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Sample records for amplificado al azar

  1. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM) en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez; Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2008-01-01

    Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM) en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba ...

  2. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  3. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  4. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s in plant genetic diversity studies

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    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.The use and importance, advantages, disadvantages and features of the Random Amplified Microsatellites RAMs technique, were reviewed in Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana, blackberry Rubus spp, guava Psidium guajava and heliconias Heliconia spp. In blackberry, we differentiated the species R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, detected duplicated accessions and found high genetic diversity in R. glaucus, the most important specie. In cape gooseberry we found high diversity and two red fruit accessions genetically differentiated from the yellow fruit ones and a geographical region with high variability. In guava, primers were highly polymorphic and found high variability in Valle del Cauca region. In Heliconia and related species we differentiated families belonging to Zingiberal order, between some sub genera and variation among specie. The technique has low cost of implementation, use a single primer, do not require previous information, is highly

  5. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE AISLADOS DE Sclerotium cepivorum MEDIANTE ANÁLISIS DEL POLIMORFISMO DE LOS FRAGMENTOS AMPLIFICADOS AL AZAR CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR DE AISLADOS DE Sclerotium cepivorum MEDIANTE ANÁLISIS DEL POLIMORFISMO DE LOS FRAGMENTOS AMPLIFICADOS AL AZAR

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    Francisco Luna Martínez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium cepivorum is the etiologic agent of garlic "white rot". Knowledge of genetic variability of the fungus may help to design efficient strategies for its control. For this study, 47 isolates obtained from Aguascalientes, Guanajuato and Zacatecas as well as 7 reference strains were used. Morphological characterization was that established for this organism. PCR amplification of ribosomal 18S gene generated a DNA fragment of a size close to 2.2 Kb in all isolates and reference strains, as compared to that of 1.8 Kb amplified in control fungi. Variability was analyzed by Random Amplified Polymorphism Distance (RAPD. Isolates exhibited a similar gene pattern with an average dissimilitud of 9.4%. Some of the bands identified here can be useful as molecular markers in identification studies of this plant pathogen. Dendogram analysis of data revealed a tendency of isolates to group according to their geographic procedence.Sclerotium cepivorum es el agente causal de la "pudrición blanca" del ajo. El conocer su variabilidad genética permitirá buscar estrategias de control mas eficientes. Se utilizaron 47 aislados de S. cepivorum provenientes de Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Zacatecas y 7 cepas de referencia. El análisis morfológico correspondió al establecido para este hongo. Se amplificó el gen ribosomal 18S dando un tamaño cercano a 2.2 kb en todos los aislados y cepas de S. cepivorum, en los hongos control fue de aproximadamente 18 kb. El grado de variabilidad se analizó por medio del Polimorfismo de los Fragmentos Amplificados al Azar (RAPD. Los aislados de S. cepivorum dieron un patrón génico similar, pero muy diferente al que muestran los otros hongos fitopatógenos. La disimilitud genética promedio fue de 9.4%. Se proponen algunas bandas como marcadores moleculares para identificar al fitopatógeno. En el dendograma se aprecia que hay tendencia de los aislados a agruparse según el estado de donde provienen.

  6. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

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    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  7. Comparación entre 5 métodos para la extracción de ADN de Triatomíneos: su utilización en la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD)

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga Nodarse, Jorge; Rodríguez, Jinnay; Fuentes, Omar; Castex, Mayda; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé

    2004-01-01

    Se evaluó la aplicabilidad de 5 protocolos útiles para la extracción del ADN genómico de Triatomíneos, y se describió el método del acetato de potasio modificado, como un método con el que se obtiene un alto rendimiento y pureza del ADN en el menor tiempo y costo, para su utilización como molde en la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD [la cual es un método simple para detectar el polimorfismo genético del ADN]) y probablemente en otras técnicas moleculares basadas en la ampl...

  8. Optimization of random amplified polymorphic DNA techniques for use in genetic studies of Cuban triatominae Optimización de la técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD para su utilización en la caracterización genética de triatomíneos cubanos

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    Jorge Fraga

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique is a simple and reliable method to detect DNA polymorphism. Several factors can affect the amplification profiles, thereby causing false bands and non-reproducibility of assay. In this study, we analyzed the effect of changing the concentration of primer, magnesium chloride, template DNA and Taq DNA polymerase with the objective of determining their optimum concentration for the standardization of RAPD technique for genetic studies of Cuban Triatominae. Reproducible amplification patterns were obtained using 5 pmoL of primer, 2.5 mM of MgCl2, 25 ng of template DNA and 2 U of Taq DNA polymerase in 25 µL of the reaction. A panel of five random primers was used to evaluate the genetic variability of T. flavida. Three of these (OPA-1, OPA-2 and OPA-4 generated reproducible and distinguishable fingerprinting patterns of Triatominae. Numerical analysis of 52 RAPD amplified bands generated for all five primers was carried out with unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA. Jaccard's Similarity Coefficient data were used to construct a dendrogram. Two groups could be distinguished by RAPD data and these groups coincided with geographic origin, i.e. the populations captured in areas from east and west of Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río. T. flavida present low interpopulation variability that could result in greater susceptibility to pesticides in control programs. The RAPD protocol and the selected primers are useful for molecular characterization of Cuban Triatominae.La técnica de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD es un método simple para detectar el polimorfismo genético del ADN. Diferentes factores afectan los perfiles de amplificación lo que se manifiesta en la presencia de bandas falsas y en la reproducibilidad del ensayo. En nuestro trabajo analizamos los cambios de la concentración de cebador, ADN molde, cloruro de magnesio y de Taq ADN polimerasa con el objetivo de determinar su

  9. Análisis probabilista con caminata al azar del número de personas viviendo con VIH mundialmente

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    Javier Oswaldo Rodríguez-Velásquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El estudio de la dinámica anual de la epidemia de VIH a partir de la caminata al azar ha mostrado ser de utilidad para llevar este fenómeno altamente variable a un comportamiento predecible Objetivo: Predecir el comportamiento de la dinámica del número de personas viviendo con VIH mediante la caminata al azar probabilista. Metodología: Se analizaron los valores anuales de personas que a nivel global viven con VIH desde el año 1990 hasta el 2009, a partir de los espacios de probabilidad generados con la caminata al azar probabilista, para posteriormente desarrollar la predicción del valor anual de personas viviendo con VIH para los años 2010, 2011 y 2012. Resultados: Se predijeron los valores anuales de personas viviendo con VIH con un porcentaje de acierto de 98,95% para el año 2010, de 98,82% para el año 2011 y de 98,99% para la predicción realizada para el año 2012. Conclusiones: Se establecieron órdenes matemáticos a partir de la caminata al azar probabilista, estableciendo predicciones prácticamente deterministas del número de personas viviendo con VIH, lo que podría ser útil para las decisiones en Salud Pública y para la evaluación de intervenciones.

  10. Contribución al estudio epidemiológico del kala-azar en Colombia

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    Augusto Corredor Arjona

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available Los autores informan sobre el estudio epidemiológico del kala-azar en un foco situado en el municipio de Melgar, departamento del Tolima. Colombia. Encontraron la modalidad del kala-azar de la zona neotropical descrita en otras partes de América; mayor incidencia en los grupos humanos menores de cinco años, perros frecuentemente infectados, presencia de lutzomyia longipalpis. Hacen una discursión sobre la aparición de nuevos focos de kala-azar relacionándolos con la suspensión del rociado de D.D.T. hecho por la campaña de erradicación de la malaria y suponen la aparición de nuevos casos de kala-azar en zonas ecológicas similares.

  11. Kala-azar in Darfur: Evidence for indigenous transmission in Al-Malha Locality, North Darfur, western Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Khalid, Noteila M; Aboud, Mariam A

    2018-03-06

    Recent reports showed high numbers of visceral leishmaniasis cases in North Darfur, western Sudan. Due to a lack of previous studies, no information is available on local transmission of the disease in these areas. Therefore, a pilot entomological and epidemiological study was conducted in Al-Malha Locality during the year 2013, to investigate possibility of local transmission and places and times of the year where and when people contract the infection. Kala-azar incidence data were obtained from records of Ministry of Health, North Darfur; Al-Malha rural hospital; and the Federal Ministry of Health, Division of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases. Sand flies were collected using sticky paper and rodent burrow traps from five different microhabitats during three different phases of the year. Species identification was undertaken using appropriate taxonomic keys. Data were statistically analyzed to determine the distribution of kala-azar among different age groups and between sexes, and to compare the species richness and distribution of different sandfly species between the different microhabitats. The most affected age groups with kala-azar during the period 2013-2016 were children between one and five years old and those under one year. Females were found to be more affected than males. A total of 918 sand fly specimens were collected using sticky paper and rodent burrow traps from five microhabitats. Identified specimens belong to 13 species; 5 Phlebotomus and 8 Sergentomyia. Phlebotomus orientalis, the principal vector of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and other East African countries, was found for the first time in the area. No other known vector of VL was found in the collection. The highest number of sand flies was recorded during the summer season (63%), with S. antennata (48%) and S. schwetzi (24.1%) being the most abundant species. Among Phlebotomus species, P. orientalis showed relatively high density (8.6%). A dry seasonal water course

  12. Evolution of the histones: free play with exon shuffling Evolucion de las histonas: Juego libre con reordenamiento de exones al azar

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    G. CECILIA TORO

    2001-03-01

    cromatina es el nucleosoma, formado por 168 pares de bases de DNA enrollados en el octámero de histonas, el cual consiste en dos copias de las histonas H2A, H2B, H3 y H4. El DNA es sellado en los puntos de entrada y salida por una histona de unión: la histona H1. Se supone que las histonas son proteínas muy conservadas. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años se ha encontrado que estas proteínas presentan un alto grado de divergencia en varios eucariontes inferiores. En Trypanosoma se ha encontrado que las histonas H3 y H4, que están en el centro de la organización nucleosomal, muestran más de un 30 % de divergencia, y que la histona H1 corresponde sólo a uno de los tres dominios presentes en los eucariontes superiores. Estos rasgos en Trypanosoma podrían explicar, al menos en parte, la ausencia de condensación de la cromatina en cromosomas durante la división celular en estos parásitos. La evolución de las histonas ha sido considerada como algo peculiar, con varias propuestas difíciles de reconciliar con los datos experimentales. En este trabajo se propone que las histonas han seguido la misma historia evolutiva de muchas otras proteínas. Si consideramos que los exones codifican para dominios estructurales y funcionales en las proteínas y que, en el origen de los eucariontes, las histonas, al igual que otras proteínas, podrían haberse formado por unidades (teoría tipo mecano, se podría esperar que estas unidades o dominios eventualmente fuesen encontrados en organismos actuales que exhiban características primitivas. Mas aún, estas unidades podrían funcionar independientemente. Nuestros resultados relativos a la estructura de los genes de histonas y de sus proteínas en Trypanosoma cruzi, y el análisis de otras histonas de diferentes especies confirman la proposición

  13. Concept-Based Grammar Teaching: An Academic Responds to Azar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This response to Azar (this volume) intends to discuss from an academic's perspective the main points raised in her paper (i.e., grammar-based instruction and its relation to focus on form and error correction) and, to encourage a more concept-based approach to grammar instruction (CBT). A CBT approach to language development argues that the…

  14. Hydraulic properties from pumping tests data of aquifers in Azare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pumping test data from twelve boreholes in Azare area were analysed to determine the hydraulic properties of the aquifers, and the availability of water to meet the conjugate demands of the increasing population. The values of the aquifer constants obtained from the Cooper-Jacob's non-equilibrium graphical method were ...

  15. Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) In vivo veritas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immunology LAB-1

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... 50. 100. 150. 200. 250. 300. 0. 200. 400. 600. 800. 1000. 1200. 1400. 1600 ... Rapid diagnostic tests exist (PKDL?) • Effective ... ld (C t). No: of parasites/ 200 µl of blood. Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL); dermal ...

  16. Atypical Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with ?Muzzle Area? Swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar derma...

  17. Atypical post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis with "muzzle area" swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter.

  18. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...

  19. Identificación de Yarrowia lipolytica (Ascomycota: Hemiascomycetes como contaminante en la obtención de amplificados del gen 28S rRNA de moluscos

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    Jenny Chirinos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifica una secuencia de DNA no esperada proveniente de los amplificados del gen 28S rRNA de moluscos terrestres. Las extracciones de DNA se realizaron del tejido del pie de caracoles terrestres por el método del CTAB modificado. Las PCRs fueron llevadas a cabo con primers universales para el gen COI e iniciadores diseñados para moluscos, para el marcador 16S rRNA, 28S rRNA y la región ITS-2. Los tamaños aproximados de las bandas de los amplificados de moluscos fueron de 706 pb para el COI, 330 pb para el 16S rRNA, 900 pb para el ITS-2 y 583 pb para el 28S rRNA; un amplificado del último marcador fue de una longitud inesperada, ~340 pb. Las secuencias de DNA fueron comparadas con la base de datos del GenBank mediante el programa BLASTn y la muestra con la banda de tamaño inesperado resultó en un 100% de identidad y cobertura del 99% con el gen 26S rRNA de la levadura Yarrowia lipolytica. El análisis filogenético con Neighbour-Joining y los valores de divergencia confirmaron la identificación, proporcionando resultados que apoyan la ubicación taxonómica de la especie dentro del clado de los Hemiascomycetes.

  20. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

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    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  1. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

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    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  2. Evaluation of latex agglutination test (KAtex) for early diagnosis of kala-azar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, M M; Islam, M N; Mollah, A H; Hoque, M A; Hossain, M A; Begum, Z; Islam, M T

    2010-07-01

    Kala-azar is one of the major public health problem in Bangladesh. But the diagnosis of the problem often is difficult, unusual and time consuming, a simple, noninvasive, easy to perform, reliable and rapid diagnostic test has been a long-felt need of the clinicians. Therefore, the present study was conducted to see the sensitivity and specificity of Latex Agglutination test (KAtex) to detect leishmanial antigen from urine of kala-azar cases. The study was carried out in the department of Paediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College and Hospital, Bangladesh during July to December, 2008. A total of 100 urine samples were collected of which 50 were confirmed kala-azar cases and 50 were age and sex matched controls. Out of 50 kala-azar cases 47 showed positive result of KAtex. The test was also positive in 01 out of 30 healthy controls. None of the febrile controls was positive by KAtex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the test using presence of LD bodies in splenic and/or bone marrow aspirate as gold standard were 94%, 98%, 97.91% and 94.23% respectively. KAtex is simple, noninvasive, easy to perform, rapid and reliable test for diagnosing kala-azar in endemic area and useful for small, less equipped laboratories as well as for the laboratories with better facilities.

  3. La demanda de lotería y juegos de azar: Su realidad y sus potencialidades

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    Jorge Iván González

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sobre [as loterías y los juegos de azar tiene implicaciones de muy diversa naturaleza. Toca aspectos básicos de la teoría de la elección bajo riesgo y, ademas, tiene implicaciones fiscales muy importantes. La forma de administrar el monopolio de las loterías y juegos de azar plantea retos muy interesantes en el campo de la gerencia y de la hacienda pública Después de presentar el monto de las ventas de las principales loterías, analizamos el significado de la demanda consuetudinaria. En la sección siguiente evaluamos los determinantes del precio óptimo Posteriormente describimos el perfil del comprador de loterias y juegos de azar, para finalizar el ensayo con unas reflexiones sobre el impacto fiscal de las loterías.

  4. Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jokilehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

  5. Role of remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics in kala-azar epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Dikhit, Manas Ranjan; Kesari, Shreekant; Sahoo, Ganesh Chandra; Das, Pradeep

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar is a potent parasitic infection causing death of thousands of people each year. Medicinal compounds currently available for the treatment of kala-azar have serious side effects and decreased efficacy owing to the emergence of resistant strains. The type of immune reaction is also to be considered in patients infected with Leishmania donovani (L. donovani). For complete eradication of this disease, a high level modern research is currently being applied both at the molecular level as well as at the field level. The computational approaches like remote sensing, geographical information system (GIS) and bioinformatics are the key resources for the detection and distribution of vectors, patterns, ecological and environmental factors and genomic and proteomic analysis. Novel approaches like GIS and bioinformatics have been more appropriately utilized in determining the cause of visearal leishmaniasis and in designing strategies for preventing the disease from spreading from one region to another.

  6. Vector density and the control of kala-azar in Bihar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Dinesh, D S; Ranjan, A; Prasad, M; Sinha, N K; Kumar, R; Das, P

    2009-11-01

    Bihar, India has been in the grip of kala-azar for many years. Its rampant and severe spread has made life miserable in most parts of the state. Such conditions require a comprehensive understanding of this affliction. The numbers coming out of the districts prone to the disease in the north and south Ganges have provided us with several startling revelations, as there are striking uniformities on both sides, including similar vegetation, water storage facilities, house construction and little change in risk factors. The northern areas have been regularly sprayed with DDT since 1977, but eradication of the disease appears to be a distant dream. In 2007 alone, there were as many as 37,738 cases in that region. In contrast, the southern districts of Patna and Nalanda have never had the disease in its epidemic form and endemic disease has been present in only some pockets of the two districts. In those cases, two rounds of spraying with DDT had very positive results, with successful control and no new established foci. In addition, an eleven-year longitudinal study of the man hour density and house index for the vector Phlebotomus argentipes demonstrated that they were quite high in Patna and Nalanda and quite low in north Bihar. Given these facts, an attempt has been made to unravel the role of P. argentipes saliva (salivary gland) in the epidemiology of kala-azar. It was determined that patchy DDT spraying should be avoided for effective control of kala-azar.

  7. Evaluación Psicométrica de una Escala de Distorsiones Cognitivas sobre los Juegos de Azar en una Muestra Nacional de Estudiantes Colombianos

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    JOSÉ IGNACIO RUIZ-PÉREZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este trabajo son: (a adaptar el Inventario de Pensamientos sobre el Juego (IPJ a una muestra no aleatoria de estudiantes colombianos (n=4.300 de todas las regiones del país, (b estudiar la prevalencia de las distorsiones cognitivas sobre los juegos de azar y (c comparar los puntajes en el instrumento, de acuerdo al sexo, al nivel socioeconómico y a la edad. En los resultados, la escala mostró una buena fiabilidad interna y una estructura unidimensional. Alrededor del 50% de los sujetos presentaba de 2 a 7 distorsiones cognitivas, y los puntajes más altos en el IPJ se observaron en los hombres, en las personas de clases sociales bajas, en las más jóvenes y en quienes pensaban que, si les tocara mucha plata, se resolverían todos sus problemas.

  8. Azar y psicoanálisis: una interpretación del sueño en Nadie nada nunca de Juan José Saer

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    François Degrande

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frente a las lecturas de orientación psicoanalítica (Premat, Corbatta, otro modo de leer a Saer tiende a resaltar el peso innegable del azar en su obra (Dalmaroni y Merbilhaá, Iglesia. Nuestra lectura intenta esclarecer la maniobra narrativa de Saer al orquestar el improbable matrimonio del azar con el psicoanálisis en Nadie nada nunca. Siguiendo a Baudrillard en Las estrategias fatales, el psicoanálisis tendió a “eliminar el azar de los lapsus, de los actos fallidos, de los sueños, de la locura”(162. Si la reunión de la causalidad y de la casualidad es problemática en la quinta novela de Saer, sostenemos que esta situación se debe al terror dictatorial. Para intentar probar esto, el trabajo ahonda en el sueño del Gato (cap. II que se desarrolla en un casino-prostíbulo. Este episodio –mise en abyme fundamental de la novela– nos permite adentrarnos en la alegorización de lo arbitrario dictatorial y es la ocasión de resaltar la maestría de Saer cuando instrumentaliza las colusiones de intereses azarosos y psicoanalíticos en una base económica cuestionable. In contrast with psychoanalytic readings (Premat, Corbatta, another way of reading Saer highlights the relevance of chance in his work (Dalmaroni and Merbilhaá, Iglesia. Both types of readings pose theoretical questions. Indeed, as Baudrillard puts it in Les stratégies fatales, “psychoanalysis […] and its unconscious interpretation have ruled out the accidental nature of lapsus, of Freudian slips, of dreams, of madness (162”. Our reading attempts to shed light on the literary project of the Argentinian writer as he plots the improbable relation of chance and psychoanalysis in his fifth novel, Nadie nada nunca. In this vein, the problematic coexistence of causality and chance can only be explained by the dictatorial terror that permeates this novel. To prove this, the article analyzes the oneiric world of El Gato (II, in which the freudian principle of

  9. A Study on Health Seeking Behaviors of Patients of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

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    Ariful Basher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL remains a major public health threat in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Surya Kanta Kala azar Research Centre (SKKRC, Mymensingh, from January 2012 to July 2013 to evaluate the health seeking behaviour and the length of delay of PKDL management. The consecutive 200 diagnosed PKDL cases that got treatment in SKKRC hospital were subjected to evaluation. Most (98% of the patients were not aware and had no knowledge about PKDL, though 87.5% had a history of history of Kala-azar treatment. Many patients reported first to village doctor (15.5%, the pharmacy shop (10%, or traditional health provider (7.5% upon recognition of symptom. The time between the initial symptom recognition and first medical consultation (patient delay ranged from 10 days to 4745 days (13 years with a median of 373 days (mean: 696; IQR: 138 to 900 days. The time between first medical consultations to definite treatment (system delay ranged from 0 days to 1971 days (5.4 years, with a median delay of 14 days (mean: 46.48; IQR: 7 to 44 days that was reported in this study. Age, education, occupation, and residential status had significant association with patient delay (P<0.05. Educational status, occupation, number of treatment providers, and first health care provider had a significant association with system delay (P<0.05. Success in PKDL diagnosis and treatment requires specific behavior from patients and health care providers which facilitate those practices.

  10. Atypical Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with “Muzzle Area” Swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sandeep; Bal, Arvinder Singh; Baveja, Sukriti; Sood, Aradhana; Rathi, Khushi Ram; Patil, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male presented with recurrent swelling of the muzzle area of the face with history of low-grade intermittent fever of 3 year duration managed variously with antibiotics, systemic steroids, and antituberculous therapy. Skin biopsy revealed a granulomatous infiltration negative for acid-fast bacilli and leishmania donovan bodies. Immunochromatography test for rK 39 antigen and polymerase chain reaction for leishmania was positive. He was diagnosed as a case of post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis, managed with injection sodium stibogluconate and followed-up thereafter. PMID:25657406

  11. High levels of C-reactive protein in the peripheral blood during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Theander, T G; ElHassan, A M

    2000-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known sequel to visceral leishmaniasis in India and East Africa, and in Sudan about 50% of the kala-azar patients develop PKDL. In this study we followed kala-azar patients from diagnosis and up to 2 years after initiation of treatment. During...... and in keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of PKDL. The method however requires expensive equipment and reagents. The results of the present study indicate that kala-azar patients, who have a high risk of developing PKDL after treatment can be identified by measuring plasma CRP....

  12. Azar, libertad y responsabilidad: aportes para una práctica psicológica

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    Horacio Manrique Tisnés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una mirada sobre la responsabilidad partiendo de los conceptos de azar y libertad, los cuales se consideran básicos para sostener que el sujeto tiene la pos ibilidad de elegir, a pesar de sus determinaciones. En este sentido, lo azaroso, entendido como el comportamient o impredecible de ciertos eventos, dada su falta de regularidad, se interrelaciona con aspectos determinados y otros aleatorios. Por su parte, la libertad es posibilidad de elegir. La responsabilidad, entendid a como una consecuencia del azar, y la libertad se define como “la respuesta acorde con el propio ser” (Ramírez, 2 012, p. 45. Con base en lo anterior, la psicología, en cualquiera de sus campos, puede generar efectos d e responsabilización en el sujeto, por sí mismo y por el entorno, teniendo en cuenta las respuest as que puede dar un ser humano en una situación elemental, primaria o secundaria. Dentro de este contexto, cabe resaltar l a respuesta secundaria que puede ofrecer una persona, en la medida en que ésta caracteriza su responsabilidad ét ica, la cual puede ser promovida por la práctica psicológica basada en una actitud analítica.

  13. Performance Evaluation of wastewater treatment plant of Noosh Azar company by online monitoring station

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    leila haddadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background& Objective: One of the reuses of wastewater in industries is irrigation of green space. Therefore, with proper treatment and reduction of environmental pollution of wastewater and in compliance with environmental standards, it can be used for irrigation purposes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the performance of Noosh Azar Wastewater Treatment Plant by the online monitoring station in 2016.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed at Noosh Azar Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP in Tehran. The effluent outlet parameters include COD, BOD, TSS, TOC, Turbidity, pH and temperature which were measured 12 times/day by the online monitoring station of the refinery according to the standard methods (the Examinations of Water and Wastewater, and reported at the end of each month. Data were entered into SPSS software and analyzed using statistical indices including mean and standard deviation. Results: The average total of BOD/COD ratio in the wastewater was 0.8. The results of the study showed that the average concentration of COD, BOD and TSS of the wastewater was 1624.91 ±134.85, 1310±75.38 and 283.58± 39.76 mg/L, respectively. The average of total outlet parameters of turbidity, COD, BOD, TSS and TOC were 12.78±2.21, 83.73±12.90, 41.26±6.65, 6.70±2.14, 46.03±7.08 mg/L, and pH=7.80±0.35. The total average of removal efficiencies of COD, BOD and TSS were 93.92±3.62, 96.57±1.002 and 97.57±0.936, respectively. Conclusion: Regarding the proper performance of the activated sludge system of Noosh Azar Company, the effluent  parameters such as COD, BOD, TSS, TOC, turbidity and pH, were in accordance with the standard of the Iranian Environmental Protection Agency for irrigation use. However in order to ensure the quality of the wastewater for reuse, the microbial parameters should also be considered.

  14. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar

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    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.Keywords: visceral, leishmaniasis, paromomycin

  15. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

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    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Miltefosine in Treatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

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    Shyam Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Long regimens for the treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL result in noncompliance. A safe, effective, and acceptable regimen for the treatment of PKDL is still to be developed. Miltefosine has been found to be effective in the treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL. Hence, its efficacy was tested in patients of PKDL. Methods. In this exploratory study, 33 patients with PKDL aged 10 years and above were administered miltefosine (50 mg for those weighing <25 kg or 100 mg in divided doses for those ≥25 kg and 2.5 mg per kg for children for 12 weeks and followed up for one year to find out the efficacy. Results. Out of 33 patients, 3 patients withdrew consent. Treatment was stopped due to adverse effect in 1 patient. 28 (96.6% got cured with complete disappearance of lesion while 1 patient (3.4% failed treatment by protocol analysis. Conclusion. Miltefosine was found to be effective and safe in the treatment of PKDL.

  17. Economic consequences of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in a rural Bangladeshi community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masayo; Islam, Shamim; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Rahman, Anisur; Luby, Stephen P; Bern, Caryn

    2011-09-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90-284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71-150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16-95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals.

  18. Economic Consequences of Post–Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in a Rural Bangladeshi Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Masayo; Islam, Shamim; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur; Rahman, Anisur; Luby, Stephen P.; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Post–kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90–284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71–150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16–95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals. PMID:21896817

  19. Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Leishmania donovani in Slit Aspirates from Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, Gannavaram; Ansari, N. A.; Kataria, Joginder; Salotra, Poonam

    2004-01-01

    A nested PCR assay to detect parasite DNA in slit aspirates from skin lesions of patients with post-kala-azar dermal lesihmaniasis (PKDL) is described. PCR results were positive in 27 of 29 (93%) samples by nested PCR assay, while only 20 of 29 (69%) were positive in a primary PCR assay. The nested PCR assay allowed reliable diagnosis of PKDL in a noninvasive manner. PMID:15071047

  20. Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Leishmania donovani in Slit Aspirates from Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivas, Gannavaram; Ansari, N. A.; Kataria, Joginder; Salotra, Poonam

    2004-01-01

    A nested PCR assay to detect parasite DNA in slit aspirates from skin lesions of patients with post-kala-azar dermal lesihmaniasis (PKDL) is described. PCR results were positive in 27 of 29 (93%) samples by nested PCR assay, while only 20 of 29 (69%) were positive in a primary PCR assay. The nested PCR assay allowed reliable diagnosis of PKDL in a noninvasive manner.

  1. Snowball Vs. House-to-House Technique for Measuring Annual Incidence of Kala-azar in the Higher Endemic Blocks of Bihar, India: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Niyamat A; Rabidas, Vidya N; Sinha, Sanjay K; Verma, Rakesh B; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Vijay P; Ranjan, Alok; Topno, Roshan K; Lal, Chandra S; Kumar, Vijay; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Sridhar, Srikantaih; Pandey, Arvind; Das, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is widely prevalent in Bihar. The National Kala-azar Control Program has applied house-to-house survey approach several times for estimating Kala-azar incidence in the past. However, this approach includes huge logistics and operational cost, as occurrence of kala-azar is clustered in nature. The present study aims to compare efficiency, cost and feasibility of snowball sampling approach to house-to-house survey approach in capturing kala-azar cases in two endemic districts of Bihar, India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in two highly endemic Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas, each from two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Snowball technique (used to locate potential subjects with help of key informants where subjects are hard to locate) and house-to-house survey technique were applied to detect all the new cases of Kala-azar during a defined reference period of one year i.e. June, 2010 to May, 2011. The study covered a total of 105,035 households with 537,153 populations. Out of total 561 cases and 17 deaths probably due to kala-azar, identified by the study, snowball sampling approach captured only 221 cases and 13 deaths, whereas 489 cases and 17 deaths were detected by house-to-house survey approach. Higher value of McNemar's χ² statistics (64; phouse-to-house survey approach than snowball sampling and relative difference (>1) indicates that most of the kala-azar cases missed by snowball sampling were captured by house-to-house approach with 13% of omission. Snowball sampling was not found sensitive enough as it captured only about 50% of VL cases. However, it captured about 77% of the deaths probably due to kala-azar and was found more cost-effective than house-to-house approach. Standardization of snowball approach with improved procedure, training and logistics may enhance the sensitivity of snowball sampling and its application in national Kala-azar elimination programme as cost

  2. Alterações cutâneas do cão no Kala-Azar sul-americano

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    C. Magarinos Torres

    1941-01-01

    Full Text Available According to E. Chagas (1938, South-American Kala Azar is a widespread disease from the jungle, several cases being reported from North Brazil (Estado do Pará: Marajó Island, Tocantins and Gurupi river valleys; Estados do Piauí and Ceará: coast and hinterland. Other cases were found in Northeast Brazil (Estados de Pernambuco, Alagôas and Sergipe: coast and hinterland; Estado da Bahia: hinterland. A few cases were described from Estado de Mato-Grosso (Brazil, Provincia de Salta and Território do Chaco (Argentine, and Zona contestada do Chaco (Paraguai-Bolívia. A well defined secondary anemia associated with enlargement of the liver and spleen are the chief symptoms. Death usually occurs in cachexia and with symptoms of heart failure. Half the patients were children aged less than ten years (CHAGAS, CASTRO & FERREIRA, 1937. Quite exhaustive epidemiological researches performed by CHAGAS, FERREIRA, DEANE, DEANE & GUIMARÃES (1938 in Municipio de Abaeté (Estado do Pará, Brazil gave the incidence of 1.48% for the natural infection in human, 4.49% in dogs, and 2.63% in cats. The infection was arcribed (CUNHA & CHAGAS, 1937 to a new species of Leishmania (L. chagasi. Latter CUNHA (1938 state, that it is identical to L. infantum. ADLER (1940 found that so far it has been impossible to distinguish L. chagasi from L. infantum by any laboratory test but a final judgment must be reserved until further experiments with different species of sandflies have been carried out. Skin changes in canine Kala Azar were signaled by many workers, and their importance as regards the transmission of the disease is recognized by some of them (ADLER & THEODOR, 1931, 2. CUNHA, 1933. Cutaneous ulcers in naturally infected dogs are referred by CRITIEN (1911 in Malta, by CHODUKIN & SCHEVTSCHENKO (1928 in Taschkent, by DONATIEN & LESTOCQUARD (1929 and by LESTOCQUARD & PARROT (1929 in Algeria, and by BLANC & CAMINOPETROS (1931 in Greece. Depilation is signaled by

  3. The rK39 strip test is non-predictor of clinical status for kala-azar

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    Mohapatra Tribhuban M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rK39 strip test is reported to be simple, sensitive, specific, non-invasive and economical test. Since this method is supposed to be patient friendly, it may easily be accepted for sero-epidemiological surveys. An attempt was made to evaluate the role of rK39 strip test in pre and post treatment phases of Kala azar, as a diagnostic and prognostic marker, in addition to other laboratory investigations, in order to evaluate its role in sero-epidemiological surveys. Findings A total of 210 cases were selected for the study. One hundred clinically and parasitologically confirmed cases were corroborated with other hematological profiles. The formol-gel test was included along with well matched control group comprising of normal endemic controls (50, non-endemic normals (20 and other febrile cases (40. All groups were tested by rK39 strip test. Fifty Kala azar cases were followed up after completion of successful treatment. They were subjected to rK39 strip test after 0, 90 and 180 days of completion of successful treatment. The rK39 showed sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of 98% (95% CI 91.7-100, 100%, 100%, 90% (95% CI 66-100 and 98% (95% CI 92.6-100 respectively. All the 50 cured followed up cases showed positive result by rK39 strip test even after 180 days of completion of successful treatment. Conclusion The test seems an ideal qualitative test for the diagnosis of kala-azar. But for sero-epidemiological studies the test may be used with other parameters. Alternatively a quantitative ELISA using rK39 antigen may be used.

  4. Seasonal relationship between normalized difference vegetation index and abundance of the Phlebotomus kala-azar vector in an endemic focus in Bihar, India

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    Gouri S. Bhunia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing was applied for the collection of spatio-temporal data to increase our understanding of the potential distribution of the kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes in endemic areas of the Vaishali district of Bihar, India. We produced monthly distribution maps of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI based on data from the thematic mapper (TM sensor onboard the Landsat-5 satellite. Minimum, maximum and mean NDVI values were computed for each month and compared with the concurrent incidence of kala-azar and the vector density. Maximum and mean NDVI values (R2 = 0.55 and R2 = 0.60, respectively, as well as the season likelihood ratio (X2 = 17.51; P <0.001, were found to be strongly associated with kala-azar, while the correlation with between minimum NDVI values and kala-azar was weak (R2 = 0.25. Additionally, a strong association was found between the mean and maximum NDVI values with seasonal vector abundance (R2 = 0.60 and R2 = 0.55, respectively but there was only a marginal association between minimum NDVI value and the spatial distribution of kala-azar vis-à-vis P. argentipes density.

  5. Parasite detection in patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in India: a comparison between molecular and immunological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotra, P; Sreenivas, G; Beena, K R; Mukherjee, A; Ramesh, V

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of serological, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods in the diagnosis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Methods: Twenty five patients with confirmed PKDL and 25 controls were included in the study. G2D10, a monoclonal antibody against Leishmania, was used for the immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of lesion sections to visualise anti-Leishmania donovani antibodies. The diagnostic usefulness of IHC was compared with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a recombinant (rk39) antigen, and a species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, amplifying a kinetoplast minicircle DNA sequence. Results: IHC detected 22 of 25 PKDL cases, giving a sensitivity of 88%. The diagnostic sensitivity of both the ELISA and PCR tests was higher (96%). All of the 25 controls examined were negative in PCR, indicating 100% specificity of the test, whereas ELISA showed 96% specificity. Conclusions: IHC with G2D10 significantly enhances the sensitivity of detection of PKDL over routine haematoxylin and eosin staining. ELISA with a recombinant antigen is an economical and practical assay. PCR is the most sensitive and specific diagnostic method for PKDL. The tests described would facilitate the recognition of patients with PKDL, enabling timely treatment, which would contribute greatly to the control of kala-azar. PMID:14600129

  6. The development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is associated with acquisition of Leishmania reactivity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Kharazmi, A

    2000-01-01

    PKDL develops in about 50% of Sudanese patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). Patients with kala-azar were entered into this study and followed for a period of up to 2 years. During follow up 12 patients developed PKDL and eight did not. Proliferative responses and cytokine...... production to Leishmania donovani and control antigens were measured in vitro using PBMC isolated at the time of diagnosis of kala-azar, after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, during follow up, and at the time of diagnosis of PKDL. Proliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production were...... assays. There were no differences in Leishmania antigen-induced production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 between or within the two groups. We have previously shown that Leishmania parasites spread to the skin during visceral leishmaniasis and proposed that PKDL was the result of an immunological attack...

  7. High levels of plasma IL-10 and expression of IL-10 by keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Khalil, E A

    1998-01-01

    Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We...... report here that PKDL development can be predicted before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and that IL-10 is involved in the pathogenesis. Before treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, Leishmania parasites were present in skin which appeared normal on all patients. However, IL-10 was detected...

  8. Validity and Reliability of the Questionnaire for Assessing Women’s Reproductive History in Azar Cohort Study

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    Mohammad Zakaria Pezeshki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to evaluate the validity and reliability of women’s reproductive history questionnaire which will be used in Azar Cohort study; a cohort that is conducted by Tabriz University of Medical Science in Shabestar county for identifying risk factors of no communicable diseases. Content and face validity were evaluated by ten experts in the field and quantified as content validity index (CVI and content validity ratio (CVR. To assess the reliability, using test-retest approach, kappa statistic was calculated for categorical variables and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used for the quantitative items. The calculated CVI and CVR were 0.91and 0.94, respectively. Reliability for all items was high. The ICC was 0.99 and kappa statistic was equal to 1. The final version of questionnaire was redesigned in 26 items with 7 subscales.

  9. Leggere i Classici in Oriente. Il mito della letteratura occidentale in Dai Sijie, Murakami Haruki, Azar Nafisi

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    Niccolò Scaffai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on three recent literary works (fiction and non-fiction novels written by authors of Asiatic origins: the French-speaking Chinese writer, Dai Sijie, the Iranian professor, Azar Nafisi, and the Japanese writer, Murakami Haruki. In the titles of these international bestsellers (Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress, Reading Lolita in Tehran, and Kafka on the Shore, we find an oxymoron: the name of a famous, canonical Western writer or character is used in an unusual context, linked to the geography of the near or far East. The consequent effect of estrangement can restore strength to literature, perhaps with greater determination than is possible in Western cultures. By using (and reversing the coordinates of Edward Said’s idea of Orientalism and, as in Kafka on the Shore, certain concepts of the Lacanian theory, this study analyzes the transfer of the European literary myths towards Eastern cultures.

  10. Detection and characterization of Leishmania in tissues of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis using a specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Kharazmi, A; Permin, H

    1997-01-01

    Sections from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were examined using an immunoperoxidase method and a monoclonal antibody directed against Leishmania donovani. Parasites were detected in 22 of 25 biopsies (88%). In parallel sections stained...

  11. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas the clinical manifestations and treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) have been adequately described before, the pathology received little attention, particularly the African form of PKDL which shows some clinical differences from the disease in India...... leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes....

  12. The pathogenesis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis from the field to the molecule: does ultraviolet light (UVB) radiation play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M

    2006-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatosis caused by persistence of Leishmania donovani parasites in the skin following apparently successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. The distribution of PKDL lesions in Sudanese patients often mirrors the clothing habits of those...

  13. Reactivity of various leishmanial antigens in a direct agglutination test and their value in differentiating post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis from leprosy and other skin conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harith, A.; Chowdhury, S.; Al-Masum, A.; Semião-Santos, S.; Das, P. K.; Akhter, S.; Vetter, J. C.; Haq, I.

    1996-01-01

    A direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of post-kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) was evaluated in conditions that simulate the disease clinically or immunologically. A reference strain of Leishmania donovani (LEM 1399), and antigen preparations from Leishmania isolates from

  14. Delimitation of kala-azar risk areas in the district of Vaishali in Bihar (India using a geo-environmental approach

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    Gouri Sankar Bhunia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing and geographical information technologies were used to discriminate areas of high and low risk for contracting kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis. Satellite data were digitally processed to generate maps of land cover and spectral indices, such as the normalised difference vegetation index and wetness index. To map estimated vector abundance and indoor climate data, local polynomial interpolations were used based on the weightage values. Attribute layers were prepared based on illiteracy and the unemployed proportion of the population and associated with village boundaries. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationship between environmental variables and disease incidence across the study area. The cell values for each input raster in the analysis were assigned values from the evaluation scale. Simple weighting/ratings based on the degree of favourable conditions for kala-azar transmission were used for all the variables, leading to geo-environmental risk model. Variables such as, land use/land cover, vegetation conditions, surface dampness, the indoor climate, illiteracy rates and the size of the unemployed population were considered for inclusion in the geo-environmental kala-azar risk model. The risk model was stratified into areas of "risk"and "non-risk"for the disease, based on calculation of risk indices. The described approach constitutes a promising tool for microlevel kala-azar surveillance and aids in directing control efforts.

  15. Predicting death from kala-azar: construction, development, and validation of a score set and accompanying software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Rocha, Regina Lunardi; Chaves, Eldo de Brito Ferreira; Batista, Vivianny Gonçalves de Vasconcelos; Costa, Henrique Lamounier; Costa, Carlos Henrique Nery

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of patients at higher risk of progressing to severe disease and death is crucial for implementing therapeutic and preventive measures; this could reduce the morbidity and mortality from kala-azar. We describe a score set composed of four scales in addition to software for quick assessment of the probability of death from kala-azar at the point of care. Data from 883 patients diagnosed between September 2005 and August 2008 were used to derive the score set, and data from 1,031 patients diagnosed between September 2008 and November 2013 were used to validate the models. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were used to derive the optimal multivariate prediction models. Model performance was assessed by its discriminatory accuracy. A computational specialist system (Kala-Cal(r)) was developed to speed up the calculation of the probability of death based on clinical scores. The clinical prediction score showed high discrimination (area under the curve [AUC] 0.90) for distinguishing death from survival for children ≤2 years old. Performance improved after adding laboratory variables (AUC 0.93). The clinical score showed equivalent discrimination (AUC 0.89) for older children and adults, which also improved after including laboratory data (AUC 0.92). The score set also showed a high, although lower, discrimination when applied to the validation cohort. This score set and Kala-Cal(r) software may help identify individuals with the greatest probability of death. The associated software may speed up the calculation of the probability of death based on clinical scores and assist physicians in decision-making.

  16. Genes that encodes NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are not virulence factors for kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum

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    Bruno Guedes Alcoforado Aguiar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kala-azar is a disease resulting from infection by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Most patients with the disease exhibit prolonged fever, wasting, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly without complications. However, some patients develop severe disease with hemorrhagic manifestations, bacterial infections, jaundice, and edema dyspnea, among other symptoms, followed by death. Among the parasite molecules that might influence the disease severity are the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like proteins (MIF1 and MIF2 and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (NAGT, which act in the first step of protein N-glycosylation. This study aimed to determine whether MIF1, MIF2 and NAGT are virulence factors for severe kala-azar. Methods To determine the parasite genotype in kala-azar patients from Northeastern Brazil, we sequenced the NAGT genes of L. infantum from 68 patients as well as the MIF1 and MIF2 genes from 76 different subjects with diverse clinical manifestations. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the fragments were sequenced, followed by polymorphism identification. Results The nucleotide sequencing of the 144 amplicons revealed the absence of genetic variability of the NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 genes between the isolates. The conservation of these genes suggests that the clinical variability of kala-azar does not depend upon these genes. Additionally, this conservation suggests that these genes may be critical for parasite survival. Conclusions NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 do not alter the severity of kala-azar. NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are highly conserved among different isolates of identical species and exhibit potential for use in phylogenetic inferences or molecular diagnosis.

  17. Characterization of Leishmania Parasites Isolated From Kala- azar Patients in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad, Using Semi-Nested PCR

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    B Sarkari

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a disease commonly known as Kala-azar caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania including L. donovani, L. infantum and L. chagasi. VL is sporadic in many areas of Iran and is endemic in a few provinces such as Fars, Azarbayjan, Bushehr, Ardabil and Qom. VL has been reported from some areas of Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad and this study aimed to characterize the causative agent of VL in this region. Materials & Methods: Bone marrow sample was obtained from 6 VL patients from children department in Imam Sajad hospital in Yasuj. DNA was extracted from the obtained samples and was checked by semi-nested PCR to determine the species of the parasite. To do that, a segment of minicircle kinetoplast DNA was amplified, using LINR4 and LIN17 primers. Products of PCR were evaluated by electrophoresis, using 1.5% agarose and stained with ethidium bromide. Results: Parasitologically examination of bone marrow smears demonstrated amastigotes form of the parasite in the samples. For mass cultivation, isolated parasites were cultured in diphasic NNN followed by RPMI 1640 media. All the samples produced a 720 bp band in PCR assay. The isolates were compared with referent strains and it was revealed that all the isolates were L. infantum. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that the causative agent of VL in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad was L. infantum. Further study is needed to explore other aspects of VL in this region.

  18. Assessment of Microbial Contamination of Surfaces and Medical Equipment in Wards of the Panjom Azar Hospital of Gorgan in 2014

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    Roghaye Noroozi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Methods: In this cross-sectional study, different wards of panjom Azar educational hospital including ICU, dialysis and surgery room were investigated. Samples were collected randomly, for three months from July to September 2014, from beds, oxygen masks, oxygen manometer, patient table, covers of the patient's medical records, nurse's desk, border walls and water tap.  Samples were then cultured on blood agar and EMB agar. In order to determine the bacteria type, specific culture media with specific biochemical tests and diagnostic disks were used. Results: Results showed that from 216 samples collected from the levels, the 190 cases (88% had microbial contamination. Most of the recognized bacteria were Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and klebsiela. Results of microbial culture of equipments and levels were positive in case of bacterial contamination and maximum contamination was observed in the dialysis ward of the hospital. Conclusion: Due to the relatively high detected contamination, contamination control of levels and patient care equipments could considered as an effective action in reducing nosocomial infections. Thus, using appropriate disinfectant equipment, monitoring the disinfectants preparation, continuous monitoring and detection of common microorganisms are the most important ways for infection control in hospitals.

  19. Development of a Species-Specific PCR Assay for Detection of Leishmania donovani in Clinical Samples from Patients with Kala-Azar and Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotra, Poonam; Sreenivas, G.; Pogue, Gregory P.; Lee, Nancy; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Ramesh, V.; Negi, N. S.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a PCR assay that is capable of amplifying kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) of Leishmania donovani in a species-specific manner among Old World leishmanias. With Indian strains and isolates of L. donovani the assay was sensitive enough to detect kDNA in an amount equivalent to a single parasite or less. The extreme sensitivity of the assay was reflected in its ability to detect parasite DNA from small volumes of peripheral blood of patients with kala-azar (KA) and from skin lesions from patients with post-KA dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). A total of 107 clinical leishmaniasis samples were analyzed. Of these 102 (95.3%) were positive by PCR. The test provided a diagnosis of KA with 96% sensitivity using patient whole-blood samples instead of bone marrow or spleen aspirates that are obtained by invasive procedures. The assay was also successful in the diagnosis of 45 of 48 PKDL cases (93.8%). Cross-reactions with pathogens prevalent in the area of endemicity, viz., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae, and Plasmodium spp., could be ruled out. Eighty-one control samples, including dermal scrapings from healthy portions of skin from patients with PKDL were all negative. Two of twenty controls from the area of endemicity were found positive by PCR assay; however, there was a good possibility that these two were asymptomatic carriers since they were serologically positive for KA. Thus, this PCR assay represents a tool for the diagnosis of KA and PKDL in Indian patients in a noninvasive manner, with simultaneous species identification of parasites in clinical samples. PMID:11230394

  20. Paying for hospital-based care of Kala-azar in Nepal: assessing catastrophic, impoverishment and economic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shiva R; Maskay, Nephil M; Sharma, Bishnu P

    2009-03-01

    Households obtaining health care services in developing countries incur substantial costs, despite services generally being provided free of charge by public health institutions. This constitutes an economic burden on low-income households, and contributes to deepening their level of poverty. In addition to the economic burden of obtaining health care, the method of financing these payments has implications for the distribution of household assets. This effect on resource-poor households is amplified since they have decreased access to health insurance. Recent literature, however, ignores the importance of the method of financing health care payments. This paper looks at the case of Nepal and highlights the impact on households of paying for hospital-based care of Kala-azar (KA) by analysing the catastrophic, impoverishment and economic consequences of their coping strategies. The paper utilizes micro-data on a random selection of 50% of the KA-affected households of Siraha and Saptari districts of Nepal. The empirical results suggest that direct costs of hospital-based treatment of KA are catastrophic since they consume 17% of annual household income. This expenditure causes more than 20% of KA-affected households to fall below the poverty line, with the remaining households being pushed into the category of marginal poor; the poverty gap ratio is more than 90%. Further, KA incidence can have prolonged and severe economic consequences for the household economy due to the mechanisms of informal sector financing to which households resort. A heavy burden of loan repayments can lead households on a downward spiral that eventually becomes a poverty trap. In other words, the method of financing health care payments is an important ingredient in understanding the economic burden of disease.

  1. PCR-RFLP y RAPD para la tipificación de Leishmania neotropical

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    Ana Margarita Montalvo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado y el estudio del ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar han demostrado ser herramientas útiles para la tipificación de Leishmania. Objetivos. Estudiar la utilidad de las técnicas moleculares para la identificación y tipificación de cepas de referencia de Leishmania spp. del Nuevo Mundo y valorar su aplicabilidad a muestras clínicas. Materiales y métodos. Se aplicó PCR para amplificar el gen que codifica la cisteíno-proteinasa B, y el análisis de la longitud de los fragmentos de restricción del producto amplificado utilizando ácido desoxirribonucleico de 16 cepas de referencia de Latinoamérica y de muestras clínicas de pacientes colombianos con leishmaniasis, y la técnica del ácido desoxirribonucleico polimórfico amplificado al azar utilizando ocho cepas de referencia. Se establecieron los patrones de bandas en cada caso. Resultados. Se obtuvo producto de amplificación en la PCR para Leishmania braziliensis, L. peruviana, L. panamensis y L. guyanensis. Para el resto, no fue posible amplificar el gen con los cebadores utilizados. La restricción mostró un patrón de bandas común para L. peruviana, L. guyanensis y L. panamensis, mientras L. braziliensis, presentaba un perfil individual único. El análisis de restricción del producto amplificado generó un patrón de bandas similar en los cinco pacientes estudiados, que se correspondía con el patrón generado por L. peruviana, L. guyanensis o L. panamensis. Mediante la amplificación al azar se obtuvieron patrones de bandas reproducibles con todas las cepas estudiadas, que posibilitaron la diferenciación. Se discuten las ventajas y limitaciones de ambos procederes. Conclusiones. El combinar ambas metodologías resultaría útil para identificar especies de importancia médica, tomando en cuenta sus ventajas y desventajas.

  2. Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s) in plant genetic diversity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Flórez, Jaime Eduardo; Morillo Coronado, Ana Cruz; Morillo Coronado, Yacenia

    2008-01-01

    Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM) en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se difere...

  3. Ludomania: avaliação transcultural do jogo de azar por dinheiro e seu tratamento Ludomania: cross-cultural examinations of gambling and its treatment

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    Jeremiah Weinstock

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O jogo patológico é um transtorno do controle do impulso que está ganhando mais e mais atenção. Este artigo revisa os critérios diagnósticos e os instrumentos de rastreamento para o jogo patológico, bem como os índices de prevalência desse transtorno ao redor do mundo, com ênfase na situação do jogo de azar no Brasil. Os tratamentos para o jogo patológico são também descritos, incluindo tanto as abordagens psicossociais como as farmacológicas. O jogo patológico é altamente comórbido com outros transtornos psiquiátricos, incluindo abuso de substâncias e depressão e poucos jogadores patológicos buscam tratamento para seus problemas com o jogo de azar. Portanto, recomenda-se a procura direta de problemas com o jogo de azar. É necessário melhorar a educação sobre o transtorno, tanto sob a perspectiva do cuidador como da sociedade, a fim de reduzir as conse-qüências pessoais e sociais desse transtorno.Pathological gambling is a disorder of impulse control that is gaining more and more attention. This paper reviews diagnostic criteria and screening instruments for pathological gambling, as well as the prevalence rates of this disorder worldwide, with an emphasis on gambling in Brazil. Treatments for pathological gambling are also described, including both psychosocial and pharmacological approaches. Pathological gambling is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, including substance abuse and depression, and few pathological gamblers seek treatment for their gambling problems. Therefore, direct screening for gambling problems is recommended. Increasing education about the disorder, from both the provider and societal perspective, is necessary to reduce the personal and societal consequences of this disorder.

  4. Appraisal of Phlebotomus argentipes habitat suitability using a remotely sensed index in the kala-azar endemic focus of Bihar, India

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    Shreekant Kesari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, or kala-azar, is recognised as a serious emerging public health problem in India. In this study, environmental parameters, such as land surface temperature (LST and renormalised difference vegetation indices (RDVI, were used to delineate the association between environmental variables and Phlebotomus argentipes abundance in a representative endemic region of Bihar, India. The adult P. argentipes were collected between September 2009-February 2010 using the hand-held aspirator technique. The distribution of P. argentipes was analysed with the LST and RDVI of the peak and lean seasons. The association between environmental covariates and P. argentipes density was analysed a multivariate linear regression model. The sandfly density at its maximum in September, whereas the minimum density was recorded in January. The regression model indicated that the season, minimum LST, mean LST and mean RDVI were the best environmental covariates for the P. argentipes distribution. The final model indicated that nearly 74% of the variance of sandfly density could be explained by these environmental covariates. This approach might be useful for mapping and predicting the distribution of P. argentipes, which may help the health agencies that are involved in the kala-azar control programme focus on high-risk areas.

  5. Síndrome de Felty e Calazar: um desafio para o reumatologista Felty's syndrome and Kala-azar: a challenge for the rheumatologist

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    Rafaela Bicalho Viana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente com artrite reumatoide que evoluiu com grave neutropenia e esplenomegalia, sendo firmado o diagnóstico de Síndrome de Felty, que posteriormente desenvolveu Calazar. Ambas têm apresentação clínica e laboratorial semelhantes, tornando o diagnóstico diferencial difícil. O relato deste caso objetiva chamar a atenção para o reconhecimento da infecção por leishmaniose visceral em pacientes portadores de doenças reumáticas, assim como a possibilidade de um paciente com Calazar mimetizar um quadro de doença reumática sistêmicaCase report of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who developed severe neutropenia, splenomegaly and was diagnosed with Felty's syndrome. The patient later developed Kala-azar. Both diseases have similar clinical and laboratory presentation, making the differential diagnosis difficult. The present case report aims at drawing attention to the identification of visceral Leishmaniasis infection in patients with rheumatic diseases, as well as possibility of a patient with Kala-azar mimicking a set of symptoms of systemic rheumatic disease

  6. Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Diagnosis of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis with Crude or Recombinant k39 Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salotra, P.; Sreenivas, G.; Nasim, A. A.; Subba Raju, B. V.; Ramesh, V.

    2002-01-01

    The diagnosis of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a dermatosis that provides the only known reservoir for the parasite Leishmania donovani in India, remains a problem. Timely recognition and treatment of PKDL would contribute significantly to the control of kala-azar. We evaluated here the potential of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a diagnostic tool for PKDL. Antigen prepared from promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with parasite isolates that were derived from skin lesions of a PKDL patient gave sensitivities of 86.36 and 92%, respectively, in the 88 PKDL cases examined. The specificity of the ELISA test was examined by testing groups of patients with other skin disorders (leprosy and vitiligo) or coendemic infections (malaria and tuberculosis), as well as healthy controls from areas where this disease is endemic or is not endemic. A false-positive reaction was obtained in 14 of 144 (9.8%) of the controls with the promastigote antigen and in 14 of 145 (9.7%) of the controls with the amastigote antigen. Evaluation of the serodiagnostic potential of recombinant k39 by ELISA revealed a higher sensitivity (94.5%) and specificity (93.7%) compared to the other two antigens used. The data demonstrate that ELISA with crude or recombinant antigen k39 provides a relatively simple and less-invasive test for the reliable diagnosis of PKDL. PMID:11874880

  7. « El azar y la necesidad » Élite y elecciones matrimoniales en Buenos Aires 1776-1820. Las familias Azcuénaga y Andonaegui

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    Maria Selva Senor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente articulo se reconstruyen las trayectorias matrimoniales de dos familias de la élite en el Río de la Plata entre 1776 y 1810 con el objeto de descubrir las estrategias seguidas por las mismas y las repercusiones del azar. Desde una perspectiva microanalitica y a partir de la utilización de la noción de redes sociales se intentará ilustrar acerca de las reglas sociales en una sociedad con variados contextos normativos superpuestos, que incluyen asimismo a la política del Estado y en la que los agentes pueden manipular reglas y tomar decisiones haciendo que el grado de incertidumbre sea mayor.

  8. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

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    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  9. Mapping of risk prone areas of kala-azar (Visceral leishmaniasis) in parts of Bihar State, India: an RS and GIS approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, S; Srinivas, T; Palit, A; Kar, S K; Battacharya, S K

    2006-09-01

    The kala-azar fever (Visceral leishmaniasis) is continuing unabated in India for over a century, now being largely confined to the eastern part of India mainly in Bihar state and to some extent in its bordering states like West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. Two study sites namely Patepur block in Vaishali district with high endemicity in northern part and Lohardagga block in Lohardagga district with absolute non-endemicity in southern part of Bihar were selected for the study with the following objectives : (i) to study the macro-ecosystem in relation to distribution of vector -Phlebotomus argentipes; (ii) to identify/map the risk prone areas or villages in a block for quick remedial measures; and (iii) to make use of satellite remote sensing and GIS to demonstrate the utility for rapid assessment of landuse/landcover and their relation with the incidence of kalaazar leading to the mapping of risk prone areas. Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-1D LISS III satellite data for the periods of March and November 2000 were analysed in Silicon graphic image processing system using ERDAS software. False color composites (FCC) were generated and landuse/landcover was assessed using Maximum likelihood supervised classification techniques based on ground truth training sets. During the study the GIS functions are used to quantify the remotely sensed landscape proportions of 5 km2 buffer surrounding each known group of villages of high occurrence of sandflies in endemic and nonendemic study sites. Instead of traditional ground based survey methods to vector surveillance, the present study used a combination of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) approach to develop landscape predictors of sandfly abundance-an indicator of human vector contact and as a measure of risk prone areas. Statistical analysis using the remotely sensed landscape variables showed that rural villages surrounded by higher proportion of transitional swamps with soft stemmed edible plants and

  10. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R.; Pandey, Raj K.; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V. N. R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:27186641

  11. El azar de la mujer rubia, de Manuel Vicent: memorias de la transición entre la ficción, la prensa y la historia

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    Sofía Bonino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the next paper I intend to look the novel written by Manuel Vicent El azar de la mujer rubia. The text is presented to us as a new perspective on the transition, this time structured from a female character from which are drawn the wires of the Spanish history since Franco’s death until the present. However, the reading of the work reveals that the character is in the foreground is not another that Adolfo Suárez and that the material that serves as a starting point is the own journalistic of Manuel Vicent. It would think then this novel as an attempt to save from oblivion those newspaper articles of inestimable value –for having been written at the time that the historical events were unfolding– but also as a work that was presented as novel to reveal the hidden story of a love triangle that directly influenced the history of the country, with a female character that is, for the first time, recovered and processed into heroin. The study will focus on the way in which Vicent retrieves those journalistic texts and in the operations of inclusion of the same in a text that mixes fiction with history to return, once more, to the one of the momentous of the recent Spanish history

  12. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh.

  13. Elevated Serum ADA Activity as a Marker for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in Indian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayamahantesh; Amit, Ajay; Dikhit, Manas R; Pandey, Raj K; Singh, Kuljit; Mishra, Ritesh; Das, V N R; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2016-01-01

    Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is involved. Since cell-mediated immune responses play a paramount role in the pathogenesis and healing of the visceral leishmaniasis, therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the serum ADA activity in different pathological conditions. Adenosine deaminase was determined in sera of active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients (n = 39), active postkala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases (n = 34) at the point of diagnosis and after treatment stages along with healthy controls (n = 30), endemic healthy subjects (n = 34) and endemic asymptomatic subjects (n = 34).Our in-vitro result revealed that monocytes secrete significant ADA level in response to Leishmania donovani (L.donovani) stimulation. The serum ADA activity in active VL and PKDL subjects were found to be significantly higher than that of respective treated cases and healthy controls. We also observed a marginal number (17.6%) of endemic asymptomatic subjects showed elevated serum ADA activity. Further, the ADA activity in PKDL was found to be decreased gradually during the different phases of treatment. Interestingly, 2 out of 32 treated VL cases found to have high serum ADA activity during follow up period were relapsed within few days. These results suggest the possibility of ADA as a marker of clinical pathogenesis and can be used as a surrogate marker in the diagnosis and prognosis of VL and PKDL.

  14. DETECÇÃO DO COMPLEXO Mycobacterium tuberculosis NO LEITE PELA REAÇÃO EM CADEIA DA POLIMERASE SEGUIDA DE ANÁLISE DE RESTRIÇÃO DO FRAGMENTO AMPLIFICADO (PRA DETECTION OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis COMPLEX BY PCR-RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORFISM ANALYSIS OF THE HSP65 GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joab Trajano Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis é membro do complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC, grupo este composto por espécies com grande homologia genética. É o agente etiológico da tuberculose bovina, importante zoonose transmissível ao homem, principalmente através da inalação do bacilo e/ou pelo consumo de leite e derivados não-pasteurizados provenientes de vacas tuberculosas. O objetivo deste estudo foi padronizar a identificação de micobactérias do complexo M. tuberculosis presentes no leite, por metodologia molecular. Fez-se a extração de DNA diretamente do leite contaminado e realizou-se a identificação molecular pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida de análise de restrição do fragmento amplificado (PRA. Utilizaram-se inhagens de referência e leite cru artificialmente contaminado com M. bovis IP. Um fragmento de 441pb do gene hsp65 foi amplificado, tratado com BstEII e HaeIII e empregou-se o perfil de restrição enzimática obtido para identificar o complexo M. tuberculosis no leite. Com a PRA foi possível detectar com especificidade e sensibilidade a presença de M. bovis em até 10 UFC/mL de leite. A metodologia padronizada poderá auxiliar os métodos microbiológicos e bioquímicos tradicionalmente usados na identificação do bacilo em alimentos suspeitos de contaminação, como, por exemplo, o leite proveniente de animais suspeitos de infecção por M. bovis.

    Palavras-chaves: Análise de perfil de restrição enzimática (PRA, complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, leite, Mycobacterium bovis, limite de detecção (PCR. Mycobacterium bovis is a member of the M. tuberculosis complex, a group composed by species with high genetic homology. The pathogen is the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, an important zoonosis that is mainly transmitted by inhalation of infectious droplet nuclei or by ingestion of milk and crude milk derivative products from tuberculosis cows. The definitive identification of M. bovis

  15. Positive Influence of Behavior Change Communication on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices for Visceral Leishmaniasis/Kala-azar in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Raghavan; Ahmad, Tanwir; Raghavan, Vidya; Kaushik, Manisha; Pathak, Ramakant

    2018-03-21

    important component of VL elimination strategies. © Srinivasan et al.

  16. Información financiera al servicio de la imagen. Estados contables del nuevo banco español de San Fernando y su sucesor el Banco de España, en la etapa previa al privilegio de emisión (1847-1873

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Moreno Fernández

    2008-12-01

    cualitativo y diferente del puramente contable o legalista, que es el que se practicaba en la época, y también con posterioridad. En el mundo actual con la normalización contable de los estados financieros, no puede hacerse, en general, este tipo de análisis directo, si bien la imagen exterior que se transmite en la Memorias de cualquier empresa no suele dejarse al azar, puesto que es componente de su reputación.

  17. To evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses in the treatment of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Nand Rabi Das

    Full Text Available Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a skin disorder that usually occurs among patients with a past history of visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Cases are also reported without a history of VL. There is no satisfactory treatment regimen available at present. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in two different doses (0.5mg/kg vs 1mg/kg in a prospective randomized trial in 50 PKDL patients.In this open label study 50 patients with PKDL, aged between 5-60 years were randomized in two groups. Group A received amphotericin B in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in 5% dextrose, daily for 20 infusions for 3 courses at an interval of 15 days between each course and Group B received amphotericin B in the dose of 1mg/kg in 5% dextrose on alternate days, 20 infusions for 3 courses an interval of 15 days between each course and followed up for one year.A total of 50 patients were enrolled, 25 in each of group A and group B. Two patients lost to follow up and three patients withdrew consent due to adverse events. The initial cure rate was 92% in group A and 88% in group B by intention to treat analysis and final cure rate by per protocol analysis was 95.65% and 95.45% in group A and group B respectively. Two patients each from either group relapsed. Nephrotoxicity was the most common adverse event occurring in both the groups.The lower dose appears to have fewer adverse events however, nephrotoxicity remains a problem in both regimens. The 0.5mg/kg regimen may be considered instead of the higher dosage however safer treatments remain critical for PKDL treatment.

  18. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and its correlates among people 35 years and older: Result from pilot phase of the Azar cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Zohreh; Shamshirgaran, Seyed Morteza; Ghaffari, Samad; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Najafipour, Farzad; Aminisani, Nayyereh

    2018-01-01

    There is remarkable alteration in hypertension prevalence and awareness, and their correlates among various geographic locations and ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to report hypertension prevalence, awareness, and its correlates as well as hypertension treatment, and control among Azari people aged 35 years and older. The pilot phase of the Azar Cohort Study; a state level of a nationwide PERSIAN cohort study was conducted in Khameneh city between October 2014 and January 2015. All people 35 years of age and above were invited to take part in this study. A comprehensive range of different biomarkers, lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, and health-related factors was collected. Blood pressure was measured by a trained nurse/midwife. Descriptive statistical methods were used to present general characteristics of the study population as frequency tables. Separate multiple logistic regression models were built to assess the predictors of hypertension prevalence. A total of 1038 people were included in this study. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 22.9%. Awareness of hypertension was 60.5% and in those with known hypertension, 84% were using the antihypertensive medications, of those 68.5% had controlled hypertension. After adjustment; age (odds ratios [OR] adj = 1.12 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15), gender (OR adj = 1.65 95% CI: 1.08-2.51), obesity OR adj = 2.51 (1.40-4.88), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (OR adj = 1.70 (1.05-2.75), and comorbidities (OR adj = 2.51 (1.72-3.66) were independent predictors of hypertension. Age, sex, body mass index, WHR, and comorbidities were known as predictors of hypertension in this study, health promotion strategies including lifestyle modification to reduce overweight/obesity and secondary prevention programs for early detection of hypertension in high-risk groups according to age, gender, and disease profile are recommended.

  19. Decision-making process of Kala Azar care: results from a qualitative study carried out in disease endemic areas of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shiva Raj; Supakankunti, Siripen; Khan, M Mahmud

    2013-07-12

    Analysis of consumer decision making in the health sector is a complex process of comparing feasible alternatives and evaluating the levels of satisfaction associated with the relevant options. This paper makes an attempt to understand how and why consumers make specific decisions, what motivates them to adopt a specific health intervention, and what features they find attractive in each of the options. The study used a descriptive-explanatory design to analyze the factors determining the choices of healthcare providers. Information was collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. The results suggest that the decision making related to seeking healthcare for Kala Azar (KA) treatment is a complex, interactive process. Patients and family members follow a well-defined road map for decision making. The process of decision making starts from the recognition of healthcare needs and is then modified by a number of other factors, such as indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources. Household and individual characteristics also play important roles in facilitating the process of decision making. The results from the group discussions and in-depth interviews are consistent with the idea that KA patients and family members follow the rational approach of weighing the costs against the benefits of using specific types of medical care. The process of decision making related to seeking healthcare follows a complex set of steps and many of the potential factors affect the decision making in a non-linear fashion. Our analysis suggests that it is possible to derive a generalized road map of the decision-making process starting from the recognition of healthcare needs, and then modifying it to show the influences of indigenous knowledge, healthcare alternatives, and available resources.

  20. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  1. Búsqueda de genes de resistencia al pasador del fruto en poblaciones segregantes de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Rodríguez Mora

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético para encontrar resistencia al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, en tomate, Solanum lycopersicum L. se han basado en métodos tradicionales de introgresión genética por medio de retrocruzamiento. Sin embargo este proceso es largo y dispendioso. Debido a esta problemática, se utilizó la técnica molecular cDNA-AFLP para identificar genes involucrados en la resistencia a esta plaga en poblaciones segregantes de tomate, con el fin de identificar marcadores moleculares que puedan ser utilizados en futuros programas de fitomejoramiento. Los materiales de tomate evaluados fueron Unapal-Maravilla (susceptible, S. habrochaites var. glabratum, accesión PI 134418 (resistente y tres retrocruzamientos obtenidos del cruzamiento interespecífico entre ambas especies. De estos materiales vegetales se extrajo el RNA total y se sintetizó el cDNA, el cual se utilizó como material de inicio de la técnica cDNA-AFLP. A partir del preamplificado de cDNA se evaluaron diferentes combinaciones de primers: +1+1, +3+3 y sus derivados. La combinación que presentó mejores amplificados fue la +1+1, para un total de 37 bandas polimórficas. De estas bandas, 9 fragmentos tipo EST (Expressed Sequence Target fueron recuperados, siendo candidatos a explicar la resistencia al pasador del fruto en tomate.

  2. Familial ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Genes linked to ALS susceptibility are being identified at an increasing rate owing to advances in molecular genetic technology. Genetic mechanisms in ALS pathogenesis appear to exert major effects in ~10% of patients, but genetic factors at some level may be important components of disease risk in most ALS patients. Identification of gene variants associated with ALS has informed concepts of the pathogenesis of ALS, aided the identification of therapeutic targets, facilitated research to develop new ALS biomarkers, and supported the establishment of clinical diagnostic tests for ALS-linked genes. Translation of this knowledge to ALS therapy development is ongoing. PMID:26515623

  3. Genotype characterization of Haematobia irritans from different Brazilian geographic regions based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis Caracterização genotípica de Haematobia irritans procedentes de diferentes regiões geográficas brasileiras baseada na análise do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-sucking diptera are important parasites in bovine production systems, especially regarding confinement conditions. Haematobia irritans, the horn fly, is one of the most troublesome species within bovine production systems, due to the intense stress imposed to the animals. An important aspect while studying the variability within a species is the study of the geographic structure of its populations and, attempting to find out the genetic flow of Brazilian populations of horn fly, the RAPD technique, which is suited for this purpose, has been used. The use of molecular markers generated from RAPD made it possible to identify the geographic origin of samples from different Brazilian geographic regions, as well as to estimate the genotypic flow among the different Brazilian populations of the horn fly.Dípteras hematófagos são importantes parasitas dentro de sistemas de produção de bovinos, especialmente em confinamento. Haematobia irritans, a mosca-dos-chifres, é uma das espécies que maiores problemas causa em sistemas de produção de bovinos, dado ao intenso estresse que impõe aos animais. Um importante aspecto quando se estuda a variabilidade genética dentro das espécies é o estudo da estrutura geográfica destas populações. Buscando-se estimar a similaridade genotípica das diferentes populações brasileiras da mosca do chifre utilizou-se a técnica do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD-PCR, que mostrou-se eficiente para tal propósito. A utilização dos marcadores moleculares gerados através da técnica de RAPD-PCR tornou possível a identificação da origem geográfica das amostras das diferentes regiões geográficas brasileiras, assim como, estimar o fluxo genotípico entre as diferentes populações brasileiras da mosca-dos-chifres.

  4. La transformación de las políticas públicas de juego de azar en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Cases

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tras 35 años de juego autorizado en España, en mayo de 2011 ha entrado en vigor la Ley de Regulación de Juego. En un estudio explicativo de las transformaciones que han abocado a la aparición de este nuevo marco legislativo, el autor, tras examinar la trayectoria histórica de la regulación del juego de azar y analizar la complejidad del escenario actual, sostiene la tesis de que las políticas públicas en la materia han sido temerosas e insuficientes porque, pretendiendo defender valores morales, en realidad aspiraban a preservar los intereses recaudatorios. Además, las administraciones públicas no han sabido prever el impacto de internet. Se analizan en este texto las consecuencias de ello: la entrada en España de operadores no controlados, la aparición de nuevos y fortísimos intereses colaterales y la competencia desleal con las empresas operadoras autorizadas para el juego presencial. Esto ha llevado, en definitiva, a que la Hacienda Pública dejara de recaudar los impuestos y tasas que esta nueva actividad debería haber devengado. After 35 years of authorised gaming in Spain, May 2011 saw the enactment of Spain’s Gambling Regulation Act. In an explanatory study of the transformations focusing on the emergence of this new legislative framework, after examining the historical background of the regulation of gambling and analysing the complexity of the current scenario, the author takes the view that public policy on gambling over the years has been fearful and inadequate because while pretending to defend moral values, in reality these policies aspired to preserve the interests of revenue collection. In addition, governments have failed to foresee the impact of the Internet. The articles examines the consequences of this failure: the entry into Spain of unregulated operators, the emergence of new and strong collateral interests and unfair competition with licensed operating companies of physical gaming establishments. This has

  5. Studies on sand fly fauna and ecological analysis of Phlebotomus orientalis in the highland and lowland foci of kala-azar in northwestern Ethiopia.

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    Esayas Aklilu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL also known as kala-azar is a growing health problem in Ethiopia with an estimated annual VL incidence between 3700 and 7400. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of Phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of northwestern Ethiopia.Sand flies were collected using CDC light traps, sticky traps and pyrethrum spray catches from peri-domestic, mixed forest, farm field and indoor habitats from both Libo-Kemkem (May 2011-April 2012 and Metema (October 2012-September 2013 districts.A total of 51,411 sand fly specimens were collected and identified (10,776 from highland and 40, 635 from the lowland areas. Seven species were found in the highland area: two Phlebotomus spp. (P. orientalis and P. rodhaini and five Sergentomyia species. Whereas 19 species were found in the lowland area: six Phlebotomus (P. orientalis, P. rodhaini, P. bergeroti, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi and P. martini and 13 Sergentomyia species. Of the Phlebotomus spp., P. orientalis was the predominant species in both the highland (99.9% and lowland (93.7% areas. Indoor collections using pyrethrum spray catches and sticky traps indicated that P. orientalis has a strong exophilic and exophagic behaviors in both districts. In both areas, this species showed seasonal occurrence and showing abundance during the dry months (March-May/June of the year and increasing in numbers till the rain season, when numbers dropped dramatically. Mean density of P. orientalis in the two areas had positive and significant correlation with mean temperature in light trap collections (P0.05. Regarding the rainfall pattern, density of P. orientalis had negative and statistically insignificant correlation (for light trap collections for both areas and significant correlation (for sticky trap collections for lowland area.The current study indicated the

  6. Risk Zone Modelling and Early Warning System for Visceral Leishmaniasis Kala-Azar Disease in Bihar, India Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, A.; Kesari, S.; Bajpai, A.; Bhunia, G. S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2012-07-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) commonly known as Kala-azar is one of the most neglected tropical disease affecting approximately 200 million poorest populations 'at risk in 109 districts of three endemic countries namely Bangladesh, India and Nepal at different levels. This tropical disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by female Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. The analysis of disease dynamics indicate the periodicity at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scale which forms the basis for development of advanced early warning system. Study area of highly endemic Vaishali district, Bihar, India has been taken for model development. A Systematic study of geo-environmental parameters derived from satellite data in conjunction with ground intelligence enabled modelling of infectious disease and risk villages. High resolution Indian satellites data of IRS LISS IV (multi-spectral) and Cartosat-1 (Pan) have been used for studying environmentally risk parameters viz. peri-domestic vegetation, dwelling condition, wetland ecosystem, cropping pattern, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), detailed land use etc towards risk assessment. Univariate analysis of the relationship between vector density and various land cover categories and climatic variables suggested that all the variables are significantly correlated. Using the significantly correlated variables with vector density, a seasonal multivariate regression model has been carried out incorporating geo-environmental parameters, climate variables and seasonal time series disease parameters. Linear and non-linear models have been applied for periodicity and interannual temporal scale to predict Man-hour-density (MHD) and 'out-of-fit' data set used for validating the model with reasonable accuracy. To improve the MHD predictive approach, fuzzy model has also been incorporated in GIS environment combining spatial geo-environmental and climatic variables using fuzzy membership

  7. Análisis de la permeabilidad al aire de filtros de protección respiratoria

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Torrent, Javier; Grima Olmedo, Carlos; Ramírez Gómez, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    Los filtros que forman los equipos de protección respiratoria están constituidos por una serie de capas formadas por fibras entrecruzadas, orientadas al azar, que reducen los espacios libres en la dirección del flujo de aire inspiratorio. La estructura tridimensional formada permite orificios mayores que las partículas a retener con el fin de no provocar una excesiva caída de presión. Cuando los orificios se reducen significativamente o se obstruyen por la deposición excesiva de partículas ca...

  8. Efecto del número de aplicaciones de cloprostenol sobre la regresión de cuerpos lúteos, el retorno al celo y la ovulación, después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en donantes de embriones bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    C. Jiménez; R. Mapletoft; A. Tribulo; J. V. Garzón; Cabra C.; G. Bo

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta de la aplicación doble o triple de prostaglandina sobre la regresión de CL, ovulación y retorno al celo después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en vacas donantes de embriones. Para este experimento se tomaron 44 vacas asignadas al azar a dos grupos de tratamiento. Al primero (n = 23; CLO 0 & 7) se le aplicó una dosis de 500 μg de cloprostenol los días 0 (denominado día de la colecta) y 7; al segundo grupo (n = 21; CLO 0, 1 & 7) se le...

  9. Efecto del número de aplicaciones de cloprostenol sobre la regresión de cuerpos lúteos, el retorno al celo y la ovulación, después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en donantes de embriones bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cabra, C.; Garzón, J. V.; Tribulo, A.; Mapletoft, R.; Jiménez, C.; Bo, G.

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta de la aplicación doble o triple de prostaglandina sobre la regresión de CL, ovulación y retorno al celo después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en vacas donantes de embriones. Para este experimento se tomaron 44 vacas asignadas al azar a dos grupos de tratamiento. Al primero (n = 23; CLO 0 & 7) se le aplicó una dosis de 500 μg de cloprostenol los días 0 (denominado día de la colecta) y 7; al segundo grupo (n = 21; ...

  10. Use of single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism for typing Clostridium perfringens isolated from diarrheic piglets Uso do polimorfismo do comprimento de fragmentos amplificados para tipagem de Clostridium perfringens isolados de suínos com diarréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Tieko Shinya

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. In swine, the agent is responsible for necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, delayed development and, in some cases, death. In the present study amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses (AFLP was used to characterize 54 C. perfringens strains isolated from swine presenting diarrhea. Analysis of the results showed 29 distinct profiles with discriminatory index equal to 0.97. Partial correlation between the origin of the isolates and groups was drawn, and correlation was possible in only 18.5% of the samples. Characterization of the strains in biotypes (A, B, C, D and E, production of beta-2 toxin and enterotoxin were performed by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Biotypes A, C and D were observed among the strains analyzed. All samples were positive for presence of the gene encoding beta-2 toxin and negative for the gene encoding enterotoxin. AFLP have shown to be a simple, fast, low cost method with high discriminative power and good reproducibility, presenting a great potential in epidemiological studies involving C. perfringens strains of animal origin.Clostridium perfringens é um importante agente infeccioso em medicina veterinária e humana. Em suínos, o agente é responsável pela enterite necrótica e enterotoxemia, caracterizadas por diarréia, perda de peso, atraso no desenvolvimento e morte. No presente estudo foi utilizado o polimorfismo do comprimento de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP, para caracterizar 54 isolados de C. perfringens obtidos de suínos com diarréia. A análise dos resultados do AFLP demonstrou 29 perfis distintos com índice discriminatório igual a 0,97. A correlação entre a origem dos isolados e os agrupamentos obtidos foi parcial, sendo apenas possível a correlação total de 18,5% das amostras estudadas. A caracterização das cepas em biotipos (A, B, C, D e E, produ

  11. Optimización de un protocolo de extracción de ADN genómico para Pinus tecunumanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cerda-Granados

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se optimizó un protocolo para la extracción de ADN genómico de Pinus tecunumanii basado en el método de extracción de Doyle y Doyle (1990. Se probaron los megagametofitos de las semillas de árboles deP. tecunumanii muestreados en cinco poblaciones naturales de Nicaragua. El método consta de maceración del tejido en tubos Eppendorf, una extracción con bromuro trimetil amonio de cetilo (CTABempleando altas concentraciones de sales, proteinasa K, extracciones sucesivas con cloroformo-alcohol isoamílico y un tratamiento con ARNasa A. El rendimiento fue aproximadamente 13μg de ADN por 58.7 mg de tejido inicial fresco. El ADNgenómico obtenido por este método fue apropiado para ser usado en reaccionesRAPD (ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar

  12. Ti, Al

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, authors report on the effect that substrate bias voltage has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N hard coatings deposited with cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) technique. The coatings were deposited from a Ti0.5Al0.5 powder metallurgical target in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at ...

  13. Fronteras del corazón shamánico. Azares y dilemas Qom. En: Avá, nº 16

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo analizo dilemas y paradojas que plantea la modernidad en el caso de los Takshek Qom o tobas del oriente de Formosa (Argentina). Para ello me centro en la experiencia del lkillakte o corazón como uno de los núcleos vitales y existenciales de la persona. Allí se alojan las distintas clases de poder shamánico y también es sede de los pensamientos y las emociones. Me interesa explorar qué le pasa en términos simbólicos al corazón shamánico frente al ...

  14. Efecto del estrés asociado al destete sobre variables Clínico-Patológicas  y la integridad de la mucosa gástrica en Potros Pura Sangre de Carrera

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón, Tony C.; Zerpa, Héctor; Cova, Francisco J.; Campos, Gerardo J

    2006-01-01

    El destete en los caballos Pura Sangre de carreras (PSC), se realiza regularmente a los seis meses de edad. Esta medida de manejo puede conllevar al desarrollo de estrés post-destete, con todos los potenciales efectos deletéreos que éste puede originar. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar el efecto de dos tipos de destete sobre variables clínico-patológicas y hallazgos gastroscópicos, como indicadores de estrés en potros PSC. Se seleccionaron al azar doce potros de seis meses de edad, ...

  15. Evaluación del desarrollo de Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth)

    OpenAIRE

    Guapacha, Cristiam Camilo; Mesa, Jhon Jairo; Patiño, Andrés Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    En el Municipio de Quinchía, Departamento de Risaralda (Colombia), se evaluó el desarrollo de los tutores vivos Salíx humboldtiana, Erythrina edulis y Trichantera gigantea asociados al cultivo de mora sin espina (Rubus glaucus Benth), también la incidencia de Peronospora sparsa y Oidium sp en plantas de mora asociadas a estos sistemas agroforestales. Se utilizo un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones cada uno. Los resultados indican que Erythrina edulis es el tutor con mejor adapta...

  16. Búsqueda de genes de resistencia al pasador del fruto en poblaciones segregantes de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López Karina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético para encontrar resistencia al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, en tomate, Solanum lycopersicum L. se han basado en métodos tradicionales de introgresión genética por medio de retrocruzamiento. Sin embargo este proceso es largo y dispendioso. Debido a esta problemática, se utilizó la técnica molecular cDNA-AFLP para identificar genes involucrados en la resistencia a esta plaga en poblaciones segregantes de tomate, con el fin de identificar marcadores moleculares que puedan ser utilizados en futuros programas de fitomejoramiento. Los materiales de tomate evaluados fueron Unapal-Maravilla (susceptible, S. habrochaites var. glabratum, accesión PI 134418 (resistente y tres retrocruzamientos obtenidos del cruzamiento interespecífico entre ambas especies. De estos materiales vegetales se extrajo el RNA total y se sintetizó el cDNA, el cual se utilizó como material de inicio de la técnica cDNA-AFLP. A partir del preamplificado de cDNA se evaluaron diferentes combinaciones de primers: +1+1, +3+3 y sus derivados. La combinación que presentó mejores amplificados fue la +1+1, para un total de 37 bandas polimórficas. De estas bandas, 9 fragmentos tipo EST (Expressed Sequence Target fueron recuperados, siendo candidatos a explicar la resistencia al pasador del fruto en tomate.

  17. Organização do espaço urbano e expansão do calazar The organization of urban areas and expansion of kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Ângela Pessoa Cesse

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: verificar determinados processos que estão relacionados com a ocupação do espaço urbano e que contribuem para a ocorrência e expansão do calazar em um município de médio porte com acentuado fluxo migratório e em expansão econômica. MÉTODOS: trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico, de corte transversal, no qual se realizou a investigação domiciliar dos casos registrados em 8 bairros e respectivos setores censitários, no município de Petrolina, Pernambuco, no período de 1992 a 1997. Está subsidiado por elementos da pesquisa laboratorial, considerando o transmissor e o reservatório. Utilizamos o modelo explicativo da determinação social do processo saúde-doença a esta situação endêmica-epidêmica. RESULTADOS: observa-se uma concentração de casos de calazar na periferia da zona urbana do município de Petrolina, em áreas de invasão e expansão, onde o saneamento básico é precário, há a presença de animais e do vetor no peridomicílio e a população apresenta um baixo grau de instrução. O sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 0-4 anos são os mais acometidos. CONCLUSÕES: os achados sugerem o estabelecimento de um novo padrão epidemiológico para o calazar em Petrolina, onde a ocorrência dessa endemia se dá em um espaço altamente modificado pela população. Tal situação caracteriza um processo de ruralização das áreas periurbanas endêmicas nas grandes cidades.OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to verify certain processes that are related to the occupation of urban areas and which contribute to the occurrence and expansion of kala-azar in a medium-sized town undergoing economic growth with a high influx of migrants. METHODS: the study is an epidemiological cross-section, in which house-to-house investigation was conducted concerning cases registered in 8 districts and their respective census areas, all in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco state, Brazil, from 1992 to 1997. The study was

  18. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  19. Curiosidad y mediación Del Lucio de Apuleyo al Anselmo/Lotario de Cervantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Preciado Bernal

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Somos de la opinión de que El Curiosa lmpertinente (Torno II, Caps. 23, 24 y 25 no se puede analizar sin tener en cuenta la gran cornice constituida por la novela que lo rodea, Las aventuras del Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha; no es menos cierto que este relato tiene una autonomía y se puede analizar también sin entrar en los paralelismos estructurales que indudablemente tiene con el todo de la obra. Estos paralelismos comienzan ya desde su colocación, no por azar simultánea en el tiempo de la narración ala lucha de don Quijote con los cueros de vino -clara referenda al episodio de Lucio y los odres de vino en el Asno de Oro de Apuleyo, la más elegante obra latina sobre la curiositas.

  20. Evaluación de la infestación de cinco especies de solanáceas al parasitismo del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne incognita y el contenido de alcaloides en frutos de tomate de árbol y naranjilla injertados en estas especies

    OpenAIRE

    Navarrete Bastidas, Ximena Elianet

    2017-01-01

    Existe una alta incidencia del nemátodo Meloidogyne incognita en Solanáceas de importancia económica. Este patógeno ocasiona daños en la planta, llegando a producir hasta la muerte y ocasionando pérdidas para el agricultor. En la presente investigación, se evaluó la respuesta de infestación de cinco especies de Solanáceas silvestres (Solanum auriculatum, S.hirtum, S.hispidum, S.arboreum y Nicotiana glauca) al parasitismo de M. incognita. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente al azar c...

  1. Evaluación de la eficacia de fungicidas aplicados al suelo y al follaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroga B. Nini Johanna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Una de las enfermedades más limitantes en los cultivos de rosa colombianos para exportación es el mildeo velloso, producido por Peronospora sparsa. Dentro de las herramientas más utilizadas para el manejo de la enfermedad es la aplicación de fungicidas, pero poco se conoce sobre su eficacia y la forma de aplicación más efectiva. El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la eficacia de las aplicaciones foliares y en aspersión al suelo (“drench” de los fungicidas dimetomorf, fosetil de aluminio y metalaxil+mancozeb, en comparació con un testigo comercial. El diseñ utilizado fue completamente al azar con nueve tratamientos y tres repeticiones. La incidencia y la severidad de la enfermedad fueron evaluadas en las hojas de los estratos inferior, medio y superior de los tallos y se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, asícomo para la incidencia en tallos y botones florales. Las aplicaciones foliares de los fungicidas mostraron un mayor control de la enfermedad. El control más eficaz se obtuvo con fosetil de aluminio aplicado al follaje. Los tratamientos

  2. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe August 2015 Print this issue All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder En español Send us ... Sports Concussions Wise Choices How Can I Help ALS Research? If you have ALS, join the National ...

  3. Comportamiento productivo del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. en respuesta al pastoreo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogonio Jesús Hernández-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los patrones de variación en los componentes de la productividad forrajera del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. bajo pastoreo. En Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México, de junio 2005 a junio 2006, se estudió la combinación de tres frecuencias (21, 28 y 35 días y dos intensidades (5-7 y 9-11 cm en el forraje residual de pastoreo, en un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento anual y la distribución estacional de forraje, tasa de crecimiento, composición botánica y morfológica y densidad de tallos. La frecuencia de pastoreo de 35 días superó a las de 21 y 28 (P<0,05 en el rendimiento anual, durante primavera y verano. Independientemente de la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo, el rendimiento estacional se distribuyó de la siguiente forma: 49,5, 31,6, 14,1 y 4,8% para primavera, verano, invierno y otoño, respectivamente. La mayor tasa de crecimiento se registró en primavera al pastorear cada 35 días y la menor en otoño al pastorear cada 28 días (P<0,01. Durante invierno se dio mayor presencia de otras especies, siendo el pastoreo cada veintiún días a una intensidad ligera el que originó un aporte al rendimiento de otras especies del 60%. No se presentaron efectos de intensidad ni de frecuencia de pastoreo en la densidad de tallos. El mayor rendimiento y tasa de crecimiento se obtuvieron al pastorear cada 35 días.

  4. /Cu-Al System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Orel; Froumin, Natalya; Aizenshtein, Michael; Frage, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    Wettability and interfacial interaction of the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system were studied. Pure Cu does not wet the Ta2O5 substrate, and improved spreading is achieved when relatively a high fraction of the active element (~40 at.% Al) was added. The Al2O3 and AlTaO4 phases were observed at the Ta2O5/Cu-Al interface. A thermodynamic evaluation allowed us to suggest that the lack of wetting bellow 40 at.% Al is due to the presence of a native oxide, which covers the drop. The conditions of the native oxide decomposition and the formation of the volatile Al2O suboxide strongly depend on the vacuum level during sessile drop experiments and the composition of the Cu-Al alloy. In our case, Al contents greater than 40% provides thermodynamic conditions for the formation of Al2O (as a result of Al reaction with Al2O3) and the drop spreading. It was suggested that the final contact angle in the Ta2O5/Cu-Al system (50°) is determined by Ta adsorption on the newly formed alumina interlayer.

  5. Bankole et al (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Relationships of Clay-filled Channels on the Delta Flanks (Modified after Doust and Omatsola, 1990 and Lawrence et al., 2002). ... and in the Indo-Malaysian area (Germeraad et al.,. 1968). The genus ..... Upper Cretaceous of British Guiana.

  6. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease. Who Gets ALS? Although this disease can strike anyone, ALS is extremely rare in kids. According ... home to provide care that the family cannot handle alone. Living With Lou Gehrig's Disease Living with ...

  7. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou Gehrig disease; ALS; Upper and lower motor neuron disease; Motor neuron disease ... One out of 10 cases of ALS is due to a genetic defect. The cause is unknown in most other cases. In ALS, motor nerve cells (neurons) waste away ...

  9. 143 - 148_Makeri et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Yuan et al., 2003), antimicrobial activity (Sundarrao et al., 1993; Betancur-Galvis et al., 1999; Takashi et al., 2006), anti-parasitic, anti-malarial activities (Alali et al., 1998; Jaramillo et al., 2000; Luna et al.,. 2005). This study evaluates the antibacterial activity of extract of stem –bark and leaf extracts of Annona.

  10. Abu al-Layth al-Libi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    success. As an Arab participant acknowledged very early on, “the situation was really harsh. All the brothers were tired,” as they lacked food and... glorious battles that occurred during the early Islamic period.133 He stressed the importance of the battlefield as the path to achieve honor and dignity...diaspora in Waziristan. In the words of Walid Othmani, a French jihadi trained by al-Qa`ida in Waziristan in 2008, “[Al-Libi] was someone well-known and

  11. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  12. Ácido benzoico y un producto basado en especies de Bacillus para proteger la productividad de los lechones y al ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Pérez Alvarado

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se indagó la compatibilidad del ácido benzoico (ABZ y especies de Bacillus (BAC, en la productividad de lechones y su impacto ambiental. En el Ensayo 1, se usaron 180 lechones, durante 42 días. El ABZ (0 ó 5 kg/t y BAC (0 ó 0.5 kg/t fueron incluidos en la dieta en un arreglo factorial 2x2 en dos bloques de un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Semanalmente se registró el consumo y peso de los lechones y se colectaron aguas residuales para medir pH, N, NH3, coliformes, BAC y gasto de agua. En el Ensayo 2, en una granja comercial, se registró la productividad de 384 lechones en 2 tratamientos: un programa de medicación tradicional y otro simplificado por el uso de ABZ y BAC. En el Ensayo 1, se tuvo respuesta al ABZ en la ganancia de peso y eficiencia (13 y 9.5 %; P0.15. El ABZ es un recurso para proteger el crecimiento de lechones al destete y reducir la variación en la engorda; es entonces una alternativa al uso indiscriminado de antibióticos, ya que en combinación con BAC, reduce la producción de NH3 y el gasto de agua.

  13. Alles is al uitgevonden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDe voordelen van vrijhandel zijn zeer beperkt, al-thans als we de empirische schattingen van vooraanstaande economen en internationale organisaties mogen geloven. Zo worden de voordelen van liberalisatie voor de Europese Unie geraamd op ongeveer 0,5% van het bnp 1. De door het IMF

  14. Lukman et al. (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    1 Civil Engineering Department, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife- Nigeria and Corresponding author. 2Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria- Nigeria s Department of Civil Engineering, University of Hafr Al-Batin, Hafr Al-Batin, Saudi Arabia.

  15. Interview als Text vs. Interview als Interaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Deppermann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131

  16. RESPUESTA DEL PASTO PALMERA (Setaria poiretiana AL SOMBRIO: UNA OPCION DE PRODUCCIÓN EN SISTEMAS SILVOPASTORILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NELSON JOSÉ VIVAS-QUILA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se llevó a cabo en la granja Los Naranjos ubicada en la Vereda La Venta del Municipio de Cajibío del Departamento del Cauca. La sombra de los árboles no permite el progreso del forraje cultivado en su entorno y no se conocen especies tolerantes a la sombra que se adapten a las condiciones de clima medio y suelos de mediana a baja fertilidad.Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se adelantó el estudio sobre el manejo agronómico y potencial forrajero del pasto palmera (Setaria poiretiana bajo tres ambientes diferentes de sombra. La evaluación se desarrolló bajo el diseño en bloques completos al azar con 3 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Los tratamientos en diferentes porcentajes de sombríoartificial utilizando polisombra (libre exposición, semisombra y sombra con 0,44 y 70% de sombríoy las repeticiones (bloques fueron las condiciones de sombra dadas por el sombrío del bosque en torno al proyecto. El tratamiento que mejor comportamiento agronómico presentó en cuanto a producción de materia seca fue el T1 (libre exposición; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas para las variables vigor, cobertura, altura, porcentaje de materia seca

  17. Universitat popular al Cabanyal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribés Granell, Juan Miguel

    2012-01-01

    La intención es dotar al barrio de un gran espacio verde y de un edificio de interés para los vecinos que enriquezca al Cabanyal, ya que actualmente se encuentra en proceso de degradación. Se pretende desarrollar un proyecto que signifique una mejora en la predisposición del visitante, cubriendo sus necesidades. Al mismo tiempo, se busca crear un espacio arquitectónico que mejore la relación entre las actividades que incluye y su entorno. El proyecto está condicionado por cuatro aspectos fund...

  18. IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS ASOCIADAS AL CARACOL PALA (Strombus gigas DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDINSON ACOSTA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El caracol Pala, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, es de gran importancia ecológica y socioeconómica en el área caribeña colombiana. Sin embargo, es una especie catalogada como “vulnerable” y existe muy poca información referente a las especies bacterianas asociadas al caracol que puedan ser importantes para el desarrollo, manejo productivo y de seguridad acuícola de estos gastrópodos. En este trabajo, nosotros empleamos un estudio microbiológico y molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA, análisis del gen rDNA 16S y secuenciación, para analizar las bacterias asociadas al caracol Pala (S. gigas. La composición de bacterias cultivables asociadas fue evaluada por su capacidad para crecer en agar marino y en medios de cultivos selectivos. De un total de 28 muestras analizadas encontramos que el número de bacterias cultivadas en condiciones aerobias fue de alrededor 106 ufc mL-1 donde las bacterias pertenecientes a la familia Vibrionacea fueron las más abundantes, cerca de >105 ufc mL-1 . El análisis molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA de las diferentes muestras, reveló una gran complejidad bacteriana asociada a S. gigas. Las secuencias de los amplificados del gen rDNA 16S identificó Pseudoalteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Psycrobacter sp., Cobetia sp., Pseudomonas sp. y Vibrios sp. Nuestros resultados podrían sugerir un rol importante de estas bacterias como componentes de la comunidad asociada al S. gigas. Esta información puede complementar los estudios que se están implementando en los procesos para la conservación y repoblamiento de las poblaciones de S. gigas en Colombia. Palabras clave: Strombus gigas, Caracol pala, Bacteria, Región intergénica 16S-23S, rDNA 16S. ABSTRACT The Queen Conch, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, is a species of great ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Caribbean area of Colombia. However, it is currently catalogued as

  19. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  20. Taiwo et al (15)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    geometric rise in preference for commercial aquaculture .... content, malondialdehyde level and lipid content of the muscle of the .... other researchers on the gilthead sea bream (Mnari et al., 2007), the .... 23, Orlando, Florida, USA, pp. 18–28.

  1. Okusanya et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    rainfall and number of days with rain per month were obtained from Meteorological Institute, Oshodi, Lagos- ... Central and South America, Australia, West. Indies, Africa, (Orwa et al., 2009) and in Florida .... dominant forest tree species. In this ...

  2. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have trouble grasping a pen or lifting a coffee cup, while another person may experience a change ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  3. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FDA) has approved the drugs riluzole (Rilutek) and edaravone (Radicava) to treat ALS. Riluzole is believed to ... reverse the damage already done to motor neurons. Edaravone has been shown to slow the decline in ...

  4. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found for ALS. However, the drugs riluzole and edaravone have approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ... 2-3 months but does not relieve symptoms. Edaravone can slow the clinical decline in daily functioning ...

  5. Obuotor et al (16)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    fractions and essential oils from the leaves of Eugenia uniflora were investigated on some multidrug resistant pathogens. ... et al., 1987), a reduction in blood pressure measured ..... from E. uniflora suggests high efficacy against this bacterium.

  6. Fakinle et al (11)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    management issues; there is however a concern about air emissions from the ... poses risks to humans and animals through ... Nigeria have focused on cement industries. (Adejumo et al. ... based MCA which controls the sample holder and.

  7. Ogunyemi et al (17)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    The results of physicochemical analysis revealed that the concentrations of ... scientific basis for regulating the discharge of potentially ... method for genotocity evaluation using Allium cepaand it ..... al., 2013). National agency for food and drug.

  8. Omotayo et al (4)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    using biochemical technique and API 20E identification system. The isolates were .... sulphate, phosphate, ammonia and appearance. Heavy metals ... technique as described by Collee et al. (1989) was ..... enzymatic methods. Water Res. 36,.

  9. David et al (12)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    larger mesophyll cells, xylem tissues, vascular bundles and bundle sheaths than other cultivars. Thus, larger ... mechanism to cope with drought stress. There was an ... where solar radiation is intense (Løe et al., 2007). Most ecological studies ...

  10. Cartas al editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Con respecto al ensayo "Evaluación del aprendizaje en la educación superior" de la Dra. Análida Pinilla / Ciencia y conciencia en la medicina colombiana / Farmacovigilancia: Una necesidad urgente

  11. Kulturmorphologie als Zivilisationskritik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2010-01-01

    Der Untergang des Abendlandes wird oft als dasjenige Werk betrachtet, das am tiefsten die national gefärbte Gegenüberstellung von Kultur und Zivilisation in der Zwischenkriegszeit geprägt und propagiert hat. Wie auch bei anderen Autoren der Konservativen Revolution, vor allem bei Thomas Mann und...... Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, tritt der Begriff ‚Kultur’ bei Spengler als normativer Wertbegriff auf, der im Kontrast zu einer degenerierten und seelenlosen Zivilisation steht....

  12. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  13. El injerto en tomate (Solanum licopersicum Mill. alternativa al cambio climático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Maradiaga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad la producción de hortalizas a campo abierto en Honduras se ha vuelto difícil para poder concluir el ciclo vegetativo por las inclemencias del cambio climático que en la mayoría de las áreas con potencial para establecer esto cultivos sobre todo las solanáceas y cucurbitáceas son afectados por enfermedades de origen telúrico. Estos organismos causan considerables pérdidas en los rendimientos. El injerto herbáceo es una práctica cultural que confiere a las plantas una mayor tolerancia frente a los factores abióticos (temperatura, salinidad, estrés hídrico, etc.. En la Universidad Nacional de Agricultura se ha venido investigando con esta técnica a cieloabierto con resultados aceptables sin desmejorar los rendimientos y calidad. Se evaluó el comportamiento de dos portainjertos criollos en tomate con dos variedades de uso común en los productores Pony y Belfas donde los tratamientos fueron T1 (Cherry/Pony, T2 (Cherry/Belfast, T3 (Belfast/Pony, T4 (Pony y T5 (Belfast. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones, las variables evaluadas fueron: Porcentaje de pegue,compatibilidad, altura de planta, días a floración, diámetro de tallo, calibres de fruto, grados brix en el fruto, biomasafresca de la raíz, numero de frutos por planta y rendimiento. Los resultados obtenidos para todas las variables muestra que las plantas injertadas mostraron mayores valores que las no injertadas, resaltando rendimiento donde el T1 reporto 60 ton/ha en relación al testigo 40 ton/ha.

  14. Coupled growth of Al-Al2Cu eutectics in Al-Cu-Ag alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, U; Witusiewicz, V; Drevermann, A

    2012-01-01

    Coupled eutectic growth of Al and Al 2 Cu was investigated in univariant Al-Cu-Ag alloys during solidification with planar and cellular morphology. Experiments reveal the dynamic selection of small spacings, below the minimum undercooling spacing and show that distinct morphological features pertain to nearly isotropic or anisotropic Al-Al 2 Cu interfaces.

  15. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  16. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-06-15

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  17. Alimba et al (5)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    There was significant (p<0.05) increase in erythrocytes, haemoglobin ... for its anti-hemorrhoid and anti-inflammatory properties (Afolabi et al., 2008), ... genome instability which may lead to genetic related diseases ... membrane, behavioral pattern, morbidity and mortality. ..... extracts of Phyllanthus amarus in mice and rats.

  18. Taiwo et al (8)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Ife Journal of Science. (2016) vol. 18, no. 4. SPATIAL ... Ogun State. On the contrary, published work in some parts of Nigeria had ..... Prevalence among. Age Group (%). Cause of Infection. (%). Adeoye et al.,. 2007. Lagos. Kato-Katz. A. lumbricoides =29.7. Hookworm = 0.7. T. Trichiura = 18.4. S. stercoralis =0.3. Total =49.1.

  19. Rossie et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ing onto the torso for bike riders (Blocken et al., 2013) or it might ... designing new vehicles as well as for drawing up specific training ... These models were chosen because they repre- ..... muscles is relevant since the bio-mechanical workload ...

  20. aboagye et al.2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    14 Aboagye et al. wide variety of birds, including chickens, by piercing the quills of feathers and gnawing the epidermis. In doing so, they can spread disease and lower .... evolution. Oikos, 97: 223-228. Nordenfors, H. and Chirico, J. (2001). Evalua- tion of a sampling trap for Dermanyssus gal- linae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

  1. Fadimu et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coconut water has the potential to increase growth and nutritional value of S. mombin(Linn.) so that S. mombin ... of plant growth and development, including seed maturation and ... et al., 2000). Auxins are primary regulators of plant form while ...

  2. Bello et al (9)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timade VENTURE

    family Solanaceae and it is one of the largest and ... al.,2004). The taxonomy of this important genus is of ... importance of numerical taxonomic method in ..... SME. SAE. SAM. SNI. SER. SWR. SMA. SGI. -6.4. -4.8. -3.2. -1.6. 0. 1.6. 3.2. 4.8.

  3. Iraq and Al Qaeda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... The Administration assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its key founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  4. Iraq and Al Qaeda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... The Administration's assertions were derived from U.S. intelligence showing a pattern of contacts with Al Qaeda when its founder, Osama bin Laden, was based in Sudan in the early to mid-1990s and continuing after he relocated to Afghanistan in 1996...

  5. Ojo et al (2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    network geometry hence control how the samples' ... generate different permeability curves from wire- ... occupy in the reservoir pore system (McPhee et. ..... Fig.3. Poroperm cross-plot for a homogenous reservoir. Ojo et al.: Rock Type Based ...

  6. Agwu et al (6)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Enterobacteriaceae, the bacteria Escherichia coli is regarded as non-halophilic, and cannot tolerate high salt concentrations (Abdulkarim et al., 2009). Nevertheless, some strains of E. coli are halo- tolerant and survive in high salt concentrations. The ability to demonstrate such high osmotic pressure is possibly due to the ...

  7. Dichtung als Erfahrungsmetaphysik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Gisli

    Rilkeforskning. Fordi Rilke ikke – uden at gøre vold mod hans værk – kan fortolkes ud fra et traditionelt religiøst verdensbillede, har man fortolket ham som en antimetafysisk mo­dernist. Afhandlingen Dichtung als Erfahrungsmetaphysik. Esoterische und okkultistische Modernität bei R. M. Rilke argumenterer for...

  8. Nucleosynthesis of 26Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, M.

    1986-07-01

    A burst of interest has followed the discovery in the galactic plane of the 1.8 MeV gamma line attached to the decay of 26 Al. We discuss the relative merits of supernovae, novae, massive and supermassive mass-losing stars as potential sources of this expressive isotope

  9. Njukeng et al. + DOI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    confo

    3 Institute of Agricultural Research and Development (IRAD), Bambui, North West Province, Cameroon. ... Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is an important cash-food crop, which is widely ... production in Africa nearly tripled over the past 35 years ... Njukeng et al, Prevalence of Viruses in Potato Seed Tubers in the North West ...

  10. Comentarios al Salto Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Ciencias Económicas

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available 1. El Plan considera que la política social es un componente central de la estrategia macroeconómica. A diferencia de la administración Gaviria, lo social ha dejado de ser un asunto marginal, es consustancial al desarrollo y, por tanto, se le confiere una dimensión cualitativamente diferente.

  11. Hamid et al (24)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    acne, and eye problems (Diaz-Bolio, 1975). Cnidoscolus aconitifolius roots and leaves have been taken as a laxative, diuretic, circulation stimulant, to increase digestion, stimulant for lactation, and to harden the fingernails (Rowe, 1994; Kuti, and. Torres, 1996). Oyagbemi et al., (2011) reported the proximate analysis and ...

  12. Esuuman et al (17)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    big timmy

    ether (Sathe et al., 2002). Various extraction conditions such as pH, solvent types (NaOH, NaCl or Ethanol), solvent concentration, extraction time, solvent/flour ratio, may affect the final properties of the extracted protein. When many factors and interactions affect desired responses in a certain process design, Response.

  13. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  14. Proton irradiation studies on Al and Al5083 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, P.; Gayathri, N.; Bhattacharya, M.; Gupta, A. Dutta; Sarkar, Apu; Dhar, S.; Mitra, M. K.; Mukherjee, P.

    2017-10-01

    The change in the microstructural parameters and microhardness values in 6.5 MeV proton irradiated pure Al and Al5083 alloy samples have been evaluated using different model based techniques of X-ray diffraction Line Profile Analysis (XRD) and microindendation techniques. The detailed line profile analysis of the XRD data showed that the domain size increases and saturates with irradiation dose both in the case of Al and Al5083 alloy. The corresponding microstrain values did not show any change with irradiation dose in the case of the pure Al but showed an increase at higher irradiation doses in the case of Al5083 alloy. The microindendation results showed that unirradiated Al5083 alloy has higher hardness value compared to that of unirradiated pure Al. The hardness increased marginally with irradiation dose in the case of Al5083, whereas for pure Al, there was no significant change with dose.

  15. A Nova Forma de Pensar o Jogo, Seus Valores e Suas Possibilidades The one form of imagine the game, your values and your possibilities El un nova forma de figurase el juego, su valores y su azares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Os videogames são aparelhos de entretenimento, que servem apenas como descanso para os trabalhadores (ou estudantes e incutem valores da sociedade de consumo a estes, ou eles possuem verdadeira característica do jogo como utensílios de lazer educativo, que possam ajudar o indivíduo a se desenvolver? Buscamos neste ensaio dialogar com estas duas linhas de pensamento que respondem a esta pergunta, procurando perceber se estas se complementam ou se excluem mutuamente. Acreditamos que elas não se excluem, desde que bem trabalhadas e contextualizadas, podendo contribuir para o desenvolvimento do indivíduo, em uma educação para o lazer. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: jogo eletrônico – lazer – entretenimento. Are videogames entertaining devices that serve only for workers and students’ relaxation while inputting consumer society values in them? Or do they present real game characteristics such as educational and leisure instruments that can help to develop an individual? In this essay we have tried to communicate with the two lines of thinking that answer this question, in an attempt to understand if these two lines are complimentary or mutually exclusive. We believe they do not exclude one another, provided that they are well explored and contextualized, which could contribute to the development of an individual on an educational process that focuses on leisure. KEYWORDS: electronic games – leisure – entertainment. Los videojuegos son aparatos de entretenimiento que actúan apenas como forma de descanso para los trabajadores (o estudiantes y transmiten valores característicos de la sociedad de consumo, o poseen verdadera característica de juego como implemento del ocio educativo, que pueda ayudar al individuo a desarrollarse? Buscamos en este ensayo discutir estas dos líneas de pensamiento que responden a esta pregunta, procurando analizar si estas se complementan o se excluyen mutuamente. Creemos que ellas no se excluyen, desde que sean

  16. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina J Peraza Roque

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available El bajo peso al nacer (BPN ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de mortalidad 14 veces mayor durante el primer año de vida, en comparación con los niños que nacen con un peso normal a término. Dentro de los factores de riesgo del BPN se han encontrado con mayor frecuencia en estudios realizados por diferentes autores, los siguientes: el embarazo en la adolescencia, la desnutrición en la madre, el hábito de fumar, la hipertensión arterial durante el embarazo, la sepsis cervicovaginal, la anemia y los embarazos gemelares, entre otros. Es innegable la influencia que el BPN tiene sobre las futuras generaciones, por lo que debe constituir la diana de los esfuerzos que el médico y la enfermera deben desarrollar en su prevención, sobre todo en la comunidadLow birth weight has been an enigma for Science through times. A lot of research works have been carried out about its causes and consequences. The importance of LBW not only lies in its meaning for infant mortality and morbidity but also in the many problems that low birth weight children regularly face in the future. The program for the reduction of LBW points out that newborns weighing under 2500g have during his/her first year of life a mortality risk 14 times higher than newborns with a normal weight at term. Among the low birth weight risk factors, a number of studies by various authors have frequently found the following; pregnancy at adolescence; undernourishment in mothers, smoking, blood hypertension during pregnancy, cervix-vaginal sepsis; anemia, twin

  17. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  18. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Lancaster, H.; Plate, D.

    1990-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Respuesta de frijol al Endospor 33® a dosis 50% de fertilizante nitrogenado/fosfatado en agricultura protegida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sanchez-Yañez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El frijol requiere fertilización nitrogenada y fosfatada (FNP, cuya indiscriminada aplicación causa pérdida de productividad del suelo, una alternativa de solución para este problema es reducir y optimizar la dosis de FNP con un inoculante mixto con bacterias promotoras de crecimiento vegetal (BPCV y hongos micorricicos vesículo arbusculares (HMA. El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la respuesta del frijol al inoculante mixto Endospor 33® a dosis reducida al 50% del FNP. En un suelo ferralítico rojo pobre de Nitrógeno (N y materia orgánica. Con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con 5 tratamientos y 6 repeticiones. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de germinación del frijol con Endospor 33® a la dosis 20 mg/semilla fue de 100%. A plántula con 10 mg/planta, tuvo 6,13g de peso fresco total (PFT y de 0,66g de peso seco total (PST comparado con el frijol control relativo (CR con 0,28g de PST con el 100% del FNP. A floración con 30 mg/planta Endospore 33® tuvo 1,5g de PST comparado con 1,07g de PST del frijol CR. A madurez fisiológica con 30mg/planta registro 34,83g/100 semillas, en contraste a su homologo CR con 20,39g/100 semillas. Lo anterior indica que este inoculante mixto es una opción en la producción del frijol a dosis reducida del FNP, sin afectar negativamente su crecimiento y/o rendimiento.

  20. Adekola et al (7)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    the South Atlantic between Latitudes 31° and 33.5 ... South Atlantic Ocean in the Early Cretaceous, around 136 Ma (Brown et al., 1996; Reeves and de. Wit, 2000 ..... 3244. 3246.70. L o w e r C re ta c e o u s. P e rio d. /E p o c h. 3244. 3246.70. B a ..... moderate counts of forest species such as ... The other, near shore is rich.

  1. Flipped Classroom al laboratori

    OpenAIRE

    Molés Bort, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    L'article presenta una experiència d'aprenentatge de la geologia mitjançant el treball en grups d'experts. Els alumnes han d'indagar i promoure el seu propi aprenentatge per a assolir un repte que se'ls proposa, i consensuar els criteris per els que avaluaran els seus propis resultats mitjançant rúbriques. L'activitat inclou aspectes artístics, TIC i matemàtics, i segueix un esquema similar al de les WebQuest. Els resultats de l'activitat es presenten juntament amb una enquesta realitzada ent...

  2. Teatro al aire libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Canac

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Siendo cada vez más frecuentes y numerosas las peregrinaciones a la basílica de Notre Dame, de Laus (Altos Alpes, su capacidad resultaba hace tiempo insuficiente para acoger a sus peregrinos. Este fue el motivo de crear, en un terreno situado ante el atrio de la basílica, un conjunto, que permitiese celebrar misas al aire libre, ceremonias litúrgicas o representaciones de teatro religioso y que dispusiese de todas las posibilidades para conseguir la libertad del juego escénico.

  3. Architektur als Vermittlung

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Mit Anbruch der Moderne hat sich die Architektur bewußt von den Stilen vorangegangener Epochen losgesagt und sich fortan als Ausdruck einer neuen Kultur, eines neuen Zeitgeistes legitimiert. Der Philosoph Konrad Ott setzt sich mit dem Spannungsfeld zwischen den humanistischen und ästhetischen Ansprüchen der modernen Architektur, wie sie etwa von LeCorbusier formuliert worden sind, und der Realität, die sich etwa in der "Behältnis-Architektur" der Großstädte zeigt, auseinander. Die kritische T...

  4. Salvar al planeta

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Sancton

    2015-01-01

    El desastre de Exxon Valdez en Canadá (1989)en que derramaron 262 mil barriles de petróleo en las aguas de Alaska cambió la conciencia de los norteamericanos para bien. Comienzan a preocuparse, les gusta ser ecologistas. Se espera que no sea moda o novelería y que asuman el liderazgo para salvar al planeta, pues la deforestación, el incremento de la población, la quema de combustibles fósiles, el calentamiento global, el agujero de ozono sobre la Antártida dejan intuir que la Tierra está en g...

  5. Programa Padres al Colegio

    OpenAIRE

    Viñeglas Fernández, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo, es un proyecto orientado a la promoción de la salud, en referencia al virus del papiloma humano (VPH), ya que este virus es el causante de una de las infecciones de transmisión sexual más frecuentes en el mundo, el objetivo de este trabajo, es diseñar una serie de intervenciones que contribuyan a sensibilizar e informar a la ciudadanía, para lograr mejorar la prevención del virus del papiloma humano y el cáncer de cérvix. Como ya es sabido, cualquier intervención sobre...

  6. Del Pasadismo al Futurismo

    OpenAIRE

    Agudo-Martínez, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Uno de los habituales prejuicios a la hora de abordar el análisis del movimiento futurista, al igual que sucede con el constructivismo, es la consideración del contexto político en el que se desarrollaron ambas vanguardias. Sin embargo, y dejando a un lado un enfoque del arte con finalidad política de signo diverso, habría que insistir en el hecho de que posiblemente sean tanto el futurismo italiano como el constructivismo ruso, los movimientos que con mayor entusiasmo se manifestaron, en un ...

  7. Synthesizing (ZrAl3 + AlN)/Mg-Al composites by a 'matrix exchange' method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tong; Li, Zengqiang; Hu, Kaiqi; Han, Mengxia; Liu, Xiangfa

    2018-06-01

    A method named 'matrix exchange' to synthesize ZrAl3 and AlN reinforced Mg-Al composite was developed in this paper. By inserting Al-10ZrN master alloy into Mg matrix and reheating the cooled ingot to 550 °C, Al and Mg atoms diffuse to the opposite side. As a result, liquid melt occurs once the interface areas reach to proper compositions. Then dissolved Al atoms react with ZrN, leading to the in-situ formation of ZrAl3 and AlN particles, while the Al matrix is finally replaced by Mg. This study provides a new insight for preparing Mg composites.

  8. Rendimiento de dos variedades mejoradas de frijol, sembrados al voleo y al espeque, en Moss Pam, Waspam, rio Coco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankara Narvaez Ismael

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available           Este articulo presenta el comportamiento agronómico del frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L. en dos variedades:(DOR-364 y H-46, establecidos a través del análisis de dos métodos de siembra (al voleo y al espeque,  para medir la variable rendimiento. El experimento se realizó en la finca académica SNAKY/URACCAN, ubicada en la comunidad Moss Pam, en el municipio de Waspam río Coco, Región Autónoma Atlántico Norte (RAAN. El cultivo de frijol es de gran relevancia en la vida de las comunidades indígenas, ya que constituye al igual que el arroz, el grano de mayor importancia en la dieta familiar. Es de mencionar que las comunidades indígenas de la RAAN utilizan básicamente dos métodos de siembra (al voleo y al espeque; no obstante, siempre los rendimientos son bajos, por lo que se hace necesario el estudio con las condiciones descritas.    Se utilizó un diseño bifactorial en bloques completos al azar, en donde el factor A: equivale a las dos variedades de frijol (DOR-364 y H-46, y el factor B: dos métodos de siembra (al voleo y al espeque. La evaluación se hizo sobre las características morfométricas presentadas en la fase vegetativa y reproductiva del cultivo. El procesamiento de la información se hizo con el programa estadístico InfoStat, indagando desde el análisis del ANAVA y la prueba Kruskal-Wallis. Los resultados mostraron una alta viabilidad germinativa (95%, con diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos en las variables altura y diámetro en la etapa vegetativa. En la etapa reproductiva las variables: número de vainas/plantas y granos/vainas/plantas, fueron las que presentaron diferencias estadísticas entre tratamientos, contrario a las variables número de flores/plantas y longitud de vainas/plantas que no mostraron diferencias. Finalmente el ANAVA con un 95 por ciento de confiabilidad encontró diferencias de medias en la variable rendimiento.Se recomienda el establecimiento de la variedad H-46

  9. Appiah-Adjei et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    ing, sale of automobile spare parts, and metal fabrication. Some of these activities generate huge ... Keywords: Groundwater quality, pollution, waste disposal, Suame, Ghana ... of fertilizers (Chen et al., 2007; Parris, 2011;. Shen et al., 2011), ...

  10. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot project...

  11. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  12. Bukti Kebenaran Al-quran

    OpenAIRE

    Aliyah, Sri

    2015-01-01

    Al Quran is the greatest miracles of Muhammad SAW as the direction of humankind in order to reach eternal happiness. Scientific evidences show that Al Quran has the truth massages, although it was released far before the finding of modern sciences. The researches continue to study the truth of Al Quran an it revealed the historical fact.

  13. Salvar al planeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Sancton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desastre de Exxon Valdez en Canadá (1989en que derramaron 262 mil barriles de petróleo en las aguas de Alaska cambió la conciencia de los norteamericanos para bien. Comienzan a preocuparse, les gusta ser ecologistas. Se espera que no sea moda o novelería y que asuman el liderazgo para salvar al planeta, pues la deforestación, el incremento de la población, la quema de combustibles fósiles, el calentamiento global, el agujero de ozono sobre la Antártida dejan intuir que la Tierra está en grave peligro. Se recomienda entonces optar por un desarrollo sustentable.

  14. COMENTARIO AL CASO PINOCHET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Contreras Clunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fallo en el caso Pinochet tiene distintas formas de ser analizado. De partida, desde un punto de vista político, también constitucional, del derecho penal. Sin embargo, nos abocaremos al estudio desde el punto de vista procesal, en especial a lo referido al Debido Proceso. Para ello se analizará los presupuestos, la solución dada por la Excma. Corte Suprema y las consecuencias del mismo. Además, se criticará la solución dada, desde la óptica de las garantías procesales del imputado, contenidas en el nuevo proceso penal y lo dispuesto en la Constitución y la Convención Americana de Derechos Humanos. Finalmente, se argumentará en favor de una interpretación finalista y armónica de la Constitución y los tratados internacionales de derechos humanos.The verdict of the Pinochet Case has different ways of being analyzed: from the political, the constitutional, and the penal law points of view. However, we will approach this study from the legal point of view, especially to that referred to as the Proper Process. To do this, the budgets, the solution given by the Most Excellent Supreme Court, and its consequences will be analyzed. Furthermore, the given solution will be criticized from the point of view of the legal guarantees of the accused contained in the new penal process and what is contained in the Constitution and in the American Convention of Human Rights. In conclusion, we will argue in favor of a final and harmonious interpretation of the Constitution and the international agreement of human rights.

  15. Carta al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Maldonado Romero

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Bogotá, 01 de Agosto de 1990
    Señores
    Miembros del Consejo Editorial
    Academia Nacional de Medicina
    E.S.D.

    Señores doctores:

    Con toda consideración y respeto me permito agregar algunas anotaciones al escrito del Académico Alberto Cárdenas Escobar, aparecido en el No. 22 de Medicina, para destacar algunos aspectos de la personalidad del doctor Alberto Schweitzer galardonado con el Premio Nobel de la Paz.

    A los 30 años de edad tomó una decisión dramática: Estudiar Medicina para trabajaren el África Ecuatorial. Cuando terminó sus investigaciones sobre enfermedades tropicales y sus prácticas hospitaLarias, partió para el Gabon al pequeño pueblo de Lambarené. La tarea era desconsoladora; La atención médica había que prestarla al aire libre; iba con su esposa, como enfermera y amanuense, y no se encontraba ni un intérprete, ni un ayudante. Cuando le llegaron la medicina y el equipaje hubo que acomodarlos en un viejo gallinero abandonado; el calor era insoportable y le venían enfermos de varias millas a la redonda, a pie o en Canoas.

    Las enfermedades más difundidas eran Malaria, Disentería, estreptococias y la más mortífera, la Tripanosomiasis Gambiense, para la que empezaban a llegar medicinas nuevas eficaces y las medidas preventivas como el suministro de agua potable y enmallado de ventanas impedían muchas contaminaciones.

    Pero la que causaba mayores dificultades y trabajo era la Mycobacteriasis Anestesiante, incurable, de difícil diagnóstico, afectando a varios miembros de la misma familia, de aspecto horripilante, con complicaciones neuríticas muy dolorosas, frecuente ceguera, e invalideces y procesos erisepelatososacrotéricos, que exigían acompañante para el cambio y lavado de vendas y suministro de alimentos.

    A menos de un año de

  16. Estimación de la estabilidad estructural de dos suelos al sur de Colombia con diferentes tipos de manejo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Castillo F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio que se realizó en dos localidades de la zona de ladera al norte del departamento del Cauca, Colombia, se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con seis tratamientos: 1. Parcelas descubiertas (referencia, 2. Rotación cultivos + abono orgánico (labranza; 3. Rotación a partir de pradera mejorada (labranza mínima + abono químico; 4. Rotación convencional (labranza + abono químico; 5. Rotación cultivos + leguminosas (labranza + abono químico; 6. Rotación a partir de pradera mejorada (labranza + abono químico. Los tratamientos se establecieron como parcelas de escorrentía durante ocho años y luego se sometieron sin vegetación a la exposición de las lluvias durante 10 meses y se compararon con las parcelas de referencia que habían estado cubiertas por pradera nativa durante 15 años. Para evaluar la estabilidad estructural se utilizó la prueba de turbidimetría y los resultados se presentaron como el área bajo la curva (ABC para la variable dispersión (%, la cual fue más baja para los agregados tomados de la superficie de suelo virgen (Tratamiento 1 y de rotación de cultivos más labranza mínima (Tratamiento 3. Los tratamientos de rotación con adición de abono orgánico (gallinaza 3 t/ha y coberturas de leguminosas presentaron valores más altos.

  17. De la injusticia al fracaso: La experiencia del paro en un grupo de jóvenes de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Rivas, Ana M.ª

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available By means of the metaphorologic proposals of G. Lakoff and M. Johnson in the analysis of discourse among unemployed young people, the author aims to reveal the basic metaphoric structures that underlie these people's view of the labor market. The fundamental metaphoric concept regarding unemployment held by those interviewed (spaniards aged 16 to 29, which lends coherence to their thoughts, talks and actions, is that of life as a «game of chance» and getting a job as a «stroke of luck». The demobilizing effect of this metaphor results from its hiding the structural dimensión of unemployment through a process of naturalization and individualization that transfers the problem of unemployment from the socioeconomic and political structure to the level of the individual and his or her «luck».A partir de las propuestas metaforológicas de G. Lakoff y M. Johnson, aplicadas al análisis de los discursos de jóvenes desempleados, se trata de desvelar la estructura metafórica básica de su visión del mercado laboral. El concepto metafórico fundamental que da coherencia a la forma de pensar, hablar y actuar sobre el paro del grupo de jóvenes estudiado (españoles de 16 a 29 años es el de la vida como «un juego de azar» y el acceso a un empleo como «un golpe de suerte». El efecto desmovilizador de la metáfora consiste en ocultar la dimensión estructural del desempleo a través de un proceso de naturalización e individualización que traslada el problema del paro de la estructura socieconómica y política al individuo y «su suerte».

  18. Medidas relativas al acoso escolar y ciberacoso en la normativa autonómica española. Un estudio comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta Cerezo Ramírez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sendos informes del Defensor del Pueblo Español alertaron de la necesidad de adoptar medidas para controlar el acoso entre escolares y mejorar la convivencia en las aulas. Sus recomendaciones fueron recogidas por las Comunidades Autónomas (CC.AA. y plasma das en normativas propias. El presente artículo reflexiona sobre las medidas adoptadas, como normas de convivencia, por las administraciones públicas, para los centros educativos sostenidos con fondos públicos. Se plantea un estudio comparativo sobre la no rmativa relacionada con los fenómenos de acoso escolar o bullying y ciberacoso o cyberbullying en ocho CC.AA. seleccionadas al azar. El objetivo principal es conocer cómo se ha abordado esta problemática, así como comparar los protocolos de actuación propu estos y el carácter de las medidas recogidas para su intervención en cada CC.AA. Los resultados indican que la mayoría de las políticas hacen referencia expresa al bullying y una de cada cuatro menciona el cyberbullying, también se detectó que la mitad de los protocolos proponen medidas de actuación ante violencia escolar. En cuanto al carácter de las medidas adoptadas, el análisis demuestra que éstas se dirigen, casi exclusivamente, al alumnado agresor y que, en la mayoría de los casos, son de índole corre ctiva/disciplinaria. Se destaca que en las normativas apenas se hace referencia a medidas de carácter educativo, dejando sin respuesta la propuesta del Defensor del Pueblo que hacía hincapié en las medidas educativas.

  19. Idaaratu al Wahdah al Namthiyah li at Tathwiri al Tarbiyah al Islamiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danusiri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Islam, through the Quran, proclaims that its mission includes the teachings to the whole universe, Everything in the universe is maintained by Islam, and none of the symptoms are ignored. The revelations also include the traditions of the Prophet that are authentic (shahih and good (hasan in quality. Both the Quran and maqbulah hadiths are accepted by Muslims on the basis of faith. When some experts of UIN Walisongo from various disciplines try to understand the sacred words of these two resources, their understanding continues, reaching the paradigm of the unity of science which essentially unites the normative, social, and natural sciences. The effect of this paradigm has brought up an issue for the author. Is there any hadiths or Prophetic traditions that can be used as a grand theory in the management disciplines of Islamic education.To address this issue, the authors conducted a literature research with the title Development of Islamic Education Management Module. Sources of data were focused on nine books of Hadiths : Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Muslim, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan at-Turmudzi, Sunan an-Nasai, Sunan Ibn Majah, Sunan ad-Darimi, Muwatta Malik, and Musnad Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in the form of digital data Lidwa Reader Software Book 9 Imam Hadith. The findings of the study stated that the meaning of the word Rabb includes: creating, nurturing, maintaining, teaching, educating, and organizing. Thus, in an academic term, the word Rabb implies a manager or leader. Meanwhile, in the concept of comprehensive manager it contains at least 14 nomenclature denotations: planning, responsibility, organization, coordination, system of employee payroll, learning, resources, humanity, principle of making it easier for the manager to the employee, motivated to achieve optimal performance, preventing unproductivity, education participation, institutional costs, monitoring, and evaluation system. Each nomenclature has numerous hadiths that could serve

  20. Ruptured uterus in Azare, north eastern Nigeria | Dattijo | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jos Journal of Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here ...

  1. Ruptured uterus in Azare, north eastern Nigeria | Dattijo | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:-Ruptured uterus is an obstetric emergency and results in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The objective of the review is to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, maternal and foetal outcome in cases of ruptured uterus. Methods:- A 4-year retrospective review of ...

  2. Autoritaarsete kapitalistide tagasitulek / Azar Gat ; tõlk. Kajar Pruul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gat, Azar

    2008-01-01

    Mittedemokraatlike suurriikide Venemaa ja Hiina esilekerkimine võib ohustada liberaalse demokraatia juhtivat rolli maailmas. Autor nendib, et nii, nagu kogu 20. sajandi kestel, on ka edaspidi Ameerika Ühendriigid tähtsaim tagatis sellele, et liberaalset demokraatiat ei surutaks kaitseseisundisse ega pagendataks kergesti rünnatavale positsioonile rahvusvahelise süsteemi perifeerias

  3. Azar y finalidad en Aristóteles y Epicuro

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Donís, Marcelino

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposicion Critica Del Mecanicismo Presocratico. 2. La Significacion De Lateleologia En La Fisica Y En La Metafisica. 3. Sobre El Accidente Y La Suerte.4. Fracaso Del Finalismo. 5. Sustitucion De La Finalidad Por El Mecanicismoatomista.

  4. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  5. Morton et al. Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms could lead to up-regulation of dry-season photosynthesis in Amazon forests, including canopy phenology and illumination geometry. We specifically tested two mechanisms for phenology-driven changes in Amazon forests during dry-season months, and the combined evidence from passive optical and lidar satellite data was incompatible with large net changes in canopy leaf area or leaf reflectance suggested by previous studies. We therefore hypothesized that seasonal changes in the fraction of sunlit and shaded canopies, one aspect of bidirectional reflectance effects in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, could alter light availability for dry-season photosynthesis and the photosynthetic capacity of Amazon forests without large net changes in canopy composition. Subsequent work supports the hypothesis that seasonal changes in illumination geometry and diffuse light regulate light saturation in Amazon forests. These studies clarify the physical mechanisms that govern light availability in Amazon forests from seasonal variability in direct and diffuse illumination. Previously, in the debate over light limitation of Amazon forest productivity, seasonal changes in the distribution of light within complex Amazon forest canopies were confounded with dry-season increases in total incoming photosynthetically active radiation. In the accompanying Comment, Saleska et al. do not fully account for this confounding effect of forest structure on photosynthetic capacity.

  6. Alternativen als Programm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Dobroć

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel soll einen Beitrag zu theoretischen Überlegungen einer Technikfolgenabschätzung (TA der Alternativen leisten. Ausgehend von der Annahme, dass TA seit ihrer Entstehung den Anspruch auf die Entwicklung von (technischen Alternativen erhoben hat, wird hier der Versuch unternommen, die Rolle der TA im Rahmen aktueller Innovationsprozesse zu reflektieren und (neu zu definieren. Dies scheint vor allem im Hinblick auf aktuelle gesellschaftliche Herausforderungen notwendig. Zu diesem Zweck wird eine Grundannahme Lothar Hacks über das Verhältnis von Gesellschaft und Technik herangezogen. Seine Annahme besagt, dass die kontinuierliche Überführung von sozialen Problemen und Leitbildern in enge technische Lösungsansätze in hochindustrialisierten Ländern dominant und Teil der aktuellen gesellschaftlichen Probleme ist. Diese These wird im vorliegenden Artikel im Hinblick auf einen Perspektivenwechsel als Ausgangspunkt eines zukünftigen Forschungsprogramms der TA fruchtbar gemacht. Hierbei bildet das Denken in Alternativen von gesellschaftlichen Zukünften den zentralen Fokus.

  7. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.

    1994-07-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10 -11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10 -10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  8. Diffusion-induced quadrupole relaxation of 27Al nuclei in dilute Al-Ti, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, and Al-Cu alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottyan, L.; Beke, D.L.; Tompa, K.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the laboratory frame spin-lattice relaxation time of 27 Al nuclei is measured in 5N Al and in dilute Al-Ti, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, and Al-Cu alloys at 5.7 and 9.7 MHz resonance frequencies. The relaxation in pure aluminium is found to be purely due to the conduction electrons. An excess T 1 -relaxation contribution is detected in all Al-3d alloys investigated above 670 K. The excess relaxation rate is proportional to the impurity content and the temperature dependence of the excess contribution is of Arrhenius-type with an activation energy of (1.3 +- 0.3) eV for all of the investigated alloys. The relaxation contribution is found to be quadrupolar in origin and is caused by the relative diffusional jumps of solute atoms and Al atoms relatively far from the impurity. (author)

  9. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo-Quintanilla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  10. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo Quintanilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  11. ESTRUCTURA DE LAS COMUNIDADES MACROALGALES ASOCIADAS AL LITORAL ROCOSO DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE A. QUIRÓS-RODRÍGUEZ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El comportamiento ecológico de las comunidades macroalgales en el Caribe cordobés es desconocido, por lo tanto para determinar la diversidad, la abundancia y la distribución de las especies se evaluó la estructura de las comunidades macrolagales asociadas a litoral rocoso del departamento de Córdoba durante los meses de mayo de 2004 hasta octubre de 2005, estableciendo siete puntos de muestreo; cuatro en la ecorregión Morrosquillo y tres en la ecorregión Darién. Para establecer la cobertura de las macroalgas, se utilizó un cuadrante de 625 cm2 con cinco repeticiones dispuestas al azar en cada punto de muestreo. Se reportaron 50 especies de algas bentónicas, de las cuales 27 son rodofitas, 17 clorofitas y 12 feofitas; de las 20 familias encontradas, Dictyotaceae presentó el mayor número de especies (10, seguida por Gracilariaceae (7 y Rhodomelaceae (7 y Halymeniaceae (4. Los géneros con mayor número de especies fueron Gracilaria (6, Padina (5 y Caulerpa (4. La composición de las comunidades macroalgales asociadas al sector comprendido entre Punta Bolívar y Punta Mestizos estuvo integrada por tres divisiones, siendo las rodofitas las que presentaron mayor porcentaje de cobertura (78%, seguida por las clorofitas (14% y finalmente las feofitas (9%. En el sector que comprende el litoral que va desde Punta Broqueles hasta Puerto Escondido, las rodofitas mostraron el mayor porcentaje de cobertura (62%, seguida por las feofitas (23% y finalmente las clorofitas (15%. El análisis de clasificación (UPGMA, registró un coeficiente de afinidad del 57%, indicando que la estructura y la composición de las comunidades algales asociadas se comportaron de manera similar en las dos ecorregiones; este comportamiento mostró la conformación de unidades estables en cada punto de muestreo, manifestando cierta homogeneidad espacial, lo cual puede estar relacionado con el tipo de sustrato y las perturbaciones ambientales propias de cada estación.

  12. OBSTÁCULOS AL APRENDIZAJE DEL CONCEPTO ESTRUCTURANTE EVOLUCIÓN BIOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Araujo Llamas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Se contrastaron los obstáculos en el aprendizaje del concepto evolución biológica reportados en publicaciones especializadas en la enseñanza de las ciencias,  con losen la implementación de un juego para enseñar evolución por selección natural. Lo anterior, se realizó mediante la revisión de antecedentes que permitieron identificar los obstáculos encontrados por otros investigadores y la puesta en marcha de la propuesta didáctica que posibilitó identificar y superar algunos de los mismos. Existen múltiples factores que dificultan la comprensión de la evolución biológica, componentes culturales, iconografía inapropiada, insuficiente preparación de los profesores, estrategias didácticas inadecuadas y apreciación negativa de la teoría evolutiva, son algunos de ellos. Por otra parte, algunas ideas previas propias del estudiante o transmitidas por el profesor pueden funcionar como obstáculos al aprendizaje de este concepto estructurante; el esencialismo biológico, las concepciones lamarckistas, la ortogénesis, la teleología, y no concebir el concepto de “miles de millones de años”, hacen parte de las explicaciones que los estudiantes suelen utilizar. Es pertinente señalar que, los obstáculos al aprendizaje de los estudiantes no son muy diferentes a los que tuvo que superar la biología para establecer su actual paradigma. Éstos, se superan en buena medida cuando se comprenden conceptos imprescindibles en el cambio de los sistemas vivos, como: especie biológica, población, variabilidad genética, herencia, azar, mutación, desarrollo ontogénico, filogenia, ancestro común, adaptación, selección natural y tiempo geológico.

  13. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinghang [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  14. Deformation mechanisms of nanotwinned Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the role of different types of layer interfaces on the formation of high density stacking fault (SF) in Al in Al/fcc multilayers, and understand the corresponding deformation mechanisms of the films. Stacking faults or twins can be intentionally introduced (via growth) into certain fcc metals with low stacking fault energy (such as Cu, Ag and 330 stainless steels) to achieve high strength, high ductility, superior thermal stability and good electrical conductivity. However it is still a major challenge to synthesize these types of defects into metals with high stacking fault energy, such as Al. Although deformation twins have been observed in some nanocrystalline Al powders by low temperature, high strain rate cryomilling or in Al at the edge of crack tip or indentation (with the assistance of high stress intensity factor), these deformation techniques typically introduce twins sporadically and the control of deformation twin density in Al is still not feasible. This project is designed to test the following hypotheses: (1) Certain type of layer interfaces may assist the formation of SF in Al, (2) Al with high density SF may have deformation mechanisms drastically different from those of coarse-grained Al and nanotwinned Cu. To test these hypotheses, we have performed the following tasks: (i) Investigate the influence of layer interfaces, stresses and deposition parameters on the formation and density of SF in Al. (ii) Understand the role of SF on the deformation behavior of Al. In situ nanoindentation experiments will be performed to probe deformation mechanisms in Al. The major findings related to the formation mechanism of twins and mechanical behavior of nanotwinned metals include the followings: 1) Our studies show that nanotwins can be introduced into metals with high stacking fault energy, in drastic contrast to the general anticipation. 2) We show two strategies that can effectively introduce growth twins in

  15. SANANDO AL SANADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Acuña, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La dependencia o adicción a sustancias de uso profesional es un problema que puede afectar gravemente a médicos de diferentes especialidades. En la anestesiología hay mayor riesgo de dependencia a opioides e hipnóticos que en otras especialidades y puede llegar a afectar al 1% de los médicos anestesiólogos.La fisiopatología del trastorno por uso de sustancias tiene hechos comunes para diferentes drogas. Interactúan la vulnerabilidad genética y factores psicosociales como predisponentes y los efectos psicobiológicos de la sustancia como factor gatillante. En el caso de los anestesiólogos, la sustancia se encuentra en el lugar de trabajo y por lo tanto, el individuo está constantemente expuesto.Una disfunción previa del sistema de recompensa en el circuito mesocorticolímbico o causada por la exposición a la sustancia adictiva es la piedra central de la neurobiología de las adicciones. Los opioides, anfetaminas, canabinoides, alcohol y nicotina, son algunas de las sustancias exógenas que activan el circuito y causan inicialmente un efecto hedónico que reforzará la conducta por repetir la experiencia. Con el tiempo la interacción con la droga será para evitar los síntomas de abstinencia.Dada la exposición laboral de los anestesiólogos, es necesario prevenir, detectar y tratar precozmente a quienes están abusando de sustancias durante su ejercicio profesional.Por las características de estos fármacos, aspectos psicológicos especiales de los médicos y el contexto laboral se hace necesario un tratamiento especializado y en anestesiólogos la reinserción laboral debe ser un proceso controlado, gradual y con un seguimiento prolongado. SUMMARY: Prescription drugs dependence seriously impairs doctors from differents fields of medicine. Anesthesiology has greater risk than other specialties to opioids and hypnotics dependence, with prevalence up to 1%.Substances use disorder has common mechanisms of disease regardless

  16. Evaluación de la reacción de nueve genotipos de papa (Solanum tuberosumsubsp. andigena al ataque de Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourth G. Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El presente trabajo se realizó en el municipio de Pasto, departamento de Nariño, Colombia, a 2.710 msnm. El objetivo fue evaluar la reacción de los clones de papa Blanca, Pintada, Rosada tipo Capiro, Roja Guata, Roja Redonda y Roja Loca y tres variedades mejoradas: Parda Suprema, Roja Nariño y Betina, al ataque de la gota (Phytophthora infestans. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro repeticiones y nueve tratamientos. Para la variable severidad los mejores genotipos fueron Blanca, Pintada, Parda Suprema y Betina con un promedio de 19,72; 21,99; 23,15 y 23,62%, respectivamente. El mejor rendimiento fue obtenido por los genotipos Blanca, Pintada, Parda Suprema, Betina y Roja Loca con 29,61; 24,66; 25,71; 27,12 y 28,05 t•ha-1, en su orden.

  17. 117 - 122 Omoniyi et al

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    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 8(2): 117 – 122. Received: ... FOLLOWING MILD EXPOSURE. Omoniyi ... People who work with materials containing mere traces .... obscured physical effect in the animal model (Omoniyi et al.

  18. 150 - 159_Salisu et al.

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    of interaction occurring in this natural system (Dube et al.,2000). Many soils ... minerals including gold, copper, zinc etc. The Zamfara ... contain unusually problematic concentration of lead and other ..... Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient ...

  19. 142 - 149_Safiyanu et al.,

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    insecticides producing industries whose daily challenge is minimization of malaria burden across the globe. Larvae of ... emerge and currently represents the major threat to ..... eastern Thailand (Pimsamurna et al., 2009) and resistance to ...

  20. 24 - 28_Suleiman et al.

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    larval instar. Keywords: Antlion, Construction, Density, Distribution, Hunger, Larvae, Pit. INTRODUCTION ... 1987), moisture (Gotelli 1993; Morrison 1994), and shade (scharfet al. .... Pit building was virtually the same in all three instar, and no ...

  1. Laniyan et al (1).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    Pollution of groundwater has become a major environmental problem. Anthropogenic ... drinking water comes from aquifers (Forster et al.,. 1998). Aquifers ... improvement in public health. ..... Arsenic (As): Chemical properties,. Health and ...

  2. Radiation detection with Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Atsuki; Takahashi, Toru; Kurakado, Masahiko

    1992-01-01

    Superconductor radiation detectors have the possibility of 20-30 times better energy resolution than that of a high resolution Si detector. We fabricated Nb/Al-AlOx/Al/Nb superconducting tunnel junctions with low leakage current. X rays were detected with large area junctions of 178x178 μm 2 . High energy resolution of 160 eV for 5.9 keV was obtained. We also fabricated series connected junctions which covers a rather large area of 4x4 mm 2 . α particles injected into the rear substrate were detected using nonthermal phonons induced by the radiations in the substrate. (author)

  3. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  4. Combustion synthesis of AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pan; Xiao, Guoqing; Ding, Donghai; Ren, Yun; Yang, Shoulei; Lv, Lihua; Hou, Xing

    2018-05-01

    Using of Al and B2O3 powders as starting materials, and Mg-Al alloy as additives, AlB2-Al2O3 composite powders with AlB2 nanowire structures were successfully fabricated via combustion synthesis method in Ar atmosphere at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The effect of different amount of Mg-Al alloy on the phase compositions and morphology of the combustion products was investigated. The results revealed that AlB2 and Al2O3 increased, whereas Al decreased with the content of Mg-Al alloy increasing. The impurities MgAl2O4 and AlB12 would exist in the sample with adding of 18 wt% Mg-Al alloy. Interestingly, FESEM/TEM/EDS results showed that AlB2 nanowires were observed in the products when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 6 wt% and 12 wt%. The more AlB2 nanowires can be found as the content of Mg-Al alloy increased. And the yield of AlB2 nanowires with the diameter of about 200 nanometers (nm) and the length up to several tens of micrometers (μm) in the combustion product is highest when the content of Mg-Al alloy is 12 wt%. The vapor, such as Mg-Al (g), B2O2 (g), AlO (g) and Al2O (g), produced during the process of combustion synthesis, reacted with each other to yield AlB2 nanowires by vapor-solid (VS) mechanism and the corresponding model was also proposed.

  5. AL ITTIJAHAT AL MUNHARIFAH FI AT TAFSIR LI BADLI ASHAB AL MADZAHIB AL NAHWIYYAH WA BADL MAN YAJHALUNA QAWAID AL LUGHAH AL ARABIYYAH FI NADHAR MUHAMMAD HUSAIN AL DZAHABIY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbakhudin Misbakhudin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most precious achievement in qur’anic studies was the book of Al-Ittijâhât al-Munharifah fî al-Tafsîr: Dawâfi’uha wa Daf’uha written by A great Islamic scholar, Muhammad Husein al-Dzahabî. He was succeeded in discussing several issues of corruptions of the exegesis of the holy Qur’an. This article is aimed to explain and to describe his analysis toward several corrupted linguist interpretations in their originations and such corrupted linguistic interpretations of the holy Qur’an which are ignoring Arabic structures and grammers

  6. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  7. PENDIDIKAN MENURUT AL-GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Kurniawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Education reform efforts typically begin with a conceptual perspective before implementation. Thus, developing Islamic education usually begins with a study of a figure and his educational thought. And one of the most influential figures whose thought which has Sufi religious pattern has dominated educational thinking atmosphere over the centuries since his death. The purpose of education according to al-Ghazali was to get closer to Allah. He came with a view that the most noble job is to educate: to become a teacher. Al-Ghazali advised that his students, in the learning process, aim to become scientists who could disseminate their knowledge for the sake of humanity values. Keywords: Al-Ghazali, Thought, Islamic Education.

  8. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Xiaoguang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn; Ding Haimin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Because flake-like TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl{sub 3} particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of {alpha}-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption.

  9. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xiaoguang; Liu Xiangfa; Ding Haimin

    2009-01-01

    Because flake-like TiAl 3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl 3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  10. estigma tolerable al estigma intolerable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arteaga Botello

    2006-01-01

    cristalización pasa por dos referentes de interacción y relación social al interior del espacio escolar. El primero está constituido por parámetros de normalidad y anormalidad a partir de la localización de estigmas. El segundo se encuentra, a contrapelo de la tendencia anterior, tratando de diluir los efectos de los estigmas al señalarlos como una práctica de tipificación social intolerable o inaceptable.

  11. De la contingencia al destino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heller, Agnes

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La modernidad no ha podido dar respuesta al problema de la contingencia histórica, El texto muestra, por medio de metáforas, que el abandono necesario de esta cuestión no significa que estemos abocados al relativismo respecto a la contingencia existencial. La contingencia existencial, individual, sigue presente en la vida de todo individuo. Se sostiene que podemos dar un destino a nuestras vidas, y ésta es la tarea principal del filósofo.

  12. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti 2 AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In situ Ti 2 AlC/TiAl composite was fabricated by hot-pressing method via the reaction system of Ti 3 AlC 2 and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150 ∘ C. The composite mainly consisted of TiAl, Ti 3 Al and Ti 2 AlC phases. Fine Ti 2 AlC particles were homogeneously distributed and dispersed in the matrix.

  13. ¿COLOMBIA DEBE APOSTARLE AL SOFTWARE LIBRE, AL DE FUENTE ABIERTA O AL PROPIETARIO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Girón Murillo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Es complejo para gestores y administradores conocer las implicaciones que la adopción de modelos de desarrollo de software tendría para una región. Este artículo ofrece una evaluación de las implicaciones dinámicas que para el desarrollo de software de una región tendría el apostar de forma excluyente al software libre, al software de fuente abierta y al software propietario. Se desarrolló un modelo de simulación en Vensim de la dinámica de sistemas en donde se evaluaron 3 escenarios: uno en donde se adopta de forma excluyente el software libre, uno en donde se adopta el software propietario y uno en donde se adopta el software de fuente abierta. Se ofrecen descripciones y explicaciones de los resultados que sugieren las potencialidades de cada uno de los modelos de desarrollo evaluados.

  14. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li Xiaomin [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Song Zhenlun [Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)], E-mail: songzhenlun@nimte.ac.cn

    2009-11-15

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  15. AlN/Al dual protective coatings on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinlong; Mao Shoudong; Sun Kefei; Li Xiaomin; Song Zhenlun

    2009-01-01

    AlN/Al dual protective coatings were prepared on NdFeB by DC magnetron sputtering in a home-made industrial apparatus. Comparing with Al coating, AlN/Al coatings have a denser structure of an outmost AlN amorphous layer following an inner Al columnar crystal layer. The coatings and NdFeB substrate combine well, and moreover, there is occurrence of metallurgy bonding in the interface layer. Both Al and AlN/Al coatings have a good protective ability to NdFeB. Especially, the corrosion resistance of AlN/Al coated NdFeB is improved largely. AlN/Al and Al protective coatings not only do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB, but contribute to their slight increase.

  16. 34 - 38 Ashiru et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    INTRODUCTION. Commercial fish feeds are usually expensive because the traditional or conventional protein source ingredient such as fish meal, soyabean ... consumption (Madu et al., 2003). Fish feed constitute for about 60-80% of management cost in agricultural production (Igonifagha, 1979). Periodic scarcity and.

  17. 39 - 47_Aminu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    estimated 453, 000 resulting in the death of a child younger than five years. In Sub-Saharan Africa and. Asia, according to Kotloff et al., (2013), rotavirus is one of the four most common causes of moderate to severe diarrhea among children <5 years of age. Diarrhea is one of the documented '10 killer conditions' among ...

  18. Oyebola et al (23).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    3+ described elsewhere (Oyebola et al., 2010). Ho absorption peaks were obtained from transmission studies carried out with a Cary 5000. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer and corresponding absorption coefficients deduced using the Beer-Lambert law. Spectral emission measurements were carried out using the schematic ...

  19. 180 - 184_ Farouk et al.,

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    College of Arts, Science and Remedial Studies, Kano, Nigeria aceutical and Medicinal ... d out to determine the levels of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) in m ... and soil. Contamination of als may be due to natural, activities (Wilkinson et ation of ...

  20. Adewale et al (18).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    MATERIAL IN SOIL AND MINE TAILINGS OF AWO AND EDE, OSUN-STATE,. NIGERIA. 1*. 1. 2 ... The materials may be original (such as uranium and thorium) or decay .... following equation (Beck et al., 1972). D = 0.042A (K) + 0.429A.

  1. Idowu et al (19).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    aquifer flow (MacDonald et al., 2005). Typically, it travels vertically downwards through the unsaturated zone to the water table, from where it flows according to the hydraulic gradient, until it reaches an area of discharge where it occurs as springs or seepages, providing part of the dry season flow and constituting part of the.

  2. 94 - 99_Nafiu et al.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    destination for tourist, it promotes tourism and ecotourism in .... Malaysia. It is also similar with the work of Abuessaila et al., (2011) who reported Trichostrongylus spp. (13.5%) ... animals that tend to receives medical attention were reported to ...

  3. Caracterización molecular de cubios (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz y Pavón en el departamento de Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El cubio (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz y Pavón es un tubérculo básico en la dieta de las comunidades andinas. Es un cultivo rústico, con buena adaptación y usos medicinales. Los agricultores de las zonas altas de Boyacá conservan cultivares de tubérculos como cubios, rubas e ibias, que hacen parte de su patrimonio cultural, sin embargo, en los últimos aos, este germoplasma está siendo amenazado por la erosión genética causada por factores ambientales y antrópicos. No existen estudios de caracterización molecular de este germoplasma en Boyacá, por lo cual esta investigación se orientó hacia la identificación de la diversidad de once genotipos de cubios, procedentes de los municipios de Ventaquemada y San Pedro de Iguaque, utilizando siete marcadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs. El análisis de similitud diferenció a los cultivares en dos grandes grupos, de acuerdo con características relacionadas con el tubérculo (color y forma. Los valores de heterocigosidad estimada estuvieron comprendidos entre 0,25 y 0,42 para los cebadores CGA y AG, respectivamente, lo cual es bajo si se compara con los resultados obtenidos en otras especies tuberosas. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad de la población fue de 0,35 y junto con el análisis de varianza molecular y el Fst muestran la existencia de variabilidad genética en los cultivares evaluados, la cual debe tenerse en cuenta en los programas de conservación y mejoramiento genético de los tubérculos andinos.

  4. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  5. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  6. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-Tao; Tian, Yu-Feng; Yan, Shi-Shen; Lin, Zhao-Jun; Kang, Shi-Shou; Chen, Yan-Xue; Liu, Guo-Lei; Mei, Liang-Mo

    2015-09-21

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current voltage, and this rectification voltage strongly varies with the external magnetic field. We find that the rectification magnetoresistance in Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions is as large as 250% at room temperature, which is greatly enhanced as compared with the conventional magnetoresistance of 70%. The findings of rectification magnetoresistance open the way to the new nonmagnetic Ge-based spintronics devices of large rectification magnetoresistance at ambient temperature under the alternating-current due to the simultaneous implementation of the rectification and magnetoresistance in the same devices.

  7. Large rectification magnetoresistance in nonmagnetic Al/Ge/Al heterojunctions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-huan; Grünberg, Peter; Li, Qiang; Ye, Sheng-tao; Tian, Yu-feng; Yan, Shi-shen; Lin, Zhao-jun; Kang, Shi-shou; Chen, Yan-xue; Liu, Guo-lei; Mei, and Liang-mo

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoresistance and rectification are two fundamental physical properties of heterojunctions and respectively have wide applications in spintronics devices. Being different from the well known various magnetoresistance effects, here we report a brand new large magnetoresistance that can be regarded as rectification magnetoresistance: the application of a pure small sinusoidal alternating-current to the nonmagnetic Al/Ge Schottky heterojunctions can generate a significant direct-current volt...

  8. Evaluación de la calidad de la atención al paciente diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: elevar la eficiencia y efectividad de las acciones del médico y la enfermera de la familia, es requisito indispensable para el desarrollo de una atención médica integral. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la atención al paciente diabético por el médico de la familia, en el área de salud de Abreus. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo basado en la aplicación de instrumentos para evaluar el desempeño de médicos de la familia en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus en los cinco consultorios de la familia, del área de salud de Abreus en el período de enero a julio del 2011. Se incluyeron los cinco médicos que laboraban en los consultorios y 172 pacientes diabéticos, además se revisaron 172 historias clínicas seleccionadas al azar. Se evaluó mediante la observación, la existencia de algunos recursos materiales necesarios y su calidad en el funcionamiento, la calidad de las historias clínicas y a través de criterios del paciente la calidad de la atención que se brinda. Resultados: la capacitación científico-técnica sobre diabetes mellitus ha sido insuficiente, existe el instrumental necesario para la atención y seguimiento adecuado de las personas con diabetes. En el 2,9 % de las historias clínicas revisadas aparece el interrogatorio de forma completa, examen físico completo en 12 de ellas y en 26 las indicaciones médicas completas. Conclusiones: la calidad de la atención médica integral a los pacientes diabéticos incluidos en el estudio se encuentra comprometida. Los médicos entrevistados reconocen la necesidad de recibir capacitación sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la diabetes para mejorar su desempeño profesional y elevar la calidad de la atención médica de estos pacientes.

  9. Jongerenwerk als werkplaats voor professionalisering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Metz

    2012-03-01

    met wetenschappelijke experimentele kennis als norm, is dat zij niet altijd goed aansluiten bij de complexiteit en flexibiliteit van de uitvoeringspraktijk. Vraag is: wat dan wel? In Amsterdam richten opleidingen en werkveld in 2008 Youth Spot op, het onderzoek- en praktijkcentrum voor jongerenwerk, met als doel om gezamenlijk te werken aan de profilering, professionalisering en praktijkontwikkeling van het jongerenwerk. Dit artikel belicht de aanleiding voor het ontstaan van Youth Spot, de structuur van de samenwerking, de ervaringen met de wijze van samen werken en de meerwaarde voor de professionalisering van het grootstedelijk jongerenwerk. Daarmee biedt dit artikel enerzijds een kijkje in de keuken van het (grootstedelijke jongerenwerk en anderzijds biedt zij inzicht in ervaringen met alternatieve professionalisering strategieën.

  10. Response to Lefebvre et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kou, I; Kawakami, N; Yasuhiko, Y; Ogura, Y; Imagawa, E; Miyake, N; Matsumoto, N; Sudo, H; Kotani, T; Nakamura, M; Matsumoto, M; Watanabe, K; Ikegawa, S

    2017-11-01

    Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a common vertebral malformation with incidence of up to 1 of 1000 births worldwide. Recently, TBX6 has been reported as the first disease gene for CS: about 10% of CS patients are compound heterozygotes of rare null mutations and a common haplotype composed by 3 SNPs in TBX6. Lefebvre et al in this journal reported that 2 patients with spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD), a rare skeletal dysplasia affecting spine and ribs also have TBX6 mutations: 1 carried the microdeletion and a rare missense variant, and another 2 rare missense variants. We investigated the pathogenicity of the 3 missense variants in SCD by a luciferase assay. The results were negative for the proposal of Lefebvre et al. We consider these 2 SCD patients are more probably compound heterozygotes of null mutations and a common risk haplotype just as CS patients with TBX6 mutations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transient oxidation of Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The oxide phases formed on an Al-deposited Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil and an Fe-Cr-Al alloy foil of the same levels of Al and (La+Ce) contents, and their oxidation kinetics have been studied in air at 1173 and 1373 K using TGA, XRD and SEM. Al deposition promotes the growth of metastable aluminas (θ-Al 2 O 3 , γ-Al 2 O 3 ). Scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and a small amount of α-Al 2 O 3 develop on the Al-deposited foil at 1173 K and exhibit the whisker-type morphology. In the early stage of oxidation at 1373 K, thick scales consisting of θ-Al 2 O 3 and α-Al 2 O 3 grow rapidly on the Al-deposited foil. The transformation from θ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 is very fast, and the scales result in only α-Al 2 O 3 . In contrast, α-Al 2 O 3 scales containing a minor amount of FeAl 2 O 4 develop on the alloy foil. The growth rate of α-Al 2 O 3 scales on the Al-deposited foil is smaller than that on the alloy foil and very close to that on NiAl at 1373 K. (orig.)

  12. Response to Lisovski et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David

    2018-01-01

    Lisovski et al. [1] describe the widely recognized limitations of light-level geolocator data for identifying short-distance latitudinal movements, recommend that caution be used when interpreting such data, intimated that we did not use such caution and argued that environmental shading likely explained the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) movements described in our 2015 report [2] . Lisovski et al. [1] conclude that the bird movements we reported could not be disentangled from estimation error in stationary animals caused by environmental shading. We argue that, to the contrary, these hypotheses can easily be disentangled because the premise that environmental shading caused synchronous and parallel error among geolocators is false. With their assertion that our location estimates could be biased by >3,500 km on a day with no observable local sources of shading, Lisovski et al. [1] have taken a position of incredulity toward all geolocator-based animal movement data published to date.

  13. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  14. Stem cells therapy for ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Letizia; Vescovi, Angelo; Cantello, Roberto; Gelati, Maurizio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Despite knowledge on the molecular basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) having quickly progressed over the last few years, such discoveries have not yet translated into new therapeutics. With the advancement of stem cell technologies there is hope for stem cell therapeutics as novel treatments for ALS. We discuss in detail the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells in preclinical and clinical works. Moreover, we address many open questions in clinical translation. SC therapy is a potentially promising new treatment for ALS and the need to better understand how to develop cell-based experimental treatments, and how to implement them in clinical trials, becomes more pressing. Mesenchymal stem cells and neural fetal stem cells have emerged as safe and potentially effective cell types, but there is a need to carry out appropriately designed experimental studies to verify their long-term safety and possibly efficacy. Moreover, the cost-benefit analysis of the results must take into account the quality of life of the patients as a major end point. It is our opinion that a multicenter international clinical program aime d at fine-tuning and coordinating transplantation procedures and protocols is mandatory.

  15. Comparison of one and two-neutron transfer near the Coulomb barrier for the 27Al(18O, 16O)29Al, 27Al(18O, 17O)28Al and 27Al(13C, 12C)28Al reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, S.A.; Eck, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    Total reaction cross sections for the transfer reactions 27 Al( 18 O, 16 O) 29 Al, 27 Al( 18 O, 17 O) 28 Al and 27 Al( 13 C, 12 C) 28 Al are reported for center-of-mass energies between 13 and 20 MeV for 18 O projectiles and between 11 and 17.5 MeV for 13 C projectiles. The reaction products, 29 Al, and 28 Al, beta decay to 29 Si and 28 Si, respectively, and the subsequent γ decays of 29 Si and 28 Si were measured. Due to the relatively long beta decay half lives, data were taken in a beam-off mode, resulting in very clean spectra. Total cross sections were calculated and compared with a theoretical model for barrier penetration proposed by C.Y. Wong. Differences between 18 O induced one and two-neutron total transfer reaction cross sections are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al matrix composites: Fabrication and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Q.; Cong, H.T.; Wang, W.; Sun, C.H.; Cheng, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the specific strength and stiffness of Al-based composites, AlN/Al nanoparticles were in-situ synthesized by arc plasma evaporation of Al in nitrogen atmosphere and consolidated by hot-pressing to fabricate AlN nanoparticle-reinforced nanocrystalline Al composites (0-39 vol.% AlN). Microstructure characterization shows that AlN nanoparticles homogeneously distribute in the matrix of Al nanocrystalline, which forms atomically bonded interfaces of AlN/Al. The hardness and the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite have been improved dramatically, up to 3.48 GPa and 142 GPa, respectively. Such improvement is believed to result from the grain refinement strengthening and the interface strengthening (load transfer) between the Al matrix and AlN nanoparticles

  17. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  18. Structural stability and electronic properties of AlCu3, AlCu2Zr in AlZr3: Stabilnost strukture in elektronske lastnosti AlCu3, AlCu2Zr in AlZr3:

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Rong; Wu, Xiao-Yu

    2013-01-01

    First-principles calculations were performed to study the alloying stability and electronic structure of the Al-based intermetallic compounds AlCusub3, AlCusub{2}Zr and AlZrsub3. The results show that the lattice parameters obtained after the full relaxation of the crystalline cells are consistent with the experimental data, and these intermetallics have a strong alloying ability and structural stability due to their negative formation energies and their cohesive energies. A further analysis ...

  19. Evaluación de si aplicado al suelo en el crecimiento, absorción y severidad de enfermedades en vivero de palma aceitera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Garbanzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes fuentes de Si en la severidad de enfermedades foliares (CNF en plantas de vivero de palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis en el Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. Las fuentes de silicio consistieron en la aplicación de 30 g de SiO2 por bolsa de 20,4 L de 2 fuentes de serpentinas (Simag y SMg, una fuente de diatomitas (SiF, una fuente soluble (SKH y 177 g por bolsa de SiO2 de un feldespato (Llane mezclado en un Inceptisol éutrico. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar con 6 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Se evaluó a los 85, 127, 176, 219, 261, y 304 dds el crecimiento de las plantas y % de severidad de CNF. Además, se realizaron análisis químicos de suelos y foliares en el tiempo, se evaluó el peso seco de plantas y se calculó la absorción de nutrimentos. Se encontró que el tratamiento SiF mostró mayor tolerancia a CNF significativamente (a:0,05 en comparación al testigo, mientras que la fuente Simag mostró un mayor crecimiento. El Si presentó mayor absorción en Simag, test, SMg, SiF y fueron significativas diferentes con respecto al SKH y Llane. El SKH en suelo fue el único tratamiento que aumentó los niveles de Si por arriba de los 200 mg.l-1. A los 300 dds, el análisis de componentes principales correlacionó la severidad con las concentraciones de Ca en el suelo y mostró un comportamiento inverso a los contenidos de Zn, K, P, Mn y en el tiempo. Se concluye que el Si en este suelo no presentó un efecto directo sobre el control de CNF, pero la fuente de diatomitas (SiF mostró mayor tolerancia, debido a que la enmienda facilita la absorción de micronutrimentos (Zn al mejorar la nutrición de la planta. Asimismo, se encontró que la fuente SKH logró aumentar las concentraciones de Si en el suelo.

  20. Efecto del número de aplicaciones de cloprostenol sobre la regresión de cuerpos lúteos, el retorno al celo y la ovulación, después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en donantes de embriones bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jiménez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta de la aplicación doble o triple de prostaglandina sobre la regresión de CL, ovulación y retorno al celo después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en vacas donantes de embriones. Para este experimento se tomaron 44 vacas asignadas al azar a dos grupos de tratamiento. Al primero (n = 23; CLO 0 & 7 se le aplicó una dosis de 500 μg de cloprostenol los días 0 (denominado día de la colecta y 7; al segundo grupo (n = 21; CLO 0, 1 & 7 se le aplicó una inyección adicional el día 1. Los animales fueron examinados por ultrasonografía los días 0, 4, 7, 10 y 13 para evaluar la regresión de cuerpos lúteos y la ovulación. Se realizó observación del celo dos veces al día (mañana y tarde. El 0,8 y 52,3% de los grupos CLO 0 & 7 y CLO 0, 1 & 7, respectivamente, presentaron signos de celo. No se presentaron diferencias en el día del celo entre los grupos (7,2 ± 0,3, 7,3 ± 0,5 días. Tampoco hubodiferencia para la variable ovulación (8,5 ± 0,9 y 9,8± 0,9 días. Todas las vacas tratadas regresaron los cuerpos lúteos antes de finalizar el experimento. Cuando se analizó el tiempo de ovulación, se encontró que las vacas con 4 o menos cuerpos lúteos ovulan en un tiempo menor (P

  1. A study of ion damage in Al, Al/Cu and Al/Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marikar, P.

    1979-06-01

    Specimens of pure aluminium, aluminium-copper and aluminium-silver have been irradiated with 20 keV helium ions and/or 100 keV aluminium ions and the nature of the damage assessed using transmission electron microscopy. Irradiation with 20 keV helium ions to a dose of 2.7 x 10 15 ions cm -2 results in the formation of interstitial loops and helium gas bubbles. The helium bubbles were detectable only after annealing at a high temperature following irradiation. When the helium preinjected aluminium specimens were irradiated with 100 keV Al + ions to a dose of 84 dpa at temperatures above 150 0 C, voids were observed to form. At a lower dose of 64 dpa, only a high density of dislocation loops was observed. Al-1 wt% Cu alloy containing partially coherent theta' precipitates resists void formation to a considerable extent, and Al-10 wt% Ag alloy containing coherent G.P. zones offers complete resistance to both dislocation loop nucleation and void formation. The experimental results are discussed in the light of the current theories of irradiation induced damage in metals. The importance of the dislocation-sink efficiency for point defects, the gaseous impurity and the alloying elements in determining void formation is highlighted. (author)

  2. Investigations of Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gismelseed, A. M., E-mail: abbasher@squ.edu.om [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Abdallah, S. B. [University of Khartoum, Department of Geology, Faculty of Science (Sudan); Al-Rawas, A. D.; Al-Mabsali, F. N.; Widatallah, H. M.; Elzain, M. E.; Yousif, A. A. [Sultan Qaboos University, College of Science (Oman); Ericsson, T. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Material Sciences (Sweden); Annersten, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-12-15

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) have been performed on two meteorites named Al-Dalang and Al-Hawashat after identifying their falling sites in the Western region of Sudan. These two meteorites are ordinary chondrites with similar mineralogy. XRD and EMPA show that the two specimens consist of primary olivine, ortho-pyroxene and later crystallising clino-pyroxene as reaction rims against plagioclase. Fe-metal phases are dominated by kamacite (≈6 wt.% Ni) and minor amounts of tetrataenite (≈52 wt.% Ni). Troilite (FeS) and alabandite (MnS) are optically observed as sulphide phases. The Mössbauer measurements at 295 and 78 K are in agreement with the above characterizations, showing at least two paramagnetic doublets which are assigned to olivine and pyroxene and magnetic sextets assigned to kamacite (hyperfine field ≈33.5 T) and troilite FeS (hyperfine field ≈31 T).

  3. FTD and ALS: genetic ties that bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Harry T

    2011-10-20

    Curiously, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), seemingly disparate neurodegenerative disorders, can be inherited together. Two groups (DeJesus-Hernandez et al. and Renton et al.) show that the long sought after ALS/FTD mutation on chromosomal region 9p is a hexanucleotide expansion in C90RF72. These studies, plus a study on X-linked ALS/FTD, provide molecular starting points for identifying pathways that link ALS and FTD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  5. Diabetes: importancia de la familia y el trabajo en la adhesión al tratamiento Diabetes: the importance of family and work for the compliance with treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana C. Azzollini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio correlacional con el objetivo de analizar la percepción del apoyo social en el ámbito familiar y laboral que tienen los pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes tipo 2 y su relación con la adhesión a los tratamientos médicos. Se seleccionó una muestra probabilística al azar sistemático de 337 pacientes entre 40 y 79 años que concurrían a consultorios externos de cuatro hospitales públicos de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires durante el año 2010. Se administró, entre otros instrumentos, un cuestionario de datos personales y de percepción de apoyo social familiar y laboral, y una escala de frecuencias sobre prácticas de autocuidado; todos validados durante una investigación previa. Se concluye que el apoyo social, tanto familiar como laboral, favorece una mayor adherencia a los tratamientos a través del cumplimiento de pautas de autocuidado en pacientes con diagnóstico de diabetes tipo 2 que concurren a hospitales públicos.Objective: To analyze how patients who suffer from diabetes type II perceive the social support in two areas: family and work. Research design and Methods: In this correlational research of patients with diabetes type II, who are treated in public hospitals of Buenos Aires city, it was selected a probabilistic random systematic sampling composed by 337 patients (ages between 40 -79. They were given several instruments, including a questionnaire about biographic, personal, laborer, and social network´s questions, and a self-care practices scale. All the instruments were previously validated. Results: According to the breakthroughs, social support, from both family and work, favour the compliance with treatment by following the self care´s prescriptions.

  6. The ALS gun electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate the gun with a custom made socket and a high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  7. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1993-05-01

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  8. Aportes amazonicos al formativo andino*

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Chocano, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN La tesis de J.C Tello sobre los orígenes amazónicos de la cultura Chavín ha tenido en la iconografía amazónica presente en Chavin sus argumentos mas fuertes, sin embargo, falta mucho por investigar el aspecto ideológico que representan esos iconos como el jaguar, las cabezas trofeo y el uso de alucinógenos, los cuales indudablemente se vinculan al chamanismo amazónico.

  9. Gettysburg: Monumento al mundo libre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1961-12-01

    Full Text Available En el verano del año 1958 fui invitado, por las autoridades de la Universidad de Arizona, en Tucson, a la colocación de la primera piedra de su futuro taller, construido para favorecer el desarrollo técnico del Estado. Varios alcaldes y ministros presenciaron la ceremonia, que fue muy interesante, y uno de los periodistas presentes, John Riddick, del "Tucson Daily Citizen", invitó cordialmente, a mi esposa y a mí, a atravesar, al día siguiente, la frontera mejicana, que cruzaba un vasto desierto.

  10. A melancolia em Al Berto

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Emanuele Martins de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho objetiva estudar, sob a perspectiva da melancolia, os livros Salsugem (1984) e Horto de Incêndio (1997), de Al Berto. O autor português produz escritos em que a temática da melancolia atravessa a palavra, o que justifica o debruçar-se sobre as construções textuais da poética albertiana, a fim de traçar-lhe novas possibilidades de leitura por esse ângulo. Para isso, com o intuito de compreender o discurso melancólico segue-se o embasamento teórico: de Klibansky, Panosfsky e Saxl ...

  11. Nanoporous Al sandwich foils using size effect of Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hailiang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, A. Kiet; Li, Huijun; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    The roll bonding technique is one of the most widely used methods to produce metal laminate sheets. Such sheets offer interesting research opportunities for both scientists and engineers. In this paper, we report on an experimental investigation of the 'thickness effect' during laminate rolling for the first time. Using a four-high multifunction rolling mill, Cu/Al/Cu laminate sheets were fabricated with a range of thicknesses (16, 40, 70 and 130 μm) of the Al layer. The thickness of the Cu sheets was a constant 300 μm. After rolling, TEM images show good bonding quality between the Cu and Al layers. However, there are many nanoscale pores in the Al layer. The fraction of nanoscale pores in the Al layer increases with a reduction in the Al layer thickness. The finite element method was used to simulate the Cu/Al/Cu rolling process. The simulation results reveal the effect of the Al layer thickness on the deformation characteristics of the Cu/Al/Cu laminate. Finally, we propose that the size effect of the Al layer thickness during Cu/Al/Cu laminate rolling may offer a method to fabricate 'nanoporous' Al sandwich laminate foils. Such foils can be used in electromagnetic shielding of electrical devices and noisy shielding of building.

  12. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  13. Muflikhah et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2017-10-13

    Oct 13, 2017 ... Human infection occurs mainly by ingesting food or water ... Humans can be infected by consumption of uncooked meat, contaminated food or water, ..... Malaysia, Alvarado-Esquivel et al., (2011) in Mexico, Wang et al., (2014) ...

  14. Heterotopia als sociaal-ruimtelijke constructie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengkeek, J.

    2003-01-01

    Uitleg van het begrip heterotopia, waar het gaat om het gebruik van de ruimte. Volgens de auteur wordt heterotopia als persoonlijke ruimte en als vrijetijdsruimte op tal van manieren tot stand gebracht; het is een georganiseerde wereld

  15. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  16. con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mora Antó

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación dio cuenta de la relación entre el estilo de funcionamiento familiar, los patrones de crianza y las edades de desarrollo evolutivo en niños, nacidos con bajo peso. El estudio descriptivo correlacional se realizó con 41 niños y sus madres, aplicándose cuestionarios sobre funcionamiento familiar, prácticas de crianza y desarrollo infantil. Los resultados señalaron la existencia de un funcionamiento familiar caracterizado por una cohesión amalgamada y una adaptabilidad caótica, una disciplina complaciente, falta de control y de límites claros en la díada madre-hijo. Se trataba de familias monoparentales, donde la temprana edad de concepción, el madresolterismo y el apoyo de la familia extensa eran constantes. Las edades evolutivas registradas indicaron un desarrollo inferior a la edad cronológica, en la mayor parte de los casos; sin embargo, éstas tendieron a ser superiores al compararlas con la edades reales de los infantes. No se encontró una correlación estadísticamente significativa entre la edad de desarrollo y los diferentes factores del funcionamiento familiar para algunos de los rangos de edad considerados; sin embargo, no se lo descartó por completo, especialmente en lo referente al optimismo familiar

  17. Rekonstruksi Konsep Ijtihad: Studi Pemikiran Ben’umar tentang al-Ijtihad fi al-Waqi’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duski Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research that evaluating the reconstruction the concept of ijtihad, by discuss the idea of al-Ijtihad Ben'umar fi al-waqi’. This paper concludes that Al-Ijtihad fi al-waqi’ is actually a form of collective ijtihad (al ijtihad al-jama'i, by gathering the experts of shari'ah law (fuqaha` ash-shar'i and experts Researchers and scientists (khubara` al-'ashr. Because experts know the nash purposes, while researchers and scientists (al-khubara` know the reality (al-waqi’, the effects in the future (ma'alat = future effect and challenges (tahaddiyat. The idea of formulating the concept of al-ijtihad fi al-waqi’ emerged based on a premise that ijtihad is a creation of experts to implement Islamic law in society. Therefore, the concept of ijtihad experienced a significant development, start from using the nash from the language aspects, continue to the using of logic. At the moment when the situation people are increasingly develop, then the creation of ijtihad become a necessary to developed, for example in the form of al-ijtihad fi al-waqi’ . About the source of the formation of the concept of al -ijtihad fi al-waqi’ comes from theory about the functions of nash, al-manath theory in Islamic law, and supported by the theory of al-mashlalah al-mursalah.

  18. Al-quran dalam Perspektif Budaya

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Ajat

    2009-01-01

    Al-Quran merupakan kitab suci terakhir yang diturunkan kepada manusia. Tujuan utama diturunkannya al-Quran adalah sebagai kitab petunjuk yang meliputi bidang akidah, syariah, dan akhlak. Akan tetapi di luar ketiga petunjuk tersebut, al-Quran telah memberikan motivasi dan inspirasi kepada umat Islam dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan sehingga melahirkan jenis budaya tertentu. Dialog intelektual yang dilakukan secara kreatif oleh umat Islam terhadap al-Quran ternyata telah menghasilkan lahirnya ge...

  19. A study of the Al-rich part of the Al-Re alloy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balanetskyy, S.; Grushko, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Al-rich part of the Al-Re phase diagram was reinvestigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The earlier reported Al 12 Re, Al 6 Re, and Al 11 Re 4 phases were confirmed. Close to the Al 4 Re composition a high-temperature h-Al 4 Re and a low-temperature l-Al 4 Re phase were found to be formed at slightly different compositions. Both exhibited compositional ranges. A new phase was revealed close to the Al 3 Re composition. The Al 11 Re 4 phase is formed congruently at 1650 deg. C, Al 3 Re peritectically at 1610 deg. C, h-Al 4 Re peritectically at 1410 deg. C, l-Al 4 Re peritectically at ∼1000 deg. C, Al 6 Re peritectically at 813 deg. C and Al 12 Re peritectically at 746 deg. C. Finally, the Al 12 Re-(Al) eutectic is formed at 658 deg. C. The Al 3 Re and h-Al 4 Re are decomposed by eutectoid reactions at ∼946 and 833 deg., respectively. The structure of the h-Al 4 Re phase has not yet been clarified, but it is distinctly different from the Al 4 W phase suggested earlier. The structure of l-Al 4 Re was confirmed. The Al 3 Re phase was found to have a monoclinic structure with a = 0.5180(4) nm, b = 3.97641(9) nm, c = 0.4955(3) nm and β = 99.55(7) o

  20. Laser alloyed Al-Ni-Fe coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to produce crack-free thin surface layers consisting of binary (Al-Ni, Al-Fe) and ternary (Al-Ni-Fe) intermetallic phases by means of a high power laser beam. The laser surface alloying was carried out by melting Fe and Ni...

  1. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  2. The effects of boron in TiAl/Ti3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, C.R.; Michel, D.J.; Crowe, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the TiAl/Ti 3 Al interfacial misfit dislocations structures investigated by TEM in Ti-45Al alloy and Ti-45Al/TiB 2 composite. For TiAl with c/a = 1.02, only a single set of misfit dislocation arrays are crystallographically possible; these were observed in Ti-45Al alloy. However, the observation of three sets of misfit dislocation arrays in the Ti-45Al/TiB 2 composite suggests that the occupation of octahedral sites in the TiAl structure by excess boron was responsible for a decrease in the c/a ratio leading to an increased fcc character of the TiAl at the TiAl/Ti 3 Al interface

  3. Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Rub al Khali' Panorama (QTVR) This panoramic image, dubbed 'Rub al Khali,' was acquired by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the plains of Meridiani during the period from the rover's 456th to 464th sols on Mars (May 6 to May 14, 2005). Opportunity was about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) south of 'Endurance Crater' at a place known informally as 'Purgatory Dune.' The rover was stuck in the dune's deep fine sand for more than a month. 'Rub al Khali' (Arabic translation: 'the empty quarter') was chosen as the name for this panorama because it is the name of a similarly barren, desolate part of the Saudi Arabian desert on Earth. The view spans 360 degrees. It consists of images obtained in 97 individual pointings of the panoramic camera. The camera took images with five camera filters at each pointing. This 22,780-by-6,000-pixel mosaic is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the images acquired through filters admitting light wavelengths of 750, 530, and 480 nanometers. Lighting varied during the nine sols it took to acquire this panorama, resulting in some small image seams within the mosaic. These seams have been smoothed in sky parts of the mosaic to better simulate the vista that a person would see if able to view it all at the same time on Mars. Opportunity's tracks leading back to the north (center of the panorama) are a reminder of the rover's long trek from Endurance Crater. The deep ruts dug by Opportunity's wheels as it became stuck in the sand appear in the foreground. The crest and trough of the last ripple the rover crossed before getting stuck is visible in the center. These wind-formed sand features are only about 10 to 15 centimeters (4 to 6 inches) tall. The crest of the actual ripple where the rover got stuck can be seen just to the right of center. The tracks and a few other places on and near ripple crests can be seen in this color image to

  4. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  5. Compliance als Schutz vor Verbandsverantwortlichkeit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Tipold

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Compliance bedeutet nicht nur Einhaltung und Beachtung von Vorschriften, sondern betrifft auch Maßnahmen, die die Einhaltung der Rechtsnormen absichern sollen und läuft somit auf eine Übererfüllung von Verpflichtungen hinaus. Wenn es keinen klaren Maßstab für Kontroll- und Überwachungspflichten gibt, besteht die Gefahr, dass Strafverfolgungsbehörden die Compliance-Maßnahmen als Maßstab heranziehen und so eine Verschärfung der Pflichten erzeugen. Nach den Regeln des Verbandsverantwortlichkeitsgesetzes schließt im Übrigen das beste Compliance-System nicht zwingend die Verbandsverantwortlichkeit aus, steht aber unter Umständen einem Verfahren gegen den Verband entgegen.

  6. Evaluación de la tasa de consumo de oxígeno de Colossoma macropomum en relación al peso corporal y temperatura del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tomalá

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Colossoma macropomum es una especie de la región amazónica perteneciente a la familia Characidae, la de mayor diversidad de peces de agua dulce. A nivel de laboratorio, se determinó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (CO en metabolismo de rutina de C. macropomum a diferentes pesos corporales: 40, 60, 90, 140 y 250 g (expresados por unidad de masa corporal y temperatura del agua de 21, 26 y 31°C. El experimento se diseñó completamente al azar en arreglo factorial (5x3x3, utilizando un respirómetro de 20 L y una bomba de recirculación de agua. Las mediciones del CO fueron realizadas cada 5 min mediante el uso de un oxímetro digital. Los resultados indican que el CO mantiene relación directa con la temperatura del agua e inversa con el peso corporal de los organismos (P < 0,05. Las regresiones entre las variables independientes y el CO se ajustaron a ecuaciones potenciales: CO = 2844,9 P-0,734, CO = 2555,9 P-0,624 y CO = 1945,4 P-0,507 a 21, 26 y 31°C respectivamente; donde P se expresa en kg, obteniéndose altos coeficientes de correlación y determinación. La ecuación resultante del análisis multivariado de regresión lineal múltiple fue: CO = 4,839 - (0,708* P + (9,106* T. Los resultados ofrecen información para estimar la capacidad de un ambiente acuícola en base a la demanda de oxígeno de C. macropomum, aportando al desarrollo de una acuicultura con mayor sustento técnico.

  7. Orientation of Al3Ti platelets in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material manufactured by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Fukui, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Al-Al 3 Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were manufactured by the centrifugal method with a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was melted at a liquid/solid coexisting temperature, at which Al 3 Ti remains as a solid, and then it was cast into a thick-walled ring. It was found that the Al-Al 3 Ti functionally graded material can be successfully fabricated by the centrifugal method. It was also found that the volume fraction of the Al 3 Ti can be increased by repetition of the centrifugal method. Since the shape of Al 3 Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot is that of a platelet, the Al 3 Ti particles are arranged with their platelet planes nearly perpendicular to the radial direction. The orientation effects become stronger when the G number becomes larger. Although the final centrifugal casting was conducted under a very large centrifugal force for the specimen cast three times, the orientation effects were weaker than those in the specimen cast one time. From these observations, it is concluded that the origin of orientation of Al 3 Ti platelets can be attributed to the angular velocity gradient of the melt along the radial direction produced by the difference in the viscosity. (orig.)

  8. Eutectic microstructures of Al-ThA13 and Al-UA14 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, R.R.; Ambrozio Filho, F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals on the microstructures of systems Al-ThAl3 and Al-UAL4, which are composed by a non faceted phase (aluminium) and an intermetallic phase (ThAl3 or UAL4) which is normally faceted phase. (C.M.)

  9. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  10. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al2O3 composites produced by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Beltran, A.; Gallegos-Orozco, V.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Bejar-Gomez, L.; Espinosa-Magana, F.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al 2 O 3 ) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al 2 O 3 nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al 3 C 4 and Al 2 Cu structures, respectively

  11. La "historia de los omeyas de al-Andalus" en los Masalik al-Absar

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Luis

    2005-01-01

    [ES]Los Masalik al-absar de Ibn Fadl Allah al-`Umari incluyen un breve resumen de la Historia de los omeyas de al-Andalus. En este trabajo se analizan las relaciones textuales entre ese pasaje y el Muqtabis de Ibn Hayyan, crónica que resulta ser la fuente casi única utilizada por al-`Umari para redactar ese capítulo. [EN]The Masalik al-absar by Ibn Fadl Allah al-`Umari contains a brief summary of the Umayyad history in al-Andalus. In this article, the textual relationship between this p...

  12. Atomistic simulations of diffusion mechanisms in off-stoichiometric Al-rich Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Jinsong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents dynamics simulation results of diffusion in off-stoichiometric Al-rich Ni 3 Al (Ni 73 Al 27 ) at temperature ranging from 1300 to 1550 K. The interatomic forces are described by the Finnis-Sinclair type N-body potentials. Particular attention is devoted to the effect of the extra 2% of Al atoms sitting on the Ni sublattice as antisite point defects (Al Ni ) on diffusion. Simulation results show that Ni atoms mainly diffuse through the Ni sublattice at the temperatures investigated. Al atoms diffuse via both the intrasublattice and antistructure bridge (ASB) mechanisms. The contribution to Al diffusion from the ASB mechanism decreases at the lower temperature (T Ni ) enhances both Al and Ni diffusion in Ni 73 Al 27 . The Ni-Al coupled diffusion effect is observed and understood at the atomic level for the first time

  13. Piezo-tunnel effect in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, R.; Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the electrical transport in Al/Al2O3/Al junctions under mechanical stress is investigated in the perspective to use them as strain sensors. The metal/insulator/metal junctions are elaborated with a low temperature process (≤200 °C) fully compatible with CMOS back-end-of-line. The conduction mechanism in the structure is found to be Fowler-Nordheim tunneling, and efforts are made to extract the relevant physical parameters. Gauge factors up to -32.5 were found in the fabricated devices under tensile stress. Finally, theoretical mechanical considerations give strong evidence that strain sensitivity in Al/Al2O3/Al structures originates not only from geometrical deformations but also from the variation of interface barrier height and/or effective electronic mass in the tunneling oxide layer.

  14. Al-Qurû’ fi Al-Qur’an ‘Inda Al-Anbary fi Al-Adhdâd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raushani Azza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines about the term al-Qurû in the Qur’an. Al-Qurû is one of the most popular discussions among muslim scholars and mufasir, both in terms of language and fiqh. However, there is a bate among muslim scholar and mufasir about the meaning of al-Qurû. It’s because al-Qurû is one of the sentence of al-Adhdâd wich has two meaning, especially in the Qur’an, namely haid (menstruation and thahr. One of the most popular muslim scholar who concern in Qur’an and Arabic is al-Anbari with his book al-Adhdâd. Al-Anbari explains that Qurû has two meanings, First, al-Qurû in etymology is the form of Jama’ from aqra and qurû. Second, al-Qurû has a meaning of menstruation, thahr, or the period of iddah as a sign of being allowed to remarry after certain period of time.

  15. Interfacial phenomena in the reactions of Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B alloys with KF-AlF3 and NaF-AlF3 melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.S.; Terry, B.S.; Grieveson, P.

    1993-01-01

    The interfacial phenomena occurring during the contacting of liquid Al-B, Al-Ti-B, and Al-Zr-B melts with KF-AlF 3 liquid fluxes have been investigated by optical examination of quenched metal drops previously immersed in the liquid fluxes. Reactions in the Al-B/KF-AlF 3 system involve the formation of metastable AlB 12 at the metal/flux interface. At high KBF 4 levels in the flux, the AlB 12 is dispersed in the flux and also at low KBF 4 levels in the metal. Reactions in the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF 3 system involve the formation of TiB 2 , which may be dispersed in either the metal or the flux depending upon the composition of the flux. The results obtained for the Al-Ti-B/NaF-AlF 3 and Al-Zr-B/KF-AlF 3 systems were similar to those observed for the Al-Ti-B/KF-AlF 3 system

  16. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  17. Plastic deformation of Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Al13Fe4 by high-speed compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, N.; Mizoguchi, K.; Kumai, S.; Sato, A.; Kiritani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Spray-formed Al-Fe alloys having undergone high-speed deformation were examined under a high-voltage electron microscope. Two types of specimens were examined; one containing fine Al 13 Fe 4 particles, and the other containing large particles. In the former specimen, deformation is found to proceed in three patterns, depending on specimen thickness and strain rate: (1) without deformation of the Al 13 Fe 4 ; (2) breaking of the Al 13 Fe 4 ; or (3) melting of the Al 13 Fe 4 . Local melting is found to alter some of the Al 13 Fe 4 particles, to impart five-fold symmetry in diffraction or an amorphous structure. In the latter specimen, introduction of glide dislocations enabled us to determine a shear system in the mc102 monoclinic c2/m crystal of Al 13 Fe 4 . On the bases of these observations, the mechanism of high-speed deformation is discussed while taking into account the highly stressed and/or heated states of Al 13 Fe 4 embedded in Al matrix

  18. Entrevista al narrador Tommaso Pincio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Zangrilli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El autor Tommaso Pincio, seudónimo di Marco Colapietro (Roma, 1963, es sin lugar a dudas uno de los narradores de mayor proyección en el panorama literario de los últimos tiempos. Iniciada su carrera en 1999 con M., ha publicado títulos como Lo spazio sfinito (2000 y Un amore dell'altro mondo (2002, en el que narra la vida de Kurt Cobain, líder del grupo Nirvana, a través de la visión de un amigo imaginario. A estas dos novelas siguieron La ragazza che non era lei (2005, Gli alieni (2006 o Cinacittà. Memorie del mio delitto efferato (2008, ambientada en una Roma colonizada por los chinos y abandonada por los mismos romanos a causa de problemas medioambientales. Títulos como L'hotel a zero stelle (2011, un ensayo autobiográfico en el que plantea diálogos ficticios con algunos de los grandes nombres de la literatura o la más reciente Panorama (2015, le han hecho valerse un hueco provilegiado entre los nuevos narradores surgidos en estas primeras décadas de siglo. Justamente la publicación de esta última novela, Panorama, ha servido de excusa al profesor Franco Zangrilli, gran conocedor de su obra, a plantearle algunas preguntas sobre temas clave de su producción.

  19. Comentario al libro: ACADEMIA MUTISIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraím Otero Ruiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Por tercera vez en un quinquenio ocupo este podio para ocuparme de uno de los libros del grupo de inmunogenética (o de anti-inmunohistoria, diría yo de la Universidad Javeriana, esta vez enriquecido con la presencia del P. Ortiz Valdivieso, orquídeologo y mutisiólogo y del Dr. Uribe Angel notable historiador educativo, y presentado admirablemente por el P. Durán Casas, Vicerrector Académico de la Universidad Javeriana. En el prólogo, citando desde Sarton y Ziman en los 70s. hasta Mauro Torres en el 2011 afirmo que, aunque suene extraño, parece como si las Academias florecieran entre las guerras. Tal sucedió con la de Platón, “la máxima institución de enseñanza superior surgida en el mundo”, -al decir de Sartonenmarcada desde las guerras del Peloponeso, hasta el final de la dominación espartana de Atenas en el siglo IV antes de Cristo. Según dichos autores, las Academias han simbolizado una manera de continuar la vida espiritual entre uno y otro conflicto.

  20. Structural features in Ni-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abylkalykova, R.B.; Kveglis, L.I.; Rakhimova, U.A.; Nasokhova, Sh.B.; Tazhibaeva, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose of the work is study of structural transformations under diverse memory effect in Ni-Al alloys. Examination were conducted in following composition samples: Ni -75 at.% and Al - 25 at.%. The work is devoted to clarification reasons both formation atom-ordered structures in inter-grain boundaries of bulk samples under temperature action and static load. Revealed inter-grain inter-boundary layers in Ni-Al alloy both bulk and surface state have complicated structure

  1. Fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by gas injection processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Huashun; CHEN Hongmei; MA Rendian; MIN Guanghui

    2006-01-01

    The fabrication of AlN-TiC/Al composites by carbon-and nitrogen-containing gas injection into Al-Mg-Ti melts was studied. It was shown that AlN and TiC particles could be formed by the in situ reaction of mixture gas (N2+C2H2+NH3) with Al-Mg-Ti melts. The condition for the formation of AlN was that the treatment temperature must be higher than 1373 K, and the amounts of AlN and TiC increased with the increase of the treatment temperature and the gas injection time.It was considered that AlN was formed by the direct reaction of Al with nitrogen-containing gas at the interface of the gas bubble and the melt. However, the mechanism of TiC formation is a combination mechanism of solution-precipitation and solid-liquid reaction.

  2. Efecto de la dosis de glifosato sobre la biomasa de malezas de barbecho al estado vegetativo y reproductivo Glyphosate dose effect on weed biomass at the vegetative and reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puricelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los experimentos se condujeron en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias ubicado en Zavalla (Argentina durante 2005 y 2006. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la eficacia de glifosato aplicado al estado vegetativo y reproductivo de Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis y Trifolium repens. El diseño del experimento fue completamente al azar con un arreglo factorial: año, especies, estado reproductivo y vegetativo y dosis de glifosato 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X siendo X la dosis recomendada 1200 g i.a. ha-1. Se estableció la relación entre la dosis de glifosato y el control de la biomasa de las malezas a través de curvas de dosis respuesta con un modelo log-logístico. Se comparó el grado de tolerancia por medio de la DL50. En ambos estados de las malezas, la mayor DL50 obtenida para I. diffusa indica que de las especies estudiadas ésta es la más tolerante a glifosato. El número de especies tolerantes al glifosato es menor al estado vegetativo que al reproductivo.Experiments were conducted at the University of Rosario Experimental Farm, Zavalla in 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of glyphosate on the control of Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis and Trifolium repens at the vegetative and reproductive stage. The experiments were established in a complete randomized design with the following factorial arrangement of treatments: year, species, vegetative and reproductive growth stages and glyphosate 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X being 1X the recommended dose (1,200 g a.i. ha-1. The relationship between glyphosate dose and weed biomass control was established with a log-logistic model. The degree of tolerance was compared by LD50. In both stages, the higher LD50 was obtained for I. diffusa indicating that this is the species most tolerant to glyphosate among those studied. The number of

  3. Electrodeposition of Al from a 1-butylpyrrolidine-AlCl3 ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giridhar Pulletikurthi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of 1-butylpyrrolidine to AlCl3 results in the formation of an electrolyte that is suited to Al deposition. The feasibility of electrodepositing Al from the synthesized electrolyte was investigated. Several compositions of AlCl3 and 1-butylpyrrolidine were prepared for this purpose. These mixtures show a different phase behavior at various compositions of AlCl3 and 1-butylpyrrolidine. IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy were employed to characterize the synthesized liquids. Among the prepared compositions, 1:1.2 mol ratio of 1-butylpyrrolidine:AlCl3 and the upper phase of 1:1.3 mol ratio of 1-butylpyrrolidine:AlCl3 were found to be suitable for Al electrodeposition at room temperature (RT. Uniform and thick (~µm thick layers of Al were obtained on copper at RT. Al deposition occured from the cationic species of AlCl3−xLy+ (where x≤2, y=1–2, and L=1-butylpyrrolidine in this electrolyte. This behavior is contrary to the well investigated classic AlCl3 based ionic liquids, where the deposition of Al occurs mainly from anionic Al2Cl7− ions.

  4. Superbend era begins swiftly at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art; Tamura, Lori

    2001-11-29

    The successful installation and commissioning of high-field superconducting bend magnets (superbends) in three curved sectors of ALS storage ring was the first time the magnet lattice of an operating synchrotron light source has been retrofitted in this fundamental way. As a result, the ALS now offers an expanded spectral range well into the hard x-ray region without compromising either the number of undulators or their high brightness in the soft x-ray region for which the ALS design was originally optimized. In sum, when the superbend-enhanced ALS started up for user operations in October 2001, it marked the beginning of a new era in its history.

  5. Referral bias in ALS epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logroscino, Giancarlo; Marin, Benoit; Piccininni, Marco; Arcuti, Simona; Chiò, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Rooney, James; Zoccolella, Stefano; Couratier, Philippe; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Beghi, Ettore

    2018-01-01

    Despite concerns about the representativeness of patients from ALS tertiary centers as compared to the ALS general population, the extent of referral bias in clinical studies remains largely unknown. Using data from EURALS consortium we aimed to assess nature, extent and impact of referral bias. Four European ALS population-based registries located in Ireland, Piedmont, Puglia, Italy, and Limousin, France, covering 50 million person-years, participated. Demographic and clinic characteristics of ALS patients diagnosed in tertiary referral centers were contrasted with the whole ALS populations enrolled in registries in the same geographical areas. Patients referred to ALS centers were younger (with difference ranging from 1.1 years to 2.4 years), less likely to present a bulbar onset, with a higher proportion of familial antecedents and a longer survival (ranging from 11% to 15%) when compared to the entire ALS population in the same geographic area. A trend for referral bias is present in cohorts drawn from ALS referral centers. The magnitude of the possible referral bias in a particular tertiary center can be estimated through a comparison with ALS patients drawn from registry in the same geographic area. Studies based on clinical cohorts should be cautiously interpreted. The presence of a registry in the same area may improve the complete ascertainment in the referral center.

  6. Decoding ALS: From Genes to Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Paul; Brown, Robert H.; Cleveland, Don W.

    2017-01-01

    Preface Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and uniformly fatal neurodegenerative disease. A plethora of genetic factors underlying ALS have now been identified that drive motor neuron degeneration, increase susceptibility to the disease, or influence the rate of progression. Emerging themes include dysfunction in RNA metabolism and protein homeostasis, with specific defects in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and impaired dynamics of ribonucleoprotein bodies such as RNA granules that assemble through the process of liquid-liquid phase separation. Extraordinary recent progress in understanding the biology of ALS provides new grounds for optimism that meaningful therapies for ALS will be identified. PMID:27830784

  7. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-27

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  8. Nifedipine Asma y Nifedipina: estudio comparativo del efecto profiláctivo de la Nifedipina frente al Ketotifeno y placebo en Asma Alérgica Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montoya

    1988-02-01

    affinity for the respiratory tract and better blocking effects are synthesized they might become the elective therapeutic choice for these patients.

    Se presentan los resultados de un estudio doble ciego, al azar, que comparó los efectos de la Nifedipina, una dihidropiridina antagonista del calcio, de amplia utilización cardiovascular, con los del Ketotifeno y los de un placebo; cada uno de ellos fue administrado por vía oral cada 12 horas, durante 4 meses, a un grupo de 20 niños mayores de 5 años con asma alérgica de una evolución mínima de 2 años; el estudio se llevó a cabo en el Servicio de Alergias del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre julio de 1984 y diciembre de 1986. La Nifedipina produjo disminución de la frecuencia de las crisis en 17 pacientes (85% y de su intensidad y duración en 16 (80%; en esta misma proporción (80% se disminuyó el consumo de broncodilatadores; 18 pacientes (90% informaron efectos benéficos de la Nifedipina y la mejoría, evaluada por el médico, se halló en 14 (70%. No hubo con la Nifedipina modificaciones del pulso ni de la presión arterial ni, tampoco, de 14 pruebas de función pulmonar; los efectos secundarlos fueron mínimos y autolimitados. Los resultados obtenidos con la Nifedipina fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los del Ketotifeno y, los de ambos, significativamente superiores a los logrados con el placebo (palérgica Infantil leve o moderada, dado su comportamiento similar al del Ketotifeno que es de eficacia reconocida en este campo; en un futuro los antagonistas del calcio pueden llegar a ser el tratamiento de elección del paciente asmático si se logra sintetizar moléculas con mayor afinidad por las v las respiratorias y de efectos antagónicos superiores.

  9. PEMAHAMAN HADITS TARBAWI BURHAN AL ISLAM AL ZARNUJI DALAM KITAB TA’LIM AL MUTA’ALLIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Afwadzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the understanding of tarbawi (education hadith from one of the major influential clerics in the Islamic educational system, especially in pesantren. He is Burhan al Islam al Zarnuji with his landmark book Ta’lim al Muta’allim. The conclusion that can be drawn is that al Zarnuji has shades of sufistical view in understanding tarbawi hadith. This can be seen in his understanding of hadith on obligation to seek knowledge (thalab al ilmi faridhatun ‘ala kulli muslimin wa muslimatin, which is interpreted as ilm al hal, the science concerning the condition of the human religious or simplistically said as the religious sciences; and the hadith of intention of studying (innama al a’malu bi al niyyat with the intention for the sake of the hereafter and religion, not mundane. Such an understanding is not something taken for granted, but it can be reinterpreted and perfected in accordance with the spirit of the times of context.

  10. The code of light: al-ghazali and al-suhrawardi

    OpenAIRE

    Gediminaitė, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    The Code of Light: Al-Ghazali and Al-Suhrawardi The Bachelor’s thesis The Code of Light in Islam: al-Ghazali and al-Suhrawardi presents a comparative study of light. The study analyses the philosophical systems of al-Ghazali and al-Suhrawardi through the reconstruction of the image of light and its operation principles. The main subject of the thesis are the attributes of light. The main problem of the research is the semantics and contextuality of light in Islamic theology and philosophy. Th...

  11. Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and β-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the α-AlFeSi phase solidification.

  12. Tadris Al Mufradat Li Tathbiq Maharah Al Kalam Fi Madrasah Al Muallimin Al Islamiyyah Li Mahad Bait Al Arqam Balong Jember

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardy Zaini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are four  skills in teaching Arabic. Ie listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Among these four, speaking considered one of the most important objectives of learning foreign language. In order to speak properly, one must know the vocabulary and apply it in a sentence. The aims of this research is to describe the teaching of vocabulary to apply the speaking skill in the school of Islamic teachers in the Institute of Bait al Arqom Balong Jember. This study used qualitative approach. The data collection was taken trough observation, personal interview, history and documentation. The teaching of vocabulary to apply the speaking skill at the Islamic Teachers' School at the Institute of Bait Al Arqam Balong Jember has gone well in terms of planning (general objectives and specific objectives, implementation (materials, use of the teaching method and teaching aids, and evaluation (assessment and evaluation. This teaching is to apply the speaking skill in terms of conversation or dialogue and lecture.

  13. Kritik al-Ghazali terhadap Kekekalan Alam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahidi Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the creation of universe offered by Neo-Platonism philosopher such as al-Kindi, al-Farabi, and Ibnu Sina are philosophical concept existed and came as an early moment of development of Islamic philosophy interrelated to God, ultimately about his Existence and Characteristics. One of the topics is how God created the universe. According to al-Farabi and Ibnu Sina, God created this universe by way of emanation in order to prevent Himself from the new attitudes. Consequently, universe has eternal feature (qadim as God as well, in the case of everything overflowed from qadim is also qadim. Al-Ghazali refuted this theory because it contradicted with al Qur’an’s thought which clearly explained that God created the entire universe. The universe should not qadim and it means that God existed in the first, and then created universe later as we know today. On the contrary, in the view of Muslim philosopher, the universe should be qadim because God created it from all eternity. For them, it is impossible that God existed by Himself without any creation before. God, according to them is impossible to be changed, so that is impossible as well if God changed from did not create yet before and then creates. Al-Ghazali persistently opposed the concept of eternity. Al Ghazali saw if this universe is qadim so it is impossible that universe created by God. The concept of qadim will led to the conclusion that universe born by itself, it was not created by God. This critique has been written by al-Ghazali in Tahafut al-Falasifah. This paper will present the concept of eternity which was discussed by al-Farabi and Ibn Sina and al Ghazali’s critique toward it as well.

  14. ALS and other motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Ezgi; Horak, Holli A

    2014-10-01

    This review describes the most common motor neuron disease, ALS. It discusses the diagnosis and evaluation of ALS and the current understanding of its pathophysiology, including new genetic underpinnings of the disease. This article also covers other motor neuron diseases, reviews how to distinguish them from ALS, and discusses their pathophysiology. In this article, the spectrum of cognitive involvement in ALS, new concepts about protein synthesis pathology in the etiology of ALS, and new genetic associations will be covered. This concept has changed over the past 3 to 4 years with the discovery of new genes and genetic processes that may trigger the disease. As of 2014, two-thirds of familial ALS and 10% of sporadic ALS can be explained by genetics. TAR DNA binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43), for instance, has been shown to cause frontotemporal dementia as well as some cases of familial ALS, and is associated with frontotemporal dysfunction in ALS. The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement: motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking) lead patients to seek medical attention. Neurologists are the most likely practitioners to recognize and diagnose damage or loss of anterior horn cells. ALS, the prototypical motor neuron disease, demonstrates the impact of this class of disorders. ALS and other motor neuron diseases can represent diagnostic challenges. Neurologists are often called upon to serve as a "medical home" for these patients: coordinating care, arranging for durable medical equipment, and leading discussions about end-of-life care with patients and caregivers. It is important for neurologists to be able to identify motor neuron diseases and to evaluate and treat patients affected by them.

  15. Optical phonon scattering on electronic mobility in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. J.; Qu, Y.; Ban, S. L.; Wang, Z. P.

    2017-12-01

    Considering the built-in electric fields and the two-mode property of transverse optical phonons in AlGaN material, the electronic eigen-energies and wave functions are obtained by solving Schrödinger equation with the finite difference method. The dispersion relations and potentials of the optical phonons are given by the transfer matrix method. The mobility of the two dimensional electron gas influenced by the optical phonons in Al2O3/AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures is investigated based on the theory of Lei-Ting force balance equation. It is found that the scattering from the half-space phonons is the main factor affecting the electronic mobility, and the influence of the other phonons can be ignored. The results show that the mobility decreases with increasing the thicknesses of Al2O3 and AlN layers, but there is no definite relationship between the mobility and the thickness of AlGaN barrier. The mobility is obviously reduced by increasing Al component in AlGaN crystal to show that the effect of ternary mixed crystals is important. It is also found that the mobility increases first and then decreases as the increment of the fixed charges, but decreases always with increasing temperature. The heterostructures constructed here can be good candidates as metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility-transistors since they have higher electronic mobility due to the influence from interface phonons weakened by the AlN interlayer.

  16. Experimental investigation of the Al-Y phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuhong; Du Yong; Xu Honghui; He Cuiyun; Schuster, Julius C.

    2006-01-01

    The Al-Y phase diagram has been reinvestigated with 16 key alloys over its whole composition range by means of differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray techniques. The existence of five intermetallic phases, Al 3 Y, Al 2 Y, AlY, Al 2 Y 3 , and AlY 2 , has been confirmed. Al 2 Y and Al 2 Y 3 melt congruently at 1490 ± 2 and 1105 ± 2 deg. C, respectively. Al 3 Y, AlY, and AlY 2 are formed via the peritectic reactions L + Al 2 Y ↔ Al 3 Y at 980 ± 2 deg. C, L + Al 2 Y ↔ AlY at 1138 ± 2 deg. C, and L + Al 2 Y 3 ↔ AlY 2 at 977 ± 2 deg. C, respectively. Three eutectic reactions L ↔ (Al) + Al 3 Y at 637 ± 2 deg. C, L ↔ AlY + Al 2 Y 3 at 1081 ± 2 deg. C, and L ↔ AlY 2 + (αY) at 955 ± 2 deg. C , are observed. The previously reported Al 3 Y 5 , AlY 3 compounds were not found. A revised Al-Y phase diagram is presented mainly based on the present experimental results

  17. Explosive destruction of "2"6Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.

    2016-01-01

    The γ-ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of "2"6Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic "2"6Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of "2"6Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on "2"6Al, such as (n,p) and (n,α), have among the largest impacts on the total "2"6Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of "2"6Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n TOF at CERN with an "2"6Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the "2"6Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  18. Handlung und Kommunikation als Grundbegriffe der Soziologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, W.P.M.; Albert, H.; Greshoff, R.; Schützeichel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Handlung und Kommunikation gelten in der Soziologie manchmal als alternative, konkurrierende Grundbegriffe für die Beschreibung und Erklärung sozialer Zusammenhänge (siehe u.a. Luhmann 1984; 1990; Schneider 1994; Stichweh 2000; Greshoff 1999; Schwinn 2001; Albert et. al. 2003). Eine Soziologie,

  19. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  20. Miércoles al cine

    OpenAIRE

    Aguado Franco, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Se analiza un caso concreto de demanda ante una iniciativa empresarial: los miércoles al cine. Se analiza un caso concreto de demanda ante una iniciativa empresarial: los miércoles al cine. Fundamentos del Análisis Económico

  1. Oke et al 2 (12).cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    The study revealed that PES contained calcium, aluminum, and iron as part of its major components. 2+. 2+ ... carbon (Chan et al., 1994) , chitosan (Schmub et al., .... (1.735 g of nickel chloride) in 200 ml of distilled. ÷. ÷. ר. צ. ח. ח. ט. ז. -. = 1. 2. 1. 100. (%). W. W. W. Mc. ÷. ÷. ר. צ. ח. ח. ט. ז. -. = 2. 3. 2. 100. (%). W. W. W. VS. ÷. ÷.

  2. Abdullah G M Al-Sehemi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Abdullah G M Al-Sehemi. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 121 Issue 6 November 2009 pp 983-987. Multifunctional switches based on bis-imidazole derivative · Abdullah M A Asiri Gameel A Baghaffar Khadija O Badahdah Abdullah G M Al-Sehemi ...

  3. Primary (AL) amyloidosis with gastrointestinal involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone Galmstrup; Gimsing, Peter; Schiødt, Frank V

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is a rare disease that can affect several organs. The aim of this study was to characterize patients with gastrointestinal manifestations of AL amyloidosis, in terms of symptoms, biochemistry, and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospectivel...

  4. Kultur als Ordnungshypothese über Raum?

    OpenAIRE

    Klüter, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inhalt: 1 Einleitung 2 Zur Attraktivität von Kultur 3 Kulturologische Methodik 4 Schnittmengen mit und Bindearme zur Kulturgeographie 5 Kritische Argumente gegen Kultur als Ordnungshypothese über Raum 6 Räumliche Abstraktion als Ordnungsstrategie über „Kultur“? 7 Zusammenfassung

  5. Al-Biruni: A Muslim Critical Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Noviani Ardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an academic course, critical thinking has emerged in the last century as the one of the important subjects, especially in the second half. But as a kind of thinking and a process of the human reason, it was exist as old as mankind. What are known, nowadays, as (standards of critical thinking or (characteristic of critical thinker were used by some ancient Greek philosophers, e.g. Socrates, Aristotle, as well as great Muslim scholars, e.g. al-Biruni, al-Ghazali, etc. al-Biruni was known as a great Muslim scholar due to objectively scientific method in his works. Moreover, he also was famed in comparative religion which early in history of discipline of comparative religion. However, this study attempts to talk about al-Biruni, one of greatest Muslim scholar in history from another side of previously discussion. It is tries to analyze al-Biruni as a Muslim critical thinker based on his monumental work of Tahqiq ma li al-Hind min Maqulah Maqbulah fi al-‘Aql aw Mardhulah or it is known by Kitab al-Hind.

  6. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrom, A.K.; Foo, L.C.; Ismail, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  7. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  8. Konsepsi Ibnu Jarir Al-Tabari Tentang Al-Qur’an, Tafsir Dan Ta’wil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M Ismatulloh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the concept of Ibnu Jarir al-Tabari about al-Qur’an, tafsir and ta’wil. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari is an outstanding expert in the classic Islamic tradition. His knowledge in hadits, fiqh, lughah, history, and tafseer is unquestionable. This study uses an analytical descriptive design. The findings show that: Firstly, in defining al-Qur’an, al-Tabari focused on the al-Qur’an as an Arabic language text, not in other language. Secondly, al-Qur’an is written in sab’ah ahruf. It means that there are 7 different kinds of language with the same meaning. Thirdly, al-Qur’an comes from seven heaven’s door. Fourthly, there is no different word between tafseer and ta’wil. They have same meaning. These concepts are different to other concepts proposed by other ulama.

  9. Synthesis and structural transformations of hydrotalcite-like materials Mg-Al and Zn-Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prihod'ko, R.V.; Sychev, M.V.; Astrelin, I.M.; Erdmann, K.; Mangel, A.; Santen, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Mg-Al and Zn-Al hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides of various compositions were synthesized and characterized. A detailed comparative analysis of the structure and composition of starting and reconstructed layered double hydroxides was made

  10. Tailoring ultrafine grained and dispersion-strengthened Ti2AlC/TiAl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Ti-Al pre-alloyed powders at low temperature of 1150◦C. The composite mainly consisted ... Metal–matrix composites; mechanical properties; microstructures; sintering. 1. Introduction γ-TiAl-based intermetallic alloys have been extensively.

  11. Electric quadrupole moments of neutron-rich nuclei {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kameda, D., E-mail: kameda@ribf.riken.jp; Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Asahi, K.; Nagae, D.; Takemura, M.; Shimada, K. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Yoshimi, A.; Nagatomo, T.; Sugimoto, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Uchida, M.; Arai, T.; Takase, K.; Suda, S.; Inoue, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physics (Japan); Murata, J.; Kawamura, H. [Rikkyo University, Department of Physics (Japan); Watanabe, H. [Australian National University, Department of Nuclear Physics (Australia); Kobayashi, Y.; Ishihara, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    The electric quadrupole moments for the ground states of {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al have been measured by the {beta} ray-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance method. Spin-polarized {sup 32}Al and {sup 31}Al nuclei were obtained from the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar projectiles at E/A = 95 MeV/nucleon, and were implanted in a single crystal {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stopper. The measured Q moment of {sup 32}Al, |Q({sup 32}Al)| = 24(2) mb, is in good agreement with a conventional shell-model calculation with a full sd model space and empirical effective charges, while that of {sup 31}Al is considerably smaller than the sd calculations.

  12. The Y-Cu-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krachan, T.; Stel'makhovych, B.; Kuz'ma, Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagram of the Y-Cu-Al system at 820 K has been constructed using X-ray powder diffraction. The existence of earlier known ternary aluminides has been confirmed and their homogeneity regions and atomic distributions in the structures have been determined: YCu 4.6-4.0 Al 7.4-8.0 (ThMn 12 -type R I =0.049), Y 2 Cu 12.0-10.5 Al 5.0-6.5 (Th 2 Zn 17 -type R I =0.092), YCu 1.0-1.1 Al 1.0-0.9 (Fe 2 P-type R I =0.068). It has been shown that the structure of Y(Cu,Al) 3 is characterized by an ordered distribution of the Cu and Al atoms and it should be referred as Ca 3 Cu 2 Al 7 structure type (R I =0.060) besides the PuNi 3 structure type with statistical occupancies of the smaller atoms. At the investigated temperature the compound YCu 1.0-0.25 Al 3.0-3.75 (BaAl 4 -type) was not observed. However, we found the ternary aluminide with composition Y 3 Cu 2.7-2.0 Al 8.3-9.0 and related La 3 Al 11 -type (space group Immm, a=0.4192-0.4228, b=1.2423-1.2557, c=0.9812-0.9895 nm, R I =0.069). The compounds YCu 6.8 Al 4.2 (space group Fddd, Tb(Cu 0.58 Al 0.42 ) 11 -type, a=1.42755, b=1.48587, c=0.65654 nm, R I =0.062) and YCu 6.5 Al 4.5 (space group I4 1 /amd, BaCd 11 -type, a=1.02774, c=0.65838 nm, R I =0.071) have been found and structurally refined for the first time

  13. Pemikiran Filosofis Sadra Dalam Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-Karim : Surah Al-’A‘la

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerwanto Kerwanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Dalam tafsir atas Surah al-’A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, melalui karyanya Tafsīr al Qur’ān al-Karīm, mengajak jiwa kita berpetualang menuju lapisan makna terdalam untuk mengenali realitas ketauhidan (al- mabdā’, kenabian (shirāth atau nubuwwah dan kebangkitan (ma‘ād dan mengulasnya secara filosofis. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu upaya untuk menggali manfaat dari aspek-aspek penting dari sumber-sumber keagamaan yang tergali dari petunjuk al Qur’an yang berpadu dengan prinsip- prinsip rasional filosofis dan pengalaman mistik (intuitif Sadra. Setiap bab pada tafsir ini diberikan judul dengan tasbīḥ (pernyataan pemujian dan pensucian, dengan tetap memaparkan beragam pokok persoalan terkait metafisika al-Qur’an. Prinsip-prinsip filosofis yang digunakan dalam risalah tafsir ini bisa menjadi salah satu bukti ketidakberjarakan antara filsafat dengan teks-teks keagamaan. Sadra menggunakan metode tafsir yang tetap menerima sisi lahiriah al-Qur’an, dan selanjutnya mencari misteri-misteri, rahasia-rahasia, dan dengan bantuan intelek (akal, intuisi dan iluminasi Tuhan untuk memperoleh realitas-realitas dan makna- makna dibalik selaput ekternalnya (aspek literalnyaKata kunci : Ḥikmah Muta’āliyah, irfan, al-mabdā’, kebangkitan setelah mati, nubuwwah, takwīl, gerak substansial (ḥarakah jawhariyyah, denotasi utama (al-maqshūd al-ashlī, penyempurnaan diri (takammul, tasbīḥ.  Abstract : In his commentary on Surah al-’ A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, through his Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm invites our souls to ventureinto the deepest layers of meaning to recognize the reality of Divinity (al- mabdā’, prophethood (Ṣirāṭ or nubuwwah and resurrection (ma‘ād and discusses it in a more philosophical manner. This study is an attempt to explore the benefits of these important aspects of religious sources unearthed from Qur’anic injunctions combined with rational principles of philosophical and mystical experiences

  14. KRITIK ATAS KRITIK EPISTEMOLOGI TAFSIR M. ABIED AL JABIRI: Studi Kritis atas Madkhal ila al Quran al Karim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fawaid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically views the epistemology of Muhammad Abid al Jabiri’s interpretation in his book, Madkhal ila al Quran al Karim. His latest work is projected to make the Quran relevant to mankind today and with certainly critiquing classical Quranic studies that have been constructed by previous scholars. Starting from Arab criticism, which is expected to synergize the gap between Turath and modernity, al Jabiri tried out his theory in the realm of Quranic studies oriented to maintain its originality and interpretation from sectarian influence. Focusing on al Jabiri’s review on the Quran, this paper examines and associates some of the problems with the epistemology of critique in Arab reasoning. Finally, it is inferred that the epistemologic offer of al Jabiri used in Turath is not fully applicable in Quranic studies for several reasons. First, the Quranic studies existed within the chain of sanad in its formation. Secondly, at the application stage, al Jabri often overlooked the sanad and narrations from the companions.

  15. Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.W.; Chave, R.A.; Hippsley, C.A.; Bowen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti 3 Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temperature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti 3 Al and Ti'Al based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly. (orig.)

  16. Density and atomic volume in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National Univ., Lviv (Ukraine). Dept. of Metal Physics; Egry, I.; Brillo, J.; Holland-Moritz, D. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Raumsimulation; Kaban, I. [Chemnitz Univ. of Technolgy (Germany). Inst. of Physics

    2007-02-15

    The density of liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni binary alloys have been determined over a wide temperature range by a noncontact technique combining electromagnetic levitation and optical dilatometry. The temperature and composition dependences of the density are analysed. A negative excess volume correlates with the negative enthalpy of mixing, compound forming ability and chemical short-range ordering in liquid Al-Fe and Al-Ni alloys. (orig.)

  17. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  18. HOMENAJE AL DOCTOR JORGE CAVELIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Rueda Montaña

    1979-06-01

    ósitos. Jamás concibió nada pequeño, ni en lo material, ni en lo espiritual. Su propio mundo de acción y movimiento, tallado a su imagen y semejanza, no le permitía detenerse en pequeñeces. Cabalgaba
    contra el tiempo, y este no le era suficiente para sus designios. Por eso no podía detenerse en minucias, jamás fue mediocre, ni toleró la mediocridad.

    JORGE CAVELIER pasa al Panteón de los grandes de Colombia, su excepcional condición humana así lo impone, sus valiosos servicios a la Patria así lo demandan, y el profundo rastro que deja de su paso por la vida, así lo decide.

    La CRUZ ROJA COLOMBIANA, que le debe casi todo, ya no será la misma. Será imposible ocupar el inmenso vacío que deja la desaparición del titán. Ocuparemos su sitio, mas no lo reemplazaremos.
    Como las criaturas del bosque milenario, permaneceremos silenciosos y cavilantes ante el majestuoso y doloroso espectáculo de su caída.

    Descanse en Paz.

  19. Magnetic tunnel junctions with AlN and AlNxOy barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, M. M.; Childress, J. R.; Fontana, R. E.; Kellock, A. J.; Rice, P. M.; Ho, M. K.; Thompson, T. J.; Gurney, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    Nonoxide tunnel barriers such as AlN are of interest for magnetic tunnel junctions to avoid the oxidation of the magnetic electrodes. We have investigated the fabrication and properties of thin AlN-based barriers for use in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions. Electronic, magnetic and structural data of tunnel valves of the form Ta (100 Aa)/PtMn (300 Aa)/CoFe 20 (20 Aa - 25 Aa)/barrier/CoFe 20 (10 - 20 Aa)/NiFe 16 (35 - 40 Aa)/Ta (100 Aa) are presented, where the barrier consists of AlN, AlN x O y or AlN/AlO x with total thicknesses between 8 and 15 Aa. The tunnel junctions were sputter deposited and then lithographically patterned down to 2 x 2μm 2 devices. AlN was deposited by reactive sputtering from an Al target with 20% - 35% N 2 in the Ar sputter gas at room temperature, resulting in stoichiometric growth of AlN x (x=0.50±0.05), as determined by RBS. TEM analysis shows that the as-deposited AlN barrier is crystalline. For AlN barriers and AlN followed by natural O 2 oxidation, we obtain tunnel magnetoresistance >10% with specific junction resistance R j down to 60Ωμm 2 . [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Dakwah Kultural Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Kayu Khas Melayu Palembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pahlevi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini berusaha mengungkap berbagai fenomena yang menggambarkan serangkaian kegiatan dakwah kultural Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang. Sehingga dapat diperoleh sejumlah informasi mengenai berbagai upaya penerapan program yang dimaksud. Penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan, pertama kontribusi Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang terhadap perkembangan metode dakwah kultural adalah dakwah melalui seni. Kedua, Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang sebagai tempat Wisata Religi yang sangat signifikan.   This research tries to reveal the various phenomenon that describe a series of cultural propaganda activities Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang. In order to obtain some informations about the efforts of the implementation of the program in question. It can be concluded, the first contribution of Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang on the development of methods of cultural propaganda is propaganda through art. Second Bayt al-Qur’an al-Akbar Ukiran Khas Melayu Palembang as a very significant Religious Tourism.

  1. SAP-like ultrafine-grained Al composites dispersion strengthened with nanometric AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, M.; Krizik, P.; Yan, M.; Simancik, F.; Schaffer, G.B.; Qian, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the development of novel Sinter-Aluminum-Pulver (SAP)-like Al–AlN nanocomposites via replacing the native Al 2 O 3 thin films on fine Al powder with a large volume fraction of in situ formed nanometric AlN dispersoids. Fine gas-atomized Al powder (d 50 =1.3 µm) compacts were first partially nitrided at 590 °C in flowing nitrogen, controlled by a small addition of Sn (0.3–0.4 wt%), and subsequently consolidated by hot direct extrusion. The resulting Al–AlN composites consisted of submicrometric Al grains reinforced with nanometric AlN dispersoids together with some nanometric Al 2 O 3 dispersoids. An Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite fabricated this way achieved exceptional ultimate tensile strength of 227 MPa, yield strength of 195 MPa and Young's modulus of 66 GPa at 300 °C, superior to typical SAP materials and coarse grained Al–AlN composites. In addition, the Al–13 vol% AlN nanocomposite exhibited good thermal stability up to 500 °C. The strengthening mechanism is discussed

  2. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of grain refiner, modifier, and combination of grain refiner cum modifier was studied on Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys using computer aided cooling curve analysis. For combined grain refinement and modification effect, Al-Ti-B-Sr single master alloy was developed that acted as both grain refiner and modifier.

  3. Assessing behavioural changes in ALS: cross-validation of ALS-specific measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Grau, Marta; Costello, Emmet; O'Connor, Sarah; Elamin, Marwa; Burke, Tom; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Hardiman, Orla

    2017-07-01

    The Beaumont Behavioural Inventory (BBI) is a behavioural proxy report for the assessment of behavioural changes in ALS. This tool has been validated against the FrSBe, a non-ALS-specific behavioural assessment, and further comparison of the BBI against a disease-specific tool was considered. This study cross-validates the BBI against the ALS-FTD-Q. Sixty ALS patients, 8% also meeting criteria for FTD, were recruited. All patients were evaluated using the BBI and the ALS-FTD-Q, completed by a carer. Correlational analysis was performed to assess construct validity. Precision, sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of the BBI when compared to the ALS-FTD-Q, were obtained. The mean score of the whole sample on the BBI was 11.45 ± 13.06. ALS-FTD patients scored significantly higher than non-demented ALS patients (31.6 ± 14.64, 9.62 ± 11.38; p ALS-FTD-Q was observed (r = 0.807, p ALS-FTD-Q. Good construct validity has been further confirmed when the BBI is compared to an ALS-specific tool. Furthermore, the BBI is a more comprehensive behavioural assessment for ALS, as it measures the whole behavioural spectrum in this condition.

  4. Sensorineural hearing loss in high school teenagers in Mexico City and its relationship with recreational noise Las alteraciones auditivas de escolares adolescentes en la Ciudad de México pueden estar relacionadas al ruido recreativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Consuelo Martínez-Wbaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of hearing loss in a sample of typical public high-school students exposed to recreational noise, and determine associated risk factors. The sample was made up of 214 teenagers from a high-school in Mexico City; subjects were selected randomly per strata. We applied a questionnaire to identify risk factors for hearing loss and performed a battery of audiologic tests consisting of otoscopy, tympanometry, and pure-tone audiometry. The mean age of the sample was 16 ± 1.07 years; 73% were male and 27%, female. Hearing loss was found in 21% of students. The main hearing loss-related risk factor was exposure to recreational noise: frequent attendance at discotheques and pop-music concerts; use of personal stereos; and noise exposure in school workshops. The high frequency of hearing loss in high school students from one Mexico City school (nearly one fifth of the sample was found to be related to noise exposure mainly during recreational activities.El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la frecuencia de alteraciones auditivas en una muestra de escolares de educación media superior expuestos a ruido recreativo y determinar algunos factores de riesgo asociados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 214 adolescentes de una escuela de la Ciudad de México. Los sujetos fueron seleccionados al azar por medio de una computadora. Se aplicaron cuestionarios con el objeto de identificar los factores de riesgo para alteraciones auditivas y se les practicaron diversos estudios audiológicos consistentes en: otoscopía, timpanometría y una audiometría a tonos puros. La edad media de la muestra fue de 16 ± 1,07 años, 73% fueron del sexo masculino y 27% femenino. Se encontraron alteraciones auditivas en 21% de los estudiantes. Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a alteraciones auditivas fueron: exposición al ruido recreativo al asistir a discotecas, conciertos de música popular, el uso de equipos de

  5. Permanencia del conocimiento adquirido en los dos primeros años de la Licenciatura de Médico Cirujano.: ¿Persiste al evaluarlo en el cuarto año?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eugenia Ponce de León-Castañeda

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los alumnos generalmente profundizan en el conocimiento de acuerdo al tipo de preguntas con que son evaluados: si evalúan memoria se favorece un aprendizaje mecánico y repetitivo que permanece poco tiempo en la memoria; si son de comprensión o aplicación favorecerán aprendizajes significativos. Materiales y métodos. Estudio analítico, observacional transversal. Por jueces se seleccionaron preguntas obtenidas de exámenes de anatomía, psicología, fisiología y cirugía de los tres niveles de conocimiento. El mismo examen se aplicó al azar a 13 grupos de segundo año y a 13 grupos de cuarto. La calificación y el análisis se realizaron de manera electrónica. Se aplicó la U de Mann-Whitney para identificar diferencias y percentiles con rango intercuartílico para la dispersión. Resultados. Se contestaron 310 exámenes de segundo año y 247 de cuarto. La fiabilidad del examen fue de 0,9009 y 0,9102, respectivamente. Se identificaron diferencias significativas (p = 0,000 en el examen global y en las respuestas de cirugía y psicología, considerando aciertos y nivel de conocimiento (memoria y comprensión. No se encontraron diferencias en anatomía (p = 0,527 y fisiología (p = 0,203. La mediana de aciertos fue de 39 y 43, respectivamente. La dispersión de reactivos en el análisis global y por asignatura mantuvo un rango intercuartílico de 3-4. Conclusiones. Al ser evaluado, el alumno con conocimientos memorísticos pierde interés al no encontrar la aplicación y la integración del conocimiento básicos en la clínica.

  6. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Al Qaeda Central Still Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangil Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute si Al Qaeda central es todavía relevante o no. Tras estudiar la actividades de Al Qaeda central cuyo objetivo es provocar la violencia en Afganistán y Pakistán, así como los planes continuos de ataques directos contra los Estados Unidos, el artículo muestra que la capacidad operativa de Al Qaeda es más sólida y fuerte que la que Estados Unidos y otros investigadores y eruditos han anticipado. Además, el apoyo virulento y la contribución Al Qaeda en la Península Arábiga a la red de Al Qaeda muestra que la longevidad de Al Qaeda depende de la relación con sus afiliados. El artículo concluye que, en estas condiciones, Al Qaeda central todavía ocupa un lugar en las discusiones de seguridad global.

  8. Al cation induces aggregation of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-07-15

    Al cation is known to induce protein fibrillation and causes several neurodegenerative disorders. We report the spectroscopic, thermodynamic analysis and AFM imaging for the Al cation binding process with human serum albumin (HSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and milk beta-lactoglobulin (b-LG) in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Hydrophobicity played a major role in Al-protein interactions with more hydrophobic b-LG forming stronger Al-protein complexes. Thermodynamic parameters ΔS, ΔH and ΔG showed Al-protein bindings occur via hydrophobic and H-bonding contacts for b-LG, while van der Waals and H-bonding interactions prevail in HSA and BSA adducts. AFM clearly indicated that aluminum cations are able to force BSA and b-LG into larger or more robust aggregates than HSA, with HSA 4±0.2 (SE, n=801) proteins per aggregate, for BSA 17±2 (SE, n=148), and for b-LG 12±3 (SE, n=151). Thioflavin T test showed no major protein fibrillation in the presence of Al cation. Al complexation induced major alterations of protein conformations with the order of perturbations b-LG>BSA>HSA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Strength of Al and Al-Mg/alumina bonds prepared using ultrahigh vacuum diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.E.; Campbell, G.H.; Wien, W.L.; Stoner, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have measured the cross-breaking strength of Al and Al-Mg alloys bonded with alumina. Diffusion bonding of Al and Al-Mg alloys requires significantly more bonding time than previously thought to obtain complete bonding. In contrast to previous diffusion bonding studies, fracture morphologies are similar to those obtained in bonds formed by liquid phase reaction; i.e., bonds are as strong or stronger than the ceramic; and fracture tends to propagate in the metal for pure Al and near the interface in the ceramic for the alloys. There are indications that the fracture morphology depends on Mg content and therefore on plasticity in the metal

  10. [Lessons from Guam ALS/PDC study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Hirano

    2007-11-01

    An extraordinarily high incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) affecting the native population was discovered on the island of Guam a half century ago. Guam ALS is identical to classic ALS clinically and pathologically while PDC is marked by progressive parkinsonism and dementia. The unusual histological finding in these fetal neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of numerous neurofibrillary tangles in a selective topographic distribution unassociated with senile plaques. There have been remarkable advances in field of age-associated neurodegenerative disease after our initial study of Guam cases. Four noteworthy topics are presented in this communication. 1) Clinically, the coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia was frequently recognized in Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Some other new disease entities characterized by coexistence of parkinsonism and dementia have been reported. These include progressive supranuclear palsy, frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. 2) Neuropathologically, abundant neurofibrillary tangles unassociated with senile plaques were demonstrated in many diseases such as aftermath of boxing and tangle-only dementia. Furthermore, tau-positive structures were recognized not only in neurons but in glial cells in certain diseases. Tauopathy is one of the current hot research subjects. 3) Familial aggregation of Guam ALS patients provoked investigation of familial ALS elsewhere. Familial motor neuron disease with SOD1 mutation is the target of worldwide intense investigation at the present time. SOD1 gene mutation is, however, not found in Guam ALS. 4) The most striking findings of the Guam study is the gradual decline in the incidence of ALS on Guam during a quarter century and virtual disappearance of new patients. This may be linked to a remarkable change in environment and life style of the Chamorro population. The etiology of ALS is still unknown and

  11. Al-Âyah al-Mutasyâbihât al-Lafzhiyyah fi Sûrah al-An’âm ‘Inda al-Kirmâny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmatiar Pasya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses about the verses of mutasyâbihât in the Quran. The debate of this verses caused various opinions. The meaning of the mutasyâbihât in this paper is the similarity and difference of the words in the Qur'an. Mufasir have different opinion about the meaning of the verse of mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi. In addition, many Hufadz of the Quran who are confused from one verse to another, or one chapter to another. It’s because similarity of verses in the Qur'an with other verses. So the writer wants to explain the verses mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi in the perspective of Hamzh al-Karmani in Surah al-An'âm. In this discussion the author discovers some passages in mutasyâbihât al-lafdzi, namely Asrâru al-balaghah fi mutasyabih al-lafdzi, Asrar al-balaghah fi mutasyabih al-hurf, and murâ'ah al-ikhtilâfmurâd bi al-lafdzi al-mukarrar.

  12. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  13. Optical, structural, and nuclear scientific studies of AlGaN with high Al composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tse Yang; Chung, Yee Ling; Li, Lin; Yao, Shude; Lee, Y. C.; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Ferguson, Ian T.; Lu, Weijie

    2010-08-01

    AlGaN epilayers with higher Al-compositions were grown by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) on (0001) sapphire. Trimethylgallium (TMGa), trimethylaluminium (TMAl) and NH3 were used as the source precursors for Ga, Al, and N, respectively. A 25 nm AlN nucleation layer was first grown at low-temperature of 590 °C at 300 Torr. Followed, AlxGa1-xN layers were grown at 1080 °C on low-temperature AlN nucleation layers. The heterostructures were characterized by a series of techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering (RBS), photoluminescence (PL), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering. Precise Al compositions were determined through XRD, RBS, and SEM combined measurements. Room Temperature Raman Scattering spectra shows three major bands from AlGaN alloys, which are AlN-like, A1 longitudinal optical (LO) phonon modes, and E2 transverse optical (TO) band, respectively, plus several peak comes from the substrate. Raman spectral line shape analysis lead to an optical determination of the electrical property free carrier concentration of AlGaN. The optical properties of AlGaN with high Al composition were presented here.

  14. Formation of epitaxial Al 2O 3/NiAl(1 1 0) films: aluminium deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykhach, Y.; Moroz, V.; Yoshitake, M.

    2005-02-01

    Structure of epitaxial Al 2O 3 layers formed on NiAl(1 1 0) substrates has been studied by means of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The elucidated structure was compared to the model suggested for 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers [K. Müller, H. Lindner, D.M. Zehner, G. Ownby, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 25 (1990) 1130; R.M. Jaeger, H. Kuhlenbeck, H.J. Freund, Surf. Sci. 259 (1991) 235]. The stepwise growth of Al 2O 3 film, involving deposition and subsequent oxidation of aluminium onto epitaxial 0.5 nm-thick Al 2O 3 layers, has been investigated. Aluminium was deposited at room temperature, whereas its oxidation took place during annealing at 1070 K. The Al 2O 3 thickness was monitored by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). It was found that Al 2O 3 layer follows the structure of 0.5 nm thick Al 2O 3 film, although a tilting of Al 2O 3(1 1 1) surface plane with respect to NiAl(1 1 0) surface appeared after Al deposition.

  15. Structural and electrical characterization of AuPtAlTi ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN with varying annealing temperature and Al content

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, Mike W.; Han, Y.; Brown, Paul D.; Harrison, Ian; Hilton, K.P.; Munday, A.; Wallis, D.; Balmer, R.S.; Uren, M.J.; Martin, T.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of varying annealing temperature and Al layer thickness on the structural and electrical characteristics of AuPtAlTi/AlGaN/GaN ohmic contact structures has been systematically investigated. The relationship between annealing temperature, Al content, interfacial microstructure, surface planarity and contact resistance is\\ud examined. In particular, the presence of a detrimental low temperature Pt-Al reaction is identified. This is implicated in both the requirement for a higher Al:T...

  16. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgobba, S.; Kuenzi, H.U.; Ilschner, B.

    1993-01-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.)

  17. Some aspects of anelastic and microplastic creep of pure Al and two Al-alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgobba, S. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Kuenzi, H.U. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)); Ilschner, B. (Lab. de Metallurgie Mecanique, Dept. des Materiaux, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1993-11-01

    Anelastic creep of pure Al, commercial Al-Cu and a binary Al-Cu alloy has been measured at room temperature by means of a high resolution laser interferometer. The irreversible component of the deformation was also quantified from measurements of the anelastic creep recovery. The dependence of the deformation-time curves on thermal treatment and cold work is analyzed. The mechanisms responsible for the room temperature anelastic creep are discussed. Materials loaded below their elastic limit can present either a pure anelastic behavior (commercial Al-Cu) or additional viscoelastic creep (pure Al, high purity Al-Cu). For commercial Al-Cu, the presence of an irreversible deformation appears to be mainly related to the state of the surface. A viscoelastic after effect has been measured for this alloy after a Cu-electroplating treatment. As a typical result for room temperature creep, the irreversible deformation depends logarithmically on load time. (orig.).

  18. Analisis Kecenderungan Manhaj Akidah Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHD HAIDHAR KAMARZAMAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i is a very great and respected scholar during 16th and 17th century of Acheh. His knowledge in various fields recognized by local and international scholars. He had been a Qadi Malik al-’Adil, a religious leader, who became a referred by communities and country during the reign of the three Sultans of Aceh. He has authored nearly 40 pieces of books related to the theology and sufism. This study focuses on the methods used by Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i in his theological writings. This study found that Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatera'i had used six methods in the such writings.

  19. Los dioses contra el azar versus el azar de los dioses: las catástrofes "naturales" y los pueblos indígenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PÉREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: ?Las catástrofes de la naturaleza y las de contenido político son similares en la medida en que pueden ser pre- visibles, también es el hecho de que las consecuencias de las primeras son directamente proporcionales a la mise- ria de la zona en que ocurran. Es cierto que las ayudas de emergencia y los planes de reconstrucción surgidos a raíz de una catástrofe pueden paliar los "sufrimientos" de los menos afectados. Algunos ejemplos recientes, como el terremoto en Tierradentro en 1994 que arrasó 12 resguardos y 9 cabildos indígenas Nasa Yuwe (Paeces, demues- tran las diferentes percepciones que se tienen del problema, sea visto desde la óptica blanca-mestiza o desde la per- cepción indígena. La primera no sólo es estatal sino también de la Iglesia católica. Otros casos de catástrofes natu- rales en zonas indígenas serían: a la avalancha de marzo del 87 en Chosica Perú, la cual podría ser prevenida si la arquitectura indígena y los recursos naturales fueran conservados. b Dos días antes la Amazonía ecuatoriana sufrió dos sismos que afectaron a la comunidad Quichua fueron más catastróficas las políticas de reconstrucción que los sismos. c Entre marzo y abril de 1982 en Chiapas hizo erupción el volcán Chichón con lo que los indígenas per- dieron hasta su miseria.La cultura indígena además de tener constancia mítica de la causalidad de las calamidades, tiene tecnología para hacerles frente, por lo que se evidencia lo nocivo de las prácticas de la ciencia occidental a dichas comunidades.ABSTRACT: Natural and political disasters disasters are similar in that they can be foreseen. Also in that the the consequences of the latter are directly proportional to the poverty of the area in which they take place. It is true that emergency help and reconstruction plans can limit the «sufferings» of some affected people. Some recent examples, lik the eartquake of Tierradentro in 1994, which destroyed 12 «resguardos» and 9 indigenous «cabildos» in Nasa Yuwe (Paeces show that there are important differences between the white-»mestizo» and the indigenous perceptions. The former is closely connected to the state and the Cathholic. Other natural disasters in indigenous regions are: a the may 1987 disaster in Chosica Peru, which could be prevented if indigenous arquitecture and natural resources were preserved, b two earthquakes that affected the Quichia communitity in the Amazonia in Ecuador in 1987 were even less dramatic than the reconstruction policies that followed them, c between march and april 1982 in Chiapas erupted the Chichón volcano, as a result of which indigenous groups lost everything.The indigenous culture has both mythic knowledge about the causes of disasters and technology to facethem, whaich shows the negative character of the western science for those communities.

  20. ALS-Plus Syndrome: Non-Pyramidal Features in a Large ALS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Leo; Vandriel, Shannon; Elman, Lauren; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Powers, John; Boller, Ashley; Wood, Elisabeth McCarty; Woo, John; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective Autopsy studies show widespread pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but clinical surveys of multisystem disease in ALS are rare. We investigated ALS-Plus syndrome, an understudied group of patients with clinical features extending beyond pyramidal and neuromuscular systems with or without cognitive/behavioral deficits. Methods In a large, consecutively-ascertained cohort of 550 patients with ALS, we documented atypical clinical manifestations. Genetic screening for C9orf72 hexanucleotide expansions was performed in 343 patients, and SOD1, TARDBP, and VCP were tested in the subgroup of patients with a family history of ALS. Gray matter and white matter imaging was available in a subgroup of 30 patients. Results Seventy-five (13.6%) patients were identified with ALS-Plus syndrome. We found disorders of ocular motility, cerebellar, extrapyramidal and autonomic functioning. Relative to those without ALS-Plus, cognitive impairment (8.0% vs 2.9%, p=0.029), bulbar-onset (49.3% vs 23.2%, pALS-Plus. Survival was significantly shorter in ALS-Plus (29.66 months vs 42.50 months, p=0.02), regardless of bulbar-onset or mutation status. Imaging revealed significantly greater cerebellar and cerebral disease in ALS-Plus compared to those without ALS-Plus. Conclusions ALS-Plus syndrome is not uncommon, and the presence of these atypical features is consistent with neuropathological observations that ALS is a multisystem disorder. ALS-Plus syndrome is associated with increased risk for poor survival and the presence of a pathogenic mutation. PMID:25086858

  1. High Temperature AL-Nanocrystal Alloy Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perepezko, J

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum-rich metallic glasses containing transition metals and rare earth elements have been found to yield finely mixed microstructures of Al nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix and exhibit...

  2. Landbouwprotectie als middel tot politieke integratie.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van den P.C.

    1988-01-01

    In acht hoofdstukken is dit beleid uiteengezet. 1. Landbouwprotectie als middel tot politieke integratie. 2. Eigenbelang van een meer marktgericht landbouwbeleid. 3. uitdagingen voor landbouwcooperaties. 4. Het westers landbouwbeleid en het wereldvoedselprobleem. 5. Landbouw heeft nu een eigen

  3. (14) Akinwole et al Influence of Culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Influence of Culture Water Draw-off on Growth of the African ... 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, University of ... areas (Eyo et al., 2003). .... systems. Nigerian Journal of Rural. Extension and Development. 6: 38-. 42.

  4. Al Qaeda: Statements and Evolving Ideology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2004-01-01

    ... [April and October 2004] have led some terrorism analysts to speculate that the messages may signal a new attempt by him to create a lasting political leadership role for himself and Al Qaeda as the vanguard...

  5. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  6. 12th Annual ALS Users' Association Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    Science took the front seat as 219 Advanced Light Source (ALS) users and staff gathered on Monday and Tuesday, October 18 and 19 for the twelfth annual users' meeting. The bulk of the meeting was dedicated to reports on science at the ALS. Packed into two busy days were 31 invited oral presentations and 80 submitted poster presentations, as well as time to visit 24 vendor booths. The oral sessions were dedicated to environmental science, chemical dynamics, biosciences, magnetic materials, and atomic and molecular science. In addition, there was an ALS highlights session that emphasized new results and a session comprising highlights from the young scientists who will carry the ALS into the future

  7. AL Amyloidosis Complicated by Persistent Oral Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Liarte Marconcini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of amyloid light chain (AL amyloidosis is presented here with uncontrolled bleeding after a nonsurgical dental procedure, most likely multifactorial in nature, and consequently treated with a multidisciplinary approach.

  8. Arfiputri et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dharin Serebrina Arfiputri

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... Diagnosis of VVC are from history taking, physical examination (Linhares et al, 2001; ... From the appearance of vaginal discharge usually minimal, ... (69.48%), and the rest are not yet married, divorce and widow, not yet.

  9. Ayinmode et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle

    Brucella abortus antibodies using Rose Bengal test and Competitive Enzyme Linked ... milk production in both dairy and beef cattle (Hernandez et al., 2001; Dubey and Schares, 2011). ..... Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. Paris ...

  10. PEMBARUAN MASLAḤAH DALAM MAQĀṢID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of maṣlaḥah contained in the maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of maṣlaḥah in ḥifẓ al-dīn is technically defined as al-ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ḥifẓ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ḥifẓ al-nasl as ḥifẓ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ḥifẓ al-māl as al-taḍammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ḥifẓ al-‘aql as al-ḥuqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep maṣlaḥah yang terkandung dalam maqāṣīd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep maṣlaḥah dalam ḥifẓu al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ḥurriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ḥifẓu al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ḥifẓu al-nasl sebagai ḥifẓu al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ḥifẓu al-māl sebagai al-taḍammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ḥifẓu al-‘aql sebagai al-ḥuqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  11. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  12. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1993-05-01

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  13. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...... curve, emission spectrum, dose response, energy dependence, influence of heating rate and fading rate. The measured TL characteristics were compared with those of well-known, widely used TLDs, i.e. LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Al2O3:C. It is concluded that AlN:Y2O3 ceramics showing a radiation sensitivity...... which is approximately 50 times greater than that of LiF:Mg,Ti is an interesting dosimetry material; however due to a high fading rate of the TL of AlN:Y2O3 on storage at room temperature, a further development of the material for improving the fading characteristics is needed for its application...

  15. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies.

  16. The fecal microbiome of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, David; Hiergeist, Andreas; Adis, Carolin; Mayer, Benjamin; Gessner, André; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative motor neuron disease accompanied by both systemic and central nervous system-specific inflammation as well as deregulated energy metabolism. These potential pathogenetic factors have recently been found to mutually interact with the gut microbiota, raising the hypothesis of a link between microbiome alterations and ALS pathogenesis. The aim of our study was to assess whether ALS is associated with an altered composition of the fecal microbiota. We compared the fecal microbiota of 25 ALS patients with 32 age- and gender-matched healthy persons using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Confounding factors and secondary disease effects on the microbiome were minimized by selection of patients without dysphagia, gastrostomy, noninvasive ventilation, or reduced body mass index. Comparing the 2 carefully matched groups, the diversity and the abundance of the bacterial taxa on the different taxonomic levels as well as PICRUSt-predicted metagenomes were almost indistinguishable. Significant differences between ALS patients and healthy controls were only observed with regard to the overall number of microbial species (operational taxonomic units) and in the abundance of uncultured Ruminococcaceae. Conclusively, ALS patients do not exhibit a substantial alteration of the gut microbiota composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng; Horsfield, Andrew; Lee, Peter D.; Brommer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  18. Compressive performance and crack propagation in Al alloy/Ti{sub 2}AlC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaor, D.A.H., E-mail: dorian.hanaor@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hu, L. [Ames Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Kan, W.H.; Proust, G. [School of Civil Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Foley, M. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Karaman, I.; Radovic, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Composite materials comprising a porous Ti{sub 2}AlC matrix and Al 6061 alloy were fabricated by a current-activated pressure assisted melt infiltration process. Coarse, medium and fine meso-structures were prepared with Al alloy filled pores of differing sizes. Materials were subjected to uniaxial compressive loading up to stresses of 668 MPa, leading to the failure of specimens through crack propagation in both phases. As-fabricated and post-failure specimens were analysed by X-ray microscopy and electron microscopy. Quasi-static mechanical testing results revealed that compressive strength was the highest in the fine structured composite materials. While the coarse structured specimens exhibited a compressive strength of 80% relative to this. Reconstructed micro-scale X-ray tomography data revealed different crack propagation mechanisms. Large planar shear cracks propagated throughout the fine structured materials while the coarser specimens exhibited networks of branching cracks propagating preferentially along Al alloy-Ti{sub 2}AlC phase interfaces and through shrinkage pores in the Al alloy phase. Results suggest that control of porosity, compensation for Al alloy shrinkage and enhancement of the Al alloy-Ti{sub 2}AlC phase interfaces are key considerations in the design of high performance metal/Ti{sub 2}AlC phase composites.

  19. The formation of AlB2 in an Al-B master alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    The formation of borides in an Al-3 wt.%B master alloy, produced via chemical reactions of KBF 4 and aluminium has been investigated. The chemical reactions produce boron, which dissolves into molten aluminium and subsequently forms aluminium borides. Backscattered electron imaging (BEI) of the Al-3 wt.%B master alloy under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed the presence of two types of phases that contain different levels of boron. Combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, the two types of phases are identified as AlB 2 on AlB 12 . This gives a direct evidence for a peritectic reaction of AlB 12 and aluminium, which produces AlB 2 . The thermodynamic properties of the reactions that may be involved are examined, and the presence of AlB 12 phase in the master alloy explained. The observed microstructure is explained according to the peritectic reaction in an Al-B phase diagram. The stability of AlB 2 and AlB 12 at lower temperature than 975 deg. C is clarified

  20. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  1. Predicting glass-forming compositions in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargarella, P.; de Oliveira, M.F.; Kiminami, C.S.; Pauly, S.; Kuehn, U.; Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Eckert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The glass-forming ability of the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems was studied using the λ* and the λ.Δe criteria. → Both criteria predicted with just 1% at. of error the best glass-former verified so far in the Al-La system. → Four new glass-former compositions could be predicted in the Al-La-Ni system using the λ.Δe criterion. → The best glass-former reported so far in the Al-La-Ni system was found. - Abstract: In this work, a criterion considering the topological instability (λ) and the differences in the electronegativity of the constituent elements (Δe) was applied to the Al-La and Al-Ni-La systems in order to predict the best glass-forming compositions. The results were compared with literature data and with our own experimental data for the Al-La-Ni system. The alloy described in the literature as the best glass former in the Al-La system is located near the point with local maximum for the λ.Δe criterion. A good agreement was found between the predictions of the λ.Δe criterion and literature data in the Al-La-Ni system, with the region of the best glass-forming ability (GFA) and largest supercooled liquid region (ΔT x ) coinciding with the best compositional region for amorphization indicated by the λ.Δe criterion. Four new glassy compositions were found in the Al-La-Ni system, with the best predicted composition presenting the best glass-forming ability observed so far for this system. Although the λ.Δe criterion needs further refinements for completely describe the glass-forming ability in the Al-La and Al-La-Ni systems, the results demonstrated that this criterion is a good tool to predict new glass-forming compositions.

  2. Phase relationships in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ligang; Masset, Patrick J.; Cao Fuyong; Meng Fangui; Liu Libin; Jin Zhanpeng

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → One ternary phase τ 1 -Al 8 Cu 4 Er in Al-rich region with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al 3 Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. → The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results. → It can be found that the resultant thermodynamic database can be applied to case studies of as-cast alloys, showing that the literature thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Er system is reliable as a working basis for computer-assisted alloy design. - Abstract: The Al-rich region of the ternary Al-Cu-Er system is investigated using the method of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase equilibria in the Al-rich region of the Al-Cu-Er system at 673 K have been obtained, and the microstructures of as-cast alloys in the Al-rich region are also investigated. One ternary phase τ 1 -Al 8 Cu 4 Er with a composition of 59.4-60.4 at.% Al, 32.2-33.8 at.% Cu, and 6.4-7.7 at.% Er is observed in both as-cast and annealed alloys. At 673 K, the binary Al 3 Er phase dissolves about 3.51 at.% Cu. The calculated solidification paths (based on the CALPHAD method) of as-cast alloys are in agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Liquidus projection of the Nb-Cr-Al system near the Al3(Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.A.; Ferrandini, P.L.; Nunes, C.A.; Coelho, A.A.; Caram, R.

    2006-01-01

    The system Nb-Cr-Al was investigated in the region near the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic and the liquidus projection of that region was determined based on the microstructural characterization of arc melted alloys. The characterization utilized scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results allowed one to determine three primary solidification liquidus surfaces ((Cr,Al) 2 Nb, Cr(Al,Nb) and Al 3 (Nb,Cr)), that are originated from the binary systems Cr-Nb, Cr-Al and Al-Nb. It is proposed the occurrence of the invariant reaction L + (Cr,Al) 2 Nb ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) and of a point of minimum, which involves a three phase reaction, L ↔ Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb). All alloys studied showed formation of the Al 3 (Nb,Cr) + Cr(Al,Nb) eutectic as the last solidification step with Al(Nb)Cr 2 precipitating from Cr(Al,Nb)

  4. Effect of elevated Al and pH on the growth and root morphology of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive wheat seedlings in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Toufiq Iqbal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium ion (Al3+ toxicity and hydrogen ion (H+ activity are the major constraints for plant growth in acid soil. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of pH and Al on the growth response and changes in root morphology of Al-tolerant (ET8 and Al-sensitive (ES8 wheat seedlings. Different levels of AlCl3 and CaCO3 were added to the soils to manipulate soil pH and extractable Al. The results showed that the bulk soil pH remained constant at pH 4.1 with further applications of AlCl3, and that the seedlings died at the 200 mg AlCl3/kg treatments. The ET8 seedlings responded better than the ES8 seedlings in both low and high Al and pH. The ET8 seedlings had higher root surface areas and root tip numbers than the ES8 seedlings in the Al treatment. In contrast, the ES8 had higher root diameters than the ET8 seedlings due to the elevated Al supply. Apoplast Al increased with the increase of soil available extractable Al, and declined with the decrease of soil extractable Al. The ET8 seedlings accumulated more Al in their apoplast than the ES8 seedlings. This study concluded that accumulation of Al in the apoplast is also involved in Al tolerance mechanism with the addition of organic acid exudation.

  5. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Hiroki; Funahashi, Shiro; Asaka, Toru; Hirosaki, Naoto; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al 10 O 3 N 8 ) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm 3 . The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were R wp =6.97%, S (=R wp /R e )=1.68, R p =5.45%, R B =5.13% and R F =4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N) 6 ] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N) 4 ] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(n O +n T ) with n O /(n O +n T ). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The n O and n T are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  6. Ilhaq al-Masa'il bi Nazairiha dan Penerapannya dalam Bahth al-Masa'il

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthfi Hadi Aminuddin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Ilh}a>q al-Masa>’il bi Naz}a>iriha is one of the methods used by Nahdlatul Ulama in resisting the opinion based on (manhaji analytical concept of Islamic jurisprudence (the solution for complex social problems as the main purpose of Islamic shari’ah. As known that, up to now, ilh}a>q has been understood as a process of answering a new case by the way of equating to the old one which is written in the book called al-mu’tabarah. Such ilh}a>q has got many criticisms both from the definitions, procedures and its epistemogical footing. This paper is about to reveal how the NU clerics of Islam understand the concept of Ilh}a>q}, what its epistemological footing was and how the concept was applied in discussing many cases (bah}th al-masa>’il. Based on the writer’s study to several documents of decision results of NU that Ilh}a>q did not only simplify to equate the new cases with the old ones that have been freely discussed in the books of al-mu’tabarah, but both cases should have similar legal substance, that is, both should be under the decrees of laws of al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah. Thus, Ilh}a>q is actually answering the problem by applying al-qawa>‘id al-fiqhi>yah, whereas the formulation al-qawa>‘id al-fiqhi>yah itself was set off from the examination of a number of furu>’ generated by qiya> s. This paper also found three variations of the implementation of Ilh}a>q in bah}th al-masa>’il. First, the application of Ilh}a>q was without mentioning al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah which covered new cases (mulh}aq and the old case law that has been known in the books of fiqh (mulh}aq bih/attached to. Second, the application of Ilh}a>q was accompanied by mentioning mulh}aq bih and al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah. Third, the application of Ilh}a>q, was only by the mentioning al-qawa> ‘id al-fiqhi>yah.

  7. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  8. Alpha and beta stabilizer character of Al in Zr-Nb-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peruzzi Bardella, A.; Bolcich, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The T β/α+β of Zr5Nb and Zr5Nb2Al (weight %) were determined in order to observe the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in ternary Zr-Nb-Al alloys. Techniques employed were change of resistivity with temperature in dynamic experiences, and metallography of samples quenched to room temperature after isothermal annealings. The T β/α+β of the ternary resulted 17 ± 8 deg C higher than that of the binary alloy. In addition, taking into account the results of previous investigations of the transformation of beta on quenching Zr-Nb-Al alloys from the beta field to room temperature, it is concluded that the beta-stabilizer character of Nb is stronger than the alpha-stabilizer character of Al in these Zr alloys, and that the Al can have important influence on the mechanical properties by the appearance of TRIP effect. (Author) [es

  9. KONSEPSI AL-QURAN DAN AL-HADITS TENTANG OPERASIONAL BANK SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardy Zaini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Islam hadir dengan beberapa tujuan, diantaranya adalah terciptanya khoirul ummah dan rahmatan lil’alamin dengan al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits sebagai penuntun umat Islam demi tercapainya tujuan tersebut. Sebagai pedoman hidup, al-Qur’an dan al-Hadits memberikan berbagai petunjuk tentang keteraturan dan permasalahan hidup, termasuk didalamnya mengenai perbankan yang telah memenuhi hampir separuh sisi-sisi kehidupan manusia. Untuk memaksimal ajaran syariah secara kaffah, maka nilai-nilai yang terdapat dalam al-Quran harus mampu diturunkan pada tataran praktis. Salah satu usaha dan langkah dalam rangka menemukan formula perbankan masa depan, al-Quran dan Hadits memiliki konsepsi dalam kegiatan operasional Bank Syariah. Hal ini dilakukan untuk membentuk sikap mental atau watak yang terjabarkan dalam pola berpikir, cara berbicara, dan etika bertingkah laku, sebagai ekspresi jiwa dari manusia yang beriman dan bertakwa kepada Allah Swt. Agar umat Islam mampu menjadi umat yang unggul (khayr ummah.

  10. Effects of Al(III and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Fu Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT modified glass carbon electrode (GCE. The results showed that Al(III and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  11. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  12. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanping; Luo Yinhong; Wang Wei; Zhang Keying; Guo Hongxia; Guo Xiaoqiang; Wang Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60 Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  13. 27Al NMR studies of NpPd5Al2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudo, H.; Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Aoki, D.; Homma, Y.; Shiokawa, Y.; Haga, Y.; Ikeda, S.; Matsuda, T.D.; Onuki, Y.; Yasuoka, H.

    2009-01-01

    We present 27 Al NMR studies for a single crystal of the Np-based superconductor NpPd 5 Al 2 (T c =4.9K). We have observed a five-line 27 Al NMR spectrum with a center line and four satellite lines separated by first-order nuclear quadrupole splittings. The Knight shift clearly drops below T c . The temperature dependence of the 27 Al nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate shows no coherence peak below T c , indicating that NpPd 5 Al 2 is an unconventional superconductor with an anisotropic gap. The analysis of the present NMR data provides evidence for strong-coupling d-wave superconductivity in NpPd 5 Al 2 .

  14. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-07-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  15. A note on Wang et al's attack on Zhang et al's multiparty quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Gan

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Wang et al (2008 Phys. Lett. A 373 65) proposed an attack on Zhang et al's (2007 Opt. Commun. 269 418) multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme, in which the first and the last agent are reported to be able to cooperatively eavesdrop on all the secret messages without being detected. In this paper, we show that in Wang et al's attack, on average no more than half the secret messages can be eavesdropped. (paper)

  16. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godefroid, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  18. Solutional Landforms of Gabal Al-Qaraha, the Oasis of Al-Hasa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Embabi, Nabil S.

    1981-01-01

    Jabal Al-Qarah is one of the small outlier hills at the Oasis of Al-Hasa, lying at about lOkm ENE of Al-Hafuf Town. The solutional forms of Al-Qarah hill discussed in this paper are as follows : 1. A calcareous duricrust which covers the top and some of the slopes of the hill. 2. Rock Pillars which are long columns of white lime-stone. 3. Huge crevasses which are wide erosional openings along vertical joints. 4. Narrow, sinuous caves inside the hill. 5. Pedestal rocks with mushroo...

  19. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshi, L.; Zenou, V.; Ezersky, V.; Munitz, A.; Talianker, M.

    2005-01-01

    A new ternary aluminide U 2 FeAl 20 with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m

  20. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  1. The effectiveness of ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses for the retention of ALS knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Henrik; Strunk, Guido; Neuhold, Stephanie; Kiblböck, Daniel; Trimmel, Helmut; Baubin, Michael; Domanovits, Hans; Maurer, Claudia; Greif, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Out-of-hospital emergency physicians in Austria need mandatory emergency physician training, followed by biennial refresher courses. Currently, both standardized ERC advanced life support (ALS) provider courses and conventional refresher courses are offered. This study aimed to compare the retention of ALS-knowledge of out-of-hospital emergency physicians depending on whether they had or had not participated in an ERC-ALS provider course since 2005. Participants (n=807) from 19 refresher courses for out-of-hospital emergency physicians answered eight multiple-choice questions (MCQ) about ALS based on the 2005 ERC guidelines. The pass score was 75% correct answers. A multivariate logistic regression analyzed differences in passing scores between those who had previously participated in an ERC-ALS provider course and those who had not. Age, gender, regularity of working as an out-of-hospital emergency physician and the self-reported number of real resuscitation efforts within the last 6months were entered as control variables. Out-of-hospital emergency physicians who had previously attended an ERC-ALS provider course had a significantly higher chance of passing the MCQ test (OR=1.60, p=0.015). Younger age (OR=0.95, pERC-ALS provider course since 2005 had a higher retention of ALS knowledge compared to non-ERC-ALS course participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical failure modes of AlQ3-based OLEDs: AlQ3 hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, John E; Halls, Mathew D; Hratchian, Hrant P; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2006-03-28

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum(III), AlQ3, is used in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) as an electron-transport material and emitting layer. The reaction of AlQ3 with trace H2O has been implicated as a major failure pathway for AlQ3-based OLEDs. Hybrid density functional calculations have been carried out to characterize the hydrolysis of AlQ3. The thermochemical and atomistic details for this important reaction are reported for both the neutral and oxidized AlQ3/AlQ3+ systems. In support of experimental conclusions, the neutral hydrolysis reaction pathway is found to be a thermally activated process, having a classical barrier height of 24.2 kcal mol(-1). First-principles infrared and electronic absorption spectra are compared to further characterize AlQ3 and the hydrolysis pathway product, AlQ2OH. The activation energy for the cationic AlQ3 hydrolysis pathway is found to be 8.5 kcal mol(-1) lower than for the neutral reaction, which is significant since it suggests a role for charge imbalance in promoting chemical failure modes in OLED devices.

  3. Al-matrix composite materials reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonneville, J; Laplanche, G; Joulain, A; Gauthier-Brunet, V; Dubois, S

    2010-01-01

    Al-matrix material composites were produced using hot isostatic pressing technique, starting with pure Al and icosahedral (i) Al-Cu-Fe powders. Depending on the processing temperature, the final reinforcement particles are either still of the initial i-phase or transformed into the tetragonal ω-Al0 0.70 Cu 0.20 Fe 0.10 crystalline phase. Compression tests performed in the temperature range 293K - 823K on the two types of composite, i.e. Al/i and Al/ω, indicate that the flow stress of both composites is strongly temperature dependent and exhibit distinct regimes with increasing temperature. Differences exist between the two composites, in particular in yield stress values. In the low temperature regime (T ≤ 570K), the yield stress of the Al/ω composite is nearly 75% higher than that of the Al/i composite, while for T > 570K both composites exhibit similar yield stress values. The results are interpreted in terms of load transfer contribution between the matrix and the reinforcement particles and elementary dislocation mechanisms in the Al matrix.

  4. Rupture of Al matrix in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel by fission induced creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gwan Yoon; Sohn, Dong Seong [UNIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yeon Soo [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonnge (United States); Lee, Kyu Hong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This phenomenon was found specifically in the dispersion fuel plate with Si addition in the Al matrix to suppress interaction layer (IL) formation between UMo and Al. It is known that the stresses induced by fission induced swelling in U-Mo fuel particles are relieved by creep deformation of the IL, surrounding the fuel particles, that has a much higher creep rate than the Al matrix. Thus, when IL growth is suppressed, the stress is instead exerted on the Al matrix. The observed rupture in the Al matrix is believed to be caused when the stress exceeded the rupture strength of the Al matrix. In this study, the possibility of creep rupture of the Al matrix between the neighboring U-Mo fuel particles was examined using the ABAQUS finite element analysis (FEA) tool. The predicted rupture time for a plate was much shorter than its irradiation life indicating a rupture during the irradiation. The higher stress leads Al matrix to early creep rupture in this plate for which the Al matrix with lower creep strain rate does not effectively relieve the stress caused by the swelling of the U-Mo fuel particles. For the other plate, no rupture was predicted for the given irradiation condition. The effect of creeping of the continuous phase on the state of stress is significant.

  5. Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP): An Al Qaeda Affiliate Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Villarosa, Al-Qaeda in Yemen, Carnegie Endowment, July 7, 2009, http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/07/07/Al-Qaeda-in-yemen- event-1372. 53 Brian Whitaker...73 Khaled Fattah, “Yemen’s Insecurity Dilemma,” Yemen Times, February 11, 2014, http:// carnegie -mec.org/2014/02...Johnsen, and Shari Villarosa, “Al-Qaeda in Yemen.” Carnegie Endowment. July 7, 2009. http://carnegieendowment.org/2009/07/07/Al-Qaeda-in- yemen-event

  6. KITAB AL-SANĪ AL-MAṬĀLIB: INTERKONEKSI NAHWU DAN TASAWUF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakiyah Zakiyah

    2012-12-01

    Tulisan ini mereview buku yang berjudul al-Sanī al-Maṭālib yang ditulis oleh Kiai Nur Iman Mlangi Yogyakarta. Buku ini ditulis dalam bahasa Arab yang me­ngandung interkoneksi antara ilmu Nahwu (tata bahasa Arab dengan mis­tisis­me. Buku ini sangat menarik karena kenyataan bahwa kedua pengetahuan tersebut memiliki aturan sendiri-sendiri. Selain itu, sangat sedikit penulis yang menulis dengan gaya seperti itu. Salah satunya adalah Syaikh Abdul Qadir bin Ahmad al-Kuhany dengan karyanya yang berjudul Manniyat al-Fāqir al-Munjarid wa Sayrat al-Murīd al-Mutafarrid. Buku al-Saniy al-Muthalib diduga telah ditulis pada akhir abad ke-18 atau awal abad ke-19, menurut periode kehidupan Kiai Nur Iman yaitu sekitar pertengahan abad ke-18. Aturan Nahwu dalam buku ini dijelaskan secara teosofi yang dimulai dengan penjelasan mengenai tauhid (keesaan Tuhan sebagai kajian dasar bagi orang Islam, yang diikuti dengan makna dari masing-masing aturan bahasa Arab dalam aspek mistiknya.

  7. Growth of CdTe: Al films; Crecimiento de peliculas de CdTe: Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, M.; Zapata T, M. [CICATA-IPN, 89600 Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Melendez L, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pena, J.L. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 73 Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic studies of ALS cases in ALS-SMA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcia, Philippe; Vourc'h, Patrick; Blasco, Helene; Couratier, Philippe; Dangoumau, Audrey; Bellance, Remi; Desnuelle, Claude; Viader, Fausto; Pautot, Vivien; Millecamps, Stephanie; Bakkouche, Salah; Salachas, FranÇois; Andres, Christian R; Meininger, Vincent; Camu, William

    2018-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) are the most frequent motor neuron disorders in adulthood and infancy, respectively. There is a growing literature supporting common pathophysiological patterns between those disorders. One important clinical issue for that is the co-occurrence of both diseases within a family. To collect families in which ALS and SMA patients co-exist and describe the phenotype and the genotype of ALS patients. Nine families with co-occurrence of SMA and ALS have been gathered over the last 15 years. Epidemiological, phenotype and genetic status were collected. Out of the nine families, six corresponded to the criteria of familial ALS (FALS). Clinical data were available for 11 patients out of the 15 ALS cases. Mean age of onset was 58.5 years, site of onset was lower limbs in nine cases (81.8%), median duration was 22 months. Four ALS patients carried a mutation: three mutations in SOD1 gene (G147N in two cases and one with E121G) and one repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene. Three patients had abnormal SMN1 copy numbers. While the high proportion of familial history of ALS cases in these ALS-SMA pedigrees could have suggested that these familial clusters of the two most frequent MND rely on a genetic background, we failed to exclude that this occurred by chance.

  9. Characterization of N-polar AlN in GaN/AlN/(Al,Ga)N heterostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoran; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Bonef, Bastien; Keller, Stacia; Wienecke, Steven; Speck, James S.; Denbaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-11-01

    In GaN/(Al,Ga)N high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMT), AlN interlayer between GaN channel and AlGaN barrier suppresses alloy scattering and significantly improves the electron mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas. While high concentrations of gallium were previously observed in Al-polar AlN interlayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, the N-polar AlN (Al x Ga1-x N) films examined by atom probe tomography in this study exhibited aluminum compositions (x) equal to or higher than 95% over a wide range of growth conditions. The also investigated AlN interlayer in a N-polar GaN/AlN/AlGaN/ S.I. GaN HEMT structure possessed a similarly high x content.

  10. 26Al in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D.D.; Leising, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Several different lines of physical reasoning have converged on the importance of the radioactive nucleus 26 Al. The sciences of meteoritics, nucleosynthesis, gamma-ray astronomy, galactic chemical evolution, solar system formation, and interstellar chemistry all place this nucleus in a central position with possible profound implications. Perhaps more importantly the study of this radioactivity can unite these diverse fields in a complicated framework which will benefit all of them. This review traces the evolution of ideas concerning 26 Al in the context of these disciplines. 26 Al was first discussed for the possibility that its decay energy could melt meteorite parent bodies, and its daughter, 26 Mg, was later found in meteorites with enhanced abundance. It was also among the first radioactivities expected to be synthesized in interestingly large quantities in nulceosynthetic events. The first definitive detection of gamma-rays from an interstellar radioactivity is that of 1.809 MeV gamma-rays from 26 Al. This discovery has many implications, some of which are outlined here. The whole problem of isotopic anomalies in meteorites is greatly influenced by the specific issues surrounding excess 26 Mg, whether it represents in situ decay of 26 Al or memory of conditions of the ISM. The relationships among these ideas and their implications are examined. (orig.)

  11. Kerja Perspektif Al-Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The moslem ethics of life is based on movement as ex­pressed in certain terms like al-sharī’ah, al-tarīqah, al-sirāt, al-sabīl and al-manhaj, that make sense of way and teachings to achieve good life. Islam obliges and gives appreciation of the achievements of Mus­lims. The Qur’an uses several terms to refer to such work; ‘charity, kasb, juhd, ibtighâ’, sa ’yu and su ’âl. From this concept, the Qur’an considers work as nob­le, while begging is despicable. Work means thankful to God for the potential He bestows. The Qur’an promotes work not only because it is the way to achieve the wealth, but also because it possesses the its sacred value for the benefit of fulfilling livelihood. Therefore the work should also be done based on ethical values .

  12. Neuropsychoanalyse: Hirntätigkeit als Zeichenprozess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Scheidegger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fassen wir Geist und Natur nicht als Dichotomie sondern im Sinne von Peirce als Kontinuität auf, dann lässt die genauere Betrachtung des Körpers semiotische Leibphänomene als Zeichen einer Sprache erkennen, deren Grammatik es – im Sinne einer «Bioarchäologie» – zu entschlüsseln gilt. Hierfür stellen die Neurowissenschaften mit modernen Visualisierungstechniken geeignete epistemische Hilfsmittel bereit: Sie machen körperliche Vorgänge des Informationsaustausches sichtbar und heben die semiotisch wenig erschlossene Ebene komplexer neuronaler Zeichentransformationen ans Licht. Um eine Integration der physiologischen und psychologischen Perspektive bemüht sich das transdisziplinäre Projekt der «Neuropsychoanalyse». Sie hebt die Relevanz natürlicher Verarbeitungsmechanismen des Körpers für die subjektiv geprägten Zeichentransformationen des mentalen Erlebens hervor und weicht eine semiotisch allzu undurchlässige Grenzziehung zwischen Psycho- und Neurodynamik etwas auf. Die Hirntätigkeit als potenziell erkenntnisleitenden Zeichenprozess zu verstehen, darf aber nicht in einer unreflektierten Bezugnahme auf neuronale Zeichensysteme münden, wenn die Neuropsychoanalyse mehr als nur eine medienwirksame Neurokarikatur psychodynamischer Konzepte erreichen will.

  13. Threshold states in /sup 26/Al revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, A E; McDonald, A B; Wang, T F; Howard, A J; Magnus, P V; Parker, P D

    1986-03-31

    Threshold states in /sup 26/Al have been re-examined using the /sup 27/Al(/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 26/Al and /sup 25/Mg(/sup 3/He,d..gamma..)/sup 26/Al reactions in order to resolve apparent ambiguities in some of the previously reported properties of these states. In particular, the s-wave resonance strength reported at E=37 keV is now found to be located at E/sub c.m./=57.54 keV, and the proton width for the 374 keV resonance has been revised to GAMMA/sub p/=0.82 eV. These results have been used to calculate a new resonance strength of ..omega gamma..= 1.6 x 10/sup -13/ eV for the 57.54 keV resonance. As a result, the stellar production rate for /sup 26/Al is increased by a factor approx.=3-38 for temperatures T/sub 9/=0.05-0.1.

  14. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO, XIAOMIN; OH, SOON-HWAN; HOYER, LOIS L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  15. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  16. Polimorfismos en la longitud de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP´s) a partir de muestras de sangre almacenadas en tarjetas FTA® para la especie Cavia porcellus Lin. (Rodentia: Caviidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos-Paz, William; Rosero-Galindo, Carol; Cárdenas-Henao, Heiber; Solarte-Portilla, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Una manera eficaz de establecer el grado de variabilidad entre y dentro de poblaciones, es a través del análisis de polimorfismos de ADN con marcadores moleculares como los AFLP`s. En este artículo se presenta una metodología que combina la utilización de tarjetas de FTA® (Whatman Bioscience, Cambridge) para colección y conservación de muestras de sangre, con los procedimientos de extracción de ADN y obtención de marcadores AFLP´s, aspectos sobre los cuales no existen antecedentes para la esp...

  17. Ultrasonic spot welding of Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macwan, A.; Patel, V.K.; Jiang, X.Q.; Li, C.; Bhole, S.D.; Chen, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal welding condition is achieved at 100 J and 0.1 s. • Failure load first increases and then decreases with increasing welding energy. • The highest failure load after welding is close to that of the clad sheets. • At low energy levels failure occurs in the mode of interfacial failure. • At high energy levels failure takes place at the edge of nugget region. - Abstract: Solid-state ultrasonic spot welding (USW) was used to join Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets, aiming at exploring weldability and identifying failure mode in relation to the welding energy. It was observed that the application of a low welding energy of 100 J was able to achieve the optimal welding condition during USW at a very short welding time of 0.1 s for the tri-layered clad sheets. The optimal lap shear failure load obtained was equivalent to that of the as-received Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets. With increasing welding energy, the lap shear failure load initially increased and then decreased after reaching a maximum value. At a welding energy of 25 J, failure occurred in the mode of interfacial failure along the center Al/Al weld interface due to insufficient bonding. At a welding energy of 50 J, 75 J and 100 J, failure was also characterized by the interfacial failure mode, but it occurred along the Al/Mg clad interface rather than the center Al/Al weld interface, suggesting stronger bonding of the Al/Al weld interface than that of the Al/Mg clad interface. The overall weld strength of the Al/Mg/Al tri-layered clad sheets was thus governed by the Al/Mg clad interface strength. At a welding energy of 125 J and 150 J, thinning of weld nugget and extensive deformation at the edge of welding tip caused failure at the edge of nugget region, leading to a lower lap shear failure load

  18. Core electron binding energy shifts of AlBr3 and Al2Br6 vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Astrid M.; Plenge, Juergen; Leone, Stephen R.; Canton, Sophie E.; Rude, Bruce S.; Bozek, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The Al 2p and Br 3d inner-shell photoelectron spectra of aluminum tribromide monomer and dimer vapor were measured at 90 and 95 eV photon energy, respectively, to determine the core electron binding energies of the atoms in the two molecular species. While AlBr 3 has three identical Br atoms, Al 2 Br 6 exhibits four terminal and two bridging Br atoms. The species are identified by their distinct valence photoelectron spectra. Comparison of the observed Al 2p 1/2 and Al 2p 3/2 electron binding energies of AlBr 3 with those of Al 2 Br 6 shows that there is a chemical shift of (0.15 ± 0.03) eV to lower energy in the dimer. In Al 2 Br 6 , an assignment is proposed in which the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of terminal Br atoms are (1.18 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms. This assignment assumes that both types of Br atoms have similar cross-sections for ionization. With this result, the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of Br atoms in AlBr 3 are (0.81 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms of the dimer but (0.37 ± 0.03) eV higher than those of terminal Br atoms of the dimer. The obtained chemical shifts are considered in terms of the binding relations and electron density distributions in both molecules. Chemical shifts that are larger than a few hundred millielectron volts, as observed in the Al 2 Br 6 /AlBr 3 system, offer potential to study the dissociation dynamics of the dimer in a femtosecond visible or ultraviolet-pump/XUV-probe experiment

  19. MARCADORES MOLECULARES ASOCIADOS CON RESISTENCIA A LA ENFERMEDAD PUNTA MORADA EN PAPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferm\\u00EDn Orona-Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar marcadores DNA Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPDs y Secuencias Simples Repetidas (SSR s también conocidos como Mi crosatélites asocia dos con la resistencia al daño causado por fitoplasmas en papa. Se evaluó la severidad de la punta morada de la papa (PMP y la apa rición de color pardo en el tubérculo, así como también se realizaron análisis moleculares en varie dades y líneas avanzadas de papa . El estudio se realizó en el laboratorio de biotecnología de la Facultad de Cie ncia s Biológicas de la Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León - Instituto Na cional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INI FAP, México en el 2003 y 2004. Las técnicas utilizadas fueron RAPDs y SSRs también conocido microsatélites. Tres genotip os mostraron resistencia a la apa rición del color pardo deltubérculo, mie ntras que del análisis molecular seis materia les formaron un grupo que incluyó los genotip os con valores de daño mínimos (entre uno y tres de la escala. Los genotip os restantes formaron dos grupos con presencia de color pardo en el tubérculo mayor (entre cinco y siete. Se identificaron marcadores moleculares posiblemente asocia dos con tolerancia a la coloración parda del tubérculo. En el análisis de componentes principa les y el dendograma generado los materia les que presentaron menor severidad de daño, quedaron incluidos en un mismo grupo, mie ntras que materia les con mayor severidad de daño quedaron en un grupo diferente

  20. Solute trapping of Ge in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; West, J.A.; Aziz, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on partitioning during rapid solidification of dilute Al-Ge alloys. Implanted thin films of Al have been pulsed-laser melted to obtain solidification at velocities in the range of 0.01 ms to 3.3 m/s, as measured by the transient conductance technique. Previous and subsequent Rutherford Backscattering depth profiling of the Ge solute in the Al alloys has been used to determine the nonequilibrium partition coefficient k. A significant degree of lateral film growth during solidification confines determination of k to the placing of an upper bound of 0.22 on k for solidification velocities in this range. The authors place a lower limit of 10 m/s on the diffusive velocity, which locates the transition from solute partitioning to solute trapping in the Continuous Growth Model

  1. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  2. Superbends expand the scope of Berkeley's ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Tamura, Lori S.

    2002-01-01

    While the ALS has turned out to be a world-leader in providing beams of soft X-rays -- indeed, furnishing these beams remains its core mission -- there has nonetheless been a steadily growing demand from synchrotron radiation users for harder X-rays with higher photon energies. The clamor has been strongest from protein crystallographers whose seemingly insatiable appetite for solving structures of biological macromolecules could not be satisfied by the number of crystallography beamlines available worldwide. But how to provide these X-rays in a cost-effective way without disrupting the thriving research programs of the existing ALS users was the problem. Superconducting bend magnets (superbends) provided the answer for the ALS, which adopted a proposal to replace some of the normal combined-function (gradient) magnets in the curved arcs of the storage ring with superconducting dipoles that could generate higher magnetic fields and thus synchrotron light with a higher critical energy

  3. Evaluation of Functional Disability in ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Soltan-Zadeh

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a progressive degenerative fatal disorder of motor neuron. In this research course of functional disability and possible underlying factors affecting disability were studied. Materials & Methods: First 59 patients with definite ALS were selected and for each patient ALSFRS (ALS Functional Rating Scale was determined at Initial and the end of a six month period. Results: During this period 9 patients expired. Bulbar onset localization showed a more rapid course than non-bulbar onset group. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the age group or gender with progression of disability. In expired group, mean survival in bulbar onset and older patients were significantly less than those with non-bulbar onset and younger ones. There was no significant relationship between survival and gender.

  4. Grain refinement of Al wrought alloys with newly developed AlTiC master alloys; Kornfeinung von Al-Knetlegierungen mit neu entwickelten AlTiC-Vorlegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. [Vereinigte Aluminium-Werke AG, Bonn (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung

    2000-10-01

    AlTiC master alloys are a new grain refiner type to produce an equiaxed grain structure of cast extrusion and rolling ingots. These master alloys contain Ti carbides which act as nucleants of the {alpha} solid solution during solidification. The TiC content is lower than the TiB{sub 2} content of the industrial proved AlTiB master alloys. Benefits of the AlTiC master alloys are the low agglomeration tendency of the Ti carbides in the melt and that no Zr poisoning takes place. Despite of the low Ti carbide content the grain refinement performance can be very efficient, if low melt temperatures during casting will be used and as result of this a sufficient constitutional supercooling at the solidification front is achieved. (orig.)

  5. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  6. [Al-Biruni--a universal scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujundzić, E; Masić, I

    1999-01-01

    Al-Biruni's was of Persian descent. He was born in Horesmiya and had studied mathematics, history and medicine. Acquiring knowledge from these sciences, he wrote an outstanding work on chronology of several nations and devoted it to Ziyarit ruler Kabus. He made a chronological overview of calendars from many nations, including Persians, Greeks, Egyptians, Jews, Melkitian and Nestorian Christians, Sabeyaans as well as the old Arabs. Data presented in the work, according to the later authors, were taken from very reliable sources. He was contemporary of Ibn-Sina, and thanks to their friendship, they have discussed very much miscellaneous topics. He belonged to the group of scholars, taken by Gaznevian Soultan Mahmud to a long journey to India. Afterwards Al-Biruni wrote and published detailed work "Description of India"--a work on cultural history of India. Due to excellent abilities of Al-Biruni as a philosopher and scholar, there are still significant and reliable notes about buddhistic philosophy, structure of castes and Brahmans' life style. In this Al-Biruni's masterpiece, there are many comparative analysis of Suffism and certain Indian philosophical methods. Al-Biruni's most important work is "Pharmacopoeia"--"Kitab al-saydala", which brilliantly describes all medicaments. This work has been published in many languages. He also wrote few works on astronomy and astrology. In those works he has explained some astrological events through scientific approach in a such peculiar way that nobody has ever explained before. He was also interested in sciences like geology, mineralology, geography, mathematics, psychology and many others.

  7. Instability of TiC and TiAl3 compounds in Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys by addition of Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy in refining Al-10Mg and A1-5Cu alloys was studied by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis.The results indicate that there are obvious fading phenomena in both Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys with the addition of Al-5Ti-0.4C refiner which contains TiC and TiAl3 compounds.Mg element has no influence on the stability of TiC and TiAl3, while TiC particles in Al-10Mg alloy react with Al to form Al4C3 particles, resulting in the refinement fading.However, TiC particles are relatively stable in Al-5Cu alloy, while TiAl3 phase reacts with Al2Cu to produce a new phase Ti(Al, Cu)2, which is responsible for the refinement fading in Al-5Cu alloy.These indicate that the refinement fading will not occur only when both the TiC particles and TiAl3 compound of Al-Ti-C refiner are stable in Al alloys.

  8. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced....

  9. PERFILES PROFESIONALES Y VALORES RELATIVOS AL TRABAJO

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, José Eduardo; Marcaccio, Antonela

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar la relación existente entre los valores relativos al trabajo y algunos perfiles profesionales (contabilidad y administración, marketing y ventas, y recepción). El instrumento utilizado es la Escala Argentina de Valores Relativos al Trabajo (Moreno & Marcaccio, 2012) que contiene cuatro subescalas de cinco ítems cada una, a saber: Realización Personal, Reconocimiento Social, Altruismo y Aspiraciones Económicas. La muestra incluye a 425 sujetos (40% v...

  10. Trastornos temporomandibulares en adictos al qat

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando Guerra Cobián; Raúl J Pupo Triguero; Humberto Sarracent Pérez; Kirenia M Rabilero Salgado

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: los trastornos temporomandibulares se asocian frecuentemente al hábito de masticar qat, pero se carece de estudios que detallan sus particularidades, por lo que se realiza este trabajo, con los objetivos de determinar la prevalencia de trastornos temporomandibulares en pacientes adictos al qat, identificar los hallazgos clínicos- radiográficos asociados y clasificar los trastornos temporomandibulares presentes en la población estudiada. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo...

  11. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism, autonomy and shared decision making. Finally, we review a program called ALSUntangled which using shared shared decision making to review alternative therapies for ALS. PMID:26515629

  12. Surface study and thickness control of thin Al2O3 film on Cu-9%Al(111) single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Yoshitake, Michiko; Song Weijie

    2004-01-01

    We were successful in growing a uniform flat Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al(111) surface using the improved cleaning process, low ion energy and short time sputtering. The growth of ultra-thin film of Al 2 O 3 on Cu-9%Al was investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The Al 2 O 3 film whose maximum thickness was about 4.0 nm grew uniformly on the Cu-9%Al surface. The Al and O KLL Auger peaks of Al 2 O 3 film shifted toward low kinetic energy, and the shifts were related to Schottky barrier formation and band bending at the Al 2 O 3 /Cu-9%Al interface. The thickness of Al 2 O 3 film on the Cu-9%Al surface was controlled by the oxygen exposure

  13. Isothermal cross-sections of Sr-Al-Ge and Ba-Al-Ge systems at 673 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenok, N.L.; Yanson, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray and microstructural analyses are used to study phase equilibria in Sr-Al-Ge and Ba-Al-Ge systems. Existence of SrAl 2 Ge 2 , Sr(Al, Ge) 2 Ba(Al, Ge) 2 , Sr 3 Al 2 Ge 2 , Ba 3 Al 2 Ge 2 ternary compounds is confirmed, a new BaGe 4 binary compound and also new ternary compounds of approximate composition Sr 57 Al 30 Ge 13 and Ba 20 Al 40 Ge 40 , which crystal structure is unknown, are detected. Aluminium solubility in SrAl 4 and BaAl 4 binary compounds (0.05 atomic fraction) is determined. Ba(Al, Ge) 2 compound homogeneity region is defined more exactly (aluminium content varies from 0.27 to 0.51 at. fractions)

  14. A study on preparation and hydriding of β-Mg2Al3 and γ-Mg17Al12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi Suwarno

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of the synthetic formation of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 has been studied. Mechanical alloying of Mg and Al powders with the atomic ratio of Mg:Al = 2:3 in toluene solution yields β-Mg 2 Al 3 compound after milling for 30 h. The γ-Mg 17 Al 12 can be formed by heating the β-Mg 2 Al 3 at 430°C under high vacuum. The measured hydrogen capacities of β-Mg 2 Al 3 and γ-Mg 17 Al 12 as hydride at 300°C are 3.2 and 4.9 wt%, respectively. Microstructure of the Mg-Al specimen shows that on hydriding at 300°C the polygonal shape of the γ-Mg 17 Al 12 changes into irregular shapes which are composed of γ-MgH 2 and Al. (author)

  15. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fine fibrous form (Hess and Blackmun, 1975; Dahle et al., 2005). ..... grain structure in the casting (Apelian et al., 1984), which in turn are supported in the present work by a decreased ..... Liao H., Zhang M., Wu Q., Wang H. and Sun G., 2007.

  16. Preparation, deformation, and failure of functional Al-Sn and Al-Sn-Pb nanocrystalline alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskova, N. I.; Vil'Danova, N. F.; Filippov, Yu. I.; Churbaev, R. V.; Pereturina, I. A.; Korshunov, L. G.; Korznikov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in the structure, hardness, mechanical properties, and friction coefficient of Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb (wt %) alloys subjected to severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing (with a force of 40 tonne) and by shear at a pressure of 5 GPa have been studied. The transition into the nanocrystalline state was shown to occur at different degrees of plastic deformation. The hardness exhibits nonmonotonic variations, namely, first it increases and subsequently decreases. The friction coefficient of the Al-30% Sn, Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys quenched from the melt was found to be 0.33; the friction coefficients of these alloys in the submicrocrystalline state (after equal-channel angular pressing) equal 0.24, 0.32, and 0.35, respectively. The effect of disintegration into nano-sized powders was found to occur in the Al-15% Sn-25% Pb, and Al-5% Sn-35% Pb alloys after severe plastic deformation to ɛ = 6.4 and subsequent short-time holding.

  17. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouari Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, and less agglomerated and had good adhesion to the matrix in composites containing 1 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNT content to 2 wt.% led to the formation of CNT clusters which resulted in less uniform and homogenous composite powders. Almost full densification of Al6061 reinforced with CNTs was achieved at 500°C. Also, CNTs reinforced Al2124 nanocomposites reached very high densities at 500°C. Composites reinforced with 1 wt.% CNTs displayed better densification compared to composites containing 2 wt.% CNTs. The increase of CNTs content from 0.5 to 1 wt.% increased the hardness of the Al6061 and Al2124 alloys to maximum values. Further increase of CNTs content to 2 wt.% decreased the hardness to values lower than that of the monolithic alloys.

  18. Al-muammar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF ADEWUNMI

    Al-muammar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2016) 13(1):17- .... Feed and water were provided ad libitum for one week before the start of experiment for adaptation. The basal .... The mean value of feed intake (g/day/rat) for all treated groups was slightly reduced as compared to the negative control group. On the.

  19. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherafat, Z.; Paydar, M.H.; Ebrahimi, R.; Sohrabi, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material were investigated. The two-phase materials were fabricated by mixing commercially pure Al powder with Al7075 chips and consolidating the mixture through hot extrusion process at 500 o C. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of the fabricated samples were evaluated using tensile and compression tests. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the fracture surface of the samples including different amount of Al powder, after they were fractured in tensile test. The results of the tensile and compression tests showed that with decreasing the amount of Al powder, the strength increases and ductility decreases. Calculation of work hardening exponent (n) indicated that deformation behavior does not follow a regular trend. In a way that the n value was approved to be variable and a strong function of strain and Al powder wt% of the sample. The results of the fractography studies indicate that the type of fracture happened changes from completely ductile to nearly brittle by decreasing the wt% of Al powder from 90% to 40%.

  20. Surface modified Al2O3 in fluorinated polyimide/Al2O3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    guest group into a host structure without a major struc- tural modification of the ... on nano-structure size (Li et al 2009). Among ... naocomposite by the decrease of interfacial areas between ... pling agent which usually has a long alkyl tail shows a good ... the mechanical and thermal properties of polymers (Li et al. 2010).

  1. The ALS-FTD-Q: A new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; Van den Berg, L.H.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; de Visser, M.; de Haan, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  2. The ALS-FTD-Q: a new screening tool for behavioural disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; van den Berg, L.H.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; de Visser, M.; de Haan, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  3. The ALS-FTD-Q A new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, Joost; Beeldman, Emma; Schmand, Ben; Berkhout, Joris; Linssen, Wim H. J. P.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.; Grupstra, Hepke F.; Weikamp, Janneke G.; Schelhaas, H. Jurgen; Papma, Janne M.; van Swieten, John C.; de Visser, Marianne; de Haan, Rob J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  4. The ALS-FTD-Q: a new screening tool for behavioral disturbances in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Beeldman, E.; Schmand, B.A.; Berkhout, J.; Linssen, W.H.J.P.; Berg, L.H. van den; Pijnenburg, Y.A.; Grupstra, H.F.; Weikamp, J.G.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Papma, J.M.; van Swieten, J.C.; Visser, M. de; Haan, R.J. de

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The assessment of behavioral disturbances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is important because of the overlap with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (ALS-bvFTD). Motor symptoms and dysarthria are not taken into account in currently used behavioral questionnaires. We

  5. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  6. Direct observations of grain boundary phenomena during indentation of Al and Al-Mg thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, WA; De Hosson, JTM; Minor, AM; Stach, EA; Morris, Joan K.; Corcoran, SG; Joo, YC; Moody, NR; Suo, Z

    2004-01-01

    The deformation behaviour of Al and Al-Mg thin films has been studied with the unique experimental approach of in-situ nanoindentation in a transmission electron microscope. This paper concentrates on the role of solute Mg additions in the transfer of plasticity across grain boundaries. The

  7. Burden of rare variants in ALS genes influences survival in familial and sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Teo, Kay-Cheong; Li, Yan; Kung, Michelle H W; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Li, Miaoxin; Sham, Pak-Chung; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variants are implicated in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it is unclear whether the burden of rare variants in ALS genes has an effect on survival. We performed whole genome sequencing on 8 familial ALS (FALS) patients with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation and whole exome sequencing on 46 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients living in Hong Kong and found that 67% had at least 1 rare variant in the exons of 40 ALS genes; 22% had 2 or more. Patients with 2 or more rare variants had lower probability of survival than patients with 0 or 1 variant (p = 0.001). After adjusting for other factors, each additional rare variant increased the risk of respiratory failure or death by 60% (p = 0.0098). The presence of the rare variant was associated with the risk of ALS (Odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.61, p = 0.03), and ALS patients had higher rare variant burden than controls (MB, p = 0.004). Our findings support an oligogenic basis with the burden of rare variants affecting the development and survival of ALS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. First-principles study of L10 Ti-Al and V-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, S.R.; Papaconstantopoulos, D.A.; Klein, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    As a first step towards understanding the reduced embrittlement of L1 0 Ti-Al alloys which accompanies the introduction of small concentrations of V, we have determined from first principles, using full-potential linearized--augmented-plane-wave calculations, the equilibrium values of the structural parameters and the associated electronic structure for the stoichiometric (L1 0 ) Ti-Al (tetragonal) compound. Our calculated values of c/a and a are in good agreement with experiment. Using the same method of calculation, we have also studied the electronic structure associated with the (hypothetical) L1 0 V-Al alloy that would form when V is substituted for Ti. We find that (1) the electronic structures of these V-Al alloys are relatively insensitive to variations of c/a and a; (2) near the Ti-Al equilibrium geometry, the electronic structures of the V-Al and Ti-Al alloys are very similar; and (3) that a rigid-band model involving substitution of V for Ti can be used to gain a qualitative understanding of the reduction in c/a which accompanies the introduction of small concentrations of V. We relate the reduction in c/a to important changes in the bonding that accompany the occupation of bands immediately above the Fermi level of the stoichiometric Ti-Al compound

  9. NEK1 genetic variability in a Belgian cohort of ALS and ALS-FTD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung Phuoc; Van Mossevelde, Sara; Dillen, Lubina; De Bleecker, Jan L; Moisse, Matthieu; Van Damme, Philip; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; van der Zee, Julie

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated the genetic impact of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk gene never in mitosis gene a-related kinase 1 (NEK1) in a Belgian cohort of 278 patients with ALS (n = 245) or ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD, n = 33) and 609 control individuals. We identified 2 ALS patients carrying a loss-of-function (LOF) mutation, p.Leu854Tyrfs*2 and p.Tyr871Valfs*17, that was absent in the control group. A third LOF variant p.Ser1036* was present in 2 sibs with familial ALS but also in an unrelated control person. Missense variants were common in both patients (3.6%) and controls (3.0%). The missense variant, p.Arg261His, which was previously associated with ALS risk, was detected with a minor allele frequency of 0.90% in patients compared to 0.33% in controls. Taken together, NEK1 LOF variants accounted for 1.1% of patients, although interpretation of pathogenicity and penetrance is complicated by the observation of occasional LOF variants in unaffected individuals (0.16%). Furthermore, enrichment of additional ALS gene mutations was observed in NEK1 carriers, suggestive of a "second hit" model were NEK1 variants may modify disease presentation of driving mutations. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Genyornis Egg: Response to Miller et al.'s commentary on Grellet-Tinner et al., 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Spooner, Nigel A.; Handley, Warren D.; Worthy, Trevor H.

    2017-04-01

    Williams (1981) and Williams and Rich (1991) attributed Australian Quaternary fossil eggshell that differed from that of emu Dromaius novaehollandiae to the extinct bird Genyornis newtoni without any osteological or embryonic support. Such association by proximity or abundance mirrors the case of the mistaken association of oviraptor eggs to Protoceratops in the 1920's by Andrews (Grellet-Tinner and Makovicky, 2006). No other candidate species was considered, and this attribution has been unchallenged and followed by everyone thereafter. Much research has been done on this Australian eggshell, with one result being that the extinction of the parent of this eggshell is the most well documented for a taxon in Australia (e.g., Miller et al., 1999, 2005). Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016) raised several problems with the identity of the eggshell Williams (1981) attributed to Genyornis newtoni and suggested that extinct megapodes of the genus Progura were the more likely layer of this eggshell type, therein referred to as ;putative Genyornis oological material; (PGOM). Miller et al. (2017) challenged our hypothesis stating that ;Based on the dimensions of the reconstructed Spooner Egg,Grellet-Tinner et al. (2016)argue that PGOM is too small for a bird with the body mass estimated for Genyornis (168-275 kg) … …[and] …. None of the additional PGOM observations reported byGrellet-Tinner et al. (2016)are inconsistent with a Genyornis parent;. Here we take the opportunity to respond to their critique, the basis of which resolves into a few points, which we address in turn.

  11. Fluctuations of charge variance and interaction time for dissipative processes in 27 Al + 27 Al collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceanu, I.; Andronic, A.; Duma, M.

    1999-01-01

    The systematic studies of dissipative processes in light systems were completed with experiments dedicated to the measurement of the excitation functions in 19 F + 27 Al and 27 Al + 27 Al systems in order to obtain deeper insight on DNS configuration and its time evolution. The excitation function for 19 F + 27 Al system evidenced fluctuations larger than the statistical errors. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients supported their non-statistical nature. The energy dependence of second order observables, namely the second moment of the charge distribution and the product ω·τ (ω - the angular velocity of the DNS and τ its mean lifetime) extracted from the angular distributions were studied for 19 F + 27 Al case. In this contribution we are reporting the preliminary results of similar studies performed for 27 Al + 27 Al case. The variance of the charge distribution were obtained fitting the experimental charge distribution with a Gaussian centered on Z = 13 and the product ω·τ was extracted from the angular distributions. The results for 19 F + 27 Al case are confirmed by a preliminary analysis of the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system. The charge variance and ω·τ excitation functions for Z = 11 fragment are represented together with the excitation function of the cross section. One has to mention that the data for 27 Al + 27 Al system were not corrected for particle evaporation processes. The effect of the evaporation corrections on the excitation function was studied using a Monte Carlo simulation. The α particle evaporation was also included and the evaluation of the particle separation energies was made using experimental masses of the fragments. The excitation functions for 27 Al + 27 Al system for primary and secondary fragments were simulated. No structure due to particle evaporation was observed. The correlated fluctuations in σ Z and ω·τ excitation functions support a stochastic exchange of nucleons as the main mechanism for

  12. 26Mg(p,n)26Al and 23Na(α,n)26Al reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Cross sections for the 26 Mg(p,n) 26 Al reaction were measured from threshold at 4.988 MeV to 5.820 MeV. Cross sections for the 23 Na(α,n) 26 Al reaction were measured from threshold at 3.483 MeV to 4.597 MeV. In each case, separate measurements were to the ground state and to the first and second excited states of 26 Al. Cross sections for the inverse reactions were calculated and reaction rate factors relating to the destruction of 26 Al in a supernova environment were determined. Astrophysical implications relating to the observation of live and extinct 26 Al are discussed. Excitation functions for several additional exit channels for the 26 Mg + rho and 23 Na + α reactions are reported

  13. Grain refinement of 7075Al alloy microstructures by inoculation with Al-Ti-B master alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotea, V.; Juhasz, J.; Cadar, F.

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to bring some clarification on grain refinement and modification of high strength alloys used in aerospace technique. In this work it was taken into account 7075 Al alloy, and the melt treatment was carried out by placing in the form of master alloy wire ternary AlTiB the casting trough at 730°C. The morphology of the resulting microstructures was characterized by optical microscopy. Micrographs unfinished and finished with pre-alloy containing ternary Al5Ti1B evidence fine crystals, crystal containing no columnar structure and highlights the size of the dendrites, and intermetallic phases occurring at grain boundaries in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. It has been found that these intermetallic compounds are MgZn2 type. AlTiB master alloys finishing ensures a fine eutectic structure, which determines the properties of hardware and improving the mechanical properties of aluminum alloys used in aeronautical engineering.

  14. Al2O3 adherence on CoCrAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, L.M.

    1980-04-01

    Adherence of protective oxides on NiCrAl and CoCrAl superalloys has been promoted by a dispersion of a highly oxygen reactive element or its oxide being produced within the protection system. Two aspects of this subject are investigated here: the use of Al 2 O 3 as both the dispersion and protective oxide; and the production of an HfO 2 dispersion while simultaneously aluminizing the alloy. It was found that an Al 2 O 3 dispersion will act to promote the adherence of an external scale of Al 2 O 3 to a degree comparable to previously tested dispersions and an HfO 2 dispersion comparable to that produced by a Rhines pack treatment is produced during aluminization

  15. Production of 26Al by spallation of Fe, Si, Al nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, P.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for 7 Be, 10 Be and 26 Al formation in Al, Si and Fe targets bombarded with 0.6 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation and low level background counters. Results for 26 Al at 0.6GeV are in mb: 17.9 + or - 2.7 in Al, 12.5 + or - 2.5 in Si and 0.45 + or - 0.14 in Fe; at 24GeV 2.6 + or - 0.5mb in Fe. Results for 10 Be are not valid on account of experimental difficulties. It is deduced from these values of aluminium in cosmic ray propagation that 26 Al is not yet cosmic ray chronometer [fr

  16. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, A.; Flouquet, J.; Palleau, J.; Buevoz, J.L.

    1979-08-01

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al 3 Ce and Al 11 Ce 3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al 3 Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al 3 Ce. For Al 11 Ce 3 , two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  17. Phase constituents and microstructure of laser cladding Al2O3/Ti3Al reinforced ceramic layer on titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianing; Chen Chuanzhong; Lin Zhaoqing; Squartini, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → In this study, Fe 3 Al has been chosen as cladding powder due to its excellent properties of wear resistance and high strength, etc. → Laser cladding of Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrate can form the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer, which can increase wear resistance of substrate. → In cladding process, Al 2 O 3 can react with TiB 2 leading to formation of Ti 3 Al and B. → This principle can be used to improve the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 laser-cladded coating. - Abstract: Laser cladding of the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 pre-placed alloy powder on Ti-6Al-4V alloy can form the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer, which can greatly increase wear resistance of titanium alloy. In this study, the Ti 3 Al/Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 /Al 2 O 3 ceramic layer has been researched by means of electron probe, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and micro-analyzer. In cladding process, Al 2 O 3 can react with TiB 2 leading to formation of amount of Ti 3 Al and B. This principle can be used to improve the Fe 3 Al + TiB 2 laser cladded coating, it was found that with addition of Al 2 O 3 , the microstructure performance and micro-hardness of the coating was obviously improved due to the action of the Al-Ti-B system and hard phases.

  18. The Existence of a Designer Al=Al Double Bond in the LiAl2 H4- Cluster Formed by Electronic Transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Katie A; Zhang, Xinxing; Boldyrev, Alexander I; Bowen, Kit H

    2017-12-22

    The Al=Al double bond is elusive in chemistry. Herein we report the results obtained via combined photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio studies of the LiAl 2 H 4 - cluster that confirm the formation of a conventional Al=Al double bond. Comprehensive searches for the most stable structures of the LiAl 2 H 4 - cluster have shown that the global minimum isomer I possesses a geometric structure which resembles that of Si 2 H 4 , demonstrating a successful example of the transmutation of Al atoms into Si atoms by electron donation. Theoretical simulations of the photoelectron spectrum discovered the coexistence of two isomers in the ion beam, including the one with the Al=Al double bond. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, Maria I.; Fernandez, Julian R.; Monti, Ana M.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo 3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, Al Mo and Mo Al , as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair Al Mo +Mo Al , in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al 5 Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author) [es

  20. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  1. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering; Zupanic, F. [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-09-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation ({alpha}{sub Al}, {beta}{sub Si}, Al{sub 3}Sm, Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + {beta}{sub Si} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al{sub 3}Sm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  2. Electronic Structures and Bonding Properties of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Xinmin; REN Yi

    2007-01-01

    The relation among electronic structure, chemical bond and property of Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and doping Si into Ti2AlC was studied by density function and the discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method. After adding Si into Ti2AlC, the interaction between Si and Ti is weaker than that between Al and Ti, and the strengths of ionic and covalent bonds decrease both. The ionic and covalent bonds in Ti3AlC2, especially in Ti-Al, are stronger than those in Ti2AlC. Therefore, in synthesis of Ti2AlC, the addition of Si enhances the Ti3AlC2 content instead of Ti2AlC. The density of state (DOS) shows that there is mixed conductor characteristic in Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2. The DOS of Ti3AlC2 is much like that of Ti2AlC. Ti2SixAl1-x C has more obvious tendency to form a semiconductor than Ti2AlC, which is seen from the obvious difference of partial DOS between Si and Al3p.

  3. NMR evidence for Co-Al-Co molecular groups trapped in cages of Co4Al13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeglic, P.; Heggen, M.; Feuerbacher, M.; Bauer, B.; Gille, P.; Haarmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of 27 Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on the phase Co 4 Al 13 . These results are compared to a recent structure model [1], which demonstrates a unique bonding for Al atoms in the Co-Al-Co molecular groups. In our measurement, two 27 Al signals were identified. The first one originates from Al atoms forming cages. The second signal corresponds to Al sites with exceptionally large almost axially symmetric quadrupole coupling. This finding is in perfect agreement with isolated Co-Al-Co molecular groups in accordance to Ref. [1].

  4. Control al doping Compromiso de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Prieto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este documento da a conocer la importante noticia de la aprobación, por parte del Comité Olímpico Internacional (COl, de un laboratorio colombiano, para el control al doping, a la vez que aprovecha la oportunidad para ampliar alguna información sobre este tema.

  5. EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST BEAM-SLAB. CONSTRUCTION. Girma Zerayohannes and Adil Zekaria. Department of Civil Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The use of partially precast beam elements ivith shear connectors in slab construction relieves the requirement of ...

  6. INTERAKSI EDUKATIF MENURUT PEMIKIRAN AL-GHAZALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harizal Anhar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Education is an interaction activity between teachers and students in a classroom learning. Harmonious interaction between teachers and students greatly affect the success of learning. But in reality, the issue of today's educational interaction is less attention of the education stakeholder. The evidence is that some educators develop bad relationship with the students as being arrogant and violent means in resolving problems in the classroom. These conditions depreciate the relation between the teacher and the students in or outside the class that it is not surprising some students attack the teachers. In fact, the problem of educational interaction is not a new problem in educational world. Al-Ghazali is an Islamic education leaders who concentrated on the issue since the 5th century H. This article aims at examining a depth theory of al-Ghazali on educational interaction in a number of work related to education. This research is library research through ccontent analysis to find its relevance to the world of Islamic education at the moment. The results show that Al-Ghazali has a major contribution in developing the concept of educational interaction in Islamic education. The concept of Al-Ghazali can be reference in overcoming the problems of educational interaction nowadays through an approach which is in line with the the latest developments.

  7. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  8. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  9. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  10. Niedermolekulare Verbindungen aus Spinnen als chemische Sensoren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Christian Adam; Kristensen, Anders S.; Strømgaard, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    sie als Leitstrukturen für die Entwicklung, Synthese und biologische Untersuchung synthetischer Analoga verwendet. Weit weniger erforscht sind hingegen Verbindungen, die der Kommunikation von Spinnen dienen. Vor kurzem wurden jedoch auf dem Gebiet der Pheromone und Allomone aus Spinnen neue...

  11. Olawumi et al., Afr. J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    2011-08-31

    Aug 31, 2011 ... Consequently pathogen reduction using riboflavin and UV light, which is a method by which infectious pathogens, including plasmodium in blood for transfusion are inactivated by adding riboflavin and irradiating with UV light , is another effort in transfusion medicine to ensure blood safety. (Hardwick et al,.

  12. Studentopinie als onderdeel van Cursuskwaliteit : Quickscan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, Hanny; Groenewoud, Jan; Ike, Paul; Loth, Betram; Reitsma, Sieuwke; Schotanus, Janke; Schuurman, Mieke; Steur, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    In het kader van dit onderzoek is een quickscan (15 vragen) opgesteld met als doel die informatie te verzamelen die nodig is om een eerste indicatie te krijgen van de kwaliteit van een cursus (vak). De quickscan is gebaseerd op literatuuronderzoek en best practices van de faculteiten van de

  13. 68 - 75 Galadanchi et al.c

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Restricted HartreeFock (RHF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies were carried out on the organic semi ... arrays), organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells and low-cost devices (Kitamura,Arakawa, 2008;. Hwan et al.2004; Byoungnan,2008). Organic semiconductors are materials with semiconducting.

  14. Al Qaeda: Profile and Threat Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    .... interests abroad, and against Western countries. But many believe that the Al Qaeda organization and its leadership are no longer as relevant to assessing the global Islamic terrorist threat as they were on September 11, 2001. Some believe U.S...

  15. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications for Duty-Free Entry of Electron Microscopes This is a decision consolidated pursuant to Section 6(c) of the Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Materials Importation Act of...

  16. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Investment Company Act Release No. 29828; File No. 812-13922] Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of the Investment Company...

  17. Correction to Rothermund et al. (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk; De Houwer, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This article reports an error in the article "Retrieval of Incidental Stimulus-Response Associations as a Source of Negative Priming" by Rothermund et al. ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," Vol 31(3) May 2005, 482-495). Table 1 (p. 484) was incorrectly typeset. The correct layout is provided. (The following…

  18. Kinematics of Disease Progression in Bulbar ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Green, Jordan R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ball, Laura J.; Pattee, Gary L.; Zinman, Lorne

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the deterioration of lip and jaw movements during speech longitudinally in three individuals diagnosed with bulbar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was motivated by the need to understand the relationship between physiologic changes in speech movements and clinical measures of speech…

  19. Uses of a Myth: al-Andalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Fanjul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the Spanish press treatment of the Muslim world reflects a change of tone from unsympathetic to enthusiastic, although the information is still marred by confusion and ignorance. This change of attitude has occurred in other Western countries as well, and it is due in part to immigration trends, control over oil resources, and the relativism of official discourses towards the Third World. In the case of Spain, however, there is an additional internal element at play: the mass-media reinvention of a mythical al-Andalus as a tolerant and pluralistic society. This idealized interpretation of seven centuries of Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula is fraught with ignorance and distortion of the historical record but is not new. The mystification of al-Andalus has its precedent in romantic accounts that saw in “Muslim Spain” a differential fact that reinforced the exotic image of the country. It can be attributed also to the strategy to “hispanicize” al-Andalus employed by Arabists and historians to make the subject matter appealing to unsympathetic Spanish audiences conditioned by the myth of the Reconquest. Intended or not, the manipulation of the myth of al-Andalus as a historical fact has ideological and political implications that demand an objective and balanced consideration.

  20. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  1. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales H, A.; Zarate M, J.; Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO 3 :Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2μm were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO 3 :Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO 3 :Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  2. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, S.F.

    1997-01-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al 2 O 3 , or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na + ions. The loading of SiC or Al 2 O 3 particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  3. 1 ITALIAN COLONISATION & LIBYAN RESISTANCE THE AL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    ... was conquered and pacified by European arms, ensuring caravans could travel .... eventually attacked the Order (at Qiru) in 1902 (at which time al-Mahdi passed ... Ottoman rule was nominal, with real power in the hands of the local rulers ...

  4. Una ventana al mundo de Kafka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Sánchez Medina

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available

    COMENTARIO AL LIBRO " EL MUNDO PSICOLÓGICO DE KAFKA" POR EL ACADÉMICO ADOLFO DE FRANCISCO ZEA.

     

    Fui invitado en forma comedida, por el doctor Adolfo De Francisco, para comentar su obra: "El Mundo Psicológico de Kafka". Respondí que no era literato y menos crítico de Kafka. Sin embargo, acepté
    hacerlo siendo consciente de las limitaciones que me acompañan y para las que pido de todos ustedes su consideración. Tenía sí el deseo al reto de lo incógnito.
    Además sus argumentos fueron contundentes, pues se referían al compromiso con la Academia y, sin decírmelo, era también con él en nuestra historia compartida. Mis motivaciones y expectativas personales conscientes eran múltiples para sumergirme en sus ideas que mueven el espíritu desde la piel a lo trascendente, de lo interno a lo externo y viceversa, y en que cada palabra puede ser objeto de análisis profundo, pues esa es su esencia. Por ejemplo cuando el doctor De Francisco se refiere a la sublimación y a la estética, a la política, a la religiosidad, a la burguesía, al campesinado, a la nobleza, al absolutismo, al arte o a la historia, a la cosmovisión sociológica y literaria, al psicoanálisis para afrontar la realidad interna y externa, entonces el autor penetra en el mundo de la fantasía y del psiquismo, para entender el simbolismo implícito de Kafka.
    Las motivaciones personales inconscientes, pertenecen a las tendencias irracionales de hundirme en espacios complejos para luego intentar'ordenarlos; en medio está
    la contratransferencia que me une con el autor Adolfo De Francisco y otra la que se refiere a la temática kafkiana...

  5. Study of the 27Al(n,2,)26Al reaction via accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.

    2000-06-01

    The excitation function for the 27 Al(n,2n) 26 Al reaction is expected to show a strongly non-linear behavior in the neutron-energy region around 14 MeV, the neutron energy in D-T plasmas; thus the production rate of 26 Al (t 1/2 =7.2*10 5 a) in D-T fusion environments can in principle be used to measure the temperature of such plasmas. Existing measurements, however, are strongly discordant. Therefore, a new accurate measurement of the 27 Al(n,2n) 26 Al cross sections in the near threshold region (E n =13.5-14.8 MeV) was performed with the goal to achieve relative cross sections with the highest accuracy possible. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, as absolute cross sections are important for radioactive waste predictions. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (E th =13.55 MeV) at the Radiuminstitutes of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, and in Tokai-mura, Japan. In Tuebingen irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed. The amount of 26 Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). This work represents the first 26 Al measurements for this new facility. With this system, a background as low as 3*10 -15 for 26 Al/ 27 Al isotope ratios was obtained, corresponding to a (n,2n) cross section of 0.04 mb. Utilizing AMS, cross sections with much higher precision and considerably closer to the threshold than in previous investigations could be measured. The prerequisite for its application as a temperature monitor, namely a very well known shape of the excitation function was met. A quantitative prediction of the sensitivity of this method for monitoring the temperature in a D-T fusion plasma was therefore possible. For thermal plasmas temperature changes in the order of 5 to 15 % should be detectable. An even higher sensitivity was found

  6. Efecto del número de aplicaciones de cloprostenol sobre la regresión de cuerpos lúteos, el retorno al celo y la ovulación, después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en donantes de embriones bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Cabra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la respuesta de la aplicación doble o triple de prostaglandina sobre la regresión de CL, ovulación y retorno al celo después de un tratamiento superovulatorio en vacas donantes de embriones. Para este experimento se tomaron 44 vacas asignadas al azar a dos grupos de tratamiento. Al primero (n = 23; CLO 0 & 7 se le aplicó una dosis de 500 μg de cloprostenol los días 0 (denominado día de la colecta y 7; al segundo grupo (n = 21; CLO 0, 1 & 7 se le aplicó una inyección adicional el día 1. Los animales fueron examinados por ultrasonografía los días 0, 4, 7, 10 y 13 para evaluar la regresión de cuerpos lúteos y la ovulación. Se realizó observación del celo dos veces al día (mañana y tarde. El 60,8 y 52,3% de los grupos CLO 0 & 7 y CLO 0, 1 & 7, respectivamente, presentaron signos de celo. No se presentaron diferencias en el día del celo entre los grupos (7,2 ± 0,3, 7,3 ± 0,5 días. Tampoco hubo diferencia para la variable ovulación (8,5 ± 0,9 y 9,8± 0,9 días. Todas las vacas tratadas regresaron los cuerpos lúteos antes de finalizar el experimento. Cuando se analizó el tiempo de ovulación, se encontró que las vacas con 4 o menos cuerpos lúteos ovulan en un tiempo menor (P < 0,01 que las vacas con 5 o más cuerpos lúteos. Se concluye que no hay diferencia entre la doble o triple aplicación de cloprostenol para las variables. Sería innecesaria una aplicación adicional de cloprostenol el día 7.

  7. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  8. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun, E-mail: forsjun@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Zhang, Qiwu, E-mail: zhangqw@whut.edu.cn [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 China (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH){sub 3}) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  9. Mechanochemical synthesis of Cu-Al and methyl orange intercalated Cu-Al layered double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Chen, Min; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a mechanochemical route to synthesize a Cu-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) and a methyl orange (MO) intercalated one (MO-LDH) was introduced, in which basic cupric carbonate (Cu_2(OH)_2CO_3) and aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)_3) with Cu/Al molar ratio at 2/1 was first dry ground for 2 h and then agitated in water or methyl orange solution for another 4 h to obtain the LDH and MO-LDH products without any heating operation. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products showed high crystallinity phase of Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH with no evident impurities, proving that the craft introduced here was facile and effective. The new idea can be applied in other fields to produce organic-inorganic composites. - Highlights: • A facile mechanochemical route to synthesize Cu-Al and MO intercalated Cu-Al LDH. • The products possesses high crystalline of LDH phase with no impure phases. • The dry milling process induces the element substitution between the raw materials. • The agitation operation helps the grain growth of LDH.

  10. PRECIPITATION HARDENING IN B2-ORDERED NiAl BY Ni2AlTiCOMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; K. Ohishi; M. Nemoto

    2001-01-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes in B2-ordered NiAl containing fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness tests. The amount of age hardening is not large as compared to the large microstructural variations during aging. TEM observations have revealed that the L21-type Ni2AlTi precipitates keep a lattice coherency with the NiAl matrix at the beginning of aging. By longer periods of aging Ni2AlTi precipitates lose their coherency and change their morphology to the globular ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered NiAl was investigated by compression tests over the temperature range of 873-1273K. The fine precipitation of Ni2AlTi was found to enhance greatly the yield strength and the high-temperature strength is comparison with that of superalloy Mar-M200.``

  11. Superstructure formation in PrNi_2Al_3 and ErPd_2Al_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eustermann, Fabian; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Janka, Oliver; Oldenburg Univ.

    2017-01-01

    The intermetallic phase ErPd_2Al_3 was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The sample was studied by X-ray diffraction on powders and single crystals. The structure of ErPd_2Al_3 was refined from X-ray diffraction data and revealed a superstructure of PrNi_2Al_3 - a CaCu_5 derivative (P6/m, a=1414.3(1), c=418.87(3) pm wR=0.0820, 1060 F"2 values, 48 variables). The same superstructure was subsequently found for PrNi_2Al_3 (P6/m, a=1407.87(4), c=406.19(2) pm, wR=0.0499, 904 F"2 values, 47 variables). In the crystal structure, the aluminium and transition metal atoms form a polyanionic network according to [T_2Al_3]"δ"-, while rare earth atoms fill cavities within the networks. They are coordinated by six transition metal and twelve aluminum atoms. In contrast to the PrNi_2Al_3 type structure reported so far, two crystallographic independent rare-earth sites are found of which one (1b) is shifted by 1/2 z, causing a distortion in the structure along with a recoloring of the T and Al atoms in the network.

  12. Stagnation of the exploitation of Al ores and the depression of world prices of Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovský Jozef

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contribution, data on Al – a metal of the 20th century are compiled together with the problems of genesis of the Al mineral raw ma-terials as well as types of bauxite and Al-laterite deposits. Furthermore, an overview of the world exploitation of bauxite during 1935-1980 is given along with the prognoses to 2000 and present situation (1992-1996. Overviews of the production of Al follows, providing its rela-tion to the bauxite exploitation. Contrary to the prognoses, a stabilization or stagnation has been observed in the exploitation of bauxite and production of Al during nineties, which a tendency is directly reflected in the world price of this commodity. When analyzing the Al prices for a longer period, some serious deviations can be noticed, that however presently represent a long-term minimum. We hope the stagnation of the production and the price decline are only temporary and new possibilities of the utilization of Al will be found soon.

  13. Pemikiran Politik al-Shawkânî dalam Fath al-Qadîr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad b. ‘Alî Muhammad b. ‘Abd Allâh al-Shawkânî al-San‘ânî. He was born in the Hijrah in Shawkân village, Yemen on Monday 28 Dhû al-Qa‘dah 1172 H and died on Tuesday, 27 Jumâd al-Akhîr 1250 H at the age about 78 years. Al-Shawkânî grew up in the San‘a city, it is the capital of the republic of Yemen now. He study first time about religion from his father, then from renowed scholars in San‘a and its surrounding, he was known as a scolar who mastered the various branches of religious sciences. Such as tafsîr, h}adîth, fiqh, us}ûl al-fiqh, history, science of kalâm, philosophy, balâghah, mant}iq etc. the main issue in this article is how political thought in the book of tafsir Fath al-Qadîr is the work of Shawkânî. At the end of article, the authors found that the intended political thinking in the study of Fath al-Qadîr is about constitutional ideas. These ideas about the constitution is limited to the concept of leadership and deliberation, the concept of the right of citizen to obtain justice, and the concept pf the right of citizens to live association and assembly

  14. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munitz, A.; Cotler, A; Talianker, M.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x10 25 and 8x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 (E -3 s -1 . In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x10 25 thermal neutrons/m 2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of the Al-Ru system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prins, SN

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available describes the order disorder transformation with one Gibbs energy function. The RuAl6 phase was described as a stoichiometric phase and the remaining intermetallic phases (Ru4Al13, RuAl2 and Ru2Al3) were modelled with the sublattice model. The solubility...

  16. Calculation of Gibbs energy of Zr-Al-Ni, Zr-Al-Cu, Al-Ni-Cu and Zr-Al-Ni-Cu liquid alloys based on quasiregular solution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Tong, W.H.; Wang, Z.Y.

    2007-01-01

    With the effects of electronic structure and atomic size being introduced, the mixing enthalpy as well as the Gibbs energy of the ternary Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu, Zr-Ni-Al and quaternary Zr-Al-Ni-Cu systems are calculated based on quasiregular solution model. The computed results agree well with the experimental data. The sequence of Gibbs energies of different systems is: G Zr-Al-Ni-Cu Zr-Al-Ni Zr-Al-Cu Cu-Al-Ni . To Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu and Zr-Ni-Al, the lowest Gibbs energy locates in the composition range of X Zr 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.61; X Ni = 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.60 and X Zr = 0.32-0.67, X Al = 0.32-0.66, respectively. And to the Zr-Ni-Al-Cu system with 66.67% Zr, the lowest Gibbs energy is obtained in the region of X Al = 0.63-0.80, X Ni = 0.14-0.24

  17. Mechanical properties and electronic structures of Fe-Al intermetallic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, YaHui; Chong, XiaoYu; Jiang, YeHua, E-mail: jiangyehua@kmust.edu.cn; Zhou, Rong; Feng, Jing, E-mail: jingfeng@kmust.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    Using the first-principles calculations, the elastic properties, anisotropy properties, electronic structures, Debye temperature and stability of Fe-Al (Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, FeAl{sub 2}, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}) binary compounds were calculated. The formation enthalpy and cohesive energy of these Fe-Al compounds are negative, and show they are thermodynamically stable structures. Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} has the lowest formation enthalpy, which shows the Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} is the most stable of Fe-Al binary compounds. These Fe-Al compounds display disparate anisotropy due to the calculated different shape of the 3D curved surface of the Young’s modulus and anisotropic index. Fe{sub 3}Al has the biggest bulk modulus with the value 233.2 GPa. FeAl has the biggest Yong’s modulus and shear modulus with the value 296.2 GPa and 119.8 GPa, respectively. The partial density of states, total density of states and electron density distribution maps of the binary Fe-Al binary compounds are analyzed. The bonding characteristics of these Fe-Al binary compounds are mainly combination by covalent bond and metallic bonds. Meanwhile, also exist anti-bond effect. Moreover, the Debye temperatures and sound velocity of these Fe-Al compounds are explored.

  18. High temperature properties of the Cr-Nb-Al-N coatings with increasing Al contents

    OpenAIRE

    Li, W. Z.; Polcar, T.; Evaristo, M.; Cavaleiro, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cr-Nb-Al-N coatings with Al content from 0 to 12 at.% were deposited by d.c. reactive magnetron sputtering. The coatings were annealed in protective atmosphere at 800 and 900 °C for 1 h and exposed to air at 800, 900 and 1200 °C for different times. The chemical composition, structure, microstructure, hardness and adhesive/cohesive strength of the coatings, in as-deposited and annealed conditions, were investigated and the oxidation resistance was evaluated. As expected, the Al content increa...

  19. Structure of 26Al studied by one - nucleon transfer reaction 27Al(d,t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The excited states of 26Al have been produced and studied using 27Al(d,t reaction with 25 MeV deuteron as projectile. Optical model potential parameters were extracted from the measured elastic scattering angular distribution. Zero range distorted wave Born approximation analysis for the ground and 0.223 MeV states of 26Al have been done. The spectroscopic factors calculated for these states are found to be in good agreement with the previously reported values.

  20. ITIJAHAT KAUN AL-NABI WA AL-RASUL FI SYAKHSIYAH MUHAMMAD FI NATSR MAULID AL-BARZANJI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmah Istomah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of human personalities is humanist. Based on the understanding of Maslow’s theory of motivation, researcher seeks to uncover kinds of motivational needs of Muhammad Saw contained in Maulid Al-Barzanjiy (the work of Ja 'far bin Hasan al-Barzanji (d. 1763 M. The goal is realized through a descriptive qualitative approach with  text analysis  about Psycholiterature of Endraswara. The results of this study indicate that in Maulid Al-Barzanji there are Muhammad Saw’s five needs and how their satisfying perfectly,  namely: physiological needs, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. Thus, it can be interpreted that Muhammad SAW as an ordinary human having motivational needs. His prophetic and apostleship honor is not a direct blessing from Allah, but he had been through some complicated processes in life. This can be applied by his followers, so they can complete their motivational needs to reach the satiation as a caliph and to be useful person in this world.

  1. Solidification processing of intermetallic Nb-Al alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Preston P.; Oliver, Ben F.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    1992-01-01

    Several Nb-Al alloys, including single-phase NbAl3 and the eutectic of Nb2Al and NbAl3, were prepared either by nonconsumable arc melting in Ar or by zone processing in He following initial induction melting and rod casting, and the effect of the solidification route on the microstructure and room-temperature mechanical properties of these alloys was investigated. Automated control procedures and melt conditions for directional solidification of NbAl3 and the Nb2Al/Nb3Al eutectic were developed; high purity and stoichiometry were obtained. The effects of ternary additions of Ti and Ni are described.

  2. Environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 张瑞林; S.H.YU; 余瑞璜

    1996-01-01

    First,it is proposed that hydrogen atoms occupy the interstitial sites in Fe3Al and FeAl.Then the environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys is studied in the light of calculated valence electron structures and bond energy of Fe3Al and FeAl containing hydrogen atoms.From the analyses it is found that the states of metal atoms will change,in which more lattice electrons will become covalent electrons to bond with hydrogen atoms when the atomic hydrogen diffuses into the intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys,which will result in the decrease of local metallicity in Fe3Al and FeAl.Meanwhile,it is found that the crystal will easily cleave since solute hydrogen bonds with metal atoms and severely anisotropic bonds form.As a conclusion,these factors result in the environmental embrittlement of Fe3Al and FeAl.

  3. Gate length scaling effect on high-electron mobility transistors devices using AlGaN/GaN and AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S Y; Lu, C C; Chang, T; Huang, C F; Cheng, C H; Chang, L B

    2014-08-01

    Compared to AlGaN/GaN HEMT with 0.15 μm T-gate length, the AlInN/AlN/GaN one exhibits much higher current density and transconductance of 1558 mA/mm at Vd = 2 V and 330 mS/mm, respectively. The high extrinsic ft and fmax of 82 GHz and 70 GHz are extracted from AlInN/AlN/GaN HEMT. Besides, we find that the transconductance roll-off is significant in AlGaN/GaN, but largely improved in AlInN/AlN/GaN HEMT, suggesting that the high carrier density and lattice-matched epitaxial heterostructure is important to reach both large RF output power and high operation frequency, especially for an aggressively gate length scaling.

  4. Study of the AlON-VN composite ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainbaatar; Zhang Zuotai; Li Wenchao; Wang Xidong [Dept. of Physical Chemistry of Metallurgy, Univ. of Science and Technology Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    Aluminium oxynitride-vanadium nitride (AlON-VN) composite ceramic was fabricated based on thermodynamic analysis of V-Al-O-N systems. The results indicated that the VN dispersed homogeneously in AlON matrix and can reinforce AlON matrix. Oxidation behavior was studied and the results showed that it belongs to self-protective oxidation due to the good adherence of oxidation product. Therefore, AlON-VN composites have excellent oxidation resistance. (orig.)

  5. Diseño y desarrollo de un juego educativo para ordenador sobre enfermedades tropicales y salud internacional: una herramienta docente más de apoyo al profesor universitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Giménez Pardo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Profesores de los Departamentos de Microbiología y Parasitología y de Ciencias de la Computación (Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España han colaborado durante dos años en el análisis, diseño y desarrollo de un juego virtual educativo, entendido como un instrumento para mejorar la difusión de diversos conceptos relacionados con las Enfermedades Tropicales y la Salud Internacional en un entorno fácil y agradable. El juegoestá dirigido a estudiantes universitarios como herramienta de aprendizaje para apoyar esta enseñanza (bien como refuerzo, auto-evaluación… y/o con posibilidad de incorporarlo a una plataforma virtual. Durante este tiempo hemos trabajado tanto las cuestiones técnicas como las pedagógicas. El desarrollo del juego se ha realizado en un entorno científico, de modo que los contenidos se difundan a través de tecnología puntera, pero accesible. Eldiseño simula un juego de tablero con dado, casillas de avance, parada y retroceso con diferentes niveles de dificultad (baja, media y alta, y preguntas al azar que el jugador debe responder correctamente para avanzar. Los niveles de dificultad hacen que el juego se mantenga en límites desafiantes, pero no desesperantes. Al final del recorrido se recibe información útil sobre el tema del juego. Está diseñado para ser multi-usuario (hasta cuatrojugadores, bilingüe (inglés/español, con posibilidad de ampliar a otros idiomas y dos opciones de aplicación: “stand-alone” e “Internet”. El juego está siendo ampliado para su uso en móviles. La adaptación futura a las diferentes áreas de conocimiento (parasitología, historia, química, física, etc sólo implica cambiar el interfaz de usuario y los criterios de selección de las preguntas.

  6. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  7. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Roudbarmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results attained indicated that there is an association between the expression of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. A considerable percent of the isolates expressing the ALS1 and ALS3 genes may have contributed to their adherence to vagina and biofilm formation.

  8. Studies in the Crystalline Electric Field in Pr2 Al and Pr Al by the Inelastic Neutron Scattering Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slisenko, V.I.; Ivanitskij, P.G.; Vasil'kevich, A.A.; Krotenko, V.T.; Majstrenko, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Results of inelastic neutron scattering in polycrystalline Pr 2 Al and Pr Al are reported. The parameters of the crystal field Hamiltonian for the orthorhombic point symmetry of the Pr 3+ ions in Pr 2 Al and Pr Al are derived from neutron spectra. Using These parameters the magnetic contribution to the specific heat is calculated

  9. The extraordinary role of the AlN interlayer in growth of AlN sputtered on Ti electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Tuan; Pandraud, G.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Schellevis, H.; Sarro, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of AlN layers grown on Ti with and without an AlN interlayer between the Si substrate and the Ti layer is investigated. The AlN grains take over the orientation of the Ti columnar grains in both cases. Surprisingly, the Ti grains do not take over completely the orientations of the AlN

  10. Metodologi Kitab Ma‘alim al-Tanzil Karya Al-Bagawiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rusydi Khalid

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to describe the metodology of Ma'a> lim al-tanzi>l book by al-Bagawi. The book is one of the books of exegesis written on the basis of hadith, which by the commentary scholars recognized avoided from heresy and weak hadith. The author of this book is Imam Abu Humaid Hussein bin Mas‘u>d al-Farra>’ Al-Bagawi al-Syafi‘i>, died in the year 510 H. This exegesis book combines the interpretation of the companions, tabi‘i>n, and tabi‘i> tabi‘i>n. Interpretation is broken down with easy, simple, and concise diction choices. The stoning of the interpretation of the salaf scholars without mentioning the sanad as already mentioned in the introduction to his book. This book was first printed in one edition with the exegesis book of Ibn Kas}i>r and al-kha>zin. This book interprets the Qur'an analytically from the beginning to the end of the surah by using the method of interpretation based on the hadith, namely by mentioning the arguments of the hadith sahih, the fatwa of the companions and the tabi‘i>n. The characteristic or purpose of this book is fiqh oriented, which tends to the Shafi‘i fiqh.   Abstrak Tulisan ini mendeskripsikan metode penafsiran dalam kitab Ma’a>lim al-tanzi>l karya al-bagawi. Kitab tafsir ini merupakan salah satu di antara kitab-kitab tafsir yang ditulis berdasarkan riwayat, yang oleh para ulama tafsir diakui terhindar dari bid’ah dan hadis dhaif (lemah. Penulis buku ini adalah Imam Abu Muhammad Husain bin Mas‘u>d al-Farra>‘ al-Bagawi al-Syafi‘i>, wafat pada tahun 510 H. Kitab ini adalah kitab pertengahan yang mengutip penafsiran para Sahabat, ta>bi‘i>n, dan tabi‘i ta>bi‘i>n. Penafsiran diuraikan dengan pilihan diksi yang mudah, sederhana, dan ringkas. Penukilan dari interpretasi ulama salaf tanpa menyebutkan sanad karena telah disebutkan dalam pendahuluan bukunya. Buku ini pertama kali dicetak dalam satu edisi dengan tafsir Ibn Kas\\i>r dan tafsir al-Kha>zin. Kitab ini menafsirkan al-Qur’an secara

  11. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al-Ge-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Masiar; Staudinger, Philipp; Greil, Johannes; Holzbauer, Martin; Detz, Hermann; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2017-08-09

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform technology.

  12. KISAH DZULQARNAIN DALAM AL-QUR’AN SURAT AL-KAHFI: 83-101 (Pendekatan Hermeneutik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukimin Rukimin

    2016-06-01

    ingkar hendaknya diajak bertobat dan kembali kepada keimanan dengan diperingatkan akan kekufurannya bahwa Allah akan mengazab orang-orang yang ingkar. Kata Kunci: Dzhulqarnai; al-Qu’an; hermeneutika

  13. Electroluminescence of erbium in Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, I.O.; Kuznetsov, A.N.; Pak, P.E.; Terukov, E.I.; Granitsyna, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    It is informed for the first time on the observation of the erbium intensive electroluminescence from the amorphous hydrated silicon layer by application of the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure in the direct shift mode. The above structure is the n-p-heterostructure with the barrier values of 0.3-0.4 eV for the electrons and 0.9-1.1 eV for the holes. The electroluminescence efficiency is evaluated at the level ∼ 2 x 10 -5 . The electroluminescence effect in the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure is connected with the hole tunneling from the crystal silicon by the amorphous silicon localized states with the subsequent release into the valent zone [ru

  14. Strain Balanced AlGaN/GaN/AlGaN nanomembrane HEMTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Hsuan; Xiong, Kanglin; Park, Sung Hyun; Yuan, Ge; Ma, Zhenqiang; Han, Jung

    2017-07-25

    Single crystal semiconductor nanomembranes (NM) are important in various applications such as heterogeneous integration and flexible devices. This paper reports the fabrication of AlGaN/GaN NMs and NM high electron mobility transistors (HEMT). Electrochemical etching is used to slice off single-crystalline AlGaN/GaN layers while preserving their microstructural quality. A double heterostructure design with a symmetric strain profile is employed to ensure minimal residual strain in freestanding NMs after release. The mobility of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), formed by the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, is noticeably superior to previously reported values of many other NMs. AlGaN/GaN nanomembrane HEMTs are fabricated on SiO 2 and flexible polymeric substrates. Excellent electrical characteristics, including a high ON/OFF ratio and transconductance, suggest that III-Nitrides nanomembranes are capable of supporting high performance applications.

  15. Corrosion of Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloys with cerium, praseodymium and neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhanova, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    The present work is devoted to corrosion of Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloys with cerium, praseodymium and neodymium. The purpose of present work is elaboration of optimal composition of zinc-aluminium alloys Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloyed by rare-earth metals of cerium subgroup which are used as anode covers for protection of steel from corrosion. Therefore, the regularities of change of corrosion-electrochemical properties in various corrosive mediums have been determined; processes mechanisms of high temperature oxidation of alloys in solid state have been studied; in the products of alloys oxidation their phase components have been defined and their role in the corrosion process have been revealed; the optimal compositions of zinc-aluminium alloys alloyed by rare earth metals, which are protected by two patents of the Republic of Tajikistan have been elaborated.

  16. Die Welt als Puppenhaus. Die verzauberten Filme des Wes Anderson als Retrospektive im Kino Xenix

    OpenAIRE

    Binotto, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Nur gerade sieben Filme hat der Regisseur und Autor Wes Anderson bisher gemacht, damit aber ein einzigartiges Œuvre geschaffen. Das Xenix zeigt diese melancholischen und verspielten Kunstwerke, zusammen mit Filmen, die als Inspiration dienten.

  17. KONSTRUKSI FIQH BUKHARI DALAM KITAB AL-JAMI’ AL-SHAHIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sattar

    2011-06-01

    Popularitas Imam Bukhari sebagai penyusun kitab Hadits memiliki posisi yang tinggi di kalangan masyarakat muslim. Kitab Al-Jami ‘al-Shahih karya Imam  Bukhari dianggap sebagai koleksi hadits terbaik setelah Quran. Namun, tidak ada banyak informasi tentang kemampuannya di bidang Hukum Islam (fiqh. Ada beberapa pertanyaan yang dapat diajukan dalam hal tersebut;  pertama, apakah pemikiran Imam Bukhari dipengaruh salah satu dari empat fuqaha Sunni saat menulis al-Jami ‘al-Shahih?. Kedua, apa yang diupayakan Imam Bukhari untuk mengartikulasikan pemikirannya tentang hukum Islam? Dengan menggunakan pendekatan eksploratif, verifikatif dan hermenetical, artikel ini akan mengungkapkan bahwa Imam Bukhari tidak berada di bawah pengaruh madhab tertentu dalam mengartikulasikan pemikirannya tentang hukum Islam. Dia mengartikulasikan pandangannya dengan cara yang unik dan execelent berdasarkan kapasitasnya sebagai muhaddits.

  18. Impedance measurements of components for the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1993-05-01

    The high current and short bunch length of the ALS beam make the machine susceptible to beam instabilities over a frequency range extending to 13 GHz and beyond. All components of the storage ring have been carefully designed to minimize the impedance presented to the beam, and assemblies have been laid out to avoid resonant enclosures between components. Novel bellows shields allowing considerable mechanical movement while maintaining a low impedance are described. Results are presented of impedance measurements of ALS components and assemblies of components, using a precision coaxial wire technique in frequency domain, extending to frequencies beyond cut-off. All measurements were performed at the Lambertson Beam Electrodynamics Laboratory of the Center for Beam Physics at LBL

  19. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  20. Structure analysis of NiAl martensite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Y.; Shapiro, S.M.; Shirane, G.; Yamada, Y.; Fuchizaki, K.; Tanner, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron elastic scattering experiments were performed in order to investigate the structure of the low temperature martensitic phase of Ni 62.5 Al 37.5 alloy. The average structure analyzed from the integrated intensity was approximately described by the (5,-2) structure proposed by Martynov et al. Small deviation from the exact (5,-2) model in the positional parameters and the anomalously large Debye-Waller factor were obtained. The observed satellite profiles show asymmetrical broadening, and the peak positions shift from the regular reciprocal lattice points. These anomalous features of scattering profiles were tentatively interpreted by introducing spatial modulation of the strain and order parameters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab