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Sample records for amplification mlpa screening

  1. Screening for subtelomeric rearrangements in 210 patients with unexplained mental retardation using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, D.A.; Nillesen, W.M.; Versteeg, M.H.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Kets, M.; Vermeer, S.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Kovel, C.G.F. de; Brunner, H.G.; Smeets, D.F.C.M.; Vries, L.B.A. de; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subtelomeric rearrangements contribute to idiopathic mental retardation and human malformations, sometimes as distinct mental retardation syndromes. However, for most subtelomeric defects a characteristic clinical phenotype remains to be elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To screen for submicroscopi

  2. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina De Smet

    Full Text Available The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  3. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  4. MLPAinter for MLPA interpretation: an integrated approach for the analysis, visualisation and data management of Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morreau Hans

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA is an application that can be used for the detection of multiple chromosomal aberrations in a single experiment. In one reaction, up to 50 different genomic sequences can be analysed. For a reliable work-flow, tools are needed for administrative support, data management, normalisation, visualisation, reporting and interpretation. Results Here, we developed a data management system, MLPAInter for MLPA interpretation, that is windows executable and has a stand-alone database for monitoring and interpreting the MLPA data stream that is generated from the experimental setup to analysis, quality control and visualisation. A statistical approach is applied for the normalisation and analysis of large series of MLPA traces, making use of multiple control samples and internal controls. Conclusions MLPAinter visualises MLPA data in plots with information about sample replicates, normalisation settings, and sample characteristics. This integrated approach helps in the automated handling of large series of MLPA data and guarantees a quick and streamlined dataflow from the beginning of an experiment to an authorised report.

  5. Rapid identification and characterization of Penicillium marneffei using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in paraffin-embedded tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Zhang; J.F. Sun; P.Y. Feng; X.Q. Li; C.M. Lu; S. Lu; W.Y. Cai; L.Y. Xi; G.S. de Hoog

    2011-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei infection is a deadly disease and early diagnosis leads to prompt and appropriate antifungal therapy. To develop a sensitive method to diagnose P. marneffei infection, a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay was adapted. This method can rapidly and speci

  6. Detection of cryptic subtelomeric chromosome abnormalities and identification of anonymous chromatin using a quantitative multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrop, Emma L; Ren, Hua; Bruno, Damien L; McGhie, James D R; Coffa, Jordi; Schouten, Jan; Choo, K H Andy; Slater, Howard R

    2005-11-01

    The need to detect clinically significant segmental aneuploidies beyond the range of light microscopy demands the development of new cost-efficient, sensitive, and robust analytical techniques. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has already been shown to be particularly effective and flexible for measuring copy numbers in a multiplex format. Previous attempts to develop a reliable MLPA to assay all chromosome subtelomeric regions have been confounded by unforeseen copy number variation in some genes that are very close to the telomeres in healthy individuals. We addressed this shortcoming by substituting all known polymorphic probes and using two complementary multiplex assays to minimize the likelihood of false results. We developed this new quantitative MLPA strategy for two important diagnostic applications. First, in a group of cases with high clinical suspicion of a chromosome abnormality but normal, high-resolution karyotypes, MLPA detected subtelomeric abnormalities in three patients. Two were de novo terminal deletions (del(4p) and del(1p)), and one was a derivative chromosome 1 from a maternal t(1p;17p). The range of these segmental aneuploidies was 1.8-6.6 Mb, and none were visible on retrospective microscopy. Second, in a group of six patients with apparently de novo single-chromosome abnormalities containing anonymous chromatin, MLPA identified two cases with simple intrachromosomal duplications: dup(6p) and dup(8q). Three cases showed derivative chromosomes from translocations involving the distal regions of 9q and 4q, 5p and 11q, and 6q and 3p. One case showed a nonreciprocal, interchromosomal translocation of the distal region of 10p-7p. All abnormalities in both groups were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). This quantitative MLPA technique for subtelomeric assays is compared with previously described alternative techniques. PMID:16170807

  7. 多重连接探针扩增(MLPA)技术同时检测五种病毒的研究%Simultaneous Detection of Five Virues by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification(MLPA) Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史喜菊; 马贵平; 乔彩霞; 郭志红; 张伟; 刘全国; 李炎鑫; 李冰玲

    2013-01-01

    Current detection technologies for diagnosis of animal diseases is mostly targeted at single pathogen,but the prevalence of animal diseases is characterized by mixed infection with more than one pathogen.In order to resolve the trouble,here we describe the new multiparameter assay,which is based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA) technology with the advantages of specificity,sensitivity and high-throughput.Five pairs of specific probe targeted at Swine influenza virus(SIV),Pseudorabies virus(PRV),Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV),Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV),were designed,respectiviely.The mixture of five standard RNA/DNA was used as template,together with the mixture of these probes as probe and the PCR universal primer,one MLPA method for simultaneous detection of the five porcine viruses was developed.The result of specificity test showed that the designed probes had good specificity without mismatch between each virus-specific probe pair and other six viruses,and that the mixture of the five pairs of probe only amplified the corresponding one specific fragment from the eight virus templates,respectively,no amplification signal was produced among Porcine parvovirus(PPV),Classical swine fever virus(CSFV) and Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus(PEDV) with the same probe mixture.The result of sensitivity test showed that the concentration of nucleic acid of single virus in one MLPA reaction was up to 3 000~6 000 copies.All the results showed that the developed MLPA method in this article accomplished the simultaneous detection of five viruses in one reaction,which indicates MLPA technology may be an alternative to simultaneous detection of many pathogens in the future in the field of veterinary medicine.%现有的动物疫病诊断技术多是针对单一病原进行的,而动物疫病的流行却出现了多种病毒混合感染,现有诊断技术不能很好地

  8. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lina De Smet; Jorgen Ravoet; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Tom Wenseleers; Mueller, Matthias Y.; Moritz, Robin F.A.; Dirk C de Graaf

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for...

  9. Rapid screening of innate immune gene expression in zebrafish using reverse transcription - multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaink Herman P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the zebrafish increasingly being used in immunology and infectious disease research, there is a need for efficient molecular tools to evaluate immune gene expression in this model species. RT-MLPA (reverse transcription - multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification provides a sensitive and reproducible method, in which fluorescently labelled amplification products of unique lengths are produced for a defined set of target transcripts. The method employs oligonucleotide probes that anneal to adjacent sites on a target sequence and are then joined by a heat-stable ligase. Subsequently, multiplex PCR with universal primers gives rise to amplicons that can be analyzed with standard sequencing equipment and relative quantification software. Allowing the simultaneous quantification of around 40 selected markers in a one-tube assay, RT-MLPA is highly useful for high-throughput screening applications. Findings We employed a dual-colour RT-MLPA probe design for chemical synthesis of probe pairs for 34 genes involved in Toll-like receptor signalling, transcriptional activation of the immune response, cytokine and chemokine production, and antimicrobial defence. In addition, six probe pairs were included for reference genes unaffected by infections in zebrafish. First, we established assay conditions for adult zebrafish infected with different strains of Mycobacterium marinum causing acute and chronic disease. Addition of competitor oligonucleotides was required to achieve peak heights in a similar range for genes with different expression levels. For subsequent analysis of embryonic samples it was necessary to adjust the amounts of competitor oligonucleotides, as the expression levels of several genes differed to a large extent between adult and embryonic tissues. Assay conditions established for one-day-old Salmonella typhimurium-infected embryos could be transferred without further adjustment to five-day-old M. marinum

  10. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Technique for Copy Number Analysis on Small Amounts of DNA Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina; Andersen, Paal; Larsen, Lars; Schwartz, Marianne; Schouten, Jan; Nygren, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique is a sensitive technique for relative quantification of up to 50 different nucleic acid sequences in a single reaction, and the technique is routinely used for copy number analysis in various syndromes and diseases. The aim of...... the study was to exploit the potential of MLPA when the DNA material is limited. The DNA concentration required in standard MLPA analysis is not attainable from dried blood spot samples (DBSS) often used in neonatal screening programs. A novel design of MLPA probes has been developed to permit for...... MLPA analysis on small amounts of DNA. Six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were used in this study. DNA was extracted from both whole blood and DBSS and subjected to MLPA analysis using normal and modified probes. Results were analyzed using GeneMarker and manual Excel analysis. A...

  11. MLPA method for PMP22 gene analysis:

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalj-Vokač, Nadja; Stangler Herodež, Špela; Zagradišnik, Boris

    2005-01-01

    DNA copy number alterations are responsible for several categories of human diseases and syndromes. These changes can be detected by cytogenetic studies when there is involvement of several kilobases or megabases of DNA. Examination of sub-microscopic changes is possible by using short probes flanked by the same primer pairs. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a simple, high resolution method by which not sample nucleic acids but probes added to the samples are amplifi...

  12. Integrated multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays for the detection of alterations in the HEXB, GM2A and SMARCAL1 genes to support the diagnosis of Morbus Sandhoff, M. Tay-Sachs variant AB and Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Anna K U; Evers, Christina; Dekomien, Gabriele

    2013-02-01

    Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assays were designed for the genes HEXB (OMIM: 606873), GM2A (OMIM: 613109) and SMARCAL1 (OMIM: 606622) of humans. Two sets of synthetic MLPA probes for these coding exons were tested. Changes in copy numbers were detected as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by complementary DNA sequence analyses. The MLPA method was shown to be reliable for mutation detection and identified five published and 12 new mutations. In all cases from a Morbus Sandhoff cohort of patients, exclusively one variation in copy number was observed and linked to a nucleotide alteration called c.1614-14C>A. This deletion comprised exons 1-5. One of these cases is described in detail. Deletions were neither detected in the GM2A nor the SMARCAL1 genes. The MLPA assays complement routine diagnostics for M. Sandhoff (OMIM: 268800), M. Tay-Sachs variant AB (OMIM: 272750) and Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (OMIM: 242900). PMID:23010210

  13. Application research of multiplex ligation- dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in rapid prenatal detection of aneuploid abnormalities%MLPA技术在快速检测胎儿染色体非整倍体异常中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江雨; 王文博; 吴琦嫦; 周裕林

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨多重探针连接依赖式扩增(multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification,MLPA)在快速检测胎儿染色体非整倍体异常中的应用价值.方法:282例产前诊断标本(羊水179例、脐带血90例和绒毛13例)同时进行MLPA检测及核型分析,用计算机辅助数据分析方法得出MLPA检测结果.结果:MLPA分析在标本接收后24 h内即可得出结果,共检出染色体倍体异常产前诊断标本17例,包括唐氏综合征(Down Syndrome,47,+21)7例、爱德华氏综合征(Edwards Syndrome,47,+18)5例、特纳氏综合征(Turner Syndrome,45,X)3例、帕陶氏综合征(Patau Syndrome,47,+13)1例及XYY综合征(47,XYY)1例.MLPA检测24 h报告结果临床符合率为97.9%.结论:MLPA技术具有快速、准确性高、成本低等优点,可作为诊断常见染色体非整倍体异常的可靠方法.

  14. Detecting 22q11.2 deletions by use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on DNA from neonatal dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina M; Agergaard, Peter; Olesen, Charlotte; Andersen, Paal S; Larsen, Lars A; Ostergaard, John R; Schouten, Jan P; Christiansen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    of 22q11.2 deletions among certain manifestations, eg, congenital heart disease, on selected Danes, a multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was designed. The analysis was planned to be performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples (DBSS) obtained from Guthrie...... cards collected during neonatal screening programs. However, the DNA concentration necessary for a standard MLPA analysis (20 ng) could not be attained from DBSS, and a novel MLPA design was developed to permit for analysis on limited amounts of DNA (2 ng). A pilot study is reported here that validates...

  15. Deletion/duplication mutation screening of TP53 gene in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafshani, Mohammad Reza R; Nowshadi, Pouriaali A; Shirian, Sadegh; Daneshbod, Yahya; Nabipour, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Maral; Hosseini, Fatemehsadat; Dehghan, Somayeh; Saeedzadeh, Abolfazl; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-02-01

    Bladder cancer is a molecular disease driven by the accumulation of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to detect the deletions/duplication mutations in TP53 gene exons using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method in the patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The achieved formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 60 patients with TCC of bladder were screened for exonal deletions or duplications of every 12 TP53 gene exons using MLPA. The pathological sections were examined by three pathologists and categorized according to the WHO scoring guideline as 18 (30%) grade I, 22 (37%) grade II, 13 (22%) grade III, and 7 (11%) grade IV cases of TCC. None mutation changes of TP53 gene were detected in 24 (40%) of the patients. Furthermore, mutation changes including, 15 (25%) deletion, 17 (28%) duplication, and 4 (7%) both deletion and duplication cases were observed among 60 samples. From 12 exons of TP53 gene, exon 1 was more subjected to exonal deletion. Deletion of exon 1 of TP53 gene has occurred in 11 (35.4%) patients with TCC. In general, most mutations of TP53, either deletion or duplication, were found in exon 1, which was statistically significant. In addition, no relation between the TCC tumor grade and any type of mutation were observed in this research. MLPA is a simple and efficient method to analyze genomic deletions and duplications of all 12 exons of TP53 gene. The finding of this report that most of the mutations of TP53 occur in exon 1 is in contrast to that of the other reports suggesting that exons 5-8 are the most (frequently) mutated exons of TP53 gene. The mutations of exon 1 of TP53 gene may play an important role in the tumorogenesis of TCC. PMID:26685928

  16. Genomic Amplifications Cause False Positives in CRISPR Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, Ankur; Xue, Wen

    2016-08-01

    In CRISPR-based screens for essential genes, Munoz and colleagues and Aguirre and colleagues show that gene-independent targeting of genomic amplifications in human cancer cell lines reduces proliferation or survival. The correlation between CRISPR target site copy number and lethality demonstrates the need for scrutiny and complementary approaches to rule out off-target effects and false positives in CRISPR screens. Cancer Discov; 6(8); 824-6. ©2016 AACR.See related article by Munoz et al., p. 900See related article by Aguirre et al., p. 914. PMID:27485003

  17. Utility of MLPA in mutation analysis and carrier detection for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA is a new technique to identify deletions and duplications and can evaluate all 79 exons in dystrophin gene in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Being semi-quantitative, MLPA is also effective in detecting duplications and carrier testing of females; both of which cannot be done using multiplex PCR. It has found applications in diagnostics of many genetic disorders. Aim: To study the utility of MLPA in diagnosis and carrier detection for DMD. Materials and Methods: Mutation analysis and carrier detection was done by multiplex PCR and MLPA and the results were compared. Results and Conclusions: We present data showing utility of MLPA in identifying mutations in cases with DMD/BMD. In the present study using MLPA, we identified mutations in additional 5.6% cases of DMD in whom multiplex PCR was not able to detect intragenic deletions. In addition, MLPA also correctly confirmed carrier status of two obligate carriers and revealed carrier status in 6 of 8 mothers of sporadic cases.

  18. Multiplex PCB-based electrochemical detection of cancer biomarkers using MLPA-barcode approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J L Acero; Henry, O Y F; Joda, H; Solnestam, B Werne; Kvastad, L; Johansson, E; Akan, P; Lundeberg, J; Lladach, N; Ramakrishnan, D; Riley, I; O'Sullivan, C K

    2016-08-15

    Asymmetric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was developed for the amplification of seven breast cancer related mRNA markers and the MLPA products were electrochemically detected via hybridization. Seven breast cancer genetic markers were amplified by means of the MLPA reaction, which allows for multiplex amplification of multiple targets with a single primer pair. Novel synthetic MLPA probes were designed to include a unique barcode sequence in each amplified gene. Capture probes complementary to each of the barcode sequences were immobilized on each electrode of a low-cost electrode microarray manufactured on standard printed circuit board (PCB) substrates. The functionalised electrodes were exposed to the single-stranded MLPA products and following hybridization, a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled DNA secondary probe complementary to the amplified strand completed the genocomplex, which was electrochemically detected following substrate addition. The electrode arrays fabricated using PCB technology exhibited an excellent electrochemical performance, equivalent to planar photolithographically-fabricated gold electrodes, but at a vastly reduced cost (>50 times lower per array). The optimised system was demonstrated to be highly specific with negligible cross-reactivity allowing the simultaneous detection of the seven mRNA markers, with limits of detections as low as 25pM. This approach provides a novel strategy for the genetic profiling of tumour cells via integrated "amplification-to-detection". PMID:27085955

  19. Diagnostic yield by supplementing prenatal metaphase karyotyping with MLPA for microdeletion syndromes and subtelomere imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, S; Sundberg, K; Jørgensen, F S;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the relevance of using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for detection of selected microdeletion syndromes (22q11, Prader-Willi/Angelman, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Magenis, 1p-, Williams), the reciprocal microduplication syndrome...

  20. Diagnostic yield by supplementing prenatal metaphase karyotyping with MLPA for microdeletion syndromes and subtelomere imbalances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, S; Sundberg, K; Jørgensen, F S; Rohde, M D; Lind, A M; Gerdes, T; Tabor, A; Kirchhoff, M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the relevance of using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for detection of selected microdeletion syndromes (22q11, Prader-Willi/Angelman, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Magenis, 1p-, Williams), the reciprocal microduplication syndromes...

  1. MLPAnalyzer: Data Analysis Tool for Reliable Automated Normalization of MLPA Fragment Data

    OpenAIRE

    Coffa, Jordy; van de Wiel, Mark A; Diosdado, Begoña; Carvalho, Beatriz; Schouten, Jan; Meijer, Gerrit A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) is a rapid, simple, reliable and customized method for detection of copy number changes of individual genes at a high resolution and allows for high throughput analysis. This technique is typically applied for studying specific genes in large sample series. The large amount of data, dissimilarities in PCR efficiency among the different probe amplification products, and sample-to-sample variation pose a challenge to data analy...

  2. Gene changes in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Comparison of multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli Sudha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a common X-linked recessive neuromuscular disorder, affecting 1 in 3,500 live male births. About 65% of cases are caused by deletions; ~5% to 8%, by duplication; and the remaining, by point mutations of the dystrophin gene. The frequency of complex rearrangements (double-deletion and non-contiguous duplications is reported to be 4%. Aim: In this study, we examined the usefulness of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA for screening of deletion and duplication mutations in a group of DMD/ BMD (Becker muscular dystrophy patients from India. Patients and Methods: We analyzed 180 patients referred from all over India, by both multiplex PCR technique (22 exons and MLPA (all 79 exons. Results and Conclusion: By multiplex PCR, deletions were detected in 90 (50% patients. MLPA studies in these cases detected 3 additional deletions, 16 (8.9% duplications and 2 point mutations. MLPA is useful to verify absence of deletions/ duplications in all 79 exons. This sets the stage to look for point mutations using RNA- or DNA-based tests because of the availability of the drug PTC124. Also, the extent of the deletions and duplications could be more accurately defined by MLPA. The delineation of the precise extent of deletion helps in deciding whether exon-skipping technique would be useful as therapy.

  3. Screening for copy number alterations in loci associated with autism spectrum disorders by two-color multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremer, Anna; Giacobini, Maibritt; Nordenskjöld, Magnus;

    2010-01-01

    identified in a subgroup of individuals with ASD using array technology. Adequate genetic testing for these genomic imbalances have not yet been widely implemented in the diagnostic setting due to lack of feasible and cost-effective methods as well as difficulties to interpret the clinical significance of...... these small copy number variants (CNVs). We developed a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay to investigate its usefulness for detection of copy number alterations (CNAs) in autistic patients. This test proved to be easy to perform, fast, cost-effective, and suitable for...... analysis of a continuously increasing number of CNAs associated with autism. Our result show that MLPA assay is an easy and cost-effective method for the identification of selected CNAs in diagnostic laboratories....

  4. Detección de un caso de síndrome de Williams-Beuren por MLPA Detection of a Williams Beuren syndrome case by MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Laurito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Williams-Beuren (WBS es un trastorno del desarrollo neurológico que incluye diferentes manifestaciones clínicas como estenosis aórtica supravalvular, lesiones cerebrovasculares, retraso en el crecimiento, rasgos faciales "élficos" y retraso mental. Es causado por una microdeleción heterocigótica de genes contiguos en la banda cromosómica 7q11.23, generando un cambio en el número de copias (CNV de esta región crítica. Los pacientes presentan una amplia manifestación clínica y variada expresión fenotípica. La confirmación de la sospecha clínica es esencial para el seguimiento clínico del paciente y el asesoramiento genético de la familia. La técnica estándar para la detección de WBS es la hibridización fluorescente in situ. En los últimos años la metodología MLPA (Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification ha sido incorporada a los laboratorios diagnósticos para la detección de CNV relacionados con distintas enfermedades, incluyendo WBS. El objetivo de este trabajo fue confirmar el diagnóstico clínico de WBS en un niño, utilizando la técnica de MLPA. Los ensayos por MLPA permitieron detectar la deleción de los genes CYLN2, FZD9, STX1A, ELN, LIMK1y RFC2. En regiones geográficas donde la determinación por FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization no está disponible para esta enfermedad, la metodología MLPA ha permitido confirmar el diagnóstico clínico y detectar los genes involucrados en la alteración. Hasta nuestro conocimiento no hay otros casos publicados sobre síndrome de WB detectado por la técnica MLPA en la Argentina.Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare developmental disorder characterized by distinctive facial, neurobehavioral, and cardiovascular features. WBS is caused by a heterozygous contiguous gene microdeletion of the WBS crítical region on chromosome 7q11.23. Confirmation of clinical suspicion is essential for clinical monitoring of the patient and genetic counseling of

  5. Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Clinical Study of 55 Brazilian Patients and the Diagnostic Use of MLPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Rachel Sayuri; Dutra, Roberta Lelis; Furusawa, Erika Arai; Zanardo, Evelin Aline; Costa, Larissa Sampaio de Athayde; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Bertola, Debora Romeo; Kim, Chong Ae

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disease caused by a microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region. It is characterized by congenital heart disease, mainly supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, mild short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and variable abnormalities in different systems. Objectives. To report the clinical findings of 55 Brazilian patients confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Methods. Patients were followed up for 4 years at the Genetics Unit of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, Brazil. A kit specific for WBS was used to detect the 7q11.23 microdeletion. Results. Two patients with negative FISH results had positive MLPA results for WBS. The characteristics of the patients with the deletion were as follows: typical WBS facies (98.2%), neuropsychomotor delay (98.2%), hypersocial behavior (94.5%), hyperacusis (94.5%), and congenital heart disease (81.8%). Conclusions. MLPA was effective in detecting the microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region to confirm the diagnosis of WBS. MLPA was also able to confirm the diagnosis of WBS in two patients with typical clinical characteristics but negative FISH results. Thus, MLPA is a promising method in the diagnostic investigation of WBS. WBS is a multisystemic disorder and therefore requires multidisciplinary care and specific follow-up to prevent complications. PMID:26090456

  6. Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Clinical Study of 55 Brazilian Patients and the Diagnostic Use of MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Sayuri Honjo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS is a genetic disease caused by a microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region. It is characterized by congenital heart disease, mainly supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, mild short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and variable abnormalities in different systems. Objectives. To report the clinical findings of 55 Brazilian patients confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Methods. Patients were followed up for 4 years at the Genetics Unit of the Instituto da Criança of the Hospital das Clínicas, FMUSP, Brazil. A kit specific for WBS was used to detect the 7q11.23 microdeletion. Results. Two patients with negative FISH results had positive MLPA results for WBS. The characteristics of the patients with the deletion were as follows: typical WBS facies (98.2%, neuropsychomotor delay (98.2%, hypersocial behavior (94.5%, hyperacusis (94.5%, and congenital heart disease (81.8%. Conclusions. MLPA was effective in detecting the microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region to confirm the diagnosis of WBS. MLPA was also able to confirm the diagnosis of WBS in two patients with typical clinical characteristics but negative FISH results. Thus, MLPA is a promising method in the diagnostic investigation of WBS. WBS is a multisystemic disorder and therefore requires multidisciplinary care and specific follow-up to prevent complications.

  7. Single Molecule Screening of Disease DNA Without Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji-Young Lee

    2006-12-12

    The potential of single molecule detection as an analysis tool in biological and medical fields is well recognized today. This fast evolving technique will provide fundamental sensitivity to pick up individual pathogen molecules, and therefore contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for a complete cure. Many studies are being carried out to successfully apply this technique in real screening fields. In this dissertation, several attempts are shown that have been made to test and refine the application of the single molecule technique as a clinical screening method. A basic applicability was tested with a 100% target content sample, using electrophoretic mobility and multiple colors as identification tools. Both electrophoretic and spectral information of individual molecule were collected within a second, while the molecule travels along the flow in a capillary. Insertion of a transmission grating made the recording of the whole spectrum of a dye-stained molecule possible without adding complicated instrumental components. Collecting two kinds of information simultaneously and combining them allowed more thorough identification, up to 98.8% accuracy. Probing mRNA molecules with fluorescently labeled cDNA via hybridization was also carried out. The spectral differences among target, probe, and hybrid were interpreted in terms of dispersion distances after transmission grating, and used for the identification of each molecule. The probes were designed to have the least background when they are free, but have strong fluorescence after hybridization via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The mRNA-cDNA hybrids were further imaged in whole blood, plasma, and saliva, to test how far a crude preparation can be tolerated. Imaging was possible with up to 50% of clear bio-matrix contents, suggesting a simple lysis and dilution would be sufficient for imaging for some cells. Real pathogen DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) type-I6 in human genomic DNA

  8. GMO detection in food and feed through screening by visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Li, Rong; Quan, Sheng; Shen, Ping; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin; Yang, Litao

    2015-06-01

    Isothermal DNA/RNA amplification techniques are the primary methodology for developing on-spot rapid nucleic acid amplification assays, and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has been developed and applied in the detection of foodborne pathogens, plant/animal viruses, and genetically modified (GM) food/feed contents. In this study, one set of LAMP assays targeting on eight frequently used universal elements, marker genes, and exogenous target genes, such as CaMV35S promoter, FMV35S promoter, NOS, bar, cry1Ac, CP4 epsps, pat, and NptII, were developed for visual screening of GM contents in plant-derived food samples with high efficiency and accuracy. For these eight LAMP assays, their specificity was evaluated by testing commercial GM plant events and their limits of detection were also determined, which are 10 haploid genome equivalents (HGE) for FMV35S promoter, cry1Ac, and pat assays, as well as five HGE for CaMV35S promoter, bar, NOS terminator, CP4 epsps, and NptII assays. The screening applicability of these LAMP assays was further validated successfully using practical canola, soybean, and maize samples. The results suggested that the established visual LAMP assays are applicable and cost-effective for GM screening in plant-derived food samples. PMID:25822163

  9. Detection of chromosomal imbalances using combined MLPA kits in patients with syndromic intellectual disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sireteanu Adriana

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dizabilitatea intelectuală (DI este o afecțiune frecventă, cu consecințe majore pentru individ, familie și societate. Datorită heterogenității sale clinice și genetice, în aproximativ 50% din cazuri etiologia bolii nu poate fi stabilită. Scopul acestui studiu a fost evaluarea capacității de stabilire a diagnosticului etiologic la 369 pacienți cu DI sindromic și rezultat normal sau incert la cariotip folosind o combinație de kituri MLPA. Toţi pacienţii au fost investigaţi prin metoda MLPA, folosind fie kiturile SALSA MLPA P064 sau P096, dacă fenotipul a fost sugestiv pentru un sindrom cu microdeleţie (subgrupul A - 186 pacienți, fie kiturile subtelomerice P036 și P070, dacă fenotipul nu a fost sugestiv pentru un sindrom cu microdeleţie sau rezultatul la cariotipul standard a fost incert (subgrupul B - 183 pacienți. Rezultatele anormale detectate de aceste kituri au fost caracterizate folosind kiturile MLPA corespunzătoare de urmărire (Telomere Follow-up set, P029-A1, P250-B2, ME028-B1. În subgrupul A am identificat 25 de pacienți cu microdeleții (13,4%. Folosind kiturile de screening subtelomeric și de urmărire la subgrupul B am detectat rearanjări criptice în 7,5% din cazuri și am identificat originea materialului suplimentar observat la cariotipul standard la 10 din 11 pacienți. Sumarizând datele obţinute din cele două loturi, folosirea combinată a seturilor MLPA a dus la stabilirea diagnosticului la 10,6% (38/358 dintre pacienții cu cariotip normal. Folosirea seturilor MLPA de urmărire a permis atât confirmarea prezenţei anomaliei, cât şi determinarea dimensiunii ei, ceea ce a facilitat interpretarea semnificaţiei clinice a rearanjărilor. Pentru laboratoarele care nu au acces la tehnologiile bazate pe microarray, folosirea mai multor kituri MLPA reprezintă o strategie eficientă pentru stabilirea diagnosticului etiologic la pacienţii cu DI.

  10. PWS/AS MS-MLPA Confirms Maternal Origin of 15q11.2 Microduplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika J. Dawson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 15q11.2-q13 is associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders, including Prader-Willi (PWS and Angelman (AS syndromes, autism, and other developmental abnormalities resulting from deletions and duplications. In addition, this region encompasses imprinted genes that cause PWS or AS, depending on the parent-of-origin. This imprinting allows for diagnosis of PWS or AS based on methylation status using methylation sensitive (MS multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA. Maternally derived microduplications at 15q11.2-q13 have been associated with autism and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Multiple methods have been used to determine the parent-of-origin for 15q11.2-q13 microdeletions and microduplications. In the present study, a four-year-old nondysmorphic female patient with developmental delay was found to have a de novo ~5 Mb duplication within 15q11.2 by oligonucleotide genomic array. In order to determine the significance of this microduplication to the clinical phenotype, the parent-of-origin needed to be identified. The PWS/AS MS-MLPA assay is generally used to distinguish between deletion and uniparental disomy (UPD of 15q11.2-q13, resulting in either PWS or AS. However, our study shows that PWS/AS MS-MLPA can also efficiently distinguish the parental origin of duplications of 15q11.2-q13.

  11. Detection of subtelomere imbalance using MLPA: validation, development of an analysis protocol, and application in a diagnostic centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hills Alison

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercial MLPA kits (MRC-Holland are available for detecting imbalance at the subtelomere regions of chromosomes; each kit consists of one probe for each subtelomere. Methods For validation of the kits, 208 patients were tested, of which 128 were known to be abnormal, corresponding to 8528 genomic regions overall. Validation samples included those with trisomy 13, 18 and 21, microscopically visible terminal deletions and duplications, sex chromosome abnormalities and submicroscopic abnormalities identified by multiprobe FISH. A robust and sensitive analysis system was developed to allow accurate interpretation of single probe results, which is essential as breakpoints may occur between MLPA probes. Results The validation results showed that MLPA is a highly efficient technique for medium-throughput screening for subtelomere imbalance, with 95% confidence intervals for positive and negative predictive accuracies of 0.951-0.996 and 0.9996-1 respectively. A diagnostic testing strategy was established for subtelomere MLPA and any subsequent follow-up tests that may be required. The efficacy of this approach was demonstrated during 15 months of diagnostic testing when 455 patients were tested and 27 (5.9% abnormal cases were detected. Conclusion The development of a robust, medium-throughput analysis system for the interpretation of results from subtelomere assays will be of benefit to other Centres wishing to implement such an MLPA-based service.

  12. Williams-Beuren Syndrome: A Clinical Study of 55 Brazilian Patients and the Diagnostic Use of MLPA

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disease caused by a microdeletion in the 7q11.23 region. It is characterized by congenital heart disease, mainly supravalvular aortic stenosis, mental retardation, mild short stature, facial dysmorphisms, and variable abnormalities in different systems. Objectives. To report the clinical findings of 55 Brazilian patients confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Methods. Patients were followed up for 4 years at the Geneti...

  13. Nucleic acid amplification technology screening for hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus for blood donations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the performance of the commercial Roche COBAS AmpliScreen assay, and demonstrate whether the COBAS AmpliScreen human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) test, v1.5, and COBAS AmpliScreen hepatitis C virus (HCV) v 2.0 for screening for HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the donated blood units from which plasma mini pools were collected, by nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT), could detect the positive pools and reduce the risk of transmission of infections for those routinely tested by serological assays. The study was performed on 3288 plasma samples collected from blood donors in a period of 13 months, from August 2004 to August 2005, at Al-Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Molecular Pathology Laboratory, Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The samples were tested by the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after RNA extraction (this represents the major method in NAT assays), in parallel with the routine serological testing to detect qualitatively for HIV-1 and HCV. The NAT assays that include an automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays, and the routine serological screening assays for the detection of the HIV-1 and HCV RNA in the plasma samples from the blood donors have shown to be a reliable combination that would meet our requirements. The collected data further confirms the results from the serological assays and enables us to decrease the residual risk of transmission to a minimum with the finding of no seronegative window period donation. The results demonstrate that out of 3288 samples, the percentages of RT-PCR (NAT) negative blood donations that were also confirmed as seronegative were 99% for HCV, and 99.1% for HIV-1. The modified combined systems (automated COBAS AmpliPrep system for RNA extraction and COBAS Amplicor Analyzer using AmpliScreen kits for RT-PCR assays) for NAT screening assays has allowed the release of all blood donations supplied in the

  14. HER-2/neu amplification testing in breast cancer by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification: influence of manual- and laser microdissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate assessment of HER-2/neu status is crucial for proper prognostic information and to offer direct appropriate treatment for breast cancer patients. Next to immunohistochemistry (IHC) to evaluate HER2 protein overexpression, a second line gene amplification test is generally deemed necessary for cases with equivocal protein expression. Recently, a new PCR based test, called Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), was introduced as a simple and quick method to assess HER-2/neu gene amplification status in invasive breast cancer. MLPA was previously shown to correlate well with IHC and in situ hybridization (ISH), but a low tumor percentage in the tissue tested could negatively affect the accuracy of MLPA results. To examine this, MLPA was repeated in 42 patients after serial H&E section guided manual dissection with a scalpel and after laser microdissection of the tumor. Both dissection techniques led to higher HER2 gene copy number ratios and thereby made MLPA more quantitative. Concordance between MLPA and ISH improved from 61% to 84% after manual microdissection and to 90% after laser microdissection. Manual and laser microdissection similarly increase the dynamic range of MLPA copy number ratios which is a technical advantage. As clinically a dichotomization between normal and amplified suffices and MLPA is relatively unsensitive to tumor content, microdissection before MLPA may not be routinely necessary but may be advisable in case of very low tumor content (≤30%), when MLPA results are equivocal, or when extensive ductal carcinoma in situ is present. Since differences between manual and laser microdissection were small, less time consuming manual microdissection appears to be sufficient

  15. Increase in Viral Load, Viral Integration, and Gain of Telomerase Genes during Uterine Cervical Carcinogenesis can be Simultaneously Assessed by the HPV 16/18 MLPA-Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Theelen, Wendy; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Herfs, Michael; Reijans, Martin; Simons, Guus; Meulemans, Els V.; Baldewijns, Marcella M.; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.; Somja, Joan; Delvenne, Philippe; Hopman, Anton H. N.

    2010-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important risk factor in cervical carcinogenesis cases; high viral loads, viral integration into the host genome, and gain of the telomerase-related genes, TERT and TERC, are all factors associated with progression to cancer. A recently developed multiparameter HPV 16/18 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay, which allows the simultaneous assessment of these factors, was applied to a series of 67 normal and (pr...

  16. Clinical application of a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of quinolone susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Naoki; Araki, Nobuko; Kaku, Norihito; Kosai, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    We previously uncovered a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) through which products of MLPA could be amplified without both hybridization and ligation reactions. Here, we utilized this pathway to detect an antibiotic resistance mutation of quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:27343683

  17. EG-02CORRELATION OF MGMT PROMOTER METHYLATION STATUS ANALYSIS USING 6 MS-MLPA PROBES AND CLINICAL RESPONSE OF TEMOZOLOMIDE IN GLIOBLASTOMA PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakkert, Michelle; de Leng, Wendy; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan; Spliet, Wim; van Hecke, Wim; de Vos, Filip

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: For patients diagnosed with Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is an important predictive factor for treatment with temozolomide (TMZ). MGMT reverses the toxic effect of alkylating chemotherapies like TMZ, therefore absence of the MGMT protein, due to promoter hypermethylation, results in greater tumor response and prolonged survival. MGMT methylation status can be determined using Methylation Specific Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MS-MLPA). Previous research has documented the predictive value of MGMT MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-A1 containing 3 MGMT probes, but no documentation is available for the current commercially available MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-B containing 6 MGMT probes. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of MGMT promoter methylation status for GBM patients using the ME011-B probe mix. METHODS: Patients were included if diagnosed with GBM and treated with TMZ. Retrospectively 102 patients were evaluated for MGMT promoter methylation using the MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-B. Methylation status was compared to clinical outcome to determine the predictive value of MS-MLPA promoter methylation status determined by ME011-B probes. Comparison of methylation status with clinical response was also used to determine which combination of probes provides the best prediction of the response to TMZ. RESULTS: Preliminary MS-MLPA results of 79 patients indicate that the number of patients with promoter hypermethylation in tumors ranges from 15%-67% depending on the probe using a cut-off value of >25%. However, when eliminating the lowest and highest probe and calculating the mean, 65% of the tumors show hypermethylation. CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was determined using MS-MLPA probe mix ME011-B, results indicate that over half of the patients diagnosed with GBM might benefit from TMZ therapy. Obtaining clinical response of patients and further

  18. Detection of deletion mutations of FBN1 in two patients with Marfan syndrome using next generation sequencing (NGS) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique%NGS和MLPA技术检测2例马凡综合征患者FBN1基因缺失突变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢鑫鑫; 黄肖利; 王韧; 陈喜军; 饶慧英; 吴文冰; 丘丽萍; 黄毅; 伍严安

    2015-01-01

    目的 对2例马凡综合征(Marfan's syndrome,MFS)患者的原纤维蛋白-1基因(FBN1)进行突变检测.方法 提取患者的外周血全基因组DNA,用第二代测序技术(NGS)和多重连接探针扩增技术(MLPA)对FBN1进行突变筛查,对这2种方法提示有拷贝数异常的外显子进行PCR和DNA Sanger测序以证实突变.结果 NGS和MLPA技术检测均显示1例患者有18号外显子缺失突变,另1例患者其56号外显子有缺失突变.经PCR和Sanger测序证实前者18号外显子及其两侧翼区有大片段缺失c.2114-2357_2167+747de13158bp,后者第56号外显子及其内含子有9 bp的缺失突变c.6864_c.6871+1delCTGTGTAGG.结论 NGS和MLPA技术有助于筛查基因组缺失突变,但仍需借助Sanger测序等方法验证.

  19. Etablierung der MLPA-Analyse für seltene genetische Erkrankungen (orphan diseases) : Morbus Sandhoff (HEXB), Morbus Tay-Sachs Typ AB (GM2A) und Morbus Schimke (SMARCAL1)

    OpenAIRE

    Sobek, Anna Kathrin Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    Für die Gene HEXB, GM2A und SMARCAL1, krankheitsursächlich für die rezessiv vererbten Erkrankungen M. Sandhoff, M. Tay-Sachs Variante AB und M. Schimke, wurde die multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA)-Analyse entwickelt, verifiziert und validiert. Zudem wurde eine bereits vorhandene Patientenkohorte nachuntersucht. Im Rahmen der Arbeit wurde die MLPA-Analyse für die vier Exons des GM2-Gens, die 14 Exons des HEXB-Gens und die 18 Exons des SMARCAL1-Gens etabliert. ...

  20. Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Analysis of GATA4 Gene Copy Number Variations in Patients with Isolated Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Guida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available GATA4 mutations are found in patients with different isolated congenital heart defects (CHDs, mostly cardiac septal defects and tetralogy of Fallot. In addition, GATA4 is supposed to be the responsible gene for the CHDs in the chromosomal 8p23 deletion syndrome, which is recognized as a malformation syndrome with clinical symptoms of facial anomalies, microcephaly, mental retardation, and congenital heart defects. Thus far, no study has been carried out to investigate the role of GATA4 copy number variations (CNVs in non-syndromic CHDs. To explore the possible occurrence of GATA4 gene CNVs in isolated CHDs, we analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA a cohort of 161 non-syndromic patients with cardiac anomalies previously associated with GATA4 gene mutations. The patients were mutation-negative for GATA4, NKX2.5, and FOG2 genes after screening with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. MLPA analysis revealed that normalized MLPA signals were all found within the normal range values for all exons in all patients, excluding a major contribution of GATA4 gene CNVs in CHD pathogenesis.

  1. Detección de un caso de síndrome de Williams-Beuren por MLPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Laurito

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de Williams-Beuren (WBS es un trastorno del desarrollo neurológico que incluye diferentes manifestaciones clínicas como estenosis aórtica supravalvular, lesiones cerebrovasculares, retraso en el crecimiento, rasgos faciales "élficos" y retraso mental. Es causado por una microdeleción heterocigótica de genes contiguos en la banda cromosómica 7q11.23, generando un cambio en el número de copias (CNV de esta región crítica. Los pacientes presentan una amplia manifestación clínica y variada expresión fenotípica. La confirmación de la sospecha clínica es esencial para el seguimiento clínico del paciente y el asesoramiento genético de la familia. La técnica estándar para la detección de WBS es la hibridización fluorescente in situ. En los últimos años la metodología MLPA (Multiplex Ligation dependent Probe Amplification ha sido incorporada a los laboratorios diagnósticos para la detección de CNV relacionados con distintas enfermedades, incluyendo WBS. El objetivo de este trabajo fue confirmar el diagnóstico clínico de WBS en un niño, utilizando la técnica de MLPA. Los ensayos por MLPA permitieron detectar la deleción de los genes CYLN2, FZD9, STX1A, ELN, LIMK1y RFC2. En regiones geográficas donde la determinación por FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization no está disponible para esta enfermedad, la metodología MLPA ha permitido confirmar el diagnóstico clínico y detectar los genes involucrados en la alteración. Hasta nuestro conocimiento no hay otros casos publicados sobre síndrome de WB detectado por la técnica MLPA en la Argentina.

  2. A simple isothermal DNA amplification method to screen black flies for Onchocerca volvulus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Andy; Makepeace, Benjamin L; LaCourse, Elwyn James; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2014-01-01

    Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a), to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis. PMID:25299656

  3. Identification of a novel large CYP17A1 deletion by MLPA analysis in a family with classic 17α-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkkahraman, Doga; Guran, Tulay; Ivison, Hannah; Griffin, Aliesha; Vijzelaar, Raymon; Krone, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Steroid 17α-hydroxylase deficiency (17OHD) is a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by mutations in the 17α-hydroxylase ( CYP17A1) gene. CYP17A1 is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of adrenal and gonadal steroid hormones facilitating both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. We characterized a partial CYP17A1 deletion in a Kurdish family with 17OHD by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The index patient presented with amenorrhea and lack of pubertal development. Investigations established the diagnosis of 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD). She is the daughter of consanguineous parents and has 2 sisters with similar clinical presentation. All patients showed biochemical signs of primary adrenal and gonadal insufficiency. The molecular genetic analysis by PCR suggested a deletion spanning exons 1–6 of the CYP17A1 gene. MLPA analysis confirmed the large partial CYP17A1 deletion in patients and parents in homozygous and heterozygous state, respectively. This is the first report employing MLPA for mutation analysis to detect a deletion of CYP17A1 spanning multiple exons in 3 patients with classic 17OHD. Therefore, it is important to consider large partial CYP17A1 deletions in 17OHD in addition to point mutations in cases where no segregation analysis is possible to determine the correct genotype. PMID:25765894

  4. Screening of congenital heart disease patients using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina Meden; El-Segaier, Milad; Fernlund, Eva;

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) are found in a significant proportion of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and some of these CNVs are associated with other developmental defects. In some syndromic patients, CHD may be the first presenting symptom, thus screening of patients with...

  5. MlpA, a lipoprotein required for normal development of Myxococcus xanthus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanlon, W A; Martinez-Canamero, M; Inouye, M; Inouye, S.

    1995-01-01

    The mlpA gene encoding a 236-residue polypeptide has been identified immediately downstream of the oar gene of Myxococcus xanthus (M. Martinez-Canamero, J. Munoz-Dorado, E. Farez-Vidal, M. Inouye, and S. Inouye, J. Bacteriol. 175:4756-4763, 1993). The amino-terminal 21 residues of MlpA encode a typical prokaryotic signal sequence with a putative lipoprotein cleavage site. When expressed in Escherichia coli in the presence of [2-3H]glycerol, 3H-labeled MlpA had a molecular mass of 33 kDa and w...

  6. Partial protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPOX gene deletions, due to different Alu-mediated mechanisms, identified by MLPA analysis in patients with variegate porphyria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbaro Michela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Variegate porphyria (VP is an autosomal dominantly inherited hepatic porphyria. The genetic defect in the PPOX gene leads to a partial defect of protoporphyrinogen oxidase, the penultimate enzyme of heme biosynthesis. Affected individuals can develop cutaneous symptoms in sun-exposed areas of the skin and/or neuropsychiatric acute attacks. The identification of the genetic defect in VP families is of crucial importance to detect the carrier status which allows counseling to prevent potentially life threatening neurovisceral attacks, usually triggered by factors such as certain drugs, alcohol or fasting. In a total of 31 Swedish VP families sequence analysis had identified a genetic defect in 26. In the remaining five families an extended genetic investigation was necessary. After the development of a synthetic probe set, MLPA analysis to screen for single exon deletions/duplications was performed. We describe here, for the first time, two partial deletions within the PPOX gene detected by MLPA analysis. One deletion affects exon 5 and 6 (c.339-197_616+320del1099 and has been identified in four families, most probably after a founder effect. The other extends from exon 5 to exon 9 (c.339-350_987+229del2609 and was found in one family. We show that both deletions are mediated by Alu repeats. Our findings emphasize the usefulness of MLPA analysis as a complement to PPOX gene sequencing analysis for comprehensive genetic diagnostics in patients with VP.

  7. Neurofibromatosis tipo I: Mutación de splicing detectada por MLPA y secuenciación en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Laurito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available La neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1 es un desorden genético autosómico dominante, con una prevalencia de 1 en 2500-3000 nacidos vivos. La dificultad diagnóstica se debe al tamaño extenso del gen NF1 con pocos sitios hot-spot, la ausencia de una clara relación genotipo-fenotipo y rasgos clínicos con un espectro muy heterogéneo. Un caso sospechoso de NF1 procedente de la provincia de Jujuy fue analizado por MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification en nuestro laboratorio. Mujer, adolescente mestiza (Amerindia/Europea, con un osteoma maxilar, lordosis lumbar, neurofibromas cutáneos y manchas café con leche. Por MLPA se detectó una alteración en el exón 13 del gen NF1. Por secuenciación del exón 13 se identificó una mutación "missense" en la posición 1466 del ARNm (NM_000267.3:c.1466A>G que introduce un sitio de splicing aberrante. La patogenicidad de la mutación fue corroborada en la base de datos de variantes clínicas del National Center for Biotechnology Information. En nuestro conocimiento, este es el primer registro de una mutación NF1 en un paciente proveniente de poblaciones mestizas del Noroeste Argentino. La alteración ha sido reportada en individuos de otras poblaciones de origen muy disímil al del caso presentado, como la europea, sugiriendo que el sitio podría considerarse un sitio hot-spot del gen. Donde exista baja disponibilidad de diagnósticos moleculares, como en nuestro caso, se puede aplicar un algoritmo que comience por el estudio del gen NF1 por MLPA, metodología relativamente sencilla y de costo accesible. Con ella se evita enviar muestras al extranjero para análisis genéticos.

  8. Application of an in vitro-amplification assay as a novel pre-screening test for compounds inhibiting the aggregation of prion protein scrapie

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Schmitz; Maria Cramm; Franc Llorens; Niccolò Candelise; Dominik Müller-Cramm; Daniela Varges; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Saima Zafar; Inga Zerr

    2016-01-01

    In vitro amplification assays, such as real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) are used to detect aggregation activity of misfolded prion protein (PrP) in brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and urine samples from patients with a prion disease. We believe that the method also has a much broader application spectrum. In the present study, we applied RT-QuIC as a pre-screening test for substances that potentially inhibit the aggregation process of the cellular PrP (PrPC) to proteinase (PK)-...

  9. Colorimetric quantification of mRNA expression in rare tumour cells amplified by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero Sanchez, Josep L; Henry, Olivier Y F; Mairal, Teresa; Laddach, Nadja; Nygren, Anders; Hauch, Siegfried; Fetisch, Jasmin; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

    2010-07-01

    An enzyme-linked oligonucleotide assay (ELONA) for quantification of mRNA expression of five genes involved in breast cancer, extracted from isolated rare tumour cells and amplified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is presented. In MLPA, a multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay is combined with a PCR reaction in which all ligation products are amplified by use of a single primer pair. Biotinylated probes complementary to each of the target sequences were immobilised on the surface of a streptavidin-coated microtitre plate and exposed to single-stranded MLPA products. A universal reporting probe sequence modified with horseradish peroxidase (URP-HRP) and complementary to a universal primer used during the MLPA step was further added to the surface-bound duplex as a reporter probe. Simultaneous addition of anchoring probe and target, followed by addition of reporter probe, rather than sequential addition, was achieved with no significant effect on sensitivity and limits of detection, but considerably reduced the required assay time. Detection limits as low as 20 pmol L(-1), with an overall assay time of 95 min could be achieved with negligible cross-reactivity between probes and non-specific targets present in the MLPA-PCR product. The same MLPA-PCR product was analysed using capillary electrophoresis, the technique typically used for analysis of MLPA products, and good correlation was observed. The assay presented is easy to carry out, relatively inexpensive, rapid, does not require sophisticated instrumentation, and enables quantitative analysis, making it very promising for the analysis of MLPA products. PMID:20526769

  10. Increased nuchal translucency with normal karyotype: a follow-up study of 100 cases supplemented with CGH and MLPA analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, K V; Kirchhoff, M; Nygaard, U;

    2009-01-01

    karyotype on conventional karyotyping. METHODS: Chorionic villus samples from 100 fetuses with NT > or = 99(th) percentile and normal G-banding analysis and MLPA for detection of aneuploidies for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y were included. Examinations were supplemented by HR-CGH and MLPA for syndromes...

  11. THE CLONING OF HRNT-1 USING A COMBINATION OF cDNA LIBRARY SCREENING WITH BIOTIN-LABELED PROBE AND RAPID AMPLIFICATION OF cDNA ENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To clone the human counterpart of rat ZA73, EST cloned from rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) neoplastic transformed cell model induced by (a-particles radiation by using mRNA differential display. Methods: According to the sequence of rat ZA73, a probe was biotin-labeled to screen human cDNA library, and then the gene sequence was extended by RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Result: Human gene HRNT-1 (GenBank Accession Number: AF223393) is 4.256 kb in length, with an ORF located in the region between 254 and 3013 bp. 5' UTS (untranslated sequences) is 253 bp, 3' UTS is 1243 bp. Conclusion: The combination of cDNA library screening with biotin-labeled probes and RACE is an effective method to clone full-length cDNA, especially for sequences longer than 2 kb.

  12. Targeting helicase-dependent amplification products with an electrochemical genosensor for reliable and sensitive screening of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, J Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, Maria Jesús

    2015-08-18

    Cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their use in food and feed is constantly expanding; thus, the question of informing consumers about their presence in food has proven of significant interest. The development of sensitive, rapid, robust, and reliable methods for the detection of GMOs is crucial for proper food labeling. In response, we have experimentally characterized the helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) and sequence-specific detection of a transgene from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S Promoter (CaMV35S), inserted into most transgenic plants. HDA is one of the simplest approaches for DNA amplification, emulating the bacterial replication machinery, and resembling PCR but under isothermal conditions. However, it usually suffers from a lack of selectivity, which is due to the accumulation of spurious amplification products. To improve the selectivity of HDA, which makes the detection of amplification products more reliable, we have developed an electrochemical platform targeting the central sequence of HDA copies of the transgene. A binary monolayer architecture is built onto a thin gold film where, upon the formation of perfect nucleic acid duplexes with the amplification products, these are enzyme-labeled and electrochemically transduced. The resulting combined system increases genosensor detectability up to 10(6)-fold, allowing Yes/No detection of GMOs with a limit of detection of ∼30 copies of the CaMV35S genomic DNA. A set of general utility rules in the design of genosensors for detection of HDA amplicons, which may assist in the development of point-of-care tests, is also included. The method provides a versatile tool for detecting nucleic acids with extremely low abundance not only for food safety control but also in the diagnostics and environmental control areas. PMID:26198403

  13. 多重连接依赖式探针扩增技术在α地中海贫血基因诊断与产前诊断中的应用%The application of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technology in diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚军; 杨学煌; 曾宪琪; 乔伶俐

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technology in the detection of gene deletion and prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassaemia.Methods Phenotypes were analyzed by whole blood cell counting and hemoglobin component detection of peripheral blood samples from the subjects.The gene deletions and point mutations of α-thalassaemia were detected with regular gap-PCR and reverse dot blot (RDB) method.At last,the MLPA method was applied for detection of α-globin gene deletion.All the prenatal diagnosis samples were detected with both gap-PCR and MLPA method.Results α-thalassaemia phenotype was found in 75 samples from 1256 (628 couples) peripheral blood samples for pre-pregnancy or prenatal thalassemia gene screening.Among them,71 samples carrying α-gene mutations and consistent with phenotypes were detected by routine methods.Inthe other 3 samples with no α-gene mutations detected and 1 sample with HbH phenotype but genotype of-α42/αα were analyzed by MLPA and found each one samples of whole α-globin gene cluster deletion,respectively.Seventeen high risk couples were screened.Among the 17 prenatal diagnosis samples,2 villus samples contaminated by exogenous DNA were confirmed by MLPA method.Conclusions MLPA is an effective complement for α-thalassaemia gene deletion detection.The molecular diagnosis strategy and process of gap-PCR combined with MLPA for α-thalassaemia gene deletion detection can prevent the missing of gene deletion,and false-positive or false-negative misdiagnosis of α-thalassaemia in prenatal diagnosis.%目的 探讨多重连接依赖式探针扩增(M LPA)技术在α地中海贫血(地贫)基因缺失检测及产前诊断中的应用.方法 采用全血细胞计数和血红蛋白成分检测对受检者外周血标本进行表型分析,采用常规跨越裂点PCR(gap-PCR)技术及反向斑点杂交(RDB)法检测α地贫基因缺失及点突变,采用MLPA技术检测α珠蛋白基因缺失;产前

  14. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for rapid detection of deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are X-linked disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The majority of recognized mutations are copy number changes of individual exons. The objective of the present study was to assess the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) effects of detection of gene mutations. Methods: Samples of 20 control males and 80 males and their mothers referred to our diagnostic facility on the clinical suspicion of DMD or BMD were tested by MLPA and multiplex PCR. Results: The mean DQs for all peak of 20 control male samples was 1.02 (range from 0.83 to 1.21) by MLPA. Deletions or duplications were identified in 6 out of 31 families that had been previously tested as negative by multiplex PCR. One case of complex rearrangement involving a duplication of two regions: dupEX3-9 and dupEX 17-41 were found by MLPA. Conclusions: MLPA is a highly sensitive method and rapid alternative to multiplex PCR for detection of DMD and BMD.

  15. 多重连接依赖探针扩增在假肥大型肌营养不良症家系基因诊断中的应用%Genetic diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy by MLPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘晓亮; 何蓉; 麻宏伟; 赵彦艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for the genetic and prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD).Methods Forty seven patients clinically diagnosed or suspected with DMD/BMD were recruited.Deletion or duplication of the 79 exons of the DMD gene were detected by MLPA.PCR and sequencing were used to detect single exon deletion.MLPA was also used for identifying carriers.For cases requesting prenatal diagnosis,short tandem repeat (STR) capillary electrophoresis,linkage analysis and MLPA were applied to determine fetal DMD gene.Results Among the 47 patients,deletions and duplications encompassing one or more exons were identified in 31 and 7 cases with MLPA,respectively.Seven patients had single exon deletions.However,one of which was actually a point mutation in the probe-conjugated region and was confirmed by PCR and sequencing.Of the 23 mothers with MLPA positive sons,13 were found to carry either deletions or duplications.Prenatal diagnosis has identified 2 male affected fetuses and 3 female carrier fetuses in the 13 cases examined,which was in conformity with linkage analysis.Conclusion Our data demonstrated that MLPA is a rapid,direct and reliable method for detecting deletions or duplications of the DMD gene.It can also indicate small changes within the sequences detected by the probe.Combing MLPA with PCR,sequencing and linkage analysis could make the genetic diagnosis of DMD/BMD more accurate.%目的 评估多重连接依赖探针扩增(multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification,MLPA)技术在假肥大型肌营养不良症(Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy,DMD/BMD)患者临床诊断、携带者筛查及产前诊断中的应用.方法 应用MLPA法检测DMD基因79个外显子的缺失或重复突变,DNA测序以及STR毛细管电泳与连锁分析方法进行验证及辅助诊断.结果 47例患儿中7例可见重复突变,31例可见缺失突变,其中7

  16. A comparative study of mPCR, MLPA, and muscle biopsy results in a cohort of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: A first study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Manjunath

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This is the first study from India and possibly in English literature, comparing the sensitivity and pattern of mutations by both mPCR and MLPA in the same cohort of DMD. It further validates that 36.4% of MLPA-negative cases were confirmed to have DMD by IHC. The clinical accuracy has been very high in our cohort. MLPA-negative samples should be subjected for next-generation sequencing before contemplating a biopsy.

  17. A method for the amplification of chemically induced transformation in C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 cells: its use as a potential screening assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechtman, L M; Kiss, E; McCarvill, J; Nims, R; Kouri, R E; Lubet, R A

    1987-09-01

    A method has been developed by which to amplify expression of phenotypic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 clone 8 mouse embryo cells not otherwise observed in the standard transformation assay. The expression of transformed foci was amplified by subcultivating chemically treated target cells after they had reached confluence and replating them at subconfluent cell densities. Conditions leading to the expression of the highest numbers of transformed foci include a) a cell seeding density for chemical treatment of 1 X 10(4) cells/dish, b) subculture 4 weeks after treatment, and c) replating cells at a density of 2 X 10(5) cells/-dish. Agents capable of inducing transformation in the standard assay (e.g., 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone, benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and others) also yielded transformation in the replating assay. The more marginal transforming activities of chemicals such as ethyl methanesulfonate, 7-(bromomethyl)-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine were enhanced by the amplification procedure. Compounds that failed to elicit focal transformation in the standard assay (e.g., dibenz[a,h]anthracene, Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate, lead acetate, benzidine, propyleneimine, N-hydroxy-2-fluorenylacetamide, and numerous other compounds of various chemical classes) induced significant levels of phenotypic transformation upon amplification. Noncarcinogens (e.g., phenanthrene, anthracene, 2-aminobiphenyl, cycloheximide, and others) failed to cause significant phenotypic transformation even when cells were replated. To further enhance the applicability of this new replating system, an exogenous source of metabolic activation was added: a 9,000 X g supernatant from Aroclor 1254-induced rat hepatic S-9. This activation system was found a) to be only minimally cytotoxic by itself and b) to be able to mediate NADPH-dependent, dose-dependent toxicity, and transformation by activating the procarcinogens

  18. Screening for large rearrangements of the BRCA2 gene in Spanish families with breast/ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; de la Hoya, Miguel; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Sanchez de Abajo, Ana; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Llort, Gemma; Blanco, Ignacio; Beristain, Elena; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; Alonso, Carmen; Tejada, María-Isabel; Caldés, Trinidad; Diez, Orland

    2007-05-01

    Germ-line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for about 30-60% of the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). A large number of point mutations have been described in both genes. However, large deletions and duplications that disrupt one or more exons are overlooked by point mutation detection approaches. Over the past years several rearrangements have been identified in BRCA1, while few studies have been designed to screen this type of mutations in BRCA2. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA2 gene in Spanish breast/ovarian cancer families. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was employed to search gross deletions or duplications of BRCA2 in 335 Spanish moderate to high-risk breast/ovarian cancer families previously screened negative for point mutations by conventional methods. Four different and novel large genomic alterations were consistently identified by MLPA in five families, respectively: deletions of exon 2, exons 10-12 and exons 15-16 and duplication of exon 20 (in two families). RT-PCR experiments confirmed the deletion of exons 15-16. All patients harbouring a genomic rearrangement were members of high-risk families, with three or more breast/ovarian cancer cases or the presence of breast cancer in males. We provide evidence that the BRCA2 rearrangements seem to account for a relatively small proportion of familial breast cancer cases in Spanish population. The screening for these alterations as part of the comprehensive genetic testing can be recommended, especially in multiple case breast/ovarian families and families with male breast cancer cases. PMID:17063271

  19. Early amplification options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Sandra Abbott; Schryer, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Children with permanent hearing loss have been remediated with hearing amplification devices for decades. The influx of young infants identified with hearing loss through successful newborn hearing screening programs has established a need for amplification resources for infants within the first six months of life. For the approximately two of every 1000 infants born who are identified with bilateral hearing loss [Mehl and Thomson, 1998, Pediatrics 101, p. e4], the use of amplification is commonly the first step in treating the sequella of their loss. The use of hearing aids, combined with early intervention, has been shown to significantly improve the speech and language skills of young children with hearing loss [Yoshinaga-Itano, 2000, Seminars in Hearing 21, p. 309]. Speech and language delays have contributed to compromised academic performance of school aged children with hearing loss [Johnson et al., 1997, Educational Audiology Handbook, Singular Publishing, San Diego]. Most hard-of-hearing and deaf children use hearing aids and other assistive listening devices every day throughout their lifetime and the life expectancy of a hearing aid is only five to eight years. The current challenge for pediatric audiologists is selecting and evaluating the available amplification to provide the best options for children and their families. Amplification technology has seen an explosion in growth the past few years and the options continue to expand rapidly. This article examines currently available amplification technology and reviews the selection criteria that may be used for infants and young children. Issues such as style, type, amplification features, signal processing strategies, and verification and validation tools are also discussed. PMID:14648816

  20. Molecular Differences between Ductal Carcinoma In Situ and Adjacent Invasive Breast Carcinoma: A Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moelans, Cathy B.; de Weger, Roel A.; Hanneke N. Monsuur; Anoek H. J. Maes; Paul J. van Diest

    2010-01-01

    Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for approximately 20% of mammographically detected breast cancers. Although DCIS is generally highly curable, some women with DCIS will develop life-threatening invasive breast cancer, but the determinants of progression to infiltrating ductal cancer (IDC) are largely unknown. In the current study, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a multiplex PCR-based test, to compare copy numbers of 21 breast cancer related genes betwe...

  1. Molecular differences between ductal carcinoma in situ and adjacent invasive breast carcinoma: a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification study

    OpenAIRE

    Moelans, Cathy B.; de Wegers, Roel A.; Monsuurs, Hanneke N.; Maess, Anoek H. J.; Paul J. van Diest

    2011-01-01

    Background Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) accounts for approximately 20% of mammographically detected breast cancers. Although DCIS is generally highly curable, some women with DCIS will develop life-threatening invasive breast cancer, but the determinants of progression to infiltrating ductal cancer (IDC) are largely unknown. Methods In the current study, we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), a multiplex PCR-based test, to compare copy numbers of 21 breast cancer ...

  2. Development of a novel PTT assay for mutation detection in PALB2 large exons and PALB2 screening in medullary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poumpouridou, Nikoleta; Goutas, Nikolaos; Tsionou, Christina; Dimas, Kleanthi; Lianidou, Evi; Kroupis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    Beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, PALB2 (Partner and localizer of BRCA2) emerges as the third breast cancer susceptibility gene due to its role in the same DNA repair pathway: homologous recombination. In most populations studied so far, PALB2 mutations are detected in 1-2% of BRCA negative female patients. PALB2 gene contains 13 exons; exons 4 and 5 consist 65% of the coding area. We developed a protein truncation test (PTT) for quick screening of truncating pathogenic mutations of these two large exons. Specific primers were de novo, in silico designed and the PTT-PCR products were translated in the presence of biotinylated lysine and detected colorimetrically. The assay was initially tested in 30 patients with hereditary breast cancer, negative for BRCA mutations and then, in 17 patients with the rare medullary breast cancer subtype. Small PALB2 exons were screened with high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMA) and the large DNA rearrangements with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Any alterations detected were verified by Sanger DNA Sequencing. The developed PTT methodology is highly specific for clinical significant mutations; positive control samples that produce truncated PALB2 peptides were correctly identified and the method was accurate when compared to DNA sequencing. We did not detect any deleterious PALB2 mutation in both groups of patients. HRMA and MLPA were also negative for all tested samples. However, our novel, fast and cost-effective PTT method for pathogenic mutation detection of the two large PALB2 exons can be applied in screening of a large number of breast cancer patients. PMID:26573693

  3. Characterization of large genomic deletions in the FBN1 gene using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Tracey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Connective tissue diseases characterized by aortic aneurysm, such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Ehlers Danlos syndrome type IV are heterogeneous and despite overlapping phenotypes, the natural history, clinical manifestations and interventional course for each diagnosis can be quite unique. The majority of mutations involved in the etiology of these disorders are missense and nonsense mutations. However, large deletions and duplications undetected by sequencing may be implicated in their pathogenesis, and may explain the apparent lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in a subset of patients. The objective of this study was to search for large pathogenic deletions and/or duplications in the FBN1, TGFβR1, and TGFβR2 genes using multiplex-ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA in patients with aortopathy, in whom no mutations in the FBN1, TGFβR1, and TGFβR2 genes were identified by sequencing. Methods The study included 14 patients from 11 unrelated families with aortic aneurysm. Of those, six patients (including 3 first-degree relatives, fulfilled the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome, and eight had predominantly aortic aneurysm/dilatation with variable skeletal and craniofacial involvement. MLPA for FBN1, TGFβR1, and TGFβR2 was carried out in all patients. A 385 K chromosome 15 specific array was used in two patients with a deletion of the entire FBN1 in order to define its size and boundaries. Results We identified two novel large deletions in the FBN1 gene in four patients of two unrelated families who met clinical diagnostic criteria for Marfan syndrome. One patient was found to have a FBN1 deletion encompassing exons 1-5. The other three patients had a 542 Kb deletion spanning the whole FBN1 gene and five additional genes (SLC24A5, MYEF2, CTXN2, SLC12A1, DUT in the chromosome 15. Conclusions Our findings expand the number of large FBN1 deletions, and emphasize the importance of

  4. THE CLONING OF HRNT-1 USING A COMBINATION OF cDNA LIBRARY SCREENING WITH BIOTIN-LABELED PROBE AND RAPID AMPLIFICATION OF cDNA ENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Kai-tai

    2001-01-01

    [1]Tom S, Andrew PR. Human Molecular Genetics [M]. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. United States of America 1996; 335.[2]Zhao Yong-liang, Jin Cui-zhen, Wu De-chang et al. Neoplastic transformation and cytogenetic changes of rat tracheal epithelial cells induced by a-particles irradiation [J]. Chin Med Sci J 1997; 12:202.[3]Frohman MA. Rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends for generation of full-length complementary DNAs: thermal RACE [J]. Methods Enzymol 1993; 218:340.[4]Frederick A, Roger B. Current Protocols in Molecular Biology [M]. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. United States of America 1998; 2.1.1.[5]Roux KH. Optimization and troubleshooting in PCR [J]. PCR Methods Appl 1995; 4:5158.[6]Sambrook, J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual [M]. 2nd Ed. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, 1989; 54.[7]Zhang Y, Frohman MA. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) to obtain full-length cDNAs [J]. Methods Mol Biol 1997; 69:61.[8]Frohman MA. Rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends for generation of full-length complementary DNAs: thermal RACE [J]. Methods Enzymol 1993; 218:340.[9]Iqbal S, Robinson J, Deere D, et al. Efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction amplification of the uid gene for detection of Escherichia coli in contaminated water [J]. Lett Appl Microbiol 1997; 24:498.[10]Schunck B, Kraft W, Truyen U. A simple touch-down polymerase chain reaction for the detection of canine parvovirus and feline panleukopenia virus in feces [J]. J Virol Methods 1995; 55:427.

  5. Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 (iAMP21 detected by ETV6/RUNX1 FISH screening in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ribeiro Ney Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome abnormalities that usually define high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia are the t(9;22/ breakpoint cluster region protein-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1, hypodiploid with < 44 chromosomes and 11q23/ myeloid/lymphoid leukemia gene rearrangements. The spectrum of acute lymphoblastic leukemia genetic abnormalities is nevertheless rapidly expanding. Therefore, newly described chromosomal aberrations are likely to have an impact on clinical care in the near future. Recently, the rare intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 started to be considered a high-risk chromosomal abnormality. It occurs in approximately 2-5% of pediatric patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This abnormality is associated with a poor outcome. Hence, an accurate detection of this abnormality is expected to become very important in the choice of appropriate therapy. In this work the clinical and molecular cytogenetic evaluation by fluorescence in situ hybridization of a child with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting the rare intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is described.

  6. Clinical utility of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in identification of aetiology of unexplained mental retardation: A study in 203 Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Boggula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Developmental delay (DD/mental retardation also described as intellectual disability (ID, is seen in 1-3 per cent of general population. Diagnosis continues to be a challenge at clinical level. With the advancement of new molecular cytogenetic techniques such as cytogenetic microarray (CMA, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA techniques, many microdeletion/microduplication syndromes with DD/ID are now delineated. MLPA technique can probe 40-50 genomic regions in a single reaction and is being used for evaluation of cases with DD/ID. In this study we evaluated the clinical utility of MLPA techniques with different probe sets to identify the aetiology of unexplained mental retardation in patients with ID/DD. Methods: A total of 203 randomly selected DD/ID cases with/without malformations were studied. MLPA probe sets for subtelomeric regions (P070/P036 and common microdeletions/microduplications (P245-A2 and X-chromosome (P106 were used. Positive cases with MLPA technique were confirmed using either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or follow up confirmatory MLPA probe sets. Results: The overall detection rate was found to be 9.3 per cent (19 out of 203. The detection rates were 6.9 and 7.4 per cent for common microdeletion/microduplication and subtelomeric probe sets, respectively. No abnormality was detected with probe set for X-linked ID. The subtelomeric abnormalities detected included deletions of 1p36.33, 4p, 5p, 9p, 9q, 13q telomeric regions and duplication of 9pter. The deletions/duplications detected in non telomeric regions include regions for Prader Willi/Angelman regions, Williams syndrome, Smith Magenis syndrome and Velocardiofacial syndrome. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that the use of P245-A2 and P070/P036-E1 probes gives good diagnostic yield. Though MLPA cannot probe the whole genome like cytogenetic microarray, due to its ease and relative low cost it is an

  7. GENOMIC PROFILING BY MULTIPLEX LIGATION - DEPENDENT PROBE AMPLIFICATION IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana-Emilia Grigore

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical management of severe pathological conditions, such as B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL, is subject to continuous optimization and re-evaluation. Patients may fully benefit from rapid, standardized laboratory tools designed to facilitate their early stratification according to disease risk, stage and prognosis. Such technologies may also aid the clinician in selecting the therapeutic option with the greatest chances of success. The presence of specific genetic abnormalities are frequently associated with the clinical outcome of oncologic patients in general, and B-CLL patients in particular. In the current study, a group of 58 B-CLL patients were evaluated for the detection of gene copy number alterations (deletions or duplication/ amplifications within 45 distinct genetic targets, by means of a novel molecular methodology, Multiplex Ligation - Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA. Simple or complex genetic defects were identified in 67% of cases, and the most common aberrations observed were: deletion of the short arm of chromosome 13 in 33% of cases, deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11 in 16% of cases, trisomy 12 in 16% of cases, and deletion of the short arm of chromosome 17 in 7% of cases. The main conclusion of the study presented here points towards MLPA as a potential key step of clinical management protocols in B-CLL, providing that it will be fully standardised for routine diagnosis.

  8. Analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization: a comparison of results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaret, Valérie; Iacono, Isabelle; Bréjon, Stéphanie; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Pierron, Gäelle; Couturier, Jérôme; Bergeron, Christophe; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2012-12-01

    In cases of neuroblastoma, recurring genetic alterations--losses of the 1p, 3p, 4p, and 11q and/or gains of 1q, 2p, and 17q chromosome arms--are currently used to define the therapeutic strategy in therapeutic protocols for low- and intermediate-risk patients. Different genome-wide analysis techniques, such as array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), have been suggested for detecting chromosome segmental abnormalities. In this study, we compared the results of the two technologies in the analyses of the DNA of tumor samples from 91 neuroblastoma patients. Similar results were obtained with the two techniques for 75 samples (82%). In five cases (5.5%), the MLPA results were not interpretable. Discrepancies between the aCGH and MLPA results were observed in 11 cases (12%). Among the discrepancies, a 18q21.2-qter gain and 16p11.2 and 11q14.1-q14.3 losses were detected only by aCGH. The MLPA results showed that the 7p, 7q, and 14q chromosome arms were affected in six cases, while in two cases, 2p and 17q gains were observed; these results were confirmed by neither aCGH nor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Because of the higher sensitivity and specificity of genome-wide information, reasonable cost, and shorter time of aCGH analysis, we recommend the aCGH procedure for the analysis of genomic alterations in neuroblastoma. PMID:23265803

  9. 基于辣根过氧化物酶放大的丝网印刷电极DNA传感器%A Screen-printed Electrode DNA Sensor Based on Horseradish Peroxidase-catalysed Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹元明; 冷翠翠; 万钧

    2011-01-01

    以聚苯胺纳米管、壳聚糖、室温离子液体修饰的丝网印刷电极为基底电极,以辣根过氧化物酶(HRP)催化的H2O2氧化邻苯二胺(OPD)的反应作为信号放大手段,构建了一个酶放大丝网印刷DNA传感器.考察并确定了在修饰丝网印刷电极上,上述反应的最优条件及进行电化学测定的最优条件:HRP催化OPD与H2O2反应的最佳缓冲液为pH5.0的醋酸-醋酸钠缓冲液;最佳检测支持电解质为pH 7.2的PBS缓冲液.HRP催化OPD与双氧水反应的最佳反应条件:使用16 mmol·L-1双氧水和30 mmol·L-1OPD反应15 min.在该传感器上,在最优条件下,DNA测定的线性范围为2×10-14mol·L-1到8×10-13 mol·L-1,回归方程为Δip=0.3086+0.016 0 cΥ.通过3σ规则计算出的DNA检测限为8×10-15 mol·L-1.该传感器在DNA检测方面具有良好的选择性.%In this study, a DNA sensor was constructed based on the screen-printed electrode that was modified with polyaniline nanotubes, chitosan and room-temperature ionic liquids, and by using the horseradish peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of H2 O2 to o-phenenyldiamine (OPD) as the signal amplification approach. The optimal conditions for the above-mentioned reaction and for the electrochemical determination on the modified screen-printed electrode were established as follows: the optimal buffer for the HRP-catalyzed oxidation of OPD by H2O2 was HOAc-NaOAc at pH 5. 0; the optimal buffer for the electrochemical determination was PBS at pH 7. 2; the best working condition for HRP-catalyzed oxidation was at a reaction time of 15 min with 16 mmol ? L"1 H2O2 and 30 mmol· L-1 OPD. Under these optimal conditions, DNA can be determined in a linear range from 2×10-14mol· L-1 to 8×10-13 mol· L-1, with a regression equation △iP = 0. 308 6+0. 016 0cT. The detected limit was found to be 8×10-15 mol· L-1 according to 3σ rule. Good selectivity against mismatched DNAs was verified.

  10. Amplification for the Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Laura Ann

    1978-01-01

    Explored are various means of amplification for aurally handicapped adolescents, including behind-the-ear hearing aids, "custom ear" (or in-the-ear) hearing aids, as well as aural rehabilitation. (BD)

  11. Combining approach with multiplex PCR and MLPA to detect deletion and duplication in DMD patients,carriers, and prenatal diagnosis%应用多重PCR和MLPA技术检测DMD患者和携带者的基因突变及产前诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 丁洁; 王玮; 陈瑛; 陆伟; 邵红; 吴柏林

    2009-01-01

    Objective Applying multiplex PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in a clinical setting to detect deletions and duplications in the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) gene not only for patients, but also for identification of possible carriers and prenatal diagnosis. Methods Multiplex PCR was used first in patients clinically diagnosed with DMD/BMD to examine 26 exons for a large deletion in the two hot regions of the dystrophin gene. For patients without a deletion detected in the aforementioned regions, MLPA was used to further examine all 79 exons to determine whether a deletion in the remaining non-hot regions or any duplication was present. A similar approach was applied to suspected carriers. In requested prenatal diagnosis cases, specific PCR was used to detect deletions, while MLPA was applied to detect duplications. Results Multiplex PCR was used to examine 26 exons within the two hot regions in the Dystrophin gene for 22 patients with DMD;13 (13/22) had multi-exon deletions. For the 9 patients without deletions in the 26 exons, MLPA was used to examine 79 exons. 3 patients had duplications, 1 patient had a single deletion in exon 18, and no deletions or duplications could be detected in the remaining 5 patients. Of the 16 carriers, 2 out of the 3 that had family history had deletions, while the other 13 carriers were mothers of affected children who were sporadic patients without family history. Of them, 8 mothers were carriers for either deletions or duplications. For prenatal diagnosis, 9 fetuses were examined (one case was twins). Of them, 2 fetuses had familial deletions or duplications detected. These results were verified after induced abortion. In 7 fetuses, no deletions or duplications were detected and all developed into children. Conclusion Multiplex PCR can detect 92.86% of deletions and is useful for prenatal diagnosis of deletions because it is simple, reliable and inexpensive. It can be the first choice

  12. Screening of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD mutations and investigating its mutational mechanism in Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a common X-linked recessive disease of muscle degeneration and death. In order to provide accurate and reliable genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis, we screened DMD mutations in a cohort of 119 Chinese patients using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by Sanger sequencing. In these unrelated DMD patients, we identified 11 patients with DMD small mutations (9.2% and 81 patients with DMD deletions/duplications (del/dup (68.1%, of which 64 (79.0% were deletions, 16 (19.8% were duplications, and one (1.2% was both deletion and duplication. Furthermore, we analyzed the frequency of DMD breakpoint in the 64 deletion cases by calculating exon-deletion events of certain exon interval that revealed a novel mutation hotspot boundary. To explore why DMD rearrangement breakpoints were predisposed to specific regions (hotspot, we precisely characterized junction sequences of breakpoints at the nucleotide level in 21 patients with exon deleted/duplicated in DMD with a high-resolution SNP microarray assay. There were no exactly recurrent breakpoints and there was also no significant difference between single-exon del/dup and multiple-exon del/dup cases. The data from the current study provided a comprehensive strategy to detect DMD mutations for clinical practice, and identified two deletion hotspots at exon 43-55 and exon 10-23 by calculating exon-deletion events of certain exon interval. Furthermore, this is the first study to characterize DMD breakpoint at the nucleotide level in a Chinese population. Our observations provide better understanding of the mechanism for DMD gene rearrangements.

  13. MLPA analysis for a panel of syndromes with mental retardation reveals imbalances in 5.8% of patients with mental retardation and dysmorphic features, including duplications of the Sotos syndrome and Williams-Beuren syndrome regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchhoff, Maria; Bisgaard, Anne-Marie; Bryndorf, Thue;

    2007-01-01

    MLPA analysis for a panel of syndromes with mental retardation (MRS-MLPA) was used for investigation of 258 mentally retarded and dysmorphic patients with normal conventional karyotypes (P064 probe set, MRC-Holland, for detection of (micro)deletions associated with 1p36-deletion, Sotos, Williams......-Beuren, Prader-Willi, Angelman, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Magenis, and 22q11-deletion syndromes). Patients were initially referred for HR-CGH analysis and MRS-MLPA was performed retrospectively. MRS-MLPA analysis revealed imbalances in 15/258 patients (5.8%). Ten deletions were identified, including deletions of 1p36......, 5q35 (Sotos syndrome), 7q11 (Williams-Beuren syndrome), 17p11 (Smith-Magenis syndrome), 15q11 (Angelman syndrome) and 22q11. Duplications were detected in 5q35, 7q11, 17p13, 17p11 and 22q11. We reviewed another 170 patients referred specifically for MRS-MLPA analysis. Eighty of these patients were...

  14. Quantum Feedback Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Quantum amplification is essential for various quantum technologies such as communication and weak-signal detection. However, its practical use is still limited due to inevitable device fragility that brings about distortion in the output signal or state. This paper presents a general theory that solves this critical issue. The key idea is simple and easy to implement: just a passive feedback of the amplifier's auxiliary mode, which is usually thrown away. In fact, this scheme makes the controlled amplifier significantly robust, and furthermore it realizes the minimum-noise amplification even under realistic imperfections. Hence, the presented theory enables the quantum amplification to be implemented at a practical level. Also, a nondegenerate parametric amplifier subjected to a special detuning is proposed to show that, additionally, it has a broadband nature.

  15. Effectiveness of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay used for detecting deletion of Prader-Willi syndrome%应用多重连接探针扩增法简便高效检测Prader-Willi综合征的基因缺失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong SHAO; Va LIP; Bai-Lin WU

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity in later infancy or early childhood. Patients with PWS are often too young to manifest sufficient features or have atypical findings, making genetic testing important to confirm the diagnosis of PWS. Approximately 99% of patients with PWS have a diagnostic abnormality in the parent-specific methylation imprint within the Prader-Willi critical region (PWCR) at chromosome 15q11.2-q12. Of them, 70% have a paternal deletion; 25% have a maternal uniparental disomy (UPD); and <5% have a mutation in the imprinting center. Methods: Current techniques can identify a diagnostic abnormality, such as paternal deletion or maternal UPD for most of patients with PWS, but they are labor-intensive and cost-expensive. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a novel, simple, and cost-effective technique for analysis of relative quantification in a single assay, which has recently been applied for the detection of genomic deletions, duplications, and amplifications in a variety of genes. Results: Six out of 20 patients referred for genetic diagnosis of PWS were found to have a deletion by MLPA, confirmed by FISH and DNA methylation analysis with 100% concordance. Conclusion: MLPA's high sensitivity and specificity for deletion detection is the same as FISH or Southern blot based analysis. Additional collaborative effort for developing and validating the complete MLPA-PWS assay, for not only detecting deletion but also identifying methylation abnormality, is on going.

  16. On soliton amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation that permits wave amplification or damping. A 'terminal similarity' solution is identified for large times in amplified systems. Numerical results are given which confirm that the terminal similarity solution is a valid local approximation for mu t sufficiently large and positive, even though the approximation is not uniformly valid in space.

  17. Balanced-PCR amplification allows unbiased identification of genomic copy changes in minute cell and tissue samples

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gang; Brennan, Cameron; Rook, Martha; Wolfe, Jia Liu; Leo, Christopher; Chin, Lynda; Pan, Hongjie; Liu, Wei-Hua; Price, Brendan; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of genomic DNA derived from cells and fresh or fixed tissues often requires whole genome amplification prior to microarray screening. Technical hurdles to this process are the introduction of amplification bias and/or the inhibitory effects of formalin fixation on DNA amplification. Here we demonstrate a balanced-PCR procedure that allows unbiased amplification of genomic DNA from fresh or modestly degraded paraffin-embedded DNA samples. Following digestion and ligation of a target a...

  18. Rapid high-throughput analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites using a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Andrew H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping DNaseI hypersensitive sites is commonly used to identify regulatory regions in the genome. However, currently available methods are either time consuming and laborious, expensive or require large numbers of cells. We aimed to develop a quick and straightforward method for the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites that overcomes these problems. Results We have developed a modified Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA approach for the identification and analysis of genomic regulatory regions. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by simultaneously analysing 20 loci from the ENCODE project for DNaseI hypersensitivity in a range of different cell lines. We were able to obtain reproducible results with as little as 5 × 104 cells per DNaseI treatment. Our results broadly matched those previously reported by the ENCODE project, and both technical and biological replicates showed high correlations, indicating the sensitivity and reproducibility of this method. Conclusion This new method will considerably facilitate the identification and analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive sites. Due to the multiplexing potential of MLPA (up to 50 loci can be examined it is possible to analyse dozens of DNaseI hypersensitive sites in a single reaction. Furthermore, the high sensitivity of MLPA means that fewer than 105 cells per DNaseI treatment can be used, allowing the discovery and analysis of tissue specific regulatory regions without the need for pooling. This method is quick and easy and results can be obtained within 48 hours after harvesting of cells or tissues. As no special equipment is required, this method can be applied by any laboratory interested in the analysis of DNaseI hypersensitive regions.

  19. Rapid Detection of high-level oncogene amplifications in ultrasonic surgical aspirations of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Long N

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic tumor information, such as identification of amplified oncogenes, can be used to plan treatment. The two sources of a brain tumor that are commonly available include formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE sections from the small diagnostic biopsy and the ultrasonic surgical aspiration that contains the bulk of the tumor. In research centers, frozen tissue of a brain tumor may also be available. This study compared ultrasonic surgical aspiration and FFPE specimens from the same brain tumors for retrieval of DNA and molecular assessment of amplified oncogenes. Methods Surgical aspirations were centrifuged to separate erythrocytes from the tumor cells that predominantly formed large, overlying buffy coats. These were sampled to harvest nuclear pellets for DNA purification. Four glioblastomas, 2 lung carcinoma metastases, and an ependymoma were tested. An inexpensive PCR technique, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA, quantified 79 oncogenes using 3 kits. Copy number (CN results were normalized to DNA from non-neoplastic brain (NB in calculated ratios, [tumor DNA]/[NB DNA]. Bland-Altman and Spearman rank correlative comparisons were determined. Regression analysis identified outliers. Results Purification of DNA from ultrasonic surgical aspirations was rapid ( Conclusions Buffy coats of centrifuged ultrasonic aspirations contained abundant tumor cells whose DNA permitted rapid, multiplex detection of high-level oncogene amplifications that were confirmed in FFPE. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1883718801686466

  20. Detection of major genetic causation of Congenital Heart Defect in fetuses by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification:a cost-effective method in developing countries.%多重连接依赖的探针扩增技术在检测胎儿先天性心脏病遗传学病因中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱湘玉; 茹彤; 朱海燕; 胡娅莉

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To determine the efficiency of multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the detection of the major genetic causes of congenital heart defect (CHD). Methods; 34 cord blood were collected from fetuses, who were affected with CHD, detected by ultrasonograph. Karyotyping and MLPA analysis were performed after DNA extraction. Another 32 cases of DNAs which had been tested previously were also analyzed with the present MLPA kit. Among these 32 cases, trisomy - 13, 16, 18, 21, and trisomy - 21 with microduplication 22ql 1, microdeletion and microduplication of 22ql 1 were included. Results; Of all the 66 cases, all the trisomies of chromosome 13 (3 cases) , 18 (7 cases) and 21 ( 10 cases of trisomy -21 and 1 case of trisomy -21 with microduplication 22ql 1) were detected by the present MLPA kit. Results: Of the five cases of known 22ql 1 deletion (3 megabases) were anastomotic in the size of deletion. In the 34 new cases, two additional cases of 22ql 1 deletion (3 megabases) were detected and proved by MLPA - P250 kit subsequently. Five case of trisomy - 16 and one case of 69, XXX and one case of balanced translocation were suggested as normal by MLPA. Conclusion; MLPA could detect common trisomies and microdeletion or microduplication that may cause CHD.%目的 探讨多重连接依赖的探针扩增技术(MLPA)用于检测胎儿先天性心脏病遗传学病因的可行性.方法 2006年11月至2009年12月间,共收集34例超声发现为先天性心脏病胎儿的脐血进行染色体核型分析,同时提取脐血淋巴细胞DNA后进行MLPA检测.选取先前已进行核型分析及MLPA确诊的32例标本作为对照,其中包括13-三体、16-三体、18-三体、21-三体、21-三体合并22q11微扩增以及不同范围的22q11微扩增或微缺失.结果 66例标本中,本实验所用的MLPA探针共检出3例13-三体、7例18-三体、10例21-三体、1例21-三体合并22q11微扩增.5例22q11微缺失的缺失

  1. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixiang; Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Mengben

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961-2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification but also a latitudinal amplification. The warming for the high-elevation stations is linearly proportional to the temperature lapse rates along altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law in both vertical and latitudinal directions. In contrast, neither altitudinal amplification nor latitudinal amplification is found within the Arctic region despite its greater warming than lower latitudes. Further analysis shows that the Arctic amplification is an integrated part of the latitudinal amplification trend for the low-elevation stations (≤500 m above sea level) across the entire low- to high-latitude Northern Hemisphere, also a result of the mathematical shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law but only in latitudinal direction.

  2. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  3. Gene amplification during myogenic differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ulrike; Ludwig, Nicole; Raslan, Abdulrahman; Meier, Carola; Meese, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Gene amplifications are mostly an attribute of tumor cells and drug resistant cells. Recently, we provided evidence for gene amplifications during differentiation of human and mouse neural progenitor cells. Here, we report gene amplifications in differentiating mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cells) covering a period of 7 days including pre-fusion, fusion and post-fusion stages. After differentiation induction we found an increase in copy numbers of CDK4 gene at day 3, of NUP133 at days 4 and 7, and of MYO18B at day 4. The amplification process was accompanied by gamma-H2AX foci that are indicative of double stand breaks. Amplifications during the differentiating process were also found in primary human myoblasts with the gene CDK4 and NUP133 amplified both in human and mouse myoblasts. Amplifications of NUP133 and CDK4 were also identified in vivo on mouse transversal cryosections at stage E11.5. In the course of myoblast differentiation, we found amplifications in cytoplasm indicative of removal of amplified sequences from the nucleus. The data provide further evidence that amplification is a fundamental mechanism contributing to the differentiation process in mammalians. PMID:26760505

  4. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  5. Evidence of high-elevation amplification versus Arctic amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Qixiang Wang; Xiaohui Fan; Mengben Wang

    2016-01-01

    Elevation-dependent warming in high-elevation regions and Arctic amplification are of tremendous interest to many scientists who are engaged in studies in climate change. Here, using annual mean temperatures from 2781 global stations for the 1961–2010 period, we find that the warming for the world’s high-elevation stations (>500 m above sea level) is clearly stronger than their low-elevation counterparts; and the high-elevation amplification consists of not only an altitudinal amplification b...

  6. Neuroblastoma Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professional Neuroblastoma Treatment Neuroblastoma Screening Research Neuroblastoma Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to Health Professional Version Screening is looking ...

  7. Next generation Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Biswal, S.; Mourou, G. [Univ. Michigan, Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nishimura, Akihiko; Takuma, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    The limiting factors of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) are discussed and experimental results of CPA in Yb:glass regenerative amplifier are given. Scaling of Yb:glass to the petawatt level is briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Feedback Amplification of Neutrophil Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Tamás; Mócsai, Attila

    2016-06-01

    As the first line of innate immune defense, neutrophils need to mount a rapid and robust antimicrobial response. Recent studies implicate various positive feedback amplification processes in achieving that goal. Feedback amplification ensures effective migration of neutrophils in shallow chemotactic gradients, multiple waves of neutrophil recruitment to the site of inflammation, and the augmentation of various effector functions of the cells. We review here such positive feedback loops including intracellular and autocrine processes, paracrine effects mediated by lipid (LTB4), chemokine, and cytokine mediators, and bidirectional interactions with the complement system and with other immune and non-immune cells. These amplification mechanisms are not only involved in antimicrobial immunity but also contribute to neutrophil-mediated tissue damage under pathological conditions. PMID:27157638

  9. Genome position and gene amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsová, Pavla; Snijders, A.M.; Kwek, S.; Roydasgupta, R.; Fridlyand, J.; Tokuyasu, T.; Pinkel, D.; Albertson, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2007), r120. ISSN 1474-760X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : gene amplification * array comparative genomic hybridization * oncogene Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.589, year: 2007

  10. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... offer vision screening programs for children. At what age should a child have his or her vision screened? Vision screening ... a child fails a vision screening at any age, the child should be referred for a comprehensive eye examination. ...

  11. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health Stories Screening Newborns for Critical ... Quality Assurance Program Newborn Screening Translation Research Initiative Newborn ... Stay Connected Twitter Facebook ...

  12. Double regenerative amplification of picosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-ao; Chen, Li-yuan; Bai, Zhen-xu; Chen, Meng; Li, Gang

    2012-04-01

    An double Nd:YAG regenerative amplification picosecond pulse laser is demonstrated under the semiconductor saturable absorption mirror(SESAM) mode-locking technology and regenerative amplification technology, using BBO crystal as PC electro-optic crystal. The laser obtained is 20.71ps pulse width at 10 KHz repetition rate, and the energy power is up to 4W which is much larger than the system without pre-amplification. This result will lay a foundation for the following amplification.

  13. Comprehensive human genome amplification using multiple displacement amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Frank B.; Hosono, Seiyu; Fang, Linhua; Wu, Xiaohong; Faruqi, A. Fawad; Bray-Ward, Patricia; Zhenyu SUN; Zong, Qiuling; Du, Yuefen; Du, Jing; Driscoll, Mark; Song, Wanmin; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Egholm, Michael; Lasken, Roger S.

    2002-01-01

    Fundamental to most genetic analysis is availability of genomic DNA of adequate quality and quantity. Because DNA yield from human samples is frequently limiting, much effort has been invested in developing methods for whole genome amplification (WGA) by random or degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. However, existing WGA methods like degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR suffer from incomplete coverage and inadequate average DNA size. We describe a method, termed multi...

  14. 应用多重连接依赖探针扩增技术快速检测胎儿染色体非整倍体与结构异常%Application of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for rapid detection of aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities in prenatal diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菁菁; 胡平; 罗春玉; 季修庆; 周静; 刘安; 马定远; 许争峰

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨多重连接依赖探针扩增(multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification,MLPA)技术在羊水细胞染色体非整倍体及染色体结构异常检测中的应用.方法 应用MLPA技术对286份羊水样本进行检测,并与常规染色体核型分析进行对比,对于检测到的染色体结构异常应用微阵列比较基因组杂交技术(array comparative genomic hybridization,aCGH)进行验证.结果 在286份羊水中,共检测到10例21-三体,2例18三体,1例13三体,1例嵌合21-三体,1例X单体,1例X染色体短臂大片段缺失,1例18号染色体短臂部分三体,1例18号染色体长臂和短臂大片段缺失.所有MLPA结果与染色体核型分析均一致.对于检测到的染色体结构异常均应用aCGH技术验证,检测结果符合率100%.结论 MLPA可快速检出常见染色体非整倍体以及染色体结构异常包括大片段缺失与重复,为临床产前诊断提供有价值的信息.%Objective To explore the value of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for rapid detection of aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities during prenatal diagnosis.Methods Two hundred and eight six amniotic fluid samples were analyzed with both MLPA and conventional karyotyping.Structural abnormalities were verified with array comparative genomic hybridization.Results Ten cases of trisomy 21,2 cases of trisomy 18,1 case of trisomy 13,1 case of mosaic trisomy 21,1 case of 45,X,1 case of large deletion of Xp,1 case of trisomy 18p and 1 case of large deletion of 18p and 18q were identified.The same results were derived by both MLPA and conventional karyotyping.Structural abnormalities were verified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)with 100% accuracy.Conclusion In addition to aneuploidies,MLPA can rapidly identify large deletions and duplications of chromosomes 21,18,13,X and Y.MLPA is supplementary to conventional karyotyping for identification of such chromosomal abnormalities

  15. Retrieval and Amplification of DNA from Unstained Histopathological Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DonnaC.MONTAGUE; BeverlyD.LYN-COOK; 等

    1993-01-01

    Testing of compounds for carcinogenic potential in vivo involves various experimental designs.A few of these techniques are directed to demonstrate the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the compound by histopathology.These changes shown by histochemical means include monoclonal antibody directed cellular markers.Development of the polymerase chain reaction technique(PCR)for amplification of DNA has facilitated the investigation of molecular events related to the formation of malignant neoplasms.We describe here a method for screening tissues for mutations of the H-ras gene using monoclonal antibodies directed toward normal and mutant p21 proteins.Formalin-fixed,paraffinembedded tissue sections are used to subsequently confirm the gene mutation by PCR amplification of the H-ras gene.The results indicated a successful application of this technique to demonstrate the presence of p21 oncoprotein in the tissues tested.

  16. Diversity of Phage-Displayed Libraries of Peptides during Panning and Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Jafari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The amplification of phage-displayed libraries is an essential step in the selection of ligands from these libraries. The amplification of libraries, however, decreases their diversity and limits the number of binding clones that a screen can identify. While this decrease might not be a problem for screens against targets with a single binding site (e.g., proteins, it can severely hinder the identification of useful ligands for targets with multiple binding sites (e.g., cells. This review aims to characterize the loss in the diversity of libraries during amplification. Analysis of the peptide sequences obtained in several hundred screens of peptide libraries shows explicitly that there is a significant decrease in library diversity that occurs during the amplification of phage in bacteria. This loss during amplification is not unique to specific libraries: it is observed in many of the phage display systems we have surveyed. The loss in library diversity originates from competition among phage clones in a common pool of bacteria. Based on growth data from the literature and models of phage growth, we show that this competition originates from growth rate differences of only a few percent for different phage clones. We summarize the findings using a simple two-dimensional “phage phase diagram”, which describes how the collapse of libraries, due to panning and amplification, leads to the identification of only a subset of the available ligands. This review also highlights techniques that allow elimination of amplification-induced losses of diversity, and how these techniques can be used to improve phage-display selection and enable the identification of novel ligands.

  17. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

    OpenAIRE

    B. Radhika; N. Vinod Kumar; Sreenivasulu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3%) samples were positive by both LAMP and polym...

  18. Health Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier to treat. You can get some screenings in your doctor's office. Others need special equipment, ...

  19. Application of sequence-independent amplification to screen for potentially viral pathogens from clinical respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory tract infection of unknown etiology%应用序列非依赖扩增技术检测儿童呼吸道标本中潜在病毒病原体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭英; 钱渊; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用序列非依赖扩增技术(sequence-independent amplification,SIA)检测常见病毒筛查阴性的5岁以下急性呼吸道感染患儿的呼吸道标本中可能存在的潜在病毒病原体,了解SIA扩增文库中各种背景核酸的组成.方法 随机选择45份常见病毒筛查阴性的5岁以下急性呼吸道感染患儿的鼻咽吸出物,0.45μm过滤和DNase/RNase处理去除病毒颗粒外的各种外源性核酸,再通过序列非依赖扩增技术对处理后的标本提取的核酸进行扩增,继而对扩增产物进行克隆、测序和BLAST比对.结果 测序403个克隆,获得有效序列368个,检出16个(16/368,4.3%)真核病毒同源序列,分别与Torque teno mini virus,Torque teno midi virus和Human bocavirus同源.此外,还检出1个真菌病毒( sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence associated DNA virus 1)同源序列和5个细菌病毒(噬菌体)同源序列.其余检出序列包含206个( 206/368,56.0%)与人基因组DNA同源的序列,11个(11/368,3.0%) rRNA同源序列,72个(72/368,19.6%)细菌同源序列,4个(4/368,1.1%)真菌同源序列,5个(5/368,1.4%)寄生虫同源序列,6个(6/368,1.6%)食源性序列,以及36个(36/368,9.8%)未能确定分类的序列.结论 核酸消化结合SIA方法可以检出常规检测方法所无法检出的潜在病毒病原体,本研究为后续系统性的查找和监测未知病毒提供了基础.%Objective Application of sequence-independent amplification (SIA) to identify the potentially viral pathogens in the clinical respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory tract infection of unknown etiology and characterize the composition of various non-viral sequences in the library of SIA amplicons.Method 45 randomly selected pediatric nasopharyngeal aspirate(NPA) samples for which no causal agent could be identified by common viruses screening were subjected to filtration & DNase/RNase treatments to remove the non-viral nucleic acid and then followed by

  20. Heralded amplification of photonic qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Natalia; Pini, Vittorio; Martin, Anthony; Verma, Varun B; Nam, Sae Woo; Mirin, Richard; Lita, Adriana; Marsili, Francesco; Korzh, Boris; Bussières, Félix; Sangouard, Nicolas; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Rob

    2016-01-11

    We demonstrate postselection free heralded qubit amplification for Time-Bin qubits and single photon states in an all-fibre, telecom-wavelength, scheme that highlights the simplicity, stability and potential for fully integrated photonic solutions. Exploiting high-efficiency superconducting detectors, the gain, fidelity and the performance of the amplifier are studied as a function of loss. We also demonstrate the first heralded single photon amplifier with independent sources. This provides a significant advance towards demonstrating device-independent quantum key distribution as well as fundamental tests of quantum mechanics over extended distances. PMID:26832244

  1. Resonant primordial gravitational waves amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunshan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism to evade the Lyth bound in models of inflation. We minimally extend the conventional single-field inflation model in general relativity (GR to a theory with non-vanishing graviton mass in the very early universe. The modification primarily affects the tensor perturbation, while the scalar and vector perturbations are the same as the ones in GR with a single scalar field at least at the level of linear perturbation theory. During the reheating stage, the graviton mass oscillates coherently and leads to resonant amplification of the primordial tensor perturbation. After reheating the graviton mass vanishes and we recover GR.

  2. Telomerase Repeated Amplification Protocol (TRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are found at the end of eukaryotic linear chromosomes, and proteins that bind to telomeres protect DNA from being recognized as double-strand breaks thus preventing end-to-end fusions (Griffith et al., 1999). However, due to the end replication problem and other factors such as oxidative damage, the limited life span of cultured cells (Hayflick limit) results in progressive shortening of these protective structures (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex telomerase-consisting of a protein catalytic component hTERT and a functional RNA component hTR or hTERC- counteracts telomere shortening by adding telomeric repeats to the end of chromosomes in ~90% of primary human tumors and in some transiently proliferating stem-like cells (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). This results in continuous proliferation of cells which is a hallmark of cancer. Therefore, telomere biology has a central role in aging, cancer progression/metastasis as well as targeted cancer therapies. There are commonly used methods in telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) (Mender and Shay, 2015b), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this detailed protocol we describe Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP). The TRAP assay is a popular method to determine telomerase activity in mammalian cells and tissue samples (Kim et al., 1994). The TRAP assay includes three steps: extension, amplification, and detection of telomerase products. In the extension step, telomeric repeats are added to the telomerase substrate (which is actually a non telomeric oligonucleotide, TS) by telomerase. In the amplification step, the extension products are amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers (TS upstream primer and ACX downstream primer) and in the detection step, the presence or absence of telomerase is

  3. Dynamics and Control of DNA Sequence Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan

    2014-01-01

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence \\emph{in vitro} through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal tempe...

  4. Modelling and Managing SSD Write-amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, Niv; Bouganim, Luc; Bonnet, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    How stable is the performance of your flash-based Solid State Drives (SSDs)? This question is central for database designers and administrators, cloud service providers, and SSD constructors. The answer depends on write-amplification, i.e., garbage collection overhead. More specifically, the answer depends on how write-amplification evolves in time. How then can one model and manage write-amplification, especially when application workloads change? This is the focus of this paper. Managing wr...

  5. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions

  6. Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, Karthikeyan [Department of Chemical Engineering and Center for Advanced Process Decision-Making, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Chakrabarti, Raj, E-mail: raj@pmc-group.com, E-mail: rajc@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Center for Advanced Process Decision-Making, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Division of Fundamental Research, PMC Advanced Technology, Mount Laurel, New Jersey 08054 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

  7. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders

  8. Screening of the BRCA1 gene in Brazilian patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer via high-resolution melting reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Eneida Santos; Soares, Bárbara Luisa; Lemos, Sara; Rosa, Reginaldo Cruz Alves; Rodrigues, Angélica Nogueira; Barbosa, Leandro Augusto; de Oliveira Lopes, Débora; Dos Santos, Luciana Lara

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of BRCA1 mutations among cancer-affected Brazilian women from the Midwest region of Minas Gerais state with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. In this Brazilian region, the first Center for Hereditary Cancer Control began operation in 2011, and 90 % of patients receive assistance from the public health service. Eighteen patients at high risk for HBOC were subjected to molecular analysis. Primers were designed for 22 coding exons of the gene; DNA was extracted; and real-time PCR followed by high-resolution melting reaction was performed. The amplicons were sequenced to confirm the identified profiles. Only exon 11 was directly sequenced due its length. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was performed for those patients in whom no pathogenic mutations were found. Among the 14 alterations identified in this study, the c.5263_5264insC pathogenic mutation was present in two patients (11.1 %). Four alterations showed no clinical relevance; one exhibited inconclusive clinical relevance according to the examined databases; and eight alterations presented a divergent classification between the databases. No deletions or duplications were found using the MLPA technique. The HRM methodology was highly sensitive in identifying variants in the BRCA1 gene and can dramatically reduce the amount of sequencing required to identify germline mutations in BRCA genes, enabling cheaper tests and increasing their availability to Brazilian women assisted by the public health service. PMID:26666763

  9. Approaches towards molecular amplification for sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggins, Sean; Frost, Christopher G

    2016-06-01

    Diagnostic assays that rely on molecular interactions have come a long way; from initial reversible detection systems towards irreversible reaction indicator-based methods. More recently, the emergence of innovative molecular amplification methodologies has revolutionised sensing, allowing diagnostic assays to achieve ultra-low limits of detection. There have been a significant number of molecular amplification approaches developed over recent years to accommodate the wide variety of analytes that require sensitive detection. To celebrate this achievement, this comprehensive critical review has been compiled to give a broad overview of the many different approaches used to attain amplification in sensing with an aim to inspire the next generation of diagnostic assays looking to achieve the ultimate detection limit. This review has been created with the focus on how each conceptually unique molecular amplification methodology achieves amplification, not just its sensitivity, while highlighting any key processes. Excluded are any references that were not found to contain an obvious molecular amplifier or amplification component, or that did not use an appropriate signal readout that could be incorporated into a sensing application. Additionally, methodologies where amplification is achieved through advances in instrumentation are also excluded. Depending upon the type of approach employed, amplification strategies are divided into four categories: target, label, signal or receptor amplification. More recent, more complex protocols combine a number of approaches and are therefore categorised by which amplification component described within was considered as the biggest advancement. The advantages and disadvantages of each methodology are discussed along with any limits of detection, if stated in the original article. Any subsequent use of the methodology within sensing or any other application is also mentioned to draw attention to its practicality. The importance of

  10. Detection of Chromosomal Structural Alterations in Single Cells by SNP Arrays: A Systematic Survey of Amplification Bias and Optimized Workflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Kazuya; Bundo, Miki; Ueda, Junko; Nakano, Yoko; Ukai, Wataru; Hashimoto, Eri; Saito, Toshikazu; Kato, Tadafumi

    2007-01-01

    Background In single-cell human genome analysis using whole-genome amplified product, a strong amplification bias involving allele dropout and preferential amplification hampers the quality of results. Using an oligonucleotide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we systematically examined the nature of this amplification bias, including frequency, degree, and preference for genomic location, and we assessed the effects of this amplification bias on subsequent genotype and chromosomal copy number analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We found a large variability in amplification bias among the amplified products obtained by multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and this bias had a severe effect on the genotype and chromosomal copy number analyses. We established optimal experimental conditions for pre-screening for high-quality amplified products, processing array data, and analyzing chromosomal structural alterations. Using this optimized protocol, we successfully detected previously unidentified chromosomal structural alterations in single cells from a lymphoblastoid cell line. These alterations were subsequently confirmed by karyotype analysis. In addition, we successfully obtained reproducible chromosomal copy number profiles of single cells from the cell line with a complex karyotype, indicating the applicability and potential of our optimized workflow. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that the quality of amplification products should be critically assessed before using them for genomic analyses. The method of MDA-based whole-genome amplification followed by SNP array analysis described here will be useful for exploring chromosomal alterations in single cells. PMID:18074030

  11. Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through

  12. HER2 immunohistochemistry significantly overestimates HER2 amplification in uterine papillary serous carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentrikoski, Mark J; Stoler, Mark H

    2014-06-01

    Recently, there have been numerous reports showing that HER2 overexpression or amplification occurs in a variable number of uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) cases, leading to a current clinical trial targeting this pathway. Although approved algorithms exist for scoring HER2 overexpression/amplification in breast and gastroesophageal carcinomas, scoring criteria and the optimal methodology for assessing HER2 in UPSC are currently unknown. Most frequently, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) breast carcinoma algorithms have been utilized for UPSC, wherein cases are screened with immunohistochemistry (IHC), followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for equivocal cases. However, interpreting HER2 IHC can be prone to significant subjectivity, often leading to false-positive results. To better correlate HER2 IHC results with underlying amplification in UPSC, we compared HER2 overexpression by IHC with HER2 amplification with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). A total of 69 cases of UPSC-57 pure and 12 mixed-were identified over a 10-year period. All were included in a tissue microarray, and HER2 IHC and CISH were performed. Each case was scored according to the most recent 2013, as well as the 2007, ASCO/CAP scoring guidelines for breast carcinoma. Whole-tissue sections were also examined in cases with amplification by CISH on initial screening, as well as an equal number of negative cases, to account for intratumoral heterogeneity. Nine (13%) cases showed HER2 amplification by CISH, whereas 14 (20%) and 28 (40%) cases showed overexpression with IHC when the 2007 or 2013 ASCO/CAP criteria were utilized, respectively. The overall concordance rate between CISH and IHC was 64% (9/14) with the 2007 ASCO/CAP criteria and 32% (9/28) with the 2013 ASCO/CAP criteria. Intratumoral heterogeneity was seen in 3 (33%) amplified cases. No additional amplified cases were identified on subsequent whole

  13. Mechanisms of metal-induced centrosome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Amie L; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-12-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide. PMID:21118148

  14. Mechanisms of Metal-Induced Centrosome Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, John Pierce

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to toxic and carcinogenic metals is widespread; however, their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. One potential mechanism for metal-induced carcinogenicity and toxicity is centrosome amplification. Here, we review the mechanisms for metal-induced centrosome amplification, including arsenic, chromium, mercury and nano-titanium dioxide.

  15. Risk Perception and Social Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E. [Environment Agency (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper seeks to consider social amplification as it applies to risk perception. Perceptions of the magnitude of a risk are conditioned by issues such as the degree of uncertainty in probability and consequences, the nature of the consequences and the relative weightings placed on probability and consequences. Risk perceptions are also influenced by factors such as confidence in the operator of an industrial process, trust in the regulator and the perceived fairness of regulatory decision-making. Different people may hold different views about these issues and there may also be difficulties in communication. The paper identifies and discusses self-reinforcing mechanisms, which will be labelled 'lock-in' here. They appear to apply in many situations where social amplification is observed. Historically, the term 'lock-in' has been applied mainly in the technological context but, in this paper, four types of lock-in are identified, namely scientific/technological, economic, social and institutional lock-in. One type of lock-in tends to lead to the next and all are buttressed by people's general acceptance of the familiar, fear of the unknown and resistance to change. The regulator seeks to make decisions which achieve the common good rather than supporting or perpetuating any set of vested interests. In this regard the locked-in positions of stakeholders, whether organisations, interest groups, or individual members of the public, are obstacles and challenges. Existing methods of consultation are unsatisfactory in terms of achieving a proper and productive level of dialogue with stakeholders.

  16. Efficiency of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification combined with short tandem repeat linkage analysis for the prenatal diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy%MLPA联合遗传连锁分析在假肥大型肌营养不良症产前诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 吴东; 侯巧芳; 王莉; 郭谦楠; 康冰; 刘红彦; 杨科; 丁雪冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficiency of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) combined with short tandem repeat (STR) linkage analysis for the prenatal diagnosis for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD).Methods Gender of the fetus was first determined by the presence of Y chromosome sex-determining gene (SRY).Subsequently,combined MLPA and STR linkage analysis were applied for the probands,pregnant women and fetuses in 45 affected families.Results Among the 45 families,31 SRY-positive fetuses were identified,among whom six were diagnosed with DMD.For 14 SRY-negative fetuses,four were diagnosed as carriers.The remainders were normal.Conclusion MLPA can detect mutations in the exons of dystrophin gene,whilst STR linkage analysis can determine whether the fetus has inherited the maternal X chromosome bearing the mutant gene.As the result,the method can therefore detect affected fetuses in which no exonic mutations are detected with MLPA.By combining the two methods,the diagnostic rate for DMD can be greatly improved.%目的 探讨多重连接依赖探针扩增技术(multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification,MLPA)联合短串联重复序列(short tandem repeat,STR)基因连锁分析用于Duchenne型假肥大型肌营养不良症(Duchenne muscular dystrophy,DMD)产前诊断的价值.方法 通过检测Y染色体性别决定基因(Y chromosome sex-determining gene,SR Y)判断胎儿性别;MLPA检测45个DMD家系中先证者、孕妇以及胎儿Dystrophin基因突变情况,并对家系成员和胎儿进行第45、49、50内含子以及5′和3 ′端STR的连锁分析.结果 45个进行产前诊断的家系中,SRY阳性31例,其中6例为DMD患病胎儿;阴性14例,其中4例为携带者,余未见异常.结论 MLPA能检测胎儿Dystrophin基因外显子突变情况,STR连锁能分析胎儿是否继承母源性风险X染色体,因此,STR连锁分析能发现MLPA技术检测不到的外显子突变胎儿.将两种方法结合起来

  17. MRSA Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? MRSA Screening Share this page: Was this page helpful? Formal name: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture At a Glance Test ...

  18. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  19. Quantum Amplitude Amplification and Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Brassard, G; Mosca, M; Tapp, A; Brassard, Gilles; Hoyer, Peter; Mosca, Michele; Tapp, Alain

    2000-01-01

    Consider a Boolean function $\\chi: X \\to \\{0,1\\}$ that partitions set $X$ between its good and bad elements, where $x$ is good if $\\chi(x)=1$ and bad otherwise. Consider also a quantum algorithm $\\mathcal A$ such that $A \\ket{0} = \\sum_{x\\in X} \\alpha_x \\ket{x}$ is a quantum superposition of the elements of $X$, and let $a$ denote the probability that a good element is produced if $A \\ket{0}$ is measured. If we repeat the process of running $A$, measuring the output, and using $\\chi$ to check the validity of the result, we shall expect to repeat $1/a$ times on the average before a solution is found. *Amplitude amplification* is a process that allows to find a good $x$ after an expected number of applications of $A$ and its inverse which is proportional to $1/\\sqrt{a}$, assuming algorithm $A$ makes no measurements. This is a generalization of Grover's searching algorithm in which $A$ was restricted to producing an equal superposition of all members of $X$ and we had a promise that a single $x$ existed such tha...

  20. Isothermal DNA amplification in vitro: the helicase-dependent amplification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong-Joo; Park, Kkothanahreum; Kim, Dong-Eun

    2009-10-01

    Since the development of polymerase chain reaction, amplification of nucleic acids has emerged as an elemental tool for molecular biology, genomics, and biotechnology. Amplification methods often use temperature cycling to exponentially amplify nucleic acids; however, isothermal amplification methods have also been developed, which do not require heating the double-stranded nucleic acid to dissociate the synthesized products from templates. Among the several methods used for isothermal DNA amplification, the helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) is discussed in this review with an emphasis on the reconstituted DNA replication system. Since DNA helicase can unwind the double-stranded DNA without the need for heating, the HDA system provides a very useful tool to amplify DNA in vitro under isothermal conditions with a simplified reaction scheme. This review describes components and detailed aspects of current HDA systems using Escherichia coli UvrD helicase and T7 bacteriophage gp4 helicase with consideration of the processivity and efficiency of DNA amplification. PMID:19629390

  1. Can Anomalous Amplification be Attained without Postselection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Liu, Wei-Tao; Viza, Gerardo I.; Howell, John C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a parameter estimation technique based on performing joint measurements of a weak interaction away from the weak-value-amplification approximation. Two detectors are used to collect full statistics of the correlations between two weakly entangled degrees of freedom. Without discarding of data, the protocol resembles the anomalous amplification of an imaginary-weak-value-like response. The amplification is induced in the difference signal of both detectors allowing robustness to different sources of technical noise, and offering in addition the advantages of balanced signals for precision metrology. All of the Fisher information about the parameter of interest is collected. A tunable phase controls the strength of the amplification response. We experimentally demonstrate the proposed technique by measuring polarization rotations in a linearly polarized laser pulse. We show that in the presence of technical noise the effective sensitivity and precision of a split detector is increased when compared to a conventional continuous-wave balanced detection technique.

  2. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  3. Rolling circle amplification of metazoan mitochondrialgenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simison, W. Brian; Lindberg, D.R.; Boore, J.L.

    2005-07-31

    Here we report the successful use of rolling circle amplification (RCA) for the amplification of complete metazoan mt genomes to make a product that is amenable to high-throughput genome sequencing techniques. The benefits of RCA over PCR are many and with further development and refinement of RCA, the sequencing of organellar genomics will require far less time and effort than current long PCR approaches.

  4. Detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize via various isothermal amplification techniques: a practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahradnik, Celine; Kolm, Claudia; Martzy, Roland; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    In 2003 the European Commission introduced a 0.9% threshold for food and feed products containing genetically modified organism (GMO)-derived components. For commodities containing GMO contents higher than this threshold, labelling is mandatory. To provide a DNA-based rapid and simple detection method suitable for high-throughput screening of GMOs, several isothermal amplification approaches for the 35S promoter were tested: strand displacement amplification, nicking-enzyme amplification reaction, rolling circle amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and helicase-dependent amplification (HDA). The assays developed were tested for specificity in order to distinguish between samples containing genetically modified (GM) maize and non-GM maize. For those assays capable of this discrimination, tests were performed to determine the lower limit of detection. A false-negative rate was determined to rule out whether GMO-positive samples were incorrectly classified as GMO-negative. A robustness test was performed to show reliable detection independent from the instrument used for amplification. The analysis of three GM maize lines showed that only LAMP and HDA were able to differentiate between the GMOs MON810, NK603, and Bt11 and non-GM maize. Furthermore, with the HDA assay it was possible to realize a detection limit as low as 0.5%. A false-negative rate of only 5% for 1% GM maize for all three maize lines shows that HDA has the potential to be used as an alternative strategy for the detection of transgenic maize. All results obtained with the LAMP and HDA assays were compared with the results obtained with a previously reported real-time PCR assay for the 35S promoter in transgenic maize. This study presents two new screening assays for detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize by applying the isothermal amplification approaches HDA and LAMP. PMID:24880871

  5. Onshore seismic amplifications due to bathymetric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Carbajal-Romero, M.; Flores-Guzmán, N.; Olivera-Villaseñor, E.; Kryvko, A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform numerical calculations for onshore seismic amplifications, taking into consideration the effect of bathymetric features on the propagation of seismic movements. To this end, the boundary element method is applied. Boundary elements are employed to irradiate waves and, consequently, force densities can be obtained for each boundary element. From this assumption, Huygens’ principle is applied, and since the diffracted waves are built at the boundary from which they are radiated, this idea is equivalent to Somigliana’s representation theorem. The application of boundary conditions leads to a linear system being obtained (Fredholm integral equations). Several numerical models are analyzed, with the first one being used to verify the proposed formulation, and the others being used to estimate onshore seismic amplifications due to the presence of bathymetric features. The results obtained show that compressional waves (P-waves) generate onshore seismic amplifications that can vary from 1.2 to 5.2 times the amplitude of the incident wave. On the other hand, the shear waves (S-waves) can cause seismic amplifications of up to 4.0 times the incident wave. Furthermore, an important result is that in most cases the highest seismic amplifications from an offshore earthquake are located on the shoreline and not offshore, despite the seafloor configuration. Moreover, the influence of the incident angle of seismic waves on the seismic amplifications is highlighted.

  6. Amplification uncertainty relation for probabilistic amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiki, Ryo

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, quantum amplification limit refers to the property of inevitable noise addition on canonical variables when the field amplitude of an unknown state is linearly transformed through a quantum channel. Recent theoretical studies have determined amplification limits for cases of probabilistic quantum channels or general quantum operations by specifying a set of input states or a state ensemble. However, it remains open how much excess noise on canonical variables is unavoidable and whether there exists a fundamental trade-off relation between the canonical pair in a general amplification process. In this paper we present an uncertainty-product form of amplification limits for general quantum operations by assuming an input ensemble of Gaussian-distributed coherent states. It can be derived as a straightforward consequence of canonical uncertainty relations and retrieves basic properties of the traditional amplification limit. In addition, our amplification limit turns out to give a physical limitation on probabilistic reduction of an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen uncertainty. In this regard, we find a condition that probabilistic amplifiers can be regarded as local filtering operations to distill entanglement. This condition establishes a clear benchmark to verify an advantage of non-Gaussian operations beyond Gaussian operations with a feasible input set of coherent states and standard homodyne measurements.

  7. Identification of human chromosome 9 specific genes using exon amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, D M; Banks, L T; Rogers, A C; Graw, S L; Housman, D E; Gusella, J F; Buckler, A J

    1993-11-01

    We have recently developed a method, exon amplification, that is designed for isolation of exon sequences from genomic DNA. To assess the efficacy of this method we have analyzed cosmid genomic clones derived from human chromosome 9, and have cloned several products from this analysis. Approximately 63% of cosmids produced at least one product derived from functioning splice sites within the target genomic fragment, and in many cases multiple products were isolated. In addition, an easily identifiable class of false positives was produced from 56% of cosmids analyzed; these are readily eliminated from subsequent study. Sequence analysis and database searches revealed that the majority (87%) of the putative exon clones were unique, the remainder being derived from repetitive sequences. Analysis of sequence conservation by Southern blotting in addition to cDNA screening experiments suggested that most, if not all, of these unique sequences represent true exons. The results of these studies indicate that exon amplification is a rapid and reliable approach for isolation of exon sequences from mammalian genomic DNA. PMID:7506603

  8. Detection of specific DNA sequences by fluorescence amplification: a color complementation assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Chehab, F. F.; Kan, Y W

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a color complementation assay that allows rapid screening of specific genomic DNA sequences. It is based on the simultaneous amplification of two or more DNA segments with fluorescent oligonucleotide primers such that the generation of a color, or combination of colors, can be visualized and used for diagnosis. Color complementation assay obviates the need for gel electrophoresis and has been applied to the detection of a large and small gene deletion, a chromosomal transloc...

  9. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kaczmarek; Witold Irzykowski; Adam Burzyński; Małgorzata Jędryczka

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) technique has been elabor...

  10. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. ► Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. ► DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. ► The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 °C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) γH2AX immunostaining to detect γH2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 °C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 °C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by γH2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and telomere functions are denatured. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide direct evidence of hyperthermia induced gene amplification.

  11. Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Bin, E-mail: yanbin@mercyhealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Mercy Cancer Center, Mercy Medical Center-North Iowa, Mason City, IA 50401 (United States); Ouyang, Ruoyun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China); Huang, Chenghui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Liu, Franklin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Neill, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Li, Chuanyuan [Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and

  12. Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

    2005-12-10

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  13. ESTIMATION OF AMPLIFICATION FACTOR IN EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarov Yuriy Pavlovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors are the developers of Odyssey Software (Eurosoft Co. for the analysis of seismological data and computing of seismic loads and their parameters. While communicating with the users of the software, the authors have revealed some uncertainty about both understanding of the term "amplification factor (AF" and calculation of the amplification factor using various methods. In this article, a simple example shows that the determination of the amplification factor as the ratio of the acceleration’s spectrum to the maximal acceleration is derived from the classical definition of AF in the form of the ratio of maximal dynamic displacement to the displacement by the action of static load. Deterministic and probabilistic ap-proaches for the calculating of the AF were discussed. There was an example of AFs calculation and their envelopes for translational and rotational components of seismic impact by using Odyssey Software.

  14. On Arbitrary Phases in Quantum Amplitude Amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P

    2000-01-01

    We consider the use of arbitrary phases in quantum amplitude amplification which is a generalization of quantum searching. We prove that the phase condition in amplitude amplification is given by $\\tan(\\phi/2)=\\tan(\\phi/2)(1-2a)$, where $\\phi$ and $\\phi$ are the phases used and where $a$ is the success probability of the given algorithm. Thus the choice of phases depends nontrivially and nonlinearly on the success probability. Utilizing this condition, we give methods for constructing quantum algorithms that succeed with certainty and for implementing arbitrary rotations. We also conclude that phase errors of order up to $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{a}}$ can be tolerated in amplitude amplification.

  15. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Screening for Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  17. Hypertension screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  18. Airport Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ionizing radiation for security screening individuals [online]. Health Physics Society Position Statement. 2009. Available at http: / / hps. org/ documents/ securityscreening_ ps017- 1. pdf. Accessed 7 January 2011. Interagency Steering Committee on ...

  19. Adult hearing screening: the Cyprus Pilot Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thodi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is the third most common condition affecting adults over 65 (Cruickshanks et al., 1998. It can affect quality of life, limiting the ability to communicate efficiently, and leading to isolation, psychological strain, and functional decline (LaForge, Spector, Sternberg, 1992; Yueh, Shapiro, MacLean, Shekelle, 2003. Communication limitations impinge on the person directly, as well as the family, friends, and social circle. Reports on hearing loss among adults indicate that less than 25% of people who can benefit from amplification are actually using hearing aids, and that people diagnosed with a hearing loss delay seeking amplification by about seven years (Kochkin, 1997. Often, family members are the driving force behind a person with a hearing loss who decides to seek help. Adult hearing screening programs might have a positive effect on raising public awareness on hearing loss and its implications, and shortening delay time for intervention. There is no routine hearing screening for the adult population in Cyprus. The health system provides hearing tests for beneficiaries upon physician recommendation or self-referral. The Cyprus pilot adult hearing screening program (ΑΠΑΣ- EVERYONE- Greek acronym for Screening- Intervention-Hearing-Participation to Life screened hearing in retired adults.

  20. Optical Pattern Recognition With Self-Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    In optical pattern recognition system with self-amplification, no reference beam used in addressing mode. Polarization of laser beam and orientation of photorefractive crystal chosen to maximize photorefractive effect. Intensity of recognition signal is orders of magnitude greater than other optical correlators. Apparatus regarded as real-time or quasi-real-time optical pattern recognizer with memory and reprogrammability.

  1. Social amplification of risk: a conceptual framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most perplexing problems in risk analysis is why some relatively minor risks or risk events, as assessed by technical experts, often elicit strong public concerns and result in substantial impacts upon society and economy. This article sets forth a conceptual framework that seeks to link systematically the technical assessment of risk with psychological, sociological, and cultural perspectives of risk perception and risk-related behavior. The main thesis is that hazards interact with psychological, social, institutional, and cultural processes in ways that may amplify or attenuate public responses to the risk or risk event. A structural description of the social amplification of risk is now possible. Amplification occurs at two stages: in the transfer of information about the risk, and in the response mechanisms of society. Signals about risk are processed by individual and social amplification stations, including the scientist who communicates the risk assessment, the news media, cultural groups, interpersonal networks, and others. Key steps of amplifications can be identified at each stage. The amplified risk leads to behavioral responses, which, in turn, result in secondary impacts. Models are presented that portray the elements and linkages in the proposed conceptual framework

  2. Desert Amplification in a Warming Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Here I analyze the observed and projected surface temperature anomalies over land between 50°S-50°N for the period 1950-2099 by large-scale ecoregion and find strongest warming consistently and persistently seen over driest ecoregions such as the Sahara desert and the Arabian Peninsula during various 30-year periods, pointing to desert amplification in a warming climate. This amplification enhances linearly with the global mean greenhouse gases(GHGs) radiative forcing and is attributable primarily to a stronger GHGs-enhanced downward longwave radiation forcing reaching the surface over drier ecoregions as a consequence of a warmer and thus moister atmosphere in response to increasing GHGs. These results indicate that desert amplification may represent a fundamental pattern of global warming associated with water vapor feedbacks over land in low- and mid- latitudes where surface warming rates depend inversely on ecosystem dryness. It is likely that desert amplification might involve two types of water vapor feedbacks that maximize respectively in the tropical upper troposphere and near the surface over deserts, with both being very dry and thus extremely sensitive to changes of water vapor. PMID:27538725

  3. Electromagnetic waves amplification in a coaxial triode with virtual cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryev, V.P.; Antoshkin, M.Y.; Koval, T.V.; Kuryakov, A.M. [Tomsk Politechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    The present paper presents the results of analytical and numerical investigations on the amplification of microwaves in the vircator triode of coaxial making. The range of a parameters of the greatest amplification was define for TH and TE-modes.

  4. Squeezed states and quantum-mechanical parametric amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation of a previous paper on the parametric amplification of a quantum oscillator to squeezed states is described. In particular, we show that in general the amplification factor is also the ''squeezing factor'' of the final state. 8 refs

  5. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Isothermal Amplification, and Amplicon Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mauk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min, low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of “lab on a chip” NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (polymerase-chain reaction-based tests in clinical laboratories can be realized with a disposable, palm-sized, plastic microfluidic chip in which: (1 nucleic acids (NAs are extracted from relatively large (~mL volume sample lysates using an embedded porous silica glass fiber or cellulose binding phase (“membrane” to capture sample NAs in a flow-through, filtration mode; (2 NAs captured on the membrane are isothermally (~65 °C amplified; (3 amplicon production is monitored by real-time fluorescence detection, such as with a smartphone CCD camera serving as a low-cost detector; and (4 paraffin-encapsulated, lyophilized reagents for temperature-activated release are pre-stored in the chip. Limits of Detection (LOD better than 103 virons/sample can be achieved. A modified chip with conduits hosting a diffusion-mode amplification process provides a simple visual indicator to readily quantify sample NA template. In addition, a companion microfluidic device for extracting plasma from whole blood without a centrifuge, generating cell-free plasma for chip-based molecular diagnostics, is described. Extensions to a myriad of related applications including, for example, food testing, cancer screening, and insect genotyping are briefly surveyed.

  7. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnostics of Dengue Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abd El Wahed

    Full Text Available Over 2.5 billion people are exposed to the risk of contracting dengue fever (DF. Early diagnosis of DF helps to diminish its burden on public health. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase amplification assays (RT-PCR are the standard method for molecular detection of the dengue virus (DENV. Real-time RT-PCR analysis is not suitable for on-site screening since mobile devices are large, expensive, and complex. In this study, two RT-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA assays were developed to detect DENV1-4.Using two quantitative RNA molecular standards, the analytical sensitivity of a RT-RPA targeting the 3´non-translated region of DENV1-4 was found to range from 14 (DENV4 to 241 (DENV1-3 RNA molecules detected. The assay was specific and did not cross detect other Flaviviruses. The RT-RPA assay was tested in a mobile laboratory combining magnetic-bead based total nucleic acid extraction and a portable detection device in Kedougou (Senegal and in Bangkok (Thailand. In Kedougou, the RT-RPA was operated at an ambient temperature of 38 °C with auxiliary electricity tapped from a motor vehicle and yielded a clinical sensitivity and specificity of 98% (n=31 and 100% (n=23, respectively. While in the field trial in Bangkok, the clinical sensitivity and specificity were 72% (n=90 and 100%(n=41, respectively.During the first 5 days of infection, the developed DENV1-4 RT-RPA assays constitute a suitable accurate and rapid assay for DENV diagnosis. Moreover, the use of a portable fluorescence-reading device broadens its application potential to the point-of-care for outbreak investigations.

  8. A new evolutionary theory deduced mathematically from entropy amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new evolutionary theory which is able to unite the present evolutionary debates is deduced mathematically from the principle of entropy amplification.It suggests that the extensive evolution is driven by the amplification of entropy,or microscopic diversity,and the biological evolution is driven by the amplification of biodiversity.Forming high hierarchies is the most important way for the amplification and brings out spontaneously three kinds of selection.This theory has some positive cultural meanings.

  9. Plasmonic Terahertz Amplification in Graphene-Based Asymmetric Hyperbolic Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nefedov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose and theoretically explore terahertz amplification, based on stimulated generation of plasmons in graphene asymmetric hyperbolic metamaterials (AHMM, strongly coupled to terahertz radiation. In contrast to the terahertz amplification in resonant nanocavities, AHMM provides a wide-band THz amplification without any reflection in optically thin graphene multilayers.

  10. Carotid Artery Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Carotid Artery Screening What is carotid artery screening? Who should consider ... about carotid artery screening? What is carotid artery screening? Screening examinations are tests performed to find disease ...

  11. Preconception Carrier Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preconception Carrier Screening Home For Patients Search FAQs Preconception Carrier Screening ... Screening FAQ179, August 2012 PDF Format Preconception Carrier Screening Pregnancy What is preconception carrier screening? What is ...

  12. Screening for Specific Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety Disorder Screening for Specific Phobias Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Children Screening for an Anxiety Disorder: Family Member Self- ...

  13. Detection of telomerase activity by combination of telomeric repeat amplification protocol and electrochemiluminescence assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ming Zhou; Li Jia

    2008-01-01

    A highly sensitive telomerase detection method that combines telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and magnetic beads based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay has been developed. Briefly, telomerase recognizes biotinylated telomerase synthesis primer (B-TS) and synthesizes extension products, which then serve as the templates for PCR amplification using B-TS as the forward primer and Iris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR) labeled ACX (TBR-ACX) as the reversed primer. The amplified product is captured on streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads and detected by ECL. Telomerase positive HeLa cells were used to validate the feasibility of the method. The experimental results showed down to 10 cancer cells can be detected easily. The method is a useful tool for telomerase activity analysis due to its sensitivity, rapidity, safety, high throughput, and low cost. It can be used for screening a large amount of clinical samples.

  14. Luminescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminescent screens which are useful for such purposes as intensifying screens for radiographs are comprised of a support bearing a layer of finely divided particles of a phosphor dispersed in a cross-linked polymeric matrix formed by heat-curing of a coating composition comprising an unsaturated cross-linkable polymer, a polymerizable acrylic monomer, a thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer, and a heat-activatable polymerization initiator. The phosphor layer includes voids formed by evaporation of an evaporable component which is present in the coating composition from which such layer is formed. (author)

  15. Diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Schure, K M; Drury, L O'C; Bykov, A M

    2012-01-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration is the theory of particle acceleration through multiple shock crossings. In order for this process to proceed at a rate that can be reconciled with observations of high-energy electrons in the vicinity of the shock, and for cosmic rays protons to be accelerated to energies up to observed galactic values, significant magnetic field amplification is required. In this review we will discuss various theories on how magnetic field amplification can proceed in the presence of a cosmic ray population. On both short and long scales, cosmic ray streaming can induce instabilities that act to amplify the magnetic field. Developments in this area that have occurred over the past decade are the main focus of this paper.

  16. Parametric amplification in low density plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear sheath capacitance properties in low density plasma, whose propose is to produce the parametric amplification on the RF signal in the high frequency band (H.F.) are used. The experiment has been carried out in the Mirror Linear Device LISA of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, where a helium plasma was produced by the radiofrequency source built at UFF with a power which can be varied from 10 watts to 100 watts. The experimental results obtained show that it is practicable the construction of the parametric amplifier with high gain of the selectively, which is very good in the amplification of the weak signals, where the gain factor and the relation between signal versus noise are fundamental. (Author)

  17. Weak-value amplification: state of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knee George C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak values arise in quantum theory when the result of a weak measurement is conditioned on a subsequent strong measurement. The majority of the trials are discarded, leaving only very few successful events. Intriguingly those can display a substantial signal amplification. This raises the question of whether weak values carry potential to improve the performance of quantum sensors, and indeed a number of impressive experimental results suggested this may be the case. By contrast, recent theoretical studies have found the opposite: using weak-values to obtain an amplification generally worsens metrological performance. This survey summarises the implications of those studies, which call for a reappraisal of weak values’ utility and for further work to reconcile theory and experiment.

  18. Hearing Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  19. Fidelity of DNA polymerases in DNA amplification.

    OpenAIRE

    Keohavong, P; Thilly, W G

    1989-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to separate and isolate the products of DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The strategy permitted direct enumeration and identification of point mutations created by T4, modified T7, Klenow fragment of polymerase I, and Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerases. Incorrectly synthesized sequences were separated from the wild type by DGGE as mutant/wild-type heteroduplexes and the heteroduplex fraction was used to calculat...

  20. Introduction to Quantum Noise, Measurement and Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Clerk, A. A.; Devoret, M. H.; Girvin, S. M.; Marquardt, F.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The topic of quantum noise has become extremely timely due to the rise of quantum information physics and the resulting interchange of ideas between the condensed matter and AMO/quantum optics communities. This review gives a pedagogical introduction to the physics of quantum noise and its connections to quantum measurement and quantum amplification. After introducing quantum noise spectra and methods for their detection, we describe the basics of weak continuous measurements. Particular atte...

  1. Colossal magnetoelectric effect induced by parametric amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Onuta, Tiberiu-Dan; Long, Christian J.; Geng, Yunlong; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-11-01

    We describe the use of parametric amplification to substantially increase the magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of multiferroic cantilevers. Parametric amplification has been widely used in sensors and actuators based on optical, electronic, and mechanical resonators to increase transducer gain. In our system, a microfabricated mechanical cantilever with a magnetostrictive layer is driven at its fundamental resonance frequency by an AC magnetic field. The resulting actuation of the cantilever at the resonance frequency is detected by measuring the voltage across a piezoelectric layer in the same cantilever. Concurrently, the spring constant of the cantilever is modulated at twice the resonance frequency by applying an AC voltage across the piezoelectric layer. The spring constant modulation results in parametric amplification of the motion of the cantilever, yielding a gain in the ME coefficient. Using this method, the ME coefficient was amplified from 33 V/(cm Oe) to 2.0 MV/(cm Oe), an increase of over 4 orders of magnitude. This boost in the ME coefficient directly resulted in an enhancement of the magnetic field sensitivity of the device from 6.0 nT /√{Hz } to 1.0 nT /√{Hz } . The enhancement in the ME coefficient and magnetic field sensitivity demonstrated here may be beneficial for a variety actuators and sensors based on resonant multiferroic devices.

  2. Loop mediated isothermal amplification: An innovative gene amplification technique for animal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Pravas Ranjan; Sethy, Kamadev; Mohapatra, Swagat; Panda, Debasis

    2016-05-01

    India being a developing country mainly depends on livestock sector for its economy. However, nowadays, there is emergence and reemergence of more transboundary animal diseases. The existing diagnostic techniques are not so quick and with less specificity. To reduce the economy loss, there should be a development of rapid, reliable, robust diagnostic technique, which can work with high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay is a rapid gene amplification technique that amplifies nucleic acid under an isothermal condition with a set of designed primers spanning eight distinct sequences of the target. This assay can be used as an emerging powerful, innovative gene amplification diagnostic tool against various pathogens of livestock diseases. This review is to highlight the basic concept and methodology of this assay in livestock disease. PMID:27284221

  3. DNA Amplification from Pin Mounted Bumble Bees (Bombus) in a Museum Collection: Effects of Fragment Size and Specimen Age on Successful PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic data in the form of pinned specimens in entomological collections offer the potential to determine trends in genetic diversity of bumble bees (Bombus). We screened eight microsatellite loci for amplification success in pinned bumble bee specimens from the U.S. National Pollinating Insects C...

  4. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  5. Forensic mass screening using mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szibor, Reinhard; Plate, Ines; Schmitter, Herrmann; Wittig, Holger; Krause, Dieter

    2006-11-01

    At the forensic autopsy of a sexual murder victim, some trace hairs, possibly belonging to the perpetrator, were saved. Initially, the analysis of a pubic hair shaft only revealed the presence of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotype profile consisting of the (CA)(6) allele and the complete hypervariable region 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) sequence. Later, typing of some further telogene trace hairs, which had been stored for several years, yielded a nuclear short tandem repeat (STR) profile. We used both the mtDNA haplotype and the STR profile to start a DNA mass screening project involving 2,335 male citizens of the relevant communities. MtDNA screening was carried out by using the CA repeat amplification in combination with an SNP typing procedure based on the restriction site analysis of amplified d-loop sequences. The aim of our paper is to put mass screening with mtDNA up for discussion. PMID:16583247

  6. Social amplification of risk: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social amplification of risk is a theoretical framework that addresses an important deficiency of formal risk assessment methods and procedures. Typically assessments of risk from technological mishaps have been based upon the expected number of people who could be killed or injured or the amount of property that might be damaged. The diverse and consequential impacts that followed in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident make it clear that risk assessments that exclude the role of public perceptions of risk will greatly underestimate the potential costs of certain types of hazards. The accident at Three Mile Island produced no direct fatalities and few, if any, expected deaths due to cancer, yet few other accidents in history have had such costly societal impacts. The experience of amplified impacts argues for the development of a broadened theoretical and methodological perspective capable of integrating technical assessment of risk with public perceptions. This report presents the results to date in an ongoing research effort to better understand the complex processes by which adverse events produce impacts. In particular this research attempts to construct a framework that can account for those events that have produced, or are capable of producing, greater societal impacts than would be forecast by traditional risk assessment methods. This study demonstrates that the social amplification of risk involves interactions between sophisticated technological hazards, public and private institutions, and subtle individual and public perceptions and behaviors. These factors, and the variables underlying the intricate processes of social amplification that occur in modern society, are not fully defined and clarified in this report. 19 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen ... This test is most often done between the 15th and 22nd weeks of the pregnancy. It is most accurate ...

  8. Autism Screening and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Websites About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Screening and Diagnosis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... two steps: Developmental Screening Comprehensive Diagnostic Evaluation Developmental Screening Developmental screening is a short test to tell ...

  9. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  10. Parametric Amplification of Gravitational Fluctuations during Reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmological perturbations can undergo amplification by parametric resonance during preheating even on scales larger than the Hubble radius, without violating causality. A unified description of gravitational and matter fluctuations is crucial to determine the strength of the instability. To extract specific signatures of the oscillating inflaton field during reheating, it is essential to focus on a variable describing metric fluctuations which is constant in the standard analyses of inflation. For a massive inflaton without self-coupling, we find no additional growth of superhorizon modes during reheating beyond the usual predictions. For a massless self-coupled inflaton, there is a sub-Hubble scale resonance. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Gas amplification properties of GEM foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the detector concept International Linear Detector for the future accelerator project International Linear Collider, in which electrons and positrons at c. m. energies of 500 GeV are brought to collision, a time projection chamber shall be applied as central track detector. By the application of such a chamber as track detector a three-dimensional reconstruction of the track points is possible. If a particle passes the gas volume within the chamber it ionizises single gas atoms and the arising electrons move after the amplification in the GEM arrangement to the anode, so that a two-dimensional projection of the particle track is possible. The third dimension is calculated from the drift time of the electrons. The advances of this readout system consist therein that a better position resolution than by a multiwire proportional chamber is reached and the back-drifting ions can be strongly suppressed. Aim of this thesis are studies for a GEM module, which shall be used in a large TPC prototype. Concerning different requirements it is valid to compare different GEMs in order to can meet an optimal choice. In a small prototype present at DESY measurements for the acquisition of GEM-describing parameters were performed. The taking into operation of the test TPC was part of this thesis. Tracks were generated by a radioactive source, by means of which the gas amplification was determined. With the measurement arrangement gas-amplifier foils of different kind were compared in view of their amplification properties and their energy resolution power and systematically studied. Five different GEM performances were studied in the test TPC. These foils differ in their geometrical classification parameters, the fabrication process, or the materials. The GEMs produced at CERN possess in comparison with GEMs of the Japanese firm SciEnergy and a GEM of the US-American firm Tech-Etch the best amplification and resolution properties. Furthermore a new GEM framing

  12. Recombinase polymerase amplification as a promising tool in hepatitis C virus diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hosam; Zaghloul; Mahmoud; El-shahat

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus(HCV)infection represents a significant health problem and represents a heavy load on some countries like Egypt in which about 20%of the total population are infected.Initial infection is usually asymptomatic and result in chronic hepatitis that give rise to complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.The management of HCV infection should not only be focus on therapy,but also to screen carrier individuals in order to prevent transmission.In the present,molecular detection and quantification of HCV genome by real time polymerase chain reaction(PCR)represent the gold standard in HCV diagnosis and plays a crucial role in the management of therapeutic regimens.However,real time PCR is a complicated approach and of limited distribution.On the other hand,isothermal DNA amplification techniques have been developed and offer molecular diagnosis of infectious dieses at point-of-care.In this review we discuss recombinase polymerase amplification technique and illustrate its diagnostic value over both PCR and other isothermal amplification techniques.

  13. Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs using isothermal amplification of target DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Mura Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common method of GMO detection is based upon the amplification of GMO-specific DNA amplicons using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Here we have applied the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to amplify GMO-related DNA sequences, 'internal' commonly-used motifs for controlling transgene expression and event-specific (plant-transgene junctions. Results We have tested the specificity and sensitivity of the technique for use in GMO studies. Results show that detection of 0.01% GMO in equivalent background DNA was possible and dilutions of template suggest that detection from single copies of the template may be possible using LAMP. Conclusion This work shows that GMO detection can be carried out using LAMP for routine screening as well as for specific events detection. Moreover, the sensitivity and ability to amplify targets, even with a high background of DNA, here demonstrated, highlights the advantages of this isothermal amplification when applied for GMO detection.

  14. Screening neonatal

    OpenAIRE

    Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Reig del Moral, Celia

    2006-01-01

    Los autores de este artículo revisan el screening neonatal, desde la descripción por Wilson y Jungner en 1968 de los criterios que hansido aplicados en la detección precoz de enfermedades enel recién nacido, hasta los avances actuales en la medicina genómica que han modificado sustancialmente estas bases. Se comentan los métodos diagnósticos prenatales más utilizados como los analíticos y ultrasonografia prenatal. Se describen los procedimientos que se aplican en la actualidad y se describen ...

  15. Amplification of fluorescence using collinear picosecond optical parametric amplification at degeneracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jing; Zhang Qiu-Lin; Jiang Man; Zhang Dong-Xiang; Feng Bao-Hua; Zhang Jing-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the output characteristic of broadband parametric amplification of incoherent light pulses in a 355-nm pumped degenerate picosecond optical parametric amplification with either saturated or unsaturated amplification.The optical parametric amplifier is seeded by the fluorescence generated in a solution of pyridine-1 dye in ethanol.With the saturated amplification,we can obtain high energy incoherent light pulses,whose full widtth at half maximum bandwidth varies from 16 nm to 53 nm for the different phase matching angles near degeneracy.Moreover,the unsaturated bandwidth of the amplified pulses fits well to the calculated result at degeneracy.Selecting s-polarized fluorescence with a Glan-Taylor prism,the maximum bandwidth of the amplified fluorescence is found to be 59 nm for a purely s-polarized seed.The maximum output energy is 0.67 mJ for the optical parametric amplifier.By using an optical filter and compressor,the generated high energy incoherent light has great potential as the incoherent pump,signal or idler wave of a parametric down-conversion process,so that a wave with a high degree of coherence can be generated from an incoherent pump light.

  16. Asymmetric parametric amplification in nonlinear left-handed transmission lines

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, David A.; Ilya V. Shadrivov; Yuri S. Kivshar

    2008-01-01

    We study parametric amplification in nonlinear left-handed transmission lines, which serve as model systems for nonlinear negative index metamaterials. We experimentally demonstrate amplification of a weak pump signal in three regimes: with the signal in the left-handed band, with the signal in the stop band, and with the signal at a defect frequency. In particular, we demonstrate the amplification of the incident wave by up to 15dB in the left-handed regime.

  17. Multiplex allele-specific target amplification based on PCR suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Broude, Natalia E.; Zhang, Lingang; Woodward, Karen; Englert, David; Cantor, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a strategy for multiplex PCR based on PCR suppression. PCR suppression allows DNA target amplification with only one sequence-specific primer per target and a second primer that is common for all targets. Therefore, an n-plex PCR would require only n + 1 primers. We have demonstrated uniform, efficient amplification of targeted sequences in 14-plex PCR. The high specificity of suppression PCR also provides multiplexed amplification with allele specifi...

  18. Loss of KLF14 triggers centrosome amplification and tumorigenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Guangjian; Sun, Lianhui; Shan, Peipei; Zhang, Xianying; Huan, Jinliang; Li, Dali; Wang, Tingting; Wei, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Yao, Liangfang; Xuan, Yang; Hou, Zhaoyuan; Cui, Yongping; Cao, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome amplification is frequent in cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that disruption of the Kruppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) gene in mice causes centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and spontaneous tumorigenesis. Molecularly, KLF14 functions as a transcriptional repressor of Plk4, a polo-like kinase whose overexpression induces centrosome overduplication. Transient knockdown of KLF14 is sufficient to induce Plk4-directed centrosome amplification. Clinical...

  19. An Improved Analytical Expression for Write Amplification in NAND Flash

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Luojie; Kurkoski, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Agarwal et al. gave an closed-form expression for write amplification in NAND flash memory by finding the probability of a page being valid over the whole flash memory. This paper gives an improved analytic expression for write amplification in NAND flash memory by finding the probability of a page being invalid over the block selected for garbage collection. The improved expression uses Lambert W function. Through asymptotic analysis, write amplification is shown to depend on overprovisionin...

  20. Quantum noise in parametric amplification under phase-mismatched conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper studies quantum noise in parametric amplification under phase-mismatched conditions. The equations of motion of the quantum-mechanical field operators, which include phase mismatch under unsaturated conditions are first derived from the Heisenberg equation. Next, the noise figure is evaluated using the solutions of the derived equations. The results indicate that phase mismatch scarcely affects noise property in phase-insensitive amplification while it has a notable effect in case of phase-sensitive amplification.

  1. Improved PCR Amplification of Broad Spectrum GC DNA Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Nicholas; Starostina, Elena; Leake, Devin; Saaem, Ishtiaq

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in molecular biology can benefit from improved PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. Conventional PCR amplification of DNA sequences with regions of GC less than 30%, or higher than 70%, is complex due to secondary structures that block the DNA polymerase as well as mispriming and mis-annealing of the DNA. This complexity will often generate incomplete or nonspecific products that hamper downstream applications. In this study, we address multiplexed PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a wide range of GC content. In order to mitigate amplification complications due to high or low GC regions, we tested a combination of different PCR cycling conditions and chemical additives. To assess the fate of specific oligonucleotide (oligo) species with varying GC content in a multiplexed PCR, we developed a novel method of sequence analysis. Here we show that subcycling during the amplification process significantly improved amplification of short template pools (~200 bp), particularly when the template contained a low percent of GC. Furthermore, the combination of subcycling and 7-deaza-dGTP achieved efficient amplification of short templates ranging from 10–90% GC composition. Moreover, we found that 7-deaza-dGTP improved the amplification of longer products (~1000 bp). These methods provide an updated approach for PCR amplification of DNA segments containing a broad range of GC content. PMID:27271574

  2. Brillouin amplification and processing of the Rayleigh scattered signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermelstein, David; Shacham, Eliashiv; Biton, Moran; Sternklar, Shmuel

    2015-07-15

    Brillouin amplification of Rayleigh scattering is demonstrated using two different configurations. In the first technique, the Rayleigh scattering and amplification occurs simultaneously in the same fiber. In the second technique, the amplification takes place in a second fiber. The differences between the two techniques are delineated. Using the second technique, we demonstrate single-sideband off-resonant Brillouin amplification of the Rayleigh signal. This technique is shown to enhance the SNR of a signal that is due to vibration-induced strain on the fiber. PMID:26176464

  3. Giant amplification of modes in parity-time symmetric waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of the interference with the amplification of modes in a waveguide with gain and losses can result in a giant amplification of the propagating beam, which propagates without distortion of its average amplitude. An increase of the gain-loss gradient by only a few times results in a magnification of the beam by a several orders of magnitude. -- Highlights: ► We report giant beam amplification in parity-time symmetric optical waveguides. ► The amplification is due to interference of gain-guided modes. ► Flexible control both by parameters of the waveguide and of the input beam.

  4. Optimization of noncollinear optical parametric amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, D. N.; Rothardt, J.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2007-02-01

    Noncollinearly phase-matched optical parametric amplifiers (NOPAs) - pumped with the green light of a frequency doubled Yb-doped fiber-amplifier system 1, 2 - permit convenient generation of ultrashort pulses in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) 3. The broad bandwidth of the parametric gain via the noncollinear pump configuration allows amplification of few-cycle optical pulses when seeded with a spectrally flat, re-compressible signal. The short pulses tunable over a wide region in the visible permit transcend of frontiers in physics and lifescience. For instance, the resulting high temporal resolution is of significance for many spectroscopic techniques. Furthermore, the high magnitudes of the peak-powers of the produced pulses allow research in high-field physics. To understand the demands of noncollinear optical parametric amplification using a fiber pump source, it is important to investigate this configuration in detail 4. An analysis provides not only insight into the parametric process but also determines an optimal choice of experimental parameters for the objective. Here, the intention is to design a configuration which yields the shortest possible temporal pulse. As a consequence of this analysis, the experimental setup could be optimized. A number of aspects of optical parametric amplifier performance have been treated analytically and computationally 5, but these do not fully cover the situation under consideration here.

  5. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with /sup 35/S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene.

  6. Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beam Amplification (SOCLBA) project will provide a capability to amplify a laser beam that is received in a modulating retro-reflector (MRR) located in a satellite in low Earth orbit. It will also improve the pointing procedure between Earth and spacecraft terminals. The technology uses laser arrays to strengthen the reflected laser beam from the spacecraft. The results of first year's work (2014) show amplification factors of 60 times the power of the signal beam. MMRs are mirrors that reflect light beams back to the source. In space optical communications, a high-powered laser interrogator beam is directed from the ground to a satellite. Within the satellite, the beam is redirected back to ground using the MMR. In the MMR, the beam passes through modulators, which encode a data signal onto the returning beam. MMRs can be used in small spacecraft for optical communications. The SOCLBA project is significant to NASA and small spacecraft due to its application to CubeSats for optical data transmission to ground stations, as well as possible application to spacecraft for optical data transmission.

  7. Induction of gene amplification in Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human erythrocytic in vitro cultures of Honduras I strain of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been stressed stepwise with increasing concentrations of methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist. This selection has produced a strain that is 450 times more resistant to the drug than the original culture. Uptake of sublethal doses of radiolabeled MTX by infected red blood cells was 6-36 times greater in the resistant cultures than in the nonresistant controls. DNA isolated from all of the parasites was probed by hybridization with 35S-labeled DNA derived from a clone of the yeast thymidylate synthetase (TS) gene. This showed 50 to 100 times more increased hybridization of the TS probe to the DNA from the resistant parasites is direct evidence of gene amplification because DHFR and TS are actually one and the same bifunctional enzyme in P. falciparum. Hence, the evidence presented indicates that induced resistance of the malaria parasite to MTX in this case is due to overproduction of DHFR resulting from amplification of the DHFR-TS gene

  8. Seismic Wave Amplification in 3D Alluvial Basins: 3D/1D Amplification Ratios from Fast Multipole BEM Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fajardo, Kristel C Meza; Chaillat, Stéphanie; Lenti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study seismic wave amplification in alluvial basins having 3D standard geometries through the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method in the frequency domain. We investigate how much 3D amplification differs from the 1D (horizontal layering) case. Considering incident fields of plane harmonic waves, we examine the relationships between the amplification level and the most relevant physical parameters of the problem (impedance contrast, 3D aspect ratio, vertical and oblique incidence of plane waves). The FMBEM results show that the most important parameters for wave amplification are the impedance contrast and the so-called equivalent shape ratio. Using these two parameters, we derive simple rules to compute the fundamental frequency for various 3D basin shapes and the corresponding 3D/1D amplification factor for 5% damping. Effects on amplification due to 3D basin asymmetry are also studied and incorporated in the derived rules.

  9. An empirical approach for quantifying loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP using Escherichia coli as a model system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Subramanian

    Full Text Available Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP is a highly efficient, selective and rapid DNA amplification technique for genetic screening of pathogens. However, despite its popularity, there is yet no mathematical model to quantify the outcome and no well-defined metric for comparing results that are available. LAMP is intrinsically complex and involves multiple pathways for gene replication, making fundamental modelling nearly intractable. To circumvent this difficulty, an alternate, empirical model is introduced that will allow one to extract a set of parameters from the concentration versus time curves. A simple recipe to deduce the time to positive, Tp--a parameter analogous to the threshold cycling time in polymerase chain reaction (PCR, is also provided. These parameters can be regarded as objective and unambiguous indicators of LAMP amplification. The model is exemplified on Escherichia coli strains by using the two gene fragments responsible for vero-toxin (VT production and tested against VT-producing (O157 and O45 and non-VT producing (DH5 alpha strains. Selective amplification of appropriate target sequences was made using well established LAMP primers and protocols, and the concentrations of the amplicons were measured using a Qubit 2.0 fluorometer at specific intervals of time. The data is fitted to a generalized logistic function. Apart from providing precise screening indicators, representing the data with a small set of numbers offers significant advantages. It facilitates comparisons of LAMP reactions independently of the sampling technique. It also eliminates subjectivity in interpretation, simplifies data analysis, and allows easy data archival, retrieval and statistical analysis for large sample populations. To our knowledge this work represents a first attempt to quantitatively model LAMP and offer a standard method that could pave the way towards high throughput automated screening.

  10. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3% samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases.

  11. Frequent amplification of CENPF, GMNN and CDK13 genes in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Eun Kim

    Full Text Available Genomic changes frequently occur in cancer cells during tumorigenesis from normal cells. Using the Illumina Human NS-12 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP chip to screen for gene copy number changes in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs, we initially detected amplification of 35 genes from four genomic regions (1q21-41, 6p21.2-24.1, 7p13 and 8q13-23. By integrated screening of these genes for both DNA copy number and gene expression in HCC and colorectal cancer, we selected CENPF (centromere protein F/mitosin, GMNN (geminin, DNA replication inhibitor, CDK13 (cyclin-dependent kinase 13, and FAM82B (family with sequence similarity 82, member B as common cancer genes. Each gene exhibited an amplification frequency of ~30% (range, 20-50% in primary HCC (n = 57 and colorectal cancer (n = 12, as well as in a panel of human cancer cell lines (n = 70. Clonogenic and invasion assays of NIH3T3 cells transfected with each of the four amplified genes showed that CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 were highly oncogenic whereas FAM82B was not. Interestingly, the oncogenic activity of these genes (excluding FAM82B was highly correlated with gene-copy numbers in tumor samples (correlation coefficient, r>0.423, indicating that amplifications of CENPF, GMNN, and CDK13 genes are tightly linked and coincident in tumors. Furthermore, we confirmed that CDK13 gene copy number was significantly associated with clinical onset age in patients with HCC (P = 0.0037. Taken together, our results suggest that coincidently amplified CDK13, GMNN, and CENPF genes can play a role as common cancer-driver genes in human cancers.

  12. Solid-state Raman image amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmes, Lonnie Kirkland

    Amplification of low-light-level optical images is important for extending the range of lidar systems that image and detect objects in the atmosphere and underwater. The use of range-gating to produce images of particular range bins is also important in minimizing the image degradation due to light that is scattered backward from aerosols, smoke, or water along the imaging path. For practical lidar systems that must be operated within sight of unprotected observers, eye safety is of the utmost importance. This dissertation describes a new type of eye-safe, range-gated lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid- state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level images in the eye-safe infrared at 1.556 μm with gains up to 106 with the addition of only quantum- limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30-100 cm, using pump pulses of 2-6.7 nsec FWHM. A rate equation theoretical model is derived to help in the design of short pulsed Raman lasers. A theoretical model for the quantum noise properties of SSRIA is presented. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCD's. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCD's. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR. Lastly, SSRIA can be combined with optical pre-filtering to perform optical image processing functions such as high-pass filtering and automatic target detection/recognition. The application of this technology to underwater imaging, called Marine Raman Image Amplification (MARIA) is also discussed. MARIA

  13. Broadening and Amplification of an Infrared Femtosecond Pulse for Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG He-Lin; YANG Ai-Jun; LENG Yu-Xin

    2011-01-01

    A high-average-power diode-pumped narrowband regenerative chirped pulse amplifier is developed using the thin-rod Nd:YAG laser architecture for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA).The effect of the etalons on the amplified pulse in the regenerative cavity is studied experimentally and theoretically.By inserting glass etalons of thickness 1 mm and 5 mm into the regenerative cavity,the pre-stretching pulse from an (O)ffner stretcher is further broadened to above 200ps,which matches the amplification windows of the signal pulses in OPCPA and is suitable for use as a pump source in the OPCPA system.The bandwidth of the amplified pulse is 1.5 nm,and an output energy of 2mJ is achieved at a repetition rate of 10 Hz.Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA)[1-4] has attracted a great deal of attention as the most promising technique for generating ultrashort ultrahigh-peak-power laser pulses because of its very broad gain bandwidth,negligible thermal load on the nonlinear crystal,and extremely high singlepass gain as compared to amplifiers based on laser gain media.For efficient amplification and high fidelity of dispersion compensation in OPCPA,a femtosecond seed pulse is first stretched to several tens of picoseconds with a bulk grating stretcher or a fiber stretcher.%A high-average-power diode-pumped narrowband regenerative chirped pulse amplifier is developed using the thin-rod Nd:YAG laser architecture for optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA). The effect of the etalons on the amplified pulse in the regenerative cavity is studied experimentally and theoretically. By inserting glass etalons of thickness 1 mm and 5 mm into the regenerative cavity, the pre-stretching pulse from an (O)finer stretcher is further broadened to above 200 ps, which matches the amplification windows of the signal pulses in OPCPA and is suitable for use as a pump source in the OPCPA system. The bandwidth of the amplified pulse is 1.5 nm, and an

  14. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang;

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health threat worldwide. Salmonellosis, an infectious disease caused by Salmonella spp., is one of the most common foodborne diseases. Isolation and identification of Salmonella by conventional bacterial culture or molecular-based methods are time consuming and...... amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system was...... on-site screening of Salmonella for applications in food safety control, environmental surveillance, and clinical diagnostics....

  15. Beyond the diffraction limit via optical amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae N

    2016-01-01

    In a previous article we suggested a method to overcome the diffraction limit behind a telescope. We refer to theory and recent numerical simulations, and test whether it is indeed possible to use photon amplification to enhance the angular resolution of a telescope or a microscope beyond the diffraction limit. An essential addition is the proposal to select events with above-average ratio of stimulated to spontaneous photons. We find that the diffraction limit of a telescope is surpassed by a factor ten for an amplifier gain of 200, if the analysis is restricted to a tenth of the incoming astronomical photons. A gain of 70 is sufficient with a hundredth of the photons.

  16. Amplification sans bruit d'images optiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigan, S.; Delaubert, V.; Lopez, L.; Treps, N.; Maitre, A.; Fabre, C.

    2004-11-01

    Nous utilisons un Oscillateur Paramétrique Optique (OPO) pompé sous le seuil dans le but d'amplifier une image multimode transverse sans dégradation du rapport signal à bruit. Le dispositif expérimental met en œuvre un OPO de type II triplement résonant et semi-confocal pour le faisceau amplifié. L'existence d'effets quantiques lors de l'amplification multimode dans un tel dispositif a été montrée expérimentalement. Plus généralement, ceci nous a amené à étudier les propriétés quantiques transverses des faisceaux lumineux amplifiés. Une telle étude peut trouver des applications non seulement en imagerie, mais également dans le traitement quantique de l'information.

  17. Social and political amplification of technological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an industrial explosion in Henderson, Nevada, as a case study, this paper examines three main issues: the efficacy of a technological hazard event in amplifying otherwise latent issues, the extent to which the hazard event can serve as a focusing event for substantive local and state policy initiatives, and the effect of fragmentation of political authority in managing technological hazards. The findings indicate that the explosion amplified several public safety issues and galvanized the public into pressing for major policy initiatives. However, notwithstanding the amplification of several otherwise latent issues, and the flurry of activities by the state and local governments, the hazard event did not seem to be an effective focusing event or trigger mechanism for substantive state and local policy initiatives. In addition, the study provides evidence of the need for a stronger nexus between political authority, land-use planning and technological hazard management

  18. Entanglement amplification via local weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a measurement-based method to produce a maximally-entangled state from a partially-entangled pure state. Our goal can be thought of as entanglement distillation from a single copy of a partially-entangled state. The present approach involves local two-outcome weak measurements. We show that the application of these local weak measurements leads to a probabilistic amplification of entanglement. In addition, we examine how the probability to find the maximally-entangled state is related to the entanglement of the input state. We also study the application of our method to a mixed initial state. We show that the protocol is successful if the separable part of the mixed initial state fulfils certain conditions. (paper)

  19. Chirped pulse amplification: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short pulses with ultrahigh peak powers have been generated in Nd: glass and Alexandrite using the Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) technique. This technique has been successful in producing picosecond terawatt pulses with a table-top laser system. In the near future, CPA will be applied to large laser systems such as NOVA to produce petawatt pulses (1 kJ in a 1 ps pulse) with focused intensities exceeding 10/sup /plus/21/ W/cm2. These pulses will be associated with electric fields in excess of 100 e/a/sub o/2 and blackbody energy densities equivalent to 3 /times/ 1010 J/cm3. This petawatt source will have important applications in x-ray laser research and will lead to fundamentally new experiments in atomic, nuclear, solid-state, plasma, and high-energy density physics. A review of present and future designs are discussed. 17 refs., 5 figs

  20. Integrated Amplification Microarrays for Infectious Disease Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell P. Chandler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview describes microarray-based tests that combine solution-phase amplification chemistry and microarray hybridization within a single microfluidic chamber. The integrated biochemical approach improves microarray workflow for diagnostic applications by reducing the number of steps and minimizing the potential for sample or amplicon cross-contamination. Examples described herein illustrate a basic, integrated approach for DNA and RNA genomes, and a simple consumable architecture for incorporating wash steps while retaining an entirely closed system. It is anticipated that integrated microarray biochemistry will provide an opportunity to significantly reduce the complexity and cost of microarray consumables, equipment, and workflow, which in turn will enable a broader spectrum of users to exploit the intrinsic multiplexing power of microarrays for infectious disease diagnostics.

  1. Explanatory Model for Sound Amplification in a Stethoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with…

  2. Parametric Amplification of Vacuum Fluctuations in a Spinor Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klempt, C.; Topic, O.; Gebreyesus, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations is crucial in modern quantum optics, enabling the creation of squeezing and entanglement. We demonstrate the parametric amplification of vacuum fluctuations for matter waves using a spinor F=2 87Rb condensate. Interatomic interactions lead to correl...

  3. Short-Pulse Amplification by Strongly-Coupled Brillouin Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Matthew R; Mikhailova, Julia M; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of strongly-coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering as a mechanism for the plasma-based amplification of sub-picosecond pulses. In particular, we use fluid theory and particle-in-cell simulations to compare the relative advantages of Raman and Brillouin amplification over a broad range of achievable parameters.

  4. The Quantum Theory of Optical Parametric Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, N. A.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the effect of parametric amplification on various forms of light. In particular we shall consider number and coherent states, but many of the calculations hold for those states whose operators satisfy the properties, = = ==0 e.g. chaotic light. The first chapter lays down the fundamental preliminaries necessary for our calculations and reviews linear amplifier theory. We consider the phase sensitive and insensitive forms of amplifiers modelling the former on the degenerate parametric amplifier and the latter on the non-degenerate and inverted population amplifiers. Chapter 2 deals with balanced homodyne detection of a narrow band coherent state before and after degenerate parametric amplification. In chapter 3 we consider a continuous mode number state produced by atomic emission and parametrically amplified using the formalism of Collett and Gardiner. We give general results for the output flux intensity and also consider the simpler case where the atomic decay rate is much smaller than the parametric cavity decay rate. Also we consider the degree of second order coherence using this simplified theory. Chapters 4 and 5 consider the double amplifier interferometer, using single and continuous mode theories, and enable us to determine the form of amplifier which produces the best visibility and hence lowest noise figures. The travelling-wave parametric amplifier is discussed in chapter 6 and is contrasted with the cavity parametric amplifier discussed in chapters 1 and 2. Finally we consider the much contemplated idea of using amplifiers to boost signals in fibre optic transmission lines using our model of the parametric amplifier and examining the degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio. We consider both coherent and squeezed inputs and our results hold for both cavity and travelling -wave amplifiers.

  5. Cross-species amplification of microsatellite markers in Mycteria leucocephala Pennant 1769: molted feathers as successful DNA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Mustafa, Mohd; Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Urfi, Abdul Jamil

    2014-10-01

    DNA from molted feathers is being increasingly used for genetic studies on birds. However, the DNA obtained from such non-invasive sources is often not of enough quantity and quality for isolation of new microsatellite markers. The present study examined the potential of shed feathers of near threatened Painted Stork as a source of its DNA for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. Thirty-one shed feathers of varying conditions ('good' and 'deteriorated') and sizes ('large', 'intermediate' and 'small') collected in a north Indian population were used to isolate DNA by a standard isopropanol method and 11 microsatellite markers already developed in the Wood Stork were screened for amplification. Nine plucked feathers from two dead Painted Storks were also used to compare the DNA yield and amplification success. The DNA yield of feathers varied significantly in relation to the calamus size and condition. Among molted feathers, 'good' and 'large' samples provided more DNA than 'deteriorated' and 'small' ones, respectively. 'Large' plucked feathers yielded more DNA than 'large' molted feathers. DNA was almost degraded in all the samples and ratio of absorbance at 260/280 nm varied from 1.0 to 1.8, indicating impurity in many samples. Independent of DNA yields, all microsatellites were cross-amplified in all kinds of feathers, with > 80% success in different feather categories. It is concluded that the shed feathers can be successfully used to isolate DNA in the Painted Stork and for cross-species amplification of microsatellites. PMID:25345251

  6. Preparation and Amplification of Colony of Goat Transgenic Fetal Fibroblast and Mammary Gland Epithelial Cell with Human Lactoferrin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-ling; LIU Feng-jun; ZHANG Yong

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to explore technical system of making single transgenic positive cells become colony cells by amplification culture. [Method] Fetal fibroblasts and mammary gland epithelial cells of single goat fetus of pBLM-C1 which specifically expressed human lactoferrin were cloned. Single cell colony of single transfection cell was prepared with 3 concentrations of 0%, 50% and 100% conditioned culture media. Transfection cell and non-transfection cell were carried out amplification culture by con-culture, neo gene was as screened gene, genome DNA of transfection cell was detected by PCR method. Chromosome karyotype analysis of single colony cell was tested. [Result] Compared with non-conditioned culture medium, 100% conditioned culture medium could greatly increase survived rate of single colony cells (FF: 53.33% vs. 10.00%; MGE: 33.33% vs. 6.67%). Compared with control, con-culture of transfection cell and non-transfection cell could greatly increase rate of transfection cell single colony after amplification culture (FF: 53.33% vs. 10.00%;MGE: 33.33% vs. 6.67%), confluence time of amplification culture was significantly decreased (20-30 d). The result of PCR showed that the colony cell obtained by above method contained hLF target gene. The result of karyotype analysis showed that most cloned cell chromosomes were normal. [Conclusion] The study provides a reliable method for separating transgenic cell, inserting and diagnosing ideal vector, and can save expense and time for transgenic animal production.

  7. Study on high gain broadband optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has apparent advantages over the current schemes for high energy ultrashort pulse amplification. High gain in a single pass amplification, small B-integral, low heat deposition, high contrast ratio and, especially the extremely broad gain bandwidth with large-size crystals available bring people new hope for over multi-PW level at which the existing Nd:glass systems suffered difficulties. In this paper we present simulation and experimental studies for a high gain optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system which may be used as a preamplifier to replace the current complicated regenerative system or multi-pass Ti:sapphire amplifiers. Investigations on the amplification bandwidth and gain with BBO are performed. Analysis and discussions are also given. (author)

  8. Clinical application of somatosensory amplification in psychosomatic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakao Mutsuhiro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many patients with somatoform disorders are frequently encountered in psychosomatic clinics as well as in primary care clinics. To assess such patients objectively, the concept of somatosensory amplification may be useful. Somatosensory amplification refers to the tendency to experience a somatic sensation as intense, noxious, and disturbing. It may have a role in a variety of medical conditions characterized by somatic symptoms that are disproportionate to demonstrable organ pathology. It may also explain some of the variability in somatic symptomatology found among different patients with the same serious medical disorder. It has been assessed with a self-report questionnaire, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. This instrument was developed in a clinical setting in the U.S., and the reliability and validity of the Japanese and Turkish versions have been confirmed as well. Many studies have attempted to clarify the specific role of somatosensory amplification as a pathogenic mechanism in somatization. It has been reported that somatosensory amplification does not correlate with heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and that emotional reactivity exerts its influence on somatization via a negatively biased reporting style. According to our recent electroencephalographic study, somatosensory amplification appears to reflect some aspects of long-latency cognitive processing rather than short-latency interoceptive sensitivity. The concept of somatosensory amplification can be useful as an indicator of somatization in the therapy of a broad range of disorders, from impaired self-awareness to various psychiatric disorders. It also provides useful information for choosing appropriate pharmacological or psychological therapy. While somatosensory amplification has a role in the presentation of somatic symptoms, it is closely associated with other factors, namely, anxiety, depression, and alexithymia that may also influence the same

  9. Neonatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pàmpols, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal screening (NS) is a medical act in the context of preventive medicine aimed at the early identification of infants affected by certain conditions that threaten their life and long-term health, for which a timely intervention can lead to a significant reduction of morbidity, mortality and associated disabilities. It emerged three decades ago in the context of prevention of mental retardation. Since then, around 600 inborn metabolic disorders have been described and technological progress has been impressive; nevertheless only around 5% of the disorders have been the object of NS. The most frequently cited reasons for the limitation are low prevalence and the lack of treatment. The tandem mass spectrometry has come in place in recent years across the globe, expanding NS to include several disorders of intermediary metabolism. This has shown, in addition to a prevalence much higher than previously thought, the benefits of early detection. The present work is a review of NS, not only from the point of view of technological/medical achievements, but also considering other factors which will affect specific disease selection, according to the social and organizational infrastructure that may expand the borders of NS. PMID:12921292

  10. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Screen time" is a term used for activities done in front of a screen, such as watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are being physically ...

  11. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  12. What Is Carrier Screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Carrier screening You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... help you make the decision. What Is Carrier Screening? Carrier screening checks if a person is a " ...

  13. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization analysis reveals distinct amplifications in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is a highly malignant bone neoplasm of children and young adults. It is characterized by extremely complex karyotypes and high frequency of chromosomal amplifications. Currently, only the histological response (degree of necrosis) to therapy represent gold standard for predicting the outcome in a patient with non-metastatic osteosarcoma at the time of definitive surgery. Patients with lower degree of necrosis have a higher risk of relapse and poor outcome even after chemotherapy and complete resection of the primary tumor. Therefore, a better understanding of the underlying molecular genetic events leading to tumor initiation and progression could result in the identification of potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We used a genome-wide screening method – array based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) to identify DNA copy number changes in 48 patients with osteosarcoma. We applied fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to validate some of amplified clones in this study. Clones showing gains (79%) were more frequent than losses (66%). High-level amplifications and homozygous deletions constitute 28.6% and 3.8% of tumor genome respectively. High-level amplifications were present in 238 clones, of which about 37% of them showed recurrent amplification. Most frequently amplified clones were mapped to 1p36.32 (PRDM16), 6p21.1 (CDC5L, HSPCB, NFKBIE), 8q24, 12q14.3 (IFNG), 16p13 (MGRN1), and 17p11.2 (PMP22 MYCD, SOX1,ELAC27). We validated some of the amplified clones by FISH from 6p12-p21, 8q23-q24, and 17p11.2 amplicons. Homozygous deletions were noted for 32 clones and only 7 clones showed in more than one case. These 7 clones were mapped to 1q25.1 (4 cases), 3p14.1 (4 cases), 13q12.2 (2 cases), 4p15.1 (2 cases), 6q12 (2 cases), 6q12 (2 cases) and 6q16.3 (2 cases). This study clearly demonstrates the utility of array CGH in defining high-resolution DNA copy number changes and refining amplifications. The resolution of array CGH

  15. Mechanism of Gene Amplification via Yeast Autonomously Replicating Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Sehgal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of gene amplification. Interplay of fragile sites in promoting gene amplification was also elucidated. The amplification promoting sequences were chosen from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS, 5S rRNA regions of Plantago ovata and P. lagopus, proposed sites of replication pausing at Ste20 gene locus of S. cerevisiae, and the bend DNA sequences within fragile site FRA11A in humans. The gene amplification assays showed that plasmid bearing APS from yeast and human beings led to enhanced protein concentration as compared to the wild type. Both the in silico and in vitro analyses were pointed out at the strong bending potential of these APS. In addition, high mitotic stability and presence of TTTT repeats and SAR amongst these sequences encourage gene amplification. Phylogenetic analysis of S. cerevisiae ARS was also conducted. The combinatorial power of different aspects of APS analyzed in the present investigation was harnessed to reach a consensus about the factors which stimulate gene expression, in presence of these sequences. It was concluded that the mechanism of gene amplification was that AT rich tracts present in fragile sites of yeast serve as binding sites for MAR/SAR and DNA unwinding elements. The DNA protein interactions necessary for ORC activation are facilitated by DNA bending. These specific bindings at ORC promote repeated rounds of DNA replication leading to gene amplification.

  16. Mechanism of gene amplification via yeast autonomously replicating sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Shelly; Kaul, Sanjana; Dhar, M K

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed at understanding the molecular mechanism of gene amplification. Interplay of fragile sites in promoting gene amplification was also elucidated. The amplification promoting sequences were chosen from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ARS, 5S rRNA regions of Plantago ovata and P. lagopus, proposed sites of replication pausing at Ste20 gene locus of S. cerevisiae, and the bend DNA sequences within fragile site FRA11A in humans. The gene amplification assays showed that plasmid bearing APS from yeast and human beings led to enhanced protein concentration as compared to the wild type. Both the in silico and in vitro analyses were pointed out at the strong bending potential of these APS. In addition, high mitotic stability and presence of TTTT repeats and SAR amongst these sequences encourage gene amplification. Phylogenetic analysis of S. cerevisiae ARS was also conducted. The combinatorial power of different aspects of APS analyzed in the present investigation was harnessed to reach a consensus about the factors which stimulate gene expression, in presence of these sequences. It was concluded that the mechanism of gene amplification was that AT rich tracts present in fragile sites of yeast serve as binding sites for MAR/SAR and DNA unwinding elements. The DNA protein interactions necessary for ORC activation are facilitated by DNA bending. These specific bindings at ORC promote repeated rounds of DNA replication leading to gene amplification. PMID:25685838

  17. A mechanism of gene amplification driven by small DNA fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntal Mukherjee

    Full Text Available DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s. Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation

  18. A mechanism of gene amplification driven by small DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kuntal; Storici, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    DNA amplification is a molecular process that increases the copy number of a chromosomal tract and often causes elevated expression of the amplified gene(s). Although gene amplification is frequently observed in cancer and other degenerative disorders, the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of DNA copy number increase remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that small DNA fragments could be the trigger of DNA amplification events. Following our findings that small fragments of DNA in the form of DNA oligonucleotides can be highly recombinogenic, we have developed a system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to capture events of chromosomal DNA amplification initiated by small DNA fragments. Here we demonstrate that small DNAs can amplify a chromosomal region, generating either tandem duplications or acentric extrachromosomal DNA circles. Small fragment-driven DNA amplification (SFDA) occurs with a frequency that increases with the length of homology between the small DNAs and the target chromosomal regions. SFDA events are triggered even by small single-stranded molecules with as little as 20-nt homology with the genomic target. A double-strand break (DSB) external to the chromosomal amplicon region stimulates the amplification event up to a factor of 20 and favors formation of extrachromosomal circles. SFDA is dependent on Rad52 and Rad59, partially dependent on Rad1, Rad10, and Pol32, and independent of Rad51, suggesting a single-strand annealing mechanism. Our results reveal a novel molecular model for gene amplification, in which small DNA fragments drive DNA amplification and define the boundaries of the amplicon region. As DNA fragments are frequently found both inside cells and in the extracellular environment, such as the serum of patients with cancer or other degenerative disorders, we propose that SFDA may be a common mechanism for DNA amplification in cancer cells, as well as a more general cause of DNA copy number variation in nature. PMID

  19. Complementary weak-value amplification with concatenated postselections

    CERN Document Server

    Viza, Gerardo I; Liu, Wei-Tao; Howell, John C

    2016-01-01

    We measure a transverse momentum kick in a Sagnac interferometer using weak-value amplification with two postselections. The first postselection is controlled by a polarization dependent phase mismatch between both paths of a Sagnac interferometer and the second postselection is controlled by a polarizer at the exit port. By monitoring the darkport of the interferometer, we study the complementary amplification of the concatenated postselections, where the polarization extinction ratio is greater than the contrast of the spatial interference. In this case, we find an improvement in the amplification of the signal of interest by introducing a second postselection to the system.

  20. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked

  1. Amplification of Spin Waves by Thermal Spin-Transfer Torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Hernández, E.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2011-11-01

    We observe amplification of spin-wave packets propagating along a film of single-crystal yttrium iron garnet subject to a transverse temperature gradient. The spin waves are excited and detected with standard techniques used in magnetostatic microwave delay lines in the 1-2 GHz frequency range. The amplification is attributed to the action of a thermal spin-transfer torque acting on the magnetization that opposes the relaxation and which is created by spin currents generated through the spin-Seebeck effect. The experimental data are interpreted with a spin-wave model that gives an amplification gain in very good agreement with the data.

  2. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, P.E.; Martin, M.A.; Rabson, A.B.; Bryan, T.; O' Brien, S.J.

    1986-09-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked.

  3. Preparation of DNA-containing extract for PCR amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, John M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2006-07-11

    Environmental samples typically include impurities that interfere with PCR amplification and DNA quantitation. Samples of soil, river water, and aerosol were taken from the environment and added to an aqueous buffer (with or without detergent). Cells from the sample are lysed, releasing their DNA into the buffer. After removing insoluble cell components, the remaining soluble DNA-containing extract is treated with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, which causes rapid precipitation of impurities. Centrifugation provides a supernatant that can be used or diluted for PCR amplification of DNA, or further purified. The method may provide a DNA-containing extract sufficiently pure for PCR amplification within 5–10 minutes.

  4. PCR amplification on microarrays of gel immobilized oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhkov, Boris; Tillib, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2003-11-04

    The invention relates two general methods for performing PCR amplification, combined with the detection and analysis of the PCR products on a microchip. In the first method, the amplification occurs both outside and within a plurality of gel pads on a microchip, with at least one oligonucleotide primer immobilized in a gel pad. In the second method, PCR amplification also takes place within gel pads on a microchip, but the pads are surrounded by a hydrophobic liquid such as that which separates the individual gel pads into environments which resemble micro-miniaturized test tubes.

  5. Raman amplification in the coherent wave-breaking regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J P; Pukhov, A

    2015-12-01

    In regimes far beyond the wave-breaking threshold of Raman amplification, we show that significant amplification can occur after the onset of wave breaking, before phase mixing destroys the coherent coupling between pump, probe, and plasma wave. Amplification in this regime is therefore a transient effect, with the higher-efficiency "coherent wave-breaking" (CWB) regime accessed by using a short, intense probe. Parameter scans illustrate the marked difference in behavior between below wave breaking, in which the energy-transfer efficiency is high but total energy transfer is low, wave breaking, in which efficiency is low, and CWB, in which moderate efficiencies allow the highest total energy transfer. PMID:26764840

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T;

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  7. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Recombinase polymerase amplification is a powerful DNA method operating at 40 °C. •The combination RPA–ELISA gives excellent performances for high-throughput analysis. •Screening of food safety threats has been done using standard laboratory equipment. •Allergens, GMOs, bacteria, and fungi have been successfully determined. -- Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR–ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA–ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40 °C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5′-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA–ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA–ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings

  8. Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago-Felipe, S.; Tortajada-Genaro, L.A.; Puchades, R.; Maquieira, A., E-mail: amaquieira@qim.upv.es

    2014-02-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Recombinase polymerase amplification is a powerful DNA method operating at 40 °C. •The combination RPA–ELISA gives excellent performances for high-throughput analysis. •Screening of food safety threats has been done using standard laboratory equipment. •Allergens, GMOs, bacteria, and fungi have been successfully determined. -- Abstract: Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR–ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA–ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40 °C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5′-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA–ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA–ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings.

  9. Thermal amplification of field-correlation harvesting

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Eric G

    2013-01-01

    We study the harvesting of quantum and classical correlations from a hot scalar field in a periodic cavity by a pair of spatially separated oscillator-detectors. Specifically, we utilize non-perturbative and exact (non-numerical) techniques to solve for the evolution of the detectors-field system and then we examine how the entanglement, Gaussian quantum discord, and mutual information obtained by the detectors change with the temperature of the field. While (as expected) the harvested entanglement rapidly decays to zero as temperature is increased, we find remarkably that both the mutual information and the discord can actually be increased by multiple orders of magnitude via increasing the temperature. We go on to explain this phenomenon by taking advantage of the translational invariance of the field and use this to make accurate predictions of the behavior of thermal amplification; by this we also introduce a new perspective on field-correlation harvesting that we feel is worthy of consideration in its ow...

  10. Local Runup Amplification By Resonant Wave Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanakis, Themistoklis; Dutykh, Denys

    2011-01-01

    Until now the analysis of long wave runup on a plane beach has been focused on finding its maximum value, failing to capture the existence of resonant regimes. One-dimensional numerical simulations in the framework of the Nonlinear Shallow Water Equations (NSWE) are used to investigate the Boundary Value Problem (BVP) for plane and non-trivial beaches. Monochromatic waves, as well as virtual wave-gage recordings from real tsunami simulations, are used as forcing conditions to the BVP. Resonant phenomena between the incident wavelength and the beach slope are found to occur, which result in enhanced runup of non-leading waves. The evolution of energy reveals the existence of a quasi-periodic state for the case of sinusoidal waves, the energy level of which, as well as the time required to reach that state, depend on the incident wavelength for a given beach slope. Dispersion is found to slightly reduce the value of maximum runup, but not to change the overall picture. Runup amplification occurs for both leadin...

  11. AGAPE Andromeda Gravitational Amplification Pixel Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, R; Baillon, Paul; Bouquet, A; Coupinot, G; Coutures, C; Ghesquière, C; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gondolo, P; Hecquet, J; Kaplan, J; Le Du, Y; Melchior, A L; Moniez, M; Picat, J P; Soucail, G

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the AGAPE (Andromeda Gravitational Amplification Pixel Experiment), experiment which has been first proposed in June 1992 is to examine the distribution of massive astrophysical compact halo objects ((MACHO's) which possibly are in the galactic haloes and which could account for the missing dark matter. Those objects have a mass which is a fraction of solar mass and could be detected by gravitational microlensing: the light of a star is amplified when a MACHO is crossing its line of sight from the earth. This technique has been proposed by Paczy\\'nski in 1986. The AGAPE collaboration applies this technique in an original way by using, as target stars, the stars of another galaxy without resolving them. The recent progresses in photometry with CCD allow now to see tiny variations of the surface brightness of a galaxy like M~31. Those tiny variations can be the result of a single microlensing event on the background stars contributing to the surface brightness. The AGAPE collaboration has now cumulat...

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of quantum light amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Tannor, D J

    2006-01-01

    Thermodynamics of a three-level maser was studied in the pioneering work of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 262 (1959)]. In this work we consider the same three-level model, but treat both the matter and light quantum mechanically. Specifically, we analyze an extended (three-level) dissipative Jaynes-Cummings model (ED-JCM) within the framework of a quantum heat engine, using novel formulas for heat flux and power in bipartite systems introduced in our previous work [E. Boukobza and D. J. Tannor, PRA (in press)]. Amplification of the selected cavity mode occurs even in this simple model, as seen by a positive steady state power. However, initial field coherence is lost, as seen by the decaying off-diagonal field density matrix elements, and by the Husimi-Kano Q function. We show that after an initial transient time the field's entropy rises linearly during the operation of the engine, which we attribute to the dissipative nature of the evolution and not to matter-field entanglement. We show that...

  13. Small Sample Whole-Genome Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, C A; Nguyen, C P; Wheeler, E K; Sorensen, K J; Arroyo, E S; Vrankovich, G P; Christian, A T

    2005-09-20

    Many challenges arise when trying to amplify and analyze human samples collected in the field due to limitations in sample quantity, and contamination of the starting material. Tests such as DNA fingerprinting and mitochondrial typing require a certain sample size and are carried out in large volume reactions; in cases where insufficient sample is present whole genome amplification (WGA) can be used. WGA allows very small quantities of DNA to be amplified in a way that enables subsequent DNA-based tests to be performed. A limiting step to WGA is sample preparation. To minimize the necessary sample size, we have developed two modifications of WGA: the first allows for an increase in amplified product from small, nanoscale, purified samples with the use of carrier DNA while the second is a single-step method for cleaning and amplifying samples all in one column. Conventional DNA cleanup involves binding the DNA to silica, washing away impurities, and then releasing the DNA for subsequent testing. We have eliminated losses associated with incomplete sample release, thereby decreasing the required amount of starting template for DNA testing. Both techniques address the limitations of sample size by providing ample copies of genomic samples. Carrier DNA, included in our WGA reactions, can be used when amplifying samples with the standard purification method, or can be used in conjunction with our single-step DNA purification technique to potentially further decrease the amount of starting sample necessary for future forensic DNA-based assays.

  14. Ultrabroadband noncollinear optical parametric amplification with LBO crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baozhen; Jiang, Yongliang; Sueda, Keiich; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2008-11-10

    Ultrabroadband visible noncollinear optical parametric amplification (NOPA) was achieved in an LBO crystal, with a continuum seed pulse generated from a sapphire plate. The spectral bandwidth of the amplified visible pulse was about 200 nm, which can support sub-5 fs pulse amplification. An amplified output of 0.21 microJ with an average gain of about 210 was achieved. This provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first-time demonstration of such broadband amplification with a biaxial nonlinear optical crystal. Both the simulation and experimental results indicate that the LBO has a great potential as nonlinear medium in power amplifier for TW to PW noncollinear optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (NOPCPA) systems. PMID:19581976

  15. Real burst traffic amplification in optically gain clamped amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Ennser, Karin; Taccheo, Stefano; Careglio, Davide; Solé Pareta, Josep; Aracil Rico, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Optical burst amplification in a gain-stabilized amplifier is theoretically investigated using real burst traffic data. The results show that excellent performance are obtained for WDM transmission with negligible interplay due to burst arrival statistics.

  16. Prenatal screening and genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderson, P.; Aro, A.R.; Dragonas, T.; Ettorre, E.; Hemminki, E.; Jalinoja, P.; Santalahti, P.; Tijmstra, T.

    2001-01-01

    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we exami

  17. Sources of Error in Mammalian Genetic Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Laura Magill; Davoli, Teresa; Xu, Qikai; Li, Mamie Z; Elledge, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Genetic screens are invaluable tools for dissection of biological phenomena. Optimization of such screens to enhance discovery of candidate genes and minimize false positives is thus a critical aim. Here, we report several sources of error common to pooled genetic screening techniques used in mammalian cell culture systems, and demonstrate methods to eliminate these errors. We find that reverse transcriptase-mediated recombination during retroviral replication can lead to uncoupling of molecular tags, such as DNA barcodes (BCs), from their associated library elements, leading to chimeric proviral genomes in which BCs are paired to incorrect ORFs, shRNAs, etc This effect depends on the length of homologous sequence between unique elements, and can be minimized with careful vector design. Furthermore, we report that residual plasmid DNA from viral packaging procedures can contaminate transduced cells. These plasmids serve as additional copies of the PCR template during library amplification, resulting in substantial inaccuracies in measurement of initial reference populations for screen normalization. The overabundance of template in some samples causes an imbalance between PCR cycles of contaminated and uncontaminated samples, which results in a systematic artifactual depletion of GC-rich library elements. Elimination of contaminating plasmid DNA using the bacterial endonuclease Benzonase can restore faithful measurements of template abundance and minimize GC bias. PMID:27402361

  18. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates C; Gillings, MR; Davison AD; Altavilla N; Veal DA

    1998-01-01

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol pr...

  19. Pulse Distortion in Saturated Fiber Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Da Ros, Francesco; Rottwitt, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation.......Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is experimentally compared for different chirped pulses in the picosecond regime. The amplified chirped pulses show distortion appearing as pedestals after recompression when the amplifier is operated in saturation....

  20. Loop-Mediated Amplification Accelerated by Stem Primers

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Tisi; Guy Kiddle; Olga Gandelman; Rebecca Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (iNAATs) have become an important alternative to PCR for in vitro molecular diagnostics in all fields. Amongst iNAATs Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) has gained much attention over the last decade because of the simplicity of hardware requirements. LAMP demonstrates performance equivalent to that of PCR, but its application has been limited by the challenging primer design. The design of six primers in LAMP requires a selection of eight priming sites ...

  1. Controllable Amplification of Entanglement for Two Qutrits under Decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qiang; XIE Xiao-Yao; ZHI Qi-Jun; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Entanglement dynamics of a two-qutrit Heisenberg spin chain with the external magnetic fields and DM interaction under the intrinsic decoherence is investigated. Depending on whether there is inhomogeneous magnetic field,the entanglement amplification, i.e. the phenomenon that the finally stable entanglement is bigger than that of the initial one, is found for one kind of initial states. The reasons for the controllable entanglement amplification are discussed.

  2. Measurement-Based Noiseless Linear Amplification for Quantum Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Walk, Nathan; Assad, Syed M.; Janousek, Jiri; Hosseini, Sara; Ralph, Timothy C.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy

    2014-01-01

    Entanglement distillation is an indispensable ingredient in extended quantum communication networks. Distillation protocols are necessarily non-deterministic and require advanced experimental techniques such as noiseless amplification. Recently it was shown that the benefits of noiseless amplification could be extracted by performing a post-selective filtering of the measurement record to improve the performance of quantum key distribution. We apply this protocol to entanglement degraded by t...

  3. On the amplification of acoustic phonons in carbon nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Dompreh, K. A.; Mensah, N. G.; Sakyi-Arthur, D.; Mensah, S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of acoustic phonons amplification in Carbon Nanotubes (CNT). The phenomenon is via Cerenkov emission (CE) of acoustic phonons using intraband transitions proposed by Mensah et. al.,~\\cite{1} in Semiconductor Superlattices (SSL) and confirmed in ~\\cite{2}. From this, an asymmetric graph of $\\Gamma^{CNT}$ on $\\frac{V_d}{V_s}$ and $\\Omega\\tau$ were obtained where amplification ($\\Gamma_{amp}^{CNT}$) $>>$ absorption ($\\Gamma_{abs}^{CNT}$). The ratio, $\\frac{\\vert \\G...

  4. Electrical and Electrochemical Monitoring of Nucleic Acid Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Goda, Tatsuro; Tabata, Miyuki; Miyahara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification is a gold standard technique for analyzing a tiny amount of nucleotides in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics, food safety, and environmental testing. Electrical and electrochemical monitoring of the amplification process draws attention over conventional optical methods because of the amenability toward point-of-care applications as there is a growing demand for nucleic acid sensing in situations outside the laboratory. A number of electrical and electrochemic...

  5. Aerosol Lidar for the Relative Backscatter Amplification Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razenkov, Igor A.; Banakh, Victor A.; Nadeev, Alexander I.

    2016-06-01

    Backscatter amplification presents only in a turbulent atmosphere, when the laser beam is propagates twice through the same inhomogeneities. We proposed technical solution to detect backscatter amplification. An aerosol micro pulse lidar with a beam expansion via receiving telescope was built to study this effect. Our system allows simultaneous detection of two returns from the same scattering volume: exactly on the axis of the laser beam and off the axis.

  6. Radioactive wastes and the social amplification of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. Kasperson; Emel, Jacque; Goble, Robert; Hohenemser, Christoph; Kasperson, Jeanne X.; Renn, Ortwin

    1987-01-01

    A significant problem in radioactive waste facility siting is that apparent small risks or minor risks events produce substantial public concern and social impacts. The reasons for this difference in public health and societal impacts is not well understood. This paper explores the issues involved in the social amplification of risk, using the risk associated with site characterization as the example. Noteworthy as sources of amplification are the infomation flow associated with risks and ris...

  7. Fingerprinting Internet DNS Amplification DDoS Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Fachkha, Claude; Bou-Harb, Elias; Debbabi, Mourad

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a novel approach to infer and characterize Internet-scale DNS amplification DDoS attacks by leveraging the darknet space. Complementary to the pioneer work on inferring Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) activities using darknet, this work shows that we can extract DDoS activities without relying on backscattered analysis. The aim of this work is to extract cyber security intelligence related to DNS Amplification DDoS activities such as detection period, attack duration, ...

  8. Thermodynamic analysis of quantum light amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukobza, E.; Tannor, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Thermodynamics of a three-level maser was studied in the pioneering work of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 262 (1959)]. In this work we consider the same three-level model, but treat both the matter and the light quantum mechanically. Specifically, we analyze an extended (three-level) dissipative (ED) Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) within the framework of a quantum heat engine, using formulas for heat flux and power in bipartite systems introduced in our previous work [E. Boukobza and D. J. Tannor Phys. Rev. A 74, 063823 (2006)] Amplification of the selected cavity mode occurs even in this simple model, as seen by a positive steady state power. However, initial field coherence is lost, as seen by the decaying off-diagonal field density matrix elements, and by the Husimi-Kano Q function. We show that after an initial transient time the field’s entropy rises linearly during the operation of the engine, which we attribute to the dissipative nature of the evolution and not to matter-field entanglement. We show that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied in two formulations (Clausius, Carnot) and that the efficiency of the ED JCM heat engine agrees with that defined intuitively by Scovil and Schulz-DuBois. Finally, we compare the steady state heat flux and power of the fully quantum model with the semiclassical counterpart of the ED JCM, and derive the engine efficiency formula of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois analytically from fundamental thermodynamic fluxes.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of quantum light amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamics of a three-level maser was studied in the pioneering work of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2, 262 (1959)]. In this work we consider the same three-level model, but treat both the matter and the light quantum mechanically. Specifically, we analyze an extended (three-level) dissipative (ED) Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) within the framework of a quantum heat engine, using formulas for heat flux and power in bipartite systems introduced in our previous work [E. Boukobza and D. J. Tannor Phys. Rev. A 74, 063823 (2006)] Amplification of the selected cavity mode occurs even in this simple model, as seen by a positive steady state power. However, initial field coherence is lost, as seen by the decaying off-diagonal field density matrix elements, and by the Husimi-Kano Q function. We show that after an initial transient time the field's entropy rises linearly during the operation of the engine, which we attribute to the dissipative nature of the evolution and not to matter-field entanglement. We show that the second law of thermodynamics is satisfied in two formulations (Clausius, Carnot) and that the efficiency of the ED JCM heat engine agrees with that defined intuitively by Scovil and Schulz-DuBois. Finally, we compare the steady state heat flux and power of the fully quantum model with the semiclassical counterpart of the ED JCM, and derive the engine efficiency formula of Scovil and Schulz-DuBois analytically from fundamental thermodynamic fluxes

  10. Magnetic Field Amplification and Blazar Flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xuhui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent multiwavelength observations of PKS 0208-512 by SMARTS, Fermi, and Swift revealed that γ-ray and optical light curves of this flat spectrum radio quasars are highly correlated, but with an exception of one large optical flare having no corresponding gamma-ray activity or even detection. On the other hand, recent advances in SNRs observations and plasma simulations both reveal that magnetic field downstream of astrophysical shocks can be largely amplified beyond simple shock compression. These amplifications, along with their associated particle acceleration, might contribute to blazar flares, including the peculiar flare of PKS 0208-512. Using our time dependent multizone blazar emission code, we evaluate several scenarios that may represent such phenomena. This code combines Monte Carlo method that tracks the radiative processes including inverse Compton scattering, and Fokker-Planck equation that follows the cooling and acceleration of particles. It is a comprehensive time dependent code that fully takes into account the light travel time effects. In this study, both the changes of the magnetic field and acceleration efficiency are explored as the cause of blazar flares. Under these assumption, synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton scenarios produce distinct features that favor the external Compton scenario. The optical flares with/without gamma-ray counterparts can be explained by different allocations of energy between the magnetization and particle acceleration, which in turn can be affected by the relative orientation between the magnetic field and the shock flow. We compare the details of the observations and simulation, and highlight what implications this study has on our understanding of relativistic jets.

  11. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy

  12. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-01-01

    In climate change science the term 'Arctic amplification' has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the 'Ratio of Means' and 'Mean Ratio' approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases. PMID:27461918

  13. Targeting MET Amplification as a New Oncogenic Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hisato [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Okamoto, Isamu, E-mail: okamotoi@kokyu.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Kyushu University Hospital, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Okamoto, Wataru [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Division of Transrlational Research, Exploratory Oncology Research & Clinical Trial Center, National Cancer Center, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8577 (Japan); Tanizaki, Junko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, HIM223, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Nakagawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Medical Oncology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Nishio, Kazuto [Department of Genome Biology, Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, 377-2 Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan)

    2014-07-22

    Certain genetically defined cancers are dependent on a single overactive oncogene for their proliferation and survival, a phenomenon known as “oncogene addiction”. A new generation of drugs that selectively target such “driver oncogenes” manifests a clinical efficacy greater than that of conventional chemotherapy in appropriate genetically defined patients. MET is a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, and aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced cancers as result of various genetic alterations including gene amplification, polysomy, and gene mutation. Our preclinical studies have shown that inhibition of MET signaling either with the small-molecule MET inhibitor crizotinib or by RNA interference targeted to MET mRNA resulted in marked antitumor effects in cancer cell lines with MET amplification both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, patients with non-small cell lung cancer or gastric cancer positive for MET amplification have shown a pronounced clinical response to crizotinib. Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence thus suggests that MET amplification is an “oncogenic driver” and therefore a valid target for treatment. However, the prevalence of MET amplification has not been fully determined, possibly in part because of the difficulty in evaluating gene amplification. In this review, we provide a rationale for targeting this genetic alteration in cancer therapy.

  14. Screening for amplification genomic loci and genes associated prognosis in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:We used a high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) coupled with patient clinical information to identify prognosis-related genomic loci and genes.Methods: aCGH coupled with patient clinical information was applied to identify prognosis-related loci and genes with high-frequency recurrent gains in 129 GC cases. The candidate loci and genes were validated using an independent cohort of 384 cases through branched DNA signal ampliifcation analysis.Results:A copy number gain of three chromosome regions, namely, 8q22, 8q24and 20q11-q13, conferred poor survival for patients. In addition, MYC, TNFRSF11B, ESRP1, CSE1L and MMP9 were found to be well correlated. Further validation verified that only MYC and TNFRSF11B within 8q24 are related to survival. Patients with gains in both MYC and TNFRSF11B presented poorer survival than those with no gains, particularly those with non-cardia GC. Gains in both of these genes were also a signiifcant independent prognostic indicator.Conclusion:Copy number gains in MYC and TNFRSF11B located at 8q24are associated with survival in GC, particularly non-cardia GC.

  15. Deletion screening of the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus via multiplex DNA amplification.

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, J S; Gibbs, R A; Ranier, J E; Nguyen, P N; Caskey, C. T.

    1988-01-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology to prenatal diagnosis of many recessively inherited X-linked diseases is complicated by a high frequency of heterogeneous, new mutations (1). Partial gene deletions account for more than 50% of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) lesions, and approximately one-third of all cases result from a new mutation (2-5). We report the isolation and DNA sequence of several deletion prone exons from the human DMD gene. We also describe a rapid method capable o...

  16. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs. PMID:19399482

  17. Detection of genetic variation in Hevea brasiliensis using the DNA amplification fingerprinting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies on genetic variation and genome analysis of Hevea brasiliensis were based primarily on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Notwithstanding that the RFLP technique is a powerful tool, the technique is slow, laborious and requires highly polymorphic hybridization probes. The multiplex DAF technique was adopted. Pairs of random 10-mer oligonucleotide primers were tested for their ability to elicit DNA polymorphisms. Preliminary results indicated that the number of amplified products varied with the annealing temperature and the primer pairs. Although it was found that the annealing temperatures had to be varied for different primer pairs in order to achieve satisfactory amplification, all DNA amplification was carried out at a fixed annealing temperature in order to increase the efficiency of screening primer pairs for their ability to reveal comprehensive DNA fingerprints. DNA samples loaded in denaturing buffer and separated through denaturing polyacrylamide gels were found to be more informative than samples loaded in non-denaturing buffer. Staining with silver nitrate was much more sensitive than with ethidium bromide. The DAF marker technique has been developed successfully for Hevea studies. Premilinary investigations with the technique demonstrated that DAF can generate very complex and informative DNA fingerprints and promises to be useful for genetic variability, family relationship and population studies. The technique does not require sophisticated equipment, and is also more robust and reproducible than RAPD. 6 refs

  18. Chemically induced DNA hypomethylation in breast carcinoma cells detected by the amplification of intermethylated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compromised patterns of gene expression result in genomic instability, altered patterns of gene expression and tumour formation. Specifically, aberrant DNA hypermethylation in gene promoter regions leads to gene silencing, whereas global hypomethylation events can result in chromosomal instability and oncogene activation. Potential links exist between environmental agents and DNA methylation, but the destabilizing effects of environmental exposures on the DNA methylation machinery are not understood within the context of breast cancer aetiology. We assessed genome-wide changes in methylation patterns using a unique methylation profiling technique called amplification of intermethylated sites (AIMS). This method generates easily readable fingerprints that represent the investigated cell line's methylation profile, based on the differential cleavage of DNA with methylation-specific isoschisomeric restriction endonucleases. We validated this approach by demonstrating both unique and reoccurring sites of genomic hypomethylation in four breast carcinoma cell lines treated with the cytosine analogue 5-azacytidine. Comparison of treated with control samples revealed individual bands that exhibited methylation changes, and these bands were excized and cloned, and the precise genomic location individually identified. In most cases, these regions of hypomethylation coincided with susceptible target regions previously associated with chromosome breakage, rearrangement and gene amplification. Similarly, we observed that acute benzopyrene exposure is associated with altered methylation patterns in these cell lines. These results reinforce the link between environmental exposures, DNA methylation and breast cancer, and support a role for AIMS as a rapid, affordable screening method to identify environmentally induced DNA methylation changes that occur in tumourigenesis

  19. ECT2 amplification and overexpression as a new prognostic biomarker for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoshihiko; Minami, Yuko; Iwakawa, Reika; Yokota, Jun; Usui, Shingo; Tsuta, Koji; Shiraishi, Kouya; Sakashita, Shingo; Satomi, Kaishi; Iijima, Tatsuo; Noguchi, Masayuki

    2014-04-01

    Genetic abnormality in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma was examined to search for new prognostic biomarkers. Six in situ lung adenocarcinomas and nine small but invasive adenocarcinomas were examined by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and candidate genes of interest were screened. To examine gene abnormalities, 83 cases of various types of lung carcinoma were examined by quantitative real-time genomic PCR and immunohistochemistry. The results were then verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas. Array-comparative genomic hybridization indicated frequent amplification at chromosome 3q26. Of the seven genes located in this region, we focused on the epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) oncogene, as ECT2 amplification was detected only in invasive adenocarcinoma, and not in in situ carcinoma. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry analyses also detected overexpression of ECT2 in invasive adenocarcinoma, and this was correlated with both the Ki-67 labeling index and mitotic index. In addition, it was associated with disease-free survival and overall survival of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. These results were verified using another set of early-stage adenocarcinomas resected at another hospital. Abnormality of the ECT2 gene occurs at a relatively early stage of lung adenocarcinogenesis and would be applicable as a new biomarker for prognostication of patients with lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:24484057

  20. Rapid Diagnosis of Human Herpesvirus 6 Infection by a Novel DNA Amplification Method, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ihira, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Enomoto, Yoshihiko; Akimoto, Shiho; Ohashi, Masahiro; Suga, Sadao; Nishimura, Naoko; Ozaki, Takao; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Notomi, Tsugunori; Ohta, Yoshinori; Asano, Yoshizo

    2004-01-01

    A novel nucleic acid amplification method, termed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity under isothermal conditions, may be a valuable tool for the rapid detection of infectious agents. LAMP was developed for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), and its reliability was evaluated in this study. Although LAMP products were detected in HHV-6 B and HHV-6 A DNA, they were not detected in HHV-7 and human cytomegalovirus DNA. The s...

  1. ASAP: Amplification, sequencing & annotation of plastomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folta Kevin M

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Availability of DNA sequence information is vital for pursuing structural, functional and comparative genomics studies in plastids. Traditionally, the first step in mining the valuable information within a chloroplast genome requires sequencing a chloroplast plasmid library or BAC clones. These activities involve complicated preparatory procedures like chloroplast DNA isolation or identification of the appropriate BAC clones to be sequenced. Rolling circle amplification (RCA is being used currently to amplify the chloroplast genome from purified chloroplast DNA and the resulting products are sheared and cloned prior to sequencing. Herein we present a universal high-throughput, rapid PCR-based technique to amplify, sequence and assemble plastid genome sequence from diverse species in a short time and at reasonable cost from total plant DNA, using the large inverted repeat region from strawberry and peach as proof of concept. The method exploits the highly conserved coding regions or intergenic regions of plastid genes. Using an informatics approach, chloroplast DNA sequence information from 5 available eudicot plastomes was aligned to identify the most conserved regions. Cognate primer pairs were then designed to generate ~1 – 1.2 kb overlapping amplicons from the inverted repeat region in 14 diverse genera. Results 100% coverage of the inverted repeat region was obtained from Arabidopsis, tobacco, orange, strawberry, peach, lettuce, tomato and Amaranthus. Over 80% coverage was obtained from distant species, including Ginkgo, loblolly pine and Equisetum. Sequence from the inverted repeat region of strawberry and peach plastome was obtained, annotated and analyzed. Additionally, a polymorphic region identified from gel electrophoresis was sequenced from tomato and Amaranthus. Sequence analysis revealed large deletions in these species relative to tobacco plastome thus exhibiting the utility of this method for structural and

  2. Somatic amplifications and deletions in genome of papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passon, Nadia; Bregant, Elisa; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Dima, Maria; Rosignolo, Francesca; Durante, Cosimo; Celano, Marilena; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Somatic gene copy number variation contributes to tumor progression. Using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, the presence of genomic imbalances was evaluated in a series of 27 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). To detect only somatic imbalances, for each sample, the reference DNA was from normal thyroid tissue of the same patient. The presence of the BRAF V600E mutation was also evaluated. Both amplifications and deletions showed an uneven distribution along the entire PTC cohort; amplifications were more frequent than deletions (mean values of 17.5 and 7.2, respectively). Number of aberration events was not even among samples, the majority of them occurring only in a small fraction of PTCs. Most frequent amplifications were detected at regions 2q35, 4q26, and 4q34.1, containing FN1, PDE5A, and GALNTL6 genes, respectively. Most frequent deletions occurred at regions 6q25.2, containing OPMR1 and IPCEF1 genes and 7q14.2, containing AOAH and ELMO1 genes. Amplification of FN1 and PDE5A genomic regions was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Frequency of amplifications and deletions was in relationship with clinical features and BRAF mutation status of tumor. In fact, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk classification, amplifications are more frequent in higher risk samples, while deletions tend to prevail in the lower risk tumors. Analysis of single aberrations according to the ATA risk grouping shows that amplifications containing PDE5A, GALNTL6, DHRS3, and DOCK9 genes are significantly more frequent in the intermediate/high risk group than in the low risk group. Thus, our data would indicate that analysis of somatic genome aberrations by CGH array can be useful to identify additional prognostic variables. PMID:25863487

  3. Sensitive SERS detection of DNA methyltransferase by target triggering primer generation-based multiple signal amplification strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yu, Chuanfeng; Han, Huixia; Zhao, Caisheng; Zhang, Xiaoru

    2016-07-15

    A novel and sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method is proposed for the assay of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and evaluation of inhibitors by developing a target triggering primer generation-based multiple signal amplification strategy. By using of a duplex substrate for Dam MTase, two hairpin templates and a Raman probe, multiple signal amplification mode is achieved. Once recognized by Dam MTase, the duplex substrate can be cleaved by Dpn I endonuclease and two primers are released for triggering the multiple signal amplification reaction. Consequently, a wide dynamic range and remarkably high sensitivity are obtained under isothermal conditions. The detection limit is 2.57×10(-4)UmL(-1). This assay exhibits an excellent selectivity and is successfully applied in the screening of inhibitors for Dam MTase. In addition, this novel sensing system is potentially universal as the recognition element can be conveniently designed for other target analytes by changing the substrate of DNA MTase. PMID:26926592

  4. Optical Parametric Amplification for High Peak and Average Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, I

    2001-11-26

    Optical parametric amplification is an established broadband amplification technology based on a second-order nonlinear process of difference-frequency generation (DFG). When used in chirped pulse amplification (CPA), the technology has been termed optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA). OPCPA holds a potential for producing unprecedented levels of peak and average power in optical pulses through its scalable ultrashort pulse amplification capability and the absence of quantum defect, respectively. The theory of three-wave parametric interactions is presented, followed by a description of the numerical model developed for nanosecond pulses. Spectral, temperature and angular characteristics of OPCPA are calculated, with an estimate of pulse contrast. An OPCPA system centered at 1054 nm, based on a commercial tabletop Q-switched pump laser, was developed as the front end for a large Nd-glass petawatt-class short-pulse laser. The system does not utilize electro-optic modulators or multi-pass amplification. The obtained overall 6% efficiency is the highest to date in OPCPA that uses a tabletop commercial pump laser. The first compression of pulses amplified in highly nondegenerate OPCPA is reported, with the obtained pulse width of 60 fs. This represents the shortest pulse to date produced in OPCPA. Optical parametric amplification in {beta}-barium borate was combined with laser amplification in Ti:sapphire to produce the first hybrid CPA system, with an overall conversion efficiency of 15%. Hybrid CPA combines the benefits of high gain in OPCPA with high conversion efficiency in Ti:sapphire to allow significant simplification of future tabletop multi-terawatt sources. Preliminary modeling of average power limits in OPCPA and pump laser design are presented, and an approach based on cascaded DFG is proposed to increase the average power beyond the single-crystal limit. Angular and beam quality effects in optical parametric amplification are modeled

  5. High-temperature ultrafast polariton parametric amplification in semiconductor microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M.; Ciuti, C.; Bloch, J.; Thierry-Mieg, V.; André, R.; Dang, Le Si; Kundermann, S.; Mura, A.; Bongiovanni, G.; Staehli, J. L.; Deveaud, B.

    2001-12-01

    Cavity polaritons, the elementary optical excitations of semiconductor microcavities, may be understood as a superposition of excitons and cavity photons. Owing to their composite nature, these bosonic particles have a distinct optical response, at the same time very fast and highly nonlinear. Very efficient light amplification due to polariton-polariton parametric scattering has recently been reported in semiconductor microcavities at liquid-helium temperatures. Here we demonstrate polariton parametric amplification up to 120K in GaAlAs-based microcavities and up to 220K in CdTe-based microcavities. We show that the cut-off temperature for the amplification is ultimately determined by the binding energy of the exciton. A 5-µm-thick planar microcavity can amplify a weak light pulse more than 5,000 times. The effective gain coefficient of an equivalent homogeneous medium would be 107cm-1. The subpicosecond duration and high efficiency of the amplification could be exploited for high-repetition all-optical microscopic switches and amplifiers. 105 polaritons occupy the same quantum state during the amplification, realizing a dynamical condensate of strongly interacting bosons which can be studied at high temperature.

  6. Problems encountered when defining Arctic amplification as a ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Alistair; Zhang, Qiong; Brattström, Gudrun

    2016-07-01

    In climate change science the term ‘Arctic amplification’ has become synonymous with an estimation of the ratio of a change in Arctic temperatures compared with a broader reference change under the same period, usually in global temperatures. Here, it is shown that this definition of Arctic amplification comes with a suite of difficulties related to the statistical properties of the ratio estimator itself. Most problematic is the complexity of categorizing uncertainty in Arctic amplification when the global, or reference, change in temperature is close to 0 over a period of interest, in which case it may be impossible to set bounds on this uncertainty. An important conceptual distinction is made between the ‘Ratio of Means’ and ‘Mean Ratio’ approaches to defining a ratio estimate of Arctic amplification, as they do not only possess different uncertainty properties regarding the amplification factor, but are also demonstrated to ask different scientific questions. Uncertainty in the estimated range of the Arctic amplification factor using the latest global climate models and climate forcing scenarios is expanded upon and shown to be greater than previously demonstrated for future climate projections, particularly using forcing scenarios with lower concentrations of greenhouse gases.

  7. Adaptive base-isolation of civil structures using variable amplification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth K. Walsh; Makola M. Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Semi-active dampers are used in base-isolation to reduce the seismic response of civil engineering structures.In the present study, a new semi-active damping system using variable amplification will be investigated for adaptive baseisolation. It uses a novel variable amplification device (VAD) connected in series with a passive damper. The VAD is capable of producing multiple amplification factors, each corresponding to a different amplification state. Forces from the damper are amplified to the structure according to the current amplification state, which is selected via a semi-active control algorithm specifically tailored to the system's unique damping characteristics. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the VAD-damper system for adaptive base-isolation, numerical simulations are conducted for three and seven-story base-isolated buildings subject to both far and near-field ground motions. The results indicate that the system can achieve significant reductions in response compared to the base-isolated buildings with no damper. The proposed system is also found to perform well compared to a typical semi-active damper.

  8. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  9. Screening for hypertension.

    OpenAIRE

    Tomson, P R V

    1983-01-01

    In an open access screening campaign for hypertension lasting six weeks 6259 individuals were screened with a Vita-Stat blood pressure computer and an estimated 4.2% to 5.4% of new cases were detected.

  10. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  11. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  12. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to the link ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  15. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen...... practice in curating has emerged from a critical discourse in response to a particular "screen topos", which has relied on a Foucauldian, apparatus-theoretical mechanism of the screen as a broadcasting medium of mass entertainment. This topos, I argue, has transferred the dispositif of the screen apparatus...

  16. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  18. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  19. Video Screen Capture Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  20. Modeling Loss Amplification After Devastating Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissonnade, A. C.; Muir Wood, R.

    2008-05-01

    With the catastrophic events that occurred in 2004 and 2005 came the realization that Catastrophic (Cat) loss models were not properly modeling insured losses and their associated uncertainty. One reason was that major catastrophes were generally characterized by losses caused by the primary initiating events. Such approaches are not adequate when losses can result from the compounded impacts of scenarios of secondary cascading events (physical, economic, social and political) that can have much larger impacts than those due to the primary events themselves. Situations where more and more cascading events can occur will result in different outcomes, some leading to extreme loss events, generally referred as Super Cats. These situations occurred in December 2004 with the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami and in August 2005 with hurricane Katrina and resulting New Orleans flooding. A review of historical events shows that these events are not exceptions. Modeling such scenarios adds new levels of complexity and different perspectives in the understanding of characterizing and assessing impacts of catastrophic events. Modeling economic consequences of extreme events can be improved by developing scenarios of cascades of secondary events triggered by the primary event(s). The likelihood of each scenario should be modeled, along with the hazards of primary and secondary events and resulting losses with their impacts to the different stakeholders. In addition, it is also important to model the impacts of the hazards on the infrastructure and the resulting disruption to the residents and the local economy because these can result in additional losses. This paper describes current work with the goals of better modeling the full economic impacts from catastrophic events, and of a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainty. We will present approaches for modeling loss amplification that account for all the ways in which the cost incurred for a certain level of damage due to a

  1. Radioactive wastes and the social amplification of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant problem in radioactive waste facility siting is that apparent small risks or minor risks events produce substantial public concern and social impacts. The reasons for this difference in public health and societal impacts is not well understood. This paper explores the issues involved in the social amplification of risk, using the risk associated with site characterization as the example. Noteworthy as sources of amplification are the information flow associated with risks and risk events including the large volume of information, the extent of dispute, and misinformation and rumor. Such information passes through the mass media and interpersonal networks. The major mechanisms involved in risk amplifications are discussed and their likely impacts on society described

  2. Discovery of a photoresponse amplification mechanism in compensated PN junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the experimental evidence of uncovering a photoresponse amplification mechanism in heavily doped, partially compensated silicon p-n junctions under very low bias voltage. We show that the observed photocurrent gain occurs at a bias that is more than an order of magnitude below the threshold voltage for conventional impact ionization. Moreover, contrary to the case of avalanche detectors and p-i-n diodes, the amplified photoresponse is enhanced rather than suppressed with increasing temperature. These distinctive characteristics lead us to hypothesize that the inelastic scattering between energetic electrons (holes) and the ionized impurities in the depletion and charge neutral regions of the p-n junction in a cyclic manner plays a significant role in the amplification process. Such an internal signal amplification mechanism, which occurs at much lower bias than impact ionization and favors room temperature over cryogenic temperature, makes it promising for practical device applications

  3. Amplification of spin waves by the spin Seebeck effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrón-Hernández, E.; Azevedo, A.; Rezende, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    We observe amplification of spin-wave packets propagating along a film of single-crystal yttrium iron garnet (YIG) subject to a transverse temperature gradient. The spin waves are excited and detected with standard techniques used to study volume or surface magnetostatic waves in the 1-2 GHz frequency range. Amplification gains larger than 20 are observed in a YIG film heated by a current of 20 mA in a Pt layer in a simple YIG/Pt bilayer. The amplification is attributed to the action of a spin-transfer thermal torque acting on the magnetization that opposes the relaxation and which is created by spin currents generated through the spin Seebeck effect. The experimental data are interpreted with a spin-wave model.

  4. Chemical amplification of magnetic field effects relevant to avian magnetoreception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattnig, Daniel R.; Evans, Emrys W.; Déjean, Victoire; Dodson, Charlotte A.; Wallace, Mark I.; MacKenzie, Stuart R.; Timmel, Christiane R.; Hore, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields as weak as the Earth's can change the yields of radical pair reactions even though the energies involved are orders of magnitude smaller than the thermal energy, kBT, at room temperature. Proposed as the source of the light-dependent magnetic compass in migratory birds, the radical pair mechanism is thought to operate in cryptochrome flavoproteins in the retina. Here we demonstrate that the primary magnetic field effect on flavin photoreactions can be amplified chemically by slow radical termination reactions under conditions of continuous photoexcitation. The nature and origin of the amplification are revealed by studies of the intermolecular flavin-tryptophan and flavin-ascorbic acid photocycles and the closely related intramolecular flavin-tryptophan radical pair in cryptochrome. Amplification factors of up to 5.6 were observed for magnetic fields weaker than 1 mT. Substantial chemical amplification could have a significant impact on the viability of a cryptochrome-based magnetic compass sensor.

  5. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  6. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, C; Gillings, M R; Davison, A D; Altavilla, N; Veal, D A

    1998-05-14

    Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1). DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size. PMID:12734590

  7. Raman amplification in the broken-wave regime

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, John P

    2015-01-01

    In regimes far beyond the wavebreaking theshold of Raman amplification, we show that significant amplifcation can occur after the onset of wavebreaking, before phase mixing destroys the coupling between pump and probe. The amplification efficiency in this regime is therefore strongly dependent on the energy-transfer rate when wavebreaking occurs, and is, as such, sensitive to both the probe amplitude and profile. In order to access the higher-efficiency broken-wave regime, a short, intense probe is required. Parameter scans show the marked difference in behaviour compared to below wavebreaking, where longer, more energetic pulses lead to improved efficiencies.

  8. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  9. Symmetry between absorption and amplification in disordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address the issue of whether amplification, like absorption, suppresses wave transmission at large gain, as has been claimed in previous studies of wave propagation in active random media. A closer examination reveals that the paradoxical symmetry between absorption and amplification is an artifact of unphysical solutions from the time-independent wave equation. Solutions from the time-dependent equation demonstrate clearly that when gain is above the threshold, the amplitude of both the transmitted and the reflected wave actually increases with time, apparently without bound. The implications of the current finding is discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  10. Influence of environmental noise on the weak value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuannmin; Zhang, Yu-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Quantum systems are always disturbed by environmental noise. We have investigated the influence of the environmental noise on the amplification in weak measurements. Three typical quantum noise processes are discussed in this article. The maximum expectation values of the observables of the measuring device decrease sharply with the strength of the depolarizing and phase damping channels, while the amplification effect of weak measurement is immune to the amplitude damping noise. To obtain significantly amplified signals, we must ensure that the preselection quantum systems are kept away from the depolarizing and phase damping processes.

  11. Amplification of Short Pulse High Power UV Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    At recent year, with the development of CPA and other amplification technology, laser intensity achieves great increase and laser power can be high to PW(105) now, this ultrashort pulse lasers offer scientists a route to investigate laser-matter interaction in an absolute new regime.So far the researches on ultrashort pulse laser-matter interaction concentrated on infrared regime, yet ultraviolet laser has the advantage in intense field physics and ICF researches for its short wavelength and less nonlinear effects. KrF excimer is the best medium in UV ultrashort pulse amplification for its small saturation energy and high contrast ratio accessible.

  12. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  13. Influence of environmental noise on the weak value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuannmin; Zhang, Yu-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Quantum systems are always disturbed by environmental noise. We have investigated the influence of the environmental noise on the amplification in weak measurements. Three typical quantum noise processes are discussed in this article. The maximum expectation values of the observables of the measuring device decrease sharply with the strength of the depolarizing and phase damping channels, while the amplification effect of weak measurement is immune to the amplitude damping noise. To obtain significantly amplified signals, we must ensure that the preselection quantum systems are kept away from the depolarizing and phase damping processes.

  14. Femtosecond pulse amplification in cladding-pumped fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Minelly, J. D.; Galvanauskas, A.; Fermann, M. E.; Harter, D.; Caplen, J.E.; Chen, Z.J.; Payne, D. N.

    1995-01-01

    Femtosecond pulse amplification in a cladding-pumped fiber amplifier is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. Using a cladding-pumped erbium-doped fiber power amplifier and a passively mode-locked fiber seed oscillator in conjunction with an all-fiber chirped-pulse amplification system, we obtain 380-fs near-bandwidth-limited pulses with an average power of 260 mW. The pulse repetition rate is varied between 5 and 50 MHz, and pulse energies as high as 20 nJ are generated.

  15. Divided-pulse amplification to the joule level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin; Azim, Ahmad; Bodnar, Nathan; Chini, Michael; Shah, Lawrence; Richardson, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Divided-pulse amplification (DPA) has proven to be a valuable tool in scaling the peak power of diode-pumped ytterbium-doped amplifiers to beyond the single-pulse threshold for parasitic nonlinear effects. DPA enables the amplification of picosecond pulses in solid-state amplifiers with limited bandwidth beyond the single-pulse damage threshold. In this Letter, we demonstrate DPA of picosecond pulses in a flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG amplifier for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, yielding a combined pulse energy of 167 mJ. PMID:27367113

  16. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosward, Katrina L; House, John K; Deveridge, Amber; Mathews, Karen; Sheehy, Paul A

    2016-03-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-characterized bovine mastitis pathogen that is known to be highly contagious and capable of spreading rapidly in affected dairy herds. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel molecular diagnostic method that has the capability to provide rapid, cost-effective screening for pathogens to support on-farm disease control and eradication programs. In the current study, a LAMP test was developed to detect S. agalactiae in milk. The assay was validated on a bank of existing clinical mastitis milk samples that had previously been identified as S. agalactiae positive via traditional microbiological culture techniques and PCR. The LAMP assay was conducted on bacterial colonies and DNA extracted from milk in tube- and plate-based formats using multiple detection platforms. The 1-h assay conducted at 64 °C exhibited repeatability (coefficient of variation) of 2.07% (tube) and 8.3% (plate), sensitivity to ~20 pg of extracted DNA/reaction, and specificity against a panel of known bacterial mastitis pathogens. Of the 109 known S. agalactiae isolates assessed by LAMP directly from bacterial cells in culture, 108 were identified as positive, in accordance with PCR analysis. The LAMP analysis from the corresponding milk samples indicated that 104 of these milks exhibited a positive amplification curve. Although exhibiting some limitations, this assay provides an opportunity for rapid screening of milk samples to facilitate on-farm management of this pathogen. PMID:26778303

  17. PKS and NRPS gene clusters from microbial symbiont cells of marine sponges by whole genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, Alexander; Hentschel, Ute

    2010-08-01

    Whole genome amplification (WGA) approaches provide genomic information on single microbial cells and hold great promise for the field of environmental microbiology. Here, the microbial consortia of the marine sponge Aplysina aerophoba were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and then subjected to WGA. A cosmid library was constructed from the WGA product of a sample containing two bacterial cells, one a member of the candidate phylum Poribacteria and one of a sponge-specific clade of Chloroflexi. Library screening led to the genomic characterization of three cosmid clones, encoding a polyketide synthase (PKS), a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and the Chloroflexi 16S rRNA gene. PCR screening of WGA products from additional, FACS-sorted single bacterial symbiont cells supports the assignment of the Sup-PKS gene to the Poribacteria and the novel NRPS gene to the Chloroflexi. This promising single-cell genomics approach has permitted cloning of entire gene clusters from single microbial cells of known phylogenetic origin and thus provides a sought-after link between phylogeny and function. PMID:23766222

  18. Automated nucleic acid amplification testing in blood banks: An additional layer of blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Chigurupati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.

  19. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  20. Analyses of Genotypes and Phenotypes of Ten Chinese Patients with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Xu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The combined use of MLPA and array CGH is an effective and specific means to diagnose WHS and allows for the precise identification of the breakpoints and sizes of deletions. The deletion of genes in the WHS candidate region is closely correlated with the core WHS phenotype.

  1. Highly efficient amplification of chronic wasting disease agent by protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (PMCAb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad J Johnson

    Full Text Available Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA has emerged as an important technique for detecting low levels of pathogenic prion protein in biological samples. The method exploits the ability of the pathogenic prion protein to convert the normal prion protein to a proteinase K-resistant conformation. Inclusion of Teflon® beads in the PMCA reaction (PMCAb has been previously shown to increase the sensitivity and robustness of detection for the 263 K and SSLOW strains of hamster-adapted prions. Here, we demonstrate that PMCAb with saponin dramatically increases the sensitivity of detection for chronic wasting disease (CWD agent without compromising the specificity of the assay (i.e., no false positive results. Addition of Teflon® beads increased the robustness of the PMCA reaction, resulting in a decrease in the variability of PMCA results. Three rounds of serial PMCAb allowed detection of CWD agent from a 6.7 × 10(-13 dilution of 10% brain homogenate (1.3 fg of source brain. Titration of the same brain homogenate in transgenic mice expressing cervid prion protein (Tg(CerPrP1536(+/- mice allowed detection of CWD agent from the 10(-6 dilution of 10% brain homogenate. PMCAb is, thus, more sensitive than bioassay in transgenic mice by a factor exceeding 10(5. Additionally, we are able to amplify CWD agent from brain tissue and lymph nodes of CWD-positive white-tailed deer having Prnp alleles associated with reduced disease susceptibility.

  2. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA of CaMV-35S Promoter and nos Terminator for Rapid Detection of Genetically Modified Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37–42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15–25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean. With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops.

  3. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) of CaMV-35S promoter and nos terminator for rapid detection of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Li, Liang; Jin, Wujun; Wan, Yusong

    2014-01-01

    Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a novel isothermal DNA amplification and detection technology that enables the amplification of DNA within 30 min at a constant temperature of 37-42 °C by simulating in vivo DNA recombination. In this study, based on the regulatory sequence of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV-35S) promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase gene (nos) terminator, which are widely incorporated in genetically modified (GM) crops, we designed two sets of RPA primers and established a real-time RPA detection method for GM crop screening and detection. This method could reliably detect as few as 100 copies of the target molecule in a sample within 15-25 min. Furthermore, the real-time RPA detection method was successfully used to amplify and detect DNA from samples of four major GM crops (maize, rice, cotton, and soybean). With this novel amplification method, the test time was significantly shortened and the reaction process was simplified; thus, this method represents an effective approach to the rapid detection of GM crops. PMID:25310647

  4. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  5. Screening in liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Poggio, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-09-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  6. Screening in liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paolo Del Poggio; Marzio Mazzoleni

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines,although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors,such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction,is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation.

  7. Subtyping of Streptococcus uberis by DNA amplification fingerprinting.

    OpenAIRE

    Jayarao, B. M.; Bassam, B J; Caetano-Anollés, G; Gresshoff, P M; Oliver, S P

    1992-01-01

    Total DNA of Streptococcus uberis from cows with mastitis was analyzed by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and compared with restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (REF). DAF grouped 22 strains into 15 distinct patterns, while REF grouped them into 12 patterns. These results suggest that DAF is a useful technique for subtyping strains of S. uberis.

  8. Soft x-ray amplification in an ablative capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soft x-ray amplification in CVI 18.2 nm line is observed in an ablative UHMW-PE capillary discharge. The gain coefficient is measured to be 1.9 cm-1. The electron density is about 2 x 1019 cm-3. This indicates that capillary discharge pumping device can be a source for a compact soft x-ray laser. (author)

  9. Direct Extraction and Amplification of DNA from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Jack T.; Leung, K.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise that describes the direct extraction and purification of DNA from a small soil sample. Also discusses the subsequent amplification of a 343-bp Tn7 transposate A gene fragment (tnsA) from a strain of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 3732RNL11. Contains 21 references. (DDR)

  10. Resonant amplification of quantum fluctuations in a spinor gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topic, O.; Scherer, M.; Gebreyesus, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms with non-zero spin are known to constitute an ideal system to investigate fundamental properties of magnetic superfluids. More recently it was realized that they also provide the fascinating opportunity to investigate the macroscopic amplification of quantum and...

  11. Reversible Gating of Plasmonic Coupling for Optical Signal Amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Christopher G; Fales, Andrew M; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2016-07-20

    Amplification of optical signals is useful for a wide variety of applications, ranging from data signal transmission to chemical sensing and biomedical diagnostics. One such application in chemical sensing is surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), an important technique for increasing the Raman signal using the plasmonic effect of enhanced electromagnetic fields associated with metallic nanostructures. One of the most important limitations of SERS-based amplification is the difficulty to reproducibly control the SERS signal. Here, we describe the design and implementation of a unique hybrid system capable of producing reversible gating of plasmonic coupling for Raman signal amplification. The hybrid system is composed of two subsystems: (1) colloidal magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles for SERS enhancement and (2) a micromagnet substrate with an externally applied magnetic field to modulate the colloidal nanoparticles. For this proof of concept demonstration, the nanoparticles were labeled with a Raman-active dye, and it was shown that the detected SERS signal could be reproducibly modulated by controlling the externally applied magnetic field. The developed system provides a simple, robust, inexpensive, and reusable device for SERS signal modulation. These properties will open up new possibilities for optical signal amplification and gating as well for high-throughput, reproducible SERS detection. PMID:27347606

  12. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  13. Loss of KLF14 triggers centrosome amplification and tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guangjian; Sun, Lianhui; Shan, Peipei; Zhang, Xianying; Huan, Jinliang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Li, Dali; Wang, Tingting; Wei, Tingting; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gu, Xiaoyang; Yao, Liangfang; Xuan, Yang; Hou, Zhaoyuan; Cui, Yongping; Cao, Liu; Li, Xiaotao; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Chuangui

    2015-01-01

    Centrosome amplification is frequent in cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that disruption of the Kruppel-like factor 14 (KLF14) gene in mice causes centrosome amplification, aneuploidy and spontaneous tumorigenesis. Molecularly, KLF14 functions as a transcriptional repressor of Plk4, a polo-like kinase whose overexpression induces centrosome overduplication. Transient knockdown of KLF14 is sufficient to induce Plk4-directed centrosome amplification. Clinically, KLF14 transcription is significantly downregulated, whereas Plk4 transcription is upregulated in multiple types of cancers, and there exists an inverse correlation between KLF14 and Plk4 protein expression in human breast and colon cancers. Moreover, KLF14 depletion promotes AOM/DSS-induced colon tumorigenesis. Our findings reveal that KLF14 reduction serves as a mechanism leading to centrosome amplification and tumorigenesis. On the other hand, forced expression of KLF14 leads to mitotic catastrophe. Collectively, our findings identify KLF14 as a tumour suppressor and highlight its potential as biomarker and therapeutic target for cancer. PMID:26439168

  14. Transient amplification limits noise suppression in biochemical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, John; Lindemann, Anika; McCoy, Jonathan H.

    2016-01-01

    Cell physiology is orchestrated, on a molecular level, through complex networks of biochemical reactions. The propagation of random fluctuations through these networks can significantly impact cell behavior, raising challenging questions about how network design shapes the cell's ability to suppress or exploit these fluctuations. Here, drawing on insights from statistical physics, fluid dynamics, and systems biology, we explore how transient amplification phenomena arising from network connectivity naturally limit a biochemical system's ability to suppress small fluctuations around steady-state behaviors. We find that even a simple system consisting of two variables linked by a single interaction is capable of amplifying small fluctuations orders of magnitude beyond the levels predicted by linear stability theory. We also find that adding additional interactions can promote further amplification, even when these interactions implement classic design strategies known to suppress fluctuations. These results establish that transient amplification is an essential factor determining baseline noise levels in stable intracellular networks. Significantly, our analysis is not bound to specific systems or interaction mechanisms: we find that noise amplification is an emergent phenomenon found near steady states in any network containing sufficiently strong interactions, regardless of its form or function.

  15. Development of an electronic system for signals amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the obtained results with a spectrometer for electromagnetic radiation whose detector, a Si PIN type diode, was directly coupled to a signal amplification system developed in this project for scientific initiation. The linearity conditions and the gain operational limits, constituted of two stages of amplification based on the employment of devices from AMTEK A225 and A206, were determined using a precision pulse generator. The obtained results shown that the developed system is stable and linear in the gain range of 50-150. The spectrometric response of the electronic system coupled to the Siemens SFH-00206 type diode, were studied in view of the register of the 59.5 keV gamma ray spectra proceeding from 241Am as function of the reversal polarization voltage. The influence pf the voltage and the electronic contribution in the energy resolution of the registered spectra under room temperature (22 degree Celsius) had also investigated considering the more adequate value of the coupling capacitance of the amplification system diode. Up to the present. the best energy resolution (FWHM = 4.85 keV) of the 59.5 keV line was obtained for the condition of the detector polarization at 16 V. This result proves that the signal amplification system developed coupled to the SFH00206 diode, besides the low cost, excellent operational condition for the detection and spectrometry or low energy electromagnetic radiation

  16. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    . The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is...

  17. Evaluation of point mutations in dystrophin gene in Iranian Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients: introducing three novel variants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MARYAM HAGHSHENAS; MOHAMMAD TAGHI AKBARI; SHOHREH ZARE KARIZI; FARAVAREH KHORDADPOOR DEILAMANI; SHAHRIAR NAFISSI; ZIVAR SALEHI

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked neuromuscular diseases characterized by progres-sive muscular weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles. Approximately two-thirds of the patients have large deletionsor duplications in the dystrophin gene and the remaining one-third have point mutations. This study was performed to eval-uate point mutations in Iranian DMD/BMD male patients. A total of 29 DNA samples from patients who did not show anylarge deletion/duplication mutations following multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex ligation-dependentprobe amplification (MLPA) screening were sequenced for detection of point mutations in exons 50–79. Also exon 44 wassequenced in one sample in which a false positive deletion was detected by MLPA method. Cycle sequencing revealed fournonsense, one frameshift and two splice site mutations as well as two missense variants

  18. X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Genetic and dental findings in 67 Danish patients from 19 families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lexner, Michala Oron; Bardow, A.; Juncker, I.;

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate genotype and phenotype in males affected with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) and in female carriers, to analyse a possible genotype-phenotype correlation, and to analyse a possible relation between severity of the symptoms and the X......-chromosome inactivation pattern in female carriers. The study group comprised 67 patients from 19 families (24 affected males and 43 female carriers). All participants had clinical signs of ectodermal dysplasia and a disease-causing EDA mutation. The EDA gene was screened for mutations by single-stranded conformational...... polymorphism and direct sequencing. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was used to detect deletions/duplications in female probands. Sixteen different EDA mutations were detected in the 19 families, nine not described previously. The MLPA analysis detected a deletion of exon 1 in...

  19. TPR-MET oncogenic rearrangement: Detection by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the transcript and expression in human tumor cells lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of the MET protooncogene by a rearrangement involving the fusion of TPR and MET specific gene sequences has been observed in a human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS) treated in vitro with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). No information has been available about the possible occurrence of this rearrangement in human tumors. To facilitate rapid screening of human cell lines and tumor samples for this specific gene rearrangement; the authors developed a sensitive detection method based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of TPR-MET mRNA. cDNA was generated from cellular transcripts by using one of the PCR primers, which was then used as a template for PCR amplification of a 205-base-pair region carrying the breakpoint. An end-labeled internal probe was hybridized in solution to an aliquot of the PCR product for detecting amplification. Cells could be directly screened by the assay without prior isolation of RNA. A 205-base-pair DNA fragment characteristic of the TRP-MET rearrangement was detected in cell lines previously known to contain this altered sequence. The rearrangement was also detected at very low levels in the parental (nontransformed) cell line, HOS TE-85. A preliminary survey of cell lines derived from a variety of human tumors indicates that TPR-MET rearrangement occurred and was expressed at very low frequencies by cells from 7 of 14 tumors of nonhematopoietic origin

  20. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagihara Kazuyoshi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS, which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. Methods DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. Results DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20 of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification and 4.7% (4/86 of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification. KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild

  1. A novel method, digital genome scanning detects KRAS gene amplification in gastric cancers: involvement of overexpressed wild-type KRAS in downstream signaling and cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric cancer is the third most common malignancy affecting the general population worldwide. Aberrant activation of KRAS is a key factor in the development of many types of tumor, however, oncogenic mutations of KRAS are infrequent in gastric cancer. We have developed a novel quantitative method of analysis of DNA copy number, termed digital genome scanning (DGS), which is based on the enumeration of short restriction fragments, and does not involve PCR or hybridization. In the current study, we used DGS to survey copy-number alterations in gastric cancer cells. DGS of gastric cancer cell lines was performed using the sequences of 5000 to 15000 restriction fragments. We screened 20 gastric cancer cell lines and 86 primary gastric tumors for KRAS amplification by quantitative PCR, and investigated KRAS amplification at the DNA, mRNA and protein levels by mutational analysis, real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, GTP-RAS pull-down assay and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of KRAS knock-down on the activation of p44/42 MAP kinase and AKT and on cell growth were examined by immunoblot and colorimetric assay, respectively. DGS analysis of the HSC45 gastric cancer cell line revealed the amplification of a 500-kb region on chromosome 12p12.1, which contains the KRAS gene locus. Amplification of the KRAS locus was detected in 15% (3/20) of gastric cancer cell lines (8–18-fold amplification) and 4.7% (4/86) of primary gastric tumors (8–50-fold amplification). KRAS mutations were identified in two of the three cell lines in which KRAS was amplified, but were not detected in any of the primary tumors. Overexpression of KRAS protein correlated directly with increased KRAS copy number. The level of GTP-bound KRAS was elevated following serum stimulation in cells with amplified wild-type KRAS, but not in cells with amplified mutant KRAS. Knock-down of KRAS in gastric cancer cells that carried amplified wild-type KRAS resulted in the inhibition of cell growth and

  2. Bacteriophage Amplification-Coupled Detection and Identification of Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher R.; Voorhees, Kent J.

    Current methods of species-specific bacterial detection and identification are complex, time-consuming, and often require expensive specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Numerous biochemical and genotypic identification methods have been applied to bacterial characterization, but all rely on tedious microbiological culturing practices and/or costly sequencing protocols which render them impractical for deployment as rapid, cost-effective point-of-care or field detection and identification methods. With a view towards addressing these shortcomings, we have exploited the evolutionarily conserved interactions between a bacteriophage (phage) and its bacterial host to develop species-specific detection methods. Phage amplification-coupled matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was utilized to rapidly detect phage propagation resulting from species-specific in vitro bacterial infection. This novel signal amplification method allowed for bacterial detection and identification in as little as 2 h, and when combined with disulfide bond reduction methods developed in our laboratory to enhance MALDI-TOF-MS resolution, was observed to lower the limit of detection by several orders of magnitude over conventional spectroscopy and phage typing methods. Phage amplification has been combined with lateral flow immunochromatography (LFI) to develop rapid, easy-to-operate, portable, species-specific point-of-care (POC) detection devices. Prototype LFI detectors have been developed and characterized for Yersinia pestis and Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agents of plague and anthrax, respectively. Comparable sensitivity and rapidity was observed when phage amplification was adapted to a species-specific handheld LFI detector, thus allowing for rapid, simple, POC bacterial detection and identification while eliminating the need for bacterial culturing or DNA isolation and amplification techniques.

  3. New perspectives on microbial community distortion after whole-genome amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-genome amplification (WGA) has become an important tool to explore the genomic information of microorganisms in an environmental sample with limited biomass, however potential selective biases during the amplification processes are poorly understood. Here, we describe the e...

  4. Tissue donation and virus safety: more nucleic acid amplification testing is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruss, A; Caspari, G; Krüger, D H; Blümel, J; Nübling, C M; Gürtler, L; Gerlich, W H

    2010-10-01

    In tissue and organ transplantation, it is of great importance to avoid the transmission of blood-borne viruses to the recipient. While serologic testing for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and -2, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc), and Treponema pallidum infection is mandatory, there is until now in most countries no explicit demand for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) to detect HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and HCV infection. After a review of reports in the literature on viral transmission events, tissue-specific issues, and manufacturing and inactivation procedures, we evaluated the significance of HIV, HCV, and HBV detection using NAT  in  donors of various types of tissues and compared our results with the experiences of blood banking organizations. There is a significant risk of HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission by musculoskeletal tissues because of their high blood content and the high donor-recipient ratio. If no effective virus inactivation procedure for musculoskeletal tissue is applied, donors should be screened using NAT  for  HIV, HCV, and HBV. Serologically screened cardiovascular tissue carries a very low risk of HIV, HCV, or HBV transmission. Nevertheless, because effective virus inactivation is impossible (retention of tissue morphology) and the donor-recipient ratio may be as high as 1:10, we concluded that NAT  should be performed for HIV, HCV, and HBV as an additional safety measure. Although cornea allografts carry the lowest risk of transmitting HIV, HCV, and HBV  owing to corneal physiology, morphology, and the epidemiology of corneal diseases, NAT  for  HCV should still be performed. If the NAT  screening of a donor for HIV, HCV, and HBV is negative, quarantine storage of the donor tissue seems dispensable. In view of numerous synergistic effects with transfusion medicine, it would be advantageous for tissue banks to cooperate with blood

  5. Diabetes Screening Among Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Creatore, Maria I.; Gillian L Booth; Manuel, Douglas G.; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine diabetes screening, predictors of screening, and the burden of undiagnosed diabetes in the immigrant population and whether these estimates differ by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A population-based retrospective cohort linking administrative health data to immigration files was used to follow the entire diabetes-free population aged 40 years and up in Ontario, Canada (N = 3,484,222) for 3 years (2004–2007) to determine whether individuals were screened for diabe...

  6. In-bead screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to screening of one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial libraries which is useful for the discovery of compounds displaying molecular interactions with a biological or a physicochemical system, such as substrates and inhibitors of enzymes and the like. The invention...... provides a method for screening a library of compounds for their interaction with a physico- chemical or biological system and a corresponding kit for performing the method of screening a one-bead-one-compound library of compounds....

  7. The Kondo Screening Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Affleck, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Renormalization group theory of the Kondo effect predicts that an impurity spin is screened by a conduction electron spread over a large distance of order >.1 to 1 micron. This review has the following sections: 1. The Kondo effect and the screening cloud, 2. Non-observation of the Kondo cloud in conventional experiments, 3. Kondo effect in transmission through a quantum dot, 4. Observing the screening cloud in persistent current experiments, 5. Side-coupled quantum dot, 6. Conclusions

  8. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA) for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Minsoung Rhee; Yooli K Light; Meagher, Robert J.; Anup K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template D...

  9. Amplification of cylindrically polarized laser beams in single crystal fiber amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Piehler, Stefan; Délen, Xavier; Rumpel, Martin; Didierjean, Julien; Aubry, Nicolas; Graf, Thomas; Balembois, François; Georges, Patrick; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan

    2013-01-01

    Yb:YAG single crystal fiber (SCF) amplifiers have recently drawn much attention in the field of amplification of ultra-short pulses. In this paper, we report on the use of SCF amplifiers for the amplification of cylindrically polarized laser beams, as such beams offer promising properties for numerous applications. While the amplification of cylindrically polarized beams is challenging with other amplifier designs due to thermally induced depolarization, we demonstrate the amplification of 32...

  10. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  11. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  12. ScreenOS Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, Stefan; Delcourt, David

    2008-01-01

    In the only book that completely covers ScreenOS, six key members of Juniper Network's ScreenOS development team help you troubleshoot secure networks using ScreenOS firewall appliances. Over 200 recipes address a wide range of security issues, provide step-by-step solutions, and include discussions of why the recipes work, so you can easily set up and keep ScreenOS systems on track. The easy-to-follow format enables you to find the topic and specific recipe you need right away.

  13. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality, but it...... is not possible to evaluate the effect on mortality until several years later, and continuously monitoring of the quality of all aspects of a screening programme is necessary. Based on other European guidelines, 11 quality indicators have been defined, and guidelines concerning organizational...... requirements for a Danish screening programme as well as recommendations for the radiographic and radiological work have been drawn up....

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  15. Amplification of target-specific, ligation-dependent circular probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D Y; Brandwein, M; Hsuih, T C; Li, H

    1998-05-12

    We describe a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gene amplification method utilizing a circularizable oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe (C-probe). The C-probe contains two target complementary regions located at each terminus and an interposed generic PCR primer binding region. The hybridization of C-probe to a target brings two termini in direct apposition as the complementary regions of C-probe wind around the target to form a double helix. Subsequent ligation of the two termini results in a covalently linked C-probe that becomes 'locked on to' the target. The circular nature of the C-probe allows for the generation of a multimeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) via extension of the antisense primer by Taq DNA polymerase along the C-probe and displacement of downstream strand, analogous to 'rolling circle' replication of bacteriophage in vivo. This multimeric ssDNA then serves as a template for multiple sense primers to hybridize, extend, and displace downstream DNA, generating a large ramified (branching) DNA complex. Subsequent thermocycling denatures the dsDNA and initiates the next round of primer extension and ramification. This model results in significantly improved amplification kinetics (super-exponential) as compared to conventional PCR. Our results show that the C-probe was 1000 times more sensitive than the corresponding linear hemiprobes for detecting Epstein-Barr virus early RNA. The C-probe not only increases the power of amplification but also offers a means for decontaminating carryover amplicons. As the ligated C-probes possess no free termini, they are resistant to exonuclease digestion, whereas contaminated linear amplicons are susceptible to digestion. Treatment of the ligation reaction mixture with exonuclease prior to amplification eliminated the amplicon contaminant, which could also have been co-amplified with the same PCR primers; only the ligated C-probes were amplified. The combined advantages of the C-probe and thermocycling have a

  16. Construction Strategy for an Internal Amplification Control for Real-Time Diagnostic Assays Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification: Development and Clinical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; D'Agostino, Martin; Pla, Maria; Cook, Nigel

    2005-01-01

    An important analytical control in molecular amplification-based methods is an internal amplification control (IAC), which should be included in each reaction mixture. An IAC is a nontarget nucleic acid sequence which is coamplified simultaneously with the target sequence. With negative results for the target nucleic acid, the absence of an IAC signal indicates that amplification has failed. A general strategy for the construction of an IAC for inclusion in molecular beacon-based real-time nu...

  17. Mammography screening in denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse Merete Munk; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  18. Mammography screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Ilse; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Garne, Jens Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Mammography screening is offered healthy women, and a high standard on professional and organizational level is mandatory not only in the screening programme but even in the diagnostic work-up and treatment. The main goal is to achieve a substantial reduction in disease specific mortality...

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  20. EIA screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2005-01-01

    The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits.......The article points out that EIA screening is effectively a regulatory instrument and it can be a cost-effective instrument with environmental benefits....

  1. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  2. Effect of heavy ion beams to centrosome amplification in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centrosome is an organelle that regulates proper cell division. Centrosome aberration such as centrosome amplification causes chromosome instability. Ionizing radiation is a inducer of effective centrosome amplification. In the previous report, we showed that γ-ray induced centrosome amplification in a dose dependent manner. In this study, we investigated that whether High linear energy transfer (LET) irradiation induce more effective centrosome amplification than low LET irradiation. As expected, high LET irradiation effectively induced centrosome amplification in human U2OS and mouse NIH3T3 cells. (author)

  3. Divided-pulse nonlinear amplification and simultaneous compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a fiber laser system delivering 122 fs pulse duration and 600 mW average power at 1560 nm by the interplay between divided pulse amplification and nonlinear pulse compression. A small-core double-clad erbium-doped fiber with anomalous dispersion carries out the pulse amplification and simultaneously compresses the laser pulses such that a separate compressor is no longer necessary. A numeric simulation reveals the existence of an optimum fiber length for producing transform-limited pulses. Furthermore, frequency doubling to 780 nm with 240 mW average power and 98 fs pulse duration is achieved by using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal at room temperature

  4. Phase Sensitive Amplification using Parametric Processes in Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning

    Phase sensitive amplification using the parametric processes in fiber has the potential of delivering high gain and broadband operation with ultralow noise. It is able to regenerate both amplitude and phase modulated signals, simultaneously, with the appropriate design. This thesis concerns......, in specific, the design and optimization of such phase sensitive amplifiers (PSAs). For phase sensitive amplification in highly nonlinear fibers, optima points of operation have been identified for both the standard and the novel high stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold highly nonlinear fiber....... Further, phase sensitive parametric processes in a nano-engineered silicon waveguide have been measured experimentally for the first time. Numerical optimizations show that with reduced waveguide propagation loss and reduced carrier life time, larger signal phase sensitive extinction ratio is achievable...

  5. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification based on photonic crystal fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang He-Lin; Yang Ai-Jun; Leng Yu-Xin; Wang Cheng; Xu Zhi-Zhan; Hou Lan-Tian

    2011-01-01

    A compact two-stage optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier based on photonic crystal fibre is demonstrated.A 1064-nm soliton pulse is obtained in a home-made photonic crystal fibre(PCF)with femtosecond pulse pumping and then amplified to 2 mJ in an Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier.After the amplified pulses pass through the LBO crystal,the 532-nm double-frequency light with an energy of 0.8 mJ and a duration of over 100 ps at 10-Hz repetition rate is generated as a pump source in the following two-stage optical parametric amplification(OPA).The 850-am chirped signal light gain from the stretcher is 1.5×104in the first-stage OPA while it is 120 in the second-stage OPA.The total signal gain of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification(OPCPA)can reach 1.8×106.

  6. Resonant Amplification of Turbulence by the Blast Wawes

    CERN Document Server

    Zankovich, A M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an idea whether spherical blast waves can amplify by a non-local resonant hydrodynamic mechanism inhomogeneities formed by turbulence or phase segregation in the interstellar medium. We consider the problem of a blast-wave-turbulence interaction in the Linear Interaction Approximation. Mathematically, this is an eigenvalue problem for finding the structure and amplitude of eigenfunctions describing the response of the shock-wave flow to forced oscillations by external perturbations in the ambient interstellar medium. Linear analysis shows that the blast wave can amplify density and vorticity perturbations for a wide range of length scales with amplification coefficients of up to 20, with amplification the greater, the larger the length. There also exist resonant harmonics for which the gain becomes formally infinite in the linear approximation. Their orbital wavenumbers are within the range of macro- ($l \\sim 1$), meso- ($l \\sim 20$) and microscopic ($l > 200$) scales. Since the resonance width is ...

  7. Narrow band amplification of light carrying orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, G C; Barreiro, S; Pruvost, L; Felinto, D; Tabosa, J W R

    2016-05-01

    We report on the amplification of an optical vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum via induced narrow Raman gain in an ensemble of cold cesium atoms. A 20% single-pass Raman gain of a weak vortex signal field is observed with a spectral width of order of 1 MHz, much smaller than the natural width, demonstrating that the amplification process preserves the phase structure of the vortex beam. The gain is observed in the degenerated two-level system associated with the hyperfine transition 6S1/2(F = 3) ↔ 6P3/2(F' = 2) of cesium. Our experimental observations are explained with a simple theoretical model based on a three-level Λ system interacting coherently with the weak Laguerre-Gauss field and a strong coupling field, including an incoherent pumping rate between the two degenerate ground-states. PMID:27137618

  8. Quantum Privacy Amplification for a Sequence of Single Qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Fu-Guo; LONG Gui-Lu

    2006-01-01

    We present a scheme for quantum privacy amplification (QPA) for a sequence of single qubits. The QPA procedure uses a unitary operation with two controlled-not gates and a Hadamard gate. Every two qubits are performed with the unitary gate operation, and a measurement is made on one photon and the other one is retained.The retained qubit carries the state information of the discarded one. In this way, the information leakage is reduced.The procedure can be performed repeatedly so that the information leakage is reduced to any arbitrarily low level. With this QPA scheme, the quantum secure direct communication with single qubits can be implemented with arbitrarily high security. We also exploit this scheme to do privacy amplification on the single qubits in quantum information sharing for long-distance communication with quantum repeaters.

  9. Electromagnetic biaxial microscanner with mechanical amplification at resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ah Ran; Han, Aleum; Ju, Suna; Jeong, Haesoo; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Inhoi; Bu, Jong-Uk; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

    2015-06-29

    We present the design, fabrication, and measurement results of an electromagnetic biaxial microscanner with mechanical amplification mechanism. A gimbaled scanner with two distinct single-crystal silicon layer thicknesses and integrated copper coils has been fabricated with combination of surface and bulk micromachining processes. A magnet assembly consisting of an array of permanent magnets and a pole piece has been placed under the substrate to provide high strength lateral magnetic field oriented 45° to two perpendicular scanning axes. Micromirror has been supported by additional gimbal to implement a mechanical amplification. A 1.2mm-diameter mirror with aluminum reflective surface has been actuated at 60Hz for vertical scan and at 21kHz for horizontal scan. Maximum scan angle of 36.12° at 21.19kHz and 17.62° at 60Hz have been obtained for horizontal and vertical scans, respectively. PMID:26191691

  10. Broadband terahertz amplification in a heterogeneous quantum cascade laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Dominic; Leder, Norbert; Rösch, Markus; Scalari, Giacomo; Beck, Mattias; Arthaber, Holger; Faist, Jérôme; Unterrainer, Karl; Darmo, Juraj

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate a broadband terahertz amplifier based on ultrafast gain switching in a quantum cascade laser. A heterogeneous active region is processed into a coupled cavity metal-metal waveguide device and provides broadband terahertz gain that allows achieving an amplification bandwidth of more than 500 GHz. The temporal and spectral evolution of a terahertz seed pulse, which is generated in an integrated emitter section, is presented and an amplification factor of 21 dB is reached. Furthermore, the quantum cascade amplifier emission spectrum of the emerging sub-nanosecond terahertz pulse train is measured by time-domain spectroscopy and reveals discrete modes between 2.14 and 2.68 THz. PMID:25836170

  11. Pulse Amplification in Dispersion-Decreasing Fibers with Symbolic Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulse amplification in the dispersion-decreasing fiber (DDF) is investigated via symbolic computation to solve the variable-coefficient higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the effects of third-order dispersion, self-steepening, and stimulated Raman scattering. The analytic one-soliton solution of this model is obtained with a set of parametric conditions. Based on this solution, the fundamental soliton is shown to be amplified in the DDF. The comparison of the amplitude of pulses for different dispersion profiles of the DDF is also performed through the graphical analysis. The results of this paper would be of certain value to the study of signal amplification and pulse compression. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Whole genome amplification - Review of applications and advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, Trevor L.; Detter, J.C.; Richardson, Paul

    2001-11-15

    The concept of Whole Genome Amplification is something that has arisen in the past few years as modifications to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been adapted to replicate regions of genomes which are of biological interest. The applications here are many--forensics, embryonic disease diagnosis, bio terrorism genome detection, ''imoralization'' of clinical samples, microbial diversity, and genotyping. The key question is if DNA can be replicated a genome at a time without bias or non random distribution of the target. Several papers published in the last year and currently in preparation may lead to the conclusion that whole genome amplification may indeed be possible and therefore open up a new avenue to molecular biology.

  13. Spin noise amplification and giant noise in optical microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When studying the spin-noise-induced fluctuations of Kerr rotation in a quantum-well microcavity, we have found a dramatic increase of the noise signal (by more than two orders of magnitude) in the vicinity of anti-crossing of the polariton branches. The effect is explained by nonlinear optical instability of the microcavity giving rise to the light-power-controlled amplification of the polarization noise signal. In the framework of the developed model of built-in amplifier, we also interpret the nontrivial spectral and intensity-related properties of the observed noise signal below the region of anti-crossing of polariton branches. The discovered effect of optically controllable amplification of broadband polarization signals in microcavities in the regime of optical instability may be of interest for detecting weak oscillations of optical anisotropy in fundamental research and for other applications in optical information processing

  14. Assessing Linearity of the Parasite Varroa destructor DNA Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODAGIU Antonia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of honeybee products make of disease prevention and control in honeybees one of the mainconcerns of beekeepers in the world. The PCR – RT reaction represents an alternative for amplification performed inorder to realize the Varroa destructor O. genotypization, very important stage in haoneybee resistance to parasitedescription and also in management of the treatments. The linearity data is a very important parameter and very usefulin determination of the amplification of the parasite DNA and success of the genotypization process. The amplificationefficiency was very satisfactory, fact revealed by the value of the regression line y = - 2.3103 * 26.552 together withcoefficient of determination equal (r2 = 0.9691, meaning that more than 96% of the reaction efficiency may beexplained by the process liniarity. The implementation of the RT-PCR method was successful and it represents apremise for validation process evolution.

  15. Narrow band amplification of light carrying orbital angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Borba, G C; Pruvost, L; Felinto, D; Tabosa, J W R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the amplification of an optical vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum via induced narrow Raman gain in an ensemble of cold cesium atoms. A 20\\% single-pass Raman gain of a weak vortex signal field is observed with a spectral width of order of 1 MHz, much smaller than the natural width, demonstrating that the amplification process preserves the phase structure of the vortex beam. The gain is observed in the degenerated two-level system associated with the hyperfine transition $6S_{1/2}(F=3)\\leftrightarrow 6P_{3/2}(F^{\\prime}=2)$ of cesium. Our experimental observations are explained with a simple theoretical model based on a three-level $\\Lambda$ system interacting coherently with the weak Laguerre-Gauss field and a strong coupling field, including an incoherent pumping rate between the two degenerate ground-states.

  16. Amplification, Decoherence, and the Acquisition of Information by Spin Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum Darwinism recognizes the role of the environment as a communication channel: Decoherence can selectively amplify information about the pointer states of a system of interest (preventing access to complementary information about their superpositions) and can make records of this information accessible to many observers. This redundancy explains the emergence of objective, classical reality in our quantum Universe. Here, we demonstrate that the amplification of information in realistic spin environments can be quantified by the quantum Chernoff information, which characterizes the distinguishability of partial records in individual environment subsystems. We show that, except for a set of initial states of measure zero, the environment always acquires redundant information. Moreover, the Chernoff information captures the rich behavior of amplification in both finite and infinite spin environments, from quadratic growth of the redundancy to oscillatory behavior. These results will considerably simplify experimental testing of quantum Darwinism, e.g., using nitrogen vacancies in diamond.

  17. Signal amplification in a qubit-resonator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system, when the resonator is driven by two signals. The interaction of the qubit with the high-amplitude driving we consider in terms of the qubit dressed states. Interaction of the dressed qubit with the second probing signal can essentially change the amplitude of this signal. We calculate the transmission amplitude of the probe signal through the resonator as a function of the qubit energy and the driving frequency detuning. The regions of increase and attenuation of the transmitted signal are calculated and demonstrated graphically. We present the influence of the signal parameters on the value of the amplification, and discuss the values of the qubit-resonator system parameters for an optimal amplification and attenuation of the weak probe signal.

  18. Spin noise amplification and giant noise in optical microcavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, I. I.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Kozlov, G. G.; Zapasskii, V. S. [Spin-Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kavokin, A. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Spin-Optics Laboratory, St. Petersburg State University, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lagoudakis, P. V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-14

    When studying the spin-noise-induced fluctuations of Kerr rotation in a quantum-well microcavity, we have found a dramatic increase of the noise signal (by more than two orders of magnitude) in the vicinity of anti-crossing of the polariton branches. The effect is explained by nonlinear optical instability of the microcavity giving rise to the light-power-controlled amplification of the polarization noise signal. In the framework of the developed model of built-in amplifier, we also interpret the nontrivial spectral and intensity-related properties of the observed noise signal below the region of anti-crossing of polariton branches. The discovered effect of optically controllable amplification of broadband polarization signals in microcavities in the regime of optical instability may be of interest for detecting weak oscillations of optical anisotropy in fundamental research and for other applications in optical information processing.

  19. Hyper dispersion pulse compressor for chirped pulse amplification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2011-11-29

    A grating pulse compressor configuration is introduced for increasing the optical dispersion for a given footprint and to make practical the application for chirped pulse amplification (CPA) to quasi-narrow bandwidth materials, such as Nd:YAG. The grating configurations often use cascaded pairs of gratings to increase angular dispersion an order of magnitude or more. Increased angular dispersion allows for decreased grating separation and a smaller compressor footprint.

  20. Swing amplification and global modes reciprocity in models with cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Polyachenko, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    Using 3D N-body simulations we analyse an onset of the bar in cuspy models, and argue that role of swing amplification is twofold. Amplified shot noise due to disc discreteness hampers bar formation, while induced resonance perturbations allow bar amplitude to overcome shots. A bar pattern speed and a growth rate obtained in N-body simulations agree well with global mode analysis.

  1. A new beam deflection angle amplification technique for mirage detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yarai, A.; Fukunaga, Y; Sakamoto, K; Nakanishi, T.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique has been developed for amplification of the photothermal beam deflection angle for mirage detection. This technique, based on a very simple operating principle, uses a cylindrical reflection mirror. The use of a new amplifier provided a signal-to-noise ratio approximately 10 times that obtained without the amplifier for equipment of the same size. By using the new amplifier, a mirage signal was obtained when a transistor array processed on a silicon wafer was measured.

  2. Rapid Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Ligase Chain Reaction Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, Fredy; Dominguez, José; Padilla, Eduardo; Manterola, José M.; Gazapo, Elena; Lonca, Joan; Matas, Lurdes; Hernandez, Agueda; Cardona, Pere Joan; Ausina, Vicente

    1998-01-01

    A rapid amplification-based test for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the LCx Mycobacterium tuberculosis Assay from Abbott Laboratories, was evaluated. Results from the LCx M. tuberculosis Assay were compared with those from culture and the final clinical diagnosis for each patient. A total of 526 nonrespiratory specimens from 492 patients were tested. The specimens included urine; feces; lymph node exudates; pleural, cerebrospinal, articular, and ascitic fluids; tissue biopsies;...

  3. Optical Amplification and Photosensitivity in Sol-Gel Based Waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Selvarajan, A; T. Srinivas

    2001-01-01

    The sol-gel process has emerged as an effective route for the fabrication of optical waveguides and guided wave devices and circuits. In particular, it is possible to incorporate active dopants like neodymium, erbium, and cesium for integrated optical active devices and circuits. In this paper, a review of recent research on active devices and circuits based on sol-gel process is made. Specific studies undertaken in our laboratory on optical amplification and photosensitivity characteristi...

  4. Whole genome amplification of DNA for genotyping pharmacogenetics candidate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh ePhilips

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification (WGA technologies can be used to amplify genomic DNA when only small amounts of DNA are available. The Multiple Displacement Amplification Phi polymerase based amplification has been shown to accurately amplify DNA for a variety of genotyping assays; however, it has not been tested for genotyping many of the clinically relevant genes important for pharmacogenetic studies, such as the cytochrome P450 genes, that are typically difficult to genotype due to multiple pseudogenes, copy number variations, and high similarity to other related genes. We evaluated whole genome amplified samples for Taqman™ genotyping of SNPs in a variety of pharmacogenetic genes. In 24 DNA samples from the Coriell human diversity panel, the call rates and concordance between amplified (~200-fold amplification and unamplified samples was 100% for two SNPs in CYP2D6 and one in ESR1. In samples from a breast cancer clinical trial (Trial 1, we compared the genotyping results in samples before and after WGA for four SNPs in CYP2D6, one SNP in CYP2C19, one SNP in CYP19A1, two SNPs in ESR1, and two SNPs in ESR2. The concordance rates were all >97%. Finally, we compared the allele frequencies of 143 SNPs determined in Trial 1 (whole genome amplified DNA to the allele frequencies determined in unamplified DNA samples from a separate trial (Trial 2 that enrolled a similar population. The call rates and allele frequencies between the two trials were 98% and 99.7%, respectively. We conclude that the whole genome amplified DNA is suitable for Taqman™ genotyping for a wide variety of pharmacogenetically relevant SNPs.

  5. Mismatch characteristics of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Ondřej; Turčičová, Hana; Divoký, Martin; Huynh, Jaroslav; Straka, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), 1-7. ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0814; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : phase matching * phase mismatch * beam mismatch * broadband amplification * parametric amplifiers * OPCPA * iodine laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 2.458, year: 2014

  6. Integrated Microfluidic Nucleic Acid Isolation, Isothermal Amplification, and Amplicon Quantification

    OpenAIRE

    Mauk, Michael G.; Changchun Liu; Jinzhao Song; Bau, Haim H

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic components and systems for rapid (<60 min), low-cost, convenient, field-deployable sequence-specific nucleic acid-based amplification tests (NAATs) are described. A microfluidic point-of-care (POC) diagnostics test to quantify HIV viral load from blood samples serves as a representative and instructive example to discuss the technical issues and capabilities of “lab on a chip” NAAT devices. A portable, miniaturized POC NAAT with performance comparable to conventional PCR (poly...

  7. MYC Amplification in Angiosarcoma Arising from an Arteriovenous Graft Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Paral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcoma arising in association with an arteriovenous graft (AVG or fistula is a unique clinicopathologic scenario that appears to be gaining recognition in the literature. Among reported cases, none has described high-level MYC gene amplification, a genetic aberration that is increasingly unifying the various clinicopathologic subdivisions of angiosarcoma. We therefore report the MYC gene status in a case of angiosarcoma arising at an AVG site.

  8. Risk Types and Risk Amplification of Online Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Gujun Yan

    2013-01-01

    Online finance not only has the same risks as the traditional financial sector, but also brings new types of risks and the amplification effect of the financial risks. In the circumstances of online finance, risk correlation between countries is increasing due to worldwide mutual penetration of financial businesses and customers. Facing the risk test of the Internet finance, risk control and management must be strengthened in order to achieve its sustainable developments.

  9. Uncertainty of site amplification derived from ground response analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, K; Stewart, JP

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific geotechnical ground response analyses (GRAs) are typically performed to evaluate stress and strain demands within soil profiles and/or to improve the estimation of site response relative to generic site terms from empirical prediction equations. Implementation of GRA results in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) requires knowledge of the mean and standard deviation of site amplification from GRA. We provide expressions for evaluating within-event standard deviations of...

  10. Selective inhibition of DNA amplification in nonadhering Mycoplasma pneumoniae cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigangirova, N.A.; Solov`eva, S.V.; Rakovskaya, I.V. [Gamaleya Scientific Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Inhibition of amplification of various genome regions of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was observed in the polymerase chain reaction, and was dependent on cultivation conditions. A protein stably associated with DNA is responsible for the inhibitory effect. It is assumed that when the protein selectively associates with separate DNA regions, it can inhibit genes encoding pathogenicity factors, thus promoting mycoplasma transformation into persistent variants. 16 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Risk communication and the social amplification of risk

    OpenAIRE

    Renn, Ortwin

    1991-01-01

    Risk communication is a novel concept in the scientific pursuit to understand and analyze risk related decisions and behavior in modem society. But the new term has only changed the focus of attention from a static description of what risk means for different communities to a dynamic analysis on how these communities exchange information about risk and adjust their behavior.The concept of social amplification of risk provides a framework for the analysis of communication as well as other soci...

  12. Polyethersulfone improves isothermal nucleic acid amplification compared to current paper-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnes, J C; Rodriguez, N M; Liu, L; Klapperich, C M

    2016-04-01

    Devices based on rapid, paper-based, isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques have recently emerged with the potential to fill a growing need for highly sensitive point-of-care diagnostics throughout the world. As this field develops, such devices will require optimized materials that promote amplification and sample preparation. Herein, we systematically investigated isothermal nucleic acid amplification in materials currently used in rapid diagnostics (cellulose paper, glass fiber, and nitrocellulose) and two additional porous membranes with upstream sample preparation capabilities (polyethersulfone and polycarbonate). We compared amplification efficiency from four separate DNA and RNA targets (Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Influenza A H1N1) within these materials using two different isothermal amplification schemes, helicase dependent amplification (tHDA) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and traditional PCR. We found that the current paper-based diagnostic membranes inhibited nucleic acid amplification when compared to membrane-free controls; however, polyethersulfone allowed for efficient amplification in both LAMP and tHDA reactions. Further, observing the performance of traditional PCR amplification within these membranes was not predicative of their effects on in situ LAMP and tHDA. Polyethersulfone is a new material for paper-based nucleic acid amplification, yet provides an optimal support for rapid molecular diagnostics for point-of-care applications. PMID:26906904

  13. Three-dimensional topographic amplification of seismic motion: Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimaki, D.; Mohammadi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Topography effects are associated with the presence of strong topographic relief; documented observations during strong seismic events have shown that structures on the tops of hills, ridges, and canyons had suffered greater damage than similar structures at the hill bases or on level ground. While there is qualitative agreement between theory and observations on topography effects, there is clear quantitative discrepancy: numerical predictions of crest-to-base amplification factors rarely exceed the value of 2, while amplification values observed in the field are as high as 10. We here investigate the focusing and scattering of seismic waves in 3D features by means of a systematic parametric study of the seismic response of idealized geometries on the surface of homogeneous elastic half space using finite differences, to quantify the role of geometry, material properties and ground motion characteristics in the predicted ground surface response. We specifically focus on pyramid (convex) geometries and elastic homogeneous material behavior, and use Ricker wavelets as vertical and oblique incident pulses on ground surface. Results are compared to analytical solutions and thereafter extended to account for soil layering, nonlinear response and broadband incident motion characteristics. We then develop geometry, material and ground motion dependent dimensionless amplification factors that can multiply flat ground surface response spectra and account for topography effects as part of engineering design code provisions.omparison of the scattered wavefield complexity emanating at the vertex and toe of a 45deg single slope upon incidence of a vertical, a forward and a backward oblique wave.

  14. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Catherine B; Tanner, Nathan A; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2012-01-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

  15. Field and current amplification in the SSPX spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from experiments relating to magnetic field generation and current amplification in the SSPX spheromak. The SSPX spheromak plasma is driven by DC coaxial helicity injection using a 2MJ capacitor bank. Peak toroidal plasma currents of up to 0.7MA and peak edge poloidal fields of 0.3T are produced; lower current discharges can be sustained up to 3.5msec. When edge magnetic fluctuations are reduced below 1% by driving the plasma near threshold, it is possible to produce plasmas with Te > 150eV, e>∼4% and core χe∼30m2/s. Helicity balance for these plasmas suggests that sheath dissipation can be significant, pointing to the importance of maximizing the voltage on the coaxial injector. For most operational modes we find a stiff relationship between peak spheromak field and injector current, and little correlation with plasma temperature, which suggests that other processes than ohmic dissipation may limit field amplification. However, slowing spheromak buildup by limiting the initial current pulse increases the ratio of toroidal current to injected current and points to new operating regimes with more favorable current amplification. (author)

  16. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine B Poole

    Full Text Available In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.

  17. Raman amplification in plasma: thermal effects and damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J. P.; Ersfeld, B.; Raj, G.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    The role of thermal effects on Raman amplification are investigated. The direct effects of damping on the process are found to be limited, leading only to a decrease from the peak output intensity predicted by cold plasma models. However, the shift in plasma resonance due to the Bohm-Gross shift can have a much larger influence, changing the required detuning between pump and probe and introducing an effective chirp through heating of the plasma by the pump pulse. This "thermal chirp" can both reduce the efficiency of the interaction and alter the evolution of the amplified probe, avoiding the increase in length observed in the linear regime without significant pump depletion. The influence of this chirp can be reduced by using a smaller ratio of laser frequency to plasma frequency, which simultaneously increases the growth rate of the probe and decreases the shift in plasma resonance. As such, thermal effects only serve to suppress the amplification of noise at low growth rates. The use of a chirped pump pulse can be used to suppress noise for higher growth rates, and has a smaller impact on the peak output intensity for seeded amplification. For the parameter ranges considered, Landau damping was found to be negligible, as Landau damping rates are typically small, and the low collisionality of the plasma causes the process to saturate quickly.

  18. Generation of recombinant pestiviruses using a full genome amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Uttenthal, Åse; Depner, Klaus; Schirrmeyer, Horst; Beer, Martin

    pestiviruses. Methods Pestivirus genomes were amplified from either total RNA preparations using long RT-PCR or from infectious cDNA clones using long PCR. Viral RNA was extracted from cell cultures inoculated with pestivirus (e.g. BDV “Gifhorn” or BVDV “CP7”) using a combined Trizol/RNeasy protocol. Total RNA......-length RT-PCR amplicon demonstrating that long RT-PCR can be used for direct generation of an infectious pestivirus. The strategy is not limited to amplification of BDV “Gifhorn”, but can be further utilized for amplification of a diverse selection of pestivirus strains and for the generation of modified...... was reverse transcribed to cDNA at 50C for 90 minutes using SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen). Full-length PCR amplification was performed using primers specific for the extreme 5’- and 3’-ends of the viral genomes. A T7 promoter was incorporated in the 5’-primers for direct in vitro...

  19. Device-independent randomness amplification with a single device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expansion and amplification of weak randomness with untrusted quantum devices has recently become a very fruitful topic of research. Here we contribute with a procedure for amplifying a single weak random source using tri-partite GHZ-type entangled states. If the quality of the source reaches a fixed threshold R=log2⁡(10), perfect random bits can be produced. This technique can be used to extract randomness from sources that can't be extracted neither classically, nor by existing procedures developed for Santha–Vazirani sources. Our protocol works with a single fault-free device decomposable into three non-communicating parts, that is repeatedly reused throughout the amplification process. - Highlights: • We propose a protocol for device independent randomness amplification. • Our protocol repeatedly re-uses a single device decomposable into three parts. • Weak random sources with min-entropy rate greater than 1/4 log2⁡(10) can be amplified. • Security against all-quantum adversaries is achieved

  20. Amplification of seismic ground motion in the Tunis basin: Numerical BEM simulations vs experimental evidences

    CERN Document Server

    Kham, Marc; Bouden-Romdhane, Nejla

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at the analysis of seismic wave amplification in a deep alluvial basin in the city of Tunis in Tunisia. This sedimentary basin is 3000m wide and 350m deep. Since the seismic hazard is significant in this area, the depth of the basin and the strong impedance ratio raise the need for an accurate estimation of seismic motion amplification. Various experimental investigations were performed in previous studies to characterize site effects. The Boundary Element Method is considered herein to assess the parameter sensitivity of the amplification process and analyse the prevailing phenomena. The various frequencies of maximum amplification are correctly estimated by the BEM simulations. The maximum amplification level observed in the field is also well retrieved by the numerical simulations but, due to the sensitivity of the location of maximum amplification in space, the overall maximum amplification has to be considered. The influence of the wave-field incidence and material damping is also discuss...

  1. Screening of large genomic deletions and duplications in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β gene in patients presented with a clinical phenotype consistent with maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5%中国成年特殊类型糖尿病人群中肝细胞核因子1β基因大片段缺失、重复筛查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗伊; 张蓉; 胡承; 陆惠娟; 梅长林; 王从容; 贾伟平

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解上海及其周边地区汉族特殊类型糖尿病人群中肝细胞核因子1β(HNF-1β)基因大片段缺失、重复的发生情况.方法 选取2003年1月至2006年12月在上海市糖尿病研究所住院治疗的糖尿病患者104例,其中男74例,女30例,平均年龄(65±14)岁.患者酪氨酸磷酸酶样蛋白抗体和谷氨酸脱羧酶65抗体检测阴性,并且存在肾脏结构异常或肾功能受损.剔除其中3例存在HNF-1β基因点突变患者.其余101例患者应用多重链接探针扩增技术进行HNF-1β基因大片段缺失、重复筛查.结果 在1例多发肾囊肿伴右肾发育不全、双子宫、胰腺体尾部萎缩的患者中见到HNF-1β整个基因杂合性缺失.结论 HNF-1β基因大片段缺失在中国上海及其周边地区汉族特殊类型糖尿病人群中发生率较低,约占临床疑似HNF-1β基因突变糖尿病表现人群的1%,且大片段杂合性缺失患者的临床表现与点突变携带者相似.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of large genomic deletions and duplications in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β(HNF-1β) gene in patients presented with a clinical phenotype consistent with maturity onset diabetes of the young type 5(MODY5) in Shanghai and nearby regions.Methods A total of 104 diabetic patients (74 males and 30 females,aged (65± 14) years) with renal structural abnormalities and/or non-diabetic renal dysfunction were recruited from January 2003 to December 2006 inpatient database of Shanghai Diabetes Institute.Three patients carrying HNF-1β gene mutations were excluded from the study.One hundred and one patients without mutations were screened for large genomic deletions and duplications in the HNF-1β gene by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification(MLPA).Results A heterozygous whole HNF-1β gene deletion was found in one patient who had renal cysts,renal dysplasia,uterus didelphys and pancreatic atrophy.Conclusion The prevalence of large genomic deletions

  2. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  3. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  4. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Controversies in Screening Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Monique; Jeudy, Myrlene; Pearlman, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    The utility and effectiveness of screening mammography in diagnosing breast cancer at earlier stages and reducing disease-specific mortality remain controversial especially as to when to start and stop routine mammographic screening, and whether mammograms should be performed annually or biennially in average-risk women. This manuscript will analyze the available moderate and high-quality data to analyze both the benefits (lives saved and life-years saved) and inconveniences/harms (additional views, extra biopsies/overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of ductal carcinoma in situ) of different mammography screening guidelines to assist the practitioner in counseling their patients in clinical practice. PMID:27101240

  6. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  7. Screening for asbestbetingede sygdomme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    Screening programs for early detection of asbestos-related cancer have been considered. Conventional X-ray, computed tomography of the thorax, and the biomarkers osteopontin and mesothelin have been critically reviewed in the literature, together with survival data from screening programs in...... asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  8. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  9. Rapid Amplification of Plasmid and Phage DNA Using Phi29 DNA Polymerase and Multiply-Primed Rolling Circle Amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Frank B.; Nelson, John R.; Giesler, Theresa L.; Lasken, Roger S.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a simple method of using rolling circle amplification to amplify vector DNA such as M13 or plasmid DNA from single colonies or plaques. Using random primers and φ29 DNA polymerase, circular DNA templates can be amplified 10,000-fold in a few hours. This procedure removes the need for lengthy growth periods and traditional DNA isolation methods. Reaction products can be used directly for DNA sequencing after phosphatase treatment to inactivate unincorporated nucleotides. Amplified ...

  10. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification: rapid visual and real-time methods for detection of genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Singh, Monika; Morisset, Dany; Sood, Payal; Zel, Jana

    2013-11-27

    A rapid, reliable, and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system was developed for screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The optimized LAMP assays using designed primers target commonly employed promoters, i.e., Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S (P-35S) and Figwort Mosaic Virus promoter (P-FMV), and marker genes, i.e., aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase (aadA), neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII), and β-glucuronidase (uidA). The specificity and performance of the end-point and real-time LAMP assays were confirmed using eight genetically modified (GM) cotton events on four detection systems, employing two chemistries. LAMP assays on the isothermal real-time system were found to be most sensitive, detecting up to four target copies, within 35 min. The LAMP assays herein presented using alternate detection systems can be effectively utilized for rapid and cost-effective screening of the GM status of a sample, irrespective of the crop species or GM trait. These assays coupled with a fast and simple DNA extraction method may further facilitate on-site GMO screening. PMID:24188249

  11. Content adaptive screen image scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhai, Yao; Wang, Qifei; Lu, Yan; Li, Shipeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient content adaptive screen image scaling scheme for the real-time screen applications like remote desktop and screen sharing. In the proposed screen scaling scheme, a screen content classification step is first introduced to classify the screen image into text and pictorial regions. Afterward, we propose an adaptive shift linear interpolation algorithm to predict the new pixel values with the shift offset adapted to the content type of each pixel. The shift offse...

  12. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  13. Signal amplification in electrochemical detection of buckwheat allergenic protein using field effect transistor biosensor by introduction of anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens, especially buckwheat proteins, sometimes induce anaphylactic shock in patients after ingestion. Development of a simple and rapid screening method based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor for food allergens in food facilities or products is in demand. In this study, we achieved the FET detection of a buckwheat allergenic protein (BWp16, which is not charged enough to be electrically detected by FET biosensors, by introducing additional negative charges from anionic surfactants to the target proteins. A change in the FET characteristics reflecting surface potential caused by the adsorption of target charged proteins was observed when the target sample was coupled with the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS, while no significant response was detected without any surfactant treatment. It was suggested that the surfactant conjugated with the protein could be useful for the charge amplification of the target proteins. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the SDS-coupled proteins were successfully captured by the receptors immobilized on the sensing surface. Additionally, we obtained the FET responses at various concentrations of BWp16 ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL. These results suggest that a signal amplification method for FET biosensing is useful for allergen detection in the food industry.

  14. Competitive amplification of differentially melting amplicons (CADMA improves KRAS hotspot mutation testing in colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Lasse

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases traditionally categorized according to tissue of origin. However, even among patients with the same cancer subtype the cellular alterations at the molecular level are often very different. Several new therapies targeting specific molecular changes found in individual patients have initiated the era of personalized therapy and significantly improved patient care. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC a selected group of patients with wild-type KRAS respond to antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. Testing for KRAS mutations is now required prior to anti-EGFR treatment, however, less sensitive methods based on conventional PCR regularly fail to detect KRAS mutations in clinical samples. Methods We have developed sensitive and specific assays for detection of the seven most common KRAS mutations based on a novel methodology named Competitive Amplification of Differentially Melting Amplicons (CADMA. The clinical applicability of these assays was assessed by analyzing 100 colorectal cancer samples, for which KRAS mutation status has been evaluated by the commercially available TheraScreen® KRAS mutation kit. Results The CADMA assays were sensitive to at least 0.5% mutant alleles in a wild-type background when using 50 nanograms of DNA in the reactions. Consensus between CADMA and the TheraScreen kit was observed in 96% of the colorectal cancer samples. In cases where disagreement was observed the CADMA result could be confirmed by a previously published assay based on TaqMan probes and by fast COLD-PCR followed by Sanger sequencing. Conclusions The high analytical sensitivity and specificity of CADMA may increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of KRAS mutation testing in mCRC patients.

  15. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Lab Tests Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  16. Quadruple screen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... defects of the spinal column and brain (called neural tube defects). This test is a screening test, so it ... Absence of part of the brain and skull (anencephaly) Defect in the baby's intestines or other nearby ...

  17. Congenital hypothyroidism: Screening dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena P Desai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary sporadic congenital hypothyroidism (CH is the most common cause of hypothyroidism infancy early childhood in iodine sufficient region. Screening for neonatal CH began in 1970s. The rationale and reason for neonatal screening for CH (NSCH are well established. It is mandatory in most developed countries along with the screen for metabolic disorder. The possibility of measuring TSH and thyroid hormones in cord blood paved the way for newborn screening (NS for CH. Worldwide it is estimated that 25% of the live born population of 130 million babies undergo NSCH. Klein et al., by 1972 had shown improved CNS prognosis in CH treated by age 3 months. NSCH has largely eradicated the severe irreversible neurodevelopmental damage and reversed the chances of growth failure in infancy and early childhood.

  18. Health Screenings at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackboard may not know that she is seeing differently from anyone else. Nevertheless, even mild deficiencies of sight can significantly affect a child's ability to learn. In some states these screening tests are mandated ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  20. Screen time and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are ... over. Suggest other activities, such as family board games, puzzles, ... active. Be a good role model as a parent. Decrease your own ...

  1. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  2. Anal screening cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiman Gladwyn

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This issue of CytoJournal contains an article on screening for anal intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk male patients. This accompanying Editorial focuses on current understanding of this relatively new disease entity, with insights as to the potential role of screening cytopathology in the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical management of this HIV and HPV related anal lesion, which predominates in male patients living long-term with AIDS. Mention is made of techniques of obtaining samples, methods of preparation, and morphologic classification. Issues of anoscopic confirmation, as well as topical and surgical management are emphasized. The similarity of initial experiences in anal screening to problems encountered early in cervical cancer screening programs several decades ago, are highlighted.

  3. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  4. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  5. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  6. Screening for Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t know which people with early signs of disease will develop serious vision problems or blindness. There are two major ... for advice about glaucoma screening. Glaucoma is a serious disease that affects the health and quality of life ...

  7. Screening efficiency and screen length of a linear vibrating screen using DEM 3D simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guifeng; Tong Xin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of screen length on the screening efficiency of particles is studied under various single parameter conditions including frequency,amplitude,vibration angle,and screen inclination.The Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to simulate the screening process.A functional relationship between screening efficiency and screen length is established.It is shown that screening efficiency and screen length have a complicated exponential relationship.Relationships between them are profoundly discussed and conclusions are easily drawn:low values of the parameters do not benefit screening; screening efficiency generally increases with screen length; screening efficiency reaches a plateau when these parameters are in range frequently encountered in practical applications.

  8. Green screen -tekniikka

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkko-Jaakkola, Aappo

    2013-01-01

    Elokuvateollisuudessa syntyi tarve kahden tai useamman videokuvan tai elementin toisiinsa yhdistämiselle, kun haluttiin toteuttaa jotain, mitä normaalisti kuvaamalla ei voitu toteuttaa. Green screen -tekniikan avulla on mahdollista erottaa kuvattava kohde taustastaan ja lisätä kohde johonkin toiseen videokuvaan. Tällä tavoin mahdottomia kuvaustilanteita tai -paikkoja voidaan toteuttaa tietokoneavusteisesti. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on tutkia, miten Green screen -tekniikka on kehi...

  9. Colony screening by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Matt Lewis ### Notes This is the fastest way to screen bacterial colonies. Our PCR machine takes 24 tubes so I routinely screen 22 colonies + 1 negative + 1 positive control. ### Choosing the primers Ideally you want a primer pair that can only work if the correct construct is present eg. a vector flanking primer and a gene specific primer. However, this may not allow you a positive control (essential) so you might have to use both vector flanking primers instead. If y...

  10. SYARIAH COMPLIANT SCREENING PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mondher bellalah; Asma Abdul Rehman; Omar Masood

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the shariaa compliant screening methods that are practiced by prominent Islamic finance users in terms of qualitative and quantitative screening. This research uses the comparative analysis to recognize the similarities and differences of methods among 15 users. Analysis reveals that there is a need to set the universal standards not only for the investors but also to discourage the misunderstanding between investors and scholars. After analysis of qualitative and quanti...

  11. Quantification of Fewer than Ten Copies of a DNA Biomarker without Amplification or Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youngkyu; Lee, Donggyu; Roy, Dhruvajyoti; Park, Joon Won

    2016-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive diagnosis technique for detection of nucleic acids and for monitoring residual disease; however, PCR can be unreliable for samples containing very few target molecules. Here, we describe a quantification method, using force-distance (FD) curve based atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect a target DNA bound to small (1.4-1.9 μm diameter) probe DNA spots, allowing mapping of entire spots to nanometer resolution. Using a synthetic BCR-ABL fusion gene sequence target, we examined samples containing between one and 10 target copies. A high degree of correlation (r(2) = 0.994) between numbers of target copies and detected probe clusters was observed, and the approach could detect the BCR-ABL biomarker when only a single copy was present, although multiple screens were required. Our results clearly demonstrate that FD curve-based imaging is suitable for quantitative analysis of fewer than 10 copies of DNA biomarkers without amplification, modification, or labeling. PMID:27175474

  12. Allele-specific enzymatic amplification of. beta. -globin genomic DNA for diagnosis of sickle cell anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, D.Y.; Ugozzoli, L.; Pal, B.K.; Wallace, B. (Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    A rapid nonradioactive approach to the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia is described based on an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR). This method allows direct detection of the normal or the sickle cell {beta}-globin allele in genomic DNA without additional steps of probe hybridization, ligation, or restriction enzyme cleavage. Two allele-specific oligonucleotide primers, one specific for the sickle cell allele and one specific for the normal allele, together with another primer complementary to both alleles were used in the polymerase chain reaction with genomic DNA templates. The allele-specific primers differed from each other in their terminal 3{prime} nucleotide. Under the proper annealing temperature and polymerase chain reaction conditions, these primers only directed amplification on their complementary allele. In a single blind study of DNA samples from 12 individuals, this method correctly and unambiguously allowed for the determination of the genotypes with no false negatives or positives. If ASPCR is able to discriminate all allelic variation (both transition and transversion mutations), this method has the potential to be a powerful approach for genetic disease diagnosis, carrier screening, HLA typing, human gene mapping, forensics, and paternity testing.

  13. Directed gene copy number amplification in Pichia pastoris by vector integration into the ribosomal DNA locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Hans; Mecklenbräuker, Astrid; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2009-12-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host organism for heterologous protein production. One of the basic steps for strain improvement is to ensure a sufficient level of transcription of the heterologous gene, based on promoter strength and gene copy number. To date, high-copy-number integrants of P. pastoris are achievable only by screening of random events or by cloning of gene concatemers. Methods for rapid and reliable multicopy integration of the expression cassette are therefore desirable. Here we present such a method based on vector integration into the rDNA locus and post-transformational vector amplification by repeated selection on increased antibiotic concentrations. Data are presented for two exemplary products: human serum albumin, which is secreted into the supernatant, and human superoxide dismutase, which is accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cells. The striking picture evolving is that intracellular protein production is tightly correlated with gene copy number, while use of the secretory pathway introduces a high clonal variability and the correlation with gene copy number is valid only for low gene copy numbers. PMID:19799640

  14. A method for gene amplification and simultaneous deletion in Corynebacterium glutamicum genome without any genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous replacement of a given gene by a target gene, leaving no genetic markers, has been developed. The method is based on insertional inactivation and double-crossover homologous recombination. With this method, the lysC(T311I), fbp and ddh genes were inserted into Corynebacterium glutamicum genome, and the pck, alaT and avtA genes were deleted. Mobilizable plasmids with lysC(T311I), fbp and ddh cassettes and two homologous arms on the ends of pck, alaT and avtA were constructed, and then transformed into C. glutamicum. The target-expression cassettes were inserted in the genome via the first homologous recombination, and the genetic markers were removed via the second recombination. The target-transformants were sequentially screened from kanamycin-resistance and sucrose-resistance plates. The enzyme activities of transformants were stably maintained for 30 generations under non-selective culture conditions, suggesting that the integrated cassettes in host were successfully expressed and maintained as stable chromosomal insertions in C. glutamicum. The target-transformants were used to optimize the l-lysine production, showing that the productions were strongly increased because the selected genes were closely linked to l-lysine production. In short, this method can be used to construct amino acid high-producing strains with unmarked gene amplification and simultaneous deletion in genome. PMID:24613758

  15. The detection of Plasmodiophora brassicae using loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaczmarek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodiophora brassicae, the cause of clubroot, is a very serious problem preventing from successful and profitable cultivation of oilseed rape in Poland. The pathogen was found in all main growing areas of oilseed rape; it also causes considerable problems in growing of vegetable brassicas. The aim of this work was to elaborate fast, cheap and reliable screening method to detect P. brassicae. To achieve this aim the Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP technique has been elaborated. The set of three primer pairs was designed using LAMP software. The detection was performed with the GspSSD polymerase, isolated from bacteria Geobacillus sp., with strand displacement activity. DNA extraction from clubbed roots obtained from farmers’ fields of oilseed rape infected by P. brassicae was done using a modified CTAB method. The reaction was performed for 60 min at 62oC. The visual detection was done using CFX96 Real Time PCR Detection System (BioRad or Gerie II Amplicatior (Optigen. The detection with LAMP proved its usefulness; it was easy, fast and accurate and independent of plant age. The detection limit was 5 spores per 1 µl of the spore suspension, so LAMP was less sensitive than quantitative PCR tests reported in the literature. However, the method is cheap and simple, so it is a good alternative, when it comes to practical use and the assessment of numerous samples.

  16. Self-organized critical noise amplification in human closed loop control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Patzelt

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available When humans perform closed loop control tasks like in upright standing or while balancing a stick, their behavior exhibits non-Gaussian fluctuations with long-tailed distributions. The origin of these fluctuations is not known. Here, we investigate if they are caused by selforganized critical noise amplification which emerges in control systems when an unstable dynamics becomes stabilized by an adaptive controller that has finite memory. Starting from this theory, we formulate a realistic model of adaptive closed loop control by including constraints on memory and delays. To test this model, we performed psychophysical experiments where humans balanced an unstable target on a screen. It turned out that the model reproduces the long tails of the distributions together with other characteristic features of the human control dynamics. Fine-tuning the model to match the experimental dynamics identifies parameters characterizing a subject’s control system which can be independently tested. Our results suggest that the nervous system involved in closed loop motor control nearly optimally estimates system parameters on-line from very short epochs of past observations.

  17. Specific amplification of iron receptor genes in Xylella fastidiosa strains from different hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Teresa Hansen Pacheco

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial production of siderophores may involve specific genes related to nonribosomal peptide and polyketide biosynthesis, which have not been fully identified in the genome of Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c. However, a search for siderophore-related genes in strain 9a5c indicated five membrane receptors, including siderophore, ferrichrome-iron and hemin receptors. All these biomolecules are thought to be associated with iron transport and utilization. Eighty isolates obtained from citrus orchards containing trees that developed citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC were screened for siderophore production. The results demonstrated that only 10 of the isolates did not produce siderophores. Additional strains obtained from coffee, almond, mulberry, elm, ragweed, periwinkle and grape also infected by X. fastidiosa were also shown by the chromeazurol bioassay to produce siderophores. In order to correlate siderophore production with the presence of siderophore-related genes, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed using specific primers for the catechol-type ferric enterobactin receptor (pfeA and the hydroxamate-type ferrisiderophore receptor (fiuA genes of strain 9a5c. The PCR results confirmed our hypothesis by demonstrating that amplification products were detected in all strains except for those isolates that did not produce siderophores.

  18. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  20. MET overexpression and gene amplification in NSCLC: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landi L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorenza Landi, Gabriele Minuti, Armida D'Incecco, Jessica Salvini, Federico CappuzzoMedical Oncology Department, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Ospedale Civile, Livorno, ItalyAbstract: The transmembrane tyrosine kinase mesenchymal-epidermal transition (MET receptor and its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor, also known as scatter factor, have recently been identified as novel promising targets in several human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Amplification, mutation, or overexpression of the MET gene can result in aberrant activation of the MET axis, leading to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastasis, and neoangiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that interfering with the MET/hepatocyte growth factor pathway could represent a potential antitumor strategy. While the role of MET mutations in NSCLC is not as yet fully understood, retrospective studies have shown that an increased MET gene copy number is a negative prognostic factor. In NSCLC, amplification of the MET gene is a relatively rare event, occurring in approximately 4% of patients not previously exposed to systemic therapies and in up to 20% of patients with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In preclinical models, the presence of MET amplification is a predictor of high sensitivity to anti-MET compounds, and several agents have entered in clinical trials for patients having advanced disease, with promising results. The aim of the present review is to summarize available data on the role of MET in NSCLC and to describe therapeutic strategies under investigation.Keywords: mesenchymal-epidermal transition, hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor receptor, non-small cell lung cancer

  1. Sisyphus cooling and amplification by a superconducting qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently superconducting qubits have been shown to act as artificial two-level atoms, demonstrating many different quantum effects known in quantum optics. Coupling such qubits to resonators is quite natural extension of this analogy. Similar to laser cooling of the atomic motion we demonstrate here Sisyphus cooling of a low frequency LC oscillator coupled to a near-resonantly driven flux qubit. The analogy to the quantum optics is obvious: the LC oscillator plays the role of the mechanical degree of freedom of an atom, while the qubit mimics the electronic, laser driven, transition. We also demonstrate the counterpart of the Sisyphus cooling, namely, Sisyphus amplification

  2. High power amplification of a tailored-pulse fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, Julien; Sangla, Damien; Caplette, Stéphane; Boula-Picard, Reynald; Drolet, Mathieu; Reid, Benoit; Salin, François

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate the amplification of a 1064nm pulse-programmable fiber laser with Large Pitch Rod-Type Fibers of various Mode field diameters from 50 to 70 μm. We have developed a high power fiber amplifier at 1064nm delivering up to 100W/1mJ at 15ns pulses and 30W/300μJ at 2ns with linearly polarized and diffraction limited output beam (M²LBO crystals leading to 50W at 532nm and 25W at 355nm with a diffraction limited output. Similar experiments performed at 1032nm are also reported.

  3. Simultaneous amplification and attenuation in isotropic chiral materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-05-01

    The electromagnetic field phasors in an isotropic chiral material (ICM) are superpositions of two Beltrami fields of different handedness. Application of the Bruggeman homogenization formalism to two-component composite materials delivers ICMs wherein Beltrami fields of one handedness attenuate whereas Beltrami fields of the other handedness amplify. One component material is a dissipative ICM, the other an active dielectric material. The range of the volume fraction of the active component material for which simultaneous amplification and attenuation is exhibited decreases—but does not vanish—as the ICM component becomes more dissipative and as its chirality parameter reduces in magnitude.

  4. The efficiency of Raman amplification in the wavebreaking regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compare previous analytic predictions, Vlasov-Maxwell simulations, and particle-in-cell results with a new set of comprehensive one and two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in an effort to clarify apparent discrepancies between the predictions of different models for the efficiency of Raman amplification in the wavebreaking regime. We find reasonable agreement between our particle-in-cell simulations and previous results from Vlasov-Maxwell simulations and analytic work, suggesting a monotonic decrease in conversion efficiency for increased pump intensities past the wavebreaking threshold

  5. Parametric amplification of a chirped pulse in an optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPCPA (Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification) technique is used in the field of powerful lasers for it enables us to get ultra-short pulses with a reduced optical noise. We have shown that we can replace the massive optical non-linear crystals used in this technique by optical silicon fibers. First, we have made a basic demonstration at the wavelength of 1.55 μm in which a picosecond-long pulse has been amplified by 25 decibels without undergoing any spectral changes. The use of micro-structured optical fibers has allowed us to adapt this method to the wavelength of power laser lines. (A.C.)

  6. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Boyle

    Full Text Available Improved access to effective tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB has been designated a public health priority by the World Health Organisation. In high burden TB countries nucleic acid based TB tests have been restricted to centralised laboratories and specialised research settings. Requirements such as a constant electrical supply, air conditioning and skilled, computer literate operators prevent implementation of such tests in many settings. Isothermal DNA amplification technologies permit the use of simpler, less energy intensive detection platforms more suited to low resource settings that allow the accurate diagnosis of a disease within a short timeframe. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA is a rapid, low temperature isothermal DNA amplification reaction. We report here RPA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC DNA in <20 minutes at 39 °C. Assays for two MTC specific targets were investigated, IS6110 and IS1081. When testing purified MTC genomic DNA, limits of detection of 6.25 fg (IS6110 and 20 fg (IS1081were consistently achieved. When testing a convenience sample of pulmonary specimens from suspected TB patients, RPA demonstrated superior accuracy to indirect fluorescence microscopy. Compared to culture, sensitivities for the IS1081 RPA and microscopy were 91.4% (95%CI: 85, 97.9 and 86.1% (95%CI: 78.1, 94.1 respectively (n = 71. Specificities were 100% and 88.6% (95% CI: 80.8, 96.1 respectively. For the IS6110 RPA and microscopy sensitivities of 87.5% (95%CI: 81.7, 93.2 and 70.8% (95%CI: 62.9, 78.7 were obtained (n = 90. Specificities were 95.4 (95% CI: 92.3,98.1 and 88% (95% CI: 83.6, 92.4 respectively. The superior specificity of RPA for detecting tuberculosis was due to the reduced ability of fluorescence microscopy to distinguish Mtb complex from other acid fast bacteria. The rapid nature of the RPA assay and its low energy requirement compared to other amplification technologies suggest RPA-based TB

  7. Control of Brillouin short-pulse seed amplification by chirping the pump pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D–40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Seed amplification via Brillouin backscattering of a long pump pulse is considered. Similar to Raman amplification, several obstructive effects may occur during short-pulse Brillouin amplification. One is the spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump before interacting with the seed. Preforming the plasma and/or chirping the pump will reduce unwanted pump backscattering. Optimized regions for low-loss pump propagation were proposed already in conjunction with Raman seed amplification. Hence, the influence of the chirp of the pump during Brillouin interaction with the seed becomes important and will be considered here. Both, the linear as well as the nonlinear evolution phases of the seed caused by Brillouin amplification under the action of a chirped pump are investigated. The amplification rate as well as the seed profiles are presented as function of the chirping rate. Also the dependence of superradiant scaling rates on the chirp parameter is discussed.

  8. Highly parallel and short-acting amplification with locus-specific primers to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms by the DigiTag2 assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Nishida

    Full Text Available The DigiTag2 assay enables analysis of a set of 96 SNPs using Kapa 2GFast HotStart DNA polymerase with a new protocol that has a total running time of about 7 hours, which is 6 hours shorter than the previous protocol. Quality parameters (conversion rate, call rate, reproducibility and concordance were at the same levels as when genotype calls were acquired using the previous protocol. Multiplex PCR with 192 pairs of locus-specific primers was available for target preparation in the DigiTag2 assay without the optimization of reaction conditions, and quality parameters had the same levels as those acquired with 96-plex PCR. The locus-specific primers were able to achieve sufficient (concentration of target amplicon ≥5 nM and specific (concentration of unexpected amplicons <2 nM amplification within 2 hours, were also able to achieve detectable amplifications even when working in a 96-plex or 192-plex form. The improved DigiTag2 assay will be an efficient platform for screening an intermediate number of SNPs (tens to hundreds of sites in the replication analysis after genome-wide association study. Moreover, highly parallel and short-acting amplification with locus-specific primers may thus facilitate widespread application to other PCR-based assays.

  9. Fragment screening: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Andrew R; Hann, Michael M; Burrows, Jeremy N; Griffen, Ed J

    2006-09-01

    There are clearly many different philosophies associated with adapting fragment screening into mainstream Drug Discovery Lead Generation strategies. Scientists at Astex, for instance, focus entirely on strategies involving use of X-ray crystallography and NMR. However, AstraZeneca uses a number of different fragment screening strategies. One approach is to screen a 2000 compound fragment set (with close to "lead-like" complexity) at 100 microM in parallel with every HTS such that the data are obtained on the entire screening collection at 10 microM plus the extra samples at 100 microM; this provides valuable compound potency data in a concentration range that is usually unexplored. The fragments are then screen-specific "privileged structures" that can be searched for in the rest of the HTS output and other databases as well as having synthesis follow-up. A typical workflow for a fragment screen within AstraZeneca is shown below (Figure 24) and highlights the desirability (particularly when screening >100 microM) for NMR and X-ray information to validate weak hits and give information on how to optimise them. In this chapter, we have provided an introduction to the theoretical and practical issues associated with the use of fragment methods and lead-likeness. Fragment-based approaches are still in an early stage of development and are just one of many interrelated techniques that are now used to identify novel lead compounds for drug development. Fragment based screening has some advantages, but like every other drug hunting strategy will not be universally applicable. There are in particular some practical challenges associated with fragment screening that relate to the generally lower level of potency that such compounds initially possess. Considerable synthetic effort has to be applied for post-fragment screening to build the sort of potency that would be expected to be found from a traditional HTS. However, if there are no low-hanging fruit in a screening

  10. Ion channel screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, John; Bowlby, Mark; Peri, Ravikumar; Tawa, Gregory; LaRocque, James; Soloveva, Veronica; Morin, John

    2008-08-01

    Ion channels are attractive targets for drug discovery with recent estimates indicating that voltage and ligand-gated channels account for the third and fourth largest gene families represented in company portfolios after the G protein coupled and nuclear hormone receptor families. A historical limitation on ion channel targeted drug discovery in the form of the extremely low throughput nature of the gold standard assay for assessing functional activity, patch clamp electrophysiology in mammalian cells, has been overcome by the implementation of multi-well plate format cell-based screening strategies for ion channels. These have taken advantage of various approaches to monitor ion flux or membrane potential using radioactive, non-radioactive, spectroscopic and fluorescence measurements and have significantly impacted both high-throughput screening and lead optimization efforts. In addition, major advances have been made in the development of automated electrophysiological platforms to increase capacity for cell-based screening using formats aimed at recapitulating the gold standard assay. This review addresses the options available for cell-based screening of ion channels with examples of their utility and presents case studies on the successful implementation of high-throughput screening campaigns for a ligand-gated ion channel using a fluorescent calcium indicator, and a voltage-gated ion channel using a fluorescent membrane potential sensitive dye. PMID:18694388

  11. Fiber-Optical Parametric Amplification of Sub-Picosecond Pulses for High-Speed Optical Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh; Cristofori, Valentina; Rottwitt, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews recent results of amplification of short optical pulses using fiber-optical parametric amplifiers. This includes chirped-pulse amplification of 400 fs pulses, error-free amplification of a 640-Gbit/s optical time-division multiplexed signal with less than a 1-dB power penalty......, and all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration of a 640-Gbit/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying optical time-division multiplexed signal....

  12. A robust method for the amplification of RNA in the sense orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Quackenbush John; Marko Nicholas F; Frank Bryan; Lee Norman H

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Small quantities of RNA (1–4 μg total RNA) available from biological samples frequently require a single round of amplification prior to analysis, but current amplification strategies have limitations that may restrict their usefulness in downstream genomic applications. The Eberwine amplification method has been extensively validated but is limited by its ability to produce only antisense RNA. Alternatives lack extensive validation and are often confounded by problems wit...

  13. An integrated disposable device for DNA extraction and helicase dependent amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Do, Jaephil; ALMuayad, Hussam; Zhang, Jane Y.; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Here we report the demonstration of an integrated microfluidic chip that performs helicase dependent amplification (HDA) on samples containing live bacteria. Combined chip-based sample preparation and isothermal amplification are attractive for world health applications, since the need for instrumentation to control flow rate and temperature changes are reduced or eliminated. Bacteria lysis, nucleic acid extraction, and DNA amplification with a fluorescent reporter are incorporated into a dis...

  14. STUDY OF SOIL AMPLIFICATION BASED ON MICROTREMOR AND SEISMIC RECORDS IN LIMA PERU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Diana; Sekiguchi, Toru; Nakai, Shoichi; Aguilar, Zenon; Lazares, Fernando

    The dynamic characteristics of the ground in Lima, capital of Peru, specifically the amplification are investigated. By using the small and large microtremor array measurements we estimated the soil velocity profiles with depths to the bedrock in many cases. These profiles were used to estimate the amplification factors. Important results are the large amplification factors at EMO, VSV, CAL and CMA (La Molina, Villa El Salvador, El Callao and Bellavista district, respectively).

  15. Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.;

    2010-01-01

    Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process......-field gradients, hence, must be carefully controlled in future experiments, in order to observe clearly the effects of the dipolar interactions in the amplification dynamics....

  16. Amplification of realistic Schrödinger-cat-state-like states by homodyne heralding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Rigas, Ioannes;

    2013-01-01

    We present a scheme for the amplification of Schrödinger cat states that collapses two smaller states onto their constructive interference via a homodyne projection. We analyze the performance of the amplification in terms of fidelity and success rate when the input consists of either exact coher...... coherent state superpositions or of photon-subtracted squeezed vacua. The impact of imprecise homodyne detection and of impure squeezing is quantified. We also assess the scalability of iterated amplifications....

  17. CDK4 amplification predicts recurrence of well-differentiated liposarcoma of the abdomen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    Full Text Available The absence of CDK4 amplification in liposarcomas is associated with favorable prognosis. We aimed to identify the factors associated with tumor recurrence in patients with well-differentiated (WD and dedifferentiated (DD liposarcomas.From 2000 to 2010, surgical resections for 101 WD and DD liposarcomas were performed. Cases in which complete surgical resections with curative intent were carried out were selected. MDM2 and CDK4 gene amplification were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR.There were 31 WD and 17 DD liposarcomas. Locoregional recurrence was observed in 11 WD and 3 DD liposarcomas. WD liposarcomas showed better patient survival compared to DD liposarcomas (P<0.05. Q-PCR analysis of the liposarcomas revealed the presence of CDK4 amplification in 44 cases (91.7% and MDM2 amplification in 46 cases (95.8%. WD liposarcomas with recurrence after surgical resection had significantly higher levels of CDK4 amplification compared to those without recurrence (P = 0.041. High level of CDK4 amplification (cases with CDK4 amplification higher than the median 7.54 was associated with poor recurrence-free survival compared to low CDK4 amplification in both univariate (P = 0.012 and multivariate analyses (P = 0.020.Level of CDK4 amplification determined by Q-PCR was associated with the recurrence of WD liposarcomas after surgical resection.

  18. Light amplification and scattering by clusters made of small active particles: the local perturbation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Prosentsov, V V

    2013-01-01

    The light amplification by finite active media is used extensively in modern optics applications. In this paper the light amplification and scattering by cluster of small particles is studied analytically and numerically with the help of the local perturbation method and phenomenological laser theory. It is shown that light amplification is possible even for one small particle, and that the amplification is more profound when the light frequency nears the frequency of the cluster's morphological resonance. Theoretical discussions are supplemented by numerical results for scattering by clusters which particles positioned at ordered and at slightly disordered positions.

  19. Chaotic amplification of neutrino chemical potentials by neutrino oscillations in big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate in detail the parameter space of active-sterile neutrino oscillations that amplifies neutrino chemical potentials at the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis. We calculate the magnitude of the amplification and show evidence of chaos in the amplification process. We also discuss the implications of the neutrino chemical potential amplification in big bang nucleosynthesis. It is shown that with a ∼1 eV νe, the amplification of its chemical potential by active-sterile neutrino oscillations can lower the effective number of neutrino species at big bang nucleosynthesis to significantly below three. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Amplification of cylindrically polarized laser beams in single crystal fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Stefan; Délen, Xavier; Rumpel, Martin; Didierjean, Julien; Aubry, Nicolas; Graf, Thomas; Balembois, Francois; Georges, Patrick; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou

    2013-05-01

    Yb:YAG single crystal fiber (SCF) amplifiers have recently drawn much attention in the field of amplification of ultra-short pulses. In this paper, we report on the use of SCF amplifiers for the amplification of cylindrically polarized laser beams, as such beams offer promising properties for numerous applications. While the amplification of cylindrically polarized beams is challenging with other amplifier designs due to thermally induced depolarization, we demonstrate the amplification of 32 W cylindrically polarized beams to an output power of 100 W. A measured degree of radial polarization after the SCF of about 95% indicates an excellent conservation of polarization. PMID:23669994

  1. Method Of Signal Amplification In Multi-Chromophore Luminescence Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitsky, Igor A. (Fall River, MA); Krivoshlykov, Sergei G. (Shrewsbury, MA)

    2004-02-03

    A fluorescence-based method for highly sensitive and selective detection of analyte molecules is proposed. The method employs the energy transfer between two or more fluorescent chromophores in a carefully selected polymer matrix. In one preferred embodiment, signal amplification has been achieved in the fluorescent sensing of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) using two dyes, 3-aminofluoranthene (AM) and Nile Red (NR), in a hydrogen bond acidic polymer matrix. The selected polymer matrix quenches the fluorescence of both dyes and shifts dye emission and absorption spectra relative to more inert matrices. Upon DMMP sorption, the AM fluorescence shifts to the red at the same time the NR absorption shifts to the blue, resulting in better band overlap and increased energy transfer between chromophores. In another preferred embodiment, the sensitive material is incorporated into an optical fiber system enabling efficient excitation of the dye and collecting the fluorescent signal form the sensitive material on the remote end of the system. The proposed method can be applied to multichromophore luminescence sensor systems incorporating N-chromophores leading to N-fold signal amplification and improved selectivity. The method can be used in all applications where highly sensitive detection of basic gases, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), Sarin, Soman and other chemical warfare agents having basic properties, is required, including environmental monitoring, chemical industry and medicine.

  2. Improved purification and PCR amplification of DNA from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeli, Ziv; Fuentes, Cilia L

    2007-07-01

    Purification and PCR amplification procedures for DNA extracted from environmental samples (soil, compost, and river sediment) were improved by introducing three modifications: precipitation of DNA with 5% polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) and 0.6 M NaCl; filtration with a Sepharose 4B-polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) spin column; and addition of skim milk (0.3% w/v) to the PCR reaction solution. Humic substances' concentration after precipitation with 5% PEG was 2.57-, 5.3-, and 78.9-fold lower than precipitation with 7.5% PEG, 10% PEG, and isopropanol, respectively. After PEG precipitation, Sepharose, PVPP and the combined (Sepharose-PVPP) column removed 92.3%, 89.5%, and 98%, respectively, of the remaining humic materials. Each of the above-mentioned modifications improved PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA extracted by the proposed protocol is cleaner than DNA extracted by a commercial kit. Nevertheless, the improvement of DNA purification did not improve the detection limit of atrazine degradation gene atzA. PMID:17521406

  3. Social amplification of risk in the Internet environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ik Jae

    2011-12-01

    This article analyzes the dynamic process of risk amplification in the Internet environment with special emphasis on public concern for environmental risks from a high-speed railway tunnel construction project in South Korea. Environmental organizations and activists serving as social stations collected information about the project and its ecological impact, and communicated this with the general public, social groups, and institutions. The Internet provides social stations and the public with an efficient means for interactive communication and an open space for active information sharing and public participation. For example, while the website of an organization such as an environmental activist group can initially trigger local interest, the Internet allows this information to be disseminated to a much wider audience in a manner unavailable to the traditional media. Interaction among social stations demonstrates an amplifying process of public attention to the risk. Analyses of the volume of readers' comments to online newspaper articles and public opinions posted on message board of public and nonprofit organizations show the ripple effects of the amplification process as measured along temporal, geographical, and sectoral dimensions. Public attention is also influenced by the symbolic connotations of risk information. Interpretations of risk in religious, political, or legal terms intensify public concern for the environmental risk. PMID:21539590

  4. Loop-Mediated Amplification Accelerated by Stem Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Tisi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (iNAATs have become an important alternative to PCR for in vitro molecular diagnostics in all fields. Amongst iNAATs Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP has gained much attention over the last decade because of the simplicity of hardware requirements. LAMP demonstrates performance equivalent to that of PCR, but its application has been limited by the challenging primer design. The design of six primers in LAMP requires a selection of eight priming sites with significant restrictions imposed on their respective positioning and orientation. In order to relieve primer design constraints we propose an alternative approach which uses Stem primers instead of Loop primers and demonstrate the application of STEM-LAMP in assaying for Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes and HIV. Stem primers used in LAMP in combination with loop-generating and displacement primers gave significant benefits in speed and sensitivity, similar to those offered by Loop primers, while offering additional options of forward and reverse orientations, multiplexing, use in conjunction with Loop primers or even omission of one or two displacement primers, where necessary. Stem primers represent a valuable alternative to Loop primers and an additional tool for IVD assay development by offering more choices for primer design at the same time increasing assay speed, sensitivity, and reproducibility.

  5. Radiopolymerization of β(-)pinene: A case of chiral amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    β(-)Pinene was treated with γ radiation at three dose levels: 150, 300 and 600 kGy. The expected effect of radiation at these high doses was the partial racemization of the substrate as already observed in the case of other terpene monomers. Unexpectedly β(-)pinene underwent a radiopolymerization reaction into a solid resin and into a dimer. The structure of the products was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy also in comparison to a reference β(-)pinene resin prepared by cationic polymerization. A highly ordered structure was found in the case of the radiopolymer in comparison to the resin from cationic polymerization. Polarimetric measurements have shown astonishing enhancement in the optical activity of the radiopolymer and radiodimer in comparison to the starting optical activity of the β(-)pinene monomer. The results have been discussed in terms of amplification of chirality caused by γ radiation and the implications of this fact on the mechanism of chiral amplification on prebiotic molecules

  6. Loop-mediated amplification accelerated by stem primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandelman, Olga; Jackson, Rebecca; Kiddle, Guy; Tisi, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Isothermal nucleic acid amplifications (iNAATs) have become an important alternative to PCR for in vitro molecular diagnostics in all fields. Amongst iNAATs Loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) has gained much attention over the last decade because of the simplicity of hardware requirements. LAMP demonstrates performance equivalent to that of PCR, but its application has been limited by the challenging primer design. The design of six primers in LAMP requires a selection of eight priming sites with significant restrictions imposed on their respective positioning and orientation. In order to relieve primer design constraints we propose an alternative approach which uses Stem primers instead of Loop primers and demonstrate the application of STEM-LAMP in assaying for Clostridium difficile, Listeria monocytogenes and HIV. Stem primers used in LAMP in combination with loop-generating and displacement primers gave significant benefits in speed and sensitivity, similar to those offered by Loop primers, while offering additional options of forward and reverse orientations, multiplexing, use in conjunction with Loop primers or even omission of one or two displacement primers, where necessary. Stem primers represent a valuable alternative to Loop primers and an additional tool for IVD assay development by offering more choices for primer design at the same time increasing assay speed, sensitivity, and reproducibility. PMID:22272122

  7. Development and Application of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Optical Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs along the interface between a metal and a dielectric has attracted significant attention due to its unique optical properties, which has inspired a plethora of fascinating applications in photonics and optoelectronics. However, SPPs suffer from large attenuation because of the ohmic losses in the metal layer. It has become the main bottom-neck problem for the development of high performance plasmonic devices. This limitation can be overcome by providing the material adjacent to the metal with optical gain. In this paper, a review of gain compensation to SPPs is presented. We focus on the spontaneous radiation amplification and simulated radiation amplification. The ohmic loss of metal was greatly improved by introducing optical gain. Then we introduce several gain mediums of dye doped, quantum dots, erbium ion, and semiconductor to compensate optical loss of SPPs. Using gain medium mentioned above can compensate losses and achieve many potential applications, for example, laser, amplifier, and LRSPP discussed.

  8. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  9. Radiopolymerization of {beta}(-)pinene: A case of chiral amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Franco [Soc. Lupi Chemical Research, Via Casilina 1626/A, 00133 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: cdcata@flashnet.it; Keheyan, Yeghis [CNR, Istituto per lo studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Department of Chemistry, University ' La Sapienza' , P.le Aldo Moro 1, Rome (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    {beta}(-)Pinene was treated with {gamma} radiation at three dose levels: 150, 300 and 600 kGy. The expected effect of radiation at these high doses was the partial racemization of the substrate as already observed in the case of other terpene monomers. Unexpectedly {beta}(-)pinene underwent a radiopolymerization reaction into a solid resin and into a dimer. The structure of the products was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy also in comparison to a reference {beta}(-)pinene resin prepared by cationic polymerization. A highly ordered structure was found in the case of the radiopolymer in comparison to the resin from cationic polymerization. Polarimetric measurements have shown astonishing enhancement in the optical activity of the radiopolymer and radiodimer in comparison to the starting optical activity of the {beta}(-)pinene monomer. The results have been discussed in terms of amplification of chirality caused by {gamma} radiation and the implications of this fact on the mechanism of chiral amplification on prebiotic molecules.

  10. The national protocol for paediatric amplification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alison M

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the national protocol for the selection, fitting, verification, and evaluation of amplification for hearing-impaired children in Australia. It also outlines the approach to management of children who have auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder, children who have mild and unilateral hearing loss, and children who require cochlear implantation. Audiological management of all Australian citizens and permanent residents under twenty-one years of age who have a hearing loss is carried out by the national hearing service provider, Australian Hearing. It is funded by the Australian Government's Hearing Services Program to provide fully subsidised hearing aids, frequency modulated (FM) systems and ongoing audiological management. All hearing aids for children are multi-channel devices that offer wide dynamic range compression, directional microphone technology and feedback cancellation as well as access to multiple listening programs, telecoil and audio-input facilities. Hearing aid gain, frequency response and maximum power output are derived according to the NAL-NL1 prescription procedure and verified using real ear measurements. Amplification benefit is evaluated using a range of speech perception tests and functional assessment questionnaires. PMID:19919326

  11. RESONANT AMPLIFICATION OF TURBULENCE BY THE BLAST WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the idea of whether spherical blast waves can amplify by a nonlocal resonant hydrodynamic mechanism inhomogeneities formed by turbulence or phase segregation in the interstellar medium. We consider the problem of a blast-wave-turbulence interaction in the Linear Interaction Approximation. Mathematically, this is an eigenvalue problem for finding the structure and amplitude of eigenfunctions describing the response of the shock-wave flow to forced oscillations by external perturbations in the ambient interstellar medium. Linear analysis shows that the blast wave can amplify density and vorticity perturbations for a wide range of length scales with amplification coefficients of up to 20, with increasing amplification the larger the length. There also exist resonant harmonics for which the gain becomes formally infinite in the linear approximation. Their orbital wavenumbers are within the range of macro- (l ∼ 1), meso- (l ∼ 20), and microscopic (l > 200) scales. Since the resonance width is narrow (typically, Δl < 1), resonance should select and amplify discrete isolated harmonics. We speculate on a possible explanation of an observed regular filamentary structure of regularly shaped round supernova remnants such as SNR 1572, 1006, or 0509-67.5. Resonant mesoscales found (l ≈ 18) are surprisingly close to the observed scales (l ≈ 15) of ripples in the shell's surface of SNR 0509-67.5

  12. Advanced unrepeatered systems using novel Raman amplification schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Do-il; Pelouch, Wayne; Burtsev, Sergey; Perrier, Philippe; Fevrier, Herve

    2015-01-01

    Unrepeatered transmission systems provide a cost-effective solution to transmit high capacity channels in submarine networks to communicate between coastal population centers or in terrestrial networks to connect remote areas where service access is difficult. The main goal of unrepeatered systems has traditionally been to achieve the longest reach, however, increasing traffic demands now require unrepeatered systems to support both longer reach and higher transport capacity. As a result, transmission rate of unrepeatered systems has quickly moved from 10 Gb/s to 40 Gb/s or 100 Gb/s. This paper reviews the key basic technologies, with a specific focus on Raman amplification, required for long-reach, high-capacity unrepeatered optical transmission systems. We will discuss novel Raman amplification schemes, enhanced remote optically pumped amplifiers (ROPA), ultra-low loss / large effective area fibers, and coherent transmission with advanced modulation format and high FEC coding gain. We will also report recent experimental demonstrations that show how these technologies have been combined to achieve industry's leading capacity and reach transmission.

  13. Generalized modulational instability in multimode fibers: wideband multimode parametric amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Guasoni, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper intermodal modulational instability (IM-MI) is analyzed in a multimode fiber where several spatial and polarization modes propagate. The coupled nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations describing the modal evolution in the fiber are linearized and reduced to an eigenvalue problem. As a result, the amplification of each mode can be described by means of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix that stores the information about the dispersion properties of the modes and the modal power distribution of the pump. Some useful analytical formulas are also provided that estimate the modal amplification as function of the system parameters. Finally, the impact of third-order dispersion and of absorbtion losses is evaluated, which reveals some surprising phenomena into the IM-MI dynamics. These outcomes generalize previous studies on bimodal-MI, related to the interaction between 2 spatial or polarization modes, to the most general case of $N>2$ interacting modes. Moreover, they pave the way towards the ...

  14. Screening for Sexually Transmitted Infection Pathogens in Semen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Peeling

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum -- the causative agent of syphilis -- may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear.

  15. CALCULATION OF ACOUSTIC EFFICIENCY OF PORTABLE ACOUSTIC SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Skvortsov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The research of influence of life environment adverse factors on physical development and health of population is an actual problem of ecology. The aspects of the most actual problems of the modern world, namely environmental industrial noise pollution are considered in the article. Industrial facilities everywhere have noisy equipment. Noise is a significant factors of negative influenceon people and environment. Combined effects of noise and of other physical pollutions on people may cause amplification of their negative impact. If the noise pollution level from the object in a residential area exceeds the permissible levels (MPL, noise protection measures can be initiated. Today, the most common design decisions for noise protection are sound absorbing construction, noise screens and barriers, acousting housings, soundproff cabins. Many of them are popular, others are less known. The article deals with one of the most wide spread means of noise protection – a portable acoustic screen. The aim of the research is to determine the efficiency of portable acoustic screens. It is shown that the installation of such structures can reduce the average value of the sound level. The authors analyzed acoustic screens as device to reduce noise pollution. The authors offer a potable acoustic screen differing from the used easyness, mobility, minimum price and good sound protective properties. Effectiveness, a sound absorption coefficient and sound conductivity coefficient of a portable acoustic screen are evaluated. The descriptions of the algorithm calculations and the combination of technical solutions have practical originality. The results of the research demonstrate the advantages of the proposed solutions for reducing noise levels in the agro-industrial complex.

  16. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard;

    2014-01-01

    Experimental in silico, in vitro, and rodent models for screening and predicting protein sensitizing potential are discussed, including whether there is evidence of new sensitizations and allergies since the introduction of genetically modified crops in 1996, the importance of linear versus...... infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...

  17. Dance on screen

    OpenAIRE

    Roichman, Limor

    2001-01-01

    This thesis explores dance on screen from the artist's point of view following the making of the video GAIA - Mysterious Rhythms (20 min,Digital Betacam). The video and the thesis together form the PhD submission. The interaction of practice and theory, through a process of creative work, analysis and reflection resulted in the structuring of a model with which I claim the autonomy of dance on screen as a hybrid art form, a form which like other creative forms, such as painting, sculpture ...

  18. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  19. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification and PD-L1 protein expression are common events in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Melanie; Drecoll, Enken; Pfarr, Nicole; Weichert, Wilko; Langer, Rupert; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas; Specht, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Immunomodulatory therapies, targeting the immune checkpoint receptor-ligand complex PD-1/PD-L1 have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials in solid malignancies, including carcinomas of the head and neck. In this context, PD-L1 protein expression has been proposed as a potentially valuable predictive marker. In the present study, expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 80 patients with predominantly HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas and associated nodal metastasis. In addition, CD274/PD-L1 gene copy number status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PD-L1 expression was detected in 36/80 (45%) cases and concordance of PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and corresponding nodal metastasis was present in only 20/28 (72%) cases. PD-1 expression was found in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) but not in tumor cells. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was detected in 19% of cases, with high level PD-L1 amplification present in 12/80 (15%), and low level amplification in 3/80 (4%). Interestingly, CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was associated with positive PD-L1 immunostaining in only 73% of cases. PD-L1 copy number status was concordant in primary tumor and associated metastases. Clinically, PD-L1 tumor immunopositivity was associated with a higher risk for nodal metastasis at diagnosis, overall tumor related death und recurrence. Based on our findings we propose to include PD-L1 copy number status in addition to protein status in screening programs for future clinical trials with immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. PMID:26918453

  20. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification and PD-L1 protein expression are common events in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Melanie; Drecoll, Enken; Pfarr, Nicole; Weichert, Wilko; Langer, Rupert; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Götz, Carolin; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas; Specht, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Immunomodulatory therapies, targeting the immune checkpoint receptor-ligand complex PD-1/PD-L1 have shown promising results in early phase clinical trials in solid malignancies, including carcinomas of the head and neck. In this context, PD-L1 protein expression has been proposed as a potentially valuable predictive marker. In the present study, expression of PD-L1 and PD-1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 80 patients with predominantly HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinomas and associated nodal metastasis. In addition, CD274/PD-L1 gene copy number status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. PD-L1 expression was detected in 36/80 (45%) cases and concordance of PD-L1 expression in primary tumor and corresponding nodal metastasis was present in only 20/28 (72%) cases. PD-1 expression was found in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) but not in tumor cells. CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was detected in 19% of cases, with high level PD-L1 amplification present in 12/80 (15%), and low level amplification in 3/80 (4%). Interestingly, CD274/PD-L1 gene amplification was associated with positive PD-L1 immunostaining in only 73% of cases. PD-L1 copy number status was concordant in primary tumor and associated metastases. Clinically, PD-L1 tumor immunopositivity was associated with a higher risk for nodal metastasis at diagnosis, overall tumor related death und recurrence. Based on our findings we propose to include PD-L1 copy number status in addition to protein status in screening programs for future clinical trials with immunotherapeutic strategies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. PMID:26918453

  1. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterno, Mary T; Draughon, Jessica E

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious concern for women that is associated with significant adverse health effects. Routine screening for IPV is recommended, but there are many barriers to screening that have been identified by providers, including discomfort, lack of training, and not knowing how to respond to a positive screen. This article reviews IPV screening and appropriate techniques for responding to a positive screen. IPV screening best practices include using a systematic protocol, developing a screening script, using a validated screening tool, and considerations for privacy and mandatory reporting. Responding to a positive screen should include acknowledging the experience, asking if the woman desires help, offering support and referrals, encouraging safety planning, and completing additional assessments to determine level of danger and to identify any comorbidities. Using these techniques along with therapeutic communication may increase IPV identification and create an environment in which women feel empowered to get help. PMID:26990666

  2. Frequency and variability of genomic rearrangements on MSH2 in Spanish Lynch Syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atocha Romero

    Full Text Available Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs in DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR genes, particularly among MSH2 gene, are frequently involved in the etiology of Lynch syndrome (LS. The Multiplex Ligation and Probe Amplification assay (MLPA is commonly used to identify such alterations. However, in most cases, the MLPA-identified alteration is not characterized at the molecular level, which might be important to identify recurrent alterations and to analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying these mutational events. Probands from a cohort of Lynch Syndrome families were screened for point mutation in MMR genes, subsequently the MLPA assay was used for LGR screening. The identified MLPA alteration was confirmed by cDNA, CGH-microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. In this study, we have delimited the region of 11 LGRs variants on MSH2 locus. Six of them were fully characterized the breakpoints and 9 of them were considered pathogenic. According to our data, LGR on MSH2 locus constituted the 10.8% (9 out of 83 of pathogenic germline alterations found in LS. The frequency of colorectal cancer (CRC and endometrial cancer (EC in LGR carriers was 55% and 11% respectively. Analysis of the breakpoint sequences revealed that in 3 cases, deletions appeared to originate from Alu-mediated recombination events. In the remaining cases, sequence alignment failed to detect microhomology around the breakpoints. The present study provides knowledge on the molecular characterization of MSH2 LGRs, which may have important implications in LS diagnosis and Genetic Counseling. In addition, our data suggests that nonhomologous events would be more frequently involved in the etiology of MSH2 LGRs than expected.

  3. Single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods reveal subsequent increase in genetic variations in micropropagated plants of Nepenthes khasiana Hook. f. maintained for three consecutive regenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Soibam Purnima; Kumaria, Suman; Rao, Satyawada Rama; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-03-15

    The genetic fidelity of in vitro-raised plants of three successive regenerations of Nepenthes khasiana Hook. f. was assessed using three different single primer amplification reaction (SPAR) methods, viz., random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and direct amplification of minisatellite DNA region (DAMD) markers. Out of 80 RAPD primers screened, 14 primers reflected a genetic variation of 4.1% in the first regeneration which was increased to 9.4% in the third regeneration. In the case of ISSR, out of 36 primers screened for assessment of genetic homogeneity of the regenerated plantlets, 12 primers showed an increase of genetic variation from 4.3% to 10% from the first to the third regenerations. In DAMD profiling, 15 primers were used for the evaluation of genetic fidelity where 8.47% of polymorphism was observed in the first regeneration which was increased to 13.33% in the third regeneration. The cumulative analysis reflected a genetic variation of 5.65% in the first regeneration which increased subsequently to 7.77% in the second regeneration and 10.87% in the third regeneration. The present study demonstrates SPAR technique to be an efficient tool for the assessment of clonal fidelity of in vitro-raised plants. PMID:24440289

  4. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  5. Early Dementia Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the population of the world increases, there will be larger numbers of people with dementia and an emerging need for prompt diagnosis and treatment. Early dementia screening is the process by which a patient who might be in the prodromal phases of a dementing illness is determined as having, or not having, the hallmarks of a neurodegenerative condition. The concepts of mild cognitive impairment, or mild neurocognitive disorder, are useful in analyzing the patient in the prodromal phase of a dementing disease; however, the transformation to dementia may be as low as 10% per annum. The search for early dementia requires a comprehensive clinical evaluation, cognitive assessment, determination of functional status, corroborative history and imaging (including MRI, FDG-PET and maybe amyloid PET, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination assaying Aβ1–42, T-τ and P-τ might also be helpful. Primary care physicians are fundamental in the screening process and are vital in initiating specialist investigation and treatment. Early dementia screening is especially important in an age where there is a search for disease modifying therapies, where there is mounting evidence that treatment, if given early, might influence the natural history—hence the need for cost-effective screening measures for early dementia.

  6. Screening and merger activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Banal-Estañol; P. Heidhues; R. Nitsche; J. Seldeslachts

    2010-01-01

    In our paper, the target of a proposed merger, by setting a reserve price, is able to screen prospective acquirers according to their (expected) ability to generate merger-specific synergies. Both empirical evidence and many merger models suggest that the difference between high and low-synergy merg

  7. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Screen Cultures sets out to redress this imbalance with a broad selection of essays spanning both North and South as well as different methodological approaches, from ethnographic and audience studies to cultural materialist readings. The first section of the book, «The South», highlights popular media...

  8. Screening Pesticides for Neuropathogenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Pesticides are routinely screened in studies that follow specific guidelines for possible neuropathogenicity in laboratory animals. These tests will detect chemicals that are by themselves strong inducers of neuropathogenesis if the tested strain is susceptible relative to the time of administration and methodology of assessment. Organophosphate induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is the only known human neurodegenerative disease associated with pesticides and the existing...

  9. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  10. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  11. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with neuroblastoma presenting genomic amplification of loci other than MYCN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Guimier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA are key features of neuroblastoma (NB, the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s distinct from MYCN. METHODS: Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 8 presented regional amplification(s without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases. This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n = 26 had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n = 22. Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05. CONCLUSION: NBs harbouring regional amplification(s without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy.

  12. SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bărbulescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a review of the main procedures for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, especially for the asymptomatic individuals with high risk to develop this neoplasm, devise the risk groups to develop this cancer and to study the management of these. The advantages and disadvantages or limitations of screening modalities for colorectal cancer, such as faecal occult blood testing with old guaiac-based tests or the new tests for detecting faecal deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, endoscopic screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or CT-colonography and double contrast barium enema examination, are evaluated. The most accurate diagnosed sensibility (95-97% belong to total colonoscopy with biopsy, barium enema having a lower sensibility (83%; the easiest and cheaper screening method represent guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests but with a global predictive positive value of only 5-10%. In our country, as it’s known, most of the colorectal cancer patients presents to the doctor in an advanced local stage or with distant metastases or in other situations like perforation, obstructive or hemorrhaged complications. In all these cases the therapeutic resources are limited and the survival is much diminished. The situation would be different if in the precocious diagnosis in the incipient stage of the colorectal neoplasm, proper treatment resources may assure to these patients a higher life hope. A proper national healthy political program that will promote some fesabile screening programs could diagnose and treat patients with colorectal neoplasm in incipient stages, with the result of prolonged survival and disease-free interval and complete socio-professional reinstatement. These national screening programs may absolve the expensiveness on the patients care with the colorectal neoplasm cancer in the advanced stages that have a poor prognosis.

  13. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  14. Silicon detectors with internal amplification based on functionally integrated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A new coordinate-sensitive semiconductor silicon detector capable both to determine particle coordinates and detect single-charged relativistic particles and x-rays is considered. It is proposed to improve the functional integration of VLSI circuit element base and achieve a high internal amplification directly inside the detector chip. To resolve these problems, we use functionally integrated active pixels made on the basis of a hybrid of p-i-n diode and bipolar transistor manufactured with using a specific technology. Bipolar coordinate-sensitive detectors could provide the information access time less than 5 ns, coordinate accuracy better than 5050 mm2, sensitivity higher than that of p-i-n diodes by a factor of 100 or more. Single pixels are joined into a 1010 mm2 matrix. n-Si wafers with a specific resistance r ≥ 5 kOhmcm and carrier lifetime t = 2500 ms have been used as a basis. The ion-implantation and following annealing are used to create active areas. To make the shallow-junction emitter, arsenic ions were implanted into polysilicon (Si) with a (1-2)1016 cm-2 dose and then were diffused in substrate; the p--base area was formed with the boron implantation; p+ region was created with inserting boron ions into the substrate. For gettering, phosphorus ions were implanted into the wafer back side. The detectors manufactured are characterized by dark currents of few nano amperes and breakdown voltage of ∼ 250 V. Features of detectors have been studied with using particle sources (238Pu, 239Pu, and 226Ra). All the structures have demonstrated an internal amplification. For example, some structure shows a 0.57-V spectral maximum produced by 239Pu (5.105 MeV) at 20-V power supply voltage, i.e. an amplification factor of 250 is achieved; half-amplitude maximum width is 16%. Output signal amplitudes and resolution depend on magnitude of applied external voltage. (author)

  15. Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®: a novel isothermal DNA amplification technology demonstrating high specificity and sensitivity for a single molecule of target analyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Hoser

    Full Text Available Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA. SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella.

  16. [Genetic and prenatal diagnosis for four families with Williams-Beuren syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Wei-Qing; Luo, Fu-Wei; Xie, Jian-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is a common chromosome microdeletion syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment are very helpful for patients and their families. This study identified the chromosome karyotype in one fetus with ultrasonography abnormalities and three children with developmental disorders from four families. This provided guidance for subsequent pregnancy and prenatal diagnosis by using routine G-banding chromosome karyotyping analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). In one amniotic fluid sample from a pregnant woman with fetal abnormalities on an ultrasound screen and three peripheral blood samples from three children with developmental disorders, the decreased signal of ELN gene probes at 7q11.23 and heterozygous deletions at 7q11.23 were detected by MLPA and array-CGH analysis. The laboratory genetic tests of amniotic fluid samples were normal when the mothers from the four families became pregnant again. It was concluded that MLPA and array-CGH are rapid and accurate tools for the diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome and can provide more information for clinical genetic counseling. PMID:26695662

  17. Self-Amplification of Solid Friction in Interleaved Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Héctor; Salez, Thomas; Poulard, Christophe; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Raphaël, Élie; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Restagno, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    It is nearly impossible to separate two interleaved phone books when held by their spines. A full understanding of this astonishing demonstration of solid friction in complex assemblies remains elusive. In this Letter, we report on experiments with controlled booklets and show that the force required increases sharply with the number of sheets. A model captures the effect of the number of sheets, their thickness, and the overlapping distance. Furthermore, the data collapse onto a self-similar master curve with one dimensionless amplification parameter. In addition to solving a long-standing familiar enigma, this model system provides a framework with which one can accurately measure friction forces and coefficients at low loads, and that has relevance to complex assemblies from the macro- to the nanoscale.

  18. "Social Laser": Action Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Social Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the "explanation" of recent social explosions, especially in the Middle East, but also in Southern Europe and the USA, have been debated actively in the social and political literature. We can mention the contributions of P. Mason, F. Fukuyama, E. Schmidt and J. Cohen, I. Krastev to this debate. We point out that the diversity of opinions and conclusions is really amazing. At the moment, there is no consistent and commonly acceptable theory of these phenomena. We present a model of social explosions based on a novel approach for the description of social processes, namely, the quantum-like approach. Here quantum theory is treated simply as an operational formalism - without any direct relation to physics. We explore the quantum-like laser model to describe the possibility of Action Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Social Energy (ASE).

  19. Two-qubit parametric amplifier: large amplification of weak signals

    CERN Document Server

    Savel'ev, S; Rakhmanov, A L; Omelyanchouk, A N; Washington, Z; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we show that two coupled qubits can amplify a weak signal about hundredfold. This can be achieved if the two qubits are biased simultaneously by this weak signal and a strong pump signal, both of which having frequencies close to the inter-level transitions in the system. The weak signal strongly affects the spectrum generated by the strong pumping drive by producing and controlling mixed harmonics with amplitudes of the order of the main harmonic of the strong drive. We show that the amplification is robust with respect to noise, with an intensity of the order of the weak signal. When deviating from the optimal regime (corresponding to strong qubit coupling and a weak-signal frequency equal to the inter-level transition frequency) the proposed amplifier becomes less efficient, but it can still considerably enhance a weak signal (by several tens). We therefore propose to use coupled qubits as a combined parametric amplifier and frequency shifter.

  20. Cascaded Parametric Amplification for Highly Efficient Terahertz Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, Koustuban; Cirmi, Giovanni; Reichert, Fabian; Schimpf, Damian N; Muecke, Oliver D; Kaertner, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient, practical approach to high-energy terahertz (THz) generation based on spectrally cascaded optical parametric amplification (THz-COPA) is introduced. The THz wave initially generated by difference frequency generation between a strong narrowband optical pump and optical seed (0.1-10% of pump energy) kick-starts a repeated or cascaded energy down-conversion of pump photons. This helps to greatly surpass the quantum-defect efficiency and results in exponential growth of THz energy over crystal length. In cryogenically cooled periodically poled lithium niobate, energy conversion efficiencies >8% for 100 ps pulses are predicted. The calculations account for cascading effects, absorption, dispersion and laser-induced damage. Due to the coupled nonlinear interaction of multiple triplets of waves, THz-COPA exhibits physics distinct from conventional three-wave mixing parametric amplifiers. This in turn governs optimal phase-matching conditions, evolution of optical spectra as well as limitations o...

  1. Vortical field amplification and particle acceleration at rippled shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fraschetti, F

    2013-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) shocks are believed to accelerate charged particles and to generate strong turbulence in the post-shock flow. From high-energy observations in the past decade, a magnetic field at SNR shocks largely exceeding the shock-compressed interstellar field has been inferred. We outline how such a field amplification results from a small-scale dynamo process downstream of the shock, providing an explicit expression for the turbulence back-reaction to the fluid whirling. The spatial scale of the $X-$ray rims and the short time-variability can be obtained by using reasonable parameters for the interstellar turbulence. We show that such a vortical field saturation is faster than the acceleration time of the synchrotron emitting energetic electrons.

  2. Generation and amplification of nanosecond pulses by iodine lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuev, V.S.; Katulin, V.A.; Nosach, V.Y.; Petrov, A.L.

    1982-12-01

    Results are reported of experimental investigations of high-power photodissociation iodine laser pumped by lamps and by radiation from high-current electric discharges. The basic parameters of the working medium, the parameters of both lamp-pumped and discharge-pumped lasers, and methods of shaping of a short pulse with diffraction directivity of the radiation are investigated. The possibility of effective amplification of a short pulse by an iodine amplifier pumped with an open high-current discharge is demonstrated. An iodine laser generating a pulse of duration 1 nsec, divergence 10/sup -4/ rad, and energy 100 J at a contrast 10/sup 8/ and 300 J at a contrast 10/sup 2/-10/sup 3/ is described.

  3. SERS Amplification from Self-Organized Arrays of Plasmonic Nanocrescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Maria Caterina; Foti, Antonino; Messina, Elena; Gucciardi, Pietro Giuseppe; Comoretto, Davide; Buatier de Mongeot, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    We report on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency of self-organized arrays of Au nanocrescents confined on monolayers of polystyrene nanospheres. A dichroic SERS emission in the visible spectrum is observed due to the selective excitation of a localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance along the "short axis" of the Au nanocrescents. Under these conditions SERS signal amplifications in the range of 10(3) have been observed with respect to a flat reference Au film. The far field and near field plasmonic response of Au nanocrescent arrays have been investigated as a function of the metal dose deposited onto the polymeric spheres. In this way, we show the possibility of simply tailoring the SERS emission by engineering the morphology of the plasmonic nanocrescents. We highlight the SERS activity of chains of satellite nanoclusters that decorate the border of each connected crescent and sustain isotropic high energy LSP resonances in the visible spectrum. PMID:26824254

  4. Diffusive shock acceleration with magnetic field amplification and Alfvenic drift

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2012-01-01

    We explore how wave-particle interactions affect diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at astrophysical shocks by performing time-dependent kinetic simulations, in which phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvenic drift, thermal leakage injection, Bohm-like diffusion, and a free escape boundary are implemented. If the injection fraction of cosmic-ray (CR) particles is greater than 2x10^{-4}, for the shock parameters relevant for young supernova remnants, DSA is efficient enough to develop a significant shock precursor due to CR feedback, and magnetic field can be amplified up to a factor of 20 via CR streaming instability in the upstream region. If scattering centers drift with Alfven speed in the amplified magnetic field, the CR energy spectrum can be steepened significantly and the acceleration efficiency is reduced. Nonlinear DSA with self-consistent MFA and Alfvenic drift predicts that the postshock CR pressure saturates roughly at 10 % of the shock ram pressure for strong shocks...

  5. Information Masking and Amplification: The Source Coding Setting

    CERN Document Server

    Courtade, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The complementary problems of masking and amplifying channel state information in the Gel'fand-Pinsker channel have recently been solved by Merhav and Shamai, and Kim et al., respectively. In this paper, we study a related source coding problem. Specifically, we consider the two-encoder source coding setting where one source is to be amplified, while the other source is to be masked. In general, there is a tension between these two objectives which is characterized by the amplification-masking tradeoff. In this paper, we give a single-letter description of this tradeoff. We apply this result, together with a recent theorem by Courtade and Weissman on multiterminal source coding, to solve a fundamental entropy characterization problem.

  6. The Media and Genetically Modified Foods : Evidence in Support of Social Amplification of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.; Marsh, R.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical examinations of the "social amplification of risk" framework are rare, partly because of the difficulties in predicting when conditions likely to result in amplification effects will occur. This means that it is difficult to examine changes in risk perception that are contemporaneous with

  7. A robust method for the amplification of RNA in the sense orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quackenbush John

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small quantities of RNA (1–4 μg total RNA available from biological samples frequently require a single round of amplification prior to analysis, but current amplification strategies have limitations that may restrict their usefulness in downstream genomic applications. The Eberwine amplification method has been extensively validated but is limited by its ability to produce only antisense RNA. Alternatives lack extensive validation and are often confounded by problems with bias or yield attributable to their greater biological and technical complexity. Results To overcome these limitations, we have developed a straightforward and robust protocol for amplification of RNA in the sense orientation. This protocol is based upon Eberwine's method but incorporates elements of more recent amplification techniques while avoiding their complexities. Our technique yields greater than 100-fold amplification, generates long transcript, and produces mRNA that is well suited for use with microarray applications. Microarrays performed with RNA amplified using this protocol demonstrate minimal amplification bias and high reproducibility. Conclusion The protocol we describe here is readily adaptable for the production of sense or antisense, labeled or unlabeled RNA from intact or partially-degraded prokaryotic or eukaryotic total RNA. The method outperforms several commercial RNA amplification kits and can be used in conjunction with a variety of microarray platforms, such as cDNA arrays, oligonucleotide arrays, and Affymetrix GeneChip™ arrays.

  8. Study and comparison on properties of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of BBO, LBO and KDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article theoretically studies phase matching, parametric bandwidth, gain property of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification of BBO, LBO and KDP. It compares properties of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification between BBO and LBO in detail. The results show that it is better to use BBO in Ti:sapphire system with 800 nm central wavelength and LBO with 1053 nm central wavelength

  9. The gas amplification factor in Kr + iso-pentane filled proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of gas amplification in a proportional counters with Kr/iso-pentane mixture were performed at pressures ranging from 160 to 970 hPa. A new formula for gas amplification in a proportional counters was derived. A good agreement between the formula and experimental data was found over the range of variables studied. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  10. Sound Field Amplification: Effects on Managerial Time in Small Group Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Jeffrey Craig

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the use of speech amplification devices in speech therapy sessions. The major factor addressed is the impact that speech amplification has upon the managerial time of speech-language pathologists who provide therapy in small group sessions. This study measured the change in the amount of time speech-language pathologists spent…

  11. Plasma HER2 amplification in cell-free DNA during neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Troels; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Pallisgaard, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is an evolving technique in breast cancer, enabling liquid biopsies and treatment monitoring. The present study investigated the dynamics of plasma HER2 gene copy number and amplification in...... cfDNA during neoadjuvant chemotherapy....

  12. Amplification and Suppression of Round-Off Error in Runge-Kutta Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    A simple nonstiff linear initial-value problem is used to demonstrate the amplification of round-off error in the course of using a second-order Runge-Kutta method. This amplification is understood in terms of an appropriate expression for the global error. An implicit method is then used to show how the roundoff error may actually be suppressed.…

  13. Participation of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase alpha in amplification of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid in Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, W.; Weissbach, A

    1981-01-01

    Aphidicolin, a known inhibitor of eucaryotic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase alpha, efficiently inhibited amplification of ribosomal DNA during oogenesis in Xenopus laevis. DNA polymerase alpha, but not DNA polymerase gamma, as isolated from ovaries, was sensitive to aphidicolin. DNA polymerase beta was not detectable in Xenopus ovary extracts. Therefore, DNA polymerase alpha plays a major role in ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplification.

  14. Post-Fragmentation Whole Genome Amplification-Based Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James; LaDuc, Myron T.; Langmore, John

    2011-01-01

    This innovation is derived from a proprietary amplification scheme that is based upon random fragmentation of the genome into a series of short, overlapping templates. The resulting shorter DNA strands (DNA fragments with defined 3 and 5 termini. Specific primers to these termini are then used to isothermally amplify this library into potentially unlimited quantities that can be used immediately for multiple downstream applications including gel eletrophoresis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), comparative genomic hybridization microarray, SNP analysis, and sequencing. The standard reaction can be performed with minimal hands-on time, and can produce amplified DNA in as little as three hours. Post-fragmentation whole genome amplification-based technology provides a robust and accurate method of amplifying femtogram levels of starting material into microgram yields with no detectable allele bias. The amplified DNA also facilitates the preservation of samples (spacecraft samples) by amplifying scarce amounts of template DNA into microgram concentrations in just a few hours. Based on further optimization of this technology, this could be a feasible technology to use in sample preservation for potential future sample return missions. The research and technology development described here can be pivotal in dealing with backward/forward biological contamination from planetary missions. Such efforts rely heavily on an increasing understanding of the burden and diversity of microorganisms present on spacecraft surfaces throughout assembly and testing. The development and implementation of these technologies could significantly improve the comprehensiveness and resolving power of spacecraft-associated microbial population censuses, and are important to the continued evolution and advancement of planetary protection capabilities. Current molecular procedures for assaying spacecraft-associated microbial burden and diversity have inherent sample loss issues at

  15. On the role of temperature feedbacks for Arctic amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithan, Felix; Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    The amplification of global climate changes at the poles is a well-known feature of the climate system mentioned already by Arrhenius (1896). It has been linked to the surface-albedo feedback, changes in atmospheric and oceanic heat convergence, water vapour and cloud feedbacks and the albedo effect of black carbon on snow (Serreze and Barry, 2011). We here focus on the role of temperature feedbacks, which have received rather little attention in recent debates. The basic temperature feedback is the Planck feedback or the increase in the Earth's blackbody radiation due to a uniform temperature increase. Since the blackbody radiation scales with the fourth power of temperature, stronger warming is necessary in cold regions to balance a globally uniform radiative forcing. The second temperature feedback is caused by changes in the vertical atmospheric temperature structure: In the Tropics, deep convection leads to warming aloft being larger than at the surface, which causes a greater increase in outgoing longwave radiation compared a vertically uniform forcing and thus constitutes a negative feedback mechanism. In the Arctic, where warming is amplified at the surface, the lapse-rate feedback is positive (Wetherald and Manabe, 1975). We use CMIP5 model output and radiative Kernels to investigate the zonal distribution of temperature feedbacks. Arrhenius, S. (1896). On the influence of carbonic acid in the air upon the temperature of the ground Philos. Mag. J. Sci., 5, pp. 237-276 Serreze, M.C. and Barry, R.G. (2011) . Processes and impacts of Arctic amplification: A research synthesis, Global and Planetary Change, 77(1-2), pp. 85-96 Wetherald, R. and Manabe, S. (1975). The effects of changing the solar constant on the climate of a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 23 pp 2044-2059

  16. Method for decoupling error correction from privacy amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a standard quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme such as BB84, two procedures, error correction and privacy amplification, are applied to extract a final secure key from a raw key generated from quantum transmission. To simplify the study of protocols, it is commonly assumed that the two procedures can be decoupled from each other. While such a decoupling assumption may be valid for individual attacks, it is actually unproven in the context of ultimate or unconditional security, which is the Holy Grail of quantum cryptography. In particular, this means that the application of standard efficient two-way error-correction protocols like Cascade is not proven to be unconditionally secure. Here, I provide the first proof of such a decoupling principle in the context of unconditional security. The method requires Alice and Bob to share some initial secret string and use it to encrypt their communications in the error correction stage using one-time-pad encryption. Consequently, I prove the unconditional security of the interactive Cascade protocol proposed by Brassard and Salvail for error correction and modified by one-time-pad encryption of the error syndrome, followed by the random matrix protocol for privacy amplification. This is an efficient protocol in terms of both computational power and key generation rate. My proof uses the entanglement purification approach to security proofs of QKD. The proof applies to all adaptive symmetric methods for error correction, which cover all existing methods proposed for BB84. In terms of the net key generation rate, the new method is as efficient as the standard Shor-Preskill proof

  17. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  18. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Language, Voice, Balance Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents Click ... the World from Spinning / Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard Fall 2013 Issue: Volume 8 Number 3 Page ...

  19. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano; Majek, Ondrej; de Wolf, Chris; Lancucki, Lesz; Hofvind, Solveig; Nyström, Lennarth; Segnan, Nereo; Ponti, Antonio; Van Hal, G; Martens, P; Májek, O; Danes, J; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Aasmaa, A; Anttila, A; Becker, N; Péntek, Z; Budai, A; Mádai, S; Fitzpatrick, P; Mooney, T; Zappa, M; Ventura, L; Scharpantgen, A; Hofvind, S; Seroczynski, P; Morais, A; Rodrigues, V; Bento, M J; Gomes de Carvalho, J; Natal, C; Prieto, M; Sánchez-Contador Escudero, C; Zubizarreta Alberti, R; Fernández Llanes, S B; Ascunce, N; Ederra Sanza, M; Sarriugarte Irigoien, G; Salas Trejo, D; Ibáñez Cabanell, J; Wiege, M; Ohlsson, G; Törnberg, S; Korzeniewska, M; de Wolf, C; Fracheboud, J; Patnick J, J; Lancucki, L; Ducarroz, S; Suonio, E

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  20. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...