Sample records for amplification reagent kit

  1. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera, cells...

  2. Removal of contaminating DNA from commercial nucleic acid extraction kit reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Reesink, Henk W.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.


    Due to contamination of DNA extraction reagents, false-positive results can occur when applying broad-range real-time PCR based on bacterial 16S rDNA. Filtration of the nucleic acid extraction kit reagents with GenElute Maxiprep binding columns was effective in removing this reagent-derived

  3. Optimizing direct amplification of forensic commercial kits for STR determination. (United States)

    Caputo, M; Bobillo, M C; Sala, A; Corach, D


    Direct DNA amplification in forensic genotyping reduces analytical time when large sample sets are being analyzed. The amplification success depends mainly upon two factors: on one hand, the PCR chemistry and, on the other, the type of solid substrate where the samples are deposited. We developed a workflow strategy aiming to optimize times and cost when starting from blood samples spotted onto diverse absorbent substrates. A set of 770 blood samples spotted onto Blood cards, Whatman ® 3 MM paper, FTA™ Classic cards, and Whatman ® Grade 1 was analyzed by a unified working strategy including a low-cost pre-treatment, a PCR amplification volume scale-down, and the use of the 3500 Genetic Analyzer as the analytical platform. Samples were analyzed using three different commercial multiplex STR direct amplification kits. The efficiency of the strategy was evidenced by a higher percentage of high-quality profiles obtained (over 94%), a reduced number of re-injections (average 3.2%), and a reduced amplification failure rate (lower than 5%). Average peak height ratio among different commercial kits was 0.91, and the intra-locus balance showed values ranging from 0.92 to 0.94. A comparison with previously reported results was performed demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed modifications. The protocol described herein showed high performance, producing optimal quality profiles, and being both time and cost effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Lipid Oxidation Using the Reagent Kit Based on Spectrophotometry (FOODLABfat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Woo Kwon


    Full Text Available The reliability and availability of FOODLABfat system for determining acid value (AV and peroxide value (POV were assessed during the hydrolytic rancidification and lipid oxidation of edible oils. This reagent kit based on spectrophotometry was compared to the official methods (ISO 660 and 3960 protocols based on manual titration employing the standard mixture for the simulated oxidation models and edible oils during the thermally induced oxidation at 180°C. The linear regression line of standard mixture and the significant difference of thermally oxidized time course study determined between them showed high correlations (R2=0.998 and p<0.05 in both AVs and POVs. Considering ISO protocols with a probability of human error in manual titration, the rapidness and simplicity of the reagent kit based on spectrophotometry make it a promising alternative to monitor the lipid oxidation of edible oils and lipid-containing foods.

  5. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit prototype for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood samples.


    Susana A Besuschio; Mónica Llano Murcia; Alejandro F Benatar; Severine Monnerat; Israel Cruz; Albert Picado; María de Los Ángeles Curto; Yutaka Kubota; Diana P Wehrendt; Paula Pavia; Yasuyoshi Mori; Concepción Puerta; Joseph M Ndung'u; Alejandro G Schijman


    This study aimed to assess analytical parameters of a prototype LAMP kit that was designed for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood. The prototype is based on the amplification of the highly repetitive satellite sequence of T.cruzi in microtubes containing dried reagents on the inside of the caps. The reaction is carried out at 65?C during 40 minutes. Calcein allows direct detection of amplified products with the naked eye. Inclusivity and selectivity were tested in purified DNA ...

  6. Reagent preparation and storage for amplification of microarray hybridization targets with a fully automated system. (United States)

    Zhou, Mingjie; Marlowe, Jon; Graves, Jaime; Dahl, Jason; Riley, Zackery; Tian, Lena; Duenwald, Sven; Tokiwa, George; Fare, Thomas L


    The advent of automated systems for gene expression profiling has accentuated the need for the development of convenient and cost-effective methods for reagent preparation. We have developed a method for the preparation and storage of pre-aliquoted cocktail plates that contain all reagents required for amplification of nucleic acid by reverse transcription and in vitro transcription reactions. Plates can be stored at -80 degrees C for at least 1 month and kept in a hotel at 4 degrees C for at least 24 h prior to use. Microarray data quality generated from these pre-aliquoted reagent plates is not statistically different between cRNA amplified with stored cocktails and cRNA amplified with freshly prepared cocktails. Deployment of pre-aliquoted, stored cocktail plates in a fully automated system not only increases the throughput of amplifying cRNA targets from thousands of RNA samples, but could also considerably reduce reagent costs and potentially improve process robustness.

  7. Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit for forensic STR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Stine Frisk; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels


    Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts, but sho......Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts...

  8. Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit for forensic STR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredslund, Stine Frisk; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Morling, Niels


    Validation of the AmpFlSTR« SEfiler Plus(TM) PCR Amplification kit with 29 and 30 PCR cycles for forensic STR analysis demonstrated that the kit had fewer artefacts than the AmpFlSTR« SGM Plus(TM) kit (28 PCR cycles). The SEfiler Plus kit was more sensitive and devoid of colour artefacts, but sho......, but showed more stutters, drop-ins, drop-outs and allelic imbalances...

  9. Evaluation of commercially available RNA amplification kits for RNA sequencing using very low input amounts of total RNA. (United States)

    Shanker, Savita; Paulson, Ariel; Edenberg, Howard J; Peak, Allison; Perera, Anoja; Alekseyev, Yuriy O; Beckloff, Nicholas; Bivens, Nathan J; Donnelly, Robert; Gillaspy, Allison F; Grove, Deborah; Gu, Weikuan; Jafari, Nadereh; Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S; Lyons, Robert H; Tepper, Clifford; Nicolet, Charles M


    This article includes supplemental data. Please visit to obtain this information.Multiple recent publications on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) have demonstrated the power of next-generation sequencing technologies in whole-transcriptome analysis. Vendor-specific protocols used for RNA library construction often require at least 100 ng total RNA. However, under certain conditions, much less RNA is available for library construction. In these cases, effective transcriptome profiling requires amplification of subnanogram amounts of RNA. Several commercial RNA amplification kits are available for amplification prior to library construction for next-generation sequencing, but these kits have not been comprehensively field evaluated for accuracy and performance of RNA-seq for picogram amounts of RNA. To address this, 4 types of amplification kits were tested with 3 different concentrations, from 5 ng to 50 pg, of a commercially available RNA. Kits were tested at multiple sites to assess reproducibility and ease of use. The human total reference RNA used was spiked with a control pool of RNA molecules in order to further evaluate quantitative recovery of input material. Additional control data sets were generated from libraries constructed following polyA selection or ribosomal depletion using established kits and protocols. cDNA was collected from the different sites, and libraries were synthesized at a single site using established protocols. Sequencing runs were carried out on the Illumina platform. Numerous metrics were compared among the kits and dilutions used. Overall, no single kit appeared to meet all the challenges of small input material. However, it is encouraging that excellent data can be recovered with even the 50 pg input total RNA.

  10. Forensic and population genetic analyses of Danes, Greenlanders and Somalis typed with the Yfiler® Plus PCR amplification kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Jill Katharina; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Buchard, Anders


    Recently, the Yfiler(®) Plus PCR Amplification Kit (Yfiler(®) Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) was introduced. Yfiler(®) Plus amplifies 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci (Y-STRs) and adds ten new Y-STRs to those analysed with the commonly used AmpFlSTR(®) Yfiler(®) PCR Am...... in crime case investigations. However, the inclusion of seven RM Y-STRs in Yfiler(®) Plus makes it less attractive for relationship testing because of the relatively high combined mutation rate, approximately 15%....

  11. Evaluation of four commercial biuret reagent kits of serum total protein by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry reference measurement procedure. (United States)

    He, Meilin; Zhang, Jie


    In China, the traceability of clinical chemistry methods is still immature. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reference measurement procedure and evaluate commercial reagent kits using such established procedures. We reproduced the reference measurement procedure for serum total protein, as recommended by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). We evaluated the performance by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines EP15-A and EP6-A. Subsequently, four commercial reagent kits were evaluated by the reproduced reference procedure following CLSI guideline EP9-A2. The performance of the reproduced reference procedure was as follows: CVs ranged from 0.47% to 0.85% at medical decision levels (X(c)) of 45 g/L, 60 g/L and 80 g/L. Linearity was Y=1.0022X-0.2121 (r=0.9999), and recovery ranged from 100.2% to 102.4%. The External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA) was applied, and the result was within the limit of equivalence. The linear relationships of four commercial reagent kits, Merit Choice, KHB, Leadman, and Olympus, were, respectively: Y=0.9922X+0.5776 (r=0.9961); Y=0.9936X+0.4316 (r=0.9992); Y=0.9949X+0.9129 (r=0.9987) and Y=0.9923X+0.8876 (r=0.9989). KHB showed slight negative bias, and the mean±SD was -0.03±0.60 g/L. Merit Choice, Leadman, and Olympus all showed positive bias, and the mean±SDs were 0.02±0.63 g/L, 0.55±0.77 g/L and 0.34±0.71 g/L, respectively. The correlation and bias of four commercial reagent kits for serum total protein were found to be acceptable. Thus, these reagent kits can be used reliably in China.

  12. Comparison of dacron and nylon-flocked self-collected vaginal swabs and urine for the detection of Trichomonas vaginalis using analyte-specific reagents in a transcription-mediated amplification assay. (United States)

    Jang, Dan; Gilchrist, Jodi; Portillo, Eder; Smieja, Marek; Toor, Ramandeep; Chernesky, Max


    To compare self-collected vaginal swab (SCVS) types and first-catch urine (FCU) to diagnose Trichomonas vaginalis using analyte-specific reagents designed to be used in a transcription-mediated amplification assay. A total of 241 women (group A) collected a FCU and a SCVS using a dacron swab (APTIMA collection kit). A second group of 289 women (group B) collected two SCVS using one dacron swab and one nylon-flocked swab. Of 75 young women (street youth) determined to be infected with T vaginalis only seven reported symptoms of vaginal discharge or irritation. Using a cutoff of 50,000 relative light units, the sensitivity and specificity was 97.2% and 97.6%, respectively for dacron SCVS compared with 41.7% and 100% for FCU in group A; 92.3% and 98.8% for dacron SCVS and 92.3% and 99.2% for flocked-nylon SCVS in group B. The assay tested 96 samples in 6 h. Dacron and nylon-flocked SCVS performed equally well and significantly better than FCU using analyte-specific reagents in the APTIMA transcription-mediated amplification assay. Either swab type could be used for self-collection.

  13. Oncogene abnormalities in a series of primary melanomas of the sinonasal tract: NRAS mutations and cyclin D1 amplification are more frequent than KIT or BRAF mutations. (United States)

    Chraybi, Meriem; Abd Alsamad, Issam; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Baia, Maryse; André, Jocelyne; Dumaz, Nicolas; Ortonne, Nicolas


    Primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is a rare but severe form of melanoma. We retrospectively analyzed 17 cases and focused on the histologic presentation and the expression of c-Kit, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1/Bcl-1, PS100, and HMB45 and searched for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations that are known to be associated with melanoma subtypes, together with amplifications of KIT, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, MDM2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In most cases (78%), an in situ component was evidenced. Invasive components were composed of diffuse areas of rhabdoid, epithelioid, or spindle cells and, in most cases, lacked inflammatory reaction, suggesting that an immune escape phenomenon probably develops when the disease progresses. EGFR was rarely and weakly expressed in the in situ component of 2 cases. None of the investigated case showed BRAF V600E, but 1 had a D594G mutation. NRAS mutations in exon 2 (G12D or G12A) were found in 3 cases (18%), and a KIT mutation in exon 11 (L576P), in 1, whereas c-Kit was expressed at the protein level in half of the cases. Amplifications of cyclin D1 were evidenced in 5 cases, confirmed in 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but this was not always correlated with protein expression, found in 8 patients (62.5%), 3 having no significant amplification. In conclusion, primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is not associated with BRAF V600E mutations. Instead, NRAS or KIT mutations and cyclin D1 amplification can be found in a proportion of cases, suggesting that primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is heterogeneous at the molecular level and should not be sensitive to therapeutic approaches aiming at BRAF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development (United States)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.


    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  15. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP kit prototype for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A Besuschio


    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess analytical parameters of a prototype LAMP kit that was designed for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood. The prototype is based on the amplification of the highly repetitive satellite sequence of T.cruzi in microtubes containing dried reagents on the inside of the caps. The reaction is carried out at 65°C during 40 minutes. Calcein allows direct detection of amplified products with the naked eye. Inclusivity and selectivity were tested in purified DNA from Trypanosoma cruzi stocks belonging to the six discrete typing units (DTUs, in DNA from other protozoan parasites and in human DNA. Analytical sensitivity was estimated in serial dilutions of DNA samples from Sylvio X10 (Tc I and CL Brener (Tc VI stocks, as well as from EDTA-treated or heparinized blood samples spiked with known amounts of cultured epimastigotes (CL Brener. LAMP sensitivity was compared after DNA extraction using commercial fiberglass columns or after "Boil & Spin" rapid preparation. Moreover, the same DNA and EDTA-blood spiked samples were subjected to standardized qPCR based on the satellite DNA sequence for comparative purposes. A panel of peripheral blood specimens belonging to Chagas disease patients, including acute, congenital, chronic and reactivated cases (N = 23, as well as seronegative controls (N = 10 were evaluated by LAMP in comparison to qPCR. LAMP was able to amplify DNAs from T. cruzi stocks representative of the six DTUs, whereas it did not amplify DNAs from Leishmania sp, T. brucei sp, T. rangeli KPN+ and KPN-, P. falciparum and non-infected human DNA. Analytical sensitivity was 1x10-2 fg/μL of both CL Brener and Sylvio X10 DNAs, whereas qPCR detected up to 1x 10-1 fg/μL of CL Brener DNA and 1 fg/μl of Sylvio X10 DNA. LAMP detected 1x10-2 parasite equivalents/mL in spiked EDTA blood and 1x10-1 par.eq/mL in spiked heparinized blood using fiberglass columns for DNA extraction, whereas qPCR detected 1x10-2 par

  16. Analytical sensitivity and specificity of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit prototype for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood samples. (United States)

    Besuschio, Susana A; Llano Murcia, Mónica; Benatar, Alejandro F; Monnerat, Severine; Cruz, Israel; Picado, Albert; Curto, María de Los Ángeles; Kubota, Yutaka; Wehrendt, Diana P; Pavia, Paula; Mori, Yasuyoshi; Puerta, Concepción; Ndung'u, Joseph M; Schijman, Alejandro G


    This study aimed to assess analytical parameters of a prototype LAMP kit that was designed for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood. The prototype is based on the amplification of the highly repetitive satellite sequence of T.cruzi in microtubes containing dried reagents on the inside of the caps. The reaction is carried out at 65°C during 40 minutes. Calcein allows direct detection of amplified products with the naked eye. Inclusivity and selectivity were tested in purified DNA from Trypanosoma cruzi stocks belonging to the six discrete typing units (DTUs), in DNA from other protozoan parasites and in human DNA. Analytical sensitivity was estimated in serial dilutions of DNA samples from Sylvio X10 (Tc I) and CL Brener (Tc VI) stocks, as well as from EDTA-treated or heparinized blood samples spiked with known amounts of cultured epimastigotes (CL Brener). LAMP sensitivity was compared after DNA extraction using commercial fiberglass columns or after "Boil & Spin" rapid preparation. Moreover, the same DNA and EDTA-blood spiked samples were subjected to standardized qPCR based on the satellite DNA sequence for comparative purposes. A panel of peripheral blood specimens belonging to Chagas disease patients, including acute, congenital, chronic and reactivated cases (N = 23), as well as seronegative controls (N = 10) were evaluated by LAMP in comparison to qPCR. LAMP was able to amplify DNAs from T. cruzi stocks representative of the six DTUs, whereas it did not amplify DNAs from Leishmania sp, T. brucei sp, T. rangeli KPN+ and KPN-, P. falciparum and non-infected human DNA. Analytical sensitivity was 1x10-2 fg/μL of both CL Brener and Sylvio X10 DNAs, whereas qPCR detected up to 1x 10-1 fg/μL of CL Brener DNA and 1 fg/μl of Sylvio X10 DNA. LAMP detected 1x10-2 parasite equivalents/mL in spiked EDTA blood and 1x10-1 par.eq/mL in spiked heparinized blood using fiberglass columns for DNA extraction, whereas qPCR detected 1x10-2 par.eq./mL in EDTA blood

  17. Evaluation of the loop mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP kit for malaria diagnosis in P. vivax endemic settings of Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés F Vallejo


    Full Text Available Most commonly used malaria diagnostic tests, including microscopy and antigen-detecting rapid tests, cannot reliably detect low-density infections which are frequent in low transmission settings. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR are highly sensitive but remain too laborious for field deployment. In this study, the applicability of a malaria diagnosis kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP was assessed in malaria endemic areas of Colombia with Plasmodium vivax predominance.First, a passive case detection (PCD study on 278 febrile patients recruited in Tierralta (department of Cordoba was conducted to assess the diagnostic performance of the mLAMP method. Second, an active case detection (ACD study on 980 volunteers was conducted in 10 sentinel sites with different epidemiological profiles. Whole blood samples were processed for microscopic and mLAMP diagnosis. Additionally RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR were used as reference tests. In the PCD study, P. falciparum accounted for 23.9% and P. vivax for 76.1% of the infections and no cases of mixed-infections were identified. Microscopy sensitivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax were 100% and 86.1%, respectively. mLAMP sensitivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax was 100% and 91.4%, respectively. In the ACD study, mLAMP detected 65 times more cases than microscopy. A high proportion (98.0% of the infections detected by mLAMP was from volunteers without symptoms.mLAMP sensitivity and specificity were comparable to RT-PCR. LAMP was significantly superior to microscopy and in P. vivax low-endemicity settings and under minimum infrastructure conditions, it displayed sensitivity and specificity similar to that of single-well RT-PCR for detection of both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. Here, the dramatically increased detection of asymptomatic malaria infections by mLAMP demonstrates the usefulness of this new tool for diagnosis, surveillance, and screening in

  18. Effects of humic acid on DNA quantification with Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit and short tandem repeat amplification efficiency. (United States)

    Seo, Seung Bum; Lee, Hye Young; Zhang, Ai Hua; Kim, Hye Yeon; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Soong Deok


    Correct DNA quantification is an essential part to obtain reliable STR typing results. Forensic DNA analysts often use commercial kits for DNA quantification; among them, real-time-based DNA quantification kits are most frequently used. Incorrect DNA quantification due to the presence of PCR inhibitors may affect experiment results. In this study, we examined the alteration degree of DNA quantification results estimated in DNA samples containing a PCR inhibitor by using a Quantifiler® Human DNA Quantification kit. For experiments, we prepared approximately 0.25 ng/μl DNA samples containing various concentrations of humic acid (HA). The quantification results were 0.194-0.303 ng/μl at 0-1.6 ng/μl HA (final concentration in the Quantifiler reaction) and 0.003-0.168 ng/μl at 2.4-4.0 ng/μl HA. Most DNA quantity was undetermined when HA concentration was higher than 4.8 ng/μl HA. The C (T) values of an internal PCR control (IPC) were 28.0-31.0, 36.5-37.1, and undetermined at 0-1.6, 2.4, and 3.2 ng/μl HA. These results indicate that underestimated DNA quantification results may be obtained in the DNA sample with high C (T) values of IPC. Thus, researchers should carefully interpret the DNA quantification results. We additionally examined the effects of HA on the STR amplification by using an Identifiler® kit and a MiniFiler™ kit. Based on the results of this study, it is thought that a better understanding of various effects of HA would help researchers recognize and manipulate samples containing HA.

  19. Thermophilic helicase-dependent DNA amplification using the IsoAmp™ SE experimental kit for rapid detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in clinical samples. (United States)

    Artiushin, Sergey; Tong, Yanhong; Timoney, John; Lemieux, Bertrand; Schlegel, Anne; Kong, Huimin


    A simple and portable assay for detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi has been developed based on amplification of S. equi-specific sequence using a thermophilic helicase-dependent reaction followed by visual detection of the amplicon in a disposable lateral flow cassette. An experimental kit (IsoAmp™ SE) was evaluated. Analytical sensitivity was 50 copies of S. equi genomic DNA per reaction. The IsoAmp SE assay had 100% specificity when applied to nasal swabs and washes. The assay was more sensitive than culture but less sensitive than nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The test requires neither expensive equipment nor extensive training of personnel, provides a practical alternative to culture or PCR assays for detection of S. equi in clinical samples, and expedites identification of atypical colonies of S. equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus in the laboratory.

  20. Protein crystallography prescreen kit (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard


    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  1. Evaluation of commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of low levels of uninjured and injured Salmonella on duck meat, bean sprouts, and fishballs in Singapore. (United States)

    Lim, Hazel Sin Yue; Zheng, Qianwang; Miks-Krajnik, Marta; Turner, Matthew; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun


    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance of the commercial kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in comparison with the International Organization for Standardization method for detecting uninjured and sublethally injured Salmonella cells artificially inoculated at levels of 10(0) and 10(1) CFU/25 g on raw duck wing, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs. Injured cells were prepared by a heat treatment for duck wings and fishball samples and a chlorine treatment for bean sprout samples. Additionally, a validation study was performed on naturally contaminated food samples sold in Singapore. A total of 110 samples of each commodity were analyzed in this study. Regardless of inoculum levels, the detection by the commercial LAMP kit showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for both inoculated and uninoculated samples compared with the International Organization for Standardization method, with the exception of bean sprout samples. Only 20% of bean sprout samples inoculated with 10(0) CFU/25 g injured Salmonella cells were positive by using the commercial LAMP-based kit. However, all negative samples became positive following a secondary enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium with soy broth or after concentration by centrifugation. These results suggest that secondary enrichment or centrifugation should be considered as an additional step to increase the sensitivity of the commercial LAMP-based kit with low numbers of injured target cells in samples with high background microflora (such as mung bean sprouts). The validation study also showed that the commercial LAMP-based kit provided 91% sensitivity and 95% specificity for naturally contaminated samples. Thus, this study demonstrates that the commercial LAMP-based kit might be a cost-effective method, as this system could provide rapid, accurate detection of both uninjured and injured Salmonella cells on raw duck wings, raw mung bean sprouts, and processed fishballs in

  2. Development of national immunoassay reagent programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufi, S.B.; Micallef, J.V.; Ahsan, R.; Goncharov, N.P.


    Despite the existence of networks of fully equipped laboratories with well-trained staff, the availability of immunodiagnostic services in developing countries is often limited by the high cost of imported kits. There are a number of ways of tackling this problem, ranging from bulk purchase of kits or reagents to local development and production of assay systems. Argentina/Chile, China, Cuba/Mexico, and Thailand are amongst the countries which have established local immunoassay reagent programmes to manufacture low cost, high quality immunoassay reagents. Kits from these projects are now beginning to become available, and it is hoped that they will promote national diagnostic services and research, as well as stimulating the development of reagent programmes for other analytes. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  3. Molecular Alterations of KIT Oncogene in Gliomas

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    Ana L. Gomes


    Full Text Available Gliomas are the most common and devastating primary brain tumours. Despite therapeutic advances, the majority of gliomas do not respond either to chemo or radiotherapy. KIT, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, is frequently involved in tumourigenic processes. Currently, KIT constitutes an attractive therapeutic target. In the present study we assessed the frequency of KIT overexpression in gliomas and investigated the genetic mechanisms underlying KIT overexpression. KIT (CD117 immunohistochemistry was performed in a series of 179 gliomas of various grades. KIT activating gene mutations (exons 9, 11, 13 and 17 and gene amplification analysis, as defined by chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were performed in CD117 positive cases. Tumour cell immunopositivity was detected in 15.6% (28/179 of cases, namely in 25% (1/4 of pilocytic astrocytomas, 25% (5/20 of diffuse astrocytomas, 20% (1/5 of anaplastic astrocytomas, 19.5% (15/77 of glioblastomas and one third (3/9 of anaplastic oligoastrocytomas. Only 5.7% (2/35 of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas showed CD117 immunoreactivity. No association was found between tumour CD117 overexpression and patient survival. In addition, we also observed CD117 overexpression in endothelial cells, which varied from 0–22.2% of cases, being more frequent in high-grade lesions. No KIT activating mutations were identified. Interestingly, CISH and/or qRT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of KIT gene amplification in 6 glioblastomas and 2 anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, corresponding to 33% (8/24 of CD117 positive cases. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that KIT gene amplification rather than gene mutation is a common genetic mechanism underlying KIT expression in subset of malignant gliomas. Further studies are warranted to determine whether glioma patients exhibiting KIT overexpression and KIT gene amplification may benefit from therapy with anti-KIT RTK

  4. Development of RIA kits for tumor-markers monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.


    All reagents for tumor markers assays are imported from various manufacturers mainly CIS bio international. The average cost of these reagents is ranged from 80-150 bath/test (2-4 dollars test). The screening test for cancers could not be done especially in other regions of Thailand whose budgets and resources are so limited. If the reagents are made locally, many laboratories can perform the tests and use as primary diagnosis, screening or monitor the course of the disease following treatment. In addition, these reagents could help clinicians and give complementary information on the tumor status to improve quality of life in Thailand. Research objectives include: 1. Development of IRMA reagent kits suitable for diagnosing staging and monitoring prostrate and breast cancer. 2. Transfer of technology and reagent kits to relevant laboratories in Thailand. 3. Routine distribution of the reagents kits to the end users

  5. Collimator kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, R.R.


    A collimator kit having a number of parts which may be assembled in various combinations to provide focusing collimators with different performance characteristics for radioisotope imaging apparatus is described

  6. Reagents for the assay of cardenolide glycosides and aglycones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, S.


    Some novel reagents are described for use in the radioimmunoassay of the 3-glycone derivatives of cardenolides (cardiac glycosides) and more especially digoxin, digitoxin, gitoxin, periplocin and lanatosides. Using these reagents these cardenolides and their derivatives may be assayed both in aqueous solution and in urine. A method is also described for performing such assays, including a suitable kit. (U.K.)

  7. Analysis of KIT expression and KIT exon 11 mutations in canine oral malignant melanomas. (United States)

    Murakami, A; Mori, T; Sakai, H; Murakami, M; Yanai, T; Hoshino, Y; Maruo, K


    KIT, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase, is one of the specific targets for anti-cancer therapy. In humans, its expression and mutations have been identified in malignant melanomas and therapies using molecular-targeted agents have been promising in these tumours. As human malignant melanoma, canine malignant melanoma is a fatal disease with metastases and the poor response has been observed with all standard protocols. In our study, KIT expression and exon 11 mutations in dogs with histologically confirmed malignant oral melanomas were evaluated. Although 20 of 39 cases were positive for KIT protein, there was no significant difference between KIT expression and overall survival. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of KIT exon 11 in 17 samples did not detect any mutations and proved disappointing. For several reasons, however, KIT expression and mutations of various exons including exon 11 should be investigated in more cases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Current Developments in Prokaryotic Single Cell Whole Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudeau, Danielle; Nath, Nandita; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Malmstrom, Rex


    Our approach to prokaryotic single-cell Whole Genome Amplification at the JGI continues to evolve. To increase both the quality and number of single-cell genomes produced, we explore all aspects of the process from cell sorting to sequencing. For example, we now utilize specialized reagents, acoustic liquid handling, and reduced reaction volumes eliminate non-target DNA contamination in WGA reactions. More specifically, we use a cleaner commercial WGA kit from Qiagen that employs a UV decontamination procedure initially developed at the JGI, and we use the Labcyte Echo for tip-less liquid transfer to set up 2uL reactions. Acoustic liquid handling also dramatically reduces reagent costs. In addition, we are exploring new cell lysis methods including treatment with Proteinase K, lysozyme, and other detergents, in order to complement standard alkaline lysis and allow for more efficient disruption of a wider range of cells. Incomplete lysis represents a major hurdle for WGA on some environmental samples, especially rhizosphere, peatland, and other soils. Finding effective lysis strategies that are also compatible with WGA is challenging, and we are currently assessing the impact of various strategies on genome recovery.

  9. Handling Pyrophoric Reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Haynie, Todd O.


    Pyrophoric reagents are extremely hazardous. Special handling techniques are required to prevent contact with air and the resulting fire. This document provides several methods for working with pyrophoric reagents outside of an inert atmosphere.

  10. First aid kit (United States)

    ... this page: // First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  11. Comparison of three different kits for extraction of high-quality RNA from frozen blood. (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung


    Extraction of high-quality RNA is a crucial step in gene expression profiling. To achieve optimal RNA extraction from frozen blood, the performance of three RNA extraction kits- TRI reagent, PAXgene blood RNA system (PAXgene) and NucleoSpin RNA blood kit (NucleoSpin)- was evaluated. Fifteen blood specimens collected in tubes containing potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and stored at -80°C for approximately 5 years were randomly selected. The yield and purity of RNA, RIN (RNA integrity number) values and cycle threshold (Ct) values were assessed. Mean RNA yields with TRI reagent, PAXgene and NucleoSpin were 15.6 ± 8.7 μg/ml, 3.1 ± 1.7 μg/ml and 9.0 ± 5.5 μg/ml, respectively. Mean A260/280 ratios of RNA for the three kits were 1.7 ± 0.1, 2.0 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.0, and mean RIN values recorded as 3.2 ± 0.8, 6.0 ± 1.1, and 6.4 ± 0.9, respectively. The Ct values of housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, β-actin, RPLP0 and HPRT1, were as follows: TRI reagent (19.2 ± 1.6, 30.6 ± 1.8, 29.9 ± 1.4 and 36.3 ± 1.3), PAXgene 16.6 ± 1.4, 26.4 ± 1.3, 28.2 ± 1.8 and 33.8 ± 1.1), and NucleoSpin (16.3 ± 1.5, 27.2 ± 1.3, 27.0 ± 1.6 and 32.9 ± 1.6). RNA yield using TRI reagent was 1.7 times higher than that with NucleoSpin and 5 times higher than that with PAXgene. However, the purity and integrity of TRI-extracted RNA was lower than that extracted with PAXgene and NucleoSpin. Moreover, the Ct values of housekeeping genes after extraction with TRI reagent were approximately 1.7-3.8 times higher than those obtained with PAXgene and NucleoSpin. The PAXgene and NucleoSpin kits produced similar results in terms of RNA purity and integrity and subsequent gene amplification. However, RNA yields from NucleoSpin were 2.9-fold higher, compared to PAXgene. Based on these findings, we conclude that NucleoSpin is the most effective kit for extraction of abundant and high

  12. 21 CFR 864.1860 - Immunohistochemistry reagents and kits. (United States)


    ... clinician as an independent finding. These IHC's are used after the primary diagnosis of tumor (neoplasm... hematoxylin and eosin. Examples of class I IHC's are differentiation markers that are used as adjunctive tests to subclassify tumors, such as keratin. (2) Class II (special control, guidance document: “FDA...

  13. Exploit Kit traffic analysis


    Καπίρης, Σταμάτης; Kapiris, Stamatis


    Exploit kits have become one of the most widespread and destructive threat that Internet users face on a daily basis. Since the first actor, which has been categorized as exploit kit, namely MPack, appeared in 2006, we have seen a new era on exploit kit variants compromising popular websites, infecting hosts and delivering destructive malware, following an exponentially evolvement to date. With the growing threat landscape, large enterprises to domestic networks, have starte...

  14. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Masum; Jha, Ajaya Nand; Abrari, Andleeb; Ali, Sher


    KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR) and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34). Receptor (KIT) and ligand (KITLG) transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048) in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p < 0.001), instead of gene amplification (p > 0.05), is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis

  15. Validación de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección cualitativa de gonadotropina coriónica humana en el embarazo Validation of a kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG for the qualitative detection of human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema E. García Dafonte


    Full Text Available Se presentaron los resultados de la estandarización de un juego de reactivos (CUALINEN-HCG para la detección de la gonadotropina coriónica humana (HCG en muestras de orina de mujeres embarazadas y de su validación diagnóstica en el nivel primario. CUALINEN-HCG es un microELISA de doble captura, que cuenta con un anticuerpo monoclonal específico para la subunidad b de la hCG (AcM-b hCG-IG1 y de conjugados enzimáticos con el sustrato colorimétrico correspondiente, obtenido y purificado en el Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Los resultados de la validación analítica del CUALINEN-HCG mostraron que era capaz de distinguir entre muestras de orinas positivas y negativas con una relación positivo/negativo de 10 veces; se obtuvieron coeficientes de variación del 6 % en estudios de precisión (interensayos e intraensayos realizados para el control positivo. Se procesaron 91 muestras de orina matutina de mujeres con amenorrea de entre 4 y 16 sem a partir de la última fecha de menstruación. En las que el embarazo fue diagnosticado posteriormente. Se logró la validación en el nivel primario del CUALINEN-HCG con una sensibilidad y especificidad diagnóstica de 85 y 95 %, respectivamente y una exactitud diagnóstica del 90 %. Se recomendó su uso como herramienta auxiliar para el diagnóstico del embarazo en nivel primario a partir de la primera semana de ausencia de la menstruación (5 sem de amenorrea.The results of the standardization of a Kit of reagents (CUALINEN-HCG, for the detection of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG in urine and their diagnostic validation at primary level are presented. CUALINEN-HCG is a double capture micro ELISA that involves the participation of a specific monoclonal antibody for the b subunit of the hCG (AcM-bhCG-IG1 and the enzymatic conjugated with the corresponding colorimetric substrate, obtained and purified in the National Institute of Endocrinology. The results of the analytic validation of the

  16. Tumor markers kits development for use in radioimmunometric assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.


    The immunoassays such as RIA and IRMA are now widely used through the world for the quantitation of a variety of substances in the biological fluid for their high sensibility and specificity which required simple equipments. These techniques are also very used in Algeria for an effective amelioration of public heath The assays kits of RIA/IRMA of thyroid hormones are the most used, followed by peptidic hormones, steroids hormones and IRMA Tumor Markers (T.M) kits. In spite of the important demand, of tumor markers kits for the diagnosis and follow up of cancers their use are always insufficient due to the high cost. The research contract programme proposed by IAEA on the theme 'The Developments of IRMA Tumor Markers Kits' of prostate specific Antigen (PSA) and Tissue Polypeptide Specific Antigen (TPS) will allowed us to produce locally with best quality-price, the main reagents for PSA and TPS IRMA assays kits for diagnosis and follow up the prostate and breast cancers which are very spready in the country. This report include the following points: Generalities on the use of tumor markers in Algeria, programme for the Development of the PSA IRMA assay (schedule of protocols applied for each reagents; annual planning for assessing the programme activities) and conclusion

  17. Expression of proto-oncogene KIT is up-regulated in subset of human meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Masum


    Full Text Available Abstract Background KIT is a proto-oncogene involved in diverse neoplastic processes. Aberrant kinase activity of the KIT receptor has been targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy in different neoplasias. In all the earlier studies, KIT expression was reported to be absent in meningiomas. However, we observed KIT mRNA expression in some meningioma cases. This prompted us to undertake its detailed analyses in meningioma tissues resected during 2008–2009. Methods Tumor tissues and matched peripheral blood samples collected from meningioma patients were used for detailed molecular analyses. KIT expression was ascertained immunohistochemically and validated by immunoblotting. KIT and KITLG transcript levels were discerned by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. Similarly, KIT amplification and allele loss were assessed by quantitative real-time (qPCR and validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on the neoplastic tissues. Possible alterations of the gene at the nucleotide level were analyzed by sequencing. Results Contrary to earlier reports, KIT expression, was detected immunohistochemically in 20.6% meningioma cases (n = 34. Receptor (KIT and ligand (KITLG transcripts monitored by RT-qPCR were found to co-express (p = 0.048 in most of the KIT immunopositive tumors. 1/7 KIT positive meningiomas showed allele loss corroborated by reduced FISH signal in the corresponding neoplastic tissue. Sequence analysis of KIT showed M541L substitution in exon 10, in one of the immunopositive cases. However, its biological consequence remains to be uncovered. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates KIT over-expression in the human meningiomas. The data suggest that up-regulated KIT transcription (p  0.05, is a likely mechanism responsible for altered KIT expression. Thus, KIT is a potential candidate for detailed investigation in the context of meningioma pathogenesis.

  18. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids (United States)

    Church, George M [Brookline, MA; Zhang, Kun [Brighton, MA


    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  19. ProjectorKit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigel, Martin; Boring, Sebastian; Steimle, Jürgen


    Researchers have developed interaction concepts based on mobile projectors. Yet pursuing work in this area - particularly in building projector-based interactions techniques within an application - is cumbersome and time-consuming. To mitigate this problem, we contribute ProjectorKit, a flexible ...... open-source toolkit that eases rapid prototyping mobile projector interaction techniques....

  20. Personalized Thematic Kits (United States)

    Bontrager, Sharon


    Teaching Spanish at the K-5 level is a passion of mine, and the author would like to share some of the practical applications that she finds most rewarding and effective. She has found enthusiastic response to the creation of detailed language learning kits that are rooted in storytelling, but expanded to include home-made board games,…

  1. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.


    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  2. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  3. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  4. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  5. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  6. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  7. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  8. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  9. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  10. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  12. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  13. Build an Emergency Preparedness Kit (United States)

    ... In addition to the items listed above, a vehicle kit should include: -fire extinguisher. -booster cables and tow rope. -compass and road maps. -shovel. -tire repair kit and pump. -extra clothing to keep dry. - ...

  14. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  15. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacy, Philip J.; Walker, Pamela K.


    A field test kit for gunshot residue comprises a container having at least compartments separated by a barrier. A surface is tested by wiping it with a swab and placing the swab in a first compartment. The barrier is then breached, permitting reagent in the second compartment to flow onto the swab. The first compartment is transparent, and a color change will be observed if the reagent reacts with gunshot residue.

  17. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram


    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ; SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and

  18. Amplification factor variable amplifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akitsugu, Oshita; Nauta, Bram


    PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED: To provide an amplification factor variable amplifier capable of achieving temperature compensation of an amplification factor over a wide variable amplification factor range. ;SOLUTION: A Gilbert type amplification factor variable amplifier 11 amplifies an input signal and can

  19. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification packaging...

  20. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong


    The low biomass in environmental samples is a major challenge for microbial metagenomic studies. The amplification of a genomic DNA was frequently applied to meeting the minimum requirement of the DNA for a high-throughput next-generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms is examined. The DNA template of 10 pg in each reaction of the MALBAC amplification may generate enough DNA for Illumina sequencing. Using 10 pg and 100 pg templates for each reaction set, the MALBAC kit shows a stable and homogeneous amplification as indicated by the highly consistent coverage of the reads from the two amplified samples on the contigs assembled by the original unamplified sample. Although GenomePlex whole genome amplification kit allows one to generate enough DNA using 100 pg of template in each reaction, the minority of the mixed bacterial species is not linearly amplified. For both of the kits, the GC-rich regions of the genomic DNA are not efficiently amplified as suggested by the low coverage of the contigs with the high GC content. The high efficiency of the MALBAC kit is supported for the amplification of environmental microbial DNA samples, and the concerns on its application are also raised to bacterial species with the high GC content.

  1. Comparison of three DNA extraction kits to establish maximum yield and quality of coral-associated microbial DNA (United States)

    Baker, Erin J.; Kellogg, Christina A.


    Coral microbiology is an expanding field, yet there is no standard DNA extraction protocol. Although many researchers depend on commercial extraction kits, no specific kit has been optimized for use with coral samples. Both soil and plant DNA extraction kits from MO BIO Laboratories, Inc., have been used by many research groups for this purpose. MO BIO recently replaced their PowerPlant® kit with an improved PowerPlantPro kit, but it was unclear how these changes would affect the kit’s use with coral samples. In order to determine which kit produced the best results, we conducted a comparison between the original PowerPlant kit, the new PowerPlantPro kit, and an alternative kit, PowerSoil, using samples from several different coral genera. The PowerPlantPro kit had the highest DNA yields, but the lack of 16S rRNA gene amplification in many samples suggests that much of the yield may be coral DNA rather than microbial DNA. The most consistent positive amplifications came from the PowerSoil kit.

  2. Innovative accountability of tracking test kit as locked resources: a lesson in a restricted resource setting. (United States)

    Makuwani, Ahmad M; Msuya, Sia; Haule, Dunstan; Mogella, Deus; Nkya, Efesper


    To implement quality screening in a blood service requires the presence of screening strategy with a clear algorithm and supporting standard operating procedures (SOPs), skilled and motivated human resource to perform testing, infrastructure, regular available test kits, and other supplies. In developing countries, smooth supply chain management of critical transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) screening reagents is a challenge. Therefore, managing the little available kits by knowing the rate of consumption, good forecasting, and monitoring expiry date may be a key in ensuring regular supply. Test kit monitoring tool (TKMT) for Vironostika HIV Uni-Form kit/192 1&2 Ag/Ab, Genedia kits for HBsAg and HCV, and RPR for syphilis was developed to track these reagents. This excel tool was developed to assess received reagents, quantity used, quantity remaining, and date of expiration. The tool was evaluated by assessing rerun for each test kits, match tests conducted with blood units tested, adherence to the principle of first in-first out (FIFO), and quantity remaining in the center against the need. The mean rerun for HIV ELISA Vironistika uniform II Ag/Ab observed over expected was 6.9% (n = 3.8) than 2.4% (n = 1.3), HBsAg was 9.9% (n = 5.7) than 6.7% (3.5) (expected), Genedia for HCV was 1.3% (n = 0.7) than 0.5% (n = 0.3), and RPR test for syphilis 3.3% (n = 1.5) than 0.5%. During implementation, TKMT managed to detect expiring kits in the zonal blood transfusion centers. A tool-like TKMT may capture other supplies within blood when expanded. Monitoring of supplies may enable blood service actual accounting and in forecasting supplies and reagents. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed


    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  4. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.


    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...... this methodology in the early phases of this large scale research and development process....

  5. A review of the impact of cost and quality of HIV kits on HIV testing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A time came when immunoconfirmatory test was introduced into HIV antibodies testing for confirmations of the presence of HIV. Objectives: This present retospective study is to review the impact of cost and quality of HIV reagent kits in the two periods A and B on the patients and confidence on the health care provider.

  6. Multi-chamber nucleic acid amplification and detection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Lawrence


    A nucleic acid amplification and detection device includes an amplification cartridge with a plurality of reaction chambers for containing an amplification reagent and a visual detection reagent, and a plurality of optically transparent view ports for viewing inside the reaction chambers. The cartridge also includes a sample receiving port which is adapted to receive a fluid sample and fluidically connected to distribute the fluid sample to the reaction chamber, and in one embodiment, a plunger is carried by the cartridge for occluding fluidic communication to the reaction chambers. The device also includes a heating apparatus having a heating element which is activated by controller to generate heat when a trigger event is detected. The heating apparatus includes a cartridge-mounting section which positioned a cartridge in thermal communication with the heating element so that visual changes to the contents of the reaction chambers are viewable through the view ports.

  7. Education Payload Operation - Kit D (United States)

    Keil, Matthew


    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  8. Direct qPCR quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit. (United States)

    Liu, Jason Yingjie


    The effectiveness of a direct quantification assay is essential to the adoption of the combined direct quantification/direct STR workflow. In this paper, the feasibility of using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit for the direct quantification of forensic casework samples was investigated. Both low-level touch DNA samples and blood samples were collected on PE swabs and quantified directly. The increased sensitivity of the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit enabled the detection of less than 10pg of DNA in unprocessed touch samples and also minimizes the stochastic effect experienced by different targets in the same sample. The DNA quantity information obtained from a direct quantification assay using the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit can also be used to accurately estimate the optimal input DNA quantity for a direct STR amplification reaction. The correlation between the direct quantification results (Quantifiler(®) Trio kit) and the direct STR results (GlobalFiler™ PCR amplification kit(*)) for low-level touch DNA samples indicates that direct quantification using the Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA quantification kit is more reliable than the Quantifiler(®) Duo DNA quantification kit for predicting the STR results of unprocessed touch DNA samples containing less than 10pg of DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Asphyxia screening kit. (United States)

    Zabidi, A; Khuan, L Y; Mansor, W


    Infant asphyxia is a condition due to insufficient oxygen intake suffered by newborn babies. A 4 to 9 million occurrences of infant asphyxia are reported each year by WHO. Early diagnosis of asphyxia is important to avoid complications such as damage to the brain, organ and tissue that could lead to fatality. This is possible with the automation of screening of infant asphyxia. Here, a non-invasive Asphyxia Screening Kit is developed. It is a Graphical User Interface that automatically detects asphyxia in infants from early birth to 6 months from their cries and displays the outcome of analysis. It is built with Matlab GUI underlied with signal processing algorithms, capable of achieving a classification accuracy of 96.03%. Successful implementation of ASK will assist to screen infant asphyxia for reference to clinicians for early diagnosis. In addition, ASK also provides an interface to enter patient information and images to be integrated with existing Hospital Information Management System.

  10. What's In Your Emergency Kit?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    An emergency kit can help you survive during a disaster. This podcast discusses supplies to include in your kit.  Created: 12/4/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 12/20/2012.

  11. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, T.G.


    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  12. Comparison of an avidin-biotin immunoassay with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for typing of herpes simplex virus.


    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B; Richards, D F


    An avidin-biotin complex system was compared with three commercially available immunofluorescence kits for serotyping herpes simplex virus isolates from clinical specimens. Sensitivity values showed that the Electro-Nucleonics and Immulok reagents were useful in detecting the presence of virus, whereas the predictive values showed that the Syva and Immulok reagents possessed adequate discrimination between the herpes simplex virus serotypes. The avidin-biotin complex system was equal or super...

  13. A diagnostic kit for the enteroviruses Coxsackie A6 and A10. (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Yao, X; Chen, Z W; Jiang, X H; Xie, N H; Zhang, C Y; Guan, Z H


    Recently, there has been an upward trend in the occurrence of hand-foot-mouth disease, which is correlated with Coxsackie A6 and A10 infections. Although two separate diagnostic reagents are available for these two viral strains, the protocol and diagnosis efficiency still need to be improved. More importantly, as co-infection with these viruses is common, the development of a single test kit that can diagnose both viruses would be most beneficial for clinical practice. In our study, specific primers targeting viral nucleic acids were designed and modified. Viral nucleic acids were extracted from fecal or throat swab samples by ultrasonic rupture and silicon membrane purification. The consistency, specificity, and sensitivity of the tests were further optimized by adjusting the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions. The efficiency of viral nucleic acid extraction was significantly enhanced by the ultrasonic rupture and silicon membrane elution approach. Specific amplifications of both viral nucleic acids were achieved using modified primers. The optimal conditions for PCR were also determined (60°C for 30 min and 95°C for 2 min, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation for 30 s at 95°C, annealing for 30 s at 60°C, and elongation for 50 s at 72°C). Amplified products were confirmed as viral specific nucleotides by agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. The minimal nucleic acid concentration required for detection was 0.2 ng/L, which was adequate to yield satisfactory specificity and consistency. This novel diagnostic method has many advantages, including rapid protocols and accurate results, and can be promoted for large-scale clinical trials.

  14. An integrated microfluidic sensor for real-time detection of RNA in seawater using preserved reagents (United States)

    Tsaloglou, M.-N.; Loukas, C. M.; Ruano-López, J. M.; Morgan, H.; Mowlem, M. C.


    Quantitation of RNA sequences coding either for key metabolic proteins or highly conserved ribosomal subunits can provide insight on cell abundance, speciation and viability. Nucleic sequence-based amplification (NASBA) is an isothermal alternative to traditional nucleic acid amplification methods, such as quantitative PCR. We present here an integrated microfluidic sensor for cell concentration and lysis, RNA extraction/purification and quantitative RNA detection for environmental applications. The portable system uses pre-loaded reagents, stored as a gel on a disposable microfluidic cartridge, which is manufactured using low-cost injection moulding. The NASBA reaction is monitored real-time using a bespoke control unit which includes: an external fluorescence detector, three peristaltic micro-pumps, two heaters and temperature sensors, a battery, seven pin actuated micro-motors (or valve actuators), and an automatic cartridge insertion mechanism. The system has USB connectivity and none of the expensive components require replacing between reactions. Long-term storage of reagents is critically important for any diagnostic tool that will be used in the field, whether for medical or environmental analysis and has not been previously demonstrated for NASBA reagents on-chip. We have shown effective amplification, for as little as 500 cells of the toxic microalga Karenia brevis using reagents which had been preserved as a gel for 45 days. This is the first reported real-time isothermal RNA amplification using with on-chip preservation. Annealing of primers, amplification at 41 °C and real-time fluorescence detection using, also for the first time, an internal control and sequence-specific molecular beacons was all performed on our microfluidic sensor. Our results show excellent promise as a future quantitative tool of in situ phytoplankton analysis and other environmental applications, where long-term reagent storage and low power consumption is essential.

  15. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight (United States)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.


    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  16. Presentation for the first research co-ordination meeting on development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yibing


    Radioimmunoassay and Labeled Compound Lab. is the earliest and biggest center which supply RIA reagents in China. It started the research on RIA reagents in the middle of 1970's. Now it can produce more than 80 kinds of RIA kits including thyroid function and newborn screening, tumor markers, kidney function, diabetes-related, fertility and pregnancy monitoring and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. There are over 1000 hospitals and research organizations using the reagents. Cancer is a disease which endanger human life. There are about 1.6 million new cancer patient and 800 thousand persons died of cancer every year in our country. The laboratory has been paying attention to development of tumor markers RIA reagents since we started the research on RIA reagents. The first kit produced was Rocket Electrophoresis Radioautograph of AFP. In 1980's it developed AFP, CEA, HCG and Ferritin RIA kits. Now RIA reagents for tumor markers have become important part of our products . Besides the products above mentioned it also can produce calcitonin RIA, thyroidglobulin RIA and CA125 IRMA. In early 1990's it established a monoclonal antibody Lab. and this Lab. have been working for the preparation of the monoclonal antibody to tumor markers

  17. Study and preparation of 99Tcm-GP kit for lung ventilation imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lin; Meng Fanmin; Zhang Jihong; Hong Tao; Liu Yunzhong; Liu Xiujie


    The preparation of the lyophilizing reagent, D-glucose-l-phosphate (GP) kit and the method of using this kit to label 99 Tc m to form 99 Tc m -GP for lung ventilation imaging at room temperature in a simple, rapid procedure are described. The stability of the lyophilizing reagent kit under various stock conditions is examined. The results show that all of the 99 Tc m -GP yields by the lyophilizing reagent kit are above 95% at 4 degree C (cold), 20-25 degree C (room temperature) and 40 degree C (oven) for 180, 90 and 3 days, respectively. The clinical practice indicates that in comparison with 99 Tc m -DTPA, 99 Tc m -GP has remarkable difference (P 99 Tc m -GP is an ideal radioaerosol for SPECT studies of lung ventilation. It has high alveolar deposition rate but low adhesion in the major airways compared to those of 99 Tc m -DTPA. 99 Tc m -GP also features prolonged pulmonary clearance time

  18. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.


    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  19. An efficient multistrategy DNA decontamination procedure of PCR reagents for hypersensitive PCR applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Champlot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCR amplification of minute quantities of degraded DNA for ancient DNA research, forensic analyses, wildlife studies and ultrasensitive diagnostics is often hampered by contamination problems. The extent of these problems is inversely related to DNA concentration and target fragment size and concern (i sample contamination, (ii laboratory surface contamination, (iii carry-over contamination, and (iv contamination of reagents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a quantitative evaluation of current decontamination methods for these last three sources of contamination, and developed a new procedure to eliminate contaminating DNA contained in PCR reagents. We observed that most current decontamination methods are either not efficient enough to degrade short contaminating DNA molecules, rendered inefficient by the reagents themselves, or interfere with the PCR when used at doses high enough to eliminate these molecules. We also show that efficient reagent decontamination can be achieved by using a combination of treatments adapted to different reagent categories. Our procedure involves γ- and UV-irradiation and treatment with a mutant recombinant heat-labile double-strand specific DNase from the Antarctic shrimp Pandalus borealis. Optimal performance of these treatments is achieved in narrow experimental conditions that have been precisely analyzed and defined herein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There is not a single decontamination method valid for all possible contamination sources occurring in PCR reagents and in the molecular biology laboratory and most common decontamination methods are not efficient enough to decontaminate short DNA fragments of low concentration. We developed a versatile multistrategy decontamination procedure for PCR reagents. We demonstrate that this procedure allows efficient reagent decontamination while preserving the efficiency of PCR amplification of minute quantities of DNA.

  20. Evaluation of immobilized metal affinity chromatography kits for the purification of histidine-tagged recombinant CagA protein. (United States)

    Karakus, Cebrail; Uslu, Merve; Yazici, Duygu; Salih, Barik A


    Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) technique is used for fast and reliable purification of histidine(His)-tagged recombinant proteins. The technique provides purification under native and denaturing conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate three commercially available IMAC kits (Thermo Scientific, GE Healthcare and Qiagen) for the purification of a 6xHis-tagged recombinant CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) protein from IPTG-induced Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) culture. The kits were tested according to the manufacturer instructions and the protein was purified with only GE Healthcare and Qiagen kits under denaturing conditions. 1% (w/v) SDS was used as denaturing agent in PBS instead of extraction reagent of Thermo Scientific kit to lyse bacterial cells from 100ml culture. The 6xHis-tagged recombinant protein was purified by the three kits equally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. MIBI: preparation and evaluation of lyophilization kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockmann, T.M.B.; Rezende, M.E.X.; Moraes, D.W.; Braga, G.A.; Muradian, J.; Marques, F.L.N.; Dias Neto, A.L.


    The lyophilization kits of MIBI- 99m Tc were obtained by its own synthesis. The quality control showing the high stability of kits was mentioned. the bio-distribution, evaluated in dogs, was identical to that presented by the radiopharmaceutical with the import kit. The obtained results, allowing the prepare of lyophilization kits for medical use were also presented. (C.G.C.)

  2. Comparison of three different kits for extraction of high-quality RNA from frozen blood


    Kim, Jin-Hee; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Park, Jin-Ah; Chang, Yoon Hwan; Hong, Young Jun; Lee, Jin Kyung


    Extraction of high-quality RNA is a crucial step in gene expression profiling. To achieve optimal RNA extraction from frozen blood, the performance of three RNA extraction kits- TRI reagent, PAXgene blood RNA system (PAXgene) and NucleoSpin RNA blood kit (NucleoSpin)- was evaluated. Fifteen blood specimens collected in tubes containing potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and stored at −80°C for approximately 5 years were randomly selected. The yield and purity of RNA, RIN (RNA in...

  3. Decontaminating reagents for radioactive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, W.A.


    A decontaminating reagent composition has been developed comprising EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid, and formic acid. Formic acid inhibits the decomposition of both EDTA and citric acid, and yields oxalic acid as a result of its own radiolysis. The invention includes the improvement of initially incorporating formic acid in the mixture and maintaining the presence of formic acid by at least one further addition

  4. Spot test kit for explosives detection (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L


    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  5. Statistical assessment of DNA extraction reagent lot variability in real-time quantitative PCR (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Kephart, C.M.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, D.S.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan


    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability in lots of a DNA extraction kit using real-time PCR assays for Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae. Methods and Results: Replicate aliquots of three bacteria were processed in duplicate with three different lots of a commercial DNA extraction kit. This experiment was repeated in triplicate. Results showed that cycle threshold values were statistically different among the different lots. Conclusions: Differences in DNA extraction reagent lots were found to be a significant source of variability for qPCR results. Steps should be taken to ensure the quality and consistency of reagents. Minimally, we propose that standard curves should be constructed for each new lot of extraction reagents, so that lot-to-lot variation is accounted for in data interpretation. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the importance of evaluating variability in DNA extraction procedures, especially when different reagent lots are used. Consideration of this variability in data interpretation should be an integral part of studies investigating environmental samples with unknown concentrations of organisms. ?? 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Sperm cell purification from mock forensic swabs using SOMAmer™ affinity reagents. (United States)

    Katilius, Evaldas; Carmel, Andrew B; Koss, Heidi; O'Connell, Dan; Smith, Breanna C; Sanders, Glenn M; LaBerge, Greggory S


    We have demonstrated a proof of concept with affinity-based purification of sperm cells from mock forensic samples using SOMAmer™ reagents, DNA-based affinity reagents developed by SomaLogic, Inc. SOMAmer reagents were selected in vitro using whole-cell SELEX to bind specifically with intact, detergent-treated sperm cells. Successful separation of sperm from epithelial cells and their debris was demonstrated using buccal swabs with added semen. Primarily male DNA profiles were generated from sperm cells eluted from the types of cotton swabs typically used for rape kit evidence collection. The quality of sperm DNA isolated from samples purified using SOMAmers is comparable to existing commercially available differential extraction-based methods at higher sperm concentrations. This purification method is simple, offers relatively rapid (forensic casework. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The Explosive Potential of Tollens' Reagent. (United States)

    Breedlove, C. H.; Softy, John


    Reports on an explosion that occurred using Tollens' reagent, emphasizing that students should prepare the reagent immediately before use and discard it immediately after use by flushing it down the drain. States that under no conditions should Tollens' reagent be stored. (Author/JN)

  8. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit. (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  9. Remote Storage. SPEC Kit 39. (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    A 1977 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey gathered information and documentation on remote storage for selected library materials, including type and size of facilities, selection processes for transferring materials, operating procedures, and record-changing activities. A summary of the survey results included in this kit reports…

  10. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit. (United States)

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  11. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit. (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  12. Progress in multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification technology. (United States)

    Lin, Wen-hui; Zou, Bing-jie; Song, Qin-xin; Zhou, Guo-hua


    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely applied in nucleic acid diagnostics due to its high sensitivity and specificity, high speed and low requirement of equipment. In order to fully leverage these merits, achieve high efficiency and reliability in diagnostics, and expand the applicable fields while keeping low reagent cost, multiplex LAMP technology has been extensively explored in recent years. Common methods for LAMP products detection are mostly based on the double-stranded DNA amplicons or byproducts from the polymerization reaction, so they can only identify the occurrence of amplification reaction but not the origins or specificity of the products. To achieve specific LAMP products detection, researchers developed various multiplex methods by improving the conventional LAMP technology or coupling LAMP with other assays. However, the interference and/or the different amplification efficiencies among different primer sets often lead to biased amplification and thus limited multiplexing level. We here defined these methods as narrow-sensed multiplex LAMP. The research on miniaturized amplification technology which is booming in recent years has given rise to the novel general-sensed multiplex LAMP technology that breaks this limitation by its capability to perform highly parallel and miniaturized simplex reactions in independent compartments. Methods of this type have additional benefits such as lower reagent cost, higher level of automation, lower risk of cross-contamination and better suitability for on-site detection of multiple targets. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress in multiplex LAMP technology from the following aspects: the principle and design of narrow-sensed LAMP and its amplification optimization, the general-sensed LAMP, and the various applications of all multiplex LAMP technologies in diagnostics.

  13. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari


    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  14. Genetic engineering approach to develop next-generation reagents for endotoxin quantification (United States)

    Ogura, Norihiko; Aketagawa, Jun; Aizawa, Maki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Oda, Toshio


    The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent. The protease activity of the RCR containing recombinant factor C was much greater than that of recombinant factor C alone, indicating the efficiency of signal amplification in the cascade. Compared with the RCR containing the insect cell-derived factor C, those containing mammalian cell-derived factor C, which features different glycosylation patterns, were less susceptible to interference by the injectable drug components. The standard curve of the RCR containing mammalian cell-derived recombinant factor C had a steeper slope than the curves for those containing natural lysate reagents, suggesting a greater sensitivity to endotoxin. The present study supports the future production of recombinant reagents that do not require the use of natural resources. PMID:27913792

  15. Genetic engineering approach to develop next-generation reagents for endotoxin quantification. (United States)

    Mizumura, Hikaru; Ogura, Norihiko; Aketagawa, Jun; Aizawa, Maki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro; Oda, Toshio


    The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs) were then prepared to reconstruct the reaction cascade in the amebocyte lysate reagent. The protease activity of the RCR containing recombinant factor C was much greater than that of recombinant factor C alone, indicating the efficiency of signal amplification in the cascade. Compared with the RCR containing the insect cell-derived factor C, those containing mammalian cell-derived factor C, which features different glycosylation patterns, were less susceptible to interference by the injectable drug components. The standard curve of the RCR containing mammalian cell-derived recombinant factor C had a steeper slope than the curves for those containing natural lysate reagents, suggesting a greater sensitivity to endotoxin. The present study supports the future production of recombinant reagents that do not require the use of natural resources.

  16. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  17. Social amplification of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Kasperson, J.X.; Emani, S.


    The risks associated with radioactive and other hazardous waste disposal may be expected to interact with societal processes to enlarge or attenuate the consequences of risks and risk events. This article summarizes a conceptual framework that depicts the social amplification of risk. Using a data base of 128 hazard events that have occurred largely over the past ten years, the authors examine the role of physical consequences, media coverage, and public perceptions of risk in generating social and economic impacts. The analysis concludes that social amplification processes substantially shape the nature and magnitude of those impacts but also that such social amplification appears to be systematically related to characteristics of the risks and risk events

  18. Biological reagents and their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The patent relates to a technique for enabling rapid determination of the concentration of neuroleptic drugs such as the phenthiazines and butyrophenones in body fluids of patients. The method is based on the discovery that a neuroleptic drug contained in the body fluid of a patient will successfully compete with the binding of radioactive dopamine receptor site binders to dopamine receptor sites of dopamine receptor material in such a manner that an accurate determination of neuroleptic drug concentration can readily be made. The invention relates to method of radioassay, to a composition of matter for enabling such assays, and to a test kit for the performance of such assays. (U.K.)

  19. Occurrence of Fungal DNA Contamination in PCR Reagents: Approaches to Control and Decontamination (United States)

    Czurda, S.; Smelik, S.; Preuner-Stix, S.; Nogueira, F.


    Nucleic acid amplification techniques permitting sensitive and rapid screening in patients at risk for invasive fungal infections are an important addition to conventional fungal diagnostic methods. However, contamination with fungal DNA may be a serious threat to the validity of fungal amplification-based assays. Besides rigorous handling procedures to avoid false-positive test results from exogenous sources, we have implemented protocols for comprehensive assessment of fungal contamination in all materials involved in the analytical process. Traces of fungal DNA were found in different commercially available PCR reagents, including lyophilized primers, TaqMan probes, and master mix solutions. These contaminants resulted in a considerable rate of false-positive tests in panfungal real-time PCR analysis. To address this problem, we have established a decontamination protocol based on the activity of a double-strand specific DNase. Using this approach, we have significantly reduced the frequency of false-positive test results attributable to contaminated reagents. On the basis of our findings, we strongly recommend routine monitoring of all reagents used in fungal PCR assays for the presence of relevant contaminants. As long as fungal-grade reagents are not readily available, pretreatment methods facilitating elimination of fungal DNA are critical for reducing the risk of false-positive results in highly sensitive molecular fungal detection assays. PMID:26560539

  20. Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayan Radiatning, S.


    Quality control of radioimmunoassay reagents for T4. A program of quality control testing has been carried out for 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera. 125 I-labelled T4 has been tested for its specific activity, radiochemical purity using a Sephadex G-25 column, immunological activity, based on the immunological reaction between labelled antigen and excess T4 antibody, and non-specific binding. The useful shelf-life of the labelled compound was determined by monitoring the decrease in radiochemical purity and immunological activity, and the increase in non-specific binding. T4 standards were calibrated by means of T4 RIA kit manufactured by DPC (Diagnostic Products Corporation). A test on parallelism was also performed using hyperthyroid sera. T4 antisera were evaluated with respect to titre, avidity and specifity. The test results on 125 I-T4 show a specific activity varying between 1830-2020 uCi/ug, a radiochemical purity above 90%, an immunological more than 80% and a non-specific binding of less than 5%. The standard curve for T4 was found to coincide well with the standard curve of the DPC kit and parallel with the curve for hyperthyroid sera. The titre of T4 antisera obtained was 1:300, the avidity was about 4.8 x 10 7 and the cross-reaction for T3 was 1.6%. It can be concluded from the experimental results, that the 125 I-T4, T4 standards and T4 antisera prepared meet the requirements for the manufacture of T4 kits. (author). 5 refs.; 14 figs

  1. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  2. Simple Automated NGS Library Construction Using Optimized NEBNext(R) Reagents and a Caliper Sciclone (United States)

    Dimalanta, E.; Stewart, F.; Barry, A.; Meek, I.; Apone, L.; Liu, P.; Munafo, D.; Davis, T.; Sumner, Christine


    While next generation sequencing technologies are continually evolving to increase the data output, sequence-ready library preparation significantly lags behind in scale. The multi-step scheme of library construction and gel-based size selection limits the number of samples that can be processed manually without introducing handling errors. Moreover, processing multiple samples is extremely time consuming. Our objective here was to address these issues by developing an automated library construction process for NGS platforms. Specifically, we optimized a library construction workflow utilizing NEBNextâ reagents in conjunction with the Sciclone NGS liquid handling workstation. In addition, specific reagent configuration designs were tested for ease-of-use. Key considerations in the design of the reagent kits included the elimination of manual pipetting steps in setting up the instrument, reagent storage compatibility, the premixing of components for the various enzymatic steps and the reduction of reagent dead-volume. As a result of this work, we have developed a cost-effective automated process that is scalable from 8-96 samples with minimal hands on time.

  3. Uptake of DNA by cancer cells without a transfection reagent. (United States)

    Kong, Yanping; Zhang, Xianbo; Zhao, Yongliang; Xue, Yanfang; Zhang, Ye


    Cancer cells exhibit elevated levels of glucose uptake and may obtain pre-formed, diet-derived fatty acids from the bloodstream to boost their rapid growth; they may also use nucleic acid from their microenvironment. The study of processing nucleic acid by cancer cells will help improve the understanding of the metabolism of cancer. DNA is commonly packaged into a viral or lipid particle to be transferred into cells; this process is called transfection in laboratory. Cancer cells are known for having gene mutations and the evolving ability of endocytosis. Their uptake of DNAs might be different from normal cells; they may take in DNAs directly from the environment. In this report, we studied the uptake of DNAs in cancer cells without a transfection reagent. A group of DNA fragments were prepared with PCR and labeled with isotope phosphorous-32 to test their uptake by Huh 7 (liver cancer) and THLE3 (normal liver cells) after incubation overnight by counting radioactivity of the cells' genomic DNA. Multiple cell lines including breast cancer and lung cancer were tested with the same method. DNA molecules were also labeled with fluorescence to test the location in the cells using a kit of "label it fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)" from Mirus (USA). The data demonstrated that hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess the ability to take in large DNA fragments directly without a transfection reagent whereas normal liver cells cannot. Huh7 and MDA-MB231 cells displayed a significantly higher Rhodamine density in the cytoplasmic phagosomes and this suggests that the mechanism of uptake of large DNA by cancer cells is likely endocytosis. The efficacy of uptake is related to the DNA's size. Some cell lines of lung cancer and breast cancer also showed similar uptake of DNA. In the present study, we have revealed the evidence that some cancer cells, but not nontumorigenic cells, can take DNA fragments directly from the environment without the aid of the transfecting

  4. On soliton amplification (United States)

    Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.


    The paper considers a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation that permits wave amplification or damping. A 'terminal similarity' solution is identified for large times in amplified systems. Numerical results are given which confirm that the terminal similarity solution is a valid local approximation for mu t sufficiently large and positive, even though the approximation is not uniformly valid in space.

  5. Performance evaluation of four dominant anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) kits in Japan for preventing de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eiji; Deguchi, Matsuo; Kagita, Masanori; Yoshioka, Nori; Kita, Mifumi; Asari, Seishi; Suehisa, Etsuji; Hidaka, Yoh; Iwatani, Yoshinori


    The determination of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb) has become an important means of evaluating the risk factors of de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before starting intensive immunosuppressive drug therapies. Four dominant HBcAb determination reagents used in Japan were evaluated with HBcIgM, HBsAg, HBsAb, HBeAb, and HBV DNA reagents in order to study their clinical utility. Four kinds of HBcAb reagent kits (HBcAb Total and HBcAb-IgG reagent) were evaluated with 526 clinical specimens, including 344 negative specimens, at Osaka University Hospital. The dynamic range of each kit was evaluated by testing serially diluted serum from pooled sera with high HBcAb concentration. The reagent that showed the largest dynamic range was the Lumipulse HBcAb-N (HBcAb-IgG reagent). Regarding clinical sensitivity and specificity, Centaur HBcAb (HBcAb Total reagent) gave several "doubtful negative" results and ARCHITECT HBcII (HBcAb Total reagent) had the most discrepant positive results. By comparing the cut-off-index distribution of negative specimens using a parameter of "distance from the mean to the cut-off divided by the SD", Centaur was determined to be the best (distance/SD = 12.65), with Lumipulse and Elecsys Anti-HBc (HBcAb Total reagent) in the second group (8.13 and 7.00, respectively), and ARCHITECT rated as the worst (3.25). In this evaluation, Elecsys and Lumipulse HBcAb kits showed good clinical sensitivity and specificity and were considered to be suitable for evaluating the risk factors of de novo HBV infection.

  6. Sensitive and less invasive confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). (United States)

    Mukhtar, Maowia; Ali, Sababil S; Boshara, Salah A; Albertini, Audrey; Monnerat, Séverine; Bessell, Paul; Mori, Yasuyoshi; Kubota, Yutaka; Ndung'u, Joseph M; Cruz, Israel


    Confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), as well as diagnosis of relapses and test of cure, usually requires examination by microscopy of samples collected by invasive means, such as splenic, bone marrow or lymph node aspirates. This causes discomfort to patients, with risks of bleeding and iatrogenic infections, and requires technical expertise. Molecular tests have great potential for diagnosis of VL using peripheral blood, but require well-equipped facilities and trained personnel. More user-friendly, and field-amenable options are therefore needed. One method that could meet these requirements is loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) using the Loopamp Leishmania Detection Kit, which comes as dried down reagents that can be stored at room temperature, and allows simple visualization of results. The Loopamp Leishmania Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical Co., Japan), was evaluated in the diagnosis of VL in Sudan. A total of 198 VL suspects were tested by microscopy of lymph node aspirates (the reference test), direct agglutination test-DAT (in house production) and rK28 antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (OnSite Leishmania rK39-Plus, CTK Biotech, USA). LAMP was performed on peripheral blood (whole blood and buffy coat) previously processed by: i) a direct boil and spin method, and ii) the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAgen). Ninety seven of the VL suspects were confirmed as cases by microscopy of lymph node aspirates. The sensitivity and specificity for each of the tests were: rK28 RDT 98.81% and 100%; DAT 88.10% and 78.22%; LAMP-boil and spin 97.65% and 99.01%; LAMP-QIAgen 100% and 99.01%. Due to its simplicity and high sensitivity, rK28 RDT can be used first in the diagnostic algorithm for primary VL diagnosis, the excellent performance of LAMP using peripheral blood indicates that it can be also included in the algorithm for diagnosis of VL as a simple test when parasitological confirmatory diagnosis is required in settings that are lower than the

  7. CERN’s FMC Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Cattin, M; Serrano, J; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T


    In the context of the renovation of controls and data acquisition electronics for accelerators the BE-CO-HT section at CERN has designed a kit based on carriers and mezzanines following the VITA FPGAMezzanine Card (FMC) standard. Carriers exist in VME64x and PCIe form factors, with a PXIe carrier underway. Mezzanines include an Analog to Digital Converter, a Time to Digital Converter, a fine delay generator and a Digital Input/Output. All of the designs are licensed under the CERN Open Hardware Licence and commercialised by companies. This paper discusses the benefits of this carrier mezzanine strategy and of the Open Hardware based commercial paradigm. It also explains the design of each layer of the FMC kit, from the hardware to the gateware and the Linux device driver. In addition, several tools to help designers developing gateware for mezzanines and new concepts such as the Self-Describing Bus (SDB) and the fmcbus are presented. Lastly, some of the plans for the future of the FMC kit and Open Hardware Re...

  8. Biomaterials in light amplification (United States)

    Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Cyprych, Konrad; Sznitko, Lech; Miniewicz, Andrzej


    Biologically produced or inspired materials can serve as optical gain media, i.e. they can exhibit the phenomenon of light amplification. Some of these materials, under suitable dye-doping and optical pumping conditions, show lasing phenomena. The emerging branch of research focused on obtaining lasing action in highly disordered and highly light scattering materials, i.e. research on random lasing, is perfectly suited for biological materials. The use of biomaterials in light amplification has been extensively reported in the literature. In this review we attempt to report on progress in the development of biologically derived systems able to show the phenomena of light amplification and random lasing together with the contribution of our group to this field. The rich world of biopolymers modified with molecular aggregates and nanocrystals, and self-organized at the nanoscale, offers a multitude of possibilities for tailoring luminescent and light scattering properties that are not easily replicated in conventional organic or inorganic materials. Of particular importance and interest are light amplification and lasing, or random lasing studies in biological cells and tissues. In this review we will describe nucleic acids and their complexes employed as gain media due to their favorable optical properties and ease of manipulation. We will report on research conducted on various biomaterials showing structural analogy to nucleic acids such as fluorescent proteins, gelatins in which the first distributed feedback laser was realized, and also amyloids or silks, which, due to their dye-doped fiber-like structure, allow for light amplification. Other materials that were investigated in that respect include polysaccharides, like starch exhibiting favorable photostability in comparison to other biomaterials, and chitosan, which forms photonic crystals or cellulose. Light amplification and random lasing was not only observed in processed biomaterials but also in living

  9. Point of sampling detection of Zika virus within a multiplexed kit capable of detecting dengue and chikungunya. (United States)

    Yaren, Ozlem; Alto, Barry W; Gangodkar, Priyanka V; Ranade, Shatakshi R; Patil, Kunal N; Bradley, Kevin M; Yang, Zunyi; Phadke, Nikhil; Benner, Steven A


    Zika, dengue, and chikungunya are three mosquito-borne viruses having overlapping transmission vectors. They cause diseases having similar symptoms in human patients, but requiring different immediate management steps. Therefore, rapid (viruses in patient samples and trapped mosquitoes is needed. The need for speed precludes any assay that requires complex up-front sample preparation, such as extraction of nucleic acids from the sample. Also precluded in robust point-of-sampling assays is downstream release of the amplicon mixture, as this risks contamination of future samples that will give false positives. Procedures are reported that directly test urine and plasma (for patient diagnostics) or crushed mosquito carcasses (for environmental surveillance). Carcasses are captured on paper samples carrying quaternary ammonium groups (Q-paper), which may be directly introduced into the assay. To avoid the time and instrumentation requirements of PCR, the procedure uses loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Downstream detection is done in sealed tubes, with dTTP-dUTP mixtures in the LAMP with a thermolabile uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG); this offers a second mechanism to prevent forward contamination. Reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) reagents are distributed dry without requiring a continuous chain of refrigeration. The tests detect viral RNA in unprocessed urine and other biological samples, distinguishing Zika, chikungunya, and dengue in urine and in mosquitoes infected with live Zika and chikungunya viruses. The limits of detection (LODs) are ~0.71 pfu equivalent viral RNAs for Zika, ~1.22 pfu equivalent viral RNAs for dengue, and ~38 copies of chikungunya viral RNA. A handheld, battery-powered device with an orange filter was constructed to visualize the output. Preliminary data showed that this architecture, working with pre-prepared tubes holding lyophilized reagent/enzyme mixtures and shipped without a chain of refrigeration, also worked with human

  10. Comparative evaluation of commercial latex agglutination and coagglutination reagents for groups B, C, and D mastitis streptococci. (United States)

    Poutrel, B


    A total of 144 strains of mastitis streptococci (groups B, C, and D) were grouped by conventional technique (Lancefield precipitin test) latex agglutination (LA), and coagglutination (CA). The LA correctly grouped 98% and the CA grouped 100% of strains on the test when the instructions of the manufacturers were followed. Sensitivity of both tests was improved for strains belonging to group D when extracts from colonies grown on sheep blood agar plates were used for grouping. Nonspecific reactions between groups C and B were observed only with one kit of LA reagents, whereas cross-reactions were recorded with all groups when CA reagents were used.

  11. A reagent for processing drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, G.A.; Khon-Pak, A.T.; Khon, A.V.; Normatov, L.N.; Telegin, B.V.


    A reagent is proposed for processing drilling muds. It contains an acrylic polymer and potassium permanganate. The reagent is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the quality of the drilling muds by increasing their salt resistance, the reagent contains hydrolized nitron fiber as the acrylic polymer with the following component relationship (in percent by weight): potassium permanganate, 0.015 to 0.065 and hydrolyzed nitron fiber, the remainder.

  12. Field deployment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for centralized mass-screening of asymptomatic malaria in Zanzibar: a pre-elimination setting. (United States)

    Morris, Ulrika; Khamis, Mwinyi; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Abass, Ali K; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Nassor, Majda H; González, Iveth J; Mårtensson, Andreas; Ali, Abdullah S; Björkman, Anders; Cook, Jackie


    Molecular tools for detection of low-density asymptomatic Plasmodium infections are needed in malaria elimination efforts. This study reports results from the hitherto largest implementation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for centralized mass screening of asymptomatic malaria in Zanzibar. Healthy individuals present and willing to participate in randomly selected households in 60 villages throughout Zanzibar were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). In 50% of the study households, participants were asked to provide 60 μL of finger-prick blood for additional LAMP screening. LAMP was conducted in two centralized laboratories in Zanzibar, by trained technicians with limited or no previous experience of molecular methods. The LAMP assay was performed with Loopamp(TM) MALARIA Pan/Pf Detection Kit (Eiken Chemical Company, Japan). Samples positive for Plasmodium genus (Pan)-LAMP were re-tested using Plasmodium falciparum-specific LAMP kits. Paired RDT and LAMP samples were available from 3983 individuals. The prevalence of asymptomatic malaria was 0.5% (CI 95% 0.1-0.8) and 1.6% (CI 95% 1.1-2.2) by RDT and Pan-LAMP, respectively. LAMP detected 3.4 (CI 95% 2.2-5.2) times more Plasmodium positive samples than RDT. DNA contamination was experienced, but solved by repetitive decontamination of all equipment and reagents. LAMP is a simple and sensitive molecular tool, and has potential in active surveillance and mass-screening programmes for detection of low-density asymptomatic malaria in pre-elimination settings. However, in order to deploy LAMP more effectively in field settings, protocols may need to be adapted for processing larger numbers of samples. A higher throughput, affordable closed system would be ideal to avoid contamination.

  13. Sensitive and rapid detection of campylobacter species from stools of children with diarrhea in Japan by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. (United States)

    Ushijima, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shuichi; Thongprachum, Aksara; Shimizu-Onda, Yuko; Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Takanashi, Sayaka; Dey, Shuvra Kanti; Okitsu, Shoko; Yamazaki, Wataru; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Hayakawa, Satoshi


    We detected Campylobacter spp. in 5% (20/380) of diarrheal stool samples collected at an outpatient clinic in Kyoto using a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit with a fluorescent detection reagent after DNA extraction. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% in comparison with those of semi-nested PCR for the differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Fourteen of the 20 samples were already determined as C. jejuni by the culture method. All 20 samples were also positive for C. jejuni by the PCR method. Among the 58 cultured samples, the sensitivity of the culture method against the LAMP method was 93.3% (14/15) and the specificity was 100% (43/43). The detection rate of Campylobacter spp. from the heated supernatants by the LAMP method was lower than that from the supernatant after DNA extraction. In total, 25% (5/20) of the Campylobacter-positive samples by the LAMP method were co-infected with norovirus (3/20), rotavirus (1/20), and human parechovirus (1/20), although no other bacterial co-infection was identified by the culture method. C. jejuni was mostly detected in children aged >5 years throughout the year. Based on these results, we concluded that care should be taken while diagnosing Campylobacter infection in children. Our newly modified LAMP method is a rapid, easy, and useful method for this diagnosis.

  14. The Free Universal Construction Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephensen, Jan Løhmann; Hansen, Lone Koefoed


    With the increasing economic accessibility of 3D printers, the lessons learned and the logics cultivated on digital Web 2.0 now seems applicable to the world of material things. Released in early 2012 by the artist groups F.A.T. and Sy-lab, the Free Universal Construction Kit is a set of 3D...... drawings that enable everyone with access to a 3D printer to make connectors, “the missing links”, between intellectual property restricted toys like LEGO, Tinkertoys, and Fischertechnik. However, when describing this project as “reverse engineering as a civic activity”, it seems obvious that F...

  15. Autometallography: tissue metals demonstrated by a silver enhancement kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Nørgaard, J O; Baatrup, E


    In biological tissue, minute accumulations of gold, silver, mercury and zinc can be visualized by a technique whereby metallic silver is precipitated on tiny accumulations of the two noble metals, or on selenites or sulphides of all four metals. In the present study a silver enhancement kit......, primarily intended for the amplification of colloidal gold particles, has been used to demonstrate these catalytic tissue metals. Sections from animals exposed intravitally to aurothiomalatate, silver lactate, mercury chloride, sodium selenite or perfused with sodium sulphide were subjected to a commercial...... methods and for demonstration of gold, silver, and mercury in tissues from animals intravitally exposed to these metals. It can also be used for counterstaining silver treated osmium fixed tissues embedded in plastic. Udgivelsesdato: 1987-null...

  16. Catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition with Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    In this Account, recent advances in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents are discussed. Synthetic methodology to perform highly enantioselective Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic enones with ee's up to 96% was reported in 2004 from our

  17. 21 CFR 864.4010 - General purpose reagent. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose reagent. 864.4010 Section 864.4010...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4010 General purpose reagent. (a) A general purpose reagent is a chemical reagent that has general laboratory application, that...

  18. Comparison of commercial exosome isolation kits for circulating exosomal microRNA profiling. (United States)

    Ding, Meng; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Xiaolan; Zhang, Cuiping; Zhou, Zhen; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chunni


    Circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarker candidates; however, information on the characterization and mutual agreement of commercial kits for circulating exosomal miRNA profiling is scarce. Here, we analyzed the advantages and weaknesses of four commonly used commercial kits for exosomal miRNA profiling and their application to the sample of serum and/or plasma, respectively. NanoSight and Western blotting were conducted to evaluate the efficiency and purity of the isolated exosomes. In our conditions, the size distribution of the isolated particles was appropriate (40-150 nm), and ExoQuick™ Exosome Precipitation Solution (EXQ) generated a relatively high yield of exosomes. Nevertheless, albumin impurity was ubiquitous for all the four kits, and Total Exosome Isolation for serum or plasma (TEI) yielded a relatively pure isolation. We further performed Illumina sequencing combined with RT-qPCR to determine the ability of these kits for miRNA profiling. There was significant correlation of the exosomal miRNA profile and specific miRNAs between kits, but with differences depending on methods. exoRNeasy Serum/Plasma Midi Kit (EXR) and EXQ performed better in the specific exosomal miRNAs recovery. Intraassay CVs for specific miRNA measurement were 0.88-3.82, 1.19-3.77, 0-2.70, and 1.23-9.11% for EXR, TEI, EXQ, and RIBO™ Exosome Isolation Reagent (REI), respectively. In each kit, serum yielded a higher abundance of exosomes and exosomal miRNAs than plasma, yet with more albumin impurity. In conclusion, our data provide some valuable guidance for the methodology of disease biomarker identification of circulation exosomal miRNAs. Graphical abstract Circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are valuable biomarker candidates; however, information on the characterization and mutual agreement of commercial kits for circulating exosomal miRNA profiling is scarce. In this study, we compared four commonly used commercially available kits for exosomal mi

  19. Mutational profile of KIT and PDGFRA genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Peruvian samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Buleje


    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are mesenchymal neoplasms usually caused by somatic mutations in the genes KIT (c-KIT or PDGFRA. Mutation characterization has become an important exam for GIST patients because it is useful in predicting the response to the inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of KIT and PDGFRA mutations in 25 GIST samples collected over two years at two national reference hospitals in Peru. There were 21 samples collected from the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN, national cancer center and 4 samples collected from Hospital A. Loayza. Methods and materials: In this retrospective study, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequencing of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18 genes in 20 FFPE (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and 5 frozen GIST samples. Results: We report 21 mutations, including deletions, duplications, and missense, no mutations in 2 samples, and 2 samples with no useful DNA for further analysis. Eighty-six percent of these mutations were located in exon 11 of KIT, and 14 % were located in exon 18 of PDGFRA. Conclusions: Our study identified mutations in 21 out of 25 GIST samples from 2 referential national hospitals in Peru, and the mutation proportion follows a global tendency observed from previous studies (i.e., the majority of samples presented KIT mutations followed by a minor percentage of PDGFRA mutations. This study presents the first mutation data of the KIT and PDGFRA genes from Peruvian individuals with GIST.

  20. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.


    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  1. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.


    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents

  2. Personal radiotoxicological (first aid) kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gachalyi, Andras; Gyulai, Gabor


    In recent years, with the spread of nuclear industrial activities, and the widespread use of radioactive materials and products the possibility of radionuclide contamination of humans and animals has significantly increased. During nuclear tests or reactor accidents, a large amount of radioactive materials may enter the environment which can contaminate the living environment (air, water, vegetation, soil), for a long period. This contamination may enter living organisms by inhalation, intake and ingestion, causing severe biological damage. As an example the Chernobyl reactor accident can be mentioned, where there was no possibility for the decorporation of isotopes, as there were no products available such as the 'RADISTOP'. To achieve appropriate decorporating (and decontaminating) treatment which is effective, it is highly recommendable to use a personal Radiotoxicological First Aid Kit (PRK) within the shortest possible time after internal contamination. This unit provides effective treatment to decorporate the most common incorporated fission products. (author)

  3. Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit (TALK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna R. Gillespie


    Full Text Available Teen Ambassador Leadership Kit, (TALK, is an annual weekend retreat designed for teens interested in promoting and marketing 4-H in their communities. TALK organizers felt teens would benefit from an intensive weekend retreat focused on communication. TALK produces a network of educated and excited 4-H teens that are available to help with 4-H promotion and marketing. Participants arrive on Friday evening for team building activities, on Saturday they participate in one of the workshops offered and on Sunday morning each workshop group has the opportunity to share their completed projects and what they learned. At the conclusion of the retreat, teens are designated "County 4-H Ambassadors" and certificates of completion, professional business cards and polo shirts are presented. The TALK teen participants return home to share what they learned with their local county 4-H staff and help promote and market 4-H in their communities.

  4. Hardness amplification in nondeterministic logspace


    Gupta, Sushmita


    A hard problem is one which cannot be easily computed by efficient algorithms. Hardness amplification is a procedure which takes as input a problem of mild hardness and returns a problem of higher hardness. This is closely related to the task of decoding certain error-correcting codes. We show amplification from mild average case hardness to higher average case hardness for nondeterministic logspace and worst-to-average amplification for nondeterministic linspace. Finally we explore possible ...

  5. Development of IRMA reagent and methodology for PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, R.


    The PSA test is a solid phase two-site immunoassay. Rabbit anti PSA is coated or bound on surface of solid phase and monoclonal anti PSA labeled with 1-125. The PSA molecules present in the standard solution or serum are 'Sandwiched' between the two antibodies. After formation of coated antibody-antigen-labeled antibody complex, the unbound labeled antibody will removed by washing. The complex is measured by gamma counter. The concentration of analyte is proportional to the counts of test sample. In order to develop kits for IRMA PSA, it should be prepared three essential reagents Antibody coated solid phase, labeled antibody, standards and finally optimizing them to obtain an standard curve fit to measure specimen PSA in desired range of concentration. The type of solid phase and procedure(s) to coat or bind to antibody, is still main debatable subject in development and setting up RIA/IRMA kits. In our experiments, polystyrene beads, because of their easy to coat with antibody as well as easy to use, can be considered as a desired solid phase. Most antibodies are passively adsorbed to a plastic surface (e.g. Polystyrene, Propylene, and Polyvinyl chloride) from a diluted buffer. The antibody coated plastic surface, then acts as solid phase reagent. Poor efficiency and time required to reach equilibrium and also lack of reproducibility especially batch-to-batch variation between materials, are disadvantages in this simple coating procedure. Improvements can be made by coating second antibody on surface of beads, and reaction between second and primary antibodies. There is also possible to enhance more coating efficiency of beads by using Staphylococcus ureus-Protein A. Protein A is a major component of staphylococcus aureus cell wall which has an affinity for FC segment of immunoglobulin G (IgG) of some species, including human; rabbit; and mice. This property of Staphylococcal Protein A has made it a very useful tool in the purification of classes and subclasses

  6. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99 Tc m radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  7. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C


    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT mutat...

  8. Building Use Policies. SPEC Kit 144. (United States)

    Coyle, Patrick

    This Systems and Procedures Exchange Center (SPEC) flyer/kit addresses some of the needs of Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members regarding library building use and the aesthetics and well-being of the materials and people in the building. The kit draws upon documents gathered as part of a 1986 Quick-SPEC survey that dealt with food and…

  9. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification. (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben


    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world's high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  10. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben


    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  11. 21 CFR 866.4100 - Complement reagent. (United States)


    ... DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4100... naturally occurring serum protein from any warm-blooded animal such as guinea pigs, that may be included as...

  12. Determination of radionuclides contaminated in chemical reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Komura, K.


    In order to examine reagent blanks of radionuclides ( 7 Be, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 234 Th), we applied extremely low-background gamma-spectrometry to Ba, Pb and other reagents used for coprecipitation methods. While blank levels of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in Ba reagents and 210 Pb in Pb reagents were high and varied widely (e.g., 226 Ra, 6-90 mBq/g-Ba), regardless of their chemical purity, they were notably lower in barite mineral (BaSO 4 ) (0.7-1.5 mBq/g-Ba for 226 Ra) and old Pb (from the Kanazawa Castle, the Edo period). In addition, the negligible 134 Cs and 137 Cs were detected in CsCl reagents. By using least contaminated carrier reagents together, the coprecipitation method has enabled simultaneous measurement of low-level activities of these nuclides in sea/environmental water samples. (author)

  13. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.


    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  14. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...... extensive research and development are needed is covered....

  15. KIT safety management. Annual report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Gerhard


    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for - licensing procedures, - industrial safety organization, - control of environmental protection measures, - planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, - operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, - extensive radiation protection support and the - the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its industrial safety management is certified by the VBG as ''AMS-Arbeitsschutz mit System'' and, hence, fulfills the requirements of NLF / ISO-OSH 2001. KSM laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2012. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2012. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Djurkin Kušec


    Full Text Available In the present study four commercially available DNA extraction kits (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit, High Pure PCR Template Kit, DNeasy mericon Food and GeneJET PCR Purification Kit, as well as standard phenol/chloroform isolation technique have been evaluated regarding their concentration, purity and suitability for amplification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausages. The isolates were assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometer (IMPLEN GmbH, Germany. To verify template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting at porcine cytochrome b by species specific primers was used. The comparison of extraction methods revealed satisfactory efficiency and purity of all extraction kits, while with standard phenol/chloroform isolation method high concentrations of DNA with low A260/280 were obtained. However, all the investigated techniques proved to be suitable for identification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausage. Thus, the standard phenol/chloroform DNA extraction method, as the cost-effective one, can be recommended as a good alternative to more expensive isolation kits when investigating the presence of pork DNA in dry/ fermented meat products.

  17. Next-generation sequencing of cervical DNA detects human papillomavirus types not detected by commercial kits. (United States)

    Meiring, Tracy L; Salimo, Anna T; Coetzee, Beatrix; Maree, Hans J; Moodley, Jennifer; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Freeborough, Michael-John; Rybicki, Ed P; Williamson, Anna-Lise


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the aetiological agent for cervical cancer and genital warts. Concurrent HPV and HIV infection in the South African population is high. HIV positive (+) women are often infected with multiple, rare and undetermined HPV types. Data on HPV incidence and genotype distribution are based on commercial HPV detection kits, but these kits may not detect all HPV types in HIV + women. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify the HPV types not detected by commercial genotyping kits present in a cervical specimen from an HIV positive South African woman using next generation sequencing, and (ii) determine if these types were prevalent in a cohort of HIV-infected South African women. Total DNA was isolated from 109 cervical specimens from South African HIV + women. A specimen within this cohort representing a complex multiple HPV infection, with 12 HPV genotypes detected by the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping (LA) kit, was selected for next generation sequencing analysis. All HPV types present in this cervical specimen were identified by Illumina sequencing of the extracted DNA following rolling circle amplification. The prevalence of the HPV types identified by sequencing, but not included in the Roche LA, was then determined in the 109 HIV positive South African women by type-specific PCR. Illumina sequencing identified a total of 16 HPV genotypes in the selected specimen, with four genotypes (HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90) not included in the commercial kit. The prevalence's of HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90 in 109 HIV positive South African women were found to be 14.6%, 12.8%, 4.6% and 8.3% respectively. Our results indicate that there are HPV types, with substantial prevalence, in HIV positive women not being detected in molecular epidemiology studies using commercial kits. The significance of these types in relation to cervical disease remains to be investigated.

  18. Estradiol RIA kit in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.; Lisse, K.; Bienert, R.; Flentje, H.; Koerner, H.; Wilken, T.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)


    First clinical experience with a estradiol RIA kit developed in the Central Institute for Isotope- and Radiation Research is reported. The kit was used for the daily control of estradiol level in patients, which were treated within the program for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. The time of incubation could be shortened by means of a double antibody technique and by use of a precipitation mixture to 2 h. The intraassay variation is 9.2%, the interassay variation is 15.1%, the recovery rate is 94%. The sensitivity of the test (B 0 -3SD) is about 120 pmol/l. The estradiol RIA kit satisfies clinical requirements. (author)

  19. 21 CFR 866.3110 - Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. 866.3110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3110 Campylobacter fetus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Campylobacter fetus serological reagents are devices...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3510 - Rubella virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubella virus serological reagents. 866.3510... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3510 Rubella virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubella virus serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3350 - Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leptospira spp. serological reagents. 866.3350... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3350 Leptospira spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Leptospira spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  2. 21 CFR 864.8950 - Russell viper venom reagent. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Russell viper venom reagent. 864.8950 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8950 Russell viper venom reagent. (a) Identification. Russell viper venom reagent is a device used to determine the cause of an...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3550 Salmonella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3020 - Adenovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenovirus serological reagents. 866.3020 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3020 Adenovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Adenovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3740... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  7. Production of reagents for cleaning fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunberg, I.V.; Korostyleva, R.N.; Pytel, S.P.; Spasskii, P.I.; Titarenko, N.K.; Trachtenberg, S.I.; Yushkevich, V.I.


    A method for producing reagents for cleaning fluids is proposed using polymerization of acrylonitril, metachrylate or a mixture of the two in water and saponification of the polymers with alakali. To reduce the consumption of monomers and increase the quality of the reagents, 0.4-1.0 parts humic substances, 0.2-1.0 parts hydrolizate from tanning waste products and 1.2-4.0 parts monomers are added to the reaction medium, followed by copolymerization in an acid medium. The proposed method ensures quality reagents which combine lower water yield with a moderate increase in viscosity when acting on clay solutions. Compared with the current method, this method lowers the consumption of an expensive and hard-to-find monomer 1.2-1.4X for one ton of reagent, which lowers the cost of raw material by 1.3-1.7X. This results in a savings of 195-385 rubles per ton of reagent, 600-1200 thousand at 3000 tons/yr.

  8. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen


    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...

  9. The Topology ToolKit. (United States)

    Tierny, Julien; Favelier, Guillaume; Levine, Joshua A; Gueunet, Charles; Michaux, Michael


    This system paper presents the Topology ToolKit (TTK), a software platform designed for the topological analysis of scalar data in scientific visualization. While topological data analysis has gained in popularity over the last two decades, it has not yet been widely adopted as a standard data analysis tool for end users or developers. TTK aims at addressing this problem by providing a unified, generic, efficient, and robust implementation of key algorithms for the topological analysis of scalar data, including: critical points, integral lines, persistence diagrams, persistence curves, merge trees, contour trees, Morse-Smale complexes, fiber surfaces, continuous scatterplots, Jacobi sets, Reeb spaces, and more. TTK is easily accessible to end users due to a tight integration with ParaView. It is also easily accessible to developers through a variety of bindings (Python, VTK/C++) for fast prototyping or through direct, dependency-free, C++, to ease integration into pre-existing complex systems. While developing TTK, we faced several algorithmic and software engineering challenges, which we document in this paper. In particular, we present an algorithm for the construction of a discrete gradient that complies to the critical points extracted in the piecewise-linear setting. This algorithm guarantees a combinatorial consistency across the topological abstractions supported by TTK, and importantly, a unified implementation of topological data simplification for multi-scale exploration and analysis. We also present a cached triangulation data structure, that supports time efficient and generic traversals, which self-adjusts its memory usage on demand for input simplicial meshes and which implicitly emulates a triangulation for regular grids with no memory overhead. Finally, we describe an original software architecture, which guarantees memory efficient and direct accesses to TTK features, while still allowing for researchers powerful and easy bindings and extensions

  10. DNAzyme Feedback Amplification: Relaying Molecular Recognition to Exponential DNA Amplification. (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Yin, Qingxin; McConnell, Erin M; Chang, Yangyang; Brennan, John D; Li, Yingfu


    Technologies capable of linking DNA amplification to molecular recognition are very desirable for ultrasensitive biosensing applications. We have developed a simple but powerful isothermal DNA amplification method, termed DNAzyme feedback amplification (DFA), that is capable of relaying molecular recognition to exponential DNA amplification. The method incorporates both an RNA-cleaving DNAzyme (RCD) and rolling circle amplification (RCA) carried out by a special DNA polymerase using a circular DNA template. DFA begins with a stimulus-dependent RCA reaction, producing tandemly linked RCDs in long-chain DNA products. These RCDs cleave an RNA-containing DNA sequence to form additional primers that hybridize to the circular DNA molecule, giving rise to DNA assemblies that act as the new inputs for RCA. The RCA reaction and the cleavage event keep on feeding each other autonomously, resulting in exponential growth of repetitive DNA sequences that can be easily detected. This method can be used for the detection of both nucleic acid based targets and non-nucleic acid analytes. In this article, we discuss the conceptual framework of the feedback amplification approach, the essential features of this method as well as remaining challenges and possible solutions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Next generation Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Biswal, S.; Mourou, G. [Univ. Michigan, Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nishimura, Akihiko; Takuma, Hiroshi


    The limiting factors of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) are discussed and experimental results of CPA in Yb:glass regenerative amplifier are given. Scaling of Yb:glass to the petawatt level is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent contents...

  13. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  14. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caso Pena, R.; Arranz Calzado, C.


    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125 I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  15. Quantitation of next generation sequencing library preparation protocol efficiencies using droplet digital PCR assays - a systematic comparison of DNA library preparation kits for Illumina sequencing. (United States)

    Aigrain, Louise; Gu, Yong; Quail, Michael A


    The emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in the past decade has allowed the democratization of DNA sequencing both in terms of price per sequenced bases and ease to produce DNA libraries. When it comes to preparing DNA sequencing libraries for Illumina, the current market leader, a plethora of kits are available and it can be difficult for the users to determine which kit is the most appropriate and efficient for their applications; the main concerns being not only cost but also minimal bias, yield and time efficiency. We compared 9 commercially available library preparation kits in a systematic manner using the same DNA sample by probing the amount of DNA remaining after each protocol steps using a new droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) assay. This method allows the precise quantification of fragments bearing either adaptors or P5/P7 sequences on both ends just after ligation or PCR enrichment. We also investigated the potential influence of DNA input and DNA fragment size on the final library preparation efficiency. The overall library preparations efficiencies of the libraries show important variations between the different kits with the ones combining several steps into a single one exhibiting some final yields 4 to 7 times higher than the other kits. Detailed ddPCR data also reveal that the adaptor ligation yield itself varies by more than a factor of 10 between kits, certain ligation efficiencies being so low that it could impair the original library complexity and impoverish the sequencing results. When a PCR enrichment step is necessary, lower adaptor-ligated DNA inputs leads to greater amplification yields, hiding the latent disparity between kits. We describe a ddPCR assay that allows us to probe the efficiency of the most critical step in the library preparation, ligation, and to draw conclusion on which kits is more likely to preserve the sample heterogeneity and reduce the need of amplification.

  16. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History. Sujan Singh Dua. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 777-780. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  17. Organosilicon Reagents in Natural Product Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    His research includes synthetic and mechanistic organic chemistry. Keywords. Organosilicon reagents, pros- taglandins, hormones, drugs, terpenoids. Hari Prasad. Berzelius, the Swedish chemist in 1807 introduced the term. 'organic compounds' as those substances derived from once living organisms (organized systems) ...

  18. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 8. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's History. Sujan Singh Dua. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 8 August 2013 pp 777-780. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  19. Comparison of whole blood RNA preservation tubes and novel generation RNA extraction kits for analysis of mRNA and MiRNA profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlen Häntzsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whole blood expression profiling is frequently performed using PAXgene (Qiagen or Tempus (Life Technologies tubes. Here, we compare 6 novel generation RNA isolation protocols with respect to RNA quantity, quality and recovery of mRNA and miRNA. METHODS: 3 PAXgene and 3 Tempus Tubes were collected from participants of the LIFE study with (n = 12 and without (n = 35 acute myocardial infarction (AMI. RNA was extracted with 4 manual protocols from Qiagen (PAXgene Blood miRNA Kit, Life Technologies (MagMAX for Stabilized Blood Tubes RNA Isolation Kit, and Norgen Biotek (Norgen Preserved Blood RNA Purification Kit I and Kit II, and 2 (semi-automated protocols on the QIAsymphony (Qiagen and MagMAX Express-96 Magnetic Particle Processor (Life Technologies. RNA quantity and quality was determined. For biological validation, RNA from 12 representative probands, extracted with all 6 kits (n = 72, was reverse transcribed and mRNAs (matrix metalloproteinase 9, arginase 1 and miRNAs (miR133a, miR1, shown to be altered by AMI, were analyzed. RESULTS: RNA yields were highest using the Norgen Kit I with Tempus Tubes and lowest using the Norgen Kit II with PAXgene. The disease status was the second major determinant of RNA yields (LIFE-AMI 11.2 vs. LIFE 6.7 µg, p<0.001 followed by the choice of blood collection tube. (Semi-automation reduced overall RNA extraction time but did not generally reduce hands-on-time. RNA yields and quality were comparable between manual and automated extraction protocols. mRNA expression was not affected by collection tubes and RNA extraction kits but by RT/qPCR reagents with exception of the Norgen Kit II, which led to mRNA depletion. For miRNAs, expression differences related to collection tubes (miR30b, RNA isolation (Norgen Kit II, and RT/qRT reagents (miR133a were observed. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that novel generation RNA isolation kits significantly differed with respect to RNA recovery and affected

  20. Monodisperse Picoliter Droplets for Low-Bias and Contamination-Free Reactions in Single-Cell Whole Genome Amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification (WGA is essential for obtaining genome sequences from single bacterial cells because the quantity of template DNA contained in a single cell is very low. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA, using Phi29 DNA polymerase and random primers, is the most widely used method for single-cell WGA. However, single-cell MDA usually results in uneven genome coverage because of amplification bias, background amplification of contaminating DNA, and formation of chimeras by linking of non-contiguous chromosomal regions. Here, we present a novel MDA method, termed droplet MDA, that minimizes amplification bias and amplification of contaminants by using picoliter-sized droplets for compartmentalized WGA reactions. Extracted DNA fragments from a lysed cell in MDA mixture are divided into 105 droplets (67 pL within minutes via flow through simple microfluidic channels. Compartmentalized genome fragments can be individually amplified in these droplets without the risk of encounter with reagent-borne or environmental contaminants. Following quality assessment of WGA products from single Escherichia coli cells, we showed that droplet MDA minimized unexpected amplification and improved the percentage of genome recovery from 59% to 89%. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic-generated droplets show potential as an efficient tool for effective amplification of low-input DNA for single-cell genomics and greatly reduce the cost and labor investment required for determination of nearly complete genome sequences of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples.

  1. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.


    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  2. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  3. Development of a qualitative, multiplex real-time PCR kit for screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). (United States)

    Dörries, Hans-Henno; Remus, Ivonne; Grönewald, Astrid; Grönewald, Cordt; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia


    The number of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and therefore the diversity of possible target sequences for molecular detection techniques are constantly increasing. As a result, GMO laboratories and the food production industry currently are forced to apply many different methods to reliably test raw material and complex processed food products. Screening methods have become more and more relevant to minimize the analytical effort and to make a preselection for further analysis (e.g., specific identification or quantification of the GMO). A multiplex real-time PCR kit was developed to detect the 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus, the terminator of the nopaline synthase gene of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the 35S promoter from the figwort mosaic virus, and the bar gene of the soil bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus as the most widely used sequences in GMOs. The kit contains a second assay for the detection of plant-derived DNA to control the quality of the often processed and refined sample material. Additionally, the plant-specific assay comprises a homologous internal amplification control for inhibition control. The determined limits of detection for the five assays were 10 target copies/reaction. No amplification products were observed with DNAs of 26 bacterial species, 25 yeasts, 13 molds, and 41 not genetically modified plants. The specificity of the assays was further demonstrated to be 100% by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 22 genetically modified crops. The applicability of the kit in routine laboratory use was verified by testing of 50 spiked and unspiked food products. The herein described kit represents a simple and sensitive GMO screening method for the reliable detection of multiple GMO-specific target sequences in a multiplex real-time PCR reaction.

  4. Comparison of Quantifiler(®) Trio and InnoQuant™ human DNA quantification kits for detection of DNA degradation in developed and aged fingerprints. (United States)

    Goecker, Zachary C; Swiontek, Stephen E; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Roy, Reena


    The development techniques employed to visualize fingerprints collected from crime scenes as well as post-development ageing may result in the degradation of the DNA present in low quantities in such evidence samples. Amplification of the DNA samples with short tandem repeat (STR) amplification kits may result in partial DNA profiles. A comparative study of two commercially available quantification kits, Quantifiler(®) Trio and InnoQuant™, was performed on latent fingerprint samples that were either (i) developed using one of three different techniques and then aged in ambient conditions or (ii) undeveloped and then aged in ambient conditions. The three fingerprint development techniques used were: cyanoacrylate fuming, dusting with black powder, and the columnar-thin-film (CTF) technique. In order to determine the differences between the expected quantities and actual quantities of DNA, manually degraded samples generated by controlled exposure of DNA standards to ultraviolet radiation were also analyzed. A total of 144 fingerprint and 42 manually degraded DNA samples were processed in this study. The results indicate that the InnoQuant™ kit is capable of producing higher degradation ratios compared to the Quantifiler(®) Trio kit. This was an expected result since the degradation ratio is a relative value specific for a kit based on the length and extent of amplification of the two amplicons that vary from one kit to the other. Additionally, samples with lower concentrations of DNA yielded non-linear relationships of degradation ratio with the duration of aging, whereas samples with higher concentrations of DNA yielded quasi-linear relationships. None of the three development techniques produced a noticeably different degradation pattern when compared to undeveloped fingerprints, and therefore do not impede downstream DNA analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tool Kit Helps Digitize Tide Gauge Records (United States)

    Ullmann, Albin; Pons, Frédéric; Moron, Vincent


    The Numérisation des Niveaux d'Eau (NUNIEAU) is an integrated and automated MATLAB computer program tool kit for digitizing, transforming, and validating paper records of sea level variations, called marigrams (Figure 1a), that can cut in half the time required to digitize paper records. This tool kit developed in 2004 by F. Pons is currently obtainable by request from the developer, but will be available online on the IMPLIT (Impact des événements extremes sur les hydro-systèmes du litoral méditerranéen français) Web site in early 2006.



  7. Tertiary alpha-diarylmethylamines derived from diarylketimines and organomagnesium reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desmarchelier, Alaric; Ortiz, Pablo; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.


    Organomagnesium reagents enable swift and versatile derivatisation of diarylimines to the corresponding alpha-substituted diarylmethylamines in excellent yields, through fast and clean reactions. Where it occurs, 1,2-reduction can be circumvented using readily accessible dialkylmagnesium reagents.

  8. Evaluation of nine immunoassay kits (enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescence) for detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum in human fecal specimens.


    Garcia, L S; Shimizu, R Y


    It is well known that Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum can cause severe symptoms in humans, particularly those who are immunologically compromised. Immunoassay procedures offer both increased sensitivity and specificity compared to conventional staining methods. These reagents are also helpful when screening large numbers of patients, particularly in an outbreak situation or when screening patients with minimal symptoms. The data obtained by using 9 diagnostic kits were compared: di...

  9. Does classroom amplification aid comprehension? (United States)

    Arnold, P; Canning, D


    Many classrooms are noisy and this interferes with listening and teaching. FM soundfield (FM) amplification systems have been developed which provide a uniform soundfield throughout the classroom and increase the speech-signal:noise ratio. The effect on comprehension of such a system was investigated. Forty-nine pupils (comprising the two top classes of a mainstream primary school) participated in this study, with a mean age of 9.92 years (range 8.58-11.42 years). The Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (Neale, 1988a, b) was modified and administered as a spoken comprehension test. Tests of nonverbal intelligence, auditory memory and a questionnaire were given. The passages spoken though the FM amplification system were understood better than the comparable unamplified passages. Auditory memory, sex and non-verbal intelligence had no effect on improved comprehension. FM amplification significantly improved comprehension and could be considered for use in other schools.

  10. Impact of DNA extraction, sample dilution, and reagent contamination on 16S rRNA gene sequencing of human feces. (United States)

    Velásquez-Mejía, Eliana P; de la Cuesta-Zuluaga, Jacobo; Escobar, Juan S


    Culture-independent methods have granted the possibility to study microbial diversity in great detail, but technical issues pose a threat to the accuracy of new findings. Biases introduced during DNA extraction can result in erroneous representations of the microbial community, particularly in samples with low microbial biomass. We evaluated the DNA extraction method, initial sample biomass, and reagent contamination on the assessment of the human gut microbiota. Fecal samples of 200 mg were subjected to 1:10 serial dilutions; total DNA was obtained using two commercial kits and the microbiota assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. In addition, we sequenced multiple technical controls. The two kits were efficient in extracting DNA from samples with as low as 2 mg of feces. However, in instances of lower biomass, only one kit performed well. The number of reads from negative controls was negligible. Both DNA extraction kits allowed inferring microbial consortia with similar membership but different abundances. Furthermore, we found differences in the taxonomic profile of the microbial community. Unexpectedly, the effect of sample dilution was moderate and did not introduce severe bias into the microbial inference. Indeed, the microbiota inferred from fecal samples was distinguishable from that of negative controls. In most cases, samples as low as 2 mg did not result in a dissimilar representation of the microbial community compared with the undiluted sample. Our results indicate that the gut microbiota inference is not much affected by contamination with laboratory reagents but largely impacted by the protocol to extract DNA.

  11. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. 866.3930 Section 866.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3930 Vibrio cholerae serological reagents. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3255 - Escherichia coli serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Escherichia coli serological reagents. 866.3255... coli serological reagents. (a) Identification. Escherichia coli serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Escherichia coli from cultured...

  13. 40 CFR 160.83 - Reagents and solutions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reagents and solutions. 160.83 Section... LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Testing Facilities Operation § 160.83 Reagents and solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer or concentration, storage...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3010 - Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents... Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus serological reagents are devices that consist of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus antigens and antisera used to identify...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3175 - Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. 866.3175... Cytomegalovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Cytomegalovirus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to cytomegalovirus in...

  16. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  17. Selenium and tellurium reagents in organic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comasseto, J.V.


    A review of the contribution of the University of Sao Paulo (SP, Brazil) to the organic synthesis of selenium and tellurium reagents is made. Major reactions amoung selenium compounds and insaturated substrates, phosphorus, ester enolates as well as the use of phase transference catalysed reactions to produce arylselenolate are described. For tellurium, interactions of its compounds with organic substrates and reactive intermediates (e.g. benzino diazomethane) are reported. (C.L.B.) [pt

  18. SunWise[R] Meteorologist Tool Kit (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007


    The SunWise Program is designed to help meteorologists raise sun safety awareness by addressing the science of the sun, the risk of overexposure to its ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and what students and their families can do to protect themselves from overexposure. This Tool Kit has been designed for use all over the United States and its…

  19. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit. (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  20. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit. (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in…

  1. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  2. Triloogiasse astub Kits viiuliga / Mart Kivastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivastik, Mart, 1963-


    Autor tutvustab oma uut näidendit maalikunstnik Elmar Kitsest "Kits viiuli ja õngega", mida esitab ühendus R.A.A.A.M Aarne Üksküla lavastuses sel suvel Viinistus. Peaosa mängib Aleksander Eelmaa, kunstnik Pille Jänes

  3. Development of MIBI kit for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, S.B.; Ab-Wahid, M.


    99m Tc-isonitriles have been shown to be a very promising substitute for Thallium-201 ( 201 TI) for myocardial perfusion imaging. In this study, the lyophilized kit of Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) was prepared and labeled with 99m Tc. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit's stannous content, boiling time during labeling, and the volume of 99m Tc used during reconstitution were also investigated. The radiochemical purity (RCP) determination of the labeled product was analyzed by HPLC, solvent-extraction, TLC and ITLC-SG chromatographic methods in various systems. Animal biodistribution study performed in rats indicated the 99m Tc-MIBI accumulation in the myocardial is up to 3 hours with little or no redistribution. Toxicity studies performed indicate no clinical signs of abnormality in mice at injected dose equivalent in amount of 100 times the human dose in proportion to body weight. Stability studies of the labeled complex performed at room temperature showed no change in radiochemical purity (> 95%) 6 hours post-preparation. Compatibility and comparative studies were done using both MINT and commercially available MIBI kits and 99m Tc generator eluates. From the results obtained the MINT produced MIBI kits were found to be comparable in quality to that of commercials. (author)

  4. Development of a didactic electrophoresis kit for the practical teaching of Molecular Biology in basic and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Silva Xavier


    Full Text Available The advances in the biotechnology area imposes a new reality, creating products that are present in our daily lives, affecting directly or indirectly the population. Applications related to DNA technologies in the industry, agriculture and medicine have social, ethical and ecological implications, in addition to the human health consequences. So, it is necessary that the public is informed of progress in this area of knowledge. In order to create an alternative method to stimulate students in scientific careers and improve the learning of biotechnology and molecular biology, we developed a junior research project with high school students of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of the Espírito Santo (Brazil, which aimed the construction of a teaching kit of electrophoresis. Electrophoresis is a technique widely used in molecular biology laboratories, which is applied to separate molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this technique, electrically charged molecules are exposed to an electric field and then they move towards the oppositely charged pole, being deposited in specific points of the matrix used. The kit built in this work consists of a source of 70 V, and accessories and reagents that are readily available and present low cost and low risk to the health of users. The use of the kit allowed for electrophoretic assays with nucleic acids and food dyes. The kit also contains a printed material that addresses issues about DNA technology and the device user’s guide with suggestions of experiences to simulate paternity test, virus identification and others. The application of the teaching kit in practical classes with students and teachers of basic education showed that the activity was effective in reducing the number of errors in answers contained in a questionnaire related to the electrophoresis. Moreover, biology teachers evaluated the printed material of the didactic kit and 75% of them classified the

  5. Evaluation of a modified nitrous acid extraction latex agglutination kit for grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci. (United States)

    Petts, D N


    The rapid and accurate identification of the Lancefield group of beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci is an important procedure in clinical laboratories. Latex agglutination techniques are more rapid and technically less demanding than traditional extraction-precipitation methods. Prolex (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada) is a latex agglutination kit which contains modified nitrous acid reagents to extract antigens and can be used to detect group D antigen in streptococci and enterococci, as well as group A, B, C, F, and G antigens. A total of 302 strains of streptococci and enterococci were tested with this kit. All streptococci of groups A (41 strains), B (39 strains), C (35 strains), D (3 strains), F (10 strains), and G (48 strains) were correctly grouped, as were 125 (97%) of 129 strains of enterococci. Prolex is a reliable method for grouping the beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci most frequently encountered in clinical laboratories.

  6. Genome position and gene amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Pavla; Snijders, A.M.; Kwek, S.; Roydasgupta, R.; Fridlyand, J.; Tokuyasu, T.; Pinkel, D.; Albertson, D. G.


    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2007), r120 ISSN 1474-760X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene amplification * array comparative genomic hybridization * oncogene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.589, year: 2007

  7. Small-scale extraction and radioiodination of human hormones for the substitution of imported radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.; Ribela, M.T.C.P.; Borghi, V.C.; Schwarz, I.; Morganti, L.; Araujo, E.A.; Bartolini, P.


    The methods for national production of radioimmunoassay reagents to substitute imported kits of: highly purified unlabelled hormones for radioiodination; 125 I-labelled hormones; and specific high titre antisera are presented. The extraction and purification of human growth hormone (hGH) and human luteinizing hormone (hGH) were done from human pituitaries. The 125 I-labelled hormones are obtained by stoichiometric methods. The 125 I-hGH, 125 I-hLH, I-hTSH and 125 I- h calcitonin were prepared and tested in internal and external quality control, in comparison with imported products. The parameters such as: maximum binding to specific antiserum (Bo), nonspecific binding (NSB), mean effective dose (ED 50), sensitivity and accuracy were evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. 21 CFR 872.3600 - Partially fabricated denture kit. (United States)


    ... mold, by partially polymerizing the resin denture base materials while the materials are in contact...: Evaluation and Testing,’ ” and (2) “OTC Denture Reliners, Repair Kits, and Partially Fabricated Denture Kits...

  9. KIT safety management. Annual report 2013; KIT-Sicherheitsmanagement. Jahresbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Gerhard (ed.)


    The KIT Safety Management Service Unit (KSM) guarantees radiological and conventional technical safety and security of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and controls the implementation and observation of legal environmental protection requirements. KSM is responsible for licensing procedures, industrial safety organization, control of environmental protection measures, planning and implementation of emergency preparedness and response, operation of radiological laboratories and measurement stations, extensive radiation protection support and the execution of security tasks in and for all organizational units of KIT. Moreover, KSM is in charge of wastewater and environmental monitoring for all facilities and nuclear installations all over the KIT campus. KSM is headed by the Safety Commissioner of KIT, who is appointed by the Presidential Committee. Within his scope of procedure for KIT, the Safety Commissioner controls the implementation of and compliance with safety-relevant requirements. The KIT Safety Management is certified according to DIN EN ISO 9001, its laboratories are accredited according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025. To the extent possible, KSM is committed to maintaining competence in radiation protection and to supporting research and teaching activities. The present reports lists the individual tasks of the KIT Safety Management and informs about the results achieved in 2013. Status figures in principle reflect the status at the end of the year 2013. The processes described cover the areas of competence of KSM. Due to changes in the organization of the infrastructural service units in KIT, KSM has been cancelled at the end of 2013. Its tasks will mainly be covered in 2014 by the new founded service unit Safety and Environmental (Sicherheit und Umwelt, SUM). The departments Campus Security, Fire Brigade and Information Technology have been transferred to the Service Unit General Services (Allgemeine Services, ASERV).

  10. Development of coagglutination reagents for serological grouping of streptococci. (United States)

    Hanvivatvong, O; Sirilertpana, S; Chutichop, C; Tirawatnapong, S


    Coagglutination reagents for the rapid serological grouping of groups A, B, C, F and G Streptococcus have been developed. Antisera to groups A, B, C, F and G Streptococcus were raised in rabbits. After absorption with cross-reacting antigens, the specific antibodies were coated on Staphylococcus protein-A and used as group-specific coagglutination reagents. The sensitivity of the reagents for groups A, C and G Streptococcus was 100 per cent and the specificity was 100, 100, and 98.77 per cent, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of these reagents were consistent up to 12 months, although specificity declined with longer storage. The in-house coagglutination reagents for groups A, C and G streptococcus were also tested in comparison with the commercially available Streptococcus Phadebact test and yielded almost identical results. Sensitivity of the in-house of group B Streptococcus reagent was low, while the group F reagent gave a high incidence of false positive reaction.

  11. Development of Safety Kit for Industrial Radiography Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Ahmad; Amry Amin Abas


    A safety kit for industrial radiography has been developed. The safety kit that consist of a set of technical rod and various size of base that can be used in radiograph of pipe with diameter between half and one and half inch with utilization of collimator. With the kit, radiographers will not having anymore problem to use collimator in their work. The paper discuss about the technical measures of the safety kit and the importance of introducing it to the industry. (author)

  12. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”. A...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional, or...

  14. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel


    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presence...

  15. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter. ...

  16. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine Safety...

  17. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall be...

  18. Home Pregnancy Test Kits: How Readable Are the Instructions? (United States)

    Holcomb, Carol Ann

    At the conclusion of their study on home pregnancy test kits, Valinas and Perlman (1982) suggested that the instructions accompanying the kits be revised to make them easier to read. A study was undertaken to determine the readability of the printed instructions accompanying five home pregnancy test kits (Daisy II, Answer, Acu-Test, Predictor, and…

  19. 21 CFR 864.2260 - Chromosome culture kit. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromosome culture kit. 864.2260 Section 864.2260...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2260 Chromosome culture kit. (a) Identification. A chromosome culture kit is a device containing the necessary ingredients...

  20. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel


    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presenc...

  1. Development and deployment of a rapid recombinase polymerase amplification Ebola virus detection assay in Guinea in 2015


    Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Soropogui, B.; Patel, Pranav; Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Loucoubar, C.; Fall, G.; Kiory, D.; Magassouba, N.; Keita, S.; Kondé, M. K.; Diallo, A.; Koivogui, L.; Karlberg, H.; Mirazimi, Ali


    In the absence of a vaccine or specific treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), early identification of cases is crucial for the control of EVD epidemics. We evaluated a new extraction kit (SpeedXtract (SE), Qiagen) on sera and swabs in combination with an improved diagnostic reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of Ebola virus (EBOV-RT-RPA). The performance of combined extraction and detection was best for swabs. Sensitivity and specificity of t...

  2. Cardiac c-Kit Biology Revealed by Inducible Transgenesis. (United States)

    Gude, Natalie A; Firouzi, Fareheh; Broughton, Kathleen M; Ilves, Kelli; Nguyen, Kristine P; Payne, Christina R; Sacchi, Veronica; Monsanto, Megan M; Casillas, Alexandria R; Khalafalla, Farid G; Wang, Bingyan J; Ebeid, David; Alvarez, Roberto; Dembitsky, Walter P; Bailey, Barbara A; van Berlo, Jop H; Sussman, Mark A


    Rationale: Biological significance of c-Kit as a cardiac stem cell marker and role(s) of c-Kit+ cells in myocardial development or response to pathologic injury remain unresolved due to varied and discrepant findings. Alternative experimental models are required to contextualize and reconcile discordant published observations of cardiac c-Kit myocardial biology and provide meaningful insights regarding clinical relevance of c-Kit signaling for translational cell therapy. Objective: Demonstration of c-Kit myocardial biology through combined studies of both human and murine cardiac cells. Advancing understanding of c-Kit myocardial biology through creation and characterization of a novel, inducible transgenic c-Kit reporter mouse model that overcomes limitations inherent to knock-in reporter models, providing perspective to reconcile disparate viewpoints on c-Kit biology in the myocardium. Methods and Results: In vitro studies confirm a critical role for c-Kit signaling in both cardiomyocytes and cardiac stem cells. Activation of c-Kit receptor promotes cell survival and proliferation in stem cells and cardiomyocytes of either human or murine origin. For creation of the mouse model, the cloned mouse c-Kit promoter drives Histone2B-EGFP (H2BEGFP) expression in a doxycycline inducible transgenic reporter line. The combination of c-Kit transgenesis coupled to H2BEGFP readout provides sensitive, specific, inducible, and persistent tracking of c-Kit promoter activation. Tagging efficiency for EGFP+/c-Kit+ cells is similar between our transgenic versus a c-Kit knock-in mouse line, but frequency of c-Kit+ cells in cardiac tissue from the knock-in model is 55% lower than our transgenic line. The c-Kit transgenic reporter model reveals intimate association of c-Kit expression with adult myocardial biology. Both cardiac stem cells and a subpopulation of cardiomyocytes express c-Kit in uninjured adult heart, upregulating c-Kit expression in response to pathologic stress

  3. Simplifying Nucleic Acid Amplification from Whole Blood with Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction on Chitosan Microparticles. (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Imaly A; Cao, Weidong; White, Ian M


    Tremendous advances have been made in the development of portable nucleic acid amplification devices for near-patient use. However, the true limitation in the realization of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for near-patient applications is not the amplification reaction, it is the complexity of the sample preparation. Conventional approaches require several precise intervention steps during the protocol. There are numerous reports in the literature that mimic the sample preparation procedure within a lab-on-a-chip device or cartridge, but these systems require a high number of integrated steps, making the devices and/or their supporting equipment too complex to meet the necessary cost targets and regulatory requirements for near-patient applications. Here we report a simplified method to purify and amplify DNA from complex samples in a minimal number of steps. We show that chitosan-coated microparticles can lyse human cells and capture the released DNA in a single mechanical agitation step, and we show that bound DNA can be amplified directly from the microparticle surface when the magnetic microparticles are transferred to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This procedure eliminates (i) the use of PCR-inhibiting reagents (e.g., chaotropic salts and alcohol) and (ii) the washing and elution steps that are required to remove these reagents and release DNA in typical NAAT sample preparation methods. To illustrate the use of this direct PCR method in diagnostics, we amplify human genomic DNA sequences from a ∼1 μL droplet of whole blood, and we amplify plasmid DNA spiked into whole blood droplets to represent circulating viral DNA or cell-free DNA. The qPCR threshold cycle for direct PCR from whole blood is comparable to that of direct PCR with purified DNA, demonstrating that the lysis and capture steps effectively bind DNA and sufficiently enable its amplification. Furthermore, the efficient amplification of plasmid DNA spiked into whole blood proves that

  4. [Application research of protein test by using biuret reagent]. (United States)

    Chen, Ningqing; Zheng, Siyu


    To investigate the biuret reagent to detect proteins in the application, the impact of different test conditions for test results. The biuret method to select three different instruments, reagents, calibrators are arranged in combination to form 27 sets of detection systems, each detection system is a combination of 5 serum samples for testing, 5 measured values obtained, the selection process normality good a serum for the study to determine the mean value of all AST after culling outliers obtained in order to calculate the various detection systems use a combination of biuret reagent to detect proteins bias. The use of different detection equipment to detect proteins biuret reagent bias, homogeneity of variance (P = 0.467), the difference was not statistically significant (F = 1.688, P = 0.421). different detection reagents using biuret reagent to detect proteins bias, homogeneity of variance (P = 0.574), a statistically significant difference (F = 5.784, P = 0.011). different calibrators use biuret reagent to detect proteins bias, homogeneity of variance (P = 0.467), the difference was statistically significant (F = 5.289, P = 0.000). Biuret reagent in the detection of protein applications, impact detection reagents and calibrators will test result, during the test than when it is necessary to detect deviation detection reagents and calibrators due to be considered.

  5. Accelerator for amplification of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yoshiharu


    As a forming method of new nuclear energy, an energy amplification system using accelerator driven subcritical reactor is focussed. In order to realize amplification of energy driven by accelerator, development of an accelerator with excellent electric power efficiency is one of the most important problems. The necessary beam power of accelerator is 10 MW, and when reducing used electric power of the accelerator to under 25% of total power generation, more than 30% of electric power efficiency is required for the accelerator. Therefore, an accelerator with excellent electric power efficiency without experiencing before now is required to realize such an aim. A prominent candidate of the accelerator is FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron (may be called ring synchrotron). In this paper, some simple considerations of electric power efficiency of accelerators and basic parameter of FFAG synchrotron were described. (G.K.)

  6. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian; Zielinski, Bastian; Götte, Nadine; Senftleben, Arne; Balling, Peter; Baumert, Thomas


    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400 nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification.

  7. Frequency domain optical parametric amplification. (United States)

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François


    Today's ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43 mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8 μm wavelength.

  8. Laser amplification in excited dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Thomas; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse; Sarpe, Cristian


    Wide-bandgap dielectrics such as glasses or water are transparent at visible and infrared wavelengths. This changes when they are exposed to ultrashort and highly intense laser pulses. Different interaction mechanisms lead to the appearance of various transient nonlinear optical phenomena. Using...... these, the optical properties of dielectrics can be controlled from the transparent to the metal-like state. Here we expand this range by a yet unexplored mechanism in excited dielectrics: amplification. In a two-colour pump-probe experiment, we show that a 400nm femtosecond laser pulse is coherently...... amplified inside an excited sapphire sample on a scale of a few micrometres. Simulations strongly support the proposed two-photon stimulated emission process, which is temporally and spatially controllable. Consequently, we expect applications in all fields that demand strongly localized amplification....

  9. Differential voltage amplification from ferroelectric negative capacitance (United States)

    Khan, Asif I.; Hoffmann, Michael; Chatterjee, Korok; Lu, Zhongyuan; Xu, Ruijuan; Serrao, Claudy; Smith, Samuel; Martin, Lane W.; Hu, Chenming; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Salahuddin, Sayeef


    We demonstrate that a ferroelectric can cause a differential voltage amplification without needing an external energy source. As the ferroelectric switches from one polarization state to the other, a transfer of energy takes place from the ferroelectric to the dielectric, determined by the ratio of their capacitances, which, in turn, leads to the differential amplification. This amplification is very different in nature from conventional inductor-capacitor based circuits where an oscillatory amplification can be observed. The demonstration of differential voltage amplification from completely passive capacitor elements only has fundamental ramifications for next generation electronics.

  10. [Comparison of arterial blood sample kits]. (United States)

    Calaf, N; Giner, J; Codina, E; Feixas, T; González, M; Casan, P


    Most inaccuracies in the analysis of gases and electrolytes in arterial blood samples are due to preanalytic factors, among which is the type of equipment used for blood collection. Our objective was to compare arterial blood gas sample kits used under clinical conditions and to evaluate the impact of delay in estimation on variability in results. In 2 types of study we compared 5 kits (Radiometer's Pico 70, Becton Dickinson's Preset, SIMS Portex's Pro-Vent, SIMS-Concord's Pulsator, and Marquest's Quick ABG). In the first study kitsyringe assignment was randomized for collecting arterial blood samples from 160 consecutive patients to evaluate practical aspects of using them and the presence of bubbles in the samples taken. The second study evaluated the effects of delays of 30 and 60 minutes in estimation and of the type of heparin used in 54 blood samples. The kits which produced the fewest bubbles, gave samples with the greatest stability, and had the least impact on ion concentration were Radiometer's Pico 70 and SIMS-Portex's Pro-vent.

  11. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W


    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, τ REC , which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI TOR 2 /dt ∼ I 2 /τ REC - I TOR 2 /τ closed where I is the gun current, I TOR is the spheromak toroidal current and τ CLOSED is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I TOR >> I, requires τ REC CLOSED . For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that τ REC actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B ∝ I, or I TOR ∼ I. Program implications are discussed

  12. First two-reagent vitamin D assay for general clinical chemistry. (United States)

    Saida, Fakhri B; Padilla-Chee, Mario; Dou, Chao; Yuan, Chong


    Vitamin D is a lipid-soluble molecule that plays key physiological roles in the metabolism of calcium, phosphate and magnesium. Recent studies show that deficiency in vitamin D is linked to cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. As a result, regular monitoring of 25-OH vitamin D (the main circulating form of vitamin D) is becoming essential. Current 25-OH vitamin D testing methodologies are cumbersome (too many reagents, long incubation times, phase separation) and are not compatible with general clinical chemistry platforms. Here, we report on a novel method to detect 25-OH vitamin D that is fast (results in 10 min or less), simple (two reagents) and compatible with virtually all general clinical chemistry analyzers. An immunoturbidimetric assay for 25-OH vitamin D (the Diazyme EZ Vitamin D Assay) has been developed using nanoparticles and vitamin D-specific antibodies. The performance of the assay kit, which consists of two reagents and five calibrators, was tested on the Beckman AU680 analyzer (AU680). The new assay was precise, sensitive (LOD = 7.2 nmol/L), linear (up to 390.1 nmol/L) and correlated strongly (R 2  > 0.95) with major commercial 25-OH vitamin D assays. Additionally, the assay was found to be the fastest to date, with the first results obtained within 10 min. Throughput on the AU680 was estimated at over 300 tests per hour. The newly developed 25-OH vitamin D assay is fast, precise and accurate. It can be run on most general chemistry analyzers. This assay aims at providing vitamin D-testing capabilities to all clinical chemistry laboratories. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Snippet of Grignard Reagent's Histroy There are very few reagents ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    with bromine, (eq.1). But he failed to notice the formation of phenylmagnesium bromide, because he was using excess bromine which destroyed it. Hence, he could isolate only bromobenzene,. (eq.2). Had he used only one molar equivalent of bromine, perhaps the organomagnesium reagent would bear his name today.

  14. The challenges of lean manufacturing implementation in kitting assembly (United States)

    Fansuri, A. F. H.; Rose, A. N. M.; Nik Mohamed, N. M. Z.; Ahmad, H.


    Literature studies shows that lean manufacturing goes way back with the original founder Eli Whitney in year 1799. The main purpose of lean manufacturing is to identify and eliminate waste in production. The application of lean manufacturing can be carried out in any industrial processes with regards to the understanding of lean principles, theories and practices. Kitting is one of the important aspects in a successful production. The continuous supply of materials from store to production has to be systematic and able to achieve lean standard for it to be successful. The objective of this paper is to review the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly. Previous papers show that, the implementation of lean manufacturing in kitting assembly may be beneficial to the organization such as reduce in space occupancy, part shortages, lead time and manpower. Based on previous research, some industries may tend to change between kitting and line stocking which are due to lack of understanding when implementing kitting and causes longer lead time and materials overflow in store. With a proper understanding on what to kit, where to kit, how to kit, why to kit and who kits the material with a standardised process flow may ensure the success of kitting.

  15. Adoption of the Healthy Heart Kit by Alberta family physicians. (United States)

    Bize, Raphaël; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Scott, Shannon D; Karunamuni, Nandini; Rodgers, Wendy


    The Healthy Heart Kit (HHK) is a risk management and patient education kit for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the promotion of CV health. There are currently no published data examining predictors of HHK use by physicians. The main objective of this study was to examine the association between physicians' characteristics (socio-demographic, cognitive, and behavioural) and the use of the HHK. All registered family physicians in Alberta (n=3068) were invited to participate in the "Healthy Heart Kit" Study. Consenting physicians (n=153) received the Kit and were requested to use it for two months. At the end of this period, a questionnaire collected data on the frequency of Kit use by physicians, as well as socio-demographic, cognitive, and behavioural variables pertaining to the physicians. The questionnaire was returned by 115 physicians (follow-up rate = 75%). On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the mean score of Kit use was 61 [SD=26]. A multiple linear regression showed that "agreement with the Kit" and the degree of "confidence in using the Kit" was strongly associated with Kit use, explaining 46% of the variability for Kit use. Time since graduation was inversely associated with Kit use, and a trend was observed for smaller practices to be associated with lower use. Given these findings, future research and practice should explore innovative strategies to gain initial agreement among physicians to employ such clinical tools. Participation of older physicians and solo-practitioners in this process should be emphasized.

  16. Comparison of whole genome amplification techniques for human single cell exome sequencing. (United States)

    Borgström, Erik; Paterlini, Marta; Mold, Jeff E; Frisen, Jonas; Lundeberg, Joakim


    Whole genome amplification (WGA) is currently a prerequisite for single cell whole genome or exome sequencing. Depending on the method used the rate of artifact formation, allelic dropout and sequence coverage over the genome may differ significantly. The largest difference between the evaluated protocols was observed when analyzing the target coverage and read depth distribution. These differences also had impact on the downstream variant calling. Conclusively, the products from the AMPLI1 and MALBAC kits were shown to be most similar to the bulk samples and are therefore recommended for WGA of single cells. In this study four commercial kits for WGA (AMPLI1, MALBAC, Repli-G and PicoPlex) were used to amplify human single cells. The WGA products were exome sequenced together with non-amplified bulk samples from the same source. The resulting data was evaluated in terms of genomic coverage, allelic dropout and SNP calling.

  17. Organometallic palladium reagents for cysteine bioconjugation (United States)

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Zhang, Chi; Spokoyny, Alexander M.; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Buchwald, Stephen L.


    Reactions based on transition metals have found wide use in organic synthesis, in particular for the functionalization of small molecules. However, there are very few reports of using transition-metal-based reactions to modify complex biomolecules, which is due to the need for stringent reaction conditions (for example, aqueous media, low temperature and mild pH) and the existence of multiple reactive functional groups found in biomolecules. Here we report that palladium(II) complexes can be used for efficient and highly selective cysteine conjugation (bioconjugation) reactions that are rapid and robust under a range of bio-compatible reaction conditions. The straightforward synthesis of the palladium reagents from diverse and easily accessible aryl halide and trifluoromethanesulfonate precursors makes the method highly practical, providing access to a large structural space for protein modification. The resulting aryl bioconjugates are stable towards acids, bases, oxidants and external thiol nucleophiles. The broad utility of the bioconjugation platform was further corroborated by the synthesis of new classes of stapled peptides and antibody-drug conjugates. These palladium complexes show potential as benchtop reagents for diverse bioconjugation applications.

  18. Screening of Kit inhibitors: suppression of Kit signaling and melanogenesis by emodin. (United States)

    Lee, Seong Jin; Jeong, Daeyoung; Park, Woo-Kyu; Kong, Jae Yang; Choi, Gildon; Kim, Hojeong; Kang, Sangjin; Cho, Heeyeong


    In search of novel antipigmentation agents, a set of 3,840 compounds with natural-like synthetic or natural origin were screened against Kit (stem cell factor receptor). Emodin from the seed of Cassia tora and baicalin from Scutellariae radix showed potent inhibitory effects (IC(50) = 4.9 and 9.0 microM, respectively) on the phosphorylation of Kit. Emodin also blocked other receptor tyrosine kinase activities, such as epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR-1), platelet-derived growth factor receptor b (PDGFR-b). In contrast to emodin, aloe-emodin did not inhibit Kit activity at all. Emodin also blocked the cellular kinase activities of Kit and its down-stream p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in MO7e cells and human primary melanocytes. Emodin strongly suppressed the melanin synthesis triggered by stem cell factor (SCF) treatment. Also, emodin showed almost no toxicity up to 10 microM on cultured melanocytes as reported previously by other researchers. The results indicate that emodin is a good candidate for the development of antipigmentation agents since it can radically block the differentiation and proliferation of pigment cells by reducing Kit signaling. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The effects of metal ion PCR inhibitors on results obtained with the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit. (United States)

    Combs, Laura Gaydosh; Warren, Joseph E; Huynh, Vivian; Castaneda, Joanna; Golden, Teresa D; Roby, Rhonda K


    Forensic DNA samples may include the presence of PCR inhibitors, even after extraction and purification. Studies have demonstrated that metal ions, co-purified at specific concentrations, inhibit DNA amplifications. Metal ions are endogenous to sample types, such as bone, and can be introduced from environmental sources. In order to examine the effect of metal ions as PCR inhibitors during quantitative real-time PCR, 2800 M DNA was treated with 0.0025-18.750 mM concentrations of aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. DNA samples, both untreated and metal-treated, were quantified using the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit. Quantification cycle (Cq) values for the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA and internal PCR control (IPC) assays were measured and the estimated concentrations of human DNA were obtained. Comparisons were conducted between metal-treated and control DNA samples to determine the accuracy of the quantification estimates and to test the efficacy of the IPC inhibition detection. This kit is most resistant to the presence of calcium as compared to all metals tested; the maximum concentration tested does not affect the amplification of the IPC or quantification of the sample. This kit is most sensitive to the presence of aluminum; concentrations greater than 0.0750 mM negatively affected the quantification, although the IPC assay accurately assessed the presence of PCR inhibition. The Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit accurately quantifies human DNA in the presence of 0.5000 mM copper, iron, nickel, and lead; however, the IPC does not indicate the presence of PCR inhibition at this concentration of these metals. Unexpectedly, estimates of DNA quantity in samples treated with 18.750 mM copper yielded values in excess of the actual concentration of DNA in the samples; fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicated this increase was not a direct interaction between the copper metal and 6-FAM dye used to label the probe that

  20. 21 CFR 866.3360 - Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... tests to identify antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in serum. The identification aids in... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents...

  1. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99mTc-ceftizoxime (99mTc-CFT, with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/mL. After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99mTc-pertechnetate solution (Na99mTcO4- with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99mTc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli, the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99mTc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99mTc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99mTc-CFT by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes.O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar um kit de Tc

  2. The effect of whole genome amplification on samples originating from more than one donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thacker, C.R.; Balogh, M.K.; Børsting, Claus


    found to match the expected peak ratios regardless of the starting concentration of DNA. With samples mixed in the ratio of 1:7 and 1:15, and when the concentration of starting material was at the manufacturer's lower limit, too few minor component peaks were found to allow for statistical analysis......In this study, the GenomiPhi(TM) DNA Amplification Kit (Amersham Biosciences) was used to investigate the potential of whole genome amplification (WGA) when considering samples originating from more than one donor. DNA was extracted from blood samples, quantified and normalised before being mixed...... in ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:7 and 1:15. Proportions were checked using standard STR analysis before being subjected to WGA. Once amplified using GenomiPhi(TM), the ratios were again checked. Relative proportions were found to be maintained in the 1:1 and 1:3 ratios following WGA; the observed peak ratios were...

  3. Development of rapid and simple method for DNA extraction from cannabis resin based on the evaluation of relative PCR amplification ability. (United States)

    Yamamuro, Tadashi; Iwata, Yuko T; Segawa, Hiroki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki


    In recent years, analysis of cannabis DNA has been increasingly used in forensic drug tests. However, in the case of cannabis resin, a processed marijuana product, complicated procedures are required for the extraction of clean DNA, as the presence of various impurities inhibits PCR amplification. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to identify the factors that would allow quick and simple DNA extraction from cannabis resin with a commercially available kit. We also constructed a simple assay system for comparing relative amplification efficiencies by end-point PCR and used it to evaluate the purity of the obtained DNA solutions. For extraction with a kit that contains a silica column, reducing the starting amount of resin, using the residue remaining after methanol extraction, dilution of the final solution, extraction with an equal amount of powdered activated carbon or an excess amount of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, and the addition of an appropriate amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone to the solution after extraction were effective measures that improved amplification efficiency. Furthermore, the use of the most rapid alkaline extraction kit combined with the addition of powdered activated carbon allowed obtaining DNA solutions with sufficient amplification efficiency in about 10min. These findings should be useful for routine DNA analysis of cannabis resin during forensic examination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. RNA SHAPE chemistry with aromatic acylating reagents. (United States)

    Nodin, Laura; Noël, Olivier; Chaminade, Françoise; Maskri, Ouerdia; Barbier, Vincent; David, Olivier; Fossé, Philippe; Xie, Juan


    As chemical methods for RNA secondary structure determination, SHAPE chemistry (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) has been developed to specifically target flexible nucleotides (often unpaired nucleotides) independently to their purine or pyrimidine nature. In order to improve the specificity of acylating reagents towards unpaired nucleotides, we have explored the reactivity of symmetric anhydrides, acyl fluorides, active esters like succinimidyl ester and cyanomethyl esters for 2'-O-acylation reaction. Among the tested compounds, only the acyl fluoride 4 showed a low reactivity (compared to NMIA). However, this study is the first to show that nucleophilic catalysts like DMAP greatly improved the selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation by symmetric anhydrides, acyl fluorides and succinimidyl ester, with the 2-fluorobenzoic anhydride 5 being the most reactive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in synthetic peptides reagent discovery (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Finch, Amethist S.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.


    Bacterial display technology offers a number of advantages over competing display technologies (e.g, phage) for the rapid discovery and development of peptides with interaction targeted to materials ranging from biological hazards through inorganic metals. We have previously shown that discovery of synthetic peptide reagents utilizing bacterial display technology is relatively simple and rapid to make laboratory automation possible. This included extensive study of the protective antigen system of Bacillus anthracis, including development of discovery, characterization, and computational biology capabilities for in-silico optimization. Although the benefits towards CBD goals are evident, the impact is far-reaching due to our ability to understand and harness peptide interactions that are ultimately extendable to the hybrid biomaterials of the future. In this paper, we describe advances in peptide discovery including, new target systems (e.g. non-biological materials), advanced library development and clone analysis including integrated reporting.

  6. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.


    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  7. Enhancing PCR Amplification of DNA from Recalcitrant Plant Specimens Using a Trehalose-Based Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharangamala Samarakoon


    Full Text Available Premise of the study: PCR amplification of DNA extracted from plants is sometimes difficult due to the presence of inhibitory compounds. An effective method to overcome the inhibitory effect of compounds that contaminate DNA from difficult plant specimens is needed. Methods and Results: The effectiveness of a PCR additive reagent containing trehalose, bovine serum albumin (BSA, and polysorbate-20 (Tween-20 (TBT-PAR was tested. PCR of DNA extracted from fresh, silica-dried, and herbarium leaf material of species of Achariaceae, Asteraceae, Lacistemataceae, and Samydaceae that failed using standard techniques were successful with the addition of TBT-PAR. Conclusions: The addition of TBT-PAR during routine PCR is an effective method to improve amplification of DNA extracted from herbarium specimens or plants that are known to contain PCR inhibitors.

  8. Polarographic determination of Sn (II) and total Sn in PYRO and MDP radiopharmaceutical kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Maria V.A.; Lugon, Marcelo Di M.V.; Silva, Jose L. da; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G. da; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.


    A sensitive, alternative method to atom absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry or potentiometry for the evaluation of tin(II) ions (0.1- 10 mg) and total tin in radiopharmaceutical kits was investigated. Differential pulse polarography was chosen. The supporting electrolyte was H 2 SO 4 3 mol L -1 and HCl 3 mol L -1 solution. The potential was swept from -250 to -800 mV vs Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl, using a dropping mercury electrode with 1 s drop time, 50 mV s -1 scan rate, -50 mV pulse amplitude, 40 ms pulse time and 10 mV step amplitude. Pure nitrogen was used to deaerate the polarographic cell solution for 5 min, before and after each sample introduction. Oxidation of Sn(II) was made in the same sample vial by adding H 2 O 2 (hydrogen peroxide) 10 mol L -1 , at 37 deg C, in order to quantify the total Sn. The calibration curve for Sn(II) and Sn(IV) was obtained in the concentration range of 0-10 ppm from a 1000 ppm standard solution. The detection limit of Sn(II) is 0.5 ppm and for Sn(IV) is 0.6 ppm. Differential pulse polarography was performed in the pyrophosphate (PYRO) and methylenediphosphonic acid (MDP) radiopharmaceutical kits, containing 2 mg and 1 mg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O per vial, respectively. The described method for determination of stannous ion (Sn(II)), is selective, reproducible and adequate to be used in the quality control of lyophilized reagents and it shall be performed for other cold kits produced at IPEN. (author)

  9. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunshan Lin


    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  10. The KIT gene in familial mastocytosis


    Tourlaki, Athanasia


    Familial cutaneous mastocytosis is an exceptional condition of unknown etiology. In this study we report the largest series of patients with familial cutaneous mastocytosis without other manifestations (18 affected subjects from seven unrelated families), and we investigate the role of germ-line KIT mutations in the pathogenesis of the disease. The mean age at onset was 5.4 years (range from birth to 22 years), and the clinical behavior was variable over a mean follow up period of 15.1 years ...

  11. Development of kits for total PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprarop, P.


    The development of kits for Total PSA assay has shown promising results. All essential components of the assay were prepared with reproducibility and used to optimize the assay. By choosing two steps method, we could avoid the hook effect and obtain satisfactory Q.C. parameters of the standard curve i.e. blank = 0.8%, maximum binding = 65%. If reference material for calibration of the standard is agree upon, the validation could then be carried out with total confidence. Our final goal is to reduce the step of incubation to just one step with no interference from hook effect

  12. [Colorimetric detection of HPV6 and HPV16 by loop mediated isothermal amplification]. (United States)

    Lu, Chun-bin; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-jie; Nie, Kai; Wang, Miao; Ma, Xue-Jun


    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established to detect HPV6 and HPV 16 respectively. The method employed a set of four specially designed primers that recognized six distinct sequences of HPV6-E6 or HPV16-E7 for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for one hour. The amplification process of LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by real-time turbidimeter and agarose electrophoresis. Thirteen cervical swab samples having single infection with 13 different HPV genotypes were examined to evaluate the specificity. A serial dilution of a cloned plasmid containing HPV-E6 or HPV-E7 gene was examined to evaluate the sensitivity. The results showed that no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes was observed. The colorimetric LAMP assay could achieve a sensitivity of 1000 copies, 10-20 times lower than that of real-time PCR. The assay was further evaluated with 62 clinical specimens and consistent results were obtained compared with the detection using Kai Pu HPV Genotyping Kit. We concluded that this colorimetric LAMP assay had potential usefulness for the rapid screening of the HPV6 or HPV16 infection in the laboratories and hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China.

  13. Label-free and highly sensitive electrochemical detection of E. coli based on rolling circle amplifications coupled peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme amplification. (United States)

    Guo, Yuna; Wang, Yu; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Hongzhi; Wang, Yalin; Huang, Jiadong


    In this work, a simple, label-free, low cost electrochemical biosensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of Escherichia coli has been developed on the basis of rolling circle amplification (RCA) coupled peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme amplification. A aptamer-primer probe (APP) containing anti-E. coli aptamer and a primer sequence complementary to a circular probe, which includes two G-quadruplex units, is used for recognizing target and triggering RCA-based polymerase elongation. Due to RCA coupled DNAzyme amplification strategy, the presence of target E. coli leads to the formation of numerous G-quadruplex oligomers on electrode, which folds into G-quadruplex/hemin complexs with the help of K(+) and hemin, thus generating extremely strong catalytic activity toward H2O2 and giving a remarkably strong electrochemical response. As far as we know, this work is the first time that RCA coupled peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme amplification technique have been integrated into electrochemical assay for detecting pathogenic bacteria. Under optimal conditions, the proposed biosensor exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity toward E. coli with detection limits of 8cfumL(-1) and a detection range of 5 orders of magnitude. Besides, our biosensor also shows high selectivity toward target E. coli and has the advantages in its rapidness, low cost, simplified operations without the need of electrochemical labeling steps and additional labile reagents. Hence, the RCA coupled peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme amplification-based electrochemical method might create a useful and practical platform for detecting E. coli and related food safety analysis and clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alkylation of pyridines at their 4-positions with styrenes plus yttrium reagent or benzyl Grignard reagents. (United States)

    Mizumori, Tomoya; Hata, Takeshi; Urabe, Hirokazu


    A new regioselective alkylation of pyridines at their 4-position was achieved with styrenes in the presence of yttrium trichloride, BuLi, and diisobutylaluminium hydride (DIBAL-H) in THF. Alternatively, similar products were more simply prepared from pyridines and benzyl Grignard reagents. These reactions are not only a useful preparation of 4-substituted pyridines but are also complementary to other relevant reactions usually giving 2-substituted pyridines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Chirped pulse Raman amplification in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieux, G; Lyachev, A; Yang, X; Ersfeld, B; Farmer, J P; Brunetti, E; Issac, R C; Raj, G; Welsh, G H; Wiggins, S M; Jaroszynski, D A, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)


    Raman amplification in plasma has been proposed to be a promising method of amplifying short radiation pulses. Here, we investigate chirped pulse Raman amplification (CPRA) where the pump pulse is chirped and leads to spatiotemporal distributed gain, which exhibits superradiant scaling in the linear regime, usually associated with the nonlinear pump depletion and Compton amplification regimes. CPRA has the potential to serve as a high-efficiency high-fidelity amplifier/compressor stage.

  16. Personal Computer-less (PC-less) Microcontroller Training Kit (United States)

    Somantri, Y.; Wahyudin, D.; Fushilat, I.


    The need of microcontroller training kit is necessary for practical work of students of electrical engineering education. However, to use available training kit not only costly but also does not meet the need of laboratory requirements. An affordable and portable microcontroller kit could answer such problem. This paper explains the design and development of Personal Computer Less (PC-Less) Microcontroller Training Kit. It was developed based on Lattepanda processor and Arduino microcontroller as target. The training kit equipped with advanced input-output interfaces that adopted the concept of low cost and low power system. The preliminary usability testing proved this device can be used as a tool for microcontroller programming and industrial automation training. By adopting the concept of portability, the device could be operated in the rural area which electricity and computer infrastructure are limited. Furthermore, the training kit is suitable for student of electrical engineering student from university and vocational high school.

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits (United States)


    ... administer required drugs) 4 Needles (sizes necessary to administer required drugs) 6 50% Dextrose injection... dose ampule or equivalent 2 Nitroglycerin tablets 10 Basic instructions for use of the drugs in the kit... administer required medications) 4 Analgesic, non-narcotic, tablets, 325 mg 4 Antihistamine tablets, 25 mg 4...

  18. To Kit or Not to Kit? Evaluating and Implementing Science Materials and Resources (United States)

    Schiller, Ellen; Melin, Jacque; Bair, Mary


    With the release of the "Next Generation Science Standards," many schools are reexamining the science materials they are using. Textbook companies and kit developers are eager to meet the demand for "NGSS"-aligned teaching materials. Teacher may have been asked to serve on a science curriculum committee, or to evaluate current…

  19. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.


    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  20. A performance study on three qPCR quantification kits and their compatibilities with the 6-dye DNA profiling systems. (United States)

    Lin, Sze-Wah; Li, Christina; Ip, Stephen C Y


    DNA quantification plays an integral role in forensic DNA profiling. Not only does it estimate the total amount of amplifiable human autosomal and male DNA to ensure optimal amplification of target DNA for subsequent analysis, but also assesses the extraction efficiency and purity of the DNA extract. Latest DNA quantification systems even offer an estimate for the degree of DNA degradation in a sample. Here, we report the performance of three new generation qPCR kits, namely Investigator ® Quantiplex HYres Kit from QIAGEN, Quantifiler ® Trio DNA Quantification Kit from Applied Biosystems™, and PowerQuant ® System from Promega, and their compatibilities with three 6-dye DNA profiling systems. Our results have demonstrated that all three kits generate standard curves with satisfactory consistency and reproducibility, and are capable of screening out traces of male DNA in the presence of 30-fold excess of female DNA. They also exhibit a higher tolerance to PCR inhibition than Quantifiler ® Human DNA Quantification Kit from Applied Biosystems™ in autosomal DNA quantification. PowerQuant ® , as compared to Quantiplex HYres and Quantifiler ® Trio, shows a better precision for both autosomal and male DNA quantifications. Quantifiler ® Trio and PowerQuant ® in contrast to Quantiplex HYres offer better correlations with lower discrepancies between autosomal and male DNA quantification, and their additional degradation index features provide a detection platform for inhibited and/or degraded DNA template. Regarding the compatibility between these quantification and profiling systems: (1) both Quantifiler ® Trio and PowerQuant ® work well with GlobalFiler and Fusion 6C, allowing a fairly accurate prediction of their DNA typing results based on the quantification values; (2) Quantiplex HYres offers a fairly reliable IPC system for detecting any potential inhibitions on Investigator 24plex, whereas Quantifiler ® Trio and PowerQuant ® suit better for Global

  1. Dimethyl carbonate as a modern green reagent and solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, F; Tundo, Pietro


    Published data on dimethyl carbonate as a safe reagent and solvent in organic synthesis are generalized and analyzed. The methods of dimethyl carbonate preparation and its use as methylating and carboxymethylating reagent are considered. The attention is focused on the environmentally safe processes corresponding to the green chemistry principles.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3480 - Respiratory syncytial virus serological reagents. (United States)


    .... 866.3480 Section 866.3480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of respiratory...

  3. Asymmetric Conjugate Addition of Grignard Reagents to Pyranones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Bin; Fananas Mastral, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.


    An efficient enantioselective synthesis of lactones was developed based on the catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition (ACA) of alkyl Grignard reagents to pyranones. The use of 2H-pyran-2-one for the first time in the ACA with Grignard reagents allows for a variety of further transformations to

  4. an efficient polymeric reagent for selective preparation of benzyl bro

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The application of polymer supports as reagent and catalyst has received special attention in the past decades, due to the easy work up of reaction products and unique selectivity which are undoubtly attractive features of this methodology. In addition, most of the polymer supported reagents can be recycled after use [12, ...

  5. Review Article: Toxic Effects of Some Reagents Used in Electron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultrathin sections prepared for electron microscopy and histochemistry are indispensable in cytological, histological and histochemical studies. The paper discusses the various reagents used in these fields of study. Unfortunately, these reagents and chemicals are hazardous to health. There is wisdom in informing the ...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological... § 866.3240 Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological...

  7. Slow Release Of Reagent Chemicals From Gel Matrices (United States)

    Debnam, William J.; Barber, Patrick G.; Coleman, James


    Procedure developed for slow release of reagent chemicals into solutions. Simple and inexpensive and not subject to failure of equipment. Use of toothpaste-type tube or pump dispenser conceivably provides more controlled technique for storage and dispensation of gel matrix. Possible uses include controlled, slow release of reagents in chemical reactions, crystal growth, space-flight experiments, and preformed gel medications from packets.

  8. 21 CFR 58.83 - Reagents and solutions. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagents and solutions. 58.83 Section 58.83 Food... solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer... solutions shall not be used. ...

  9. 40 CFR 792.83 - Reagents and solutions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reagents and solutions. 792.83 Section... solutions. All reagents and solutions in the laboratory areas shall be labeled to indicate identity, titer... solutions shall not be used. ...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3520 - Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. 866... Rubeola (measles) virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Rubeola (measles) virus serological... to rubeola virus in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of measles and provides...

  11. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  12. Opportunities of the energy revolution. Scientific contributions to the KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breh, Wolfgang; Schaetzler, Katharina


    ''Opportunities for energy revolution'' was the title under which the KIT Energy Center of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in May 2012 held its first annual meeting. The meeting covered the whole Topic of the KIT Energy Center. The present proceedings give those interested the opportunity to delve into the contributions and to provide a differentiated picture of the challenges and opportunities of the energy transition.

  13. The Virtual Physiological Human ToolKit. (United States)

    Cooper, Jonathan; Cervenansky, Frederic; De Fabritiis, Gianni; Fenner, John; Friboulet, Denis; Giorgino, Toni; Manos, Steven; Martelli, Yves; Villà-Freixa, Jordi; Zasada, Stefan; Lloyd, Sharon; McCormack, Keith; Coveney, Peter V


    The Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) is a major European e-Science initiative intended to support the development of patient-specific computer models and their application in personalized and predictive healthcare. The VPH Network of Excellence (VPH-NoE) project is tasked with facilitating interaction between the various VPH projects and addressing issues of common concern. A key deliverable is the 'VPH ToolKit'--a collection of tools, methodologies and services to support and enable VPH research, integrating and extending existing work across Europe towards greater interoperability and sustainability. Owing to the diverse nature of the field, a single monolithic 'toolkit' is incapable of addressing the needs of the VPH. Rather, the VPH ToolKit should be considered more as a 'toolbox' of relevant technologies, interacting around a common set of standards. The latter apply to the information used by tools, including any data and the VPH models themselves, and also to the naming and categorizing of entities and concepts involved. Furthermore, the technologies and methodologies available need to be widely disseminated, and relevant tools and services easily found by researchers. The VPH-NoE has thus created an online resource for the VPH community to meet this need. It consists of a database of tools, methods and services for VPH research, with a Web front-end. This has facilities for searching the database, for adding or updating entries, and for providing user feedback on entries. Anyone is welcome to contribute.

  14. Reagent-loaded plastic microfluidic chips for detecting homocysteine (United States)

    Suk, Ji Won; Jang, Jae-Young; Cho, Jun-Hyeong


    This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices.

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of tannins by phosphotungstic-phosphomolibdic reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reicher, F.; Sierakowski, M.R.; Correa, J.B.C.


    There are several colorimetric techniques to determine tannins in plant extracts. One frequently used is the Folin method (phosphotungstic acid reagent) that procedures a blue color with phenolic compounds. However, this coloured complex is unstable. With the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, used in protein determination (Lowry et al. J.B.C. 193: 265, 1951) good results were obtained, even in the absence of cooper solution. Using phosphotungstic-phosphomolibdic reagent (Folin-Denis), it was obtained maximum color with 1,0 ml of the reagent in 20 minutes, after the adition of 10 ml 20% sodium carbonate solution. Tannins samples containing 10 to 200 μg/ml were analysed. Absorbances are determined at 720 or 600 nm. Tannins of commercial preparations from Acacia negra were analysed by the phosphotungstic-phosphomolibdic reagent before (A) and after (B) treatment with chromate hyde powder. By this procedure hydrolysible tannins were determined (A-B). (Author) [pt

  16. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Tool Kit, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on desensitized optimal filtering techniques and a navigation and sensor fusion tool kit using advanced filtering techniques is proposed. Research focuses...

  17. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae (United States)

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.


    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  18. Standardization of reagents and methods used in cytological and histological practice with emphasis on dyes, stains and chromogenic reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyon, H O; De Leenheer, A P; Horobin, R W


    The need for the standardization of reagents and methods used in the histology laboratory is demonstrated. After definitions of dyes, stains, and chromogenic reagents, existing standards and standards organizations are discussed. This is followed by practical instructions on how to standardize dyes...

  19. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA) (United States)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.


    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  20. Optimization of laser capture microdissection and RNA amplification for gene expression profiling of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasmatzis George


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To discover prostate cancer biomarkers, we profiled gene expression in benign and malignant cells laser capture microdissected (LCM from prostate tissues and metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Here we present methods developed, optimized, and validated to obtain high quality gene expression data. Results RNase inhibitor was included in solutions used to stain frozen tissue sections for LCM, which improved RNA quality significantly. Quantitative PCR assays, requiring minimal amounts of LCM RNA, were developed to determine RNA quality and concentration. SuperScript II™ reverse transcriptase was replaced with SuperScript III™, and SpeedVac concentration was eliminated to optimize linear amplification. The GeneChip® IVT labeling kit was used rather than the Enzo BioArray™ HighYield™ RNA transcript labeling kit since side-by-side comparisons indicated high-end signal saturation with the latter. We obtained 72 μg of labeled complementary RNA on average after linear amplification of about 2 ng of total RNA. Conclusion Unsupervised clustering placed 5/5 normal and 2/2 benign prostatic hyperplasia cases in one group, 5/7 Gleason pattern 3 cases in another group, and the remaining 2/7 pattern 3 cases in a third group with 8/8 Gleason pattern 5 cases and 3/3 metastatic prostatic adenocarcinomas. Differential expression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR and hepsin was confirmed using quantitative PCR.

  1. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)


    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  2. New fluorescent reagents specific for Ca2+-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hail, Danya; Lemelson, Daniela; Israelson, Adrian; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda


    Highlights: ► New reagents specifically inhibit the activity of Ca 2+ -dependent proteins. ► FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru allow for mechanism-independent probing of Ca 2+ -binding proteins. ► Changes in reagents fluorescence allow characterization of protein Ca 2+ -binding properties. -- Abstract: Ca 2+ carries information pivotal to cell life and death via its interactions with specific binding sites in a protein. We previously developed a novel photoreactive reagent, azido ruthenium (AzRu), which strongly inhibits Ca 2+ -dependent activities. Here, we synthesized new fluorescent ruthenium-based reagents containing FITC or EITC, FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru. These reagents were purified, characterized and found to specifically interact with and markedly inhibit Ca 2+ -dependent activities but not the activity of Ca 2+ -independent reactions. In contrast to many reagents that serve as probes for Ca 2+ , FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru are the first fluorescent divalent cation analogs to be synthesized and characterized that specifically bind to Ca 2+ -binding proteins and inhibit their activity. Such reagents will assist in characterizing Ca 2+ -binding proteins, thereby facilitating better understanding of the function of Ca 2+ as a key bio-regulator.

  3. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura


    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  4. School-to-Work Jump-Start Equity Kit. (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This starter kit is a resource for state and local school-to-work (STW) directors, educators, parents, students, business and community, and economic development organizations serving all students through STW. The kit begins with four articles: "STW and Gender Equity: Opportunity for or Barrier to Economic Parity?" (Katherine Hanson, Joyce…

  5. Mobilizing Rural Communities to Prevent Childhood Obesity: A Tool Kit (United States)

    Smathers, Carol A.; Lobb, Jennifer M.


    The tool kit Mobilizing Rural Communities to Prevent Childhood Obesity is the product of a seven-state multidisciplinary research project focused on enhancing obesity prevention efforts by integrating community coaching into the work of rural community coalitions. The interactive tool kit is available at no cost both in print form and online, and…

  6. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhaoui, Faycel


    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  7. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925 Section 878.3925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. ...

  8. The Early Literacy Kit: A Handbook and Tip Cards (United States)

    Diamant-Cohen, Betsy; Ghoting, Saroj Nadkarni


    This innovative and practical kit, put together by two well-known specialists in the field of early literacy, contains everything storytime presenters for children from birth to age five and their parents or caregivers need to spread the word about school readiness skills to adult caregivers. The kit includes: (1) An accessible handbook with a…

  9. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of an office-based semen preparation method (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI): A controlled randomised study to compare the IUI pregnancy outcome between a routine (swim-up) and the SEP-D Kit method.




  11. Synthesis and characterization of zwitterionic carbon dioxide fixing reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C


    The synthesis of three amine-based carbon dioxide fixing reagents is presented. The reagents were designed so that they would be able to bind CO2 reversibly through the formation of the well known carbamates that was stabilized through forming a zwitterion. CO2 fixing experiments were performed...... with 13CO2 labeling and medium pressure NMR. The experiments showed that two of the three reagents were able to form carbamates and thus bind CO2. In addition we investigated this particular class of molecules for the possible formation of neutrally charged spiro compounds and we show that these did...

  12. The reaction of organocerium reagents with easily enolizable ketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamoto, Tsuneo; Kusumoto, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Yasushi; Suzuki, Nobuyo; Takiyama, Nobuyuki


    Organocerium (III) reagents were conveniently generated by the reaction of organolithium compounds with anhydrous cerium (III) chloride. The reagents are less basic than organolithiums and Grignard reagents, and they react readily at -78 deg C with easily enolizable ketones such as 2-tetralone to afford addition products in high yields. Cerium (III) enolates were also generated from lithium enolates and cerium (III) chloride. The cerium (III) enolates undergo aldol addition with ketones or sterically crowded aldehyde to give the corresponding β-hydroxy ketones in good to high yields. (author)

  13. Nanomechanical identification of liquid reagents in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Faheem; Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu


    . But unfortunately so far a method to precisely determine molecular signatures of reagents is missing in μTAS. We have developed a technique whereby molecular signatures of 50 pL of liquid reagents confined within a bimetallic microchannel cantilever can be obtained. This is achieved using wavelength dependent...... mechanical bending of the cantilever under infrared (IR) radiation. This technique also allows simultaneous physical characterization of the liquid reagent using variations in resonance frequency. It is useful in lab-on-a-chip devices and has a myriad of applications in drug screening, bioreactor monitoring...

  14. Molecular and biochemical analyses of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) B, PDGFRA, and KIT receptors in chordomas. (United States)

    Tamborini, Elena; Miselli, Francesca; Negri, Tiziana; Lagonigro, M Stefania; Staurengo, Samantha; Dagrada, Gian Paolo; Stacchiotti, Silvia; Pastore, Elisa; Gronchi, Alessandro; Perrone, Federica; Carbone, Antonino; Pierotti, Marco A; Casali, Paolo G; Pilotti, Silvana


    We have previously shown the presence of an activated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor (PDGFR) B and its ligand PDGFB in a limited number of patients with clinical and radiological responses to imatinib mesylate treatment. This article describes the results of comprehensive molecular/biochemical analyses of the three receptors targeted by the drug (PDGFRB, PDGFRA, and KIT) in a series of 31 chordoma patients. The presence and activation status of PDGFRB, PDGFRA, and KIT receptors were investigated by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses complemented by immunohistochemistry, their expression level was analyzed by means of real-time PCR, and the occurrence of activating point mutations was investigated by means of cDNA sequencing. The PDGFB, PDGFA, and stem cell factor cognate ligands were investigated by reverse transcription-PCR, and gene status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results show that PDGFRB was highly expressed and phosphorylated, whereas PDGFRA and KIT were less expressed but phosphorylated and thus activated. These findings, together with the absence of gain-of-function mutations and the presence of the cognate ligands, strongly support the hypothesis that the activation mechanism is the autocrine/paracrine loop. No role seems to be played by gene amplification. In the light of our findings, the clinical benefit observed in chordoma patients treated with imatinib seems to be attributable to the switching off of all three receptors.

  15. Interlaboratory ring test of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays for zeranol and alpha-zearalenol and comparison with zeranol test kits. (United States)

    Cooper, K M; Ribeiro, L; Alves, P; Vozikis, V; Tsitsamis, S; Alfredsson, G; Lövgren, T; Tuomola, M; Takalo, H; Iitia, A; Sterk, S S; Blokland, M; Kennedy, D G


    Many zeranol immunoassay test kits cross-react with toxins formed by naturally occurring Fusarium spp. fungi, leading to false-positive screening results. This paper describes the evaluation and application of recently published, dry reagent time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIA) for zeranol and the toxin alpha-zearalenol. A ring test of bovine urine fortified with zeranol and/or alpha-zearalenol in four European Union National Reference Laboratories demonstrated that the TR-FIA tests were accurate and robust. The alpha-zearalenol TR-FIA satisfactorily quantified alpha-zearalenol in urine fortified at 10-30 ng ml(-1). The specificity-enhanced zeranol TR-FIA accurately quantified zeranol in the range 2-5 ng ml(-1) and gave no false-positive results in blank urine, even in the presence of 30 ng ml(-1) alpha-zearalenol. Zeranol TR-FIA specificity was demonstrated further by analysing incurred zeranol-free urine samples containing natural Fusarium spp. toxins. The TR-FIA yielded no false-positive results in the presence of up to 22 ng ml(-1) toxins. The performance of four commercially available zeranol immunoassay test kits was more variable. Three kits produced many false-positive results. One kit produced only one potential false-positive using a protocol that was longer than that of the TR-FIA. These TR-FIAs will be valuable tools to develop inspection criteria to distinguish illegal zeranol abuse from contamination arising from in vivo metabolism of Fusarium spp. toxins.

  16. A decrease in ubiquitination and resulting prolonged life-span of KIT underlies the KIT overexpression-mediated imatinib resistance of KIT mutation-driven canine mast cell tumor cells. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masato; Kuroki, Shiori; Kurita, Sena; Miyamoto, Ryo; Tani, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Kyoichi; Bonkobara, Makoto


    Overexpression of KIT is one of the mechanisms that contributes to imatinib resistance in KIT mutation-driven tumors. Here, the mechanism underlying this overexpression of KIT was investigated using an imatinib-sensitive canine mast cell tumor (MCT) line CoMS, which has an activating mutation in KIT exon 11. A KIT-overexpressing imatinib-resistant subline, rCoMS1, was generated from CoMS cells by their continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of imatinib. Neither a secondary mutation nor upregulated transcription of KIT was detected in rCoMS1 cells. A decrease in KIT ubiquitination, a prolonged KIT life-span, and KIT overexpression were found in rCoMS1 cells. These events were suppressed by withdrawal of imatinib and were re-induced by re‑treatment with imatinib. These findings suggest that imatinib elicited overexpression of KIT via suppression of its ubiquitination. These results also indicated that imatinib-induced overexpression of KIT in rCoMS1 cells was not a permanently acquired feature but was a reversible response of the cells. Moreover, the pan deubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor PR619 prevented imatinib induction of KIT overexpression, suggesting that the imatinib-induced decrease in KIT ubiquitination could be mediated by upregulation and/or activation of deubiquitinating enzyme(s). It may be possible that a similar mechanism of KIT overexpression underlies the acquisition of imatinib resistance in some human tumors that are driven by KIT mutation.

  17. Small-scale extraction and radioiodination of human hormones for the substitution of imported radioimmunoassay reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbo, E.K.; Carvalho Pinto Ribela, M.T. de; Borghi, V.C.; Schwarz, I.; Dias, L.E.M.; Araujo, E.A. de; Bartolini, P.


    One of the main objectives of our laboratory is the national production of radioimmunoassay (RIA) reagents so to substitute the use of expensive imported commercial kits or in-bulk reagents such as the following: a) highly purified unlabelled hormones for radioiodination, useful also for preparing secondary standards and specific antisera; b) 125 I-labelled hormones; c) specific high titre antisera. The extraction and purification of human growth hormone (hGH) and human luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been already carried out. We have recently obtained quite purified, active and stable preparation starting from a small number of human pituitaries, the whole process being carried out in just one or two weeks for hGH an hLH respectively. For what concernes 125 I-labelling, we basically utilize two techniques: the Classical Chloramine T method described by Hunter and Roth's stoichiometric method, both followed by a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the reaction mixture, set up in our laboratory. The results of such comparison will be discussed. 125-I-hGH, 125-I-hLH, 125-I-hTSH and 125-I-h Calcitonin (unlabelled synthetic product donated by CIBA, Switzerland) have been prepared and tested in internal and external quality control, in comparison with good quality imported products. Satisfactory results have been obtained through the evaluation of these parameters: maximum binding to specific antiserum (Bo), nonspecific binding (NSB), mean effective dose (ED 50), sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Concerning antisera production, specific and high titre rabbit anti-hGH and anti-hLH antibodies have been obtained, while guinea-pig anti-h Calcitonin antiserum is being produced. Together with 125-I-Calcitonin it will be used in the setting up of the RIA of this hormone whic allows the early detection of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. (author) [pt

  18. Simple narcotic kits for controlled-substance dispensing and accountability. (United States)

    Maltby, J R; Levy, D A; Eagle, C J


    Operating rooms require a storage, dispensing and accounting system for restricted drugs which satisfies narcotics control authorities and is compatible with efficient care of patients. We describe narcotic kits containing fentanyl-morphine-midazolam, alfentanil-midazolam and sufentanil-midazolam, for general operating rooms, and two kits with larger quantities of fentanyl and sufentanil for cardiac operating rooms. The container for each kit is a video cassette holder which has a foam-rubber liner with sculpted depressions for each ampoule. Sealed kits are delivered each morning from pharmacy to the locked narcotics cupboard in the recovery room. On request, the recovery room nurse unlocks the cupboard and the anaesthetist signs out the required kit(s) for the day. A drug utilization form is enclosed with each kit, on which the anaesthetist records the amount of drug administered to each patient, and before returning the kit to the locked narcotics cupboard, the total amount of each drug used, discarded, and returned. Used kits are collected the following morning by a pharmacy technician who reconciles the contents and drug form of each kit. More than 40 staff anaesthetists and a similar number of residents have used the system for seven years, during which time 130,000 patients have passed through the operating rooms. Detection of one case of drug diversion by a staff anaesthetist was made partly by the control system, but mainly by behavioural changes. The system is simple, inexpensive, and effective and has been well received by the departments of pharmacy, anaesthesia, and nursing.

  19. Evaluation of a QIAamp DNA stool purification kit for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli detection in bovine fecal swabs by PCR Evaluación del kit QIAamp DNA stool purification para la detección de Escherichia coli productor de toxina Shiga en hisopados de materia fecal bovina por PCR[

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gioffré


    Full Text Available A commercial kit intended for Taq polymerase inhibitor removal was tested to detect Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC by polymersase chain reaction (PCR directly from cattle fecal samples. Forty-five samples were analysed for the presence of stx genes. Results were compared to those obtained by two other methods: amplification of DNA purified by a non-commercial procedure (heat lysis protocol, and amplification of DNA from samples cultured in solid media, commonly used in our lab. Identical numbers of positive samples (33/45, 73 % were obtained with the QIAamp DNA stool purification kit and the culturing procedure, suggesting an adequate removal of inhibitors that interfere in PCR amplification from the feces. Besides, the number of positive samples detected using DNA purified by the non-commercial protocol was lower, 25/39 (64% than that achieved by using the kit. In conclusion, the use of the QIAamp DNA stool purification kit provided a rapid stx gene detection by PCR in bovine fecal samples.Un kit comercial diseñado para la eliminación de inhibidores de la polimerasa Taq fue ensayado para la detección de STEC por PCR en muestras fecales de bovinos. Cuarenta y cinco muestras fueron evaluadas por la presencia de genes stx. Los resultados fueron comparados con aquéllos obtenidos por otros dos métodos: amplificación de ADN purificado por un procedimiento no comercial (protocolo de lisis por calor, y amplificación de ADN de muestras cultivadas en medio sólido, comúnmente usado en nuestro laboratorio. El mismo número de muestras positivas (33/45, 73 %, fueron obtenidas con el QIAamp DNA stool purification kit y el procedimiento de cultivo, sugiriendo una eliminación adecuada de inhibidores que interfieren con la amplificación en materia fecal. Por otro lado, el número de muestras positivas detectadas usando ADN purificado por el protocolo no comercial fue menor, 25/39 (64%. En conclusión, el uso del kit QIAamp DNA stool

  20. 21 CFR 866.3370 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent... § 866.3370 Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunofluorescent reagents. (a) Identification. Mycobacterium... used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis directly from clinical specimens. The identification aids...

  1. Catalytic asymmetric alkylation of ketones using organometallic reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madduri, Ashoka V.R.; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.


    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of tertiary alcohols by the addition of organometallic reagents to ketones is of central importance in organic chemistry. The resulting quaternary stereocentres are difficult to prepare selectively by other means despite their widespread occurrence in natural

  2. 21 CFR 864.4020 - Analyte specific reagents. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Specimen Preparation Reagents § 864.4020 Analyte specific... practitioners, e.g., forensic, academic, research, and other nonclinical laboratories. (b) Classification. (1...

  3. Atmospheric measurements of peroxy radicals by chemical amplification (United States)

    Duncianu, Marius; Lahib, Ahmad; Tomas, Alexandre; Dusanter, Sébastien


    Peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2) are key species in atmospheric chemistry. They are produced during the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are involved in the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. However, ambient measurements of these reactive species are still considered challenging and only a few techniques have been used for field measurements. Among these techniques, the PEroxy Radical Chemical Amplifier (PERCA) implementing the classical NO/CO reagent approach has been hardly used for field measurements due to the strong dependence of the radical chain length on Relative Humidity (RH). However, Wood et al. (ES&T 2016) recently showed that using ethane instead of CO allows reducing this RH-dependence and helps going around other drawbacks of the CO based amplification chemistry. This new approach has been explored in our laboratory by building a PERCA instrument that will be used for both laboratory kinetics and field measurements. In this presentation, we will describe (i) the measurement setup and (ii) experiments conducted to quantify the radical chain length for HO2 and several RO2 radicals, including those produced during the OH-oxidation of isoprene, toluene, cyclohexane, and others. It will be shown that the detection efficiency of organic peroxy radicals, via their NO conversion to HO2, mainly depends on their organic nitrate (RONO2) formation yields. In this context, box modelling of the PERCA chemistry will be discussed.

  4. Evaluation of novel derivatisation reagents for the analysis of oxysterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crick, Peter J., E-mail: [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Aponte, Jennifer; Bentley, T. William [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Matthews, Ian [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Wang, Yuqin [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Griffiths, William J., E-mail: [Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • New derivatisation reagents for LC–MS analysis of oxysterols. • New reagents based on Girard P give high ion-currents and informative LC–MS{sup n} spectra. • Permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. • New reagents offer greater scope for incorporation of isotope labels. - Abstract: Oxysterols are oxidised forms of cholesterol that are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. They are also ligands to nuclear and G protein-coupled receptors. Analysis of oxysterols in biological systems is challenging due to their low abundance coupled with their lack of a strong chromophore and poor ionisation characteristics in mass spectrometry (MS). We have previously used enzyme-assisted derivatisation for sterol analysis (EADSA) to identify and quantitate oxysterols in biological samples. This technique relies on tagging sterols with the Girard P reagent to introduce a charged quaternary ammonium group. Here, we have compared several modified Girard-like reagents and show that the permanent charge is vital for efficient MS{sup n} fragmentation. However, we find that the reagent can be extended to include sites for potential stable isotope labels without a loss of performance.

  5. Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Dexter, Dan E.; Hodgson, Terry R.


    The Math Description Engine Software Development Kit (MDE SDK) can be used by software developers to make computer-rendered graphs more accessible to blind and visually-impaired users. The MDE SDK generates alternative graph descriptions in two forms: textual descriptions and non-verbal sound renderings, or sonification. It also enables display of an animated trace of a graph sonification on a visual graph component, with color and line-thickness options for users having low vision or color-related impairments. A set of accessible graphical user interface widgets is provided for operation by end users and for control of accessible graph displays. Version 1.0 of the MDE SDK generates text descriptions for 2D graphs commonly seen in math and science curriculum (and practice). The mathematically rich text descriptions can also serve as a virtual math and science assistant for blind and sighted users, making graphs more accessible for everyone. The MDE SDK has a simple application programming interface (API) that makes it easy for programmers and Web-site developers to make graphs accessible with just a few lines of code. The source code is written in Java for cross-platform compatibility and to take advantage of Java s built-in support for building accessible software application interfaces. Compiled-library and NASA Open Source versions are available with API documentation and Programmer s Guide at http:/ / prim e.jsc.n asa. gov.

  6. Kit systems for granulated decontamination formulations (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.


    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field. The formulation can be pre-mixed and pre-packaged as a multi-part kit system, where one or more of the parts are packaged in a powdered, granulated form for ease of handling and mixing in the field.

  7. Dumpster Optics: teaching and learning optics without a kit (United States)

    Donnelly, Judy; Magnani, Nancy; Robinson, Kathleen


    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and renewed emphasis on STEM education in the U.S. have resulted in the development of many educational kits for teaching science in general and optics in particular. Many teachers do not have funding to purchase kits and practical experience has shown that even costly kits can have poorly written and misleading instructions and may include experiments that would not work in a classroom. Dumpster Optics lessons are designed to use inexpensive, commonly found materials. All lessons have been field-tested with students. We will describe the development of the lessons, provide examples of field testing experiences and outline possible future activities.

  8. Influence of nest box environment on kit survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, V.H.; Malmkvist, Jens


    died from day 1-7, and only ~5% in RES-3. The risk of dying was approx. 4 times higher for a kit live-born into the one resource environment. RES-3 females were building better nests and stayed in the nest box longer around parturition than RES-1, which could explain the higher mortality in this group....... We discriminated between stillborn and live-born kits dying early using autopsy. The access to more than one resource (RES-3) of nest building material had a profound effect on kit mortality in the firs week of life compared to access to straw only (χ²(1) = 13.7, P

  9. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.


    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  10. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai


    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  11. A Digital Microfluidics Platform for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Jorge Coelho


    Full Text Available Digital microfluidics (DMF arises as the next step in the fast-evolving field of operation platforms for molecular diagnostics. Moreover, isothermal schemes, such as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP, allow for further simplification of amplification protocols. Integrating DMF with LAMP will be at the core of a new generation of detection devices for effective molecular diagnostics at point-of-care (POC, providing simple, fast, and automated nucleic acid amplification with exceptional integration capabilities. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the role of coupling DMF and LAMP, in a dedicated device that allows straightforward mixing of LAMP reagents and target DNA, as well as optimum temperature control (reaction droplets undergo a temperature variation of just 0.3 °C, for 65 °C at the bottom plate. This device is produced using low-temperature and low-cost production processes, adaptable to disposable and flexible substrates. DMF-LAMP is performed with enhanced sensitivity without compromising reaction efficacy or losing reliability and efficiency, by LAMP-amplifying 0.5 ng/µL of target DNA in just 45 min. Moreover, on-chip LAMP was performed in 1.5 µL, a considerably lower volume than standard bench-top reactions.

  12. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.


    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  13. Four-photon parametric amplification in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.; Gersten, J.; Tzoar, N.


    A theoretical study of four-photon parametric amplification in narrow-band-gap semiconductors is made. It is shown that phase matching is achievable in a linear geometry if a magnetic field is employed. Furthermore, a substantial cyclotron resonance enhancement occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. We calculate the growth rates and threshold fields associated with the parametric amplification and conclude that an efficient laser may be designed based on this process

  14. Radioimmunoassay of serum 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine using reagents available in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarcik, K.; Zavada, M.; Mueller, J.


    An accurate and reliable method for the determination of the total serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) was developed using reagents available in Czechoslovakia. The method makes it possible to determine T 3 within the sensitivity limits of the method (0.04 ng T 3 /ml) to 10 ng T 3 /ml of serum. Long-term stability of determination was studied using three control sera; for the average concentrations 0.8; 1.31 and 4.17 ng/ml the variation coefficients of long-term stability 17.9, 8.7 and 13.2% were calculated. For a group of 49 sera a comparison was made with a kit by Byk-Mallincrodt. Good agreement of the resulting concentrations was found. The limits of physiological values were determined using a group of 107 individuals with normal function of the thyroid gland from 0.88 to 2.18 ng T 3 /ml serum. (author)

  15. Comparative evaluation of DNA extraction methods for amplification by qPCR of superficial vs intracellular DNA from Bacillus spores. (United States)

    Brauge, Thomas; Faille, Christine; Inglebert, Gaëlle; Dubois, Thomas; Morieux, Paul; Slomianny, Christian; Midelet-Bourdin, Graziella


    This study was designed to assess the efficiency of eight extraction methods regarding their ability to release superficial (exogenous) and intracellular (endogenous) DNA from B. cereus spores for subsequent analysis by quantitative PCR (qPCR). B. cereus spore suspensions were subjected to both commercial DNA extraction kits and mechanical DNA extraction methods. The spores were observed by transmission electron microscopy to evaluate any damage caused during extraction. The efficiency of both extraction and purification were assessed using a qPCR assay targeting the bclA gene. Most of the extraction methods assessed, except the passage through the French press or the use of the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit without 95°C treatment, allowed the amplification of significant amounts of DNA. By using propidium monoazide, which is a photoreactive DNA-binding dye, the presence of non-negligible amounts of amplifiable DNA at the spore surface was highlighted. A further set of extraction assays was then performed on spores previously treated with PMA. The results of this study show that both superficial and intracellular spore DNA can be released by extraction methods to a greater or lesser extent and then further amplified by qPCR. The Precellys extraction allowed the detection of both intracellular and superficial DNA, the DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit the specific detection of intracellular DNA, while the Instagene kit detected only superficial DNA. Of the methods tested in this study, the Precellys extraction was the most efficient in terms of further DNA detection. In order to verify the presence or absence of B. cereus spores in food or on surfaces in the food environment, the use of an efficient extraction method is required, followed by a qPCR analysis on the DNA released. Conversely, in order to quantify the population of Bacillus spores, any superficial DNA must be blocked, e.g. with PMA, prior to intracellular DNA extraction and further amplification. Copyright © 2018

  16. Toxic reagents and expensive equipment: are they really necessary for the extraction of good quality fungal DNA? (United States)

    Rodrigues, P; Venâncio, A; Lima, N


    The aim of this work was to evaluate a fungal DNA extraction procedure with the lowest inputs in terms of time as well as of expensive and toxic chemicals, but able to consistently produce genomic DNA of good quality for PCR purposes. Two types of fungal biological material were tested - mycelium and conidia - combined with two protocols for DNA extraction using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) and Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide as extraction buffers and glass beads for mechanical disruption of cell walls. Our results showed that conidia and SDS buffer was the combination that lead to the best DNA quality and yield, with the lowest variation between samples. This study clearly demonstrates that it is possible to obtain high yield and pure DNA from pigmented conidia without the use of strong cell disrupting procedures and of toxic reagents. There are numerous methods for DNA extraction from fungi. Some rely on expensive commercial kits and/or equipments, unavailable for many laboratories, or make use of toxic chemicals such as chloroform, phenol and mercaptoethanol. This study clearly demonstrates that it is possible to obtain high yields of pure DNA from pigmented conidia without the use of strong and expensive cell disrupting procedures and of toxic reagents. The method herein described is simultaneously inexpensive and adequate to DNA extraction from several different types of fungi. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Strategies to prepare and use functionalized organometallic reagents. (United States)

    Klatt, Thomas; Markiewicz, John T; Sämann, Christoph; Knochel, Paul


    Polyfunctional zinc and magnesium organometallic reagents occupy a central position in organic synthesis. Most organic functional groups are tolerated by zinc organometallic reagents, and Csp(2)-centered magnesium organometallic reagents are compatible with important functional groups, such as the ester, aryl ketone, nitro, cyano, and amide functions. This excellent chemoselectivity gives zinc- and magnesium-organometallic reagents a central position in modern organic synthesis. Efficient and general preparations of these organometallic reagents, as well as their most practical and useful reactions, are presented in this Perspective. As starting materials, a broad range of organic halides (iodides, bromides, and also to some extent chlorides) can be used for the direct insertion of magnesium or zinc powder; the presence of LiCl very efficiently promotes such insertions. Alternatively, aromatic or heterocyclic bromides also undergo a smooth bromine-magnesium exchange when treated with i-PrMgCl·LiCl. Alternative precursors of zinc and magnesium reagents are polyfunctionalized aryl and heteroaryl molecules, which undergo directed metalations with sterically hindered TMP bases (TMP = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperide) of magnesium and zinc. This powerful C-H functionalization method gives access to polyfunctional heterocyclic zinc and magnesium reagents, which undergo efficient reactions with numerous electrophiles. The compatibility of the strong TMP-bases with BF3·OEt2 (formation of frustrated Lewis pairs) dramatically increases the scope of these metalations, giving for example, a practical access to magnesiated pyridines and pyrazines, which can be used as convenient building blocks for the preparation of biologically active molecules.

  18. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Tool Kit, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop desensitized optimal filtering techniques and to implement these algorithms in a navigation and sensor fusion tool kit. These proposed...

  19. Detection of Fasciola gigantica antibodies using Pourquier ELISA kit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELISA) screening kit for Fasciola antibodies was conducted in breeding herds in two Local Government Areas of Adamawa state. The objectives were to determine the presence of Fasciola gigantica antibodies as a way of demonstrating the use ...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3570 - OTC denture repair kit. (United States)


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3570 OTC denture repair kit. (a) Identification... powder and liquid glues, that is intended to be applied permanently to a denture to mend cracks or breaks...

  1. First-Aid Kits: Stock Supplies That Can Save Lives (United States)

    ... and needs. A basic first-aid kit includes: Adhesive tape Elastic wrap bandages Bandage strips and "butterfly" ... to help children understand and use first-aid techniques. How to prevent medical emergencies. American College of ...

  2. Kennedy Space Center Medical Operations and Medical Kit (United States)

    Scarpa, Philip


    This slide presentation reviews the emergency medical operations at Kennedy Space center, the KSC launch and landing contingency modes, the triage site, the medical kit, and the medications available.

  3. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Bin; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Huang, Chenghui; Liu, Franklin; Neill, Daniel; Li, Chuanyuan; Dewhirst, Mark


    Highlights: ► This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. ► Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. ► DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. ► The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 °C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) γH2AX immunostaining to detect γH2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 °C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 °C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by γH2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and telomere functions are denatured. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide direct evidence of hyperthermia induced gene amplification.

  4. Evaluation of Commercially Available Cyanide Test Kits against Various Matrices (United States)


    and Visocolor ECO test kits (Macherey-Nagel; Düren, Germany); eXact test strips ( Industrial Test Systems; Rock Hill, SC); and MQuant test strips...further evaluation in a second phase of testing. Cyantesmo paper was tested against 15 matrices, including baking soda , boric acid, brewer’s yeast...INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Commercially available test kits were evaluated in a two-phase process . In Phase I, a market survey was performed, and five

  5. Quality control for a group of pyrophosphate-Sn kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.; Gamboa, R.; Hernandez, I.; Leyva, R.; Turino, D.


    The quality control for a group of Pyrophosphate-Sn kits for labeling with 99 m Tc is carry out at the Isotope Center. A general discussion takes place about the instrumental techniques for the determination of the kit constituent such as ligands, Sn(II), water, etc, as well as the control table for the evaluation of the warranty time. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  6. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken


    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  7. C-kit expression in canine mucosal melanomas. (United States)

    Newman, S J; Jankovsky, J M; Rohrbach, B W; LeBlanc, A K


    The c-kit receptor is responsible for transmission of promigration signals to melanocytes; its downregulation may be involved in malignant progression of human melanocytic neoplasms. Expression of this receptor has not been examined in normal or neoplastic melanocytes from dogs. In this study, 14 benign dermal and 61 malignant mucosal melanocytic tumors were examined for c-kit (KIT) expression. Sites of the mucosal melanomas were gingiva (not further specified; n = 30), buccal gingiva (n = 6), soft palate (n = 4), hard palate (n = 5), tongue (n = 7), lip (n = 6), and conjunctiva (n = 3). Melan A was expressed in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and in 59 of 61 (96.7%) tumors from oral or conjunctival mucosa, confirming melanocytic origin. C-kit receptor expression was strong and diffuse throughout the cytoplasm in all 14 dermal melanocytomas and was identified in basilar mucosal melanocytes over submucosal neoplasms (27 of 61, 44.3%), junctional (neoplastic) melanocytes (17 of 61, 27.9%), and, less commonly, neoplastic melanocytes of the subepithelial tumors (6 of 61, 9.8%). KIT expression anywhere within the resected melanomas correlated with significantly longer survival. These results suggest that c-kit receptor expression may be altered in canine melanomas and may have potential as a prognostic indicator for mucosal melanomas.

  8. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola company travel health kit. (United States)

    Harper, Lynne A; Bettinger, Julie; Dismukes, Roberta; Kozarsky, Phyllis E


    The Coca-Cola travel health kit has been used for about one decade for international travelers and required evaluation to see if the items contained were appropriate for the employees. Two hundred thirty-four travelers were sampled and filled out a voluntary survey including questions about demographic information, travel history, and usage and value of the contents of the travel health kit. One hundred eighty-one surveys were returned; 65% of the respondents were male, and the majority of travelers were between the ages of 36 and 45 years. The most useful items were analgesics and medications used for gastrointestinal problems. In general, the items identified as being the least useful were those requiring specialized use by a medical practitioner, such as needles and syringes. Suggestions of items to be added to the kit included vitamins, cough drops, sleep aids, and eye drops. A surprising result that Coca-Cola employees expressed the desire for brand name rather than generic items. Evaluation of the Coca-Cola Company travel health kit revealed it to be very useful to most corporate travelers. Suggestions that were made will be taken into consideration in designing a new kit, and consideration is being given to whether a basic travel health kit should be provided to which travelers can add other items depending on their personal needs.

  9. Population data on 15 STR loci using AmpF/STR Identifiler kit in a Malay population living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (United States)

    Maruyama, S; Minaguchi, K; Takezaki, N; Nambiar, P


    Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA (AmpF/STR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit, PE Applied Biosystems) were obtained from a sample of 110 unrelated individuals from the Malay population living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and the characteristics of the population was compared with other East Asian populations.

  10. Evaluation of reagents for the delineation of prior austenitic grain boundaries in quenched steels; Avaliacao de reagentes para delineacao de contornos de graos austeniticos originais em acos temperados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrocinio, Andrei B. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Casteletti, Luiz C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    Different compositions of metallographic reagents were tested seeking the detection of the grain boundaries on quenched and tempered steels. Samples with varying amounts of carbon, with or without alloying elements, were used to optimize and adequate reagents for those variations. Three samples of reagents have shown excellent performance on this context. (author) 7 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Radotinib induces high cytotoxicity in c-KIT positive acute myeloid leukemia cells. (United States)

    Heo, Sook-Kyoung; Noh, Eui-Kyu; Kim, Jeong Yi; Jo, Jae-Cheol; Choi, Yunsuk; Koh, SuJin; Baek, Jin Ho; Min, Young Joo; Kim, Hawk


    Previously, we reported that radotinib, a BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induced cytotoxicity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. However, the effects of radotinib in the subpopulation of c-KIT-positive AML cells were unclear. We observed that low-concentration radotinib had more potent cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive cells than c-KIT-negative cells from AML patients. To address this issue, cell lines with high c-KIT expression, HEL92.1.7, and moderate c-KIT expression, H209, were selected. HEL92.1.7 cells were grouped into intermediate and high c-KIT expression populations. The cytotoxicity of radotinib against the HEL92.1.7 cell population with intermediate c-KIT expression was not different from that of the population with high c-KIT expression. When H209 cells were grouped into c-KIT expression-negative and c-KIT expression-positive populations, radotinib induced cytotoxicity in the c-KIT-positive population, but not the c-KIT-negative population. Thus, radotinib induces cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive cells, regardless of the c-KIT expression intensity. Therefore, radotinib induces significant cytotoxicity in c-KIT-positive AML cells, suggesting that radotinib is a potential target agent for the treatment of c-KIT-positive malignancies including AML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MALS: an efficient strategy for multiple site-directed mutagenesis employing a combination of DNA amplification, ligation and suppression PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drayna Dennis T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple approaches for the site-directed mutagenesis (SDM have been developed. However, only several of them are designed for simultaneous introduction of multiple nucleotide alterations, and these are time consuming. In addition, many of the existing multiple SDM methods have technical limitations associated with type and number of mutations that can be introduced, or are technically demanding and require special chemical reagents. Results In this study we developed a quick and efficient strategy for introduction of multiple complex mutations in a target DNA without intermediate subcloning by using a combination of connecting SDM and suppression PCR. The procedure consists of sequential rounds, with each individual round including PCR amplification of target DNA with two non-overlapping pairs of oligonucleotides. The desired mutation is incorporated at the 5' end of one or both internal oligonucleotides. DNA fragments obtained during amplification are mixed and ligated. The resulting DNA mixture is amplified with external oligonucleotides that act as suppression adapters. Suppression PCR limits amplification to DNA molecules representing full length target DNA, while amplification of other types of molecules formed during ligation is suppressed. To create additional mutations, an aliquot of the ligation mixture is then used directly for the next round of mutagenesis employing internal oligonucleotides specific for another region of target DNA. Conclusion A wide variety of complex multiple mutations can be generated in a short period of time. The procedure is rapid, highly efficient and does not require special chemical reagents. Thus, MALS represents a powerful alternative to the existing methods for multiple SDM.

  13. Targeted Diazotransfer Reagents Enable Selective Modification of Proteins with Azides. (United States)

    Lohse, Jonas; Swier, Lotteke J Y M; Oudshoorn, Ruben C; Médard, Guillaume; Kuster, Bernhard; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; Witte, Martin D


    In chemical biology, azides are used to chemically manipulate target structures in a bioorthogonal manner for a plethora of applications ranging from target identification to the synthesis of homogeneously modified protein conjugates. While a variety of methods have been established to introduce the azido group into recombinant proteins, a method that directly converts specific amino groups in endogenous proteins is lacking. Here, we report the first biotin-tethered diazotransfer reagent DtBio and demonstrate that it selectively modifies the model proteins streptavidin and avidin and the membrane protein BioY on cell surface. The reagent converts amines in the proximity of the binding pocket to azides and leaves the remaining amino groups in streptavidin untouched. Reagents of this novel class will find use in target identification as well as the selective functionalization and bioorthogonal protection of proteins.

  14. Coupling Activity-Based Detection, Target Amplification, Colorimetric and Fluorometric Signal Amplification, for Quantitative Chemosensing of Fluoride Generated from Nerve Agents. (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Reuther, James F; Phillips, Scott T; Anslyn, Eric V


    The G-class nerve agents, which include sarin, soman, and cyclosarin, react readily with nucleophilic reagents to produce fluoride. Thus, a chemosensing protocol has been designed for these agents that pairs the nucleophilic reactivity of oximates for generating fluoride with an autoinductive target amplification reaction to amplify the quantity of fluoride for facile colorimetric and fluorescent optical quantification. The chemosensing protocol was demonstrated by using the nerve agent surrogate diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and benzaldoxime as the nucleophile. Autoinductive fluoride amplification responds to fluoride released from DFP by amplifying the fluoride concentration and a yellow reporter molecule. The reporter is a conjugated oligomer with a nominal repeating unit that originates from 4-aminobenzaldehyde. Exposure of the amplified fluoride to a fluoride-specific ratiometric fluorescent reporter provides a fluorescent readout, in which three fluorophores are generated per fluoride. Both colorimetric and fluorescent readouts enable quantitative assays with low micromolar limits of detection for fluoride resulting from DFP. More importantly, this work demonstrates the successful merging of multiple complex reactions for achieving selective, sensitive, and quantitative chemosensing. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Second research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research programme on development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumor markers, Edmonton, Canada, 31 May - 4 June 1999. Report by National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Institute of Radioisotopes and Radiodiagnostic Products, Immunoassay laboratory, Athens, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, I.


    The study for the preparation of immunoassay kit(s) for total PSA and free PSA has been divided so far in two parts: In the first part (during the year 1998) an ELISA method was developed for total PSA, after purchasing and selecting the most suitable antibody pairs. In the second part (during the year 1999) the appropriate reagents (MAb10, MAb30, MAb66 and semi-pure PSA) were received for the development of an IRMA PSA method. Specifically this study involved the development of IRMA protocol for determination of free PSA

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of Sn+2 in lyophilized kit for labeling with 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Sampel, Carolina Judith; Melo, Ivani Bortoleti; Okamoto, Miriam R.Y; Silva, Constancia P.G


    The preparation of 99 mTc labeled radiopharmaceuticals depends on the reduction of the technetium pertechnetate, commonly by stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ). The determination of the Sn +2 contents in the lyophilized preparations represents an important quality control procedure that may be applied to the process and to the final product. The objective os this work is the optimization of an spectrophotometric assay to the determination os Sn +2 contents in a citrate-stannous lyophilized kit for 99 mTc labeling. The spectrophotometric methodology employed is based in the colour development when Sn +2 reacts with sodium molybdate in the presence of potasium thiocyanate in chloridric medium. The colourfull reaction studied showed high stability after 60 minutes of the mixtures preparation. The sequence of reagents introduction in the reaction mixture was determinant to the assay. The molibdenium-stannous-tiocianate sequence produces calibration curves with good correlations (R2 ≥ 0.99). The concentrations of the molibdenium solution was also studied, in order to determine a ideal concentration for the Sn +2 range. The spectrophotometric method studied was usefull to the determination of Sn +2 content in different batches of citrate-stannous preparations. The method was fast and easy and can be applied to different stages of the production process, in order to guarantee the content of Sn +2 in the preparations (Au)

  17. Comparison of commercial DNA extraction kits and quantitative PCR systems for better sensitivity in detecting the causative agent of paratuberculosis in dairy cow fecal samples. (United States)

    Fock-Chow-Tho, D; Topp, E; Ibeagha-Awemu, E A; Bissonnette, N


    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes ruminant paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) worldwide. Oral-fecal contamination is the most important mode of transmission of paratuberculosis, so eradicating MAP-shedding animals could prevent disease propagation. Fecal culture, a well-known method for MAP diagnosis, requires costly specialized media and a long incubation time that sometimes ends in disappointing bacterial contamination. To facilitate the efforts of control programs, we evaluated the performance of direct fecal quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for their sensitivity and robustness for MAP detection. Commercial kits use different strategies for extracting DNA, combined with qPCR systems, to detect the presence of MAP in fecal samples. In this study, we compared the sensitivity of 3 commercially available DNA extraction kits (A, B, and C) combined with 2 qPCR systems (T and V) for the detection of MAP in infectious cows. A total of 49 dairy cows from 5 herds were sampled twice a year for 3 yr and diagnosed using fecal culture and ELISA. Eight replicates of their fecal samples from the first sampling were tested using each DNA extraction method and qPCR detection system. Although all 3 of the commercial DNA extraction kits have been previously described as very efficient for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis, kit B provided the highest sensitivity. Indeed, 89% of the cows declared positive for paratuberculosis by both fecal culture and ELISA were identified with kit B, whereas only 23 and 43% of the cows were identified with kits A and C, respectively. Interestingly, kit B was able to detect some low-MAP shedders. The qPCR detection system also played a critical role: system T yielded qPCR with the highest sensitivity. The results of this study suggest that DNA extraction kit B combined with detection system T provides the best amplification of MAP DNA from fecal samples with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Although 1 DNA extraction and q

  18. LocoKit - A Construction Kit for Exploration of Morphology of Legged Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper


    . This is however not always easy, since robots are often built as a fixed system with a limited possibility of changing the morphology without redesign a significant part of the robot. This work is focusing on the creation of a robotic construction kit specifically aimed at easing the process of constructing......Producing steady stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in unknown terrain is a big challenge in robotics. In addressing this challenge, it is often desirable to experiment with different morphologies and see how they influence on the way the robot walks...... legged robots. This is accomplished by giving the creator the possibility to easily do morphological changes to the robot even after it have been build, to see how it effects the robot’s ability to walk in unknown terrain....

  19. Developmental validation of QIAGEN Investigator®24plex QS Kit and Investigator®24plex GO! Kit: Two 6-dye multiplex assays for the extended CODIS core loci. (United States)

    Kraemer, Melanie; Prochnow, Anke; Bussmann, Michael; Scherer, Mario; Peist, Ralf; Steffen, Carolyn


    The original CODIS database based on 13 core STR loci has been overwhelmingly successful for matching suspects with evidence. In order to increase the power of discrimination, reduce the possibility of adventitious matches, and expand global data sharing, the CODIS Core Loci Working Group determined the expansion of the CODIS core loci to 20 STR plus three additional "highly recommended" loci (SE33, DY391, Amelogenin) Hares, 2015, 2012 [1,2]. The QIAGEN Investigator 24plex QS and Investigator 24plex GO! Kits are 6-dye multiplex assays that contain all markers of the expanded 23 CODIS core loci along with a unique internal performance control that is co-amplified with the STR markers. The "Quality Sensor" generates additional information for quality control and performance checks. Investigator 24plex QS is designed for purified DNA from casework and reference samples, whereas 24plex GO! is dedicated to direct amplification of reference samples, like blood or buccal cells on FTA or swabs. A developmental validation study was performed on both assays. Here, we report the results of this study which followed the recommendations of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) [3] and the Revised Validation Guidelines of the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) [4]. Data included are for PCR-based procedures e.g. reaction conditions, effects of PCR annealing temperature variations, amplification cycles or cyclers, sensitivity (also in the context of the Quality Sensor), performance with simulated inhibition, stability and efficiency, precision, reproducibility, mixture study, concordance, stutter, species specificity, and case-type samples. The validation results demonstrate that the Investigator 24plex QS and Investigator 24plex GO! Kits are robust and reliable identification assays as required for forensic DNA typing in forensic casework analysis and databasing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Yuriy Pavlovich


    Full Text Available The authors are the developers of Odyssey Software (Eurosoft Co. for the analysis of seismological data and computing of seismic loads and their parameters. While communicating with the users of the software, the authors have revealed some uncertainty about both understanding of the term "amplification factor (AF" and calculation of the amplification factor using various methods. In this article, a simple example shows that the determination of the amplification factor as the ratio of the acceleration’s spectrum to the maximal acceleration is derived from the classical definition of AF in the form of the ratio of maximal dynamic displacement to the displacement by the action of static load. Deterministic and probabilistic ap-proaches for the calculating of the AF were discussed. There was an example of AFs calculation and their envelopes for translational and rotational components of seismic impact by using Odyssey Software.

  1. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO


    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  2. Amplification, Redundancy, and Quantum Chernoff Information (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.


    Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

  3. Gravitational Wave Detection via Weak Measurements Amplification


    Hu, Meng-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Sheng


    A universal amplification scheme of ultra-small phase based on weak measurements is given and a weak measurements amplification based laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (WMA-LIGO) is suggested. The WMA-LIGO has potential to amplify the ultra-small phase signal to at least $10^{3}$ order of magnitude such that the sensitivity and bandwidth of gravitational-wave detector can be further improved. Our results not only shed a new light on the quantum measurement but also open a ne...

  4. A precision therapy against cancers driven byKIT/PDGFRAmutations. (United States)

    Evans, Erica K; Gardino, Alexandra K; Kim, Joseph L; Hodous, Brian L; Shutes, Adam; Davis, Alison; Zhu, Xing Julia; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Wilson, Doug; Wilson, Kevin; DiPietro, Lucian; Zhang, Yulian; Brooijmans, Natasja; LaBranche, Timothy P; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Gebreyohannes, Yemarshet K; Schöffski, Patrick; Heinrich, Michael C; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Miller, Stephen; Wolf, Beni; Kohl, Nancy; Guzi, Timothy; Lydon, Nicholas; Boral, Andy; Lengauer, Christoph


    Targeting oncogenic kinase drivers with small-molecule inhibitors can have marked therapeutic benefit, especially when administered to an appropriate genomically defined patient population. Cancer genomics and mechanistic studies have revealed that heterogeneous mutations within a single kinase can result in various mechanisms of kinase activation. Therapeutic benefit to patients can best be optimized through an in-depth understanding of the disease-driving mutations combined with the ability to match these insights to tailored highly selective drugs. This rationale is presented for BLU-285, a clinical stage inhibitor of oncogenic KIT and PDGFRA alterations, including activation loop mutants that are ineffectively treated by current therapies. BLU-285, designed to preferentially interact with the active conformation of KIT and PDGFRA, potently inhibits activation loop mutants KIT D816V and PDGFRA D842V with subnanomolar potency and also inhibits other well-characterized disease-driving KIT mutants both in vitro and in vivo in preclinical models. Early clinical evaluation of BLU-285 in a phase 1 study has demonstrated marked activity in patients with diseases associated with KIT (aggressive systemic mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumor) and PDGFRA (gastrointestinal stromal tumor) activation loop mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. Uji Stabilitas Kit Cair Tetrofosmin pada Berbagai Kondisi Penyimpanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunilda Yunilda


    Full Text Available Tetrofosmin radiopharmaceutical compound that is being developed by PTRR BATAN for use as myocardial perfusion imaging agent and cancer diagnostic agent in nuclear medicine. The aim of this study is observe the stability of this liquid kits after stored in various condition to determine its expire date various condition. The stability test was done of 1 hour, 3 hours, 5 hours and 7 hours after labeling. The radiochemical was determined its radiochemical purity has to be ≥ 90 %. Analysis of radiochemical purity was carried out by separation method which using Sep-Pak C18 cartride. Storage condition of tetrofosmin kit was carried out at various temperatures as in the deep freezer (-800C, freezer (-180C, refrigerator (2-60C and cool box (2-60C. The result showed that the liquid tetrofosmin kits stored in deep freezer, freezer, refrigerator were stable up to 23 months, 8 weeks and 4 days respectively. Simulation of stability  test after stored in a cool box was done by observing the temperature of cool box, and the result showed that the temperature in the cool box was constant as in refrigerator for up to 24 hours. Tetrofosmin which has been labeled with technetium-99m can with stand up 7 hours. It is concluded that expiry date of liquid tetrofosmin kit related with storage temperature, the lower the temperature the longer the expiry date of the kits.

  6. KiT: a MATLAB package for kinetochore tracking. (United States)

    Armond, Jonathan W; Vladimirou, Elina; McAinsh, Andrew D; Burroughs, Nigel J


    During mitosis, chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle via large protein complexes called kinetochores. The motion of kinetochores throughout mitosis is intricate and automated quantitative tracking of their motion has already revealed many surprising facets of their behaviour. Here, we present 'KiT' (Kinetochore Tracking)-an easy-to-use, open-source software package for tracking kinetochores from live-cell fluorescent movies. KiT supports 2D, 3D and multi-colour movies, quantification of fluorescence, integrated deconvolution, parallel execution and multiple algorithms for particle localization. KiT is free, open-source software implemented in MATLAB and runs on all MATLAB supported platforms. KiT can be downloaded as a package from The source repository is available at and under continuing development. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Protein-Protein Interaction Reagents | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University has a library of genes used to study protein-protein interactions in mammalian cells. These genes are cloned in different mammalian expression vectors. A list of available cancer-associated genes can be accessed below. Emory_CTD^2_PPI_Reagents.xlsx Contact: Haian Fu

  8. 21 CFR 866.3165 - Cryptococcus neoformans serological reagents. (United States)


    ....3165 Section 866.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Cryptococcus neoformans in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3060 - Blastomyces dermatitidis serological reagents. (United States)


    ....3060 Section 866.3060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Blastomyces determatitidis in serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of blastomycosis...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3220 - Entamoeba histolytica serological reagents. (United States)


    ....3220 Section 866.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Entamoeba histolytica in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to rhinovirus in serum. The... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhinovirus serological reagents. 866.3490 Section 866.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3205 - Echovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to echovirus in serum. Additionally... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echovirus serological reagents. 866.3205 Section 866.3205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3470 - Reovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to reovirus in serum. The identification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reovirus serological reagents. 866.3470 Section 866.3470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3405 - Poliovirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to poliovirus in serum. Additionally... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poliovirus serological reagents. 866.3405 Section 866.3405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3380 - Mumps virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... used in serological tests to identify antibodies to mumps virus in serum. Additionally, some of these... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mumps virus serological reagents. 866.3380 Section 866.3380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3145 - Coxsackievirus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... Section 866.3145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to coxsackievirus in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of coxsackievirus antisera conjugated with a...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3780 - Toxoplasma gondii serological reagents. (United States)


    ... Section 866.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in serum. Additionally, some of these reagents consist of antisera conjugated with a fluorescent dye...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3330 - Influenza virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to influenza in serum... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Influenza virus serological reagents. 866.3330 Section 866.3330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. Toward a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.


    This thesis is aimed at the development of a dry reagent immunoassay of progesterone in cow's milk. Progesterone is a steroid hormone and regulates ovulation in female mammals. The concentration of progesterone in blood and in milk is in accordance with the reproductive cycle of the individual

  20. Carbanions as Intermediates in the Formation of Grignard Reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klink, G.P.M.; de Boer, H.J.R.; Schat, G.; Akkerman, O.S.; Bickelhaupt, F.; Spek, A.L.


    The formation of reactive carbanions in Grignard reagents was discussed. Inter- and/or intramolecular migrations of organotin and organosilicon groups were also studied. Results showed that the high percentage of rearrangement reactions proves that the anionic species are not located on a minor

  1. 21 CFR 866.3270 - Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flavobacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3270 Section 866.3270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Flavobacterium and provides epidemiological information...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3140 - Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corynebacterium spp. serological reagents. 866.3140 Section 866.3140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3500 - Rickettsia serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rickettsia serological reagents. 866.3500 Section 866.3500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of diseases caused by virus-like bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsiae and...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3600 - Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schistosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3600 Section 866.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is characterized by a variety of acute and chronic infections. Acute...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bordetella spp. serological reagents. 866.3065 Section 866.3065 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660 Section 866.3660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the diagnosis of shigellosis caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella and provides...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3085 - Brucella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brucella spp. serological reagents. 866.3085 Section 866.3085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Brucella and provides epidemiological information on diseases...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3355 - Listeria spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Listeria spp. serological reagents. 866.3355 Section 866.3355 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Listeria, and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3250 - Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae serological reagents. 866.3250 Section 866.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the diagnosis of disease caused by this bacterium belonging to the genus Erysipelothrix. This organism...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3850 - Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trichinella spiralis serological reagents. 866.3850 Section 866.3850 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... roundworms belonging to the genus Trichinella and provides epidemiological information on trichinosis...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3200 - Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Echinococcus spp. serological reagents. 866.3200 Section 866.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus and provides epidemiological information on this disease...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Serratia spp. serological reagents. 866.3630 Section 866.3630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3340 - Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Klebsiella spp. serological reagents. 866.3340 Section 866.3340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Klebsiella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. These...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040 Section 866.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillosis is a disease marked by inflammatory granulomatous (tumor-like...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3125 - Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Citrobacter spp. serological reagents. 866.3125 Section 866.3125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bacteria belonging to the genus Citrobacter and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3135 - Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coccidioides immitis serological reagents. 866.3135 Section 866.3135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... fungus belonging to the genus Coccidioides and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haemophilus spp. serological reagents. 866.3300 Section 866.3300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3320 - Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Histoplasma capsulatum serological reagents. 866.3320 Section 866.3320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... aids in the diagnosis of histoplasmosis caused by this fungus belonging to the genus Histoplasma and...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3375 - Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mycoplasma spp. serological reagents. 866.3375 Section 866.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... protozoans belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis in adults is a chronic disease characterized...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3680 - Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sporothrix schenckii serological reagents. 866.3680 Section 866.3680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... belonging to the genus Sporothrix and provides epidemiological information on this disease. Sporothrichosis...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arizona spp. serological reagents. 866.3035 Section 866.3035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona...

  4. Reaction of lupane and oleanane triterpenoids with Lawesson's reagent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvasnica, Miroslav; Rudovská, I.; Císařová, I.; Šarek, J.


    Roč. 64, č. 17 (2008), s. 3736-3743 ISSN 0040-4020 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP203/05/P025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : terpenoids * Lawesson's reagent * ketones * sulfur Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2008

  5. Oxine derivates as extraction reagents for yttrium - 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veveris, O.; Riekstina, D.


    The oxine 5-S-alkyl derivates has been proposed as extraction reagents for yttrium - 90. The best results has been attained by using 5-mercaptoamyloxine. This separation method has been successfully used for the determination of strontium - 90 in water samples. (authors)

  6. Manganese-Catalyzed Aerobic Heterocoupling of Aryl Grignard Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaleshahi, Hajar Golshahi; Antonacci, Giuseppe; Madsen, Robert


    An improved protocol has been developed for the MnCl2-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of two arylmagnesium bromides under dioxygen. The reaction was achieved by using the Grignard reagents in a 2:1 ratio and 20 % of MnCl2. Very good yields of the heterocoupling product were obtained when the li...

  7. Effects of the Fenton reagent on transport in yeast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khansuwan, U.; Kotyk, Arnošt


    Roč. 45, č. 6 (2000), s. 515-520 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : Fenton reagent * yeast Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2000

  8. Evaluation of Questionnaire, Reagent Strip and Egg Count as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A longitudinal study covering 55 months evaluated the three diagnostic tools used for confirmation of prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among 1151 consented primary school pupils in 13 communities of Edo State, Nigeria. Questionnaire, reagent strip method and parasitological examination were employed.

  9. Lanthanide shift reagents, binding, shift mechanisms and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J.W.M. de


    Paramagnetic lanthanide shift reagents, when added to a solution of a substrate, induce shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the substrate molecules. The induced shifts contain information about the structure of the shift reagent substrate complex. The structural information, however, may be difficult to extract because of the following effects: (1) different complexes between shift reagent and substrate may be present in solution, e.g. 1:1 and 1:2 complexes, and the shift observed is a weighed average of the shifts of the substrate nuclei in the different complexes; (2) the Fermi contact interaction, arising from the spin density at the nucleus, contributes to the induced shift; (3) chemical exchange effects may complicate the NMR spectrum. In this thesis, the results of an investigation into the influence of these effects on the NMR spectra of solutions containing a substrate and LSR are presented. The equations describing the pseudo contact and the Fermi contact shift are derived. In addition, it is shown how the modified Bloch equations describing the effect of the chemical exchange processes occurring in the systems studied can be reduced to the familiar equations for a two-site exchange case. The binding of mono- and bifunctional ethers to the shift reagent are reported. An analysis of the induced shifts is given. Finally, the results of the experiments performed to study the exchange behavior of dimethoxyethane and heptafluorodimethyloctanedionato ligands are presented

  10. Photonic reagent control of dynamically homologous quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrani, Vincent; Dominy, Jason; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel


    The general objective of quantum control is the manipulation of atomic scale physical and chemical phenomena through the application of external control fields. These tailored fields, or photonic reagents, exhibit systematic properties analogous to those of ordinary laboratory reagents. This analogous behavior is explored further here by considering the controlled response of a family of homologous quantum systems to a single common photonic reagent. A level set of dynamically homologous quantum systems is defined as the family that produces the same value(s) for a target physical observable(s) when controlled by a common photonic reagent. This paper investigates the scope of homologous quantum system control using the level set exploration technique (L-SET). L-SET enables the identification of continuous families of dynamically homologous quantum systems. Each quantum system is specified by a point in a hypercube whose edges are labeled by Hamiltonian matrix elements. Numerical examples are presented with simple finite level systems to illustrate the L-SET concepts. Both connected and disconnected families of dynamically homologous systems are shown to exist

  11. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... hemoglobin determinations or aid in the counting of white blood cells. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. Tetrameric DABCO™-Bromine: an Efficient and Versatile Reagent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tetrameric DABCO™-bromine is a powerful brominating agent but shows reasonable selectivity with certain substrates. The selective bromination for activated aromatic compounds and alkenes is reported. Synthesis of -bromo ketones and nitriles has also been achieved by using this reagent and the results are also ...

  13. SATL Based Lesson for Teaching Grignard Reagents in Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesizing new products from raw materials has been very popular aspects of research in organic chemistry. Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic procedures. Hence learning of various issues concerning with applications of Grignard reactions in synthetic organic chemistry is ...

  14. Evaluation of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit for the digestion and recovery of larvae in pork, horse meat and wild meat. (United States)

    Konecsni, Kelly; Scheller, Cheryl; Scandrett, Brad; Buholzer, Patrik; Gajadhar, Alvin


    The artificial digestion magnetic stirrer method using pepsin protease and hydrochloric acid is the standard assay for the detection of Trichinella larvae in muscle of infected animals. Recently, an alternative enzyme, serine protease, was employed in the development of a commercially available digestion kit (PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit). This assay requires a higher digestion temperature of 60°C which kills the larvae during the digestion process, mitigating the risk of environmental contamination from the parasite. The present study was conducted to determine the performance of the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit compared to the conventional pepsin/HCl digestion. Replicate paired 115g samples of Trichinella-negative pork diaphragm and masseter, and of horse tongue and masseter, were used to compare the two methods for tissue digestibility. Similarly, paired 100g samples of pork diaphragm and horse tongue were spiked with proficiency samples containing known numbers of Trichinella spiralis first stage larvae to compare larval recoveries for the two methods. Masseter samples from wild bears and wolves naturally infected with Trichinella nativa or T6 were also used to compare the performance of the methods. The results of the study showed that the PrioCHECK™ Trichinella AAD Kit, when used according to the manufacturer's instructions, was effective in detecting Trichinella infection in all samples that contained 0.05 or more larvae per gram of tissue. Although there was no significant difference between the Kit method and the standard pepsin/HCl digestion procedure in the average number of larvae recovered from spiked pork diaphragm, 38% fewer larvae were recovered from similarly spiked samples of horse tongue by digestion using serine protease (one way ANOVA, P value meat and pork when using the Kit compared to the pepsin/HCl method. The results of testing wildlife samples were similar for the two methods. Overall, the performance of the Kit method was

  15. Development of versatile universal reagent immunoradiometric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.


    Immunoradiometric assays, which make use of labelled antibodies, potentially offer better sensitivity and specificity than do radioimmunoassays, which use labelled antigens. In addition, they can in principle be performed in a particularly convenient scheme wherein the same labelled reagent may be used for many different analytes - thus serving as a ''universal'' labelled reagent. Thus if the specific antibody for every analyte is raised in rabbits, and an anti-rabbit antibody is labelled, the latter may be added after the specific antibody to quantify the amount of specific antibody bound to analyte and thereby the amount of analyte present. The potential greater sensitivity and specificity of the immunoradiometric procedure, coupled with the potential convenience of the ''universal'' labelled reagent, might allow such immunoradiometric techniques to be used effectively in the study of communicable diseases in developing countries. Development of these procedures was the subject of this investigation. Many components of these procedures had to be explored and provisionally optimized, including coating of assay tubes with ''extraction'' antibody, immunological purification of antibodies, labelling of antibodies, and intermediate steps toward these goals. Applications were thereupon tested using those provisionally optimized components. The ''universal'' labelled reagent, a donkey anti-rabbit antiserum, was successfully used in the assay of TSH; however, cross reactions of the reagent with non-rabbit immunoglobulins and other materials present seriously limited the sensitivity of the method. Using conventional immunoradiometric procedures, circulating TB and amoebic antibodies could be detected in patients suffering from these diseases. Similarly, circulating antigens in the same patients could also be detected, but not with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to provide a reliable analytical system. Numerous improvements will be required before these techniques

  16. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting 18S Ribosomal DNA for Rapid Detection of Acanthamoeba (United States)

    Yang, Hye-Won; Lee, Yu-Ran; Inoue, Noboru; Jha, Bijay Kumar; Danne, Dinzouna-Boutamba Sylvatrie; Kim, Hong-Kyun; Lee, Junhun; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Kong, Hyun-Hee; Chung, Dong-Il


    Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner. PMID:23864737

  17. Kit for performing puncture test on HV insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, O.B.; Mello, D.R.; Cerqueira, W.R.; Alvarenga, E. [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    A compact and easy way to handle puncture tests in high voltage electrical equipment was introduced. The characteristics of the main components of a new type of kit and some examples of its application were described. It is necessary to perform puncture tests on insulators used to support line conductors and to keep the necessary clearances between conductors and the tower. A puncture test is conducted by stressing the insulator with steep and short duration high voltage impulses. The special kit to handle the puncture tests was developed at CEPEL`s high voltage laboratory for performing tests up to 500 kV peak. The kit is composed of dry and compressed air insulated sphere gap, a very fast resistive divider and a structure which makes it easier to connect to conventional high voltage impulse generators. 3 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Evaluation of Desensol As a Standard Patch Test Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Shah


    Full Text Available In a study undertaken to find out the usefulness of ′Desensol′ patch test kit to detect contact allergens, in 200 cases revealed 24 cases with negative patch test with all the antigens and 55 cases reacted to even the Vaseline control. -Excluding these 79 cases, the common contact allergens were potassium bichr6ma,te, (40.49%, TMTD(28.92%, PPD(24.79%, epoxy resin (23.14%, colophony (19.0%, nickel sulfate (19.0%, Framycetin (19.0% and nitrofurazone (19.0%. Desensol patch test kit is lacking in certain antigens while in our country due to varied environmental factors and social customs, a person is exposed to a large number of natural and man-made contact allergens. So usefulness of such a kit like. Desensol is limited.

  19. Nuclear track detector kit for use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medveczky, L.; Somogyi, G.


    By the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) one may carry out several useful and impressive educational experiments and demonstrations to illustrate different phenomena when teaching of nuclear physics. Realizing this situation the authors have published, since 1970, reports on several experiments for teaching demonstrations. Based on the authors instructions, a factory in Hungary (TANFRT, National Manufacturers and Suppliers of School Equipment, Budapest) constructed a kit for the use of nuclear track detectors in teaching. The portable kit contains the following items: alpha-emitting weak sources, solid state nuclear track detectors (unirradiated, irradiated, unetched and etched sheets), simple tools for carrying out experiments (facilities for irradiation and etching, etc.), slides showing photos of typical etch-tracks of light and heavy nuclei, user manual. By the help of the kit both pupils and teachers can perform various useful experiments and/or demonstrations. (author)

  20. Performance of immunoassay kits for site characterization and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, L.C.; Palausky, A.; Counts, R.W.; Jenkins, R.A.


    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting efforts to identify, validate and implement the use of effective, low-cost alternatives to currently used analytical methods for environmental management. As part of that program, we have evaluated the performances of a number of immunoassay (IA) kits with specificities for environmental contaminants of concern to the DOE. The studies were done in the laboratory using both spiked and field test samples. The analyte specificity and manufacturers of the kits evaluated were the following: mercury, BioNebraska; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), EnSys and Millipore; petroleum fuel hydrocarbons, Millipore and Ohmicron; and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Ohmicron and Millipore. The kits were used in either a semiquantitative or quantitative format according to the preference of the manufacturers

  1. Fundamental and clinical study for PHT (parathyroid hormone) kit 'Yamasa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takako; Morita, Rikushi


    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit (Yamasa) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the midregion-specific assay system. Fundamental study of the PTH kit gave favorable results for specificity, reproducibility, dilution, and recovery. The serum PTH concentration was detectable among all 41 normal volunteers. The upper and lower limits of normal for PTH in serum were found to be 600 pg/ml and 184 pg/ml, respectively. PTH values were high for chronic renal failure (6/7) and primary hyperparathyroidism (41/41), and low for malignancy associated with hypercalcemia (5/25). It seems possible to discriminate hypercalcemic from normal subjects. The serum PTH concentration from the present assay system was significantly correlated with that from conventional carboxyl-terminal PTH, midregion PTH, amino-terminal PTH, and (1 - 84) PTH assay systems. The results indicate the potential of the Yamasa kit in evaluating calcium metabolism, as well as in detecting the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Optical Pattern Recognition With Self-Amplification (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang


    In optical pattern recognition system with self-amplification, no reference beam used in addressing mode. Polarization of laser beam and orientation of photorefractive crystal chosen to maximize photorefractive effect. Intensity of recognition signal is orders of magnitude greater than other optical correlators. Apparatus regarded as real-time or quasi-real-time optical pattern recognizer with memory and reprogrammability.

  3. Social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperson, R.E.; Renn, O.; Slovic, P.; Brown, H.S.; Emel, J.; Goble, R.; Kasperson, J.X.; Ratick, S.


    One of the most perplexing problems in risk analysis is why some relatively minor risks or risk events, as assessed by technical experts, often elicit strong public concerns and result in substantial impacts upon society and economy. This article sets forth a conceptual framework that seeks to link systematically the technical assessment of risk with psychological, sociological, and cultural perspectives of risk perception and risk-related behavior. The main thesis is that hazards interact with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural processes in ways that may amplify or attenuate public responses to the risk or risk event. A structural description of the social amplification of risk is now possible. Amplification occurs at two stages: in the transfer of information about the risk, and in the response mechanisms of society. Signals about risk are processed by individual and social amplification stations, including the scientist who communicates the risk assessment, the news media, cultural groups, interpersonal networks, and others. Key steps of amplifications can be identified at each stage. The amplified risk leads to behavioral responses, which, in turn, result in secondary impacts. Models are presented that portray the elements and linkages in the proposed conceptual framework

  4. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate (United States)

    Zhou, Liming


    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950–2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  5. Intelligence amplification framework for enhancing scheduling processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrkovic, Andrej; Liu, Luyao; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Hillegersberg, Jos


    The scheduling process in a typical business environment consists of predominantly repetitive tasks that have to be completed in limited time and often containing some form of uncertainty. The intelligence amplification is a symbiotic relationship between a human and an intelligent agent. This

  6. Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not ...

  7. (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 26, 2014 ... better alternative for PCR, even in low technology laboratories. In addition, these findings revealed that the possibility of fatal fusariosis due to F. solani is not so rare in HIV positive patients. Key words: Fusarium solani, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), HIV, polymerase chain reaction. (PCR).

  8. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate. (United States)

    Zhou, Liming


    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor.

  9. The Quality Lighting Teaching Kit: enlightening our future (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, Stephen M.


    The U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory's Education and Public Outreach group has produced a Quality Lighting Teaching (QLT) Kit, as an outcome of the International Year of Light 2015. The kits are designed around problem-based learning scenarios. The kit's six activities allow students to address real lighting problems that relate to wildlife, sky glow, aging eyes, energy consumption, safety, and light trespass. The activities are optimized for 11-14 year olds but can be expanded to younger and older. Most of the activities can be done within in a few minutes with the exception of the Energy Activity. The activities can be done during class or afterschool and as stations (that the students rotate through) or as stand-alones (one at a time). All aspects of the program are as ready-for-use. Everything you need for the six activities is included in the kit. Tutorial videos (on the program's webpage) have been created on how to do the activities. They can be found on the webpage, Fourteen Google+ Hangouts on Air have been offered, addressing questions on the activities and logistics. Assessments (in the form of pre- and post-surveys for the students and as post-surveys for the instructors) provide learning outcomes and improvements. Eighty-nine out of 100 kits have been distributed to SPIE, OSA, CIE, IDA and the IAU in 31 countries. The QLT Kit is a stepping-stone to bring awareness to the (younger) public on how quality lighting locally can redress issues like light pollution globally.

  10. Kit de pràctiques basat en microcontrolador PIC


    Verdaguer Estarlich, Meritxell


    Aquest treball consisteix en el disseny i prototipat d‟un kit de pràctiques com a suport a la docència, basat en l‟arquitectura PIC. El microcontrolador escollit per a la implementació és el PIC18F4550, el qual reuneix les característiques necessàries per a la necessitat requerida. El kit compta amb diversos dispositius, els de sortida com són díodes LED, visualitzador 7 segments, display LCD; i d‟altres d‟entrada: teclat hexadecimal, interruptors, optoacobladors i un convertidor analòg...

  11. An evaluation of the Ramco kit for serum ferritin assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, W.S.; Knight, G.J.; Jacobs, P.


    The determination of serum ferritin levels may be of diagnostic importance in medicine. To establish whether values obtained using a commercially available kit (Ramco) were adequate for this purpose, a comparison was undertaken using a two-site immunoradiometric assay that had been developed and standardized in our laboratories. Over the range 6μg/l to greater than 2 000 μg/l there was a correlation coefficient between the two methods of 0,8284 (P smaller than 0,001). It is concluded that the Ramco kit is suitable for use in clinical practice

  12. The problem of untested sexual assault kits: why are some kits never submitted to a crime laboratory? (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca


    Victims of sexual assault are often advised to seek postassault medical care to have a forensic exam, which includes evidence collection (termed a sexual assault kit [SAK]). After the exam, law enforcement personnel are supposed to submit the SAK to a crime laboratory for analysis. However, recent media reports suggest that in many communities throughout the United States, thousands of SAKs are left untested. Few studies have examined the rate at which law enforcement submits SAKs to crime labs or the factors that may predict them to do so. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory study is twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of SAKs law enforcement submits to crime labs in cases in which a sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) performed the exam with adult victims and (b) to explore whether assault and law enforcement characteristics predict whether SAKs are submitted to a crime lab. This study found that only 58.6% of the SAKs were submitted to the crime lab within a large Midwestern county. Using binary logistic regression, this study found that kits were significantly as likely to be submitted when there were documented physical (nonanogenital) injuries compared with kits that did not have documented physical injuries. In addition, kits that were handled by a law enforcement agency that had a high level of engagement with the SANE program were significantly as likely to be submitted as law enforcement agencies with a low or medium level of engagement. Kits were significantly less likely to be submitted when victims cleaned themselves after the sexual assault (e.g., bathing). No association was found between kit submission and the victim-offender relationship, suspected drug-facilitated sexual assault, anogenital injury, and when the victim consumed alcohol or drugs before the assault. This article concludes with a discussion of the implications for research and practice.

  13. Genoviz Software Development Kit: Java tool kit for building genomics visualization applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chervitz Stephen A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization software can expose previously undiscovered patterns in genomic data and advance biological science. Results The Genoviz Software Development Kit (SDK is an open source, Java-based framework designed for rapid assembly of visualization software applications for genomics. The Genoviz SDK framework provides a mechanism for incorporating adaptive, dynamic zooming into applications, a desirable feature of genome viewers. Visualization capabilities of the Genoviz SDK include automated layout of features along genetic or genomic axes; support for user interactions with graphical elements (Glyphs in a map; a variety of Glyph sub-classes that promote experimentation with new ways of representing data in graphical formats; and support for adaptive, semantic zooming, whereby objects change their appearance depending on zoom level and zooming rate adapts to the current scale. Freely available demonstration and production quality applications, including the Integrated Genome Browser, illustrate Genoviz SDK capabilities. Conclusion Separation between graphics components and genomic data models makes it easy for developers to add visualization capability to pre-existing applications or build new applications using third-party data models. Source code, documentation, sample applications, and tutorials are available at

  14. Developing Save Your Food Kit (Sayofu Kit) to Support Inquiry, Improve Student Learning Outcomes at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin and Public Awareness on Food Additives (United States)

    Astutik, J.


    Food additives are materials that can not be separated from the lives of students and the community. Based on the preliminary questionnaire, it indicates the lack of kit supporting material additives in some schools and communities. The research objectives of this development are (1) to develop Kit experiment (SAYOFU KIT) and supplementary books to improve student learning outcomes in the classroom and public awareness on food additives (2) to describe the feasibility and potential effectiveness of SAYOFU KIT developed (3) to analyze the practice of SAYOFU KIT and benefits for students and the community. This development study uses 4-D models Thiagarajan, et al (1974). Through some stages, they are: defining, designing, developing and disseminating which involes the students and community. The developed SAYOFU KIT includes additives sample kit, borax test kit, curcumin test kit, formaldehyde test kit, modification heater to the identification of dyes and dye test paper. The study is conducted at SMP Plus Hidayatul Mubtadiin, and TKIT Al Uswah. The products are validated by experts and education practitioners. Qualitative data processing uses descriptive method, whereas quantitative data by using the N-gain. The average yield of expert validation of SAYOFU KIT with supplementary books 76.50% teacher’s book and 76.30% student’s book are eligible. The average yield of 96.81% validation of educational practitioners criteria, piloting a small group of 83.15%, and 82.89% field trials are very decent. The average yield on the student questionnaire responses SAYOFU kit and supplementary book is 87.6% with the criteria very well worth it. N-Gain 0:56 cognitive achievement with the criteria enough. The results of the public poll showed 95% feel the benefits SAYOFU kits for testing food. Based from description indicates that SAYOFU Kit developed feasible, practical, useful to support inquiry learning and improve student learning outcomes as well as public awareness of

  15. Evaluation of the Illumina(®) Beta Version ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit for use in genetic profiling. (United States)

    Churchill, Jennifer D; Schmedes, Sarah E; King, Jonathan L; Budowle, Bruce


    While capillary electrophoresis-based technologies have been the mainstay for human identity typing applications, there are limitations with this methodology's resolution, scalability, and throughput. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) offers the capability to multiplex multiple types of forensically-relevant markers and multiple samples together in one run all at an overall lower cost per nucleotide than traditional capillary electrophoresis-based methods; thus, addressing some of these limitations. MPS also is poised to expand forensic typing capabilities by providing new strategies for mixture deconvolution with the identification of intra-STR allele sequence variants and the potential to generate new types of investigative leads with an increase in the overall number and types of genetic markers being analyzed. The beta version of the Illumina ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit is a MPS library preparation method with a streamlined workflow that allows for targeted amplification and sequencing of 63 STRs and 95 identity SNPs, with the option to include an additional 56 ancestry SNPs and 22 phenotypic SNPs depending on the primer mix chosen for amplification, on the MiSeq desktop sequencer (Illumina). This study was divided into a series of experiments that evaluated reliability, sensitivity of detection, mixture analysis, concordance, and the ability to analyze challenged samples. Genotype accuracy, depth of coverage, and allele balance were used as informative metrics for the quality of the data produced. The ForenSeq DNA Signature Prep Kit produced reliable, reproducible results and obtained full profiles with DNA input amounts of 1ng. Data were found to be concordant with current capillary electrophoresis methods, and mixtures at a 1:19 ratio were resolved accurately. Data from the challenged samples showed concordant results with current DNA typing methods with markers in common and minimal allele drop out from the large number of markers typed on these

  16. KIT competence center for decommissioning. Innovation and promotion of trainees; Kompetenzzentrum Rueckbau am KIT. Nachwuchsfoerderung und Innovationen fuer den Rueckbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Sascha [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management im Baubetrieb


    The safe decommissioning of nuclear installations is technically feasible, but is also still a challenge for science, technology and industry. The expertise and know how for decommissioning must be ensured because it will be needed for further decades. Already in 2008 the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) had identified this challenge that later emerged through the closure of nuclear power plants in Germany. The KIT opened the professorship Technology and Management of the Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations. In 2014, this section was extended through the dismantling of conventional installations.

  17. Plasmonic Terahertz Amplification in Graphene-Based Asymmetric Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nefedov


    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM, strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in optically thin graphene multilayers.

  18. RNA amplification for successful gene profiling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ena


    Full Text Available Abstract The study of clinical samples is often limited by the amount of material available to study. While proteins cannot be multiplied in their natural form, DNA and RNA can be amplified from small specimens and used for high-throughput analyses. Therefore, genetic studies offer the best opportunity to screen for novel insights of human pathology when little material is available. Precise estimates of DNA copy numbers in a given specimen are necessary. However, most studies investigate static variables such as the genetic background of patients or mutations within pathological specimens without a need to assess proportionality of expression among different genes throughout the genome. Comparative genomic hybridization of DNA samples represents a crude exception to this rule since genomic amplification or deletion is compared among different specimens directly. For gene expression analysis, however, it is critical to accurately estimate the proportional expression of distinct RNA transcripts since such proportions directly govern cell function by modulating protein expression. Furthermore, comparative estimates of relative RNA expression at different time points portray the response of cells to environmental stimuli, indirectly informing about broader biological events affecting a particular tissue in physiological or pathological conditions. This cognitive reaction of cells is similar to the detection of electroencephalographic patterns which inform about the status of the brain in response to external stimuli. As our need to understand human pathophysiology at the global level increases, the development and refinement of technologies for high fidelity messenger RNA amplification have become the focus of increasing interest during the past decade. The need to increase the abundance of RNA has been met not only for gene specific amplification, but, most importantly for global transcriptome wide, unbiased amplification. Now gene

  19. Documentation for MeshKit - Reactor Geometry (&mesh) Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Rajeev [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report gives documentation for using MeshKit’s Reactor Geometry (and mesh) Generator (RGG) GUI and also briefly documents other algorithms and tools available in MeshKit. RGG is a program designed to aid in modeling and meshing of complex/large hexagonal and rectilinear reactor cores. RGG uses Argonne’s SIGMA interfaces, Qt and VTK to produce an intuitive user interface. By integrating a 3D view of the reactor with the meshing tools and combining them into one user interface, RGG streamlines the task of preparing a simulation mesh and enables real-time feedback that reduces accidental scripting mistakes that could waste hours of meshing. RGG interfaces with MeshKit tools to consolidate the meshing process, meaning that going from model to mesh is as easy as a button click. This report is designed to explain RGG v 2.0 interface and provide users with the knowledge and skills to pilot RGG successfully. Brief documentation of MeshKit source code, tools and other algorithms available are also presented for developers to extend and add new algorithms to MeshKit. RGG tools work in serial and parallel and have been used to model complex reactor core models consisting of conical pins, load pads, several thousands of axially varying material properties of instrumentation pins and other interstices meshes.

  20. Sex Stereotyping in Instructional Materials and Television: Awareness Kit. (United States)

    Butler, Matilda

    This awareness kit provides information on the portrayals of women and men in two media--instructional materials and television; discusses how to evaluate and choose the best media materials from those that exist; recommends actions that will help to eliminate sex stereotyping in instructional materials and television; and suggests an approach to…

  1. Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana's Riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Darwin Initiative funded project Tool kits for the Sustainable Management of Ghana's Riverine Biodiversity was a collaboration between the Centre for African Wetlands at the University of Ghana, various units of the University of Ghana and the Ghana Wildlife Society. The project also involved collaborators from Burkina ...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5960 - Lice removal kit. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lice removal kit. 880.5960 Section 880.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... intended to remove and/or kill lice and nits from head and body hair. It may or may not be battery operated...

  3. (SEP-D Kit) for intra-uterine insemination (IUI)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kit with the standard swim-up sperm washing method regarding pregnancy outcomes. Male factor infertility is a term that describes inability to conceive associated with a problem identified in the male partner. Intra- uterine insemination (IUI) has been shown to be effective in a range of sperm abnormalities causing male ...

  4. Some existing Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems at KIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litfin, K.


    An overview is given of: • Liquid Metal Loops at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of KIT; • THESYS: Technologies for HEavy metal SYStems; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THESYS; • THEADES: THErmalhydraulics and Ads DESign; • Thermal Hydraulic experiments in THEADES; • CORRIDA: CORRosion In Dynamic lead Alloys; • Experimental stagnant facilities at KALLA; • INR Liquid metal research

  5. Media Kit on WDM in MENA | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This kit contains information tailored primarily for the media community. It contains up-to-date knowledge about water demand management in the form of policy briefs, success stories, water briefs, a brochure and a CD in English, French and Arabic. This material explains water demand management and the contributions of ...

  6. The ROM Kit: A Fresh Look at Teaching Roman History. (United States)

    Shore, Paul J.


    Describes materials in a kit assembled by the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) that can be used to revitalize the teaching of Roman history and as a model for teaching about ancient history in general. The author also suggests a new approach, concepts, and topics that should be used in teaching Roman history. (AM)

  7. Enhancing Science Kits with the Driving Question Board (United States)

    Nordine, Jeff; Torres, Ruben


    This article describes the driving question board (DQB), a visual organizer that supports inquiry-based instruction through the use of guiding questions. The DQB is a teaching aid designed to increase student engagement alongside science kits. Information is provided on its application to a lesson on buoyancy, highlighting how it improved…

  8. National Radon Action Month - Event Planning Kit Document (United States)

    Individuals, groups, and organizations are the driving force in getting the message out to the public about the dangers of indoor radon. You will find information and materials in this Kit that you can use to get the word out about radon.

  9. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988. (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  10. Programming with the KIBO Robotics Kit in Preschool Classrooms (United States)

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi


    KIBO is a developmentally appropriate robotics kit for young children that is programmed using interlocking wooden blocks; no screens or keyboards are required. This study describes a pilot KIBO robotics curriculum at an urban public preschool in Rhode Island and presents data collected on children's knowledge of foundational programming concepts…

  11. The Governance of Australia. Civics and Citizenship Learning Circle Kit. (United States)

    Gow, Neil

    This kit, the first of four learning circles on civics and citizenship, addresses a series of broad issues about the way in which Australia is governed. Introductory materials include a synopsis of the six sessions; lists of 51 references, 29 Internet sites, and 13 videos and CDs; glossary; and list of 19 resource materials. Session guides are…

  12. Low Cost Alternatives to Commercial Lab Kits for Physics Experiments (United States)

    Kodejška, C.; De Nunzio, G.; Kubinek, R.; Ríha, J.


    Conducting experiments in physics using modern measuring techniques, and particularly those utilizing computers, is often much more attractive to students than conducting experiments conventionally. However, the cost of professional kits in the Czech Republic is still very expensive for many schools. The basic equipment for one student workplace…

  13. Development of Microcontroller-Based Ball and Beam Trainer Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Dewantoro


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE A ball and beam trainer kit based on microcontroller was developed for teaching control system course for the sophomore students. This specially-purposed kit consists of a ball located on a beam with a fixed axle at one of its end. At the other end, a servomotor was employed to control the position of the ball by adjusting the rotation angle of the servomotor. Seven predetermined positions were set to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 cm relative to the fixed axle of the beam. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID scheme was then used to compensate the error. This kit is equipped with a user interface to configure controller coefficients, select the set points, plot the actual ball position, and display parameter values. The user interface program runs on PC or notebook connected to microcontroller via serial communications. A questionnaire-based assessment about the use of this kit was conducted by 17 students taking the course, giving a rating value of 94.12%.

  14. Volatile constituents of Glechoma hirsute Waldst. & Kit. and G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essential oils of two Glechoma species from Serbia have been analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty eight and two hundred thirty eight constituents identified accounted for 90.6 and 86.6% of the total oils of G. hirsuta Waldst. & Kit. and G. hederacea L., respectively. In both oils the dominant constituent class was the ...

  15. Comparison of the Soil Dynamic Amplification Factor and Soil Amplification by Using Microtremor and MASW Methods Respectively (United States)

    Tuncel, Aykut; Cevdet Özdag, Özkan; Pamuk, Eren; Akgün, Mustafa


    Single Station Microtremor method, which is widely used nowadays, is an effective and easy applicable method. In this study, dynamic amplification factor distributions of the study area were obtained using scenario earthquake parameters with single station microtremor data gathered at 112 points. In addition, a surface wave active method, which is known as MASW (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves), was applied at 43 profiles to calculate the soil amplification values. Dynamic amplification factor (DAF), soil amplification, the predominant soil period (PSP), geology and topography data of the study area were analysed together. Dynamic amplification factor and soil amplification values were obtained 2 or higher at about sea level parts of the study area which are generally composed of alluvial units. Additionally, in high altitude regions that are composed of volcanic rocks, relatively lower dynamic amplification factor and soil amplification values were obtained. The minimum amplification value in the study area was 1.15, while the maximum amplification value was 3.05 according to the dynamic amplification results and the soil amplification values were between 1.16 and 3.85 in harmony. It is seen that the obtained DAF values and the soil amplification values calculated from the seismic velocities are very similar to each other numerically and regionally. Because of this, it is concluded that the values of the soil amplification obtained by the MASW method and the calculated DAF values in this study are in harmony with each other. Although the depths of research in these two calculation methods are different from each other, the similarity of the results allows us to arrive at the result of how effective the ground layer is on the amplification. It has a great importance to calculate the amplification values and other dynamic parameters by in situ measurements for a planned plot because geological units can vary even at very short distances in heterogeneously

  16. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3235 - Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents. 866.3235... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. Epstein-Barr virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in...

  18. Culture time and reagent minimization in the chemical PCC assay. (United States)

    Romero, Ivonne; Lamadrid, Ana Ilsa; González, Jorge Ernesto; Mandina, Tania; García, Omar


    The possibility to reduce the culture time and volume of blood and reagents required for the chemical Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) assay is demonstrated in this work. Peripheral whole blood was exposed to gamma radiation (1-20 Gy). Lymphocytes were cultured for 40 h, using 50 μl of blood and 450 μl of culture medium. The dose-response curves were adjusted, using length ratio (LR) of the longest to the shortest chromosome piece, and the frequency of rings per cell. No statistical differences were found between the results obtained with this method and those reported with the classical PCC assay culture. The minimization of culture time and reagents in combination with the automatic measurement of the LR of the chromosome pieces, or the scoring of rings, can be a valuable biodosimetry tool in a mass casualty scenario.

  19. Use of an adaptable cell culture kit for performing lymphocyte and monocyte cell cultures in microgravity (United States)

    Hatton, J. P.; Lewis, M. L.; Roquefeuil, S. B.; Chaput, D.; Cazenave, J. P.; Schmitt, D. A.


    The results of experiments performed in recent years on board facilities such as the Space Shuttle/Spacelab have demonstrated that many cell systems, ranging from simple bacteria to mammalian cells, are sensitive to the microgravity environment, suggesting gravity affects fundamental cellular processes. However, performing well-controlled experiments aboard spacecraft offers unique challenges to the cell biologist. Although systems such as the European 'Biorack' provide generic experiment facilities including an incubator, on-board 1-g reference centrifuge, and contained area for manipulations, the experimenter must still establish a system for performing cell culture experiments that is compatible with the constraints of spaceflight. Two different cell culture kits developed by the French Space Agency, CNES, were recently used to perform a series of experiments during four flights of the 'Biorack' facility aboard the Space Shuttle. The first unit, Generic Cell Activation Kit 1 (GCAK-1), contains six separate culture units per cassette, each consisting of a culture chamber, activator chamber, filtration system (permitting separation of cells from supernatant in-flight), injection port, and supernatant collection chamber. The second unit (GCAK-2) also contains six separate culture units, including a culture, activator, and fixation chambers. Both hardware units permit relatively complex cell culture manipulations without extensive use of spacecraft resources (crew time, volume, mass, power), or the need for excessive safety measures. Possible operations include stimulation of cultures with activators, separation of cells from supernatant, fixation/lysis, manipulation of radiolabelled reagents, and medium exchange. Investigations performed aboard the Space Shuttle in six different experiments used Jurkat, purified T-cells or U937 cells, the results of which are reported separately. We report here the behaviour of Jurkat and U937 cells in the GCAK hardware in ground

  20. Oxidation of cashew tree gum exudate polysaccharide with TEMPO reagent


    Cunha, Pablyana L. R.; Maciel, Jeanny S.; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Paula, Regina C. M. de; Feitosa, Judith P. A.


    Cashew gum (CG), an exudate polysaccharide from Anacardium ocidentale trees, was oxidized with TEMPO reagent and the 7product (CGOX) characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR and NMR), chromatographic analyses (HPLC and GPC), viscosity measurements and thermal analysis (TGA). The yield of the reaction product was 96%. The uronic acid content in starting gum (7.2 m%) was increased to 36 m%. The degree of oxidation based on free galactose and glucose units was 68%. NMR data show that oxi...

  1. Development of reagents for radioimmunoassay of: triiodothyronine, thyroxine and thyrotrophin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado S, B.; Lavalley E, C.; Ruiz J, A.; Garcia F, C.; Zamorano A, F.


    The radioimmunoassay (RIA) of thyroid hormones it is the but it frequents of all the studies carried out by RIA in the laboratories of Nuclear Medicine, these essays are carried out with imported reagents. In the ININ the reagents and the necessary methodology have been developed for the triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH). The good titles of the antibodies (Ac) primary for each hormone were of 1:4,000; 1:750 and 1:1,500. The used separation system was of double Ac with PEG to 10%, with titles of 1:10 for the second Ac of lamb. The specific activity for 125-I-T3 and 125-I-T4 oscillate between 850 at 900 μCi / μ g: being this of 90 μ Ci /μg for TSH. To the first two hormones they were added 1-8 aniline naftalen sulfonic acid (ANS) to concentrations of 3 and 2 mg/ml respectively. As buffer for T3 and T4 it was used Tris-HCl pH 8.6 and PBS with normal serum of rabbit (SNC) for TSH. The standards got ready in buffer or free serum of thyroid hormones. The slope of the standard curves varied between -2.3 to -2.7 and the variation intra and inter assay among 4 to 10%. It is had at the moment in the ININ with standardized reagents for the RIA of T3, T4 and TSH, it is hoped to carry out tests in other laboratories and to establish the conditions of stability more appropriate to begin the preparation of pilot reagents. (Author)

  2. Preparation and characterization of reagents for epitestosterone radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilek, R.; Hampl, R.; Starka, L.; Putz, Z.


    The preparation of reagents, suitable for radioimmunoassay of 17α-hydroxy-4-androsten-3-one (epitestosterone) in body fluids is described. It includes a simplified synthesis of the immunogen, epitestosterone-3-(0-carboxymethyl)oxime coupled to bovine serumalbumin its characterization and preparation of the radioligand ( 125 I) iodohistaminyl derivative of epitestosterone. The assay protocol for epitestosterone detection in urine avoiding extraction is described and the reliability criteria of the method are given. (author)

  3. Rapid multiplex DNA amplification on an inexpensive microdevice for human identification via short tandem repeat analysis. (United States)

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Le Roux, Delphine; Thompson, Brandon L; Birch, Christopher; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Mills, Daniel L; Tsuei, An-Chi; Ensenberger, Martin G; Sprecher, Cindy; Storts, Douglas R; Root, Brian E; Landers, James P


    Forensic DNA analysis requires several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and separation of PCR fragments. Intuitively, there are numerous situations where it would be beneficial to speed up the overall DNA analysis process; in this work, we focus on the most time-consuming component in the analysis pipeline, namely the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Primers were specially designed to target 10 human genomic loci, all yielding amplicons shorter than 350 bases, for ease of downstream integration with on-board microchip electrophoresis. Primer concentrations were adjusted specifically for microdevice amplification, resulting in well-balanced short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Furthermore, studies were performed to push the limits of the DNA polymerase to achieve rapid, multiplexed PCR on various substrates, including transparent and black polyethylene terephthalate (Pe), and with two distinct adhesives, toner and heat sensitive adhesive (HSA). Rapid STR-based multiplexed PCR amplification is demonstrated in 15 min on a Pe microdevice using a custom-built system for fluid flow control and thermocycling for the full 10-plex, and in 10 min for a smaller multiplex consisting of six core CODIS loci plus Amelogenin with amplicons shorter than 200bp. Lastly, preliminary studies indicate the capability of this PCR microdevice platform to be integrated with both upstream DNA extraction, and downstream microchip electrophoresis. This, coupled to the use of reagents that are compatible with lyophilization (lyo-compatible) for PCR, represents the potential for a fully integrated rotationally-driven microdevice for complete forensic DNA analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid heteroatom transfer to arylmetals utilizing multifunctional reagent scaffolds (United States)

    Gao, Hongyin; Zhou, Zhe; Kwon, Doo-Hyun; Coombs, James; Jones, Steven; Behnke, Nicole Erin; Ess, Daniel H.; Kürti, László


    Arylmetals are highly valuable carbon nucleophiles that are readily and inexpensively prepared from aryl halides or arenes and widely used on both laboratory and industrial scales to react directly with a wide range of electrophiles. Although C-C bond formation has been a staple of organic synthesis, the direct transfer of primary amino (-NH2) and hydroxyl (-OH) groups to arylmetals in a scalable and environmentally friendly fashion remains a formidable synthetic challenge because of the absence of suitable heteroatom-transfer reagents. Here, we demonstrate the use of bench-stable N-H and N-alkyl oxaziridines derived from readily available terpenoid scaffolds as efficient multifunctional reagents for the direct primary amination and hydroxylation of structurally diverse aryl- and heteroarylmetals. This practical and scalable method provides one-step synthetic access to primary anilines and phenols at low temperature and avoids the use of transition-metal catalysts, ligands and additives, nitrogen-protecting groups, excess reagents and harsh workup conditions.

  5. Identification of mimotopes of Mycobacterium leprae as potential diagnostic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Silvana M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early diagnostic test for detecting infection in leprosy is fundamental for reducing patients’ sequelae. The currently used lepromin is not adequate for disease diagnosis and, so far, no antigen to be used in intradermoreaction has proved to be sensitive and specific for that purpose. Aiming at identifying new reagents to be used in skin tests, candidate antigens were investigated. Methods Random peptide phage display libraries were screened by using antibodies from leprosy patients in order to identify peptides as diagnostic reagents. Results Seven different phage clones were identified using purified antibodies pooled from sera of leprosy patients. When the clones were tested with serum samples by ELISA, three of them, 5A, 6A and 1B, allowed detecting a larger number of leprosy patients when compared to controls. The corresponding peptides expressed by selected phage clones were chemically synthesized. A pilot study was undertaken to assess the use of peptides in skin tests. The intradermal challenge with peptides in animals previously sensitized with Mycobacterium leprae induced a delayed-type hypersensitivity with peptide 5A (2/5 and peptide 1B (1/5. In positive controls, there was a 3/5 reactivity for lepromin and a 4/5 reactivity of the sensitized animals with soluble extract of M. leprae. Conclusions The preliminary data suggest that may be possible to develop reagents with diagnostic potential based on peptide mimotopes selected by phage display using polyclonal human antibodies.

  6. A nuclear source: a resource kit for teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Gay.


    The aim of this Resource Kit is to provide information, diagrams, overheads and classroom activities, set in an Australian context, to broaden and enrich the teaching of nuclear science from both technical and social science aspects. It has been written to address the the Australian secondary school syllabuses and reflects this in both its format and contents. Emphasis has been given to the applications of nuclear physics to our lives today, from new medical diagnostic techniques to efficient methods of monitoring our own environment. This Resource Kit is a valuable source of information not readily available to teachers from textbooks. It provides a unique opportunity to present the picture in Australia, making us all more aware of Australia's front line in Australia, making us all more aware of Australia's front line role in nuclear research. The kit is meant to be used in conjunction with current textbooks, to complement and enrich them. The kit begins with a review of the many applications of nuclear science in order to provide a broad concrete base to motivate students to discover more of the specific details of the basic discoveries contained in the later sections. Topics such as the Structure of the Atom, which are well documented in textbooks, have been approached in a more creative and less rigorous manner to give teachers a fresh approach to the topic. The kit is divided into 10 separate sections and presented in loose-leaf form to facilitate its use in the classroom. Diagrams are inserted into the text to clarify and enrich descriptions, as well as being provided at the back of each section as black line masters for photocopying and overhead projections. ills., tabs

  7. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency. (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L


    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  8. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coelho


    Full Text Available Digital Microfluidics (DMF has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  9. Digital Microfluidics for Nucleic Acid Amplification. (United States)

    Coelho, Beatriz; Veigas, Bruno; Fortunato, Elvira; Martins, Rodrigo; Águas, Hugo; Igreja, Rui; Baptista, Pedro V


    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) has emerged as a disruptive methodology for the control and manipulation of low volume droplets. In DMF, each droplet acts as a single reactor, which allows for extensive multiparallelization of biological and chemical reactions at a much smaller scale. DMF devices open entirely new and promising pathways for multiplex analysis and reaction occurring in a miniaturized format, thus allowing for healthcare decentralization from major laboratories to point-of-care with accurate, robust and inexpensive molecular diagnostics. Here, we shall focus on DMF platforms specifically designed for nucleic acid amplification, which is key for molecular diagnostics of several diseases and conditions, from pathogen identification to cancer mutations detection. Particular attention will be given to the device architecture, materials and nucleic acid amplification applications in validated settings.

  10. Anti-D reagents should be chosen accordingly to the prevalence of D variants in the obstetric population. (United States)

    Lukacevic Krstic, Jelena; Dajak, Slavica; Bingulac-Popovic, Jasna; Dogic, Vesna; Mratinovic-Mikulandra, Jela


    Resolving ambiguous results of D antigen typing is crucial for appropriate and rational administration of anti-D immunoprophylaxis and transfusion practice in obstetric population. The aim of the study was to establish selection criteria of anti-D reagents for our population. A total of 12 689 samples from primiparous women in Split-Dalmatia County, Croatia, were typed for RhD antigen during the period of 5 years. Ambiguous results were submitted to additional serologic investigation and genotyping. RHD genotyping was performed by commercial genotyping kits (Ready Gene weak D ® and Ready gene CDE, Inno-Train, Kronberg, Germany). Relative frequencies and accompanying 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the prevalence of variants. The prevalence of D variants was 0.42% (95% CI 0.31; 0.53). The most common partial D variant was D Va (RHD*05.05), with the prevalence of 0.08% (95% CI 0.03; 0.13). All weak D variants were weak D types 1, 2 and 3 (RHD*weak D type 1, RHD*weak D type 2, RHD*weak D type 3). Weak D samples were distinguishable from partial D in routine typing due to the difference in reactivity of partial D samples with clones D7B8 and RUM-1. Cell line RUM-1 gives weak or negative reactions with partial DVa category. The most common partial D variant in our population is DVa. It is recommended to use cell lines which do not strongly agglutinate DVa variant in routine RhD typing. The appropriate choice of reagents will enable the serology methods to recognize the cases in which RHD genotyping is required. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Preventing PCR amplification carryover contamination in a clinical laboratory. (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Jaber


    During the past two decades PCR and several other DNA/RNA amplification techniques have become important diagnostic tools in clinical laboratories. Amplification products contamination has been the main impediment to using these techniques routinely in diagnostic laboratories. Over the years, several creative pre- and post-amplification methods have been developed that prevent amplicon carryover contamination. These procedures, coupled with automated systems that employ real-time amplification and simultaneous detection in a closed system, have substantially reduced the possibility of false positive results due to amplification products carryover contamination.

  12. The Use of Kits in the Analysis of Tissue Lipids Requires Validation. (United States)

    Rider, T; LeBoeuf, R C; Tso, Patrick; Jandacek, R J


    The ready availability and ease of use of kits for the measurement of serum lipids has greatly facilitated these measurements. In many cases it would be convenient to use these kits in the determination of lipid concentrations in tissues. The successful application of serum kits in tissue analysis requires that two important issues be considered. First, the solvent system for the extraction of the lipids and the solvent used for analysis by the kit must be compatible with the reactions in the kit. Second, the concentration range in the analyzed solution must be within the range for which the kit is used. We report here that lipids in liver and adipose tissues may be significantly underestimated by the use of some kits. We recommend that the use of kits for tissue analysis of lipids be validated for the specific analysis.

  13. Combinational use of lipid-based reagents for efficient transfection of primary fibroblasts and hepatoblasts. (United States)

    Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Nakamura, Masanao; Yamamura, Takeshi; Matsushita, Masanobu; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki


    Commercially available lipid-based transfection reagents are widely used to deliver DNA to cells. However, these lipid-based transfection reagents show poor gene transfer efficiency in primary cells. Here, we demonstrate a simple method to improve gene transfer efficiency in primary fibroblasts and hepatoblasts using a combination of lipid-based transfection reagents. Our data show that combined use of Lipofectamine LTX and FuGENE HD increases the efficiency of gene transfer compared with the use of either reagent alone, and this combination achieves the best result of any pairwise combination of Lipofectamine LTX, FuGENE HD, TransFectin, and Fibroblast Transfection Reagent.

  14. Simple Approaches to Minimally-Instrumented, Microfluidic-Based Point-of-Care Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (United States)

    Mauk, Michael G.; Song, Jinzhao; Liu, Changchun; Bau, Haim H.


    Designs and applications of microfluidics-based devices for molecular diagnostics (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests, NAATs) in infectious disease testing are reviewed, with emphasis on minimally instrumented, point-of-care (POC) tests for resource-limited settings. Microfluidic cartridges (‘chips’) that combine solid-phase nucleic acid extraction; isothermal enzymatic nucleic acid amplification; pre-stored, paraffin-encapsulated lyophilized reagents; and real-time or endpoint optical detection are described. These chips can be used with a companion module for separating plasma from blood through a combined sedimentation-filtration effect. Three reporter types: Fluorescence, colorimetric dyes, and bioluminescence; and a new paradigm for end-point detection based on a diffusion-reaction column are compared. Multiplexing (parallel amplification and detection of multiple targets) is demonstrated. Low-cost detection and added functionality (data analysis, control, communication) can be realized using a cellphone platform with the chip. Some related and similar-purposed approaches by others are surveyed. PMID:29495424

  15. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus under gastrointestinal conditions and their immunological detection by commercially available kits


    Ceuppens, Siele; Rajkovic, Andreja; Hamelink, Stefanie; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    Currently, three commercial kits for Bacillus cereus enterotoxins Nhe and/or Hbl detection are available, namely, the Bacillus diarrheal enterotoxin visual immunoassay (BDE VIA (TM)) kit (3M Tecra), B. cereus enterotoxin reversed passive latex agglutination (BCET-RPLA) kit (Oxoid), and the Duopath (R) Cereus Enterotoxins (Merck). The performance of the kits and their applicability to gastrointestinal simulation samples were evaluated. Then, the stability and production of enterotoxins Hbl and...

  16. Pathologic Stimulus Determines Lineage Commitment of Cardiac C-kit+ Cells. (United States)

    Chen, Zhongming; Zhu, Wuqiang; Bender, Ingrid; Gong, Wuming; Kwak, Il-Youp; Yellamilli, Amritha; Hodges, Thomas J; Nemoto, Natsumi; Zhang, Jianyi; Garry, Daniel J; van Berlo, Jop H


    Although cardiac c-kit + cells are being tested in clinical trials, the circumstances that determine lineage differentiation of c-kit + cells in vivo are unknown. Recent findings suggest that endogenous cardiac c-kit + cells rarely contribute cardiomyocytes to the adult heart. We assessed whether various pathological stimuli differentially affect the eventual cell fates of c-kit + cells. We used single-cell sequencing and genetic lineage tracing of c-kit + cells to determine whether various pathological stimuli would result in different fates of c-kit + cells. Single-cell sequencing of cardiac CD45 - c-kit + cells showed innate heterogeneity, indicative of the existence of vascular and mesenchymal c-kit + cells in normal hearts. Cardiac pressure overload resulted in a modest increase in c-kit-derived cardiomyocytes, with significant increases in the numbers of endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity did not increase c-kit-derived endothelial cell fates but instead induced cardiomyocyte differentiation. Mechanistically, doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in c-kit + cells resulted in expression of p53. Inhibition of p53 blocked cardiomyocyte differentiation in response to doxorubicin, whereas stabilization of p53 was sufficient to increase c-kit-derived cardiomyocyte differentiation. These results demonstrate that different pathological stimuli induce different cell fates of c-kit + cells in vivo. Although the overall rate of cardiomyocyte formation from c-kit + cells is still below clinically relevant levels, we show that p53 is central to the ability of c-kit + cells to adopt cardiomyocyte fates, which could lead to the development of strategies to preferentially generate cardiomyocytes from c-kit + cells. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Gene Duplication of the zebrafish kit ligand and partitioning of melanocyte development functions to kit ligand a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hultman


    Full Text Available The retention of particular genes after the whole genome duplication in zebrafish has given insights into how genes may evolve through partitioning of ancestral functions. We examine the partitioning of expression patterns and functions of two zebrafish kit ligands, kit ligand a (kitla and kit ligand b (kitlb, and discuss their possible coevolution with the duplicated zebrafish kit receptors (kita and kitb. In situ hybridizations show that kitla mRNA is expressed in the trunk adjacent to the notochord in the middle of each somite during stages of melanocyte migration and later expressed in the skin, when the receptor is required for melanocyte survival. kitla is also expressed in other regions complementary to kita receptor expression, including the pineal gland, tail bud, and ear. In contrast, kitlb mRNA is expressed in brain ventricles, ear, and cardinal vein plexus, in regions generally not complementary to either zebrafish kit receptor ortholog. However, like kitla, kitlb is expressed in the skin during stages consistent with melanocyte survival. Thus, it appears that kita and kitla have maintained congruent expression patterns, while kitb and kitlb have evolved divergent expression patterns. We demonstrate the interaction of kita and kitla by morpholino knockdown analysis. kitla morphants, but not kitlb morphants, phenocopy the null allele of kita, with defects for both melanocyte migration and survival. Furthermore, kitla morpholino, but not kitlb morpholino, interacts genetically with a sensitized allele of kita, confirming that kitla is the functional ligand to kita. Last, we examine kitla overexpression in embryos, which results in hyperpigmentation caused by an increase in the number and size of melanocytes. This hyperpigmentation is dependent on kita function. We conclude that following genome duplication, kita and kitla have maintained their receptor-ligand relationship, coevolved complementary expression patterns, and that

  18. Establishment of external quality assurance procedures with FAO/IAEA ELISA kits. Report of an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    As part of the programme of support to scientists in developing countries, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has developed and distributed ELISA kits for detecting both the causative agent and the immune response of animals to a number of the major diseases affecting livestock. In many cases these kits are now being used as part of national and international control and/or eradication programmes (e.g. for rinderpest, trypanosomosis, foot and mouth disease, brucellosis) and are likely to form the basis for establishing a country's freedom from particular diseases (e.g. rinderpest) at the national and international level. To further encourage international trade in livestock and livestock products, and to assist in the regional or global control and eradication of a number of the major diseases affecting livestock, there has been a strong move towards international standardization for animal disease diagnosis. Central to this is the need for internal and external quality assurance procedures to ensure that a standardized approach is being adhered to and that the results can be relied upon. In 1992, an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting was convened to define and establish for the ELISA, standards for internal quality control of reagents and procedures and for the expression of results. The recommendations of that meeting have now been incorporated in all FAO/IAEA ELISA kits and have been adopted by the OIE (Office International des Epizooties). The primary function of the internal quality controls is to ensure that the assay is performing within defined limits. Equally important, is an assurance to all outside interested bodies (national veterinary authorities, international organizations, donor organizations, trading partners) that the results being provided by a laboratory are valid. The procedures for ascertaining this assurance would form the basis of an external quality assurance programme (EQAP). Between 1990 and 1993, as part of establishing an EQAP, laboratories using

  19. A large ungated TPC with GEM amplification (United States)

    Berger, M.; Ball, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Ketzer, B.; Arora, R.; Beck, R.; Böhmer, F. V.; Chen, J.-C.; Cusanno, F.; Dørheim, S.; García, F.; Hehner, J.; Herrmann, N.; Höppner, C.; Kaiser, D.; Kis̆, M.; Kleipa, V.; Konorov, I.; Kunkel, J.; Kurz, N.; Leifels, Y.; Müllner, P.; Münzer, R.; Neubert, S.; Rauch, J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmitz, R.; Soyk, D.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Voss, B.; Walther, D.; Zmeskal, J.


    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is an ideal device for the detection of charged particle tracks in a large volume covering a solid angle of almost 4 π. The high density of hits on a given particle track facilitates the task of pattern recognition in a high-occupancy environment and in addition provides particle identification by measuring the specific energy loss for each track. For these reasons, TPCs with Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) amplification have been and are widely used in experiments recording heavy-ion collisions. A significant drawback, however, is the large dead time of the order of 1 ms per event generated by the use of a gating grid, which is mandatory to prevent ions created in the amplification region from drifting back into the drift volume, where they would severely distort the drift path of subsequent tracks. For experiments with higher event rates this concept of a conventional TPC operating with a triggered gating grid can therefore not be applied without a significant loss of data. A continuous readout of the signals is the more appropriate way of operation. This, however, constitutes a change of paradigm with considerable challenges to be met concerning the amplification region, the design and bandwidth of the readout electronics, and the data handling. A mandatory prerequisite for such an operation is a sufficiently good suppression of the ion backflow from the avalanche region, which otherwise limits the tracking and particle identification capabilities of such a detector. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are a promising candidate to combine excellent spatial resolution with an intrinsic suppression of ions. In this paper we describe the design, construction and the commissioning of a large TPC with GEM amplification and without gating grid (GEM-TPC). The design requirements have driven innovations in the construction of a light-weight field-cage, a supporting media flange, the GEM amplification and the readout system, which are

  20. Development of kits for radioimmunometric assays for tumour markers. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Many tumour marker assays have been reported over the years and their role is well recognized and acknowledged in the follow-up of known cancer cases. However, their true potential for use in primary diagnosis or screening of high risk groups is still to be fully realized due to the need to achieve better specificity. Among the various tumour markers, the one for prostate cancer - prostate specific antigen (PSA) - appears to have better specificity, coming close to a tumour specific antigen. Prostate cancer is a commonly encountered cancer in men, and can be effectively treated if detected early. PSA levels in serum appear to provide good correlation with tumour burden. Estimation of free PSA in serum is reported to further improve the diagnosis. In several developed countries routine screening of men above 50 years of age for prostate cancer using serum PSA as marker is recommended. Radioimmunometric assay techniques offer themselves as attractive candidates for measurement of tumour markers. They are robust, economical and didactic, thus eminently suitable for technology transfer, training and teaching. Preparation of primary reagents is relatively easy. The methodology is flexible. As a result of co-operation projects of the IAEA, many developing Member States have built up indigenous capabilities to perform radioimmunometric assays, which can be extended to development of kits for tumour marker assays. Considering the need for indigenous development of capabilities to produce reliable kits for radioimmunometric assays for PSA, in 1997 the IAEA initiated a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Kits for Radioimmunometric Assays for Tumour Markers. Even though the focus of the project was PSA, it was expected that the expertise to be gained by the participants would also help them undertake development of kits for other tumour markers, essentially using the same methodology. Ten laboratories from Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas participated

  1. 21 CFR 866.2480 - Quality control kit for culture media. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for culture media. 866.2480... control kit for culture media. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for culture media is a device...-dried, viable microorganism, intended for medical purposes to determine if a given culture medium is...

  2. A Take-Home Physics Experiment Kit for On-Campus and Off-Campus Students (United States)

    Turner, Joanna; Parisi, Alfio


    A take-home experiment kit has been developed to reinforce the concepts in a first year physics course that both on and off campus students from a variety of educational backgrounds can successfully use. The kit is inexpensive and is composed of easy to obtain items. The experiments conducted with the kit are directed experiments that require…

  3. A meta-analysis of prognostic value of KIT mutation status in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Z


    Full Text Available Zhiqiang Jiang, Jian Zhang, Zhi Li, Yingjun Liu, Daohai Wang, Guangsen Han Department of General Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Numerous types of KIT mutations have been reported in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs; however, controversy still exists regarding their clinicopathological significance. In this study, we reviewed the publicly available literature to assess the data by a meta-analysis to characterize KIT mutations and different types of KIT mutations in prognostic prediction in patients with GISTs. Twenty-eight studies that included 4,449 patients were identified and analyzed. We found that KIT mutation status was closely correlated with size of tumors and different mitosis indexes, but not with tumor location. KIT mutation was also observed to be significantly correlated with tumor recurrence, metastasis, as well as the overall survival of patients. Interestingly, there was higher risk of progression in KIT exon 9-mutated patients than in exon 11-mutated patients. Five-year relapse-free survival (RFS rate was significantly higher in KIT exon 11-deleted patients than in those with other types of KIT exon 11 mutations. In addition, RFS for 5 years was significantly worse in patients bearing KIT codon 557–558 deletions than in those bearing other KIT exon 11 deletions. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that KIT mutation status is another evaluable factor for prognosis prediction in GISTs. Keywords: KIT, meta-analysis, prognosis, marker, therapy

  4. 33 CFR 149.323 - What are the requirements for first aid kits? (United States)


    ... first aid kits? 149.323 Section 149.323 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lifesaving Equipment Manned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.323 What are the requirements for first aid kits? (a) Each manned deepwater port must have an industrial first aid kit, approved by an appropriate...

  5. Behaviour of mink kits and dams (Mustela vison) in the lactation period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Anne-Line; Jeppesen, Leif Lau


    This study describes the development of the behaviour of mink kits and dams from the fourth to the eighth respectively seventh week after delivery. The study is based on scan observations of 72 mink dams and their kits at a conventional Danish mink farm. The kits started eating when they were about...

  6. [The comparison of two newborn cytomegalovirus IgG antibody screening ELISA kits]. (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-Xian; He, Xiao-Zhou; Wang, Shi-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fang


    This study compared two newborn Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody screening ELISA kits and evaluated the detection effectiveness of Abnova kit. CMV IgG antibodies were detected by both SeraQuest and Abnova kits from dried blood spot (DBS) samples of 488 newborn heel sticks. The detection abilities of these two kits were compared in different sample dilution concentrations. Relative detection effectiveness of the Abnova kit was defined by statistical method using the SeraQuest kit as a point of comparison. Compared to the SeraQuest screening test kit, the Abnova kit revealed a sensitivity of 98.9%, specificity of 78.6%, positive predictive value of 99.3%, negative predictive value of 68.8%, and the coincidence rate for these two screening test kits at 98.3%. The consistency check of both kits based on interpretation of the kappa statistic was relatively good. For the Abnova kit, the "area under the ROC curve" was 0.887, which indicates moderate accuracy. Abnova kit can be applied to newborn screening for congenital CMV infections. However, repeating the test for ambiguous results is suggested to increase the specificity and negative predictive value.

  7. Medication kits for managing symptomatic emergencies in the home: a survey of common hospice practice. (United States)

    Bishop, Margaret F; Stephens, Lisa; Goodrich, Martha; Byock, Ira


    Alleviation of symptoms associated with advanced illness and dying is a fundamental goal and core principle of palliative care. Little research exists regarding hospice programs' practices for prescribing, dispensing, and utilizing medication kits in the home for management of uncontrolled symptoms. We conducted a telephone survey of all 22 agencies in New Hampshire providing home hospice care. The survey inquired about the timing of medication kit ordering and availability, characteristics of prescribers and pharmacies, kit contents, costs, frequency of use, and perceived impact of kits. All programs' kits contained medications to treat pain and dyspnea, 81% for nausea and vomiting, and 76% for seizures. Eighty-six percent of agencies (18/21) reported that a medication within the kits was used in more than 50% of cases. Eighty-six percent reported the kits often averted hospital or emergency department visits. Oral, sublingual, and rectal routes of administration were common as was topical preparations of combination medications. Three programs included parenteral morphine in kits. Kits cost less than $50 for the majority of programs. Hospice programs commonly utilize kits containing prescription medications for the purpose of managing uncontrolled symptoms in the home. There is considerable variation in kit contents and practice. Programs believe that kits diminish emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Research is needed to more fully describe and study the outcomes of these practices.

  8. Take-Home Art Appreciation Kits for Kindergartners and Their Families. (United States)

    Mulcahey, Christine


    Describes collaborative project between an art specialist and kindergarten teacher to develop take-home art appreciation kits for kindergartners. Discusses benefits of the collaboration for teachers, children, and families. Focuses on aesthetic inquiry approach to the art kits to develop inquiry and critical thinking skills. Describes the kits'…

  9. Pharmacological targeting of the KIT growth factor receptor: a therapeutic consideration for mast cell disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Akin, C; Gilfillan, A M


    KIT is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors which is expressed on a variety of haematopoietic cells including mast cells. Stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent activation of KIT is critical for mast cell homeostasis and function. However, when KIT is inappropriately activa...

  10. Concurrent inhibition of kit- and FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling: coordinated suppression of mast cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina M; Beaven, Michael A; Iwaki, Shoko


    characterized Kit inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib). In contrast to imatinib, however, hypothemycin also effectively inhibited FcepsilonRI-mediated degranulation and cytokine production in addition to the potentiation of these responses via Kit. The effect of hypothemycin on Kit-mediated responses could...

  11. [An evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody test reagents]. (United States)

    Zheng, X W; Zhu, D


    This paper reports the results of the evaluation of the China-made HIV antibody screening test reagents, including the IF and IE reagents prepared by the Institute of Virology, CAPM, the ELISA reagent prepared by the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products. Based on the results, the sensitivities of the IF and IE are from 91.2% to 96.9%; the specificities, from 94.6% to 97.3%. Due to the low HIV prevalence in China, the predictive values of negative of these reagents are up to 100%; but the predictive values of positive are very low. It is suggested that these reagents can be used for HIV antibody screen testing in China. The package of some reagents should be improved, the price of some reagents should be decreased.

  12. Internal validation of two new retrotransposons-based kits (InnoQuant® HY and InnoTyper® 21) at a forensic lab. (United States)

    Martins, Cátia; Ferreira, Paulo Miguel; Carvalho, Raquel; Costa, Sandra Cristina; Farinha, Carlos; Azevedo, Luísa; Amorim, António; Oliveira, Manuela


    Obtaining a genetic profile from pieces of evidence collected at a crime scene is the primary objective of forensic laboratories. New procedures, methods, kits, software or equipment must be carefully evaluated and validated before its implementation. The constant development of new methodologies for DNA testing leads to a steady process of validation, which consists of demonstrating that the technology is robust, reproducible, and reliable throughout a defined range of conditions. The present work aims to internally validate two new retrotransposon-based kits (InnoQuant ® HY and InnoTyper ® 21), under the working conditions of the Laboratório de Polícia Científica da Polícia Judiciária (LPC-PJ). For the internal validation of InnoQuant ® HY and InnoTyper ® 21 sensitivity, repeatability, reproducibility, and mixture tests and a concordance study between these new kits and those currently in use at LPC-PJ (Quantifiler ® Duo and GlobalFiler™) were performed. The results obtained for sensitivity, repeatability, and reproducibility tests demonstrated that both InnoQuant ® HY and InnoTyper ® 21 are robust, reproducible, and reliable. The results of the concordance studies demonstrate that InnoQuant ® HY produced quantification results in nearly 29% more than Quantifiler ® Duo (indicating that this new kit is more effective in challenging samples), while the differences observed between InnoTyper ® 21 and GlobalFiler™ are not significant. Therefore, the utility of InnoTyper ® 21 has been proven, especially by the successful amplification of a greater number of complete genetic profiles (27 vs. 21). The results herein presented allowed the internal validation of both InnoQuant ® HY and InnoTyper ® 21, and their implementation in the LPC-PJ laboratory routine for the treatment of challenging samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Malek


    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  14. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit (United States)

    Chu, Andrew


    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  15. ecg-kit: a Matlab Toolbox for Cardiovascular Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Julio Demski


    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram kit ('ecg-kit' for Matlab is an application-programming interface (API developed to provide users a common interface to access and process cardiovascular signals. In the current version, the toolbox supports several ECG recording formats, most of them used by the most popular databases, which allows access to more than 7 TB of information, stored in public databases such as those included in Physionet or the THEW project. The toolbox includes several algorithms frequently used in cardiovascular signal processing, such as heartbeat detectors and classifiers, pulse detectors for pulsatile signals and an ECG delineator. In addition, it provides a tool for manually reviewing and correcting the results produced by the automatic algorithms. The results obtained can be stored in a Matlab (.MAT file for backup or subsequent processing, or used to create a PDF report.

  16. Food and medical sample freezer kit concept for Shuttle (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Jaax, J. R.; Proctor, B. W.


    A variety of food and storage of samples can be provided by a Space Shuttle Orbiter Freezer Kit. The proposed concept is an integrated package consisting of four -23 C (-10 F) storage compartments and a Stirling cycle refrigeration unit. The Stirling cycle mechanical refrigeration was selected over alternative systems for superior efficiency and safety. The trade-offs and a conceptual design of the system are presented.

  17. Android: Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) (United States)


    ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native Development Kit (NDK) by Hao Q...Do not return it to the originator. ARL-TN-0782 ● SEP 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Android : Call C Functions with the Native...2. REPORT TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 02/2016–05/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Android : Call C Functions with the Native

  18. Revised Rapid Soils Analysis Kit (RSAK) - Wet Methodology (United States)


    identify characteristics of buried explosives. The existing Rapid Soils Analysis Kit (RSAK), developed at ERDC, was modified to shrink its cube volume...under Project 354894 CALDERA. The technical monitor was Dr. John Q. Ehrgott Jr. The principal investigator for this study was completed by the...and depth of a buried improvised explosive device (IED) based on factors such as soil type, soil density, soil moisture, and dimensional

  19. Efficient ring perception for the Chemistry Development Kit


    May, John W; Steinbeck, Christoph


    Background The Chemistry Development Kit (CDK) is an open source Java library for manipulating and processing chemical information. A key aspect in handling chemical structures is the determination of the chemical rings. The rings of a structure are used areas including descriptors, stereochemistry, similarity, screening and atom typing. The CDK includes multiple algorithms for determining the rings of a structure on demand. Non-unique descriptions of rings were often used due to the slower p...

  20. Safety of a disposable male circumcision kit. results from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En réponse à ce besoin une compagnie sud-africaine a récemment préparé une trousse à usage unique (Cir-Kit) contenant tous les instruments jetables, les consommables et les produits pharmaceutiques requis pour exécuter une circoncision simple chez de jeunes adultes selon la technique la plus commune utilisée en ...

  1. Physicochemical characteristics of the kanamycin-lyophilized kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eva Maria Widyasari; Misyetti; Teguh Hafiz Ambar W; Witri Nuraeni


    Kanamycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic and usually used for the treatment of infections when antibiotics like penicillin are less powerful and can not be given. This research was performed to obtain several physicochemical character of 99m Tc-kanamycin which were made in the form of lyophilized kanamycin kit to ensure the later application in humans. Kanamycin diagnostic kit were provided in lyophilized kit comprising kanamycin as ligand compound, pyrophosphate as co-ligand and SnCl 2 as reducing agent. The radiochemical purity was determined by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC-SG) using 0.5 N NaOH as the mobile phase and ascending paper chromatography using Whatman paper 3 with acetone as the mobile phase. The plasma binding protein of 99m Tc-kanamycin was investigated in vitro by precipitation method using 5% of trichloro acetic acid (TCA) solution, whereas the lipophilicity (log P) was obtained by determination the partition coefficient in organic solvent-water system. Studies on the effect of the amount of radioactivity and the volume of Na 99m TcO 4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-kanamycin were also performed. From this experiment it was obtained that kanamycin lyophilized-kit was hydrophilic, 59.54% of solutions bound to plasma, radiochemical purity was more than 95%, and the final volume of 2 ml dosage was stable up to 2 hours after the addition of 99m Tc with a radioactivity of less then 3 mCi. (author)

  2. Desalting Protein Ions in Native Mass Spectrometry Using Supercharging Reagents (United States)

    Cassou, Catherine A.; Williams, Evan R.


    Effects of the supercharging reagents m-NBA and sulfolane on sodium ion adduction to protein ions formed using native mass spectrometry were investigated. There is extensive sodium adduction on protein ions formed by electrospray ionization from aqueous solutions containing millimolar concentrations of NaCl, which can lower sensitivity by distributing the signal of a given charge state over multiple adducted ions and can reduce mass measuring accuracy for large proteins and non-covalent complexes for which individual adducts cannot be resolved. The average number of sodium ions adducted to the most abundant ion formed from ten small (8.6–29 kDa) proteins for which adducts can be resolved is reduced by 58% or 80% on average, respectively, when 1.5% m-NBA or 2.5% sulfolane are added to aqueous solutions containing sodium compared to without the supercharging reagent. Sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at reducing sodium ion adduction and at preserving non-covalent protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions. Desalting with 2.5% sulfolane enables detection of several glycosylated forms of 79.7 kDa holo-transferrin and NADH bound to the 146 kDa homotetramer LDH, which are otherwise unresolved due to peak broadening from extensive sodium adduction. Although sulfolane is more effective than m-NBA at protein ion desalting, m-NBA reduces salt clusters at high m/z and can increase the signal-to-noise ratios of protein ions by reducing chemical noise. Desalting is likely a result of these supercharging reagents binding sodium ions in solution, thereby reducing the sodium available to adduct to protein ions. PMID:25133273

  3. Evaluation of the Commercial Kit SIRE Nitratase for detecting resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Spindola de Miranda

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate a new commercial kit, Kit SIRE Nitratase-PlastLabor, for testing the drug susceptibility of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. METHODS: The accuracy of the Kit SIRE Nitratase was evaluated by examining the susceptibility (streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol of 40 M. tuberculosis isolates, using the proportion method with Lowenstein-Jensen medium or the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. RESULTS: The detection accuracy for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin, and ethambutol was 95%, 97.5%, 100%, and 80%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The exceptional accuracy demonstrated by Kit SIRE Nitratase for isoniazid and rifampicin makes the kit an attractive option for screening M. tuberculosis strain resistance.

  4. Functionalization of epoxy esters with alcohols as stoichiometric reagents. (United States)

    Pavlović, Dona; Modec, Barbara; Dolenc, Darko


    Glycidyl esters, frequently employed as reactive groups on polymeric supports, were functionalized with alcohols as stoichiometric reagents, yielding β-alkoxyalcohols. Among the solvents studied, best results were obtained in ethers in the presence of a strong proton acid as a catalyst. Alcohols include simple alkanols, diols, protected polyols, 3-butyn-1-ol 3-hydroxypropanenitrile and cholesterol. This protocol represents a convenient way for introduction of various functionalities onto epoxy-functionalized polymers. Under the reaction conditions, some side reactions take place, mostly due to the reactive ester group and water present in the reaction mixture.

  5. Basic and clinical investigation of T3 immunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Nakajima, Akiko; Morita, Rikushi; Endo, Keigo; Ikekubo, Katsuji


    T 3 immunoassay kit was investigated basically and clinically. A good result was obtained at the prescribed incubation temperature and for 16 hours of incubation time. Moreover, it was thought to be possible that incubation time could be shortened to 1 - 4 hours at 37 0 C. Specificity of antibody was good. Recovery of added T 3 was 100+-5 (S.D.) % on an average and parallel of dilution curve of high T 3 serum was also good. Variation coefficient of accuracy of this kit was 1.5 - 2.1 % and that of reproducibility was 1.3 - 6.6 %. Mild hemolysis did not affect measurement value. Serum T 3 level in normals, untreated patients with Basedow's disease and patients with primary hypothyroidism was 142+-21 ng/100 ml, 452+-156 ng/100 ml and 67+-17 ng/100 ml, respectively. Serum T 3 level in patients with Hashimoto's disease was distributed to a wide extent, but that of patients with goiter and simple goiter ranged within normal range. On the other side, serum T 3 level of normal pregnant woman was high and that of patients with anorexia nervosa showed low level. From the above mentioned results, it was concluded that this kit was simple in method and good in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and it was also useful for clinical applications. (M. Tsunoda)

  6. Fabrication of CANFLEX bundle kit for irradiation test in NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Moon Sung; Kwon, Hyuk Il; Ji, Chul Goo; Chang, Ho Il; Sim, Ki Seob; Suk, Ho Chun.


    CANFLEX bundle kit was prepared at KAERI for the fabrication of complete bundle at AECL. Completed bundle will be used for irradiation test in NRU. Provisions in the 'Quality Assurance Manual for HWR Fuel Projects,' 'Manufacturing Plan' and 'Quality Verification, Inspection and Test Plan' were implemented as appropriately for the preparation of CANFLEX kit. A set of CANFLEX kit consist of 43 fuel sheath of two different sizes with spacers, bearing pads and buttons attached, 2 pieces of end plates and 86 pieces of end caps with two different sizes. All the documents utilized as references for the fabrication such as drawings, specifications, operating instructions, QC instructions and supplier's certificates are specified in this report. Especially, suppliers' certificates and inspection reports for the purchased material as well as KAERI's inspection report are integrated as attachments to this report. Attached to this report are supplier's certificates and KAERI inspection reports for the procured materials and KAERI QC inspection reports for tubes, pads, spacers, buttons, end caps, end plates and fuel sheath. (author). 37 refs

  7. A simple microplate-based method for the determination of α-amylase activity using the glucose assay kit (GOD method). (United States)

    Visvanathan, Rizliya; Jayathilake, Chathuni; Liyanage, Ruvini


    For the first time, a reliable, simple, rapid and high-throughput analytical method for the detection and quantification of α-amylase inhibitory activity using the glucose assay kit was developed. The new method facilitates rapid screening of a large number of samples, reduces labor, time and reagents and is also suitable for kinetic studies. This method is based on the reaction of maltose with glucose oxidase (GOD) and the development of a red quinone. The test is done in microtitre plates with a total volume of 260μL and an assay time of 40min including the pre-incubation steps. The new method is tested for linearity, sensitivity, precision, reproducibility and applicability. The new method is also compared with the most commonly used 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA) method for determining α-amylase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of kits for the labelling with 113sup(m)In and sup(99m)Tc, at the CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcos, M.C.; Kurcbart, Horacio; Nowotny, G.; Ramos, Elsa; Riesgo, J.G.; Mitta, A.E.A.


    The actual state of the production of radiopharmaceuticals in the form of reagents kits at the C.N.E.A. is described. This could allow the users to label compounds with sup(113m)In and sup(99m)Tc in an easy and reproducible way. At present, the following sets are provided routinarily a) To label with sup(99m)Tc: Albumin macroaggregates: calcium gluconate; antimonium sulfide colloid, sodium phytate; sodium calcium DTPA; seroalbumin; sodium pyrophosphate; sodium citrate. b) To label with sup(113m)In: albumin macroaggregates; PVP-bicarbonate; DTPA; human seroalbumin. Regarding products in a developping stage, we have: to labed with sup(99m)Tc: dimercapto-succinic acid, set for the labelling of human erythrocytes, set for sup(113m)In and sup(99m)Tc concentration and bleomicin; to label with sup(113m)In: EDTMP sup(99m)In. (author) [es

  9. Does the Arctic Amplification peak this decade? (United States)

    Martin, Torge; Haine, Thomas W. N.


    Temperatures rise faster in the Arctic than on global average, a phenomenon known as Arctic Amplification. While this is well established from observations and model simulations, projections of future climate (here: RCP8.5) with models of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) also indicate that the Arctic Amplification has a maximum. We show this by means of an Arctic Amplification factor (AAF), which we define as the ratio of Arctic mean to global mean surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies. The SAT anomalies are referenced to the period 1960-1980 and smoothed by a 30-year running mean. For October, the multi-model ensemble-mean AAF reaches a maximum in 2017. The maximum moves however to later years as Arctic winter progresses: for the autumn mean SAT (September to November) the maximum AAF is found in 2028 and for winter (December to February) in 2060. Arctic Amplification is driven, amongst others, by the ice-albedo feedback (IAF) as part of the more general surface albedo feedback (involving clouds, snow cover, vegetation changes) and temperature effects (Planck and lapse-rate feedbacks). We note that sea ice retreat and the associated warming of the summer Arctic Ocean are not only an integral part of the IAF but are also involved in the other drivers. In the CMIP5 simulations, the timing of the AAF maximum coincides with the period of fastest ice retreat for the respective month. Presence of at least some sea ice is crucial for the IAF to be effective because of the contrast in surface albedo between ice and open water and the need to turn ocean warming into ice melt. Once large areas of the Arctic Ocean are ice-free, the IAF should be less effective. We thus hypothesize that the ice retreat significantly affects AAF variability and forces a decline of its magnitude after at least half of the Arctic Ocean is ice-free and the ice cover becomes basically seasonal.

  10. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  11. KIT (CD117) Expression in Benign and Malignant Sweat Gland Tumors. (United States)

    Nishida, Haruto; Daa, Tsutomu; Kashima, Kenji; Arakane, Motoki; Urabe, Shogo; Yoshikawa, Yasuji; Gamachi, Ayako; Yokoyama, Shigeo


    KIT (CD117, c-kit) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the tumorigenesis of several neoplasms. KIT is expressed by the secretory cells of normal sweat glands. We studied the KIT expression and KIT mutational status in various benign and malignant tumors of eccrine and apocrine glands. We included a total of 108 cases comprising 10 benign and 6 malignant sweat gland tumors, and KIT expression was immunohistochemically detected (positive rate): 10 syringomas (0%), 8 poromas (25%), 20 mixed tumors (40%), 21 spiradenomas (43%), 1 cylindroma (0%), 5 hidradenomas (40%), 7 syringocystadenoma papilliferum cases (0%), 1 papillary hidradenoma (100%), 2 tubulopapillary hidradenomas (50%), 8 hidrocystomas (29%), 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas (100%), 5 porocarcinomas (20%), 6 apocrine carcinomas (33%), 10 extramammary Paget diseases (30%), 1 spiradenocarcinoma (100%), and 1 syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (0%). Most KIT-positive cells were luminal cells, arising from glandular structures. We performed polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism for detecting KIT mutational status. All cases showed no mutations at hot spots for KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17). KIT mutation does not seem to be mechanism for KIT expression, but the expression may be from native sweat glands.

  12. Antibody preparation and identification of the Cashmere goat c-kit protein in the testes. (United States)

    Wu, S C L; Luo, F H; Kong, Q F; Wu, Y J


    The c-kit protein plays a major role in the regulation of germ cell development. Its expression and distribution in rodent testes have been widely reported. However, research regarding c-kit expression in domestic animals is scarce, and the expression pattern and distribution of c-kit in germ cells have not been clearly defined. In this study, a specific antigenic region for goat c-kit was designed, and a c-kit polyclonal antibody was prepared. This antibody was then applied in a study evaluating c-kit expression in Cashmere goat tissues. A Western blot analysis showed that three forms of c-kit were expressed in goat testes: precursor, mature, and soluble c-kit. Fluorescent immunohistochemical analyses showed that c-kit was primarily expressed in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes of goat testes. These results not only clarify the expression and localization of c-kit in the goat testis, but also accelerate further research regarding the function of c-kit in goat spermatogenesis.

  13. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status. (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T


    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  14. Parametric amplification in MoS2drum resonator. (United States)

    Prasad, Parmeshwar; Arora, Nishta; Naik, A K


    Parametric amplification is widely used in diverse areas from optics to electronic circuits to enhance low level signals by varying relevant system parameters. Parametric amplification has also been performed in several micro-nano resonators including nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonators based on a two-dimensional (2D) material. Here, we report the enhancement of mechanical response in a MoS 2 drum resonator using degenerate parametric amplification. We use parametric pumping to modulate the spring constant of the MoS 2 resonator and achieve a 10 dB amplitude gain. We also demonstrate quality factor enhancement in the resonator with parametric amplification. We investigate the effect of cubic nonlinearity on parametric amplification and show that it limits the gain of the mechanical resonator. Amplifying ultra-small displacements at room temperature and understanding the limitations of the amplification in these devices is key for using these devices for practical applications.

  15. Structured oligonucleotides for target indexing to allow single-vessel PCR amplification and solid support microarray hybridization. (United States)

    Girard, Laurie D; Boissinot, Karel; Peytavi, Régis; Boissinot, Maurice; Bergeron, Michel G


    The combination of molecular diagnostic technologies is increasingly used to overcome limitations on sensitivity, specificity or multiplexing capabilities, and provide efficient lab-on-chip devices. Two such techniques, PCR amplification and microarray hybridization are used serially to take advantage of the high sensitivity and specificity of the former combined with high multiplexing capacities of the latter. These methods are usually performed in different buffers and reaction chambers. However, these elaborate methods have high complexity and cost related to reagent requirements, liquid storage and the number of reaction chambers to integrate into automated devices. Furthermore, microarray hybridizations have a sequence dependent efficiency not always predictable. In this work, we have developed the concept of a structured oligonucleotide probe which is activated by cleavage from polymerase exonuclease activity. This technology is called SCISSOHR for Structured Cleavage Induced Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide Hybridization Reaction. The SCISSOHR probes enable indexing the target sequence to a tag sequence. The SCISSOHR technology also allows the combination of nucleic acid amplification and microarray hybridization in a single vessel in presence of the PCR buffer only. The SCISSOHR technology uses an amplification probe that is irreversibly modified in presence of the target, releasing a single-stranded DNA tag for microarray hybridization. Each tag is composed of a 3-nucleotide sequence-dependent segment and a unique "target sequence-independent" 14-nucleotide segment allowing for optimal hybridization with minimal cross-hybridization. We evaluated the performance of five (5) PCR buffers to support microarray hybridization, compared to a conventional hybridization buffer. Finally, as a proof of concept, we developed a multiplexed assay for the amplification, detection, and identification of three (3) DNA targets. This new technology will facilitate the design

  16. Diagnóstico das meningites através de fitas reagentes Diagnosis of meningitis with reagent strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M.C. Romanelli


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a utilidade de fitas reagentes para a avaliação liquórica de pleocitose, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia no diagnóstico precoce e rápido de meningites em crianças. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídas no estudo amostras de líquor provenientes de 164 crianças admitidas no ambulatório de doenças infecto-contagiosas do Centro Geral de Pediatria (CGP-FHEMIG, com suspeita clínica de meningite, no período diurno de Maio/97 à Maio/99. A faixa etária dos pacientes variou de um mês a 12 anos (mediana de 12 meses, sendo obtidos resultados da citobioquímica liquórica (celularidade, glicorraquia e proteinorraquia de 154 desses pacientes. Esses achados foram comparados com reações do líquor em fitas reagentes. RESULTADOS: Através da citobioquímica líquórica foram identificados 43 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, 19 provavelmente viróticas e 83 amostras sem alterações. Pelas fitas reagentes, detectaram-se 41 casos de provável meningite bacteriana, dois casos de infecção meníngea provavelmente virótica, e em 71 exames não se verificaram alterações. Comparando os resultados obtidos por meio das fitas reagentes com a citobioquímica convencional, observou-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos positivo e negativo e acurácia (90,7; 98,1; 95,1; 96,4; 96,1%, respectivamente. Ademais, a análise estatística pelo teste de Mc Nemar não evidenciou discordância significativa no diagnóstico de meningite bacteriana obtido através de ambos os métodos (p=0,68 e, pela estatística Kappa, verificou-se elevado grau de concordância entre os testes (pOBJECTIVE: to determine the usefulness of reagent strips in the evaluation of pleocytosis, cerebrospinal fluid glucose and protein levels for early and rapid diagnosis of meningitis in children. METHODS: We included cerebrospinal fluid samples of 164 children admitted to the outpatient clinic of Communicable Diseases of the General Pediatric Center (Funda

  17. Total Synthesis of Natural Products Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents

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    Gaetan eMaertens


    Full Text Available We present a review of natural product syntheses accomplished in our laboratory during the last five years. Each synthetic route features a phenol dearomatization promoted by an environmentally benign hypervalent iodine reagent. The dearomatizations demonstrate the aromatic ring umpolung concept, and involve stereoselective remodeling of the inert unsaturations of a phenol into a highly functionalized key intermediate that may contain a quaternary carbon center and a prochiral dienone system. Several new oxidative strategies were employed, including transpositions (1,3-alkyl shift and Prins-pinacol, a polycyclization, an ipso rearrangement, and direct nucleophilic additions at the phenol para position. Several alkaloids, heterocyclic compounds, and a polycyclic core have been achieved, including sceletenone (a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, acetylaspidoalbidine (an antitumor agent, fortucine (antiviral and antitumor, erysotramidine (curare-like effect, platensimycin (an antibiotic, and the main core of a kaurane diterpene (immunosuppressive agent and stimulator of apoptosis. These concise and in some cases enantioselective syntheses effectively demonstrate the importance of hypervalent iodine reagents in the total synthesis of bioactive natural products.

  18. Fenton’s reagent application in the domestic sewers disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juacyara Cabonelli Campos


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the application of advanced oxidative processes – Fenton’s reagent - in wastewater disinfection. The treatments included the variation of the hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ions concentrations (Fe2+/H2O2 and pH values. The sewage samples were collected at Ilha do Governador Wastewater Treatment Plant (ETIG in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, before the biological treatment with activated sludge. The average pH fluctuated from 6.5 to 7.2 and the most common value was 6.7. The reactions with the Fenton´s reagents, as well as the beginning of the analysis occurred within 24 hours after the sewage sample`s collection. The oxidative process, its behavior and the treatment effectiveness have been monitored by microorganism counting, COD, BOD, ammoniacal nitrogen and others. The results have shown a total elimination of the fecal coliforms in the wastewater samples when treated with H2O2 and Fe2+ in concentrations of 200 mg/L of 50 mg/L, respectively.

  19. Reduction of amine N-oxides by diboron reagents. (United States)

    Kokatla, Hari Prasad; Thomson, Paul F; Bae, Suyeal; Doddi, Venkata Ramana; Lakshman, Mahesh K


    Facile reduction of alkylamino-, anilino-, and pyridyl-N-oxides can be achieved via the use of diboron reagents, predominantly bis(pinacolato)- and in some cases bis(catecholato)diboron [(pinB)(2) and (catB)(2), respectively]. Reductions occur upon simply mixing the amine N-oxide and the diboron reagent in a suitable solvent, at a suitable temperature. Extremely fast reductions of alkylamino- and anilino-N-oxides occur, whereas pyridyl-N-oxides undergo slower reduction. The reaction is tolerant of a variety of functionalities such as hydroxyl, thiol, and cyano groups, as well as halogens. Notably, a sensitive nucleoside N-oxide has also been reduced efficiently. The different rates with which alkylamino- and pyridyl-N-oxides are reduced has been used to perform stepwise reduction of the N,N'-dioxide of (S)-(-)-nicotine. Because it was observed that (pinB)(2) was unaffected by the water of hydration in amine oxides, the feasibility of using water as solvent was evaluated. These reactions also proceeded exceptionally well, giving high product yields. In constrast to the reactions with (pinB)(2), triethylborane reduced alkylamino-N-oxides, but pyridine N-oxide did not undergo efficient reduction even at elevated temperature. Finally, the mechanism of the reductive process by (pinB)(2) has been probed by (1)H and (11)B NMR.

  20. Densitometric determination of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin by 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde reagent. (United States)

    Glavnik, Vesna; Simonovska, Breda; Vovk, Irena


    We report the optimization of a sensitive, selective and robust derivatization method using 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) for densitometric determination of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. The separation of these compounds was achieved by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on cellulose plates developed with water. With DMACA in HCl, both compounds gave blue bands, while under the same conditions, vanillin produced a fast fading red coloration of bands. Quantitation at 655nm showed that for both compounds the calibration curve was linear from 2 to 12ng and polynomial from 2 to 30ng, and the repeatability of chromatography of 20ng was 3.5% (RSD, n=6). The visible limit of detection of both standards was 1ng, but the densitometric limit of detection was lower (0.2ng). The optimized DMACA reagent is superior to the more frequently used vanillin reagent and is applicable also for determination of mixtures containing other catechins ((-)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, procyanidin A2, procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2).

  1. The blocking reagent optimization for the magnetoelastic biosensor (United States)

    Hu, Jiajia; Chai, Yating; Horikawa, Shin; Wikle, Howard C.; Wang, Feng'en; Du, Songtao; Chin, Bryan A.; Hu, Jing


    The wireless phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensor has proven to be promising for real-time detection of pathogenic bacteria on fresh produces. The ME biosensor consists of a freestanding ME resonator as the signal transducer and filamentous phage as the biomolecular-recognition element, which can specifically bind to a pathogen of interest. Due to the Joule magnetostriction effect, the biosensors can be placed into mechanical resonance when subjected to a time-varying magnetic field alternating at the sensor's resonant frequency. Upon the attachment of the target pathogen, the mass of the biosensor increases, thereby decreasing its resonant frequency. This paper presents an investigation of blocking reagents immobilization for detecting Salmonella Typhimurium on fresh food surfaces. Three different blocking reagents (BSA, SuperBlock blocking buffer, and blocker BLOTTO) were used and compared. The optical microscope was used for bacterial cells binding observation. Student t-test was used to statistically analysis the experiment results. The results shows that SuperBlock blocking buffer and blocker BLOTTO have much better blocking performance than usually used BSA.

  2. A new formaldehyde sensor from silver nanoclusters modified Tollens' reagent. (United States)

    Chaiendoo, Kanokwan; Sooksin, Sawarin; Kulchat, Sirinan; Promarak, Vinich; Tuntulani, Thawatchai; Ngeontae, Wittaya


    A selective colorimetric assay for detecting formaldehyde (FA) was proposed based on silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) templated by polymethacrylic acid (PMAA). The chemodosimeter was easily fabricated by the formation of Tollens' reagent in the presence of AgNCs (AgNCs@Tollens). The detection principle was based on the change in the color caused by the change in the particle size from nanoclusters (no LSPR) to nanoparticles (with LSPR) upon the reduction of Tollens' reagent by FA. In the presence of FA, the intensity of a new absorbance band with a maximum at a wavelength of 430 nm corresponding to the LSPR of the AgNPs linearly increased as a function of the FA concentration, exhibiting a color change that could be observed by the naked eye. This method provided a working range of 30-50 µM with lower detection limit (LOD) of 27.99 µM. The proposed method exhibited excellent selectivity towards FA over other aldehyde-containing compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (United States)

    Agrawal, Govind


    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  4. Primordial magnetic field amplification from turbulent reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra


    We analyze the possibility of primordial magnetic field amplification by a stochastic large scale kinematic dynamo during reheating. We consider a charged scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. During inflation this field is assumed to be in its vacuum state. At the transition to reheating the state of the field changes to a many particle/anti-particle state. We characterize that state as a fluid flow of zero mean velocity but with a stochastic velocity field. We compute the scale-dependent Reynolds number Re(k), and the characteristic times for decay of turbulence, t d and pair annihilation t a , finding t a d . We calculate the rms value of the kinetic helicity of the flow over a scale L and show that it does not vanish. We use this result to estimate the amplification factor of a seed field from the stochastic kinematic dynamo equations. Although this effect is weak, it shows that the evolution of the cosmic magnetic field from reheating to galaxy formation may well be more complex than as dictated by simple flux freezing

  5. Electronic cyclotron radiation amplification in thermonuclear plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziebell, L.F.


    The amplified emission of electron cyclotron radiation near the fundamental frequency from an inhomogeneous, anisotropic plasma slab is investigated in a linear theory. Plasma polarization effects are consistently included. Expressions are developed in the WKB approximation for emission in the ordinary and the extraordinary modes, for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field. Numerical results are given for the extraordinary mode, for which effects are strongest. For the case of a loss-cone-type electron momentum distribution, it is shown that the amplification is sensitively dependent on the ratio of parallel-to-perpendicular temperature and on inhomogeneities in the magnetic field. The dependence of the amplification on the distribution is further investigated by considering superpositions of loss-cone and Maxwellian components. It is show that the presence of a Maxwellian component in general reduces the emission relative to the pure loss-cone case, and situations occur in which a layer in the slab very effectively absorbs all the radiation amplified elsewhere. A peculiar behaviour of the refractive index, which occurs in the transition from the pure loss-cone to the pure Maxwellian case, is discussed. (author)

  6. Earthquake acceleration amplification based on single microtremor test (United States)

    Jaya Syahbana, Arifan; Kurniawan, Rahmat; Soebowo, Eko


    Understanding soil dynamics is needed to understand soil behaviour, including the parameters of earthquake acceleration amplification. Many researchers now conduct single microtremor tests to obtain amplification of velocity and natural periods of soil at test sites. However, these amplification parameters are rarely used, so a method is needed to convert the velocity amplification to acceleration amplification. This paper will discuss the proposed process of changing the value of amplification. The proposed method is to integrate the time histories of the synthetic earthquake acceleration of the soil surface under the deaggregation at that location so the time histories of the velocity earthquake will be obtained. Next is to conduct a “fitting curve” between amplification by a single microtremor test with amplification of the synthetic earthquake velocity time histories. After obtaining the fitting curve time histories of velocity, differentiation will be conducted to obtain fitting curve acceleration time histories. The final step after obtaining the fitting curve is to compare the acceleration of the “fitting curve” against the histories time of the acceleration of synthetic earthquake at bedrocks to obtain single microtremor acceleration amplification factor.

  7. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates. (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq


    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10-90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content.

  8. C-MET overexpression and amplification in gliomas. (United States)

    Kwak, Yoonjin; Kim, Seong-Ik; Park, Chul-Kee; Paek, Sun Ha; Lee, Soon-Tae; Park, Sung-Hye


    We investigated c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification in gliomas to determine their incidence and prognostic significance. c-Met immunohistochemistry and MET gene fluorescence in situ hybridization were carried out on tissue microarrays from 250 patients with gliomas (137 grade IV GBMs and 113 grade II and III diffuse gliomas). Clinicopathological features of these cases were reviewed. c-Met overexpression and MET gene amplification were detected in 13.1% and 5.1% of the GBMs, respectively. All the MET-amplified cases showed c-Met overexpression, but MET amplification was not always concordant with c-Met overexpression. None of grade II and III gliomas demonstrated c-Met overexpression or MET gene amplification. Mean survival of the GBM patients with MET amplification was not significantly different from patients without MET amplification (P=0.155). However, GBM patients with c-Met overexpression survived longer than patients without c-Met overexpression (P=0.035). Although MET amplification was not related to poor GBM prognosis, it is partially associated with the aggressiveness of gliomas, as MET amplification was found only in grade IV, not in grade II and III gliomas. We suggest that MET inhibitor therapy may be beneficial in about 5% GBMs, which was the incidence of MET gene amplification found in the patients included in this study.

  9. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis-DNA in synovial fluid: evaluation of the sensitivity of different DNA extraction methods and amplification systems. (United States)

    Freise, Julia; Bernau, Iris; Meier, Sabine; Zeidler, Henning; Kuipers, Jens G


    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligase chain reaction (LCR) are used in research for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. tr.) in synovial fluid (SF). However there is no standardized system for diagnostic use in clinical practice, therefore this study aimed at determining the molecular biology method best suited to detect C. tr. from SF. SF samples were spiked with C. tr. elementary bodies (EB) and human peripheral blood monocytes (PBMo) persistently infected with C. tr. in vitro to evaluate the sensitivity of different molecular biology methods and assays. Five different DNA-extraction methods were tested: 1) Alkaline lysis, 2) QIAex II Gel Extraction Kit+ CTAB, 3) Chelex-extraction, 4) QIAmp Tissue Kit and 5) QIAmp DNA Stool Kit. All DNA extracts were subjected to 5 different DNA amplification systems to detect C. tr.- DNA in the spiked SF samples: two C. tr. -omp1-- directed PCR, one C. tr.-plasmid-PCR, one C. tr. -16s RNA directed PCR, and one commercially available LCR (LCX), Abbott laboratories). In SF samples spiked with C. tr.-EB and with C. tr.-PBMo, alkaline lysis, detecting 1 C. tr.-EB/ml SF, 0,1 C. tr.-PBMo/ml SF and QIAmp gel extraction kit+ CTAB detecting 0,1 C. tr. -EB/ml SF, 1 C. tr.-PBMo/ml, respectively, allowed most sensitive detection of the organism in combination with the C. tr.- omp1-(152 bp) PCR. Sensitivity decreased in all methods after storage of the DNA of C. tr.- dilution series at -20 degrees C for 4 months by at least one log phase. The sensitivity to detect C. tr.- DNA from SF is highly dependent on the DNA extraction method and the detection system applied. Alkaline lysis as well as the QIAmp Gel extraction kit + CTAB in combination with C. tr.- omp1 - (152 bp) PCR evolved as the most sensitive methods to identify C. tr. in serial dilutions.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of loopamp Trypanosoma brucei detection kit for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Mitashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular methods have great potential for sensitive parasite detection in the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, but the requirements in terms of laboratory infrastructure limit their use to reference centres. A recently developed assay detects the Trypanozoon repetitive insertion mobile element (RIME DNA under isothermal amplification conditions and has been transformed into a ready-to-use kit format, the Loopamp Trypanosoma brucei. In this study, we have evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Loopamp Trypanosoma brucei assay (hereafter called LAMP in confirmed T.b. gambiense HAT patients, HAT suspects and healthy endemic controls from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 142 T.b. gambiense HAT patients, 111 healthy endemic controls and 97 HAT suspects with unconfirmed status were included in this retrospective evaluation. Reference standard tests were parasite detection in blood, lymph or cerebrospinal fluid. Archived DNA from blood of all study participants was analysed in duplicate with LAMP. Sensitivity of LAMP in parasitologically confirmed cases was 87.3% (95% CI 80.9-91.8% in the first run and 93.0% (95% CI 87.5-96.1% in the second run. Specificity in healthy controls was 92.8% (95% CI 86.4-96.3% in the first run and 96.4% (95% CI 91.1-98.6% in the second run. Reproducibility was excellent with a kappa value of 0.81. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this laboratory-based study, the Loopamp Trypanosoma brucei Detection Kit showed good diagnostic accuracy and excellent reproducibility. Further studies are needed to assess the feasibility of its routine use for diagnosis of HAT under field conditions.

  11. Competitive amplification of differentially melting amplicons (CADMA improves KRAS hotspot mutation testing in colorectal cancer

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    Kristensen Lasse


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases traditionally categorized according to tissue of origin. However, even among patients with the same cancer subtype the cellular alterations at the molecular level are often very different. Several new therapies targeting specific molecular changes found in individual patients have initiated the era of personalized therapy and significantly improved patient care. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC a selected group of patients with wild-type KRAS respond to antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Testing for KRAS mutations is now required prior to anti-EGFR treatment, however, less sensitive methods based on conventional PCR regularly fail to detect KRAS mutations in clinical samples. Methods We have developed sensitive and specific assays for detection of the seven most common KRAS mutations based on a novel methodology named Competitive Amplification of Differentially Melting Amplicons (CADMA. The clinical applicability of these assays was assessed by analyzing 100 colorectal cancer samples, for which KRAS mutation status has been evaluated by the commercially available TheraScreen® KRAS mutation kit. Results The CADMA assays were sensitive to at least 0.5% mutant alleles in a wild-type background when using 50 nanograms of DNA in the reactions. Consensus between CADMA and the TheraScreen kit was observed in 96% of the colorectal cancer samples. In cases where disagreement was observed the CADMA result could be confirmed by a previously published assay based on TaqMan probes and by fast COLD-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Conclusions The high analytical sensitivity and specificity of CADMA may increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of KRAS mutation testing in mCRC patients.

  12. Comparison of DNA probe, PCR amplification, ELISA and culture methods for the rapid detection of Salmonella in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasem, J.A.; Al-Mouqati, S.; Rajkumar, G.


    The identification of Salmonella spp. from poultry meat was studied by comparing bacterial detection using the Gene-Trak colorimetric hybridization method, a PCR amplification kit and an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), and these methods were compared with the conventional methodology proposed by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) for detection of Salmonella in food samples. Forty positive and negative samples were studied. The three methods yielded similar results with levels of Salmonella greater than 10 CFU per sample, even when the samples were highly contaminated with competing bacteria. In contrast, 20 CFU of seed inoculum per sample was the lowest level of Salmonella detectable with all three methods and the standard culture method. The detection limits of the PCR and ELISA assays were 5 CFU/g after enrichment at 37 deg. C for 6 and 9 hours, respectively. Compared with conventional bacteriology, all three methods here demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for Salmonella. (author)

  13. Triethylborane-induced radical reactions with gallium hydride reagent HGaCl2. (United States)

    Mikami, S; Fujita, K; Nakamura, T; Yorimitsu, H; Shinokubo, H; Matsubara, S; Oshima, K


    [see reaction]. A gallium hydride reagent, HGaCl2, was found to act as a radical mediator, like tributyltin hydride. Treatment of alkyl halides with the gallium hydride reagent, generated from gallium trichloride and sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminum hydride, provided the corresponding reduced products in excellent yields. Radical cyclization of halo acetals was also successful with not only the stoichiometric gallium reagent but also a catalytic amount of gallium trichloride combined with stoichiometric aluminum hydride as a hydride source.

  14. Genetic engineering approach to develop next-generation reagents for endotoxin quantification


    Mizumura, Hikaru; Ogura, Norihiko; Aketagawa, Jun; Aizawa, Maki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Kawabata, Shun-ichiro; Oda, Toshio


    The bacterial endotoxin test, which uses amebocyte lysate reagents of horseshoe crab origin, is a sensitive, reproducible and simple assay to measure endotoxin concentration. To develop sustainable raw materials for lysate reagents that do not require horseshoe crabs, three recombinant protease zymogens (factor C, derived from mammalian cells; factor B; and the proclotting enzyme derived from insect cells) were prepared using a genetic engineering technique. Recombinant cascade reagents (RCRs...

  15. The development of new diagnostic test-systems and improvement of the existed radio immunochemical kits in the industrial production conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Abdukayumov, A M


    completed the laboratory and clinical testing of the kits of reagents 'IRMA-M-HBsAg- sup 1 sup 2 sup 5 I', 'ELISA-HBsAg', 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' that had shown the high specificity and reproduction of the analysis results. Immunoenzymetic kit 'ELISA-HBsAg' of the third generation for HBsAg detection in human blood serum with the sensitivity not less than 0.5 ng/ml was introduced into industrial production. It had been developed and introduced into industrial production the highly sensitive immunoenzymetic test-system 'Recombinant-anti-HCV-strip' of the third generation for antibodies to hepatitis C virus detection in human blood serum. The highly effective method had been developed for HBsAg preparing and purification that allowed to use as the raw material a plasma of donors with low content of the target product and based on the application of the stepped fractionation by Ammonium Sulphate and affinity chromatography. The use efficiency of the produced HBsAg preparations had been shown for laboratory ...

  16. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P


    thermoregulatory response to the L temperature by increased HE, whereas groups of kits showed increased HE from 29th day onwards. When kept at H temperature, HE was low initially, but all kits showed elevated HE at 8 days of age, and the metabolic rate was similar for single kits and kits huddling in groups...... and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a clear....... Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to thermoregulate...

  17. Development of Optics Kit for schools in developing countries: International School of Photonics model (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; James, Jemy; Krisha, Yedhu; Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Nampoori, V. P. N.


    In India, the pedagogy of science education is "believe what text book says". Providing schools with appropriate teaching materials to enhance teaching has always been a challenge in a developing country like India. Generally it is not possible for a normal school in India to afford the expensive teaching materials to teach through demonstrations and experiments. Thus students are forced to believe what text book says rather than learning concepts through experiments. The International School of Photonics SPIE (International Society for Optical Engineering) student chapter came up with `Optics kit' to supplement the teaching of optics in school level. `Optics kit', developed with indigenously procured components, could be sold at an affordable prize for an average Indian School. The chapter is currently selling the kit for less than $20. The content of the kit is at par with many kits already available commercially in developed countries, and the price is just 10% compared to those kits. The kit is aimed to higher secondary level students in India, where students are taught Ray optics and basics of Wave Optics. The content of the kit is developed based on this syllabus. The Optics Kit contains simple optical elements like lens, grating, polarizer, mirror, diode laser etc. The kit can be used to demonstrate optics phenomena like interference, diffraction, polarization etc. The kit was developed based on the feedback gathered by the chapter through its outreach activities. The syllabus for the kit was developed through thorough discussion with educational experts in the field of Physics. The student community welcomed the optics kit with overwhelming enthusiasm and hence the project proved to be successful in giving an opportunity for students to "See and Believe" what they are learning.

  18. Single-cell analysis of the fate of c-kit-positive bone marrow cells (United States)

    Czarna, Anna; Sanada, Fumihiro; Matsuda, Alex; Kim, Junghyun; Signore, Sergio; Pereira, João D.; Sorrentino, Andrea; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Cannatà, Antonio; Hosoda, Toru; Rota, Marcello; Crea, Filippo; Anversa, Piero; Leri, Annarosa


    The plasticity of c-kit-positive bone marrow cells (c-kit-BMCs) in tissues different from their organ of origin remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that c-kit-BMCs are functionally heterogeneous and only a subgroup of these cells possesses cardiomyogenic potential. Population-based assays fall short of identifying the properties of individual stem cells, imposing on us the introduction of single cell-based approaches to track the fate of c-kit-BMCs in the injured heart; they included viral gene-tagging, multicolor clonal-marking and transcriptional profiling. Based on these strategies, we report that single mouse c-kit-BMCs expand clonally within the infarcted myocardium and differentiate into specialized cardiac cells. Newly-formed cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, fibroblasts and c-kit-BMCs showed in their genome common sites of viral integration, providing strong evidence in favor of the plasticity of a subset of BMCs expressing the c-kit receptor. Similarly, individual c-kit-BMCs, which were infected with multicolor reporters and injected in infarcted hearts, formed cardiomyocytes and vascular cells organized in clusters of similarly colored cells. The uniform distribution of fluorescent proteins in groups of specialized cells documented the polyclonal nature of myocardial regeneration. The transcriptional profile of myogenic c-kit-BMCs and whole c-kit-BMCs was defined by RNA sequencing. Genes relevant for engraftment, survival, migration, and differentiation were enriched in myogenic c-kit-BMCs, a cell subtype which could not be assigned to a specific hematopoietic lineage. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the bone marrow comprises a category of cardiomyogenic, vasculogenic and/or fibrogenic c-kit-positive cells and a category of c-kit-positive cells that retains an undifferentiated state within the damaged heart.

  19. Mutations in Exons 9 and 13 of KIT Gene Are Rare Events in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (United States)

    Lasota, Jerzy; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Rys, Janusz; Kordek, Radzislaw; Nassar, Aziza; Sobin, Leslie H.; Miettinen, Markku


    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, typically express the KIT protein. Activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain (exon 11) of the c-kit gene have been shown in a subset of GISTs. These mutations lead into ligand-independent activation of the tyrosine kinase of c-kit, and have a transforming effect in vitro. Several groups have studied the clinical implication of the c-kit mutation status of exon 11 in GISTs and a possible relationship between c-kit mutations and malignant behavior has been established. Recently, a 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and missense mutations, 1945A>G in exon 13 of the c-kit gene were reported. The frequency and clinical importance of these findings are unknown. In this study we evaluated 200 GISTs for the presence of mutations in exons 9 and 13 of c-kit. Six cases revealed 1530ins6 mutation in exon 9 and two cases 1945A>G mutation in exon 13. All tumors with mutations in exon 9 and 13 lacked mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. None of the analyzed tumors had more than one type of c-kit mutation. All but one of the eight tumors with mutations in exon 9 or 13 of the c-kit gene were histologically and clinically malignant. All four of six cases with exon 9 mutation of which location of primary tumor was known, were small intestinal, suggesting that this type of mutation could preferentially occur in small intestinal tumors. Exon 9 and 13 mutations seem to be rare, and they cover only a small portion (8%) of the balance of GISTs that do not have mutations in exon 11 of c-kit. This finding indicates that other genetic alterations may activate c-kit in GISTs, or that KIT is not activated by mutations in all cases. PMID:11021812

  20. Features of the reaction of heterocyclic analogs of chalcone with lanthanide shift reagents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turov, A.V.; Khilya, V.P. [Taras Shevchenko Kiev Univ. (Russian Federation)


    The PMR spectra of heterocyclic analogs of 2-hydroxychalcone containing thiazole, benzofuran, triazole, imidazole, benzodioxane, or pyridine rings in the presence of lanthanide shift reagents are studied. It is found that the most effective reagent for modifying the spectra of these compounds is Yb(fod)3. The broadening of the spectra of 2-hydroxy chalcones in the presence of lanthanide shift reagents is explained by the dynamic effects of complex formation. An example is given of the determination of the conformation of molecules of 2-hydroxychalcone by the simultaneous use of lanthanide shift reagents and the homonuclear Overhauser effect. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.