregulation of c-myc plays a major role in the carcinogenesis of human malignancies. We investigated the amplification of the c-myc gene in a surgical series of Barrett cancers. METHODS: Primary resected esophageal (Barrett adenocarcinomas (n = 84 were investigated for c-myc amplification using chromogene in situ hybridization. Tumor samples were assembled in a tissue microarray. c-myc gene dosage was correlated with clinicopathologic parameters, including the survival and gene expression of cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2 and proangiogenic growth factors (VEGF-A and VEGF-C. RESULTS: The majority (70 of 84; 83.3% exhibited amplification of the c-myc gene. There were low-level amplifications in 63 (75.0% cases and high-level amplifications in 7 (8.3% cases. No amplification was found in 14 (16.7% cases. Tumors without c-myc amplification had lower VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and COX-2 expression levels than tumors with low-level and high-level c-myc amplification (statistically significant for VEGF-A; P = .0348. c-myc amplification was not correlated with clinicopathological parameters or survival. Only diffuse and mixed-type tumors, according to Lauren classification, exhibited c-myc amplifications more frequently (P = .0466. CONCLUSIONS: Amplifications of the c-myc gene are frequent in Barrett cancer. c-myc may be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  10. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Song, Juan; Xue, Qing-Wang; You, Fu-Heng; Lu, Xia; Kong, Yan-Cong; Ma, Shu-Yi; Jiang, Wei; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2016-10-21

    Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of "G-quadruplex" in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched "G-quadruplex lanterns" were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10 -17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  11. A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA/Exonuclease III (Exo III-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring.

  12. By-product formation in repetitive PCR amplification of DNA libraries during SELEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper; Mayer, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments. Based on sequence information and the amplification behaviour of defined enriched nucleic acid molecules we suppose a molecular mechanism through which these amplification by-products are built. Better understanding of these mechanisms might help to find solutions minimizing by-product formation and improving the success rate of aptamer selection.

  13. Somatosensory amplification mediates sex differences in psychological distress among cardioverter-defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Baumert, Jens; Kolb, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether female patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report more psychological distress than male patients, and whether somatosensory amplification mediates this relationship. Design: Consecutive ICD patients (N = 241; 33% women) participating in...

  14. Systematic evaluation of bias in microbial community profiles induced by whole genome amplification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Direito, S.; Zaura, E.; Little, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome amplification methods facilitate the detection and characterization of microbial communities in low biomass environments. We examined the extent to which the actual community structure is reliably revealed and factors contributing to bias. One widely used [multiple displacement

  15. Rapid Newcastle Disease Virus Detection Based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Optomagnetic Readout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Bo; Ma, Jing; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic methods based on isothermal amplification are ideal substitutes for PCR in out-of-lab settings. However, there are bottlenecks in terms of establishing low-cost and user-friendly readout methods for isothermal amplification schemes. Combining the high amplification...... efficiency of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with an optomagnetic nanoparticle-based readout system, we demonstrate ultrasensitive and rapid detection of Newcastle disease virus RNA. Biotinylated amplicons of LAMP and reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) bind to streptavidin-coated magnetic...... nanoparticles (MNPs) resulting in a dramatical increase in the hydrodynamic size of the MNPs. This increase was measured by an optomagnetic readout system and provided quantitative information on the amount of LAMP target sequence. Our assay resulted in a limit of detection of 10 aM of target sequence...

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Molecular Amplification Tests for Human African Trypanosomiasis-Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugasa, Claire M.; Adams, Emily R.; Boer, Kimberly R.; Dyserinck, Heleen C.; Büscher, Philippe; Schallig, Henk D. H. F.; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A range of molecular amplification techniques have been developed for the diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT); however, careful evaluation of these tests must precede implementation to ensure their high clinical accuracy. Here, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of

  17. Amplification of Chirality through Self-Replication of Micellar Aggregates in Water

    KAUST Repository

    Bukhriakov, Konstantin; Almahdali, Sarah; Rodionov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    We describe a system in which the self-replication of micellar aggregates results in a spontaneous amplification of chirality in the reaction products. In this system, amphiphiles are synthesized from two "clickable" fragments: a water-soluble "head

  18. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  19. Parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient and its temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zheng; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Qin Jun-Rui; Liu Rong-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Using three-dimensional technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation, parasitic bipolar amplification in a single event transient (SET) current of a single transistor and its temperature dependence are studied. We quantify the contributions of different current components in a SET current pulse, and it is found that the proportion of parasitic bipolar amplification in total collected charge is about 30% in both 130-nm and 90-nm technologies. The temperature dependence of parasitic bipolar amplification and the mechanism of the SET pulse are also investigated and quantified. The results show that the proportion of charge induced by parasitic bipolar increases with rising temperature, which illustrates that the parasitic bipolar amplification plays an important role in the charge collection of a single transistor

  20. Systematic evaluation of bias in microbial community profiles induced by whole genome amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Direito, S.O.L.; Zaura, E.; Little, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome amplification methods facilitate the detection and characterization of microbial communities in low biomass environments. We examined the extent to which the actual community structure is reliably revealed and factors contributing to bias. One widely used [multiple displacement

  1. PCR amplification of repetitive sequences as a possible approach in relative species quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballin, Nicolai Zederkopff; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Karlsson, Anders H

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Both relative and absolute quantifications are possible in species quantification when single copy genomic DNA is used. However, amplification of single copy genomic DNA does not allow a limit of detection as low as one obtained from amplification of repetitive sequences. Amplification...... of repetitive sequences is therefore frequently used in absolute quantification but problems occur in relative quantification as the number of repetitive sequences is unknown. A promising approach was developed where data from amplification of repetitive sequences were used in relative quantification of species...... to relatively quantify the amount of chicken DNA in a binary mixture of chicken DNA and pig DNA. However, the designed PCR primers lack the specificity required for regulatory species control....

  2. Tiny Grains Give Huge Gains: Nanocrystal–Based Signal Amplification for Biomolecule Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sheng; Ren, Binbin; Zheng, Zhilan; Shen, Han; Bao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystals, despite their tiny sizes, contain thousands to millions of atoms. Here we show that the large number of atoms packed in each metallic nanocrystal can provide a huge gain in signal amplification for biomolecule detection. We have devised a highly sensitive, linear amplification scheme by integrating the dissolution of bound nanocrystals and metal-induced stoichiometric chromogenesis, and demonstrated that signal amplification is fully defined by the size and atom density of nanocrystals, which can be optimized through well-controlled nanocrystal synthesis. Further, the rich library of chromogenic reactions allows implementation of this scheme in various assay formats, as demonstrated by the iron oxide nanoparticle linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) and blotting assay developed in this study. Our results indicate that, owing to the inherent simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability, the nanocrystal based amplification scheme can significantly improve biomolecule quantification in both laboratory research and clinical diagnostics. This novel method adds a new dimension to current nanoparticle-based bioassays. PMID:23659350

  3. Simultaneous electrical and mechanical resonance drive for large signal amplification of micro resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, M. H.

    2018-01-12

    Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.

  4. Envelope matching for enhanced backward Raman amplification by using self-ionizing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. M.; Zhang, B.; Hong, W.; Teng, J.; He, S. K.; Gu, Y. Q.; Yu, M. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Backward Raman amplification (BRA) in plasmas has been promoted as a means for generating ultrapowerful laser pulses. For the purpose of achieving the maximum intensities over the shortest distances, an envelope matching between the seed pulse and the amplification gain is required, i.e., the seed pulse propagates at the same velocity with the gain such that the peak of the seed pulse can always enjoy the maximum gain. However, such an envelope matching is absent in traditional BRA because in the latter the amplification gain propagates at superluminous velocity while the seed pulse propagates at the group velocity, which is less than the speed of light. It is shown here that, by using self-ionizing plasmas, the speed of the amplification gain can be well reduced to reach the envelope matching regime. This results in a favorable BRA process, in which higher saturated intensity, shorter interaction length and higher energy-transfer efficiency are achieved

  5. High peak-power kilohertz laser system employing single-stage multi-pass amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Wang, Chun; Chang, Zenghu

    2006-05-23

    The present invention describes a technique for achieving high peak power output in a laser employing single-stage, multi-pass amplification. High gain is achieved by employing a very small "seed" beam diameter in gain medium, and maintaining the small beam diameter for multiple high-gain pre-amplification passes through a pumped gain medium, then leading the beam out of the amplifier cavity, changing the beam diameter and sending it back to the amplifier cavity for additional, high-power amplification passes through the gain medium. In these power amplification passes, the beam diameter in gain medium is increased and carefully matched to the pump laser's beam diameter for high efficiency extraction of energy from the pumped gain medium. A method of "grooming" the beam by means of a far-field spatial filter in the process of changing the beam size within the single-stage amplifier is also described.

  6. Simultaneous electrical and mechanical resonance drive for large signal amplification of micro resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, M. H.; Alsaleem, F. M.; Jaber, Nizar; Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2018-01-01

    Achieving large signal-noise ratio using low levels of excitation signal is key requirement for practical applications of micro and nano electromechanical resonators. In this work, we introduce the double electromechanical resonance drive concept to achieve an order-of-magnitude dynamic signal amplification in micro resonators. The concept relies on simultaneously activating the micro-resonator mechanical and electrical resonance frequencies. We report an input voltage amplification up to 15 times for a micro-resonator when its electrical resonance is tuned to match the mechanical resonance that leads to dynamic signal amplification in air (Quality factor enhancement). Furthermore, using a multi-frequency excitation technique, input voltage and vibrational amplification of up to 30 times were shown for the same micro-resonator while relaxing the need to match its mechanical and electrical resonances.

  7. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  8. New closed tube loop mediated isothermal amplification assay for prevention of product cross-contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, K.; Rathore, Rajesh; Thomas, Prasad; Arun, T.R.; Viswas, K.N.; Dhama, Kuldeep; Agarwal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, a promising diagnostic test, has been developed for detection of different pathogens of human as well as animals. Various positive points support its use as a field level test but the major problem is product cross contamination leading to false positive results. Different methods were adopted by various researchers to control this false positive amplification due to cross contamination but all have their own advantages and disadvantages. A...

  9. Detection of biological molecules using boronate-based chemical amplification and optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph; Lane, Stephen M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Darrow, Christopher B.; Peyser, Thomas A.; Harder, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Methods are provided for the determination of the concentration of biological levels of polyhydroxylated compounds, particularly glucose. The methods utilize an amplification system that is an analyte transducer immobilized in a polymeric matrix, where the system is implantable and biocompatible. Upon interrogation by an optical system, the amplification system produces a signal capable of detection external to the skin of the patient. Quantitation of the analyte of interest is achieved by measurement of the emitted signal.

  10. Efficient chirped-pulse amplification of sub-20 fs laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Shinichi; Yamakawa, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a model for ultrabroadband and ultrashort pulse amplification including the effects of a pulse shaper for regenerative pulse shaping, gain narrowing and gain saturation in the amplifiers. Thin solid etalons are used to control both gain narrowing and gain saturation during amplification. This model has been used to design an optimized Ti:sapphire amplifier system for producing efficiently pulses of < 20-fs duration with approaching peak and average powers of 100 TW and 20 W. (author)

  11. Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs.......We demonstrate experimentally, for the first time to our knowledge, fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of 400-fs pulses. The 400-fs signal is stretched, amplified by 26 dB and compressed back to 500 fs....

  12. A PCA3 gene-based transcriptional amplification system targeting primary prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Neveu, Bertrand; Jain, Pallavi; T?tu, Bernard; Wu, Lily; Fradet, Yves; Pouliot, Fr?d?ric

    2015-01-01

    Targeting specifically primary prostate cancer (PCa) cells for immune therapy, gene therapy or molecular imaging is of high importance. The PCA3 long non-coding RNA is a unique PCa biomarker and oncogene that has been widely studied. This gene has been mainly exploited as an accurate diagnostic urine biomarker for PCa detection. In this study, the PCA3 promoter was introduced into a new transcriptional amplification system named the 3-Step Transcriptional Amplification System (PCA3-3STA) and ...

  13. Rapid and Sensitive Isothermal Detection of Nucleic-acid Sequence by Multiple Cross Displacement Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Wang; Yan Wang; Ai-Jing Ma; Dong-Xun Li; Li-Juan Luo; Dong-Xin Liu; Dong Jin; Kai Liu; Chang-Yun Ye

    2015-01-01

    We have devised a novel amplification strategy based on isothermal strand-displacement polymerization reaction, which was termed multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA). The approach employed a set of ten specially designed primers spanning ten distinct regions of target sequence and was preceded at a constant temperature (61?65??C). At the assay temperature, the double-stranded DNAs were at dynamic reaction environment of primer-template hybrid, thus the high concentration of primer...

  14. Amplification and displacement of chaotic attractors by means of unidirectional chaotic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miranda, J. M.

    1998-06-01

    Chaotic systems, when used to drive copies of themselves (or parts of themselves) may induce interesting behaviors in the driven system. In case the later exhibits invariance under amplification or translation, they may show amplification (reduction), or displacement of the attractor. It is shown how the behavior to be obtained is implied by the symmetries involved. Two explicit examples are studied to show how these phenomena manifest themselves under perfect and imperfect coupling.

  15. Rf power amplification by energy storage and switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that during the last decade there have been several suggestions for RF storage and switching schemes. The principle behind these schemes is simply that energy from a source which is on for a long time at moderate power can be stored in a resonant cavity and dumped (switched) in a short time to yield higher power. This is also the basis of SLED which is driving the SLC, but the major difference is in the switching and the proposed power gains. In the case of SLED there is no switch only a phase agile RF source, and the maximum power gain is about a factor of 3. Proposed storage and switching schemes are often based on large ratios of charge to discharge times, say 5 μsec/50 nsec = 100 which could be the power amplification ratio. An early demonstration of the switching of a superconducting cavity was reported. It was observed that a peak power gain of 9 at low power levels with a cold cavity and a room-temperature switch. The switch was a He gas filled tube positioned in the leg of a waveguide T so that a η/2 stub turned into a η/4 stub when the gas broke down and became a good conductor. All switches encountered to date are some variant of this technique; the stubs reflects back an out-of-phase signal which cancels the one from the cavity so that no power escapes while the low-loss dielectric tube is non-conducting

  16. Cognitive functions of intracellular mechanisms for contextual amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, William A

    2017-03-01

    Evidence for the hypothesis that input to the apical tufts of neocortical pyramidal cells plays a central role in cognition by amplifying their responses to feedforward input is reviewed. Apical tufts are electrically remote from the soma, and their inputs come from diverse sources including direct feedback from higher cortical regions, indirect feedback via the thalamus, and long-range lateral connections both within and between cortical regions. This suggests that input to tuft dendrites may amplify the cell's response to basal inputs that they receive via layer 4 and which have synapses closer to the soma. ERP data supporting this inference is noted. Intracellular studies of apical amplification (AA) and of disamplification by inhibitory interneurons targeted only at tufts are reviewed. Cognitive processes that have been related to them by computational, electrophysiological, and psychopathological studies are then outlined. These processes include: figure-ground segregation and Gestalt grouping; contextual disambiguation in perception and sentence comprehension; priming; winner-take-all competition; attention and working memory; setting the level of consciousness; cognitive control; and learning. It is argued that theories in cognitive neuroscience should not assume that all neurons function as integrate-and-fire point processors, but should use the capabilities of cells with distinct sites of integration for driving and modulatory inputs. Potentially 'unifying' theories that depend upon these capabilities are reviewed. It is concluded that evolution of the primitives of AA and disamplification in neocortex may have extended cognitive capabilities beyond those built from the long-established primitives of excitation, inhibition, and disinhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PARAMETRIC AMPLIFICATION OF THE SIGNALS IN THE ELECTROSTATIC GRAVIINERTIAL SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Z. Gilavdary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of designing simple, reliable, and high sensitivity graviinertial sensors are investigated. The sensor comprises a proof mass (PM and is fixed with the housing by the elastic torsion suspension. PM makes small rotations under the action of gravitational forces or inertial forces.The distinctive features of the sensor are that the differential electrostatic system provides simultaneous reading of the desired signal and a control the torsional rigidity of suspension. In addition, the PM's rotational angular velocity transforms in the alternating current flowing through the capacitors. The presence of аlternating current (AC voltage sources allows to get the parametric amplification of AC and significantly to improve the sensitivity of the sensor. In the simplest case, the sensor does not contain any feedback circuits.As an example, calculations of the micromechanical linear accelerations confirm that the periodic modulation of the coefficient of elastic stiffness of the suspension can significantly increase the sensitivity in the low frequency range, even in the absence of parametric resonance.Conditions for suppressions of background current participating in the output signal from a parametric pumping due to the asymmetry of the differential circuits are set. The frequency characteristics calculations of the sensor were carried out. It is expected, that the proposed sensor design ensures minimum noise level, which can be achievable in the graviinertial sensors. This design and the constructed theory can serve as a basis for creating a wide range of graviinertial devices operating on a movable base, for example, linear and angular accelerometer, gravity gradiometer, gravimeters, and inclinometers, which can be realized in the hybrid and in the micromechanical versions.

  18. Ultrasmall volume molecular isothermal amplification in microfluidic chip with advanced surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoliang; Yang Xiaoyong; Ma Li; Yang Xu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a metal micro-fluidic chip with advanced surface processing for ultra-small volume molecular isothermal amplification. This method takes advantages of the nucleic acid amplification with good stability and consistency, high sensitivity about 31 genomic DNA copies and bacteria specific gene identification. Based on the advanced surface processing, the bioreaction assays of nucleic acid amplification was dropped about 392nl in volume. A high numerical aperture confocal optical detection system was advanced to sensitively monitor the DNA amplification with low noise and high power collecting fluorescence near to the optical diffraction limit. A speedy nucleic acid isothermal amplification was performed in the ultra-small volume microfluidic chip, where the time at the inflexions of second derivative to DNA exponential amplified curves was brought forward and the sensitivity was improved about 65 folds to that of in current 25μl Ep-tube amplified reaction, which indicates a promising clinic molecular diagnostics in the droplet amplification.

  19. HER2 gene amplification in patients with prostate cancer: Evaluating a CISH-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Nazanin; Salmaninejad, Arash; Ferdosi, Samira; Bajestani, Abolfazl Nesaei; Khaleghiyan, Malihe; Estiar, Mehrdad Asghari; Jamali, Mansour; Nowroozi, Mohammad Reza; Shakoori, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. The role of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in the pathogenesis and progression of human PCa remains poorly understood. In contradiction with breast cancer, studies on HER2 overexpression and gene amplification in PCa have produced varying results, although the HER2 oncogene has been implicated in the biology of numerous tumor types, and serves as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in breast cancer. Technical challenges are considered the main reasons for data discrepancies. Amplification of the HER2 gene has previously been reported in PCa, in which it was associated with tumor progression. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of HER2 amplification in PCa. A total of 32 biopsy samples obtained from human prostate adenocarcinomas were evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) to determine the frequency of patients with HER2 gene amplifications. High copy numbers of HER2 were detected in 19 of the prostate tumors analyzed. The results of the present study suggested that, in patients without amplification of HER2, high levels of prostate-specific antigen or a high Gleason score were not significantly correlated with a high pathologic stage. Furthermore, amplification levels of the HER2 gene were directly associated with pathologic stage in patients with PCa. Therefore, the potential use of HER2 as a prognostic factor or therapeutic target for PCa warrants further study.

  20. Particle-in-cell Simulations of Raman Laser Amplification in Preformed Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Daniel S.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Two critical issues in the amplification of laser pulses by backward Raman scattering in plasma slabs are the saturation mechanism of the amplification effect (which determines the maximum attainable output intensity of a Raman amplifier) and the optimal plasma density for amplification. Previous investigations [V.M. Malkin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 82 (22):4448-4451, 1999] identified forward Raman scattering and modulational instabilities of the amplifying seed as the likely saturation mechanisms and lead to an estimated unfocused output intensities of 10 17 W/cm 2 . The optimal density for amplification is determined by the competing constraints of minimizing the plasma density so as to minimize the growth rate of the instabilities leading to saturation but also maintaining the plasma sufficiently dense that the driven Langmuir wave responsible for backscattering does not break prematurely. Here, particle-in-cell code are simulations presented which verify that saturation of backward Raman amplification does occur at intensities of ∼10 17 W/cm 2 by forward Raman scattering and modulational instabilities. The optimal density for amplification in a plasma with the representative temperature of T(sub)e = 200 eV is also shown in these simulations to be intermediate between the cold plasma wave-breaking density and the density limit found by assuming a water bag electron distribution function

  1. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlehan, Francine; Mavré, François; Talini, Luc; Limoges, Benoît; Marchal, Damien

    2011-09-21

    We described an electrochemical method to monitor in real-time the isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids. The principle of detection is simple and well-adapted to the development of portable, easy-to-use and inexpensive nucleic acids detection technologies. It consists of monitoring a decrease in the electrochemical current response of a reporter DNA intercalating redox probe during the isothermal DNA amplification. The method offers the possibility to quantitatively analyze target nucleic acids in less than one hour at a single constant temperature, and to perform at the end of the isothermal amplification a DNA melt curve analysis for differentiating between specific and non-specific amplifications. To illustrate the potentialities of this approach for the development of a simple, robust and low-cost instrument with high throughput capability, the method was validated with an electrochemical system capable of monitoring up to 48 real-time isothermal HDA reactions simultaneously in a disposable microplate consisting of 48-electrochemical microwells. Results obtained with this approach are comparable to that obtained with a well-established but more sophisticated and expensive fluorescence-based method. This makes for a promising alternative detection method not only for real-time isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acid, but also for other isothermal DNA amplification strategies.

  2. Simple system for isothermal DNA amplification coupled to lateral flow detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Roskos

    Full Text Available Infectious disease diagnosis in point-of-care settings can be greatly improved through integrated, automated nucleic acid testing devices. We have developed an early prototype for a low-cost system which executes isothermal DNA amplification coupled to nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF detection in a mesofluidic cartridge attached to a portable instrument. Fluid handling inside the cartridge is facilitated through one-way passive valves, flexible pouches, and electrolysis-driven pumps, which promotes a compact and inexpensive instrument design. The closed-system disposable prevents workspace amplicon contamination. The cartridge design is based on standard scalable manufacturing techniques such as injection molding. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that enables efficient heat transfer. We have demonstrated as proof of principle the amplification and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb genomic DNA in the cartridge, using either Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP or the Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR, both coupled to NALF detection. We envision that a refined version of this cartridge, including upstream sample preparation coupled to amplification and detection, will enable fully-automated sample-in to answer-out infectious disease diagnosis in primary care settings of low-resource countries with high disease burden.

  3. Error amplification to promote motor learning and motivation in therapy robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2012-01-01

    To study the effects of different feedback error amplification methods on a subject's upper-limb motor learning and affect during a point-to-point reaching exercise, we developed a real-time controller for a robotic manipulandum. The reaching environment was visually distorted by implementing a thirty degrees rotation between the coordinate systems of the robot's end-effector and the visual display. Feedback error amplification was provided to subjects as they trained to learn reaching within the visually rotated environment. Error amplification was provided either visually or through both haptic and visual means, each method with two different amplification gains. Subjects' performance (i.e., trajectory error) and self-reports to a questionnaire were used to study the speed and amount of adaptation promoted by each error amplification method and subjects' emotional changes. We found that providing haptic and visual feedback promotes faster adaptation to the distortion and increases subjects' satisfaction with the task, leading to a higher level of attentiveness during the exercise. This finding can be used to design a novel exercise regimen, where alternating between error amplification methods is used to both increase a subject's motor learning and maintain a minimum level of motivational engagement in the exercise. In future experiments, we will test whether such exercise methods will lead to a faster learning time and greater motivation to pursue a therapy exercise regimen.

  4. Mode group specific amplification length in an asymmetric LPG assisted few-mode EDFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vipul; Gaur, Ankita; Aschieri, Pierre; Dussardier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a scheme for few-mode EDFA, which allows to choose independent amplification lengths for different mode groups. The EDF is a dual concentric core fiber, where the central core is connected to the line FMF and the ring core is doped with erbium to provide amplification. The modes of FMF are launched into the central core of the EDF, are converted into ring modes using LPG for amplification and then converted back into central core modes using another LPG. The distance between the LPGs determines the amplification length. The amplification length, can thus, be chosen for a given mode group. We demonstrate the working of this concept by choosing LP11 and LP21 mode groups of the FMF and show that a suitable choice of amplification lengths for the two mode groups can tailor the differential modal gain (DMG) to any desired value. We demonstrate achieving zero DMG among all the mode of LP11 and LP21 mode groups using this concept while having gain in excess of 20 dB. The study should be useful for optical fiber communication system employing space-division multiplexing (SDM).

  5. Nonlinear Brillouin amplification of finite-duration seeds in the strong coupling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. Both Raman as well as Brillouin amplifications of seed pulses were proposed. Here, we investigate Brillouin processes in the one-dimensional (1D) backscattering geometry with the help of numerical simulations. For optimal seed amplification, Brillouin scattering is considered in the so called strong coupling (sc) regime. Special emphasis lies on the dependence of the amplification process on the finite duration of the initial seed pulses. First, the standard plane-wave instability predictions are generalized to pulse models, and the changes of initial seed pulse forms due to parametric instabilities are investigated. Three-wave-interaction results are compared to predictions by a new (kinetic) Vlasov code. The calculations are then extended to the nonlinear region with pump depletion. Generation of different seed layers is interpreted by self-similar solutions of the three-wave interaction model. Similar to Raman amplification, shadowing of the rear layers by the leading layers of the seed occurs. The shadowing is more pronounced for initially broad seed pulses. The effect is quantified for Brillouin amplification. Kinetic Vlasov simulations agree with the three-wave interaction predictions and thereby affirm the universal validity of self-similar layer formation during Brillouin seed amplification in the strong coupling regime

  6. Cross species amplification ability of novel microsatellites isolated from Jatropha curcas and genetic relationship with sister taxa : Cross species amplification and genetic relationship of Jatropha using novel microsatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer; Mastan, Shaik G.; Rahman, Hifzur; Ravi Prakash, Ch; Singh, Sweta V.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2010-01-01

    -21 amplified in J. curcas. However, these markers did not show any cross species amplification. Overall percentage of polymorphism (PP) among the species studied was 38% and the mean genetic similarity (GS) was found to be 0.86. The highest PP (24

  7. RRh2Al10 (R = Ce, Yb): New intermetallic compounds in the 1 : 2 : 10 stoichiometry series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, A. M.; Djoumessi, R. F.; Blinova, M.; Tursina, A.; Nesterenko, S.; Avzuragova, V.

    2018-05-01

    The orthorhombic, space group Cmcm YbFe2Al10 structure type series of compounds are known to form with practically the entire series of rare-earth elements R, but only with the three d - electron elements Fe, Ru, and Os. The Ce-derivatives in particular have been of much interest since the first reports of their highly unusual physical properties. Classified as Kondo insulators, CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 controversially order magnetically and with uncharacteristically high Néel temperatures of ≃ 28 K. CeFe2Al10 on the other hand shows pronounced semiconducting and Kondo features but remains paramagnetic. As part of our ongoing studies into the rich physics of this class of materials we have succeeded in synthesizing new members of the 1:2:10 stoichiometry involving the chemical element Rh for the first time. CeRh2Al10 is found to crystallize in the tetragonal system with space group I41 / amd . Yb Rh2Al10 on the other hand forms in the serial Cmcm orthorhombic structure type. We discuss important similarities between the two types. At 5.310 Å the shortest Ce-Ce distance is, likewise to the situation in CeRu2Al10 and CeOs2Al10 , also well above the Hill limit of 3.40 Å. Despite the cage-like structure and large rare-earth separation distances, this study reveals the onset of long-range magnetic ordering in CeRh2Al10 at 3.9 K. The magnetic ordering develops out of an incoherent Kondo state that dominates the electrical resistivity below about 40 K.

  8. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo

  9. Increased centrosome amplification in aged stem cells of the Drosophila midgut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Na, Hyun-Jin; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Arking, Robert, E-mail: aa2210@wayne.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Yoo, Mi-Ae, E-mail: mayoo@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of aged Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs of oxidative stressed Drosophila midguts. • Increased centrosome amplification in ISCs by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be responsible for abnormal ISC polyploid cells. • Supernumerary centrosomes can be a useful marker for aging stem cells. - Abstract: Age-related changes in long-lived tissue-resident stem cells may be tightly linked to aging and age-related diseases such as cancer. Centrosomes play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Supernumerary centrosomes are known to be an early event in tumorigenesis and senescence. However, the age-related changes of centrosome duplication in tissue-resident stem cells in vivo remain unknown. Here, using anti-γ-tubulin and anti-PH3, we analyzed mitotic intestinal stem cells with supernumerary centrosomes in the adult Drosophila midgut, which may be a versatile model system for stem cell biology. The results showed increased centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells of aged and oxidatively stressed Drosophila midguts. Increased centrosome amplification was detected by overexpression of PVR, EGFR, and AKT in intestinal stem cells/enteroblasts, known to mimic age-related changes including hyperproliferation of intestinal stem cells and hyperplasia in the midgut. Our data show the first direct evidence for the age-related increase of centrosome amplification in intestinal stem cells and suggest that the Drosophila midgut is an excellent model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying centrosome amplification in aging adult stem cells in vivo.

  10. Prognostic significance of cyclin D1 protein expression and gene amplification in invasive breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Ortiz

    Full Text Available The oncogenic capacity of cyclin D1 has long been established in breast cancer. CCND1 amplification has been identified in a subset of patients with poor prognosis, but there are conflicting data regarding the predictive value of cyclin D1 protein overexpression. This study was designed to analyze the expression of cyclin D1 and its correlation with CCND1 amplification and their prognostic implications in invasive breast cancer. By using the tissue microarray technique, we performed an immunohistochemical study of ER, PR, HER2, p53, cyclin D1, Ki67 and p16 in 179 invasive breast carcinoma cases. The FISH method was performed to detect HER2/Neu and CCND1 amplification. High cyclin D1 expression was identified in 94/179 (52% of invasive breast cancers. Cyclin D1 overexpression and CCND1 amplification were significantly associated (p = 0.010. Overexpression of cyclin D1 correlated with ER expression, PR expression and Luminal subtypes (p<0.001, with a favorable impact on overall survival in the whole series. However, in the Luminal A group, high expression of cyclin D1 correlated with shorter disease-free survival, suggesting that the prognostic role of cyclin D1 depends on the molecular subtype. CCND1 gene amplification was detected in 17 cases (9% and correlated significantly with high tumor grade (p = 0.038, high Ki-67 protein expression (p = 0.002, and the Luminal B subtype (p = 0.002. Patients with tumors with high amplification of CCND1 had an increased risk of recurrence (HR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9, p = 0.01. These findings suggest that CCND1 amplification could be useful for predicting recurrence in invasive breast cancer.

  11. Instrument for Real-Time Digital Nucleic Acid Amplification on Custom Microfluidic Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Selck

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification. However, the mechanistic investigation and optimization of digital assays has been limited by the lack of real-time kinetic information about which factors affect the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of a reaction. Commercially available instruments that are capable of tracking digital reactions in real-time are restricted to only a small number of device types and sample-preparation strategies. Thus, most researchers who wish to develop, study, or optimize digital assays rely on the rate of the amplification reaction when performed in a bulk experiment, which is now recognized as an unreliable predictor of digital efficiency. To expand our ability to study how digital reactions proceed in real-time and enable us to optimize both the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of digital assays, we built a custom large-format digital real-time amplification instrument that can accommodate a wide variety of devices, amplification chemistries and sample-handling conditions. Herein, we validate this instrument, we provide detailed schematics that will enable others to build their own custom instruments, and we include a complete custom software suite to collect and analyze the data retrieved from the instrument. We believe assay optimizations enabled by this instrument will improve the current limits of nucleic acid detection and quantification, improving our

  12. Construction and optimization of an efficient breathing-based isothermal emulsion amplification method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yanting, E-mail: shenyanting798@126.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Tian, Fei, E-mail: 642807827@qq.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Tu, Jing, E-mail: jtu@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Li, Rui, E-mail: lirui901113@163.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Chen, Zhenzhu, E-mail: zzchen_seu@163.com [Research Center for Learning Science, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Bai, Yunfei, E-mail: whitecf@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Ge, Qinyu, E-mail: geqinyu@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China); Lu, Zuhong, E-mail: zhlu@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, Southeast University, Sipailou Road no. 2, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210096 (China)

    2017-06-22

    The reaction temperature is one of the main factors that affect the stability of emulsion PCR (emPCR). Focusing on this point, we applied the “DNA breathing” mechanism in BEAMing (Bead, Emulsion, Amplification, and Magnetic) and proposed a more stable emulsion amplification method. Compared to the conventional emPCR, this method provided excellent results. Firstly, more stable emulsion system resulted in higher percentage of single-molecular amplifications (73.17%). Secondly, an ordinary temperature-controlling device was enough. Our outcome showed that the reaction temperature of this method was not strict so that the ordinary temperature-controlling device was enough for it (the heat block sets vs. the PCR instrument: 13.140 ± 0.110 vs. 13.008 ± 0.039, P = 0.120). Thirdly, the single-biotinylated emP{sub 1} coated streptavidin beads were stable enough to be used for this method (the control temperature vs. the reaction temperature: 2967.91 ± 409.045 vs. 3026.22 ± 442.129, P = 0.334), which could replace the double-biotinylated emP{sub 1} coated beads and was benefit for saving cost. In conclusion, the method presented here with stable emulsion system, simplified temperature-controlling device, and decreased investment would be a highly streamlined and inexpensive option for future single-molecular amplification based researches. - Highlights: • A breathing-based isothermal emulsion amplification (BIEA) method was developed. • BIEA showed excellent properties compared with conventional amplification method. • Terminal breathing of DNA duplex was firstly used in emulsion amplification.

  13. Concurrent AURKA and MYCN Gene Amplifications Are Harbingers of Lethal TreatmentRelated Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Mosquera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC, also referred to as anaplastic prostate cancer, is a lethal tumor that most commonly arises in late stages of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA with predilection to metastasize to visceral organs. In the current study, we explore for evidence that Aurora kinase A (AURKA and N-myc (MYCN gene abnormalities are harbingers of treatment-related NEPC (t-NEPC. We studied primary prostate tissue from 15 hormone naïve PCAs, 51 castration-resistant prostate cancers, and 15 metastatic tumors from 72 patients at different stages of disease progression to t-NEPC, some with multiple specimens. Histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed and correlated with clinical variables. AURKA amplification was identified in overall 65% of PCAs (hormone naïve and treated from patients that developed t-NEPC and in 86% of metastases. Concurrent amplification of MYCN was present in 70% of primary PCAs, 69% of treated PCAs, and 83% of metastases. In contrast, in an unselected PCA cohort, AURKA and MYCN amplifications were identified in only 5% of 169 cases. When metastatic t-NEPC was compared to primary PCA from the same patients, there was 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement, 100% concordance of AURKA amplification, and 60% concordance of MYCN amplification. In tumors with mixed features, there was also 100% concordance of ERG rearrangement and 94% concordance of AURKA and MYCN co-amplification between areas of NEPC and adenocarcinoma. AURKA and MYCN amplifications may be prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as they are harbingers of tumors at risk of progressing to t-NEPC after hormonal therapy.

  14. chipPCR: an R package to pre-process raw data of amplification curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, Stefan; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Both the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and quantitative isothermal amplification (qIA) are standard methods for nucleic acid quantification. Numerous real-time read-out technologies have been developed. Despite the continuous interest in amplification-based techniques, there are only few tools for pre-processing of amplification data. However, a transparent tool for precise control of raw data is indispensable in several scenarios, for example, during the development of new instruments. chipPCR is an R: package for the pre-processing and quality analysis of raw data of amplification curves. The package takes advantage of R: 's S4 object model and offers an extensible environment. chipPCR contains tools for raw data exploration: normalization, baselining, imputation of missing values, a powerful wrapper for amplification curve smoothing and a function to detect the start and end of an amplification curve. The capabilities of the software are enhanced by the implementation of algorithms unavailable in R: , such as a 5-point stencil for derivative interpolation. Simulation tools, statistical tests, plots for data quality management, amplification efficiency/quantification cycle calculation, and datasets from qPCR and qIA experiments are part of the package. Core functionalities are integrated in GUIs (web-based and standalone shiny applications), thus streamlining analysis and report generation. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/chipPCR. Source code: https://github.com/michbur/chipPCR. stefan.roediger@b-tu.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Sleeve bridging of the rhesus monkey ulnar nerve with muscular branches of the pronator teres: multiple amplification of axonal regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-hui Kou; Pei-xun Zhang; Yan-hua Wang; Bo Chen; Na Han; Feng Xue; Hong-bo Zhang; Xiao-feng Yin; Bao-guo Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-bud regeneration, i.e., multiple amplification, has been shown to exist in peripheral nerve regeneration. Multiple buds grow towards the distal nerve stump during proximal nerve fiber regeneration. Our previous studies have verified the limit and validity of multiple amplification of peripheral nerve regeneration using small gap sleeve bridging of small donor nerves to repair large receptor nerves in rodents. The present study sought to observe multiple amplification of myelinated ne...

  16. New physics effects in charm meson decays involving c → ul{sup +}l{sup -}(l{sub i}{sup -+}l{sub j}{sup ±}) transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Suchismita; Mohanta, Rukmani [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)

    2017-05-15

    We study the effect of the scalar leptoquark and Z{sup '} boson on the rare decays of the D mesons involving flavour changing transitions c → ul{sup +}l{sup -}(l{sub i}{sup -+}l{sub j}{sup ±}). We constrain the new physics parameter space using the branching ratio of the rare decay mode D{sup 0} → μ{sup +}μ{sup -} and the D{sup 0} - anti D{sup 0} oscillation data. We compute the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetry parameters and flat terms in D{sup +(0)} → π{sup +(0)} μ{sup +}μ{sup -} processes using the constrained parameters. The branching ratios of the lepton flavour violating D meson decays, such as D{sup 0} → μe, τe and D{sup +(0)} → π{sup +(0)} μ{sup -}e{sup +} are also investigated. (orig.)

  17. Optical nano-biosensing interface via nucleic acid amplification strategy: construction and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-03-21

    Modern optical detection technology plays a critical role in current clinical detection due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. However, higher requirements such as extremely high detection sensitivity have been put forward due to the clinical needs for the early finding and diagnosing of malignant tumors which are significant for tumor therapy. The technology of isothermal amplification with nucleic acids opens up avenues for meeting this requirement. Recent reports have shown that a nucleic acid amplification-assisted modern optical sensing interface has achieved satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy, high speed and specificity. Compared with isothermal amplification technology designed to work completely in a solution system, solid biosensing interfaces demonstrated better performances in stability and sensitivity due to their ease of separation from the reaction mixture and the better signal transduction on these optical nano-biosensing interfaces. Also the flexibility and designability during the construction of these nano-biosensing interfaces provided a promising research topic for the ultrasensitive detection of cancer diseases. In this review, we describe the construction of the burgeoning number of optical nano-biosensing interfaces assisted by a nucleic acid amplification strategy, and provide insightful views on: (1) approaches to the smart fabrication of an optical nano-biosensing interface, (2) biosensing mechanisms via the nucleic acid amplification method, (3) the newest strategies and future perspectives.

  18. By-Product Formation in Repetitive PCR Amplification of DNA Libraries during SELEX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolle, Fabian; Wilke, Julian; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target-recogniz......The selection of nucleic acid aptamers is an increasingly important approach to generate specific ligands binding to virtually any molecule of choice. However, selection-inherent amplification procedures are prone to artificial by-product formation that prohibits the enrichment of target......-recognizing aptamers. Little is known about the formation of such by-products when employing nucleic acid libraries as templates. We report on the formation of two different forms of by-products, named ladder- and non-ladder-type observed during repetitive amplification in the course of in vitro selection experiments....... Based on sequence information and the amplification behaviour of defined enriched nucleic acid molecules we suppose a molecular mechanism through which these amplification by-products are built. Better understanding of these mechanisms might help to find solutions minimizing by-product formation...

  19. Internal amplification control of PCR for the Glu1-Dx5 allele in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, H N; Vieira, E S N; Polo, L R T; Lima, N K; Silva, G J; Linde, G A; Colauto, N B; Schuster, I

    2017-08-17

    One of the limiting factors in using dominant markers is the unique amplification of the target fragment. Therefore, failures in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or non-amplifications can be interpreted as an absence of the allele. The possibility of false negatives implies in reduced efficiency in the selection process in genetic breeding programs besides the loss of valuable genetic material. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the viability of a microsatellite marker as an internal amplification control with a dominant marker for the wheat Glu1-Dx5 gene. A population of 77 wheat cultivars/breeding lines was analyzed. Fourteen microsatellite markers were analyzed in silico regarding the formation of dimers and clamps. The biplex reaction conditions were optimized, and the Xbarc117 marker was selected as the internal amplification control with a Glu1-Dx5 marker in wheat. It was concluded that the Xbarc117 microsatellite marker was effective in the simultaneous amplification with a dominant Glu1-Dx5 marker, making biplex PCR viable in wheat for the studied markers.

  20. Plasmon enhanced light amplification in metal–insulator–metal waveguides with gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the loss compensation and light amplification properties of metal–insulator–metal (MIM) waveguides that are doped with gain material in the dielectric core. An analytical approach based on Maxwell’s equations is developed to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the gain coefficient on the loss compensation and light amplification efficiencies of the waveguide under different values of the waveguide width and working wavelengths. The analytical results agree excellently with all-numerical calculations that directly solve Maxwell’s equations. The results show that the light amplification efficiency obeys a strict linear relationship with the gain coefficient, and MIM waveguides with narrower widths and under shorter wavelengths have better efficiencies. In addition, the MIM waveguides have higher light amplification efficiencies than usual dielectric waveguides, which suggests a very positive role of the plasmonic structure in enhancing the light amplification when gain is introduced. These loss and gain behaviors can be well explained by looking at the modal profile of each transport mode and the corresponding light energy confinement effect and slow light effect. (paper)

  1. NAIMA: target amplification strategy allowing quantitative on-chip detection of GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Dany; Dobnik, David; Hamels, Sandrine; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a novel multiplex quantitative DNA-based target amplification method suitable for sensitive, specific and quantitative detection on microarray. This new method named NASBA Implemented Microarray Analysis (NAIMA) was applied to GMO detection in food and feed, but its application can be extended to all fields of biology requiring simultaneous detection of low copy number DNA targets. In a first step, the use of tailed primers allows the multiplex synthesis of template DNAs in a primer extension reaction. A second step of the procedure consists of transcription-based amplification using universal primers. The cRNA product is further on directly ligated to fluorescent dyes labelled 3DNA dendrimers allowing signal amplification and hybridized without further purification on an oligonucleotide probe-based microarray for multiplex detection. Two triplex systems have been applied to test maize samples containing several transgenic lines, and NAIMA has shown to be sensitive down to two target copies and to provide quantitative data on the transgenic contents in a range of 0.1-25%. Performances of NAIMA are comparable to singleplex quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, NAIMA amplification is faster since 20 min are sufficient to achieve full amplification.

  2. Metformin inhibits age-related centrosome amplification in Drosophila midgut stem cells through AKT/TOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Jin; Park, Joung-Sun; Pyo, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Kim, Young-Shin; Arking, Robert; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2015-07-01

    We delineated the mechanism regulating the inhibition of centrosome amplification by metformin in Drosophila intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Age-related changes in tissue-resident stem cells may be closely associated with tissue aging and age-related diseases, such as cancer. Centrosome amplification is a hallmark of cancers. Our recent work showed that Drosophila ISCs are an excellent model for stem cell studies evaluating age-related increase in centrosome amplification. Here, we showed that metformin, a recognized anti-cancer drug, inhibits age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification in ISCs. Furthermore, we revealed that this effect is mediated via down-regulation of AKT/target of rapamycin (TOR) activity, suggesting that metformin prevents centrosome amplification by inhibiting the TOR signaling pathway. Additionally, AKT/TOR signaling hyperactivation and metformin treatment indicated a strong correlation between DNA damage accumulation and centrosome amplification in ISCs, suggesting that DNA damage might mediate centrosome amplification. Our study reveals the beneficial and protective effects of metformin on centrosome amplification via AKT/TOR signaling modulation. We identified a new target for the inhibition of age- and oxidative stress-induced centrosome amplification. We propose that the Drosophila ISCs may be an excellent model system for in vivo studies evaluating the effects of anti-cancer drugs on tissue-resident stem cell aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental determination of harmonic conditions amplification in a distribution network by capacitor bank switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baloi, Alexandru; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a study comprising laboratory measurements for the evaluation of the harmonic amplification due to capacitor bank switching. The mathematical model of the amplification factors of the current flowing on the circuit elements is presented. Theoretical aspects, regarding the total...... harmonic distortion (THD) of the capacitor current computed using the amplification factor, are originally presented. Nonlinear loads as six pulse rectifier and National Instruments measurement sensors together with LabView software were used on the laboratory set-up. The main instrument of the method...... is the harmonic impedance, “seen” in the bus of the capacitor bank switching. MatLab Simulink is used for the determination of the harmonic impedance....

  4. Ultrafast Capillary Electrophoresis Isolation of DNA Aptamer for the PCR Amplification-Based Small Analyte Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle eFiore

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a new homogeneous DNA amplification-based aptamer assay for small analyte sensing. The aptamer of adenosine chosen as the model analyte was split into two fragments able to assemble in the presence of target. Primers were introduced at extremities of one fragment in order to generate the amplifiable DNA component. The amount of amplifiable fragment was quantifiable by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR amplification and directly reliable on adenosine concentration. This approach combines the very high separation efficiency and the homogeneous format (without immobilization of capillary electrophoresis and the sensitivity of real time PCR amplification. An ultrafast isolation of target-bound split aptamer (60 s was developed by designing a capillary electrophoresis input/ouput scheme. Such method was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine with a LOD of 1 µM.

  5. Catechol-chitosan redox capacitor for added amplification in electrochemical immunoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Guan, Yongguang; Bhokisham, Narendranath; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Kim, Eunkyoung; Shi, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Qin; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2018-05-22

    Antibodies are common recognition elements for molecular detection but often the signals generated by their stoichiometric binding must be amplified to enhance sensitivity. Here, we report that an electrode coated with a catechol-chitosan redox capacitor can amplify the electrochemical signal generated from an alkaline phosphatase (AP) linked immunoassay. Specifically, the AP product p-aminophenol (PAP) undergoes redox-cycling in the redox capacitor to generate amplified oxidation currents. We estimate an 8-fold amplification associated with this redox-cycling in the capacitor (compared to detection by a bare electrode). Importantly, this capacitor-based amplification is generic and can be coupled to existing amplification approaches based on enzyme-linked catalysis or magnetic nanoparticle-based collection/concentration. Thus, the capacitor should enhance sensitivities in conventional immunoassays and also provide chemical to electrical signal transduction for emerging applications in molecular communication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of RAPD and PCR double amplification in the study of ancient DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Balzano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project analysed the DNA extracted from bones of ancient sheep which have been brought to light in Sardinian different archaeological sites. In order to better analyse this highly fragmented DNA, a double amplification technique was chosen. The first approach consisted of RAPD-PCR abd the second one in classic PCR. The RAPD-PCR amplified random fragments and allowed the production of numerous amplicons. The products of RAPD amplification have been amplified, more specifically, by the second PCR using primers for a sequence of 176 bp of mitochondrial D-loop region. These DNA fragments have been sequenced and the sequence analysis has confirmed that it belonged to Ovis aries. Consequently, this provedure can be considered a valid tool to perform amplification of degraded DNA, such as ancient DNA.

  7. Single-Cell Whole-Genome Amplification and Sequencing: Methodology and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ma, Fei; Chapman, Alec; Lu, Sijia; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2015-01-01

    We present a survey of single-cell whole-genome amplification (WGA) methods, including degenerate oligonucleotide-primed polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR), multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC). The key parameters to characterize the performance of these methods are defined, including genome coverage, uniformity, reproducibility, unmappable rates, chimera rates, allele dropout rates, false positive rates for calling single-nucleotide variations, and ability to call copy-number variations. Using these parameters, we compare five commercial WGA kits by performing deep sequencing of multiple single cells. We also discuss several major applications of single-cell genomics, including studies of whole-genome de novo mutation rates, the early evolution of cancer genomes, circulating tumor cells (CTCs), meiotic recombination of germ cells, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), and preimplantation genomic screening (PGS) for in vitro-fertilized embryos.

  8. Amplification through chaotic synchronization in spatially extended beam-plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Olga I.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we have studied the relationship between chaotic synchronization and microwave signal amplification in coupled beam-plasma systems. We have considered a 1D particle-in-cell numerical model of unidirectionally coupled beam-plasma oscillatory media being in the regime of electron pattern formation. We have shown the significant gain of microwave oscillation power in coupled beam-plasma media being in the different regimes of generation. The discovered effect has a close connection with the chaotic synchronization phenomenon, so we have observed that amplification appears after the onset of the complete time scale synchronization regime in the analyzed coupled spatially extended systems. We have also provided the numerical study of physical processes in the chain of beam-plasma systems leading to the chaotic synchronization and the amplification of microwave oscillations power, respectively.

  9. 2.5 TW, two-cycle IR laser pulses via frequency domain optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruson, V; Ernotte, G; Lassonde, P; Laramée, A; Bionta, M R; Chaker, M; Di Mauro, L; Corkum, P B; Ibrahim, H; Schmidt, B E; Legaré, F

    2017-10-30

    Broadband optical parametric amplification in the IR region has reached a new milestone through the use of a non-collinear Frequency domain Optical Parametric Amplification system. We report a laser source delivering 11.6 fs pulses with 30 mJ of energy at a central wavelength of 1.8 μm at 10 Hz repetition rate corresponding to a peak power of 2.5 TW. The peak power scaling is accompanied by a pulse shortening of about 20% upon amplification due to the spectral reshaping with higher gain in the spectral wings. This source paves the way for high flux soft X-ray pulses and IR-driven laser wakefield acceleration.

  10. Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) using isothermal amplification of target DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; La Mura, Maurizio; Allnutt, Theo R; Powell, Wayne

    2009-02-02

    The most common method of GMO detection is based upon the amplification of GMO-specific DNA amplicons using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we have applied the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify GMO-related DNA sequences, 'internal' commonly-used motifs for controlling transgene expression and event-specific (plant-transgene) junctions. We have tested the specificity and sensitivity of the technique for use in GMO studies. Results show that detection of 0.01% GMO in equivalent background DNA was possible and dilutions of template suggest that detection from single copies of the template may be possible using LAMP. This work shows that GMO detection can be carried out using LAMP for routine screening as well as for specific events detection. Moreover, the sensitivity and ability to amplify targets, even with a high background of DNA, here demonstrated, highlights the advantages of this isothermal amplification when applied for GMO detection.

  11. Four-Wave Optical Parametric Amplification in a Raman-Active Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kida

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Four-wave optical parametric amplification (FWOPA in a Raman-active medium is experimentally investigated by use of an air-filled hollow fiber. A femtosecond pump pulse shorter than the period of molecular motion excites the coherent molecular motion of the Raman-active molecules during the parametric amplification of a signal pulse. The excited coherent motion modulates the frequency of the signal pulse during the parametric amplification, and shifts it to lower frequencies. The magnitude of the frequency redshift depends on the pump intensity, resulting in intensity-dependent spectral characteristics that are different from those in the FWOPA induced in a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber.

  12. Optical parametric amplification and oscillation assisted by low-frequency stimulated emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-04-15

    Optical parametric amplification and oscillation provide powerful tools for coherent light generation in spectral regions inaccessible to lasers. Parametric gain is based on a frequency down-conversion process and, thus, it cannot be realized for signal waves at a frequency ω3 higher than the frequency of the pump wave ω1. In this Letter, we suggest a route toward the realization of upconversion optical parametric amplification and oscillation, i.e., amplification of the signal wave by a coherent pump wave of lower frequency, assisted by stimulated emission of the auxiliary idler wave. When the signal field is resonated in an optical cavity, parametric oscillation is obtained. Design parameters for the observation of upconversion optical parametric oscillation at λ3=465 nm are given for a periodically poled lithium-niobate (PPLN) crystal doped with Nd(3+) ions.

  13. Heralded noiseless amplification for single-photon entangled state with polarization feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Jin, Yu-Yu; Qin, Sheng-Xian; Zu, Hao; Zhou, Lan; Zhong, Wei; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Heralded noiseless amplification is a promising method to overcome the transmission photon loss in practical noisy quantum channel and can effectively lengthen the quantum communication distance. Single-photon entanglement is an important resource in current quantum communications. Here, we construct two single-photon-assisted heralded noiseless amplification protocols for the single-photon two-mode entangled state and single-photon three-mode W state, respectively, where the single-photon qubit has an arbitrary unknown polarization feature. After the amplification, the fidelity of the single-photon entangled state can be increased, while the polarization feature of the single-photon qubit can be well remained. Both the two protocols only require the linear optical elements, so that they can be realized under current experimental condition. Our protocols may be useful in current and future quantum information processing.

  14. Tropical temperature altitude amplification in the hiatus period (1998-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducić Vladan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1998-2012 there was a stagnation in temperature rise, despite the GHGs radiation forcing is increased (hiatus period. According to Global Circulation Models simulations, expected response on the rise of GHGs forcing is tropical temperature altitude amplification - temperature increases faster in higher troposphere than in lower troposphere. In this paper, two satellite data sets, UAH MSU and RSS, were used to test altitude temperature amplification in tropic (20°N-20°S in the hiatus period. We compared data from satellite data sets from lower troposphere (TLT and middle troposphere (TMT in general and particularly for land and ocean (for UAH MSU. The results from both satellite measurements showed the presence of hiatus, i.e. slowdown of the temperature rise in the period 1998-2012 compared to period 1979-2012 (UAH MSU and temperature fall for RSS data. Smaller increase, i.e. temperature fall over ocean showed that hiatus is an ocean phenomenon above all. Data for UAH MSU showed that temperature altitude amplification in tropic was not present either for period 1979-2012, or 1998-2012. RSS data set also do not show temperature altitude amplification either for longer (1979-2012, or for shorter period (1998-2012. RSS data for successive 15-year periods from 1979-1993 till 1998-2012 does not show tropical temperature altitude amplification and in one case negative trend is registered in TLT and in two cases in TMT. In general, our results do not show presence of temperature altitude amplification in tropic in the hiatus period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007

  15. Biomass changes and trophic amplification of plankton in a warmer ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem

    2014-05-07

    Ocean warming can modify the ecophysiology and distribution of marine organisms, and relationships between species, with nonlinear interactions between ecosystem components potentially resulting in trophic amplification. Trophic amplification (or attenuation) describe the propagation of a hydroclimatic signal up the food web, causing magnification (or depression) of biomass values along one or more trophic pathways. We have employed 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical models to explore ecosystem responses to climate change with a focus on trophic amplification. The response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to global climate-change projections, carried out with the IPSL Earth System Model by the end of the century, is analysed at global and regional basis, including European seas (NE Atlantic, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Bay of Biscay, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea) and the Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (Benguela). Results indicate that globally and in Atlantic Margin and North Sea, increased ocean stratification causes primary production and zooplankton biomass to decrease in response to a warming climate, whilst in the Barents, Baltic and Black Seas, primary production and zooplankton biomass increase. Projected warming characterized by an increase in sea surface temperature of 2.29 ± 0.05 °C leads to a reduction in zooplankton and phytoplankton biomasses of 11% and 6%, respectively. This suggests negative amplification of climate driven modifications of trophic level biomass through bottom-up control, leading to a reduced capacity of oceans to regulate climate through the biological carbon pump. Simulations suggest negative amplification is the dominant response across 47% of the ocean surface and prevails in the tropical oceans; whilst positive trophic amplification prevails in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Trophic attenuation is projected in temperate seas. Uncertainties in ocean plankton projections, associated to the use of single global and

  16. Biomass changes and trophic amplification of plankton in a warmer ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Chust, Guillem; Allen, Julian Icarus; Bopp, Laurent; Schrum, Corinna; Holt, Jason T.; Tsiaras, Kostas P.; Zavatarelli, Marco; Chifflet, Marina; Cannaby, Heather; Dadou, Isabelle C.; Daewel, Ute; Wakelin, Sarah L.; Machú , Eric; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Butenschö n, Momme; Artioli, Yuri; Petihakis, George; Smith, Chris J M; Garç on, Vé ronique C.; Goubanova, Katerina; Le Vu, Briac; Fach, Bettina A.; Salihoglu, Baris; Clementi, Emanuela; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-01-01

    Ocean warming can modify the ecophysiology and distribution of marine organisms, and relationships between species, with nonlinear interactions between ecosystem components potentially resulting in trophic amplification. Trophic amplification (or attenuation) describe the propagation of a hydroclimatic signal up the food web, causing magnification (or depression) of biomass values along one or more trophic pathways. We have employed 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical models to explore ecosystem responses to climate change with a focus on trophic amplification. The response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to global climate-change projections, carried out with the IPSL Earth System Model by the end of the century, is analysed at global and regional basis, including European seas (NE Atlantic, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Bay of Biscay, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea) and the Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (Benguela). Results indicate that globally and in Atlantic Margin and North Sea, increased ocean stratification causes primary production and zooplankton biomass to decrease in response to a warming climate, whilst in the Barents, Baltic and Black Seas, primary production and zooplankton biomass increase. Projected warming characterized by an increase in sea surface temperature of 2.29 ± 0.05 °C leads to a reduction in zooplankton and phytoplankton biomasses of 11% and 6%, respectively. This suggests negative amplification of climate driven modifications of trophic level biomass through bottom-up control, leading to a reduced capacity of oceans to regulate climate through the biological carbon pump. Simulations suggest negative amplification is the dominant response across 47% of the ocean surface and prevails in the tropical oceans; whilst positive trophic amplification prevails in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Trophic attenuation is projected in temperate seas. Uncertainties in ocean plankton projections, associated to the use of single global and

  17. Amplification and overexpression of aurora kinase A (AURKA) in immortalized human ovarian epithelial (HOSE) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, C M; Man, C; Jin, Y; Jin, C; Guan, X Y; Wang, Q; Wan, T S K; Cheung, A L M; Tsao, S W

    2005-07-01

    Immortalization is an early and essential step of human carcinogenesis. Amplification of chromosome 20q has been shown to be a common event in immortalized cells and cancers. We have previously reported that gain and amplification of chromosome 20q is a non-random and common event in immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cells. The chromosome 20q harbors genes including TGIF2 (20q11.2-q12), AIB1 (20q12), PTPN1 (20q13.1), ZNF217 (20q13.2), and AURKA (20q13.2-q13.3), which were previously reported to be amplified and overexpressed in ovarian cancers. Some of these genes may be involved in immortalization of HOSE cells and represent crucial premalignant changes in ovarian surface epithelium. Investigation of the involvement of these genes was examined in four pairs of pre-crisis (preimmortalized) and post-crisis (immortalized) HOSE cells. Overexpression of AURKA (Aurora kinase A), also known as BTAK and STK15, by both real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) and Western blotting was detected in all the four immortalized HOSE cells examined while overexpression of AIB1 and ZNF217 was observed in two of four immortalized HOSE cells examined. Overexpression of TGIF2 and PTPN1 was not significant in our immortalized HOSE cell systems. The degree of overexpression of AURKA was shown to be closely associated with the amplification of chromosome 20q in immortalized HOSE cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with labeled P1 artificial clone (PAC) confirmed the amplification of the chromosomal region (20q13.2-13.3) where AURKA resides. DNA amplification of AURKA was also confirmed using semi-quantitative PCR. Our study showed that amplification and overexpression of AURKA is a common and significant event during immortalization of HOSE cells and may represent an important premalignant change in ovarian carcinogenesis. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Biomass changes and trophic amplification of plankton in a warmer ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chust, Guillem; Allen, J Icarus; Bopp, Laurent; Schrum, Corinna; Holt, Jason; Tsiaras, Kostas; Zavatarelli, Marco; Chifflet, Marina; Cannaby, Heather; Dadou, Isabelle; Daewel, Ute; Wakelin, Sarah L; Machu, Eric; Pushpadas, Dhanya; Butenschon, Momme; Artioli, Yuri; Petihakis, George; Smith, Chris; Garçon, Veronique; Goubanova, Katerina; Le Vu, Briac; Fach, Bettina A; Salihoglu, Baris; Clementi, Emanuela; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-07-01

    Ocean warming can modify the ecophysiology and distribution of marine organisms, and relationships between species, with nonlinear interactions between ecosystem components potentially resulting in trophic amplification. Trophic amplification (or attenuation) describe the propagation of a hydroclimatic signal up the food web, causing magnification (or depression) of biomass values along one or more trophic pathways. We have employed 3-D coupled physical-biogeochemical models to explore ecosystem responses to climate change with a focus on trophic amplification. The response of phytoplankton and zooplankton to global climate-change projections, carried out with the IPSL Earth System Model by the end of the century, is analysed at global and regional basis, including European seas (NE Atlantic, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Bay of Biscay, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea) and the Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (Benguela). Results indicate that globally and in Atlantic Margin and North Sea, increased ocean stratification causes primary production and zooplankton biomass to decrease in response to a warming climate, whilst in the Barents, Baltic and Black Seas, primary production and zooplankton biomass increase. Projected warming characterized by an increase in sea surface temperature of 2.29 ± 0.05 °C leads to a reduction in zooplankton and phytoplankton biomasses of 11% and 6%, respectively. This suggests negative amplification of climate driven modifications of trophic level biomass through bottom-up control, leading to a reduced capacity of oceans to regulate climate through the biological carbon pump. Simulations suggest negative amplification is the dominant response across 47% of the ocean surface and prevails in the tropical oceans; whilst positive trophic amplification prevails in the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Trophic attenuation is projected in temperate seas. Uncertainties in ocean plankton projections, associated to the use of single global and

  19. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Gui Zhang

    Full Text Available Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L, a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs. The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW and spike length (SL of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH was significantly lower.

  20. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full-genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, I.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2010-01-01

    -Gifhorn genome was generated by long RTPCR and then RNA transcripts derived from this amplicon were used to rescue infectious virus. Here, we have now used this full-genome amplification strategy for efficient and robust amplification of three additional pestivirus strains: the vaccine strain C and the virulent...... Paderborn strain of Classical swine fever virus plus the CP7 strain of Bovine viral diarrhoea virus. The amplicons were cloned directly into a stable single-copy bacterial artificial chromosome generating full-length pestivirus DNAs from which infectious RNA transcripts could be also derived....

  1. Precision charge amplification and digitization system for a scintillating and lead glass array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Rameika, R.; Arenton, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 544-channel low-noise, high-rate, precision charge amplification and ADC system was constructed for the Fermilab Experiment 705 electromagnetic calorimeter, which employs SCG1-C scintillating glass and SF5 lead glass instrumented with photo-multiplier tubes. A general discussion of the system is given, and the charge amplification, fast trigger pulse generation, and analog to digital conversion aspects of the system are presented in more detail. Performance is evaluated using data from Experiment 705 and from off-line tests. Short and long term pedestal stability, baseline recovery and rate capability, linearity of response, and crosstalk between channels are discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Improved sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Lundgren, Bettina; Tabak, Fehmi

    2004-01-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is essential for a positive outcome; but present microbiological diagnostic techniques are insensitive, slow, or laborious. We evaluated the standard BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification method (the standard ProbeTec method) for the detec......Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is essential for a positive outcome; but present microbiological diagnostic techniques are insensitive, slow, or laborious. We evaluated the standard BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification method (the standard ProbeTec method...

  3. EFFICIENCY OF MOMENT AMPLIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE SECOND-ORDER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Paschal Chiadighikaobi

    2018-01-01

    Beam-column is the member subjected to axial compression and bending. Secondary Moment was accounted for in the design and was additional moment induced by axial load. Comparing the results analysis from two computer aided software (SAP2000 and Java). The moment amplification factor Af was inputted in the Java code. Af did not create any change in the result outputs in the Java Code results. There are many different ways to apply amplification factors to first-order analysis results, each wit...

  4. FGFR-1 amplification in metastatic lymph-nodal and haematogenous lobular breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunello Eleonora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lobular breast carcinoma usually shows poor responsiveness to chemotherapies and often lacks targeted therapies. Since FGFR1 expression has been shown to play pivotal roles in primary breast cancer tumorigenesis, we sought to analyze the status of FGFR1 gene in a metastatic setting of lobular breast carcinoma, since promising FGFR1 inhibitors has been recently developed. Methods Fifteen tissue metastases from lobular breast carcinomas with matched primary infiltrative lobular breast carcinoma were recruited. Eleven cases showed loco-regional lymph-nodal and four haematogenous metastases. FGFR-1 gene (8p12 amplification was evaluated by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH analysis. Her-2/neu and topoisomerase-IIα gene status was assessed. E-cadherin and Hercept Test were also performed. We distinguished amplification (>6 or cluster of signals versus gains (3–6 signals of the locus specific FGFR-1 gene. Results Three (20% primary lobular breast carcinomas showed >6 or cluster of FGFR1 signals (amplification, six cases (40% had a mean of three (range 3–6 chromogenic signals (gains whereas in 6 (40% was not observed any abnormality. Three of 15 metastasis (20% were amplified, 2/15 (13,4% did not. The ten remaining cases (66,6% showed three chromogenic signals. The three cases with FGFR-1 amplification matched with those primary breast carcinomas showing FGFR-1 amplification. The six cases showing FGFR-1 gains in the primary tumour again showed FGFR-1 gains in the metastases. Four cases showed gains of FGFR-1 gene signals in the metastases and not in the primary tumours. Her-2/neu gene amplification was not observed in all cases but one (6% case. Topoisomerase-IIα was not amplified in all cases. Conclusions 1 a subset of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma harbors FGFR-1 gene amplification or gains of chromogenic signals; 2 a minor heterogeneity has been observed after matching primary and metastatic carcinomas; 3 in the

  5. Phase-preserving wavefront amplification at 590 nm by stimulated Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, D. V.; Gruneisen, M. T.; Peterson, P. R.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental demonstration of high-gain optical-wavefront amplification by stimulated Raman scattering near the D 1 resonance in atomic sodium vapor. Single-pass weak-field gain of nearly 400 is achieved with only 800 mW of pump power. Through judicious focusing, the weak wavefront is confined to the central region of the focused pump wave where saturation of the dispersion profile minimizes phase distortions due to self-focusing effects. Phase-preserving amplification is demonstrated by interferometric measurements of an amplified TEM 00 wavefront.

  6. Precision charge amplification and digitization system for a scintillating and lead glass array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Rameika, R.; Arenton, M.; Chen, T.Y.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Etemadi, B.; Fortney, L.; Guffey, K.; Haire, M.

    1989-01-01

    A 544-channel low-noise, high-rate, precision charge amplification and ADC system was constructed for the Fermilab Experiment 705 electromagnetic calorimeter, which employs SCG1-C scintillating glass and SF5 lead glass instrumented with photo-multiplier tubes. A general discussion of the system is given, and the charge amplification, fast trigger pulse generation, and analog to digital conversion aspects of the system are presented in more detail. Performance is evaluated using data from Experiment 705 and from off-line tests. Short and long term pedestal stability, baseline recovery and rate capability, linearity of response, and crosstalk between channels are discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Effect of polariton propagation on spectra of SRS amplification and CARS from polaritons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Sergei N; Polivanov, Yurii N

    2001-01-01

    The properties of k spectra of SRS amplification and CARS from polaritons caused by 'running out' of polaritons from the volume of their interaction with incident light beams are theoretically analysed. It is shown that the shape and width of the spectra depend on the relation between the size of the overlap region of exciting waves in a crystal along the direction of polariton propagation and the mean free path of polaritons. The conditions are found under which the widths of SRS amplification and CARS spectra give information on the polariton decay. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  8. Computational method and system for modeling, analyzing, and optimizing DNA amplification and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandersall, Jennifer A.; Gardner, Shea N.; Clague, David S.

    2010-05-04

    A computational method and computer-based system of modeling DNA synthesis for the design and interpretation of PCR amplification, parallel DNA synthesis, and microarray chip analysis. The method and system include modules that address the bioinformatics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of DNA amplification and synthesis. Specifically, the steps of DNA selection, as well as the kinetics and thermodynamics of DNA hybridization and extensions, are addressed, which enable the optimization of the processing and the prediction of the products as a function of DNA sequence, mixing protocol, time, temperature and concentration of species.

  9. Numerical study of primordial magnetic field amplification by inflation-produced gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2010-01-01

    We numerically study the interaction of inflation-produced magnetic fields with gravitational waves, both of which originate from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The resonance between the magnetic field perturbations and the gravitational waves has been suggested as a possible mechanism for magnetic field amplification. However, some analytical studies suggest that the effect of the inflationary gravitational waves is too small to provide significant amplification. Our numerical study shows more clearly how the interaction affects the magnetic fields and confirms the weakness of the influence of the gravitational waves. We present an investigation based on the magnetohydrodynamic approximation and take into account the differences of the Alfven speed.

  10. Amplification of Frequency-Modulated Similariton Pulses in Length-Inhomogeneous Active Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zolotovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of an effective gain of the self-similar frequency-modulated (FM wave packets is studied in the length-inhomogeneous active fibers. The dynamics of parabolic pulses with the constant chirp has been considered. The optimal profile for the change of the group-velocity dispersion corresponding to the optimal similariton pulse amplification has been obtained. It is shown that the use of FM pulses in the active (gain and length-inhomogeneous optical fibers with the normal group-velocity dispersion can provide subpicosecond optical pulse amplification up to the energies higher than 1 nJ.

  11. An exact formula to describe the amplification process in a photomultiplier tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademacker, Jonas

    2002-01-01

    An analytical function is derived that exactly describes the amplification process due to a series of discrete, Poisson-like amplifications like those in a photo multiplier tube (PMT). A numerical recipe is provided that implements this function as a computer program. It is shown how the program can be used as the core element of a faster, simplified routine to fit PMT spectra with high efficiency. The functionality of the method is demonstrated by fitting both, Monte Carlo generated and measured PMT spectra

  12. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  13. Caught in the middle with multiple displacement amplification: the myth of pooling for avoiding multiple displacement amplification bias in a metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Rachel; McCarren, Coleen; Vorrasane, Vansay; Nasko, Dan; Crowgey, Erin; Polson, Shawn W; Wommack, K Eric

    2014-01-30

    Shotgun metagenomics has become an important tool for investigating the ecology of microorganisms. Underlying these investigations is the assumption that metagenome sequence data accurately estimates the census of microbial populations. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of microbial community DNA is often used in cases where it is difficult to obtain enough DNA for sequencing; however, MDA can result in amplification biases that may impact subsequent estimates of population census from metagenome data. Some have posited that pooling replicate MDA reactions negates these biases and restores the accuracy of population analyses. This assumption has not been empirically tested. Using mock viral communities, we examined the influence of pooling on population-scale analyses. In pooled and single reaction MDA treatments, sequence coverage of viral populations was highly variable and coverage patterns across viral genomes were nearly identical, indicating that initial priming biases were reproducible and that pooling did not alleviate biases. In contrast, control unamplified sequence libraries showed relatively even coverage across phage genomes. MDA should be avoided for metagenomic investigations that require quantitative estimates of microbial taxa and gene functional groups. While MDA is an indispensable technique in applications such as single-cell genomics, amplification biases cannot be overcome by combining replicate MDA reactions. Alternative library preparation techniques should be utilized for quantitative microbial ecology studies utilizing metagenomic sequencing approaches.

  14. Cross species amplification ability of novel microsatellites isolated from Jatropha curcas and genetic relationship with sister taxa : Cross species amplification and genetic relationship of Jatropha using novel microsatellites

    KAUST Repository

    Pamidimarri, D. V N N Sudheer

    2010-07-30

    The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to check the ability of cross species amplification of microsatellite markers isolated from Jatropha curcas-a renewable source of biodiesel to deduce the generic relationship with its six sister taxa (J. glandulifera, J. gossypifolia, J. integerrima, J. multifida, J. podagrica, and J. tanjorensis). Out of the 49 markers checked 31 markers showed cross species amplification in all the species studied. JCDS-30, JCDS-69, JCDS-26, JCMS-13 and JCMS-21 amplified in J. curcas. However, these markers did not show any cross species amplification. Overall percentage of polymorphism (PP) among the species studied was 38% and the mean genetic similarity (GS) was found to be 0.86. The highest PP (24) and least GS (0.76) was found between J. curcas/J. podagrica and J. curcas/J. multifida and least PP (4.44) and highest GS (0.96) was found between J. integerrima/J. tanjorensis. Dendrogram analysis showed good congruence to RAPD and AFLP than nrDNA ITS data reported earlier. The characterized microsatellites will pave way for intraspecies molecular characterization which can be further utilized in species differentiation, molecular identification, characterization of interspecific hybrids, exploitation of genetic resource management and genetic improvement of the species through marker assisted breeding for economically important traits. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9 Triggered Isothermal Amplification for Site-Specific Nucleic Acid Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengqi; Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Huiying; Xing, Da

    2018-02-06

    A novel CRISPR/Cas9 triggered isothermal exponential amplification reaction (CAS-EXPAR) strategy based on CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage and nicking endonuclease (NEase) mediated nucleic acids amplification was developed for rapid and site-specific nucleic acid detection. CAS-EXPAR was primed by the target DNA fragment produced by cleavage of CRISPR/Cas9, and the amplification reaction performed cyclically to generate a large number of DNA replicates which were detected using a real-time fluorescence monitoring method. This strategy that combines the advantages of CRISPR/Cas9 and exponential amplification showed high specificity as well as rapid amplification kinetics. Unlike conventional nucleic acids amplification reactions, CAS-EXPAR does not require exogenous primers, which often cause target-independent amplification. Instead, primers are first generated by Cas9/sgRNA directed site-specific cleavage of target and accumulated during the reaction. It was demonstrated this strategy gave a detection limit of 0.82 amol and showed excellent specificity in discriminating single-base mismatch. Moreover, the applicability of this method to detect DNA methylation and L. monocytogenes total RNA was also verified. Therefore, CAS-EXPAR may provide a new paradigm for efficient nucleic acid amplification and hold the potential for molecular diagnostic applications.

  16. The Effect of Storage and Extraction Methods on Amplification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from Dried Blood Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, A.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Dorsey, G.; Bousema, T.; Greenhouse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction and amplification of DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected in field studies is commonly used for detection of Plasmodium falciparum. However, there have been few systematic efforts to determine the effects of storage and extraction methods on the sensitivity of DNA amplification. We

  17. Progress in HER2 testing in breast cancer: multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and automated immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moelans, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic changes in sporadic breast cancer is amplification of the HER2 gene, usually resulting in protein overexpression on the cell membrane and growth activation of the cells. Breast cancer patients that have this HER2 amplification have a worse prognosis but can be

  18. Identification of MYCN gene amplification in neuroblastoma using chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH): an alternative and practical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rohit; Oppenheimer, Orit; Gerald, William; Jhanwar, Suresh C; Chen, Beiyun

    2005-06-01

    Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is a recently developed technique, which utilizes the general principles of in situ hybridization and a detection system similar to immunohistochemistry. To assess the utility of CISH for analysis of MYCN gene amplification, we compared this assay with established diagnostic assays such as Southern blot analysis (SB) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). CISH was performed on 67 cases of neuroblastoma using tissue microarray (65 cases) and whole tissue sections (2 cases). Unequivocal, high-level amplification (> or =10 gene copies per tumor nucleus) was identified in 19 of 67 (28.4%) tumors. Two (3%) tumors showed low-level amplification (6-9 gene copies per tumor nucleus). No amplification was seen in 46 of 67 (68.6%) tumors. SB data were available in 44 tumors. Forty-one of the 44 tumors (93%) showed concordant results between CISH and SB. Three tumors showed MYCN amplification by CISH but no amplification by SB, most likely due to dilution effect of nonneoplastic tissue in the test samples. Two of these three tumors also showed MYCN amplification by FISH, and the third tumor was not analyzed by FISH. FISH data were available in total of 30 tumors. All 30 tumors showed concordant results between CISH and FISH for classifying a tumor as MYCN amplified or not amplified. We conclude that CISH is an accurate method for determining MYCN gene amplification, with added advantages that make it a more practically useful method.

  19. Monodisperse Picoliter Droplets for Low-Bias and Contamination-Free Reactions in Single-Cell Whole Genome Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification (WGA is essential for obtaining genome sequences from single bacterial cells because the quantity of template DNA contained in a single cell is very low. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA, using Phi29 DNA polymerase and random primers, is the most widely used method for single-cell WGA. However, single-cell MDA usually results in uneven genome coverage because of amplification bias, background amplification of contaminating DNA, and formation of chimeras by linking of non-contiguous chromosomal regions. Here, we present a novel MDA method, termed droplet MDA, that minimizes amplification bias and amplification of contaminants by using picoliter-sized droplets for compartmentalized WGA reactions. Extracted DNA fragments from a lysed cell in MDA mixture are divided into 105 droplets (67 pL within minutes via flow through simple microfluidic channels. Compartmentalized genome fragments can be individually amplified in these droplets without the risk of encounter with reagent-borne or environmental contaminants. Following quality assessment of WGA products from single Escherichia coli cells, we showed that droplet MDA minimized unexpected amplification and improved the percentage of genome recovery from 59% to 89%. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic-generated droplets show potential as an efficient tool for effective amplification of low-input DNA for single-cell genomics and greatly reduce the cost and labor investment required for determination of nearly complete genome sequences of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples.

  20. Active evolution of memory B-cells specific to viral gH/gL/pUL128/130/131 pentameric complex in healthy subjects with silent human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lin; Tang, Aimin; Meng, Weixu; Freed, Daniel C; He, Linling; Wang, Dai; Li, Fengsheng; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Gui, Xun; Schultz, Robbie D; Chen, Haotai; He, Xi; Swoyer, Ryan; Ha, Sha; Liu, Yaping; Morris, Charles D; Zhou, Yu; Wang, I-Ming; Zhao, Qinjian; Luo, Wenxin; Xia, Ningshao; Espeseth, Amy S; Hazuda, Daria J; Rupp, Richard E; Barrett, Alan D; Zhang, Ningyan; Zhu, Jiang; Fu, Tong-Ming; An, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-26

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause life-threatening infection in immunosuppressed patients, and in utero infection that may lead to birth defects. No vaccine is currently available. HCMV infection in healthy subjects is generally asymptomatic, and virus persists as latent infection for life. Host immunity is effective against reactivation and super-infection with another strain. Thus, vaccine candidates able to elicit immune responses similar to those of natural infection may confer protection. Since neutralization is essential for prophylactic vaccines, it is important to understand how antiviral antibodies are developed in natural infection. We hypothesized that the developmental path of antibodies in seropositive subjects could be unveiled by interrogating host B-cell repertoires using unique genetic signature sequences of mAbs. Towards this goal, we isolated 56 mAbs from three healthy donors with different neutralizing titers. Antibodies specific to the gH/gL/pUL128/130/131 pentameric complex were more potent in neutralization than those to gB. Using these mAbs as probes, patterns of extended lineage development for B-cells and evidence of active antibody maturation were revealed in two donors with higher neutralizing titers. Importantly, such patterns were limited to mAbs specific to the pentamer, but none to gB. Thus, memory B-cells with antiviral function such as neutralization were active during latent infection in the two donors, and this activity was responsible for their higher neutralizing titers. Our results indicated that memory B-cells of neutralizing capacity could be frequently mobilized in host, probably responding to silent viral episodes, further suggesting that neutralizing antibodies could play a role in control of recurrent infection.