WorldWideScience

Sample records for amplificado al azar

  1. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  2. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flórez Jaime Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.

  3. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM) en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s) in plant genetic diversity studies

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez; Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2008-01-01

    Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM) en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se difere...

  4. Caracterización molecular con microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs de Inchi (Caryodendron orinocense K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Molecular characterization with random amplified microsatellites (RAMs of Inchi (Caryodendron orinocense K.Resumen: El Inchi o Cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karsten es una de las especies más promisorias de la Amazonía y la Orinoquia colombiana.  El principal producto del Cacay son sus almendras, de las que se extrae un aceite con aplicaciones cosméticas, fitoterapéuticas y alimenticias, además presenta un alto contenido de antioxidantes como los Omega 3, 6 y 9 y Vitaminas como la A y E. No existen estudios sobre la caracterización molecular de este recurso fitogenético, por lo cual el objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la diversidad genética usando marcadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs. El análisis de similitud al 0.50 formó cuatro grupos de acuerdo al sitio geográfico, siendo los materiales procedentes de Putumayo, Cacayal 19, Pauna y Castilla los de menor similitud. Los valores de heterocigosidad estimada fueron de 0.16 y 0.28 para los cebadores CGA y GT, respectivamente. El porcentaje de loci polimórfico varió entre 55% para el cebador CGA y el 90% para el GT. El valor de Fst promedio para los 27 materiales estudiados fue de 0.35, mostrando que la dinámica espacio-temporal de los materiales de Caryodendron tienden hacia una diferenciación genética, propio de sus procesos evolutivos e incidencia de la domesticación.Palabras clave: cacay, marcadores moleculares, diversidad genética, flujo genético, domesticación.Abstract: The Inchi or Cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karsten is one of the most promising species of the Amazon and Orinoco Colombian. The main product of Cacay are its almonds, from extracted oil cosmetic, phytotherapeutic and food applications, also has a high content of antioxidants such as Omega 3, 6 and 9 and vitamins like A and E. There are no studies on the molecular characterization of this plant genetic resource; therefore the objective of this research

  5. Microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAM en estudios de diversidad genética vegetal Random amplified microsatellites (RAM´s in plant genetic diversity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Eduardo Muñoz Flórez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el uso e importancia, ventajas, desventajas y características de la técnica Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAM en uchuva Physalis peruviana, mora Rubus spp, guayaba Psidium guajava y heliconias Heliconia spp. En mora se diferenciaron las especies R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, se detectaron duplicados y se encontró alta variabilidad genética en R. glaucus, la especie más importante. En uchuva se encontró alta diversidad y dos accesiones de fruto rojo que se diferenciaron genéticamente de las amarillas y una región geográfica con alta variabilidad. En guayaba los cebadores fueron altamente polimórficos y se encontró alta variabilidad en el Valle del Cauca. En heliconias y especies relacionadas se diferenciaron las familias del orden Zingiberales, algunos subgéneros y variaciones en la especie. La técnica es de bajo costo, utiliza un cebador, no requiere información previa, es altamente polimórfica y diferencia especies en los taxones evaluados.The use and importance, advantages, disadvantages and features of the Random Amplified Microsatellites RAMs technique, were reviewed in Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana, blackberry Rubus spp, guava Psidium guajava and heliconias Heliconia spp. In blackberry, we differentiated the species R. glaucus, R. robustus y R. urticifolius, detected duplicated accessions and found high genetic diversity in R. glaucus, the most important specie. In cape gooseberry we found high diversity and two red fruit accessions genetically differentiated from the yellow fruit ones and a geographical region with high variability. In guava, primers were highly polymorphic and found high variability in Valle del Cauca region. In Heliconia and related species we differentiated families belonging to Zingiberal order, between some sub genera and variation among specie. The technique has low cost of implementation, use a single primer, do not require previous information, is highly

  6. Low Genetic Diversity Among Garlic (Allium sativum L. Accessions Detected Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD Escasa Diversidad Genética entre Accesiones de Ajo (Allium sativum L. Detectada Mediante ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Paredes C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is a species of vegetative propagation, showing high morphological diversity. Besides, its clones have specific adaptations to different agroclimatic regions. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 65 garlic clones collected in Chile and introduced from different countries, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Fourty random primers of 10 mers generated a total of 398 bands with an 87% of polymorphism. Each primer amplified between two and 20 bands. The size of the fragments obtained fluctuated between 3200 and 369 bp. The results showed that the clones analyzed had a genetic similarity rate of 94%. In addition, 70% of them were clustered in one major group. However, in spite of that situation several clones have different agronomic characteristicsEl ajo (Allium sativum L. es una especie de propagación vegetativa, que presenta una amplia variabilidad morfológica. Los clones de esta especie tienen una adaptación específica a diferentes regiones agroclimáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la diversidad genética existente en 65 clones de ajos colectados en Chile e introducidos desde diferentes países, utilizando RAPD (ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar. Para esta evaluación se utilizaron 40 partidores de 10-mers. Los partidores generaron entre dos y 20 bandas, observándose un alto número de patrones con bandas múltiples. Los fragmentos generados difieren en su tamaño entre 3.200 y 369 pb. Los partidores generaron 398 bandas, de las cuales un 87% fueron polimórficas. El análisis estadístico realizado detectó una similitud genética alta, de un 94% entre las accesiones evaluadas, donde aproximadamente un 70% de los clones formaron un grupo homogéneo. Sin embargo, este grupo incluye clones que presentan diferentes características agronómicas

  7. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en naranja y comparación del polimorfismo de microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs usando electroforesis de poliacrilamida y agarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Flores Jaime Eduardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon las eficiencias de tres métodos de electroforesis en agarosa y poliacrilamida, usando la cámara pequeña de DNA Sequencing System y cámara grande OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, en la detección del polimorfismo en 21 accesiones de naranja (Citrus sinensis con empleo del cebador CGA. El gel de poliacrilamida dio mejor resolución de los productos amplificados vía PCR producidos por RAMs. Este permitió una mejor detección de bandas de ADN polimórficas, lo que facilitó la identificación de la variabilidad genética. La electroforesis en agarosa puede ser más conveniente en otras aplicaciones, debido al bajo costo y fácil aplicación. El estudio de diversidad genética en naranja usando microsatélites RAMs diferenció 51 accesiones en siete grupos con 0.75 de similaridad y 0.25 de heterocigosidad, lo que revela bajo polimorfismo genético. La técnica RAMs permitió agrupar las accesiones en Comunes o Blancas, Navel y Pigmentadas o Sanguinas.

  8. Caracterización de la diversidad genética en naranja y comparación del polimorfismo de microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs usando electroforesis de poliacrilamida y azarosa Characterization of the genetic diversity in orange, and comparison of polymorphism in randomly-amplifed microsatellites (RAMs, using polyacrylamide and agarose electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon las eficiencias de tres métodos de electroforesis en agarosa y poliacrilamida, usando la cámara pequeña de DNA Sequencing System y cámara grande OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, en la detección del polimorfismo en 21 accesiones de naranja (Citrus sinensis con empleo del cebador CGA. El gel de poliacrilamida dio mejor resolución de los productos amplificados vía PCR producidos por RAMs. Este permitió una mejor detección de bandas de ADN polimórficas, lo que facilitó la identificación de la variabilidad genética. La electroforesis en agarosa puede ser más conveniente en otras aplicaciones, debido al bajo costo y fácil aplicación. El estudio de diversidad genética en naranja usando microsatélites RAMs diferenció 51 accesiones en siete grupos con 0.75 de similaridad y 0.25 de heterocigosidad, lo que revela bajo polimorfismo genético. La técnica RAMs permitió agrupar las accesiones en Comunes o Blancas, Navel y Pigmentadas o Sanguinas.We compared the efficiency of three methods of agarose and polyacrylamide electrophoresis (using the small tank of the DNA Sequencing System and the large OWL Sequi-Gen Sequencing Cell, for the detection of polymorphism in 21 accessions of orange (Citrus sinensis, using the primer CGA. The polyacrylamide gel gave better resolution of the PCR-amplified RAM products. This method allowed better detection of polymorphic DNA bands, facilitating the identification of genetic variability. The agarose electrophoresis may be more convenient in other applications, due to its low cost and easy implementation. The study of genetic diversity in orange using RAMs separated 51 accessions into seven groups with 0.75 similarity, and 0.25 heterozygosity, revealing low genetic polymorphism. The RAMs technique grouped the accessions into “Common or White”, “Navel” and “Pigmented or “Sanguine”.

  9. Caracterización molecular con microsatélites amplificados al azar (RAMs) de Inchi (Caryodendron orinocense K.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Liseth Gómez Beltrán; Iván Ávila Morales; Ernesto Andrade Urresta; Yacenia Morillo Coronado

    2015-01-01

    Título en ingles: Molecular characterization with random amplified microsatellites (RAMs) of Inchi (Caryodendron orinocense K.)Resumen: El Inchi o Cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karsten) es una de las especies más promisorias de la Amazonía y la Orinoquia colombiana.  El principal producto del Cacay son sus almendras, de las que se extrae un aceite con aplicaciones cosméticas, fitoterapéuticas y alimenticias, además presenta un alto contenido de antioxidantes como los Omega 3, 6 y 9 y Vitamin...

  10. Diversidad genética entre especies del género lemna (lemnaceae utilizando fragmentos polimórficos de ADN amplificados al azar (rapds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Solano Campos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Lemna aequinoctialis and Lemna valdiviana were tested genetic similarity by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting. Of 60 primers (10-mer tested, 26 generated polymorphic products. 143 bands were found from 200bp up to 1500bp, 109 were polymorphic (76,2%, with an average of 4,19. Of these, only 18 were specific of L. aequinoctialis, while 91 bands were specific for L. valdiviana. Data were used to generate Jaccard’s similarity coefficients and to construct a dendrogram using UPGMA method in the BiodiversityPro statistical package. It is concluded from this study that there were clear differences (high genetic diversity between L. aequinoctialis and L. valdiviana and that RAPD sesults are comparable with those obtained from studies on morphology, It is a practical method to assess the relationships between these species.

  11. CAMINATA AL AZAR PREDICTIVA DE LA DINÁMICA DE OBESIDAD: PREDICCIONES DE OBESIDAD Y SOBREPESO EN LA POBLACIÓN INFANTIL DE COLOMBIA Y DE VARIACIÓN PESO/TALLA Y PESO/EDAD EN MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    JAVIER RODRÍGUEZ; SIGNED PRIETO; ESPERANZA FAJARDO; CATALINA CORREA; FREDY LÓPEZ; JAIRO CASTRO; YOLANDA SORACIPA

    2013-01-01

    La obesidad y el sobrepeso constituyen problemas de salud pública tanto a nivel mundial como en América Latina. La teoría de la probabilidad y la caminata al azar probabilista han sido base para el desarrollo de predicciones de la dinámica de diferentes epidemias. En este trabajo se estudió el crecimiento de la obesidad en cuatro países con base en la caminata al azar, para confirmar la capacidad de la metodología para describir y predecir esta dinámica específica, y se desarrollaron simulaci...

  12. Azar y Aritmetica

    CERN Document Server

    Helfgott, Harald Andres

    2009-01-01

    Let omega(n) be the number of prime divisors of an integer n. Let n be an integer taken at random between 1 and N. What can be said about the value then taken by omega(n)? What is its expected value? What is its distribution in the limit? What is the probability that omega(n) will deviate greatly from its expected value? We will study these questions as an introduction to probabilistic number theory. We treat several central topics in probabilistic number theory without assuming previous knowledge of the area. Neither measure theory nor complex analysis are assumed. In the exercises, among other topics, we develop some of the bases of sieve theory as an application of probabilistic ideas. ----- Sea omega(n) el numero de divisores primos de un entero n. Sea n un entero tomado al azar entre 1 y N. Que se puede decir del valor que entonces tomara' omega(n)? Cual es su esperanza? Cual es su distribucion en el limite? Cual es la probabilidad que omega(n) tome valores que se alejen mucho de su esperanza? Estudiamos...

  13. Evolution of the histones: free play with exon shuffling Evolucion de las histonas: Juego libre con reordenamiento de exones al azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. CECILIA TORO

    2001-03-01

    cromatina es el nucleosoma, formado por 168 pares de bases de DNA enrollados en el octámero de histonas, el cual consiste en dos copias de las histonas H2A, H2B, H3 y H4. El DNA es sellado en los puntos de entrada y salida por una histona de unión: la histona H1. Se supone que las histonas son proteínas muy conservadas. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años se ha encontrado que estas proteínas presentan un alto grado de divergencia en varios eucariontes inferiores. En Trypanosoma se ha encontrado que las histonas H3 y H4, que están en el centro de la organización nucleosomal, muestran más de un 30 % de divergencia, y que la histona H1 corresponde sólo a uno de los tres dominios presentes en los eucariontes superiores. Estos rasgos en Trypanosoma podrían explicar, al menos en parte, la ausencia de condensación de la cromatina en cromosomas durante la división celular en estos parásitos. La evolución de las histonas ha sido considerada como algo peculiar, con varias propuestas difíciles de reconciliar con los datos experimentales. En este trabajo se propone que las histonas han seguido la misma historia evolutiva de muchas otras proteínas. Si consideramos que los exones codifican para dominios estructurales y funcionales en las proteínas y que, en el origen de los eucariontes, las histonas, al igual que otras proteínas, podrían haberse formado por unidades (teoría tipo mecano, se podría esperar que estas unidades o dominios eventualmente fuesen encontrados en organismos actuales que exhiban características primitivas. Mas aún, estas unidades podrían funcionar independientemente. Nuestros resultados relativos a la estructura de los genes de histonas y de sus proteínas en Trypanosoma cruzi, y el análisis de otras histonas de diferentes especies confirman la proposición

  14. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.

  15. Liver-spleen scintiscan in kala-azar: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive splenomegaly was found in a liver-spleen scan in a young man from Greece. Kala-azar was suggested as a possible cause and was confirmed by culturing Leishmania donovani from the bone marrow aspirate. The differential diagnosis of massive splenomegaly should include kala-azar when a patient has been in an endemic area

  16. Kala-azar in Ballia district, Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J S; Rahman, S J; Singh, J; Singh, S K

    1992-06-01

    Door to door search during 1991 in 85 villages in Ballia district of Uttar Pradesh revealed 29 sporadic cases of Kala-azar in four villages. Epidemiological investigations indicated indigenous transmission in Phulwaria village (PHC: Dubhar) with 25 cases while the remaining three villages showed four imported cases from the endemic states. No kala-azar cases had been reported in Ballia between 1947 and the present investigation. Phlebotomus arqentipes, the known vector of kala-azar in India, was encountered in 10 PHCs including the four villages having kala-azar cases. Regular vigilance in Ballia and the neighbouring districts in Uttar Pradesh bordering Bihar is suggested in view of indigenous transmission detected in one village with multiple infection in families. The presence of high vector density, ambient environmental factors and absence of regular residual insecticidal spray warrant constant surveillance in Kala-Azar prone areas in Uttar Pradesh. PMID:1344169

  17. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bittencourt Achiléa; Silva Nancy; Straatmann Andréa; Nunes Victor Luiz Correia; Follador Ivonise; Badaró Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area) presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishm...

  18. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  19. [Kala azar. Rare import and significant differential diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, H

    2006-08-01

    After traveling into regions endemic for leishmaniasis all patients presenting with generalized febrile symptoms, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and symptoms as well as laboratory parameters also seen in autoimmune diseases should be screened for leishmaniasis even after a longer time period. Doctors should bear in mind that especially immunosuppressed patients can present with atypical and abortive symptoms and that in this group of patients immune diagnosis is unreliable. A diagnosis of a lymphoma related only to the spleen should not be made and splenectomy must not be carried out before reliable exclusion of kala azar, using modern diagnostic tools like PCR. Patients should be referred to specialized centers e.g. institutes for tropical medicine and therapy must follow actual guidelines, such as the German guidelines published by the AWMF. PMID:16819655

  20. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis associated with AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bittencourt Achiléa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is rarely reported in South America. In spite of the fact that there are many reports about the association of visceral leishmaniasis and AIDS, PKDL is very uncommon in HIV-positive patients, and so far only four cases have been documented in the literature. We present another case with unusual clinicopathological aspects. The patient, a 28-year-old male, from Salvador, Bahia (an endemic area presented with clinical manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis three years after the diagnosis of AIDS. During treatment for visceral leishmaniasis he developed disseminated miliary papules. Microscopically, the skin biopsy showed a "saw-tooth" pattern with a lichenoid mononuclear infiltrate simulating lichen planus. The histopathological diagnosis was achieved through the finding of amastigotes. The authors discuss the clinicopathological aspects of this case based on a review of the specific literature.

  1. Datos amplificados por la salida del AD620 aplicado al medidor de Campos Magnéticos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Felipe Galvis Tabares; José Noé Velandia Ruiz; Hugo Armando Gallego Becerra

    2013-01-01

    En el presente trabajo, se expone el mecanismo de amplificación utilizado para trabajar con el circuito medidor de campos magnéticos usando el amplificador de instrumentación AD620, mostrando los resultados obtenidos en forma experimental teniendo en cuenta los valores de voltajes en la entrad a y su amplificación correspondiente, así como la salida en la configuración electrónica construida.

  2. Identificación de Yarrowia lipolytica (Ascomycota: Hemiascomycetes como contaminante en la obtención de amplificados del gen 28S rRNA de moluscos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chirinos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se identifica una secuencia de DNA no esperada proveniente de los amplificados del gen 28S rRNA de moluscos terrestres. Las extracciones de DNA se realizaron del tejido del pie de caracoles terrestres por el método del CTAB modificado. Las PCRs fueron llevadas a cabo con primers universales para el gen COI e iniciadores diseñados para moluscos, para el marcador 16S rRNA, 28S rRNA y la región ITS-2. Los tamaños aproximados de las bandas de los amplificados de moluscos fueron de 706 pb para el COI, 330 pb para el 16S rRNA, 900 pb para el ITS-2 y 583 pb para el 28S rRNA; un amplificado del último marcador fue de una longitud inesperada, ~340 pb. Las secuencias de DNA fueron comparadas con la base de datos del GenBank mediante el programa BLASTn y la muestra con la banda de tamaño inesperado resultó en un 100% de identidad y cobertura del 99% con el gen 26S rRNA de la levadura Yarrowia lipolytica. El análisis filogenético con Neighbour-Joining y los valores de divergencia confirmaron la identificación, proporcionando resultados que apoyan la ubicación taxonómica de la especie dentro del clado de los Hemiascomycetes.

  3. Relationships between flood control, kala-azar, and diarrheal disease in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Emch

    2000-01-01

    In 1990, a large flood-control project called the Flood Action Plan(FAP) was started in Bangladesh. The FAP built many embankments to divert water during the rainy season. This paper includes two case studies of diseases that are related to flood control in Bangladesh: kala-azar and diarrheal disease. Kala-azar is caused by the protozoan Leishmania donovani and is transmitted to humans by the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes . It was found that the incidence of kala-azar in embanked areas of no...

  4. Dificultades con Physica II 4: la confrontación dialéctica de Aristóteles con las opiniones precedentes sobre el azar y la disputa en torno a la identidad de sus portavoces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de los Ríos Gutiérrez, Iván

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Aristotle’s critical account of the three groups of opinions on chance presented in Physica [Phys.] II 4-6 and considers the question of the identity of the advocates of these ideas. Aristotle confronts three common beliefs according to which: i nothing happens by chance; ii chance is the origin of everything; iii chance is the instrument of a divine dimension inscrutable to the human mind. However, we find no explicit references to any authors. Who are the deniers of chance and who are its proponents? Who identifies chance with divine functions or particular deities? This article aims to outline the debate on the identity of the advocates of these common beliefs and to contribute to its clarification within the frame of the Aristotelian criticism on ancient atomism.En este artículo se examina la exposición crítica de los tres grupos de opiniones sobre el azar que Aristóteles presenta en Physica [Phys.] II 4 y se pregunta por la identidad de sus portavoces. Aristóteles confronta tres creencias establecidas de acuerdo con las cuales: i nada sucede por azar; ii el azar es el origen de todas las cosas; iii el azar es el instrumento un orden divino inescrutable al razonamiento humano. No obstante, en ningún momento encontramos referencias explícitas a uno o varios pensadores. ¿Quiénes son los negadores del azar y quiénes sus defensores? ¿A quién pertenece la identificación del azar con funciones divinas o divinidades singulares? Objetivo del presente artículo es perfilar el debate en torno a identidad de los defensores de las tres posiciones y contribuir, en la medida de lo posible, a su esclarecimiento en el marco de la crítica aristotélica del atomismo antiguo.

  5. Current treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premshanker S. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is also popularly known as kala-azar which was first reported in early forties and since then it continues to affect millions of people. The ranges of common drugs available for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are limited. It mainly includes pentavalent antimonials e.g. stibogluconate (SbV, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AB, lipid formulations of amphotericin B (L-AB, miltefosine (MF and paromomycin (PM - all of which have limitations in terms of toxicity, variable efficacy, price and inconvenient treatment schedules. Most are parenteral except MF which is administered orally. Due to the parasite and #8217;s drug resistance, the most widely used (SbV of these drugs is now of little use in northern Bihar, India, which alone accounts for 50% of the worlds burden of visceral leishmaniasis. In areas of resistance to SbV, AB is highly effective. The formulation of AB in liposomes (L-AB has been a major advancement in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. However, despite a significant reduction in price, this treatment remains very expensive for endemic countries like India. Combination short course therapy has been reported by many researchers who found that it is equally effective as conventional monotherapy with added benefits of less side effects, better compliance and less resistance. The aim of this article is to review the current aspects of the treatment for leishmaniasis, giving an overview of current agents clinically used to new agents and modalities of treatment under development. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 810-817

  6. La demanda de lotería y juegos de azar: Su realidad y sus potencialidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Iván González

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sobre [as loterías y los juegos de azar tiene implicaciones de muy diversa naturaleza. Toca aspectos básicos de la teoría de la elección bajo riesgo y, ademas, tiene implicaciones fiscales muy importantes. La forma de administrar el monopolio de las loterías y juegos de azar plantea retos muy interesantes en el campo de la gerencia y de la hacienda pública Después de presentar el monto de las ventas de las principales loterías, analizamos el significado de la demanda consuetudinaria. En la sección siguiente evaluamos los determinantes del precio óptimo Posteriormente describimos el perfil del comprador de loterias y juegos de azar, para finalizar el ensayo con unas reflexiones sobre el impacto fiscal de las loterías.

  7. Linnamaastike kaitse on osa arengust / Jukka Jokilehto, Mehr Azar Soheil ; intervjueerinud Liisa Pakosta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jokilehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Vestlus soome arhitekti, Nova Gorica ülikooli professori, UNESCO ja ICOMOSi konsultandi Jukka Jokilehto ja tema abikaasa, pärslannast arhitekti Mehr Azar Soheiliga. Ka Tallinna vanalinnast maailmapärandi komitees valmivate linnamaastike kaitseks mõeldud soovituste valguses, linna arengust sadama suunas. Eestikeelsena ilmus J. Jokilehto raamat "Arhitektuuri konserveerimise ajalugu" (Tallinn : Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, 2010)

  8. Post-kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Developing in Miltefosine-Treated Visceral Leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Sankha Koley; Rajesh Kumar Mandal; Sanjiv Choudhary; Arghya Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is an unusual dermatosis occurring following an attack of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). There are only few reports of PKDL after successful treatment with miltefosine. We report two cases of PKDL that developed after successful treatment of VL with miltefosine.

  9. Immunopathology of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL): T-cell phenotypes and cytokine profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; El Hassan, A M; Kemp, K;

    1999-01-01

    In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined the immunol......In Sudan, post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) caused by Leishmania donovani develops in half of the patients treated for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar). In most patients lesions heal spontaneously, but in others symptoms are severe and persist for years. This study examined...... of macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. In patients who had high interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) responses to Leishmania antigen in vitro, compact epithelioid granulomas were formed. The inflammatory cells were mainly CD3(+) and interleukin-10 (IL10) was the most prominent cytokine in the lesions. However......, IFNgamma was found in all and IL4 in most lesions, in varying amounts. PBMCs from all patients responded to Leishmania antigen by IFNgamma production or proliferation. The results indicate that PKDL develops as a result of an influx of immunocompetent cells into skin, which harbours parasites...

  10. Systematic Review into Diagnostics for Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL)

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Emily R.; Inge Versteeg; Leeflang, Mariska M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is important due to the long and toxic treatment and the fact that PKDL patients may serve as a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We summarized the published literature about the accuracy of diagnostic tests for PKDL. We searched Medline for eligible studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of any test for PKDL. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Data were extracted from 21 articles including 43 separate studie...

  11. Consultation meeting on the development of therapeutic vaccines for post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalib, Hashim; Modabber, Farrokh

    2007-01-01

    Background Post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a disease that appears after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The highest incidence of PKDL in the world is in Sudan. Many patients heal spontaneously within 6 months but those who don't are difficult to treat, often requiring months of daily injections. These patients harbour parasite in their skin and are believed to be a source of infection and possibly epidemics. Present treatment modalities of PKDL are inadequate and impra...

  12. Successful Miltefosine Treatment of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Occurring During Antiretroviral Therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Belay, A Dejenie; Asafa, Y; Mesure, J; Davidson, R. N.

    2006-01-01

    The first two patients to be treated with miltefosine for post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) are reported. One was a 26-year-old Ethiopian man who had been treated with sodium stibogluconate, for relapsing visceral leishmaniasis (VL), four times between August 2002 and March 2004. In January 2004 this patient was found to be seropositive for HIV and began antiretroviral treatment with stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine. Five months later he developed clinical PKDL, with extensive cu...

  13. Seroepidemiological Study of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in Ardabil Province, Iran, 1986 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala-azar is the most important endemic disease in Northwestern Iran, particularly in Ardabil province. This study aimed to review the seroepidemiological studies which have been performed in Ardabil province during 1986-2009. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, studies which have been carried out from 1986 through 2009 in Northwestern Iran about clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological features of Kala azar, using DAT, were reviewed. Collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: in total, 2703 of human visceral leishmaniasis were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT in Ardabil province, 1787 (66.1% of them were from Meshkin-shahr district, 837 (31% cases were from Moghan district, and 79 (2.9% cases were from Ardabil district. Ninety eight percent of the cases were under 10 years old while only 0.5% of the VL cases were ≥20 years old and 17% of them were under 1 year of age. Conclusion: Currently Kala-Azar is the most important endemic disease in Northwestern Iran, particularly in Ardabil province. Anti-Leishmania antibodies at the titers of ≥1:3200 using DAT along with clinical signs including fever, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly are considered as active visceral leishmaniasis. DAT antibody titer of 1/800 and lower and absent of clinical signs is considered as negative VL.

  14. Spatial and temporal variation and hotspot detection of kala-azar disease in Vaishali district (Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhunia Gouri Sankar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An improved understanding in transmission variation of kala-azar is fundamental to conduct surveillance and implementing disease prevention strategies. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and hotspot detection for reporting kala-azar cases in Vaishali district based on spatial statistical analysis. Methods Epidemiological data from the study area during 2007–2011 was used to examine the dynamic space-time pattern of kala-azar outbreaks, and all cases were geocoded at a village level. Spatial smoothing was applied to reduce random noise in the data. Inverse distance weighting (IDW is used to interpolate and predict the pattern of VL cases distribution across the district. Moran’s I Index (Moran’s I statistics was used to evaluate autocorrelation in kala-azar spatial distribution and test how villages were clustered or dispersed in space. Getis-Ord Gi*(d was used to identify the hotspot and cold spot areas within the study site. Results Mapping kala-azar cases or incidences reflects the spatial heterogeneity in the incidence rate of kala-azar affected villages in Vaishali district. Kala-azar incidence rate map showed most of the highest endemic villages were located in southern, eastern and northwestern part of the district; in the middle part of the district generally show the medium occurrence of VL. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of kala-azar incidences for five consecutive years, with Moran’s I statistic ranging from 0.04-0.17 (P P Conclusions The results pointed to the usefulness of spatial statistical approach to improve our understanding the spatio-temporal dynamics and control of kala-azar. The study also showed the north-western and southern part of Vaishali district is most likely endemic cluster region. To employ exact and geographically suitable risk-reduction programmes, apply of such spatial analysis tools should suit a vital constituent in epidemiology research

  15. A Study on Health Seeking Behaviors of Patients of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariful Basher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL remains a major public health threat in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Surya Kanta Kala azar Research Centre (SKKRC, Mymensingh, from January 2012 to July 2013 to evaluate the health seeking behaviour and the length of delay of PKDL management. The consecutive 200 diagnosed PKDL cases that got treatment in SKKRC hospital were subjected to evaluation. Most (98% of the patients were not aware and had no knowledge about PKDL, though 87.5% had a history of history of Kala-azar treatment. Many patients reported first to village doctor (15.5%, the pharmacy shop (10%, or traditional health provider (7.5% upon recognition of symptom. The time between the initial symptom recognition and first medical consultation (patient delay ranged from 10 days to 4745 days (13 years with a median of 373 days (mean: 696; IQR: 138 to 900 days. The time between first medical consultations to definite treatment (system delay ranged from 0 days to 1971 days (5.4 years, with a median delay of 14 days (mean: 46.48; IQR: 7 to 44 days that was reported in this study. Age, education, occupation, and residential status had significant association with patient delay (P<0.05. Educational status, occupation, number of treatment providers, and first health care provider had a significant association with system delay (P<0.05. Success in PKDL diagnosis and treatment requires specific behavior from patients and health care providers which facilitate those practices.

  16. High levels of C-reactive protein in the peripheral blood during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Theander, T G; ElHassan, A M

    2000-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a known sequel to visceral leishmaniasis in India and East Africa, and in Sudan about 50% of the kala-azar patients develop PKDL. In this study we followed kala-azar patients from diagnosis and up to 2 years after initiation of treatment. During the...... keratinocytes during visceral leishmaniasis predict subsequent development of PKDL. The method however requires expensive equipment and reagents. The results of the present study indicate that kala-azar patients, who have a high risk of developing PKDL after treatment can be identified by measuring plasma CRP....

  17. Kala-azar in Nepal: public health evidence to support the elimination initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Uranw, Surendra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a parasitic infectious disease that is fatal if left untreated. Two types of Leishmania species are causal agents of VL: Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani. VL caused by L.infantum is a zoonosis and is endemic in countries around the Mediterranean basin and in Latin-America. VL caused by L. donovani is assumed to be an anthroponosis and is endemic in East-Africa and the Indian subcontinent.VL is considered as a major public health problem i...

  18. Improving Outcome of Treatment of Kala-Azar by Supplementation of Amphotericin B with Physiologic Saline and Potassium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Chandeshwar P.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Mitra, Dipendra K.; Roy, Ambak; Sinha, Arun Kumar; Ranjan, Alok

    2010-01-01

    Complications of amphotericin B limit its wide application in the treatment of patients with kala-azar. This study was undertaken with an aim to minimize anti-renal complications and severe rigor in course of treatment with this drug. Parasitologically confirmed kala-azar cases (n = 230) were randomized equally into two groups: a control group received amphotericin B only at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight/day for 20 days and a patient (test) group received 500 mL of physiologic saline and 3...

  19. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is also called kala-azar, is a very serious infection that can be fatal. The management of visceral leishmaniasis requires informed diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Continuous research and development regarding the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis had led to many improvements. Paromomycin is a relatively new antibiotic drug that has been used for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis for several years. This article reviews and discusses the use of paromomycin for visceral leishmaniasis therapy.Keywords: visceral, leishmaniasis, paromomycin

  20. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of immunochromatographic strip test in diagnosis of childhood kala-azar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouf, M A; Rahman, M E; Islam, M N; Islam, M N; Ferdous, N N; Hossain, M A

    2009-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the total population at risk for kala-azar exceeds 20 million (18%) living in 88 Thana (19%) of 27 districts (42%). A confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is done by demonstration of the parasite (LD body) in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy sample, an invasive procedure with relatively low sensitivity. To assess the diagnostic usefulness of ICT for antibody against the leishmanial antigen rK39 & its feasibility for use under field conditions (rural areas). An experimental study conducted during January, 2003 to July, 2003 in pediatrics department of MMCH including 60 confirmedly diagnosed KA cases & 60 controls having diseases other than KA. One drop of peripheral blood is applied to the nitrocellulose strip & 3 drops of test buffer is added to the dried blood. Observing 2 visible bands indicates presence of IgG anti-K39. The rK39 strip test was positive in 57 out of 60 confirmed KA case diagnosed by LD body demonstration in splenic or bone marrow aspirate. The estimated sensitivity was 95%. One control diagnosed as other than KA had positive strip test but negative aspirate smear. The estimated specificity of the strip test was 98.3%. The predictive value of a positive result is 98.3% & that of a negative result is 93.5%. rK39 strip test is highly sensitive & specific in our situation & it can be used as a simple & the best method for diagnosis of KA in rural areas. PMID:19377416

  1. Nested PCR Assay for Detection of Leishmania donovani in Slit Aspirates from Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivas, Gannavaram; N. A. Ansari; Kataria, Joginder; Salotra, Poonam

    2004-01-01

    A nested PCR assay to detect parasite DNA in slit aspirates from skin lesions of patients with post-kala-azar dermal lesihmaniasis (PKDL) is described. PCR results were positive in 27 of 29 (93%) samples by nested PCR assay, while only 20 of 29 (69%) were positive in a primary PCR assay. The nested PCR assay allowed reliable diagnosis of PKDL in a noninvasive manner.

  2. Systematic Review into Diagnostics for Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R. Adams

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is important due to the long and toxic treatment and the fact that PKDL patients may serve as a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis (VL. We summarized the published literature about the accuracy of diagnostic tests for PKDL. We searched Medline for eligible studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of any test for PKDL. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Data were extracted from 21 articles including 43 separate studies. Twenty-seven studies evaluated serological tests (rK39 dipstick, ELISA, DAT, and leishmanin tests, six studies molecular tests, eight microscopy, and two cultures. Only a few of these studies reported a valid estimate of diagnostic accuracy, as most were case-control designs or used a reference standard with low sensitivity. The included studies were very heterogeneous, for example, due to a large variety of reference standards used. Hence, no summary estimates of sensitivity or specificity could be made. We recommend well-designed diagnostic accuracy trials that evaluate, side-by-side, all currently available diagnostics, including clinical symptoms, serological, antigen, molecular, and parasitological tests and possible use of statistical modelling to evaluate diagnostics when there is no suitable gold standard.

  3. Systematic Review into Diagnostics for Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emily R; Versteeg, Inge; Leeflang, Mariska M G

    2013-01-01

    Identification of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is important due to the long and toxic treatment and the fact that PKDL patients may serve as a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We summarized the published literature about the accuracy of diagnostic tests for PKDL. We searched Medline for eligible studies investigating the diagnostic accuracy of any test for PKDL. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2. Data were extracted from 21 articles including 43 separate studies. Twenty-seven studies evaluated serological tests (rK39 dipstick, ELISA, DAT, and leishmanin tests), six studies molecular tests, eight microscopy, and two cultures. Only a few of these studies reported a valid estimate of diagnostic accuracy, as most were case-control designs or used a reference standard with low sensitivity. The included studies were very heterogeneous, for example, due to a large variety of reference standards used. Hence, no summary estimates of sensitivity or specificity could be made. We recommend well-designed diagnostic accuracy trials that evaluate, side-by-side, all currently available diagnostics, including clinical symptoms, serological, antigen, molecular, and parasitological tests and possible use of statistical modelling to evaluate diagnostics when there is no suitable gold standard. PMID:23935641

  4. XML Prevalence of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in Panje Azar Hospital of Gorgan, Iran, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma hmoudjanlou, H. (MSc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the agents causing nosocomial infection; therefore, we decided to report the prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae caused infection. Material and methods: The frequency of Klebsiella in culture media samples of Panje Azar hospital was studied in 2011-2012. After determination of the species with biochemical methods and determination of resistance to third generation cephalosporins, the existence of responsible genes for this resistance was investigated using specific primers. The PCR product for CTX-M gene was sequenced. Results: During the study, 70 isolates of Klebsiella were isolated in that 51 (72.8% related to three months of November, December and January. Except for the one related to November, other ESBL cases belonged to these three months. Based on molecular investigation of ESBL genes, these isolates at least were in 3 types and had a high frequency in Internal, female and Emergency wards. Conclusion: The present report implied a sudden prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae that detected and controlled by a correct monitoring.

  5. Population preference of net texture prior to bed net trial in Kala-Azar-endemic areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murari L Das

    Full Text Available Prior to a community-based efficacy trial of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs in the prevention of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; also called kala-azar, a pilot study on preference of tools was held in endemic areas of India and Nepal in September 2005.LLINs made of polyester and polyethylene were distributed to 60 participants, who used the nets sequentially for 7 d. Acceptability and preference were evaluated via indirect indicators through questionnaires at three defined time points before and after use of the LLINs and through focus group discussions (FGDs. In the latter, preferences for color and size were also assessed. Untreated bed nets were owned by 87% of the households prior to the study. All users liked textures of both LLIN types after 7 d of use, but had a slight preference for those made of polyester if they were to recommend a LLIN to relatives or friends (p<0.05, mainly because of their relatively greater softness in comparison to polyethylene LLINs. Users reported that both net types reduced mosquito bites and number of insects, including sand fly (bhusana; genus Phlebotomus, inside the house. Side effects were minor and disappeared quickly.The large-scale intervention trial considered the preferences of the study population to decide on the best tool of intervention--light-blue, rectangular, polyester LLINs of different sizes.

  6. Entre la ley y el azar: La trama vincular del mundo político-empresarialde la frontera sur pampeana en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Reguera

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre la ley y el azar hace referencia a un momento muy particular de nuestra historia argentina, el de la construcción de un orden legal que, entre otros pilares, se basó en la concepción privada de la propiedad de la tierra y la apropiación de riqueza. Orientando nuestra mirada hacia el sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires, a lo largo del siglo XIX, lo que vamos a ver es un proceso de expansión de la frontera, con poblamiento, ocupación, distribución e incorporación de las nuevas tierras al proceso productivo. Las formas que este proceso adquirió constituyen el objeto del presente trabajoBetween the Law and the Hazards refers to a very particular moment of Argentine history. A period where the construction of law and order was build upon a conception of private property of the land as well as private appropriation of wealth. We turn our view towards the southern region of Buenos Aires province all through the 19th century, in order to observe a process of expansion of the frontier line which included the settlement, occupation, distribution and incorporation of new lands to the productive process. It is the aim of our work to study the forms this process actually took

  7. Alterações cutâneas do cão no Kala-Azar sul-americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1941-01-01

    Full Text Available According to E. Chagas (1938, South-American Kala Azar is a widespread disease from the jungle, several cases being reported from North Brazil (Estado do Pará: Marajó Island, Tocantins and Gurupi river valleys; Estados do Piauí and Ceará: coast and hinterland. Other cases were found in Northeast Brazil (Estados de Pernambuco, Alagôas and Sergipe: coast and hinterland; Estado da Bahia: hinterland. A few cases were described from Estado de Mato-Grosso (Brazil, Provincia de Salta and Território do Chaco (Argentine, and Zona contestada do Chaco (Paraguai-Bolívia. A well defined secondary anemia associated with enlargement of the liver and spleen are the chief symptoms. Death usually occurs in cachexia and with symptoms of heart failure. Half the patients were children aged less than ten years (CHAGAS, CASTRO & FERREIRA, 1937. Quite exhaustive epidemiological researches performed by CHAGAS, FERREIRA, DEANE, DEANE & GUIMARÃES (1938 in Municipio de Abaeté (Estado do Pará, Brazil gave the incidence of 1.48% for the natural infection in human, 4.49% in dogs, and 2.63% in cats. The infection was arcribed (CUNHA & CHAGAS, 1937 to a new species of Leishmania (L. chagasi. Latter CUNHA (1938 state, that it is identical to L. infantum. ADLER (1940 found that so far it has been impossible to distinguish L. chagasi from L. infantum by any laboratory test but a final judgment must be reserved until further experiments with different species of sandflies have been carried out. Skin changes in canine Kala Azar were signaled by many workers, and their importance as regards the transmission of the disease is recognized by some of them (ADLER & THEODOR, 1931, 2. CUNHA, 1933. Cutaneous ulcers in naturally infected dogs are referred by CRITIEN (1911 in Malta, by CHODUKIN & SCHEVTSCHENKO (1928 in Taschkent, by DONATIEN & LESTOCQUARD (1929 and by LESTOCQUARD & PARROT (1929 in Algeria, and by BLANC & CAMINOPETROS (1931 in Greece. Depilation is signaled by

  8. Seasonal relationship between normalized difference vegetation index and abundance of the Phlebotomus kala-azar vector in an endemic focus in Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri S. Bhunia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing was applied for the collection of spatio-temporal data to increase our understanding of the potential distribution of the kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes in endemic areas of the Vaishali district of Bihar, India. We produced monthly distribution maps of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI based on data from the thematic mapper (TM sensor onboard the Landsat-5 satellite. Minimum, maximum and mean NDVI values were computed for each month and compared with the concurrent incidence of kala-azar and the vector density. Maximum and mean NDVI values (R2 = 0.55 and R2 = 0.60, respectively, as well as the season likelihood ratio (X2 = 17.51; P <0.001, were found to be strongly associated with kala-azar, while the correlation with between minimum NDVI values and kala-azar was weak (R2 = 0.25. Additionally, a strong association was found between the mean and maximum NDVI values with seasonal vector abundance (R2 = 0.60 and R2 = 0.55, respectively but there was only a marginal association between minimum NDVI value and the spatial distribution of kala-azar vis-à-vis P. argentipes density.

  9. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study (2000-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra Uranw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a cutaneous complication appearing after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, and PKDL patients are considered infectious to sand flies and may therefore play a role in the transmission of VL. We estimated the risk and risk factors of PKDL in patients with past VL treatment in south-eastern Nepal. METHODS: Between February and May 2010 we traced all patients who had received VL treatment during 2000-2009 in five high-endemic districts and screened them for PKDL-like skin lesions. Suspected cases were referred to a tertiary care hospital for confirmation by parasitology (slit skin smear (SSS and/or histopathology. We calculated the risk of PKDL using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and exact logistic regression for risk factors. RESULTS: Out of 680 past-treated VL patients, 37(5.4% presented active skin lesions suspect of PKDL during the survey. Thirty-three of them underwent dermatological assessment, and 16 (2.4% were ascertained as probable (2 or confirmed (14 PKDL. Survival analysis showed a 1.4% risk of PKDL within 2 years of VL treatment. All 16 had been previously treated with sodium stibogluconate (SSG for their VL. In 5, treatment had not been completed (≤ 21 injections. Skin lesions developed after a median time interval of 23 months [interquartile range (IQR 16-40]. We found a higher PKDL rate (29.4% in those inadequately treated compared to those who received a full SSG course (2.0%. In the logistic regression model, unsupervised treatment [odds ratio (OR = 8.58, 95% CI 1.21-374.77], and inadequate SSG treatment for VL in the past (OR = 11.68, 95% CI 2.71-45.47 were significantly associated with PKDL. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of PKDL after VL treatment in Nepal is low compared to neighboring countries. Supervised and adequate treatment of VL seems essential to reduce the risk of PKDL development and active surveillance for PKDL is needed.

  10. Lesiones por virus Herpes simplex y estomatitis aftosa recidivante. Estudio epidemiológico en una muestra elegida al azar

    OpenAIRE

    Puy, D.; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; C. Dorado

    1996-01-01

    De entre las lesiones observadas en la cavidad bucal, las producidas por el virus Herpes simplex (VHS) y las originadas en la estomatitis aftosa recidivante (EAR) representan una parte importante de las lesiones que el odontólogo o estomatólogo encuentra cotidianamente. Aunque cada uno de estos dos procesos posee una etiopatogenia y unas características diferentes, en algunas ocasiones su diagnóstico puede llegar a ser controvertido y difícil, debido a su similar apariencia clínica, planteánd...

  11. Un imperativo moral: la enseñanza de la estadística no puede dejarse al azar

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella, María Soledad

    2014-01-01

    La conferencia aborda la enseñanza de la estadística, destacando tres modelos específicos del área: la guía GAISE, el ciclo investigativo PPDAC, y el ambiente para el aprendizaje del razonamiento estadístico SRLE. Además, se centra en el desarrollo del pensamiento estadístico según la jerarquía cognitiva de alfabetización estadística, razonamiento y pensamiento estadístico.

  12. Esfera pública y juegos de azar: del meeting contra el juego al allanamiento de domicilio privado. Prensa, parlamento y policía en Buenos Aires (1901-1902 Esfera Pública e jogos: do meeting contra o jogo ao allanamiento de domicílio privado. Imprensa, parlamento e polícia em Buenos Aires, (1901-1902 Public Sphere and Gambling: from the meeting against Gambling to Legal Home Search. Press, Parliament and Police in Buenos Aires, (1901-1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Victoria Cecchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El 29 de septiembre de 1901 se realizó, en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, un meeting contra el juego concurriendo a la Plaza de Mayo unas 5.000 personas que solicitaron del Presidente de la República la represión de los juegos de azar en el ámbito urbano. El meeting contra el juego permite indagar el lugar ocupado por la prensa en la organización de una movilización de estas características, cuyo eje de protesta encuentra sus fundamentos en el terreno moral y pone en evidencia que no todas las iniciativas nacidas en el seno de la opinión pública van en el sentido de la ampliación de derechos. Las discusiones parlamentarias que esta movilización proyecta también resultan de interés en la medida en que derivan, en 1902, en la sanción de la ley de Represión del juego que volverá legal el allanamiento de domicilio privado.Em 29 de Setembro de 1901 realizou-se na cidade de Buenos Aires um meeting contra o jogo, participando 5.000 pessoas na Plaza de Mayo que solicitaram ao Presidente da República a repressão dos jogos de azar nas áreas urbanas. O meeting contra o jogo permite examinar o lugar da imprensa na organização de uma mobilização destas características, cujo eixo de protesto encontra seus fundamentos no território moral e evidencia que nem todas as iniciativas surgidas na opinião pública refletem a ampliação de direitos. Os debates parlamentários que esta mobilização suscitou também interessam porque -depois de varios meses- derivam, em 1902, na sanção de uma Lei de repressão ao jogo que tornará legal a invasão policial de domicílio particular.On September the 29th, 1901, a meeting against gambling was held in Buenos Aires: about 5,000 people attended the Plaza de Mayo and demanded that the President of the Republic repressed games of chance in urban environments. This meeting against gambling provides grounds for an inquiry regarding the role the media plays in the organization of such events, which start

  13. The Impact of Micro-Teaching on the Teaching Practice Performance of Undergraduate Agricultural Education Students in College of Education, Azare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'ad, Tata Umar; Sabo, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aliyu Dahuwa

    2015-01-01

    Micro-teaching and teaching practices are two integral parts of teacher education programme. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of micro-teaching on the teaching practice of the undergraduate Agricultural Education Students admitted in 2012/2013 Academic session in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The 400 level…

  14. Impairment of natural killer cell activity in Indian kala-azar: restoration of activity by interleukin 2 but not by alpha or gamma interferon.

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, P P; Bharadwaj, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chakrabarti, G; Basu, D; Mallik, K K; Bandyopadhyay, S.

    1993-01-01

    Indian kala-azar patients have normal numbers of peripheral blood NK cells but impaired functional activity due to decreased binding and lysis of target cells. This impairment of NK activity could not be corrected by exogenous recombinant human alpha or gamma interferon. However, recombinant human interleukin 2 was able to restore this activity by augmenting conjugate formation and lysis of target cells.

  15. Identification of New Antigens in Visceral Leishmaniasis by Expression Cloning and Immunoblotting with Sera of Kala-Azar Patients from Bihar, India†

    OpenAIRE

    Theinert, Stephan M.; Basu, Rajatava; Forgber, Michael; Roy, Syamal; Sundar, Shyam; Walden, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Sera of kala-azar patients from Bihar, India, were used to identify Leishmania donovani antigens encoded by a phage expression library. Ten antigens were identified, five of which have not been described as leishmania antigens before. The antigens specifically react with sera of leishmania-infected patients but not of toxoplasma- or plasmodium-infected patients.

  16. Detection and characterization of Leishmania in tissues of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis using a specific monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Kharazmi, A; Permin, H;

    1997-01-01

    Sections from skin lesions and draining lymph nodes of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis were examined using an immunoperoxidase method and a monoclonal antibody directed against Leishmania donovani. Parasites were detected in 22 of 25 biopsies (88%). In parallel sections stained...

  17. Genes that encodes NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are not virulence factors for kala-azar caused by Leishmania infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guedes Alcoforado Aguiar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Kala-azar is a disease resulting from infection by Leishmania donovani and Leishmania infantum. Most patients with the disease exhibit prolonged fever, wasting, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly without complications. However, some patients develop severe disease with hemorrhagic manifestations, bacterial infections, jaundice, and edema dyspnea, among other symptoms, followed by death. Among the parasite molecules that might influence the disease severity are the macrophage migration inhibitory factor-like proteins (MIF1 and MIF2 and N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (NAGT, which act in the first step of protein N-glycosylation. This study aimed to determine whether MIF1, MIF2 and NAGT are virulence factors for severe kala-azar. Methods To determine the parasite genotype in kala-azar patients from Northeastern Brazil, we sequenced the NAGT genes of L. infantum from 68 patients as well as the MIF1 and MIF2 genes from 76 different subjects with diverse clinical manifestations. After polymerase chain reaction (PCR, the fragments were sequenced, followed by polymorphism identification. Results The nucleotide sequencing of the 144 amplicons revealed the absence of genetic variability of the NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 genes between the isolates. The conservation of these genes suggests that the clinical variability of kala-azar does not depend upon these genes. Additionally, this conservation suggests that these genes may be critical for parasite survival. Conclusions NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 do not alter the severity of kala-azar. NAGT, MIF1 and MIF2 are highly conserved among different isolates of identical species and exhibit potential for use in phylogenetic inferences or molecular diagnosis.

  18. Matemáticas, Azar, Sociedad. Conceptos básicos de estadística

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Patricia; Mesa, Vilma María; Fernández, Felipe; Gómez, Pedro

    1996-01-01

    Este libro va dirigido, principalmente a estudiantes de Ciencias Sociales, quienes necesitan conocer y manejar conceptos elementales de estadística. La presentación de los temas se hace a partir de situaciones concretas que motivan y justifican su importancia. Para llegar a expresar la forma operativa de los conceptos se desarrolla un proceso de búsqueda, con énfasis experimental, con el que se pretende aclarar paulatinamente, el concepto y además proporcionar al estudiante un modelo de una m...

  19. The development of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is associated with acquisition of Leishmania reactivity by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M; Kharazmi, A;

    2000-01-01

    production to Leishmania donovani and control antigens were measured in vitro using PBMC isolated at the time of diagnosis of kala-azar, after treatment of visceral leishmaniasis, during follow up, and at the time of diagnosis of PKDL. Proliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production were...... low at diagnosis and increased after treatment of kala-azar in both patients who developed (group 1) and those who did not develop PKDL later (group 2). In group 1, development of PKDL was always associated by an increased PBMC response to Leishmania antigen in proliferation and IFN-gamma production...... assays. There were no differences in Leishmania antigen-induced production of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 between or within the two groups. We have previously shown that Leishmania parasites spread to the skin during visceral leishmaniasis and proposed that PKDL was the result of an immunological attack...

  20. Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mehdi MOHEBALI; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; AKHOUNDI, Behnaz; HAJJARAN, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; ALIZADEH, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were ident...

  1. Juegos de azar en la enseñanza de probabilidad: la intuición como base del aprendizaje formal

    OpenAIRE

    Lavenant, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta un análisis de la importancia otorgada a los juegos de azar y su carácter intuitivo para la enseñanza de probabilidad en la propuesta institucional para educación primaria en México, así como los primeros resultados de una actividad realizada con niños de primaria.

  2. Seasonal relationship between normalized difference vegetation index and abundance of the Phlebotomus kala-azar vector in an endemic focus in Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri S. Bhunia; Shreekant Kesari; Nandini Chatterjee; Rakesh Mandal; Vijay Kumar; Pradeep Das

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing was applied for the collection of spatio-temporal data to increase our understanding of the potential distribution of the kala-azar vector Phlebotomus argentipes in endemic areas of the Vaishali district of Bihar, India. We produced monthly distribution maps of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on data from the thematic mapper (TM) sensor onboard the Landsat-5 satellite. Minimum, maximum and mean NDVI values were computed for each month and compared with t...

  3. Treatment-Based Strategy for the Management of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Patients in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Musa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a dermatosis that affects more than 50% of successfully treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients in Sudan. PKDL is considered an important reservoir for the parasite and its treatment may help in the control of VL. Currently, treatment is mainly with sodium stibogluconate (SSG, an expensive and fairly toxic drug and without universally in treatment protocols used. A literature review, a consensus of a panel of experts, and unpublished data formed the basis for the development of guidelines for the treatment of PKDL in the Sudan. Six treatment modalities were evaluated. Experts were asked to justify their choices based on their experience regarding of drug safety, efficacy, availability, and cost. The consensus was defined by assigning a categorical rank (first line, second line, third line to each option. Regarding the use of AmBisome the presence of the drug in the skin was confirmed in smears from PKDL lesions. Recommendations: AmBisome at 2.5 mg/kg/day/20 days or SSG at 20 mg/kg/day/40 days plus four/weekly intradermal injection of alum-precipitated autoclave L. major vaccine are suggested as first- and second-treatment options for PKDL in the Sudan, respectively. SSG at 20 mg/Kg/day/60 or more days can be used if other options are not available.

  4. Choice of providers for treating a neglected tropical disease:an empirical analysis of kala azar in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShivaRajAdhikari; SiripenSupakankunti; MMahmudKhan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To examine the choice of healthcare providers for treating kala azar (KA) in Nepal. Methods:Information was collected from clinically diagnosed KA patients seeking care from public hospitals located in KA endemic districts. The survey collected information from more than 25 percent of total KA cases in the country. For empirical estimation of probability of choosing a provider-type as a first contact healthcare provider, a multinomial logit model was defined with five alternative options with self care as the reference category. Results: The empirical model found that price of medical care services, income of households, knowledge of patients on KA and KA treatment, borrowing money, age of patient, perceived quality of provider types, etc. determine the likelihood of seeking care from the alternative options considered in the analysis. All variables have expected signs and are consistent with earlier studies. The price and income elasticity were found to be very high indicating that poorer households are very sensitive to price and income changes, even for a severe disease like KA. Using the empirical models, we have analyzed two policy instruments:demand side financing and interventions to improve the knowledge index about KA. Conclusions:Due to high price elasticity of KA care and high spillover effects of KA on the society, policy makers may consider demand side financing as an instrument to encourage utilization of public hospitals.

  5. Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis: A Paradigm of Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in Non-HIV/AIDS Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a parasitic disease characterized by immune suppression. Successful treatment is usually followed by immune reconstitution and a dermatosis called post-Kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL. Recently, PKDL was described as one of the immune reconstitution syndromes (IRISs in HIV/VL patients on HAART. This study aimed to present PKDL as a typical example of paradoxical IRIS in non-HIV/AIDS individuals. Published and new data on the pathogenesis and healing of PKDL was reviewed and presented. The data suggested that PKDL is a typical example of paradoxical IRIS, being a new disease entity that follows VL successful treatment and immune recovery. PKDL lesions are immune inflammatory in nature with granuloma, adequate response to immunochemotherapy, and an ensuing hypersensitivity reaction, the leishmanin skin test (LST. The data also suggested that the cytokine patterns of PKDL pathogenesis and healing are probably as follows: an active disease state dominated by IL-10 followed by spontaneous/treatment-induced IL-12 priming, IL-2 stimulation, and INF-γ production. INF-γ-activated macrophages eliminate the Leishmania parasites/antigen to be followed by LST conversion and healing. In conclusion, PKDL is a typical example of paradoxical IRIS in non-HIV/AIDS individuals with anti-inflammatory cytokine patterns that are superseded by treatment-induced proinflammatory cytokines and lesions healing.

  6. Factores de riesgo asociados al embarazo ectópico

    OpenAIRE

    Jónathan Hernández Núñez; Magel Valdés Yong; Andrés Oscar Torres Chávez

    2013-01-01

    Fundamento: el embarazo ectópico se ha duplicado en la mayor parte de los países industrializados y representa una de las principales causas de muerte materna. Objetivo: identificar factores de riesgo que predisponen al embarazo ectópico.Métodos: estudio de casos y controles realizado en un universo de 132 pacientes del Municipio Habana del Este, operadas de embarazo ectópico en el Hospital Dr. Luís Díaz Soto desde el 2009 al 2011. Se escogió una muestra al azar de 66 pacientes que constituyó...

  7. Immunochromatographic strip test detection of anti-rK39 antibody for the diagnosis of kala-azar in an endemic zone of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid immunochromatographic dipstick test (ICT) has become available for the qualitative detection of anti-Leishmania antibody using recombinant rK39 antigen. This study was carried out at the department of Microbiology of Rajshahi Medical College, Bangladesh, in order to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunochromatographic dipstick test. A total of one hundred cases including 60 admitted patients with strong clinical suspicion of kala-azar and 40 healthy controls were investigated for the performance of the ICT. Splenic smears were examined for microscopic detection of Leishman Donovan (LD) bodies obtained from the admitted patients only and smear-positive cases were considered as gold standard as well as confirmed cases of kala-azar. Out of 60 suspected patients, fifty three (88.33%) were found smear-positive and fifty nine (98.33%) were positive for immunochromatographic strip test. All smear-positive cases were also positive for strip test. Voluntary healthy controls (40), which included twenty persons from the endemic zone and twenty from non-endemic zone of kala-azar, were found all negative for the strip test. The sensitivity and specificity of immunochromatographic strip test were found to be 100.00% and 86.95% respectively. Present study findings again reinforce that the immunochromatographic strip test is a simple, reliable and easy-to-perform non-invasive diagnostic tool for visceral leishmaniasis in the endemic area of Bangladesh. (author)

  8. The FML (Fucose Mannose Ligand of Leishmania donovani: a new tool in diagnosis, prognosis, transfusional control and vaccination against human kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claris B. Palatnik de Sousa

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fucose-Mannose Ligand (FML of Leishmania donovani is a complex glycoproteic fraction. Its potential use as a tool for diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis was tested with human sera from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The FML-ELISA test, showed 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity, identifying patients with overt kala-azar (p < 0.001, when compared to normal sera, and subjects with subclinical infection. More than 20% apparently healthy subjects with positive reaction to FML developed overt kala-azar during the following 10 months. In the screening of human blood donnors, a prevalence of 5% of sororeactive subjects was detected, attaining 17% in a single day. The GP36 glycoprotein of FHL is specifically reconized by human kala-azar sera. The immunoprotective effect of FML on experimental L. donovanii infection was tested in swiss albino mice. The protection scheemes included three weekly doses of FML, supplemented or not with saponin by the subcutaneous or intraperitoneal routes and challenge with 2x 10(7 amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. An enhancement of 80.0 % in antibody response (p<0.001 and reduction of 85.5 % parasite liver burden (p<0.001 was detected in animals immunized with FML saponin, unrespectivety of the immunization route.

  9. Variabilidad genética según RAPD de árboles de guayabo 'Media China' procedentes de cuatro plantaciones y su respuesta morfológica a baja disponibilidad de nutrimentos

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Domínguez Álvarez; R. Nieto-Ángel; A. F. Barrientos- Priego; J. P. Legaria-Solano; J. Pineda-Pineda

    2005-01-01

    En la presente investigación se evaluó la variabilidad molecular y morfológica mediante marcadores tipo RAPD’s (Polimorfismos en el ADN Amplificados al Azar), de plantas de guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) ‘Media China’ derivadas de semilla y sometidas a baja disponibilidad de Fe y Zn. Se establecieron asociaciones entre diecisiete caracteres morfológicos y 49 loci RAPD’s y la respuesta de las plantas al estrés nutrimental, mediante análisis de agrupamiento empleando el NTSYS, DARwin y #967;2. E...

  10. Evaluation of cellular immunological responses in mono- and polymorphic clinical forms of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, H; Bras-Gonçalves, R; Avishek, K; Kumar Deep, D; Petitdidier, E; Lemesre, J-L; Papierok, G; Kumar, S; Ramesh, V; Salotra, P

    2016-07-01

    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic dermal complication that occurs usually after recovery from visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The disease manifests into macular, papular and/or nodular clinical types with mono- or polymorphic presentations. Here, we investigated differences in immunological response between these two distinct clinical forms in Indian PKDL patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of PKDL and naive individuals were exposed in vitro to total soluble Leishmania antigen (TSLA). The proliferation index was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based lymphoproliferative assay. Cytokines and granzyme B levels were determined by cytometric bead array. Parasite load in tissue biopsy samples of PKDL was quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The proportion of different lymphoid subsets in peripheral blood and the activated T cell population were estimated using flow cytometry. The study demonstrated heightened cellular immune responses in the polymorphic PKDL group compared to the naive group. The polymorphic group showed significantly higher lymphoproliferation, increased cytokines and granzyme B levels upon TSLA stimulation, and a raised proportion of circulating natural killer (NK) T cells against naive controls. Furthermore, the polymorphic group showed a significantly elevated proportion of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells upon in-vitro TSLA stimulation. Thus, the polymorphic variants showed pronounced cellular immunity while the monomorphic form demonstrated a comparatively lower cellular response. Additionally, the elevated level of both activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, coupled with high granzyme B secretion upon in-vitro TSLA stimulation, indicated the role of cytotoxic cells in resistance to L. donovani infection in polymorphic PKDL. PMID:26948150

  11. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  12. Patrones de faseolinas y análisis RAPD en especies domesticadas de phaseolus

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Porfirio Legaria Solano

    2005-01-01

    En este estudio se comparó la eficiencia de dos marcadores, uno bioquímico (proteínas faseolinas) y otro genético (RAPD, polimorfismos en el ADN amplificados al azar) para evaluar la diversidad genética y establecer relaciones filogenéticas entre P. vulgaris, P. lunatus y P. coccineus. El análisis de los patrones de faseolinas permitió detectar polimorfismo entre las especies evaluadas, pero no entre variedades de frijol o individuos de una variedad. Las especies más relacio...

  13. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

    OpenAIRE

    Analía A. Lanteri; Confalonieri, Viviana A.; M. Amalia Scataglini

    2003-01-01

    Después de diez años del primer registro del picudo del algodonero, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), en la Argentina, el insecto ha llegado a la zona algodonera del Chaco. Los estudios moleculares realizados sobre poblaciones de la Argentina, Brasil y Paraguay, y posibles poblaciones fuente de EE.UU y México, han aportado información relevante para el control de la plaga. Se aplicaron las técnicas de RAPD (Polimorfismos del ADN Amplificados al Azar) y de secuenciación d...

  14. DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA EN CUATRO ESPECIES MEXICANAS DE CALABAZA (Cucurbita spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdes Cerón González; Juan P. Legaria Solano; Clemente Villanueva Verduzco; Jaime Sahagún Castellanos

    2010-01-01

    Se analizaron colecciones de cuatro especies de calabaza cultivada (Curcubita argyrosperma Huber, C. pepo L., C. moschata (Duchesne ex Lam.) Duchesne ex Poiret, y C. ficifolia Bouché) provenientes de la región Centro-Sur de México, para determinar la diversidad genética entre y dentro de las especies, y obtener las huellas genéticas correspondientes. Se utilizaron marcadores moleculares tipo RAPD (Polimorfismos en el ADN Amplificados al Azar). Se probaron 60 iniciadores y se estudió un total ...

  15. Diversidad genética en pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus Haworth. Britton y Rose)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Porfirio Legaria Solano; María Elisa Alvarado Cano; Ricardo Gaspar Hernández

    2005-01-01

    Se evaluó la variabilidad genética con marcadores RAPD (Polimorfismos en el ADN Amplificados al Azar) en 50 colectas de pitahaya (Hylocereus undatus Haworth, Britton and Rose) provenientes de nueve estados de México y una colecta de Colombia que se incluyó como testigo. Se detectó alta variabilidad genética (polimorfismo entre colectas de 92.5 %) en las poblaciones de pitahaya. Las huellas genéticas obtenidas permitieron la identificación individual de cada material genét...

  16. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam; Hirotomo Kato; Mizuho Fukushige; Yukiko Wagatsuma; Makoto Itoh

    2012-01-01

    Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identif...

  17. Treatment of Kala-azar in Southern Sudan Using a 17-day Regimen of Sodium Stibogluconate Combined with Paromomycin: A Retrospective Comparison with 30-day Sodium Stibogluconate Monotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Melaku, Yosef; Collin, S.; Keus, Kees; Gatluak, Francis; Ritmeijer, Koert; Davidson, R. N.

    2007-01-01

    Médecins sans Frontières-Holland has treated > 67,000 patients with kala-azar (KA) in southern Sudan since 1989. In 2002, we replaced the standard regimen of 30 days of daily sodium stibogluconate (SSG) with a 17-day regimen of daily SSG combined with paromomycin (PM). We analyzed data for 4,263 primary KA patients treated between 2002 and 2005 in southern Sudan to determine the relative efficacy of the combination therapy regimen (PM/SSG). The initial cure rate among patients treated with PM...

  18. The pathogenesis of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis from the field to the molecule: does ultraviolet light (UVB) radiation play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, A; Khalil, E A G; Musa, A M;

    2006-01-01

    Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatosis caused by persistence of Leishmania donovani parasites in the skin following apparently successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. The distribution of PKDL lesions in Sudanese patients often mirrors the clothing habits of those...... affected. It is most severe in or confined to the sun-exposed parts of the skin. It is well established that elimination of Leishmania parasites requires activation of parasitised macrophages by a Th1 immune response and that the latter is depressed by ultraviolet light (UVB). In this paper, we...

  19. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a light microscopical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study of skin lesions and draining lymph nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Gadir, A Fattah A; Theander, Thor G;

    2006-01-01

    cells. Degenerating basal keratinocytes expressed HLA-DR, ICAM-1 and Leishmania antigen and closely interacted with CD4 T cells. Regional lymph nodes showed hyperplasia of the B- and T-cell zones. Conclusions: The inflammatory reaction in PKDL lesions is in response to Leishmania parasites and....../or antigen. The majority of cells are CD4 T cells. Degeneration of the basal keratinocytes is probably due to the action of cytotoxic CD4 T cells interacting with leishmania-expressing epidermal cells. Ismail A, Gadir AFA, Theander TG, Kharazmi A, El Hassan AM. Pathology of post-kala-azar dermal...

  20. « El azar y la necesidad » Élite y elecciones matrimoniales en Buenos Aires 1776-1820. Las familias Azcuénaga y Andonaegui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Selva Senor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente articulo se reconstruyen las trayectorias matrimoniales de dos familias de la élite en el Río de la Plata entre 1776 y 1810 con el objeto de descubrir las estrategias seguidas por las mismas y las repercusiones del azar. Desde una perspectiva microanalitica y a partir de la utilización de la noción de redes sociales se intentará ilustrar acerca de las reglas sociales en una sociedad con variados contextos normativos superpuestos, que incluyen asimismo a la política del Estado y en la que los agentes pueden manipular reglas y tomar decisiones haciendo que el grado de incertidumbre sea mayor.

  1. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  2. PKDL--A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Ganguly

    Full Text Available Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46% for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6-12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period.

  3. A retrospective study of intravenous sodium stibogluconate alone and in combinations with allopurinol, rifampicin, and an immunomodulator in the treatment of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A retrospective analysis of treatment outcome using recommended dose of sodium stibogluconate (SSG alone and in combination with other antileishmanial drugs in adults with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL attending as outpatients. Methods: A total of 61 patients seen over ten years were included in the report. All had polymorphic lesions. Diagnosis was based on clinical picture, hailing from kala-azar (KA endemic area, exclusion of other dermatoses, histopathology, and therapeutic response. Patients were distributed into two groups: Group I (n = 32, where SSG was given intravenously; in Group II (n = 29, they were allocated to one of four categories using SSG in combination with other drugs. In the first category, SSG was given along with allopurinol (n = 10; in second with rifampicin (n = 6; and in third with both allopurinol and rifampicin (n = 5. In the fourth category, SSG was administered with an immunomodulator (n = 8, Mw vaccine, known to enhance host Th1 response. Results: Only 12 out of 61 patients completed treatment till histopathologic evidence of cure, five in Group I and seven in Group II, no patient being from third category. None had taken SSG without interruptions. Time taken for papulonodules to subside was similar in both groups, but erythema and induration subsided earlier in Group II. Group I patients attained cure after 120 injections while in Group II it took 95 injections in SSG + allopurinol and Mw vaccine categories respectively, and 110 with SSG + rifampicin. Nevertheless this was insufficient to facilitate compliance. Poor performance and high dropouts related to long duration of therapy, thrombophlebitis, difficulty in accessing veins, disabling rheumatic side-effects and practical problems. Liver, renal and pancreatic functions and ECG remained normal. Conclusion: No major advantage was obtained using allopurinol, rifampicin or Mw vaccine along with SSG as compared to SSG alone.

  4. Cutaneous and post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum in endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, northwestern Iran 2002–2011: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Amini, Hassan; Zarei, Zabiholah; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Emdadi, Dariush; Molaei, Soheila; Kusha, Ahmad; Alizadeh, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Northwest and southern Iran. Reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Northwest areas are rare, and its etiological agents are unknown. In the current study, we report six CL and two post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) cases caused by Leishmania infantum from endemic areas of VL in the Northwest. Smears were made from skin lesions of 30 suspected patients in 2002–2011, and CL was determined by microscopy or culture. Leishmania spp. were identified by nested-PCR assay. The disease was confirmed in 20 out of 30 (66%) suspected patients by parasitological examinations. L. infantum was identified in eight and Leishmania major in 12 CL cases by nested-PCR. Cutaneous leishmaniasis patients infected with L. major had the history of travel to CL endemic areas. L. infantum antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers of 1:3200 in two cases with history of VL. Results of this study indicated that L. infantum is a causative agent of CL as well as PKDL in the VL endemic areas. PMID:23816511

  5. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep; Avishek, Kumar; Sharma, Vanila; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Salotra, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is at the forefront in the search for innovative diagnostics for rapid and specific amplification of target DNA under isothermal conditions. We have applied LAMP assay using SYBR Green for clear-cut naked eye detection of Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani in 200 clinical samples of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). The assay was positive in 53/55 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 87.7-99%), 15/15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI, 79.6-100%), 60/62 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 96.8%; 95% CI, 88.9-99.1%), and 1/68 control samples (specificity, 98.5%; 95% CI, 92.1-99.7%). The assay was specific for L. (L.) donovani, the causative species for VL and negative for L. (L.) infantum, L. (L.) tropica, and L. (L.) major. This is the first comprehensive clinical study demonstrating the applicability of the LAMP assay for a rapid and reliable molecular diagnosis of VL and PKDL. PMID:23433714

  6. El azar de la mujer rubia, de Manuel Vicent: memorias de la transición entre la ficción, la prensa y la historia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Bonino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the next paper I intend to look the novel written by Manuel Vicent El azar de la mujer rubia. The text is presented to us as a new perspective on the transition, this time structured from a female character from which are drawn the wires of the Spanish history since Franco’s death until the present. However, the reading of the work reveals that the character is in the foreground is not another that Adolfo Suárez and that the material that serves as a starting point is the own journalistic of Manuel Vicent. It would think then this novel as an attempt to save from oblivion those newspaper articles of inestimable value –for having been written at the time that the historical events were unfolding– but also as a work that was presented as novel to reveal the hidden story of a love triangle that directly influenced the history of the country, with a female character that is, for the first time, recovered and processed into heroin. The study will focus on the way in which Vicent retrieves those journalistic texts and in the operations of inclusion of the same in a text that mixes fiction with history to return, once more, to the one of the momentous of the recent Spanish history

  7. Application of RFLP-PCR-Based Identification for Sand Fly Surveillance in an Area Endemic for Kala-Azar in Mymensingh, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shafiul Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mymensingh is the most endemic district for kala-azar in Bangladesh. Phlebotomus argentipes remains the only known vector although a number of sand fly species are prevalent in this area. Genotyping of sand flies distributed in a VL endemic area was developed by a PCR and restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP of 18S rRNA gene of sand fly species. Using the RFLP-PCR analysis with AfaI and HinfI restriction enzymes, P. argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia species could be identified. Among 1,055 female sand flies successfully analyzed for the species identification individually, 64.4% flies was classified as Sergentomyia species, whereas 35.6% was identified as P. argentipes and no P. papatasi was found. Although infection of Leishmania within the sand flies was individually examined targeting leishmanial minicircle DNA, none of the 1,055 sand flies examined were positive for Leishmania infection. The RFLP-PCR could be useful tools for taxonomic identification and Leishmania infection monitoring in endemic areas of Bangladesh.

  8. Perfil de restrição de um fragmento do gene da hemaglutinina amplificado pela RT-PCR a partir de estirpes vacinais e selvagens do vírus da cinomose canina Restriction pattern of a hemagglutinin gene amplified by RT-PCR from vaccine strains and wild-type canine distemper virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Negrão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragmentos com 721 pares de bases do gene da hemaglutinina (H do vírus da cinomose canina (CDV, amplificados pela RT-PCR a partir de três estirpes vacinais (Snyder Hill, Onderstepoort e Rockborn e de 27 amostras de campo, provenientes de cães com cinomose, foram clivados com as endonucleases Hinf I and Rsa I. A seleção das enzimas foi realizada por meio de análises in silico de seqüências do CDV depositadas em bases públicas de dados. Tanto as estirpes vacinais quanto as amostras selvagens do CDV apresentaram com a enzima Hinf I o mesmo perfil de restrição, confirmando a identidade do fragmento amplificado pela RT-PCR, uma vez que todas as estirpes com seqüências disponíveis (GenBank têm sítios de restrição para essa enzima nas mesmas posições. O perfil de restrição das estirpes vacinais Snyder Hill e Onderstepoort, que diferem entre si, foi confirmado com a enzima Rsa I que também clivou a estirpe Rockborn nas mesmas posições que a estirpe Snyder Hill. Todas as 27 amostras de campo do CDV apresentaram com a enzima Rsa I o mesmo perfil de restrição, indicando conservar os mesmos sítios de restrição para essa enzima. O perfil das amostras de campo foi diferente daquele obtido nas três estirpes vacinais. Os perfis de restrição do gene que codifica a hemaglutinina do CDV, gerados pela enzima Rsa I, sugerem diferenças moleculares entre as estirpes vacinais e as selvagens circulantes na região norte do estado do Paraná e abrem a perspectiva da elaboração de análises moleculares comparativas mais complexas, como o seqüenciamento de todo o gene H, de estirpes do CDV identificadas em diferentes regiões brasileiras.The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP assay of a 721 bp fragment from hemagglutinin (H gene of canine distemper virus (CDV amplified by RT-PCR was analyzed with Hinf I and Rsa I enzymes. Clinical samples from 27 dogs with natural canine distemper infection, and three vaccine (Snyder Hill

  9. The FML (Fucose Mannose Ligand of Leishmania donovani: a new tool in diagnosis, prognosis, transfusional control and vaccination against human kala-azar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claris B. Palatnik de Sousa

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available The Fucose-Mannose Ligand (FML of Leishmania donovani is a complex glycoproteic fraction. Its potential use as a tool for diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis was tested with human sera from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The FML-ELISA test, showed 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity, identifying patients with overt kala-azar (p O FML (Ligame de Fucose-Manose de Leishmania donovani é uma fração glicoproteica complexa. O seu potencial no diagnóstico da leishmaniose visceral humana foi testado com soros provenientes de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. O teste de FML-ELISA mostrou 100% de sensibilidade e 96% de especificidade, identificando pacientes com calazar declarado (p<0.001, comparados com soros normais e indivíduos com infecção subclínica. Mais de 20% dos sororreativos assimptomáticos desenvolveram a doença no prazo de 10 meses. Na análise de doadores de sangue, 5% de sororeativos, atingindo até 17% num único dia foram detectados. A glicoproteínaGP36 do FHL é reconhecida especificamente por soros de pacientes com calazar. O potencial imunoprotetor do FML no calazar experimental foi testado no modelo swiss albino em combinação com saponina pelas vias subcutâneas e/ou intraperitoneal seguido de desafio com 2x 10(7 amastigolas de Leishmania donovani. Um aumento de 80.0% na resposta de anticorpos específicos (p<0.001 e a redução de 85.5 % da carga parasitária no fígado (p<0.001 foi detectado nos animais vacinados com FML e saponina, independentemente da via de administração.

  10. Mapping the potential distribution of Phlebotomus martini and P. orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae), vectors of kala-azar in East Africa by use of geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre-Michael, T; Malone, J B; Balkew, M; Ali, A; Berhe, N; Hailu, A; Herzi, A A

    2004-03-01

    The distribution of two principal vectors of kala-azar in East Africa, Phlebotomus martini and Phlebotomus orientalis were analysed using geographic information system (GIS) based on (1) earth observing satellite sensor data: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and midday Land Surface Temperature (LST) derived from advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) of the global land 1km project of United States Geological Survey (USGS), (2) agroclimatic data from the FAO Crop Production System Zone (CPSZ) of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sub-region, and (3) the FAO 1998 soils digital map for the IGAD sub-region. The aim was to produce a predictive risk model for the two vectors. Data used for the analysis were based on presence and absence of the two species from previous survey collections in the region (mainly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia). Annual, wet season and dry season models were constructed. Although all models resulted in more than 85% positive predictive values for both species, the best fit for the distribution of P. martini was the dry season composite (NDVI 0.07-0.38 and LST 22-33 degrees C) with a predictive value of 93.8%, and the best fit for P. orientalis was the wet season composite (NDVI -0.01 to 0.34 and LST 23-34 degrees C) with a predictive value of 96.3%. The two seasonal composites models derived from satellite data were largely similar with best fit models developed based on the CPSZ climate data: average altitude (12-1900m), average annual mean temperature (15-30 degrees C), annual rainfall (274-1212mm), average annual potential evapotranspiration (1264-1938mm) and readily available soil moisture (62-113mm) for P. martini; and average altitude (200-2200m), annual rainfall (180-1050mm), annual mean temperature (16-36 degrees C) and readily available soil moisture (67-108mm) for P. orientalis. Logistic regression analysis indicated LST dry season composite of the satellite data, average altitude, mean annual

  11. Risk Zone Modelling and Early Warning System for Visceral Leishmaniasis Kala-Azar Disease in Bihar, India Using Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaram, A.; Kesari, S.; Bajpai, A.; Bhunia, G. S.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.

    2012-07-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) commonly known as Kala-azar is one of the most neglected tropical disease affecting approximately 200 million poorest populations 'at risk in 109 districts of three endemic countries namely Bangladesh, India and Nepal at different levels. This tropical disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani and transmitted by female Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. The analysis of disease dynamics indicate the periodicity at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scale which forms the basis for development of advanced early warning system. Study area of highly endemic Vaishali district, Bihar, India has been taken for model development. A Systematic study of geo-environmental parameters derived from satellite data in conjunction with ground intelligence enabled modelling of infectious disease and risk villages. High resolution Indian satellites data of IRS LISS IV (multi-spectral) and Cartosat-1 (Pan) have been used for studying environmentally risk parameters viz. peri-domestic vegetation, dwelling condition, wetland ecosystem, cropping pattern, Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), detailed land use etc towards risk assessment. Univariate analysis of the relationship between vector density and various land cover categories and climatic variables suggested that all the variables are significantly correlated. Using the significantly correlated variables with vector density, a seasonal multivariate regression model has been carried out incorporating geo-environmental parameters, climate variables and seasonal time series disease parameters. Linear and non-linear models have been applied for periodicity and interannual temporal scale to predict Man-hour-density (MHD) and 'out-of-fit' data set used for validating the model with reasonable accuracy. To improve the MHD predictive approach, fuzzy model has also been incorporated in GIS environment combining spatial geo-environmental and climatic variables using fuzzy membership

  12. Búsqueda de genes de resistencia al pasador del fruto en poblaciones segregantes de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Rodríguez Mora

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético para encontrar resistencia al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, en tomate, Solanum lycopersicum L. se han basado en métodos tradicionales de introgresión genética por medio de retrocruzamiento. Sin embargo este proceso es largo y dispendioso. Debido a esta problemática, se utilizó la técnica molecular cDNA-AFLP para identificar genes involucrados en la resistencia a esta plaga en poblaciones segregantes de tomate, con el fin de identificar marcadores moleculares que puedan ser utilizados en futuros programas de fitomejoramiento. Los materiales de tomate evaluados fueron Unapal-Maravilla (susceptible, S. habrochaites var. glabratum, accesión PI 134418 (resistente y tres retrocruzamientos obtenidos del cruzamiento interespecífico entre ambas especies. De estos materiales vegetales se extrajo el RNA total y se sintetizó el cDNA, el cual se utilizó como material de inicio de la técnica cDNA-AFLP. A partir del preamplificado de cDNA se evaluaron diferentes combinaciones de primers: +1+1, +3+3 y sus derivados. La combinación que presentó mejores amplificados fue la +1+1, para un total de 37 bandas polimórficas. De estas bandas, 9 fragmentos tipo EST (Expressed Sequence Target fueron recuperados, siendo candidatos a explicar la resistencia al pasador del fruto en tomate.

  13. Genotype characterization of Haematobia irritans from different Brazilian geographic regions based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis Caracterização genotípica de Haematobia irritans procedentes de diferentes regiões geográficas brasileiras baseada na análise do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G. Brito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-sucking diptera are important parasites in bovine production systems, especially regarding confinement conditions. Haematobia irritans, the horn fly, is one of the most troublesome species within bovine production systems, due to the intense stress imposed to the animals. An important aspect while studying the variability within a species is the study of the geographic structure of its populations and, attempting to find out the genetic flow of Brazilian populations of horn fly, the RAPD technique, which is suited for this purpose, has been used. The use of molecular markers generated from RAPD made it possible to identify the geographic origin of samples from different Brazilian geographic regions, as well as to estimate the genotypic flow among the different Brazilian populations of the horn fly.Dípteras hematófagos são importantes parasitas dentro de sistemas de produção de bovinos, especialmente em confinamento. Haematobia irritans, a mosca-dos-chifres, é uma das espécies que maiores problemas causa em sistemas de produção de bovinos, dado ao intenso estresse que impõe aos animais. Um importante aspecto quando se estuda a variabilidade genética dentro das espécies é o estudo da estrutura geográfica destas populações. Buscando-se estimar a similaridade genotípica das diferentes populações brasileiras da mosca do chifre utilizou-se a técnica do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD-PCR, que mostrou-se eficiente para tal propósito. A utilização dos marcadores moleculares gerados através da técnica de RAPD-PCR tornou possível a identificação da origem geográfica das amostras das diferentes regiões geográficas brasileiras, assim como, estimar o fluxo genotípico entre as diferentes populações brasileiras da mosca-dos-chifres.

  14. Seqüenciamento e variabilidade do fragmento genômico de Xylella fastidiosa amplificado pelos iniciadores RST31/33 Sequencing and variability of the Xylella fastidosa - specific genomic fragment amplified by the primer pair RST 31/33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Wendland

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa é agente causal de diversas doenças de importância econômica como a clorose variegada dos citros (Citrus spp. (CVC, mal de Pierce da videira (Vitis vinifera, escaldadura da ameixeira (Prunus salicina e requeima do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica. A seqüência nucleotídica do fragmento genômico, específico de X. fastidiosa, amplificado pelo par de iniciadores RST31/33 foi determinada para 38 isolados de citros e para isolados de videira, cafeeiro e ameixeira objetivando avaliar o nível de polimorfismo entre isolados e a identidade genômica do fragmento. Não foi observado polimorfismo de seqüência nucleotídica entre isolados de citros, mas foi detectado polimorfismo entre isolados de citros e de videira, cafeeiro e ameixeira. A presença do sítio de clivagem RsaI, que distingue isolados de citros e videira de isolados de ameixeira e outras espécies arbóreas, foi identificada em um isolado de ameixeira proveniente dos EUA mas não em outro proveniente do Brasil.Xylella fastidiosa causes several plant diseases of economic importance such as citrus (Citrus spp. variegated chlorosis (CVC, Pierce's disease of grapevine (Vitis vinifera and leaf scorch of plum (Prunus salicina and coffee (Coffea arabica. The nucleotide sequence of the genomic fragment, specific to Xylella fastidosa, amplified by the pair of primers RST 31/33, was determined for 38 isolates from citrus and for isolates from grapevine, coffee and plum in order to assess the level of sequence polymorphism of this fragment among isolates, as well as its genomic identity. Sequence polymorphism was not observed among isolates from citrus, but was detected among isolates from citrus and from grapevine, coffee and plum. The presence of a RsaI restriction site, which distinguishes isolates from citrus and grapevine from plum and other arboreal species, was identified in a North American isolate from plum but not in a Brazilian one.

  15. DISTANCIA RADIAL AL AGUA, COBERTURA DE ESCAPE E INDICIOS DE COYOTE (Canis latrans), ASOCIADOS A LA PRESENCIA DEL VENADO COLABLANCA (Odocoileus virginianus).

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Villarreal-Espino-Barros; Fernando X. Plata-Pérez; Germán D. Mendoza-Martínez; José A. Martínez-García; Hernández-García, Pedro A.; José L. Arcos-García

    2012-01-01

    El efecto de la distancia radial al agua (DRA) sobre el volumen vegetal, la cobertura de escape (CE) y la presencia del venado cola blanca, se evaluó. El trabajo se realizó en el estado de Puebla, México. Cinco áreas con una DRA menor a 800 m, cuatro entre 800-1,600 y cuatro mayores a 1,600 m, fueron seleccionadas utilizando un modelo completamente al azar. El volumen vegetal se estimó en estas áreas y fueron el punto de inicio de transectos en los cuales se estimó la CE y el número de grupos...

  16. EFICIENCIA EN LA ABSORCIÓN DEL N POR EL CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L.) DEBIDO AL EFECTO DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS EN UN SUELO FLUVISOL

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, E.; E. J. Gómez; Matilde Padilla; González, A; Irene Expósito

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el grado de utilización del nitrógeno, en dos cosechas de maíz rotadas con caupí (Vigna unguiculata Walp), debido al efecto en el suelo de varios tipos de abonos orgánicos. Para ello, se aplicaron al suelo cinco tipos de abonos orgánicos, de manera que cada uno de ellos aportara 475 kg.ha-1 de N total y se comparó la eficiencia en la utilización del N con un testigo sin abono. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en el campo en Bloques al Azar. Se encon...

  17. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  18. Study on the safety and efficacy of miltefosine for the treatment of children and adolescents with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in Bangladesh, and an association of serum vitamin E and exposure to arsenic with post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: an open clinical trial and case–control study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Hasnain, M G; Hossain, M S; Ghosh, D; Ghosh, P; Hossain, H; Baker, J; Nath, R; Haque, R; Matlashewski, G; Hamano, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a dermatological complication that occurs primarily among treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients, and sporadically in a few without a history of VL. It mostly affects children and adolescents but is also common in adults. The conventional treatment with 120 intramuscular injections of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) is phasing out. Miltefosine (MF) is the only eventual alternative to SSG; however, its efficacy and safety profiles for treatment of children and adolescents with PKDL are lacking. In addition, risk factors for PKDL are poorly investigated. Host genetic, nutritional and environmental factors could be potential risk factors. As such, here we propose to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MF for 12 weeks at an allometric dose for children and adolescents with PKDL, and also to explore potential risk factors for PKDL. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional survey will look for suspected participants with PKDL among treated VL children and adolescents, a subsequent open clinical trial with MF at allometric dose, with a follow-up at 12 months. A case–control study will be carried out for PKDL risk factors. Assuming 95% cure rate, 95% CI and α=0.05, a sample size of 73 children with PKDL is needed. Considering an attrition rate of 10%, the final sample size is 80 children in each group. Descriptive and analytical analyses will be performed. Primary outcome is safety and cure rate of 12 weeks of treatment with MF. Ethics and dissemination International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Ethical Review Committee (ERC) approved the protocol (PR#013045). Written informed consent will be taken from all participants and their guardians (in case of minor). A Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) of ICDDR,B ERC will monitor all study activities to ensure the safety of the participants. Trial registration number NCT02193022; Pre-results. PMID:27188804

  19. Use of single-enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism for typing Clostridium perfringens isolated from diarrheic piglets Uso do polimorfismo do comprimento de fragmentos amplificados para tipagem de Clostridium perfringens isolados de suínos com diarréia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Tieko Shinya

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen in human and veterinary medicine. In swine, the agent is responsible for necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, delayed development and, in some cases, death. In the present study amplified fragment length polymorphism analyses (AFLP was used to characterize 54 C. perfringens strains isolated from swine presenting diarrhea. Analysis of the results showed 29 distinct profiles with discriminatory index equal to 0.97. Partial correlation between the origin of the isolates and groups was drawn, and correlation was possible in only 18.5% of the samples. Characterization of the strains in biotypes (A, B, C, D and E, production of beta-2 toxin and enterotoxin were performed by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Biotypes A, C and D were observed among the strains analyzed. All samples were positive for presence of the gene encoding beta-2 toxin and negative for the gene encoding enterotoxin. AFLP have shown to be a simple, fast, low cost method with high discriminative power and good reproducibility, presenting a great potential in epidemiological studies involving C. perfringens strains of animal origin.Clostridium perfringens é um importante agente infeccioso em medicina veterinária e humana. Em suínos, o agente é responsável pela enterite necrótica e enterotoxemia, caracterizadas por diarréia, perda de peso, atraso no desenvolvimento e morte. No presente estudo foi utilizado o polimorfismo do comprimento de fragmentos amplificados (AFLP, para caracterizar 54 isolados de C. perfringens obtidos de suínos com diarréia. A análise dos resultados do AFLP demonstrou 29 perfis distintos com índice discriminatório igual a 0,97. A correlação entre a origem dos isolados e os agrupamentos obtidos foi parcial, sendo apenas possível a correlação total de 18,5% das amostras estudadas. A caracterização das cepas em biotipos (A, B, C, D e E, produ

  20. Jogos de azar e uso de substâncias em idosos: uma revisão da literatura Gambling and substance use by the elderly: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Galetti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A literatura mostra comorbidade entre jogo patológico, abuso de substâncias e transtornos afetivos (maior prevalência de depressão em adultos. É alta a prevalência de depressão nos idosos, tornando-os vulneráveis à dependência de jogos de azar e ao abuso de substâncias. Com o aumento desta população em todo o mundo, faz-se necessário mais pesquisas sobre esse tema. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o grau de envolvimento do idoso que aposta em jogos de azar e sua correlação com uso de substâncias. MÉTODOS: Revisão bibliográfica dos bancos de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e PsycINFO, sem limite de tempo. RESULTADOS: Idosos apostadores recreativos de jogos de azar apresentam consumo principalmente de álcool e boa avaliação de saúde geral. Idosos com problemas com jogo apresentam abuso de álcool, mais transtornos psiquiátricos e doenças cardiovasculares que os idosos jogadores recreativos. Quando comparados com adultos ou jovens jogadores, os idosos apresentam menos problemas relacionados ao consumo de álcool. CONCLUSÕES: Assim como nos adultos, também existe correlação entre apostas em jogos de azar e consumo de substâncias nos idosos. Quanto mais problemático o envolvimento com jogo, mais problemático é o consumo de substâncias (álcool e maior prevalência de transtornos do humor (depressão. No entanto, não se pode afirmar uma relação causal entre esses fatores, sendo necessária realização de mais pesquisas sobre esse tema.BACKGROUND: Literature presents comorbidity between pathological gambling, substance use/abuse and affective disorders (depression being the most prevalent in adults. The prevalence of depression disorder in elderly people is high, making them vulnerable to pathological gambling and substance abuse. With the increase of this population worldwide, more research regarding these issues has become necessary. OBJECTIVES: Assess the involvement of the elderly in gambling activities and its correlation

  1. Evaluación de la respuesta de 60 genotipos de solanum phureja (juz. et buk.) al ataque de la polilla guatemalteca (tecia solanivora povolny)

    OpenAIRE

    Cadena, Marleny; Naranjo, Alvaro; Ñústez, Carlos E.

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluó el daño en tubérculo causado por la polilla guatemalteca (Tecia solanivora P.) en 60 genotipos de la especie Solanum phureja bajo condiciones de laboratorio en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones, tomando como unidad experimental un tubérculo, sobre el cual se colocaron 20 huevos de T. solanivora. Las variables evaluadas fueron: porcentaje de eclosión, porcentaje de pupamiento y porcentaje de daño. Los resultados obt...

  2. Búsqueda de genes de resistencia al pasador del fruto en poblaciones segregantes de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-López Karina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético para encontrar resistencia al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, en tomate, Solanum lycopersicum L. se han basado en métodos tradicionales de introgresión genética por medio de retrocruzamiento. Sin embargo este proceso es largo y dispendioso. Debido a esta problemática, se utilizó la técnica molecular cDNA-AFLP para identificar genes involucrados en la resistencia a esta plaga en poblaciones segregantes de tomate, con el fin de identificar marcadores moleculares que puedan ser utilizados en futuros programas de fitomejoramiento. Los materiales de tomate evaluados fueron Unapal-Maravilla (susceptible, S. habrochaites var. glabratum, accesión PI 134418 (resistente y tres retrocruzamientos obtenidos del cruzamiento interespecífico entre ambas especies. De estos materiales vegetales se extrajo el RNA total y se sintetizó el cDNA, el cual se utilizó como material de inicio de la técnica cDNA-AFLP. A partir del preamplificado de cDNA se evaluaron diferentes combinaciones de primers: +1+1, +3+3 y sus derivados. La combinación que presentó mejores amplificados fue la +1+1, para un total de 37 bandas polimórficas. De estas bandas, 9 fragmentos tipo EST (Expressed Sequence Target fueron recuperados, siendo candidatos a explicar la resistencia al pasador del fruto en tomate.

  3. Evaluación de la tasa de consumo de oxígeno de Colossoma macropomum en relación al peso corporal y temperatura del agua

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis Tomalá; Johnny Chavarría; Beatriz E.A Escobar

    2014-01-01

    Colossoma macropomum es una especie de la región amazónica perteneciente a la familia Characidae, la de mayor diversidad de peces de agua dulce. A nivel de laboratorio, se determinó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (CO) en metabolismo de rutina de C. macropomum a diferentes pesos corporales: 40, 60, 90, 140 y 250 g (expresados por unidad de masa corporal) y temperatura del agua de 21, 26 y 31°C. El experimento se diseñó completamente al azar en arreglo factorial (5x3x3), utilizando un respirómet...

  4. Aportación de la radiografía panorámica al estudio de las alteraciones del desarrollo dentario en niños con necesidades especiales

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Rubio, Clara de

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: estudiar las alteraciones en el desarrollo dentario presentes en niños con necesidades especiales determinando cuales son las más frecuentes. Material y métodos: el estudio se realiza mediante el análisis de radiografías panorámicas de 50 pacientes elegidos al azar del Título Propio de la UCM “Especialista en atención odontológica integrada en el niño con necesidades especiales”. Resultado y conclusiones: la anomalía más frecuente es la agenesia (31%). Los pacientes con osteo...

  5. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  6. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene joint meeting with Médecins Sans Frontières at Manson House, London, 20 March 2003: field research in humanitarian medical programmes. Médecins Sans Frontières interventions against kala-azar in the Sudan, 1989-2003.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritmeijer, Koert; Davidson, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Since 1989, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has provided medical humanitarian assistance during outbreaks of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) in Sudan. First, in western Upper Nile in southern Sudan, where a VL epidemic occurred after the resumption of the civil war in Sudan in 1983, with an estimated 100,000 deaths. Later, MSF started interventions in eastern Upper Nile and Gedaref State. In these two endemic regions VL incidence has risen markedly since 2001, which could be the start o...

  7. Incidencia de Inóculo y Variables Climáticas como Herramientas en la Toma de Decisiones del Manejo del Tizón de Fuego [Erwinia amylovora (Burill) Winslow et al.] Durante la Floración del Manzano [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Rafael Ramírez-Legarreta; Juan Luis Jacobo-Cuéllar; Mario René Ávila-Marioni; Rafael Ángel Parra-Quezada; María Guadalupe Zacatenco-González; Alejandro Romo-Chacón

    2009-01-01

    En los años 2006 y 2007 se determinó la presencia de Erwinia amylovora (Ea) en muestreos de 180 flores elegidas al azar en cuatro bloques de 60 árboles cada uno durante la floración del manzano cv. Golden Delicious, en la localidad de Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua. Cada bloque representó diferente toma de decisiones para el uso de antibióticos: variables de clima, presencia de Ea en estigmas, variables de clima+Ea en estigmas y testigo. En 2008 se validaron los resultados en seis huertos del cv. Gold...

  8. Factores de riesgo asociados al embarazo ectópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónathan Hernández Núñez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el embarazo ectópico se ha duplicado en la mayor parte de los países industrializados y representa una de las principales causas de muerte materna. Objetivo: identificar factores de riesgo que predisponen al embarazo ectópico.Métodos: estudio de casos y controles realizado en un universo de 132 pacientes del Municipio Habana del Este, operadas de embarazo ectópico en el Hospital Dr. Luís Díaz Soto desde el 2009 al 2011. Se escogió una muestra al azar de 66 pacientes que constituyó el grupo estudio; se contó con otro grupo control de igual cantidad de pacientes no operadas de embarazo ectópico en dicho período. Se analizaron variables relacionadas con factores de riesgo sociodemográficos, ginecobstétricos y quirúrgicos, conducta sexual y hábito de fumar. Se empleó la media, desviación estándar, porcentaje, test de Student, estadígrafo chi cuadrado y odds ratio. Resultados: el embarazo ectópico fue más frecuente en mujeres de color de piel blanca, entre 25 y 34 años de edad; el antecedente de enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, endometriosis, tres o más abortos provocados, así como la historia de infertilidad, embarazo ectópico previo, inicio precoz de las relaciones sexuales, múltiples compañeros sexuales y el empleo de dispositivos intrauterinos fueron factores predisponentes para el embarazo ectópico; no así la escolaridad, ocupación, paridad, apendicectomía y cirugía tubárica previa, ni tabaquismo.Conclusiones: existen múltiples factores de riesgo que predisponen al embarazo ectópico y que contribuyen al incremento de la morbimortalidad materna, muchos de los cuales son susceptibles de ser modificados desde la atención primaria de salud.

  9. Experimentación radical italiana en torno al night-club Warhol-McLuhan-Price y la arquitectura eléctrica de los años 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Parga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La segunda mitad de los años 60, ese convulso periodo generador de experiencias largamente revisitadas, es testigo también de un curioso fenómeno en Italia que, vinculado al auge de los locales nocturnos en Estados Unidos y a un intenso clima de emancipación social, utiliza estos nuevos “palacios de la diversión” como fuente de inspiración ideológica al ser percibidos entre los jóvenes arquitectos y diseñadores radicales italianos como un laboratorio experimental estilístico y funcional capaz de generar modelos para un nuevo orden social ligado al entretenimiento. La intensidad productiva de estos años da como resultado multitud de propuestas donde la arqui­tectura actúa como catalizadora de una pulsión social que mezcla en el mismo espa­cio la vanguardia cultural y experimental más radical con el fenómeno de masas de la sociedad del espectáculo, permitiendo a la industria del placer ocupar sin complejos una posición clave en el discurso de una nueva generación que traslada intenciona­damente su interés desde la forma construida a la producción de ambientes artificia­les, electrónicamente amplificados, demostrando al mismo tiempo su compromiso con las formas y la lógica de las nuevas tecnologías.

  10. Ácido benzoico y un producto basado en especies de Bacillus para proteger la productividad de los lechones y al ambiente

    OpenAIRE

    María Alejandra Pérez Alvarado; Jorge Cervantes López; Diego Braña Varela; Gerardo Mariscal Landín; José Antonio Cuarón Ibargüengoytia

    2013-01-01

    Se indagó la compatibilidad del ácido benzoico (ABZ) y especies de Bacillus (BAC), en la productividad de lechones y su impacto ambiental. En el Ensayo 1, se usaron 180 lechones, durante 42 días. El ABZ (0 ó 5 kg/t) y BAC (0 ó 0.5 kg/t) fueron incluidos en la dieta en un arreglo factorial 2x2 en dos bloques de un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Semanalmente se registró el consumo y peso de los lechones y se colectaron aguas residuales para medir pH, N, NH3, coliformes, BAC y gasto de agu...

  11. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the summer of ... of research dollars—for a fatal disease called ALS. ALS stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It’s also ...

  12. Isolamento do gene ALS e investigação do mecanismo de resistência a herbicidas em Sagittaria montevidensis Isolation of the ALS gene and investigation of the mechanism of herbicide resistance in Sagittaria montevidensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Merotto Junior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversos biótipos de sagitária (Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht foram constatados como resistentes a herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS no Brasil e em outros locais do mundo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar e sequenciar o gene ALS de sagitária de forma a identificar a ocorrência de mutações relacionadas ao mecanismo de resistência de insensibilidade do local da ação de herbicidas. O material vegetal consistiu de sementes de sagitária coletadas em lavouras de arroz irrigado localizadas na região Sul do Estado de Santa Catarina. Nove pares de sequências nucleotídicas iniciadoras foram desenhadas para a amplificação dos domínios C, A e D do gene ALS. As sequências nucleotídicas dos fragmentos amplificados com quatro pares de oligonucleotídeos inciadores resultaram em amplicons com 360 a 393 nucleotídeos. Essas sequências apresentaram homologia com o gene ALS padrão de Arabdopsis thaliana e arroz, possuindo apenas três mutações de ponto. Uma dessas alterações foi a mutação Pro197Phe, que é relacionada à ocorrência de resistência à herbicida em diversas espécies vegetais. As sequências obtidas evidenciaram que o gene ALS avaliado encontrava-se em heterozigose. Esses resultados sugerem a ocorrência de insensibilidade do local de ação como mecanismo de resistência a herbicidas inibidores de ALS em sagitária. A prevenção e o controle da resistência a herbicidas inibidores da ALS em sagitária devem ser fundamentados na rotação de herbicidas com diferentes mecanismos de ação.California arrowhead (Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht is an aquatic weed often found in rice paddy fields. Several biotypes of California arrowhead resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides were found in Brazil and in several rice fields worldwide. The objective of this study was to sequence the ALS gene of California arrowhead and to identify the occurrence of mutations related to target site insensitivity as

  13. Comportamiento productivo del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. en respuesta al pastoreo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filogonio Jesús Hernández-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los patrones de variación en los componentes de la productividad forrajera del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. bajo pastoreo. En Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México, de junio 2005 a junio 2006, se estudió la combinación de tres frecuencias (21, 28 y 35 días y dos intensidades (5-7 y 9-11 cm en el forraje residual de pastoreo, en un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento anual y la distribución estacional de forraje, tasa de crecimiento, composición botánica y morfológica y densidad de tallos. La frecuencia de pastoreo de 35 días superó a las de 21 y 28 (P<0,05 en el rendimiento anual, durante primavera y verano. Independientemente de la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo, el rendimiento estacional se distribuyó de la siguiente forma: 49,5, 31,6, 14,1 y 4,8% para primavera, verano, invierno y otoño, respectivamente. La mayor tasa de crecimiento se registró en primavera al pastorear cada 35 días y la menor en otoño al pastorear cada 28 días (P<0,01. Durante invierno se dio mayor presencia de otras especies, siendo el pastoreo cada veintiún días a una intensidad ligera el que originó un aporte al rendimiento de otras especies del 60%. No se presentaron efectos de intensidad ni de frecuencia de pastoreo en la densidad de tallos. El mayor rendimiento y tasa de crecimiento se obtuvieron al pastorear cada 35 días.

  14. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  15. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit of 16 months before onset of severe respiratory failure. Other treatments are designed to relieve symptoms and ... of ALS. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from the ...

  16. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  17. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  18. Jalta als Heterotopie

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Jalta ist ein Ort, der sich im europäischen Kulturgedächtnis sowohl historisch als auch literarisch als "radikal anderer Ort" - als " Heterotopie" - festgesetzt hat. An der Konferenz von Jalta wurde 1945 eine neue Weltordnung geschaffen in der Hoffnung auf eine bessere Welt. Auch in den Werken von Anton ?echov, vor allem in denjenigen, die in Jalta entstanden sind, wird von einer anderen und besseren Welt geträumt.

  19. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  20. Pornographie als Metapher

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-01-01

    In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article...

  1. Sobre Al-Qarmuniyya

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Bello, María Isabel

    1990-01-01

    [ES] En dos tradiciones escatológicas relativas a al-Andalus y recogidas por 'Abd al-Malik h Haha en su Ta'rg se hace referencia a Carmona. La mención de esta ciudad en dichas tradiciones debe ser puesta en relación con dos episodios de la historia de al-Andalus que tuvieron lugar antes de la muerte de Ibn Habib: la batalla de Carmona en época de 'Abd al-Rahman y la concentración de tropas omeyas en el mismo lugar durante el ataque normando en los años 229-30/844-5.

  2. Influencia de la Canavalia ensiformis (L. D.C en la actividad biológica y distribución de los agregados del suelo en un área dedicada al cultivo del tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros García Rubido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de la canavalia (Canavalia ensiformis, L. como abono verde, en la actividad biológica y la distribución de las clases de agregados del suelo resistentes al agua, en un área de la Estación Experimental de San Juan y Martínez, dedicada al cultivo del tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum, L., se realizó un experimento unifactorial distribuido en bloques al azar con tres variantes y cuatro repeticiones, que incluyen el manejo de la canavalia inoculada con Hongos Micorrizícos Arbusculares (HMA, canavalia sin inocular y el testigo conformado por el suelo en barbecho. Se determinaron los contenidos de materia orgánica (MO, respiración basal edáfica (Rb y la distribución de los agregados del suelo resistentes al agua. La variante donde se inoculó la canavalia con HMA alcanzó los mejores resultados en los indicadores de respiración basal, contenido total de materia orgánica y la distribución de los agregados del suelo resistentes al agua. Los resultados indican que el tiempo que se dejan expuestos estos suelos a los factores climáticos en el proceso de preparación, puede anular los efectos positivos de los cultivos alternos en el mejoramiento de los indicadores evaluados.

  3. Al-Anon/Alateen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find an Al-Anon meeting Español | Français 2018 Int'l Convention Home About Group Meetings What If I'm not ready ... a meeting? What can I expect at an Al-Anon meeting? What was my first meeting like? ...

  4. Analysis on risk factors of desert-type Kala-azar outbreak in Jiashi County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region%新疆维吾尔自治区伽师县荒漠型黑热病暴发流行危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨诗杰; 伍卫平; 童苏祥; 伊斯拉音·乌斯曼; 顾灯安; 开塞尔; 付青; 柳伟; 周晓农

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors of desert.type Kala-agar outbmak in Jiashi County of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Methods A ease-control study with self-made questionnaire was conducted.The ease group included 47 Cases of Kala-azar patients from network.straight.reported from Junnary 2008 to November 2008 while the control group was 1:3 matched.including 141 healthy children at the same village and similar age.Thirteen potential risk factors including gender,environment and behavior factors were analysed by singh and multivariate conditional logistic regression. Results The single-variable conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the factors such as outdoor sleep habit,outdoor bite,Kala.azar patients near dwelling place,outdoor activities in evening with the children.pesticide use were all closely related to the desert-type Kala-azar outbreak,the hazaxd ratio(HR)values and 95%confidence interval(95%CI)were 73.846(10.070,541.510),78.875(10.719,576.910),15.149(5.876,39.054),63.912(8.996,454.048),0.020(0.005,0.008)respectively.Multivariate conditional logistie regression analysis showed that outdoor sleep habit was the risk factor,HR(95%CI)was 80.963(5.119,1280.596),the use of pesticides Was the protective factor to avoid the desert-type Kala.azar outbreak.HR(95%CI)Was 0.02l(0.003.0.162).Conclusion The adoption of a healthy life.style,not to sleep outside.the safe use of mosquito nets or screens soaked by pesticides,the use of repellent regularly and regular spraying of insecticides in the courtyard are all effective measures for prevention and control of Kala.agar.%目的 探讨新疆维吾尔自治区伽师县荒漠型黑热病暴发流行的危险因素.方法 采用病例对照研究,自制凋查问卷,以2008年1月-2008年11月网络直报的47例黑热病患者为病例组,在同村按1:3匹配选择141名年龄相仿的健康儿童作为对照组,对性别、环境和行为等13个潜在危险因素进行单因素和多

  5. Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

  6. IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS ASOCIADAS AL CARACOL PALA (Strombus gigas DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMERO MAGALLY

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN

    El caracol Pala, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, es de gran importancia ecológica y socioeconómica en el área caribeña colombiana. Sin embargo, es una especie catalogada como “vulnerable” y existe muy poca información referente a las especies bacterianas asociadas al caracol que puedan ser importantes para el desarrollo, manejo productivo y de seguridad acuícola de estos gastrópodos. En este trabajo, nosotros empleamos un estudio microbiológico y molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA, análisis del gen rDNA 16S y secuenciación, para analizar las bacterias asociadas al caracol Pala (S. gigas. La composición de bacterias cultivables asociadas fue evaluada por su capacidad para crecer en agar marino y en medios de cultivos selectivos. De un total de 28 muestras analizadas encontramos que el número de bacterias cultivadas en condiciones aerobias fue de alrededor 106 ufc mL-1 donde las bacterias pertenecientes a la familia Vibrionacea fueron las más abundantes, cerca de >105 ufc mL-1 . El análisis molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA de las diferentes muestras, reveló una gran complejidad bacteriana asociada a S. gigas. Las secuencias de los amplificados del gen rDNA 16S identificó Pseudoalteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Psycrobacter sp., Cobetia sp., Pseudomonas sp. y Vibrios sp. Nuestros resultados podrían sugerir un rol importante de estas bacterias como componentes de la comunidad asociada al S. gigas. Esta información puede complementar los estudios que se están implementando en los procesos para la conservación y repoblamiento de las poblaciones de S. gigas en Colombia.

    Palabras clave: Strombus gigas, Caracol pala, Bacteria, Región intergénica 16S-23S, rDNA 16S.

    ABSTRACT

    The Queen Conch, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, is a species of great ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Caribbean area of Colombia

  7. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  8. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  9. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.D., C.N.S.D., L.D.N. Nutritionist MDA/ALS Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center ... neurologists, physiatrists, therapists (physical, occupa- tional, speech, respiratory), nutritionists, social work- ers, pulmonologists, gastroenterologists and medical equipment ...

  10. Regionale Herkunft als Bonus

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvil, Dr. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Der Bio-Sektor durchlebt bewegte Zeiten. Die biologische Landwirtschaft hat sich aus der Nische herausbewegt und dafür an „Besonderheiten“ eingebüßt. Diese müssen als Zusatznutzen wiedergefunden werden.

  11. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina J Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A Figueroa Barreto

    2001-01-01

    El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de ...

  12. Partizipation als Ausnahmezustand

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, Benedikt

    2009-01-01

    In «Die Erfindung des Politischen» (1993) beschreibt Ulrich Beck Subpolitik als den Ort, an dem die Grenze zwischen Politik und Nichtpolitik verschwindet. Aus der zunehmenden Wirkkraft von Subpolitik erwächst die grundlegende Frage, mit welcher Legitimation diese Art von Subpolitik in die Sphäre der institutionalisierten Politik eindringt. Beck’s Subpolitik soll im Anschluss an theoretische Arbeiten von Chantal Mouffe und Giorgio Agamben als post-politische Aspiration bezeichnet werden, die e...

  13. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  14. EFECTO DE INYECCIONES NUTRITIVAS AL TRONCO EN LA PRODUCTIVIDAD DE NARANJA VALENCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alayón Luaces

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el efecto de inyecciones nutricionales al tronco (IN de N, P2O5, K2O, CaO y MgO en la productividad de naranja “Valencia Late” en Corrientes, Argentina. Durante tres años, campañas 2008/2009, 2009/2010 y 2010/2011, se llevaron a cabo ensayos experimentales aplicando diferentes dosis de IN a cada lado del tronco a 40 cm del suelo. Los tratamientos evaluados consistieron en la fertilización al suelo (50 % en la primavera y en otoño T1: 1,5 kg planta-1 de 15-6-15-6 (media dosis, MD, T2: tratamiento MD más IN en primavera; T3: MD más IN en primavera y en verano; T4: MD más IN en primavera, en verano y en otoño y T5: dosis completa de 3 kg planta-1 de 15-6-15-6. (DC. El diseño experimental fue de Bloques al Azar con cuatro repeticiones y parcela experimental de dos plantas efectivas. Se determinaron las concentraciones foliares de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu y Mn en las hojas de ramas fructíferas en el otoño. Al momento de la cosecha se midió producción total de fruta, diámetro, porcentaje de jugo, contenido de sólidos solubles, acidez, relación SST/acidez y color de 40 frutas por parcela. Para las variables cuantitativas se realizaron análisis de varianza y test de Duncan y para el color. Kruskal Wallis. Se llevó a cabo un análisis de Componentes Principales. El rendimiento de frutas se incrementó en un 11 % en promedio con el T4 en comparación con igual dosis de aplicación de fertilizantes al suelo (T1, sumado a que ninguno de los tratamientos con IN afectaron significativamente la calidad de la fruta. Este informe establece la utilidad de usar el IN como una herramienta complementaria a la fertilización convencional.

  15. EFICIENCIA EN LA ABSORCIÓN DEL N POR EL CULTIVO DE MAÍZ (Zea mays L. DEBIDO AL EFECTO DE ABONOS ORGÁNICOS EN UN SUELO FLUVISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gómez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el grado de utilización del nitrógeno, en dos cosechas de maíz rotadas con caupí (Vigna unguiculata Walp, debido al efecto en el suelo de varios tipos de abonos orgánicos. Para ello, se aplicaron al suelo cinco tipos de abonos orgánicos, de manera que cada uno de ellos aportara 475 kg.ha-1 de N total y se comparó la eficiencia en la utilización del N con un testigo sin abono. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron en el campo en Bloques al Azar. Se encontró que las fuentes orgánicas de relaciones C/N entre 11.0 a 12.2 presentaron las mayores eficiencias, siendo el valor máximo de eficiencia alcanzado de 10.36 % de N en un período de seis meses e incidiendo positivamente en el rendimiento; en las fuentes orgánicas con relación C/N de 20, la eficiencia fue negativa en valores y similar al testigo desde el punto de vista estadístico, influyendo muy poco en el rendimiento o con tendencia a reducirlo.

  16. Búsqueda de genes de resistencia al pasador del fruto en poblaciones segregantes de tomate Search for genes for resistance to tomato fruit borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Rodríguez Mora

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias de mejoramiento genético para encontrar resistencia al pasador del fruto, Neoleucinodes elegantalis, en tomate, Solanum lycopersicum L. se han basado en métodos tradicionales de introgresión genética por medio de retrocruzamiento. Sin embargo este proceso es largo y dispendioso. Debido a esta problemática, se utilizó la técnica molecular cDNA-AFLP para identificar genes involucrados en la resistencia a esta plaga en poblaciones segregantes de tomate, con el fin de identificar marcadores moleculares que puedan ser utilizados en futuros programas de fitomejoramiento. Los materiales de tomate evaluados fueron Unapal-Maravilla (susceptible, S. habrochaites var. glabratum, accesión PI 134418 (resistente y tres retrocruzamientos obtenidos del cruzamiento interespecífico entre ambas especies. De estos materiales vegetales se extrajo el RNA total y se sintetizó el cDNA, el cual se utilizó como material de inicio de la técnica cDNA-AFLP. A partir del preamplificado de cDNA se evaluaron diferentes combinaciones de primers: +1+1, +3+3 y sus derivados. La combinación que presentó mejores amplificados fue la +1+1, para un total de 37 bandas polimórficas. De estas bandas, 9 fragmentos tipo EST (Expressed Sequence Target fueron recuperados, siendo candidatos a explicar la resistencia al pasador del fruto en tomate.Breeding strategies for resistance to fruit borer Neoleucinodes elegantalis in tomato Solanum lycopersicum K L. have relied on traditional methods through genetic introgression by backcrossing. However, this process is slow and expensive. The cDNA-AFLP molecular technique was used to identify genes involved on fruit borer resistance in tomato segregating populations, The evaluated materials of tomato were: Unapal maravilla (susceptible to fruit borer , S. habrochaites var. glabratum, acc. PI 134418 (resistant to fruit borer, and three interspecific backcross produced by crossbreeding between those two species. From

  17. Diversidad genética, patogénica y morfológica del hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. de Michoacán, México Genetic, pathogenic and morphological diversity of fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. from Michoacan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Montero Tavera

    Full Text Available El hongo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, es el agente causal de antracnosis y representa la principal limitante para la cosecha de frutos con calidad comercial de aguacate Hass (Persea americana. La diversidad genética poblacional de este hongo se ha estudiado en diversas partes del mundo, pero en México se desconoce su estructura poblacional y particularmente los componentes de su diversidad. Se determinó la diversidad genética, patogénica y morfológica de 21 cepas monoconidiales de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides de Michoacán, México. La diversidad genética se estimó por medio del polimorfismo de ADN amplificado al azar y por la determinación de los perfiles de isoenzimas de cada cepa monoconidiales. La diversidad patogénica se midió mediante la capacidad invasiva de pulpa de aguacate y por la tasa de crecimiento in vitro. La diversidad morfológica in vitro se determinó por la comparación de caracteres del micelio de cada cepa monoconidiales. Los resultados mostraron alta diversidad de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides con un índice de variabilidad genética de 0.3031 y los estimadores más precisos fue el polimorfismo de ADN amplificado al azar (índice de variabilidad genética igual a 0.344 y perfiles de isoenzimas (índice de variabilidad genética igual a 0.35. Las características típicas fueron micelio blanco, consistencia algodonosa, colonia blanca, crecimiento de micelio al azar e hifas cortas en el borde de crecimiento. No se encontró relación entre la patogenicidad medida como capacidad invasiva de pulpa y la velocidad de crecimiento in vitro. Los análisis de agrupamiento establecieron que las relaciones entre cepas se dan principalmente con base en la localidad de origen y de manera secundaria, en el síntoma producido en el fruto.The fungi Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is the agent that causes anthracnose and the main limitation to the harvest of commercial quality Hass avocado (Persea americana. The genetic

  18. Modification of residual stress in Al-[AlBO]w/Al compound plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊

    2001-01-01

    The application of compound parts of Al-[AlBO]w/Al not only reduces the cost of the parts but also improves its properties. However, there is a large thermal residual stress between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, and it is harmful for practical application. From the theoretical analyses and experimental results, it was found that by the compressive pre-plastic deformation perpendicular to the interface between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, the interlayer residual stress of compound parts can be reduced, while the mechanical properties of compound parts can be improved.

  19. Efecto del zinc sobre el crecimiento y desarrollo del niño con bajo peso al nacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Jiménez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: El zinc es un elemento traza de gran importancia para el crecimiento intrauterino y postnatal de niños con retardo del crecimiento.Objetivos: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con sulfato de zinc en el crecimiento y desarrollo psicomotor en una cohorte de niños con bajo peso al nacer, durante el primer año de vida. Pacientes y métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal doble ciego de una cohorte de 163 recién nacidos distribuidos al azar en dos grupos: el grupo de los suplementados correspondió a 87 lactantes a los que se le suministró una dosis de 10 mg/día de una solución de sulfato de zinc durante los primeros 6 meses de vida; el grupo de los no suplementados estuvo compuesto por 76 lactantes a los que se le suministró una solución de 10 ml de suero fisiológico ausente de zinc en igual período. Resultados: El incremento de peso se relaciona de forma positiva con la suplementación con zinc, lo cual se evidencia en la curva de ganancia de peso y el análisis de observaciones repetidas realizado para esta variable; sin embargo, la variable talla no sufre la influencia de la misma manera. En relación con el desarrollo psicomotor, el índice de desarrollo motor se ve positivamente influido por la suplementación con zinc, no así el índice de desarrollo mental. Conclusiones: La suplementación de 10 mg de sulfato de zinc en niños con bajo peso al nacer durante 6 meses es beneficiosa para el incremento del peso y el desarrollo motor de estos lactantes.

  20. Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene joint meeting with Médecins Sans Frontières at Manson House, London, 20 March 2003: field research in humanitarian medical programmes. Médecins Sans Frontières interventions against kala-azar in the Sudan, 1989-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritmeijer, K; Davidson, R N

    2003-01-01

    Since 1989, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has provided medical humanitarian assistance during outbreaks of visceral leishmaniasis (VL; kala-azar) in Sudan. First, in western Upper Nile in southern Sudan, where a VL epidemic occurred after the resumption of the civil war in Sudan in 1983, with an estimated 100,000 deaths. Later, MSF started interventions in eastern Upper Nile and Gedaref State. In these two endemic regions VL incidence has risen markedly since 2001, which could be the start of a new epidemic cycle. Outbreaks of VL in Sudan remain unpredictable, and access to affected populations in war-torn southern Sudan is often hampered by insecurity. Therefore, MSF takes a flexible approach, establishing treatment centres where patients can be accessed. From 1989 to 2002, MSF treated >51,000 VL cases in Sudan. Despite very basic field conditions, high cure rates of 95% are being achieved. Lack of diagnostics is a major obstacle to treatment, especially during epidemic situations. Therefore, development of simple and rapid technologies is required, allowing reliable diagnosis under field conditions. For treatment of VL there is a limited choice of effective, affordable drugs. There are strong indications of an emerging resistance to antimonials in Malakal. Introduction of combination therapies is urgently needed to prevent the further emergence and spread of resistance to antimonials, which are still the mainstay of VL treatment in eastern Africa. Experience with combination therapy with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and paromomycin is promising, and combinations of SSg with liposomal amphotericin B and miltefosine are currently being explored. PMID:16134257

  1. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  2. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  3. Wikipedia als Referenzorgan

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia wird inzwischen von vielen Nutzern regelmäßig als Nachschlagewerk genutzt. Aufgrund des offenen Charakters der Online-Enzyklopädie, bei der sich jeder direkt beteiligen kann, ist jedoch zusätzliche Medienkompetenz notwendig, um die Qualität einzelner Wikipedia-Artikel einschätzen zu können. Im Vortrag sollen Methoden zur Beurteilung von Wikipedia-Artikeln dargestellt und die Frage beleuchtet werden, unter welchen Umständen Wikipedia als Referenzorgan geeignet ist.

  4. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  5. Al Shanker Remembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  6. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  7. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  8. Acarbose als Carbophor

    OpenAIRE

    Merettig, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Das Pseudotetrasaccharid Acarbose ist seit 1990 als kompetitiver Inhibitor intestinaler α-Glucosidasen (GlucobayTM/PrecoseTM) in der medizinischen Anwendung bei der Therapie von Diabetes mellitus Typ-2. Charakteristisch für die Struktur der Acarbose ist die Acarviosyleinheit, bei der Valinamin und Desoxyglucose N-glycosidisch verknüpft sind; des Weiteren ist an die Acarviosyleinheit ein Maltosylrest gebunden. Der Inhibitoreffekt beruht auf der irreversiblen Bindung zwischen ...

  9. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  10. Carta al editor

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  11. De la injusticia al fracaso: La experiencia del paro en un grupo de jóvenes de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivas Rivas, Ana M.ª

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available By means of the metaphorologic proposals of G. Lakoff and M. Johnson in the analysis of discourse among unemployed young people, the author aims to reveal the basic metaphoric structures that underlie these people's view of the labor market. The fundamental metaphoric concept regarding unemployment held by those interviewed (spaniards aged 16 to 29, which lends coherence to their thoughts, talks and actions, is that of life as a «game of chance» and getting a job as a «stroke of luck». The demobilizing effect of this metaphor results from its hiding the structural dimensión of unemployment through a process of naturalization and individualization that transfers the problem of unemployment from the socioeconomic and political structure to the level of the individual and his or her «luck».A partir de las propuestas metaforológicas de G. Lakoff y M. Johnson, aplicadas al análisis de los discursos de jóvenes desempleados, se trata de desvelar la estructura metafórica básica de su visión del mercado laboral. El concepto metafórico fundamental que da coherencia a la forma de pensar, hablar y actuar sobre el paro del grupo de jóvenes estudiado (españoles de 16 a 29 años es el de la vida como «un juego de azar» y el acceso a un empleo como «un golpe de suerte». El efecto desmovilizador de la metáfora consiste en ocultar la dimensión estructural del desempleo a través de un proceso de naturalización e individualización que traslada el problema del paro de la estructura socieconómica y política al individuo y «su suerte».

  12. Autoritaarsete kapitalistide tagasitulek / Azar Gat ; tõlk. Kajar Pruul

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gat, Azar

    2008-01-01

    Mittedemokraatlike suurriikide Venemaa ja Hiina esilekerkimine võib ohustada liberaalse demokraatia juhtivat rolli maailmas. Autor nendib, et nii, nagu kogu 20. sajandi kestel, on ka edaspidi Ameerika Ühendriigid tähtsaim tagatis sellele, et liberaalset demokraatiat ei surutaks kaitseseisundisse ega pagendataks kergesti rünnatavale positsioonile rahvusvahelise süsteemi perifeerias

  13. Azar y economía: John Maynard Keynes

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, M;

    2005-01-01

    This paper essays to show the path, that lead from Keynes' conception of chance to his conception of economy. In order to this, we analyze what un-derstand Keynes as chance, his theory of the probability and in what way this, across the expectation, determine the keynesian concept of economy.

  14. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot...

  15. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  16. Diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de Mauritia flexuosa L.f. “aguaje” de la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Angulo-Quintanilla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauritia flexuosa es una especie vegetal amazónica que forma extensas poblaciones denominadas “aguajales”. Como los pobladores amazónicos emplean varios órganos de M. flexuosa para suplir sus necesidades y con fines comerciales, se está ejerciendo un gran impacto negativo sobre esta especie. A pesar de ello, a la fecha no se conoce la diversidad genética de esta especie en la Amazonía peruana. Consecuentemente, los planes de manejo para la especie serían limitados sin este tipo de información. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la diversidad genética y filogenia molecular de poblaciones de M. flexuosa aledañas a la carretera Iquitos-Nauta. Las hojas se colectaron en seis zonas contiguas a la carretera Iquitos–Nauta. El ADN purificado con protocolos estándares fue amplificado mediante la técnica de ADN Polimórfico Amplificado al Azar (RAPD con dos cebadores aleatorios.  En total se generaron 28 amplicones RAPD (26 polimórficos y 2 monomórficos. Dentro de los aguajales la diversidad genética fue tres veces mayor (75±19 % que la diversidad genética entre las seis poblaciones de M. flexuosa (25±19 %. La diferenciación genética entre las poblaciones varió de 0,0 a 0,6. Los aguajales que se agruparon en clados en el dendrograma por su mayor similitud genética tuvieron proximidad geográfica. La similitud genética entre las poblaciones de M. flexuosa depende de la distancia geográfica, de tal manera que las poblaciones con más similitud genética están más próximas entre sí que las que tienen menos similitud genética.

  17. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  18. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparova, Pavla

    2002-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering

  19. Fretting wear performances of multilayered PVD TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl on AISI 4140 steel

    OpenAIRE

    Tlili, Brahim; NASRI, Mustapha; F. Ayari; Nouveau, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, most surface treatments are realized through vapor deposition techniques as thin hard coatings to guarantee; high surface hardness, low friction coefficient and improve wear resistance. Several experimental investigations have let to the development of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) coatings in preference to the traditional TiN coating. In the current paper research conducted on fretting wear of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and a (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) multilayer coatings de...

  20. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  1. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  2. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  3. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  4. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Ethics. So, it is nothing out of the ordinary to fi nd his ethical inclinations as a dominant feature in every aspect of his epistemological thoughts. In addition, sufi epistemology in the perspective of philosophers focuses on enforcing the inner positive potents of the Self more so than to eliminate “the satanic influences” to the heart, because – in al-Tirmidzi’s argument is that the former would greatly improve the immunity of the self, and encourage it to tread consistently on the right path as well.Keywords :  Dhawq, eros, heart, exoteric, esoteric, al-Haqq, al-`Adl, al-Shidq Abstrak : Artikel ini membahas istilah-istilah epistemologi dan beberapa postulat dari seorang sufi terkenal abad ke-9, Abu `Abdu’lLahMuh ammad b.`Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, dalam upaya menggambarkan perjalanan suluk seorang sufi menuju Realitas Mutlak. Dalam gaya pemikirannya tentang sufi, kita menemukan bahwa figur ini cenderung  menekankan hubungan-hubungan yang kuat antara wal āyah (kewalian sufi dan ma‘rifa (pengetahuan sufi di satu sisi, dan antara keduanya dengan filsafat moral sufi.  Jadi, tidak aneh jika kita menemukan kecenderungan - kecenderungan etis yang dominan dalam setiap aspek  pemikiran epistemologinya. Dan epistemologi sufi dalam perspektif para filsuf lebih menekankan potensi inner Diri yang positif daripada menghapuskan “cara-cara syaitan” dalam hati, karena - menurut pendapat al-Tirmidzi – ia akan meningkatkan

  5. Efecto de la aplicación de cachaza fresca al cultivo de repollo (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Esteban Plata-Mujica

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  cachaza  fresca  de  trapiche  panelero  es  un subproducto de la producción de panela. En la Hoya del Río Suárez este material es arrojado al medio ambiente,  lo cual causa contaminación. La  cachaza  presenta  alto  potencial  como enmienda orgánica y fuente de nutrientes. Con el objetivo de evaluar su efecto sobre el cultivo de repollo,  se aplicaron 5 dosis de cachaza fresca al suelo (0, 5, 10, 15 ý 20 t·ha-1, la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1  cachaza  y  50%  del  requerimiento  de fertilización  química,  y  la  totalidad  de  la fertilización  química.  Se  utilizó  un  diseño completamente al azar. La cachaza fue aplicada 20 días antes del  trasplante y en  la cosecha se evaluó el rendimiento, área foliar, masa fresca y masa seca. Con diferencias estadísticas, el mejor tratamiento fue la mezcla de 10 t·ha-1 cachaza y 50% del requerimiento de fertilización química, el cual  fue  responsable del mayor  rendimiento del cultivo, área  foliar, masa  fresca de cabeza, raíz y total, masa seca de cabeza, hojas y total. Con 0 ý 20 t·ha-1 de cachaza no hubo formación de  cabeza  en  las  plantas,  por  deficiencias  y excesos nutricionales,  respectivamente. Así,  la cachaza  fresca  en mezcla  con  el  fertilizante químico se convierte en una buena alternativa de fertilización del cultivo de repollo, lo cual, a la  vez,  permite darle  un  uso  adecuado  a  este material orgánico.

  6. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  7. El pensamiento frente al arte

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Es un hecho histórico de gran importancia el que el hombre haya creado arte antes de haberse dedicado a la filosofía. Al mencionar esto no pienso en las pinturas pre-históricas que se encuentran en las cuevas de España y en el Sur de Francia, sino ante todo, en el arte egipcio y mesopotámico.  En Egipto y Mesopotamia --y Mesopotamia parece ser la región más importante -no nació sino que se creó al hombre humano, al hombre como ser arquitectónico.

  8. Consoer et al PFOS dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus...

  9. DESAFÍOS AL ORDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina De los Rios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fradkin, Raúl y Gelman, Jorge (Compiladores, Desafíos al Orden. Política y sociedades rurales durante la Revolución de Independencia, Prohistoria ediciones, Rosario, 2008, 157 pp.

  10. Seltzer_et_al_2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air...

  11. Comparación de 2 poblaciones de mosquitos Aedes aegypti de Santiago de Cuba con diferente conducta de reposo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Bisset

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron 2 poblaciones de Aedes aegypti que se colectaron en Santiago de Cuba durante la epidemia de 1997, por manifestar diferentes hábitos de reposo, unos mosquitos reposaban de forma natural en las paredes hasta 1 m de altura (Cepa Santiago de Cuba y otros se encontraron reposando en los techos de las viviendas (Cepa Santiago de Cuba Techo. Ambas cepas no mostraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a sus características morfológicas. Los mosquitos pertenecientes a Santiago de Cuba Techo presentaronn los mismos parches que los de Santiago de Cuba. La resistencia a los insecticidas organofosforados es muy similar en ambas poblaciones, sin embargo, difieren en la alta resistencia al piretroide deltametrina en Santiago de Cuba Techo en comparación con Santiago de Cuba. Desde el punto de vista bioquímico y mediante el uso del sinergista DEF se demostró que las esterasas están asociadas con la alta resistencia a clorpirifos en ambas cepas, no resultando así las MFO, lo cual se demostró con el sinergista piperonil butóxido. Sin embargo, la enzima GST parece ser la responsable de la alta resistencia detectada a deltametrina en Santiago de Cuba Techo por el valor elevado de frecuencia de ese gen en esta cepa. Se utilizó la técnica del ADN polimórfico amplificado a la azar para observar la variabilidad genética entre las 2 poblaciones; los resultados revelaron que existió polimorfismo genético entre las poblaciones en estudio, lo cual pudiera tener una implicación en la ecología y epidemiología del vector.Comparison of 2 populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Santiago de Cuba with different rest conduct

  12. Note intorno al Teatro Vagante

    OpenAIRE

    Scabia, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    In questo testo-intervista Scabia traccia, alternando racconto e riflessione, un percorso che abbracciatutta l'attività del suo Teatro Vagante: dalle azioni nelle scuole degli inizi degli anni '70 - agli alboridell'Animazione Teatrale, che anche da qui prese le mosse - al lavoro all'Università di Bologna,organica continuazione di quei primi esperimenti. Dalla poesia alle azioni teatrali in strada;dall'architettura della pagina al respiro della parola detta in presenza ; dalle aule ...

  13. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als Beit...

  14. Response to Brosch et al.

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Lerin, Carles; Kaminska, Dorota; Venesmaa, Sari; Itkonen, Paula; Boes, Tanner; Floss, Thomas; Schroeder, Joshua; Dearie, Farrell; Crunkhorn, Sarah; Burak, Furkan; Jimenez-Chillaron, Josep C.; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Miettinen, Pekka; Park, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    We would like to respond to Brosch et al. regarding our manuscript “Expression of the Splicing Factor Gene SFRS10 Is Reduced in Human Obesity and Contributes to Enhanced Lipogenesis” (Pihlajamäki et al., 2011b). Brosch performed RT-PCR in liver samples from 13 lean and 34 obese individuals, finding no differences in SFRS10 or LPIN1 expression. We wish to address points raised by Brosch, including experimental strategy and analysis of human SFRS10 expression.

  15. D’al-Ẓāhir Baybars à ʿAlī al-Zaybaq

    OpenAIRE

    Dorlian, Georges

    2014-01-01

    « Toi par le courage, moi par la filouterie » aimait répéter Baṭṭāl à la princesse Ḏāt al-Himma, comme pour délimiter les espaces d’action revenant à chacun. Et d’ajouter, pour mieux dépeindre son rôle : « Mon métier n’est pas celui de la guerre, des armes et des exploits, mais celui de la ruse et de la fourberie dans un château fort ou une forteresse. » Baṭṭāl était un ʿayyār adjoint à la princesse Ḏāt al-Himma et à ʿAbd al-Wahhāb pour servir leur cause sublime et leur idéal chevaleresque. E...

  16. Strain sensing with sub-micron sized Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppinen, P. J.; Lievonen, J. T.; Ahlskog, M.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a local strain sensing method for nanostructures based on metallic Al tunnel junctions with AlOx barriers. The junctions were fabricated on top of a thin silicon nitride membrane, which was actuated with an AFM tip attached to a stiff cantilever. A large relative change in the tunneling resistance in response to the applied strain (gauge factor) was observed, up to a value 37. This facilitates local static strain variation measurements down to ~10^{-7}.

  17. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    OpenAIRE

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk) of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood) and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge) in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Et...

  18. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  19. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because flake-like TiAl3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  20. Evaluación de la calidad de la atención al paciente diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Vicente Sánchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: elevar la eficiencia y efectividad de las acciones del médico y la enfermera de la familia, es requisito indispensable para el desarrollo de una atención médica integral. Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de la atención al paciente diabético por el médico de la familia, en el área de salud de Abreus. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo basado en la aplicación de instrumentos para evaluar el desempeño de médicos de la familia en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus en los cinco consultorios de la familia, del área de salud de Abreus en el período de enero a julio del 2011. Se incluyeron los cinco médicos que laboraban en los consultorios y 172 pacientes diabéticos, además se revisaron 172 historias clínicas seleccionadas al azar. Se evaluó mediante la observación, la existencia de algunos recursos materiales necesarios y su calidad en el funcionamiento, la calidad de las historias clínicas y a través de criterios del paciente la calidad de la atención que se brinda. Resultados: la capacitación científico-técnica sobre diabetes mellitus ha sido insuficiente, existe el instrumental necesario para la atención y seguimiento adecuado de las personas con diabetes. En el 2,9 % de las historias clínicas revisadas aparece el interrogatorio de forma completa, examen físico completo en 12 de ellas y en 26 las indicaciones médicas completas. Conclusiones: la calidad de la atención médica integral a los pacientes diabéticos incluidos en el estudio se encuentra comprometida. Los médicos entrevistados reconocen la necesidad de recibir capacitación sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la diabetes para mejorar su desempeño profesional y elevar la calidad de la atención médica de estos pacientes.

  1. Modeling of the ALS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

  2. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  3. ALS:A SAIRASTAVAN TOIMINTATERAPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraali skleroosi on harvinainen, etenevä sairaus. Sairaus surkastuttaa edetessään potilaan tahdonalaisen lihaksiston. Sairauden oireet näkyvät yleensä ensin raajoissa, mutta myös nielun lihaksista alkava bulbaarinen taudinmuoto on mahdollinen. ALS voi myös aiheuttaa frontotemporaalista dementiaa. Sairaus etenee yksilöllisesti, mutta sen kesto on yleensä noin 3-5 vuotta. Keski-Suomen keskussairaalassa ALS:n sairastuneen kuntoutukseen osallistuu moniammatillinen työryhmä, j...

  4. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Fe-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al13Fe4 clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al13Fe4 nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated

  5. Histometric Study of the Epithelium of Rats Submitted to Ethanol During Lactation Estudio Histométrico del Epitelio de Ratas Sometidas al Etanol Durante la Lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Nairn Kassis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work studied the adverse effects of maternal exposure of rats to alcohol during lactation, on the development of their offspring. Histometric evaluation by karyometry and of the palatine epithelium of the sucking was performed. Two groups of animals, one coming from mothers exposed to drinking water containing 20% ethanol during the total lactation period and the other of controls coming from mothers receiving only alcohol-free drinking water during this period. On the 21 first day of lactation the young of each group were aleatorily selected and following anesthesia, their heads severed; after histological treatment, serial 6 |J,m sections on the frontal plane at the molar level, stained with hematoxilin and eosin, were obtained. The experimental results produced, suggest that suckling from ethanol-treated mothers, show a significant decrease of body weight, significant alterations of karyometric and stereological measurements that determined hypotrophy of palatine epithelial cells and toxicity of ethanol at the palatine epitheliumEl presente trabajo tiene por objetivo estudiar en ratas los efectos adversos de la exposición materna al alcohol durante la lactancia, en el desarollo de sus crías. Fue evaluado histométricamente (cariometría y estereología el epitelio palatino de las críass. Fueron utilizados dos grupos: uno tratado con etanol al 20% en agua de bebedero, durante toda la lactancia; y control, recibió solamente agua. En el día 21° de la lactancia, cinco crías de cada uno de los grupos, fueron seleccionadas al azar, anestasiadas las cabezas de ellas fueron separadas de los cuerpos. Después del tratamiento histológico, fueron obtenidos cortes seriados de 6 um del plano frontal, a nivel de los molares y coloreados con hematoxilina eosina. Los resultados sugieren que lactantes de las madres tratadas con etanol al 20% en el bebedero, presentaron disminución significativa del peso corporal, alteraciones importantes

  6. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  7. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 tunnel emission electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence

  8. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  9. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  10. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... of America, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No. CV-10-4496. On October...

  11. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2010 (75 FR 62858); and (3) published summaries of the... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Public Comments and Response... Final Judgment in United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No....

  12. Al/Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged-particle detectors are required to be operated sometimes in ambient light for applications like alpha counting and range finding. Detectors like Al/p-Si surface barrier with aluminium on the front side are found quite suitable. Gold/n-Si surface barrier detectors are not usable because of their excessive background photo current. These detectors, we fabricate for use in nuclear experiments, were given an aluminium coating on their gold side for use in room light. The Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier diodes were characterized for their electrical properties and performance as alpha detectors. Detectors showing good energy resolution (∼ 50 KeV) were selected and provided with another thin reflecting coat of aluminium on their front sides

  13. Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Y; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance have been investigated. Temperature and cryolite addition have positive effects on the current density. Increasing the anode-to-cathode surface area (closer to unity) and shortening the interelectr...

  14. Thermal conductance of a pressed Al-Al contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal conductance of a screw-fastened joint between two blocks of Al-alloys has been measured. An AlMg4.5Mn-block, the end of which is cooled by liquid helium, constitutes the upper part of the sample and the contact is formed at the face surface of a cylindrical extension of that block onto which a cylinder, made of AlMgSi1, is pressed by means of a copper-nickel screw. Pressing of the contact was carried out at room temperature by applying a defined torque, M, to the fastening screw. Three samples of the same shape but with differently treated surfaces of contact (machined flat, electro-chemically polished, with gold plated contacts) were studied. The results showed that the machined flat surfaces yield the best contact and that the contact conductance (measured in the range 4.2 K to 1.8 K) of all samples increased with increasing torque. In addition to thermal measurements, a study of the electrical conductance would be very interesting to determine the different contributions of phonon and electron heat conduction by means of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The work is useful for the GIRL (German Infra-Red Laboratory) space experiment.

  15. Type idéal

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Serge

    2014-01-01

    L’usage de types idéaux constitue pour Max Weber une démarche sociologique fondamentale. Le type idéal est pour lui un moyen de comprendre le sens que les individus donnent à leurs expériences vécues, ce qui conduit à mettre ces dernières en relation avec l’organisation de la société à un moment historique de son évolution. Définir un type idéal ne signifie pas repérer sa forme majoritaire d’un point de vue statistique, mais discerner à partir des formes historiques des sociétés contemporaine...

  16. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH hadiths (sayings using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots, to one of eight Books (classes, according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

  17. The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

  18. Lernhabitus als Grundlage lebenslanger Lernprozesse

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    'In diesem Artikel wird die These vertreten, dass das Habitus-Konzept von Bourdieu, wenn es bei der Analyse von lebenslangen (biographischen) Lern- und Bildungsprozessen angewandt wird, einer biographietheoretischen Reformulierung bedarf. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das eigene Konzept des biographischen Lernhabitus vorgestellt. Als Ergebnis einer Zwei-Generationen-Studie im Rostocker Werftarbeitermilieu können zwei deutlich voneinander zu entscheidende Lernhabitusmuster präsentiert werden. In...

  19. Utilitarismus als Methode der Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Malte Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Buch schlage ich eine radikal neuartige Sicht auf den Utilitarismus vor. Meine Hauptthese ist, dass der Utilitarismus selbst keine vollständige normative Theorie ist, aus der sich per se Handlungsbewertungen ableiten ließen, sondern normativ untersättigt und neutral ist. Sein normativer Gehalt ist vollständig abhängig von angenommenen Nutzenfunktionen. Jede konsistente Menge von moralischen Regeln (Moralsystem) kann, wie ich im Anhang beweise, als ein Spezialfall des Utilitarismus i...

  20. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  1. Evaluación de la tasa de consumo de oxígeno de Colossoma macropomum en relación al peso corporal y temperatura del agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tomalá

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Colossoma macropomum es una especie de la región amazónica perteneciente a la familia Characidae, la de mayor diversidad de peces de agua dulce. A nivel de laboratorio, se determinó la tasa de consumo de oxígeno (CO en metabolismo de rutina de C. macropomum a diferentes pesos corporales: 40, 60, 90, 140 y 250 g (expresados por unidad de masa corporal y temperatura del agua de 21, 26 y 31°C. El experimento se diseñó completamente al azar en arreglo factorial (5x3x3, utilizando un respirómetro de 20 L y una bomba de recirculación de agua. Las mediciones del CO fueron realizadas cada 5 min mediante el uso de un oxímetro digital. Los resultados indican que el CO mantiene relación directa con la temperatura del agua e inversa con el peso corporal de los organismos (P < 0,05. Las regresiones entre las variables independientes y el CO se ajustaron a ecuaciones potenciales: CO = 2844,9 P-0,734, CO = 2555,9 P-0,624 y CO = 1945,4 P-0,507 a 21, 26 y 31°C respectivamente; donde P se expresa en kg, obteniéndose altos coeficientes de correlación y determinación. La ecuación resultante del análisis multivariado de regresión lineal múltiple fue: CO = 4,839 - (0,708* P + (9,106* T. Los resultados ofrecen información para estimar la capacidad de un ambiente acuícola en base a la demanda de oxígeno de C. macropomum, aportando al desarrollo de una acuicultura con mayor sustento técnico.

  2. Microstructure of interaction interface between Al-Si, Zn-Al alloys and Al2O3p/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志武; 闫久春; 吕世雄; 杨士勤

    2004-01-01

    Interaction behaviors between Al-Si, Zn-AI alloys and Al2O3p/6061AI composite at different heating temperatures were investigated. It is found that Al2O3p/6061Al composite can be wetted well by AlSi-1, AlSi-4 and Zn-Al alloys and an interaction layer forms between the alloy and composite during interaction. Little Al-Si alloys remain on the surface when they fully wet the composite and Si element in Al-Si alloy diffuses into composite entirely and assembles in the composite near the interface of Al-Si alloy/composite to form a Si-rich zone. The microstructure in interaction layer with Si penetration is still dense. Much more residual Zn-Al alloy exists on the surface of composite when it wets the composite, and porosities appear at the interface of Zn-Al alloy/composite. The penetration of elements Zn, Cu of Zn-Al alloy into composite leads to the generation of shrinkage cavities in the interaction layer and makes the microstructure of Al2 O3p/6061A1 composite loose.

  3. The Structure and Main Issues of “al-Tasdid” of Husam al-Din al-Syghnaqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyar B. Shalkarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the theological maturidia in the Central Asia was developed by the majority of outstanding scientists in the Turkic area and was known from generation to generation with manuscripts. One of these famous scientists was Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi. In Central Asia, in the branch of the Islamic kalam theology there were the works “Tabsira al-Adilla”, “Bahr al-Kalam”, “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed”, which considered the issues of maturidia theological study. In the XIV century the great scientist from Syghanaq Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi made a detailed research of the work “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed” of Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi and wrote the work “al-Tasdeed fi sharh al-Tamheed” by giving a full explanation of all questions relating to the issue. This article considers the content and the kept versions in the World libraries and the importance of this work for today. There is a different information about the original version of the manuscript. The first, the manuscript is by Amca Zade Huseyn 309 number, written by Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi personally and kept in the turkic library. This information is written in the work “Syghanaq Sanlagi/ The star of the Syghanaq” of Shamshaddin Kerim, the second manuscript is kept in the Egypt Arabic Republic, in the library “Dar al-Kutub Misrya”. It is written in this manuscript, that the manuscript was published in 1125 according hizhra calendar. Therefore the article gives an explanation of the main maturidia kalam principles, which cover five chapters of the work. 

  4. IDENTIFICACIÓN MOLECULAR DE POBLACIONES BACTERIANAS ASOCIADAS AL CARACOL PALA (Strombus gigas DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO Molecular Identification Of Bacterial Populations Associated To Queen Conch (Strombus gigas From Colombian Caribbe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDINSON ANDRÉS ACOSTA

    Full Text Available El caracol Pala, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, es de gran importancia ecológica y socioeconómica en el área caribeña colombiana. Sin embargo, es una especie catalogada como "vulnerable" y existe muy poca información referente a las especies bacterianas asociadas al caracol que puedan ser importantes para el desarrollo, manejo productivo y de seguridad acuícola de estos gastrópodos. En este trabajo, nosotros empleamos un estudio microbiológico y molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA, análisis del gen rDNA 16S y secuenciación, para analizar las bacterias asociadas al caracol Pala (S. gigas. La composición de bacterias cultivables asociadas fue evaluada por su capacidad para crecer en agar marino y en medios de cultivos selectivos. De un total de 28 muestras analizadas encontramos que el número de bacterias cultivadas en condiciones aerobias fue de alrededor 10(6 ufc mL-1 donde las bacterias pertenecientes a la familia Vibrionacea fueron las más abundantes, cerca de >10(5 ufc mL-1. El análisis molecular de la región intergénica entre los genes 16S y 23S rDNA de las diferentes muestras, reveló una gran complejidad bacteriana asociada a S. gigas. Las secuencias de los amplificados del gen rDNA 16S identificó Pseudoalteromonas sp., Halomonas sp., Psycrobacter sp., Cobetia sp., Pseudomonas sp. y Vibrios sp. Nuestros resultados podrían sugerir un rol importante de estas bacterias como componentes de la comunidad asociada al S. gigas. Esta información puede complementar los estudios que se están implementando en los procesos para la conservación y repoblamiento de las poblaciones de S. gigas en Colombia.The Queen Conch, Strombus gigas (Strombidae, is a species of great ecological and socioeconomic importance in the Caribbean area of Colombia. However, it is currently catalogued as "vulnerable"; there is limited information concerning the bacterial species associated with conch and important in the

  5. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  6. De los derechos humanos al derecho al aborto

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Ninguna otra persona, en ninguna situación, es obligada a realizar el acto supererogatorio que se exige a la mujer embarazada. Aun cuando una adecuada aplicación de la teoría general de los derechos humanos permite reconocer el derecho al aborto durante los dos primeros trimestres del embarazo sobre la base de que los derechos sólo pueden restringirse por mor de los propios derechos. En esa línea, se intenta responder a quienes sostienen que el problema del aborto no puede resolverse pues no ...

  7. Friction Stir Welding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbhar, N. T.; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, is being extensively used in similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, and their alloys. In the present study, friction stir welding of two aluminium alloys—AA6061 and AA5052—was carried out at various combinations of tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds. The transverse cross-section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. The microstructural studies were used to get an ...

  8. Memahami Tasawuf Ibnuu Arabi dan Ibnuu al Farid: Konsep al Hubb Illahi, Wahdat al Wujud, Wahdah al Syuhud dan Wahdat al Adyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Robith Fuadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaum sufi menapaki jalan yang berbeda untuk menuju hakikat, mereka tidak menggunakan akal dan rasio untuk sampai pada hakikat. Akan tetapi, akal bukan satu-satunya jalan untuk menuju hakikat. Karena kita sering melihat sesuatu yang di luar jangkauan akal dalam hidup ini. Jalan yang ditempuh kaum sufi untuk menuju hakikat seperti kasyf, dzauq, 'iyan, musyahadah dan sebagainya dinilai sebagai sesuatu yang samar, tidak mempunyai batasan dan kaidah pasti, bahkan sering kali bercampur dengan igauan, mimpi, khayalan dan angan-angan. Tapi yang perlu kita ingat adalah bahwa media-media tersebut telah mampu menuntun manusia untuk memecahkan sesuatu yang tidak bisa dipecahkan oleh akal dan hukum-hukum fisika. Tulisan ini akan mengkaji gagasan-gagasan dua tokoh tasawuf besar yaitu Ibnu Arabi dan Ibnu al-Farid yang hidup  pada abad keenam dan ketujuh Hijriah. Tulisan ini secara spesifik akan mengkaji tiga gagasan penting ke dua tokoh tersebut. Yaitu al hubb al Ilahi, wahdat al Wujud dan wahdat al adyan.

  9. The Eminent Turkish Logician al-Abhari and "al-Risalah fî al-Kavâid al-Mantıqiyyah"

    OpenAIRE

    el-EBHERÎ, Esîrüddîn Mufaddal b. Ömer es-Semerkandî

    2014-01-01

    Athar al-Din al-Abhari is an important figure whose works had been textbooks in the Ottoman schools for centuries al-Abhari who wrote so many books in such areas as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and logic is especially known for his books Hidayat al-Hikmat and İsaghuji He took logic into account in all of his works of philosophy. He also wrote some books and treatises specially concerning logical problems. Here, we are going to present the Turkish translation of his al-Risâlah fi al-Kava...

  10. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  11. The Al-Al3Ni Eutectic Reaction: Crystallography and Mechanism of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic structure are examined with emphasis on its morphology and crystallography. Based on these examinations, the mechanism of formation of this technologically important eutectic is postulated. It is found that a thin shell of α-Al forms coherently around each Al3Ni fiber. The excellent thermal stability of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic may be attributed to the presence of this coherent layer.

  12. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding. PMID:27166690

  13. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al- Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al- Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocali...

  14. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  15. The ALS project: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

    2006-05-01

    In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

  16. Grainreifnementlimit of commercialpureAl inoculatedbyAl-Ti-C(B)masteralloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhao Wang; Xiang-fa Liu

    2015-01-01

    The grain reifnement limits of commercial pure Al inoculated by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys were studied, and the inlfuence of melting temperature on the grain reifning performance of these three master al oys was investigated using a high scope video microscope (HSVM), a ifeld-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) method. Results show that there is a grain reifnement limit of commercial pure Al reifned by these three master al oys; with the same addition level of 1.5% under the present experimental conditions, the grain reifnement limits (smal est average grain size) of commercial pure Al reifned by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys are 50 µm, 80 µm and 80 µm, respectively. In addition, with an increase in the melting temperature of the pure Al, the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Ti-0.25C master al oys decreases, but the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B changes little.

  17. Analisis Salasilah Tarekat Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i

    OpenAIRE

    ROHAIMI RASTAM; MOHD SYUKRI YEOH ABDULLAH; YUSRI MOHAMAD RAMLI

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spiritual chain (silsilah tariqah) of Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i (alt. al-Sumatrani), Qadi al-Malik al-‘Adil (Prime Minister and Mufti) of Aceh during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1607 to 1627. The study is primarily based on his manuscript of Mir’at al-Muhaqqiqin as well as Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dahlawi’s Zad al-Muttaqin. By mapping the lineage of all data available, this study features al-Sumatra’is spiritual chain that consist of Qadiriyyah, Sh...

  18. Formaline of alternatieven als ontsmettingsmiddel voor broedeieren

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerhof, R.; Dijk, D. van

    1997-01-01

    Formaline wordt algemeen gezien als een goed middel om broedeieren te ontsmetten. Toch geeft ontsmetting met middelen als ozon en waterstofperoxyde vaak een iets beter broedresultaat. Een eventuele verklaring hiervoor is momenteel nog niet te geven.

  19. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  20. AlON-SiAlON复合材料的制备及特性%Preparation and properties of AlON-SiAlON composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山下敬; 山口明良

    2003-01-01

    为提高AlON陶瓷材料的抗氧化性能,制备了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.在1750℃、0.5 MPa的N2气氛中,保温2 h烧成不同Al2O3/AlN/Si3N4配比的原料得到不同AlON/SiAl7O2N7比的复相材料.因为在烧结SiAl7O2N7的过程中,蒸发-凝聚的同时伴随着SiO气体的挥发,因此很难得到致密的AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.研究了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料在1300℃、空气中的抗氧化性能,同时作为比较,研究了相同条件下单相的AlON材料的抗氧化性能.结果表明,AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料显示了较之单相的AlON陶瓷材料更好的抗氧化性能,这是因为氧化过程中所形成的含玻璃相的表面氧化层抑制了氧的向内扩散所致.

  1. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  2. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Berzina, B.

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...

  3. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  4. The fabrication of 26Al targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets with up to 1.4x101626Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the 26Al nuclei via the reaction 26Mg(p, n)26Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described. (orig.)

  5. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  6. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  7. Efecto de la dosis de glifosato sobre la biomasa de malezas de barbecho al estado vegetativo y reproductivo Glyphosate dose effect on weed biomass at the vegetative and reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puricelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Los experimentos se condujeron en el campo experimental de la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias ubicado en Zavalla (Argentina durante 2005 y 2006. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la eficacia de glifosato aplicado al estado vegetativo y reproductivo de Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis y Trifolium repens. El diseño del experimento fue completamente al azar con un arreglo factorial: año, especies, estado reproductivo y vegetativo y dosis de glifosato 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X siendo X la dosis recomendada 1200 g i.a. ha-1. Se estableció la relación entre la dosis de glifosato y el control de la biomasa de las malezas a través de curvas de dosis respuesta con un modelo log-logístico. Se comparó el grado de tolerancia por medio de la DL50. En ambos estados de las malezas, la mayor DL50 obtenida para I. diffusa indica que de las especies estudiadas ésta es la más tolerante a glifosato. El número de especies tolerantes al glifosato es menor al estado vegetativo que al reproductivo.Experiments were conducted at the University of Rosario Experimental Farm, Zavalla in 2005 and 2006 to study the effect of glyphosate on the control of Convolvulus arvensis, Oenothera indecora, Iresine diffusa, Parietaria debilis, Rumex paraguayensis and Trifolium repens at the vegetative and reproductive stage. The experiments were established in a complete randomized design with the following factorial arrangement of treatments: year, species, vegetative and reproductive growth stages and glyphosate 48% (4X, 2X, 1X, 1/2X, 1/4X, 0X being 1X the recommended dose (1,200 g a.i. ha-1. The relationship between glyphosate dose and weed biomass control was established with a log-logistic model. The degree of tolerance was compared by LD50. In both stages, the higher LD50 was obtained for I. diffusa indicating that this is the species most tolerant to glyphosate among those studied. The number of

  8. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  9. Polythermal cutting of Al-Si-YAl2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the out come of the research of the Al-Si-YAl2 system with studies of polythermal cutting. It was found out that the most cutting of Al-YSi2Al2, Al-YSiAl2, Al-Y5SiAl14, YSiAl2-YSi2Al2, Y5SiAl14-YSiAl2 and Y5SiAl14-YAl2, Si-YSiAl2 has the nature of quasibinary eutectics

  10. Progresses in analyzing 26Al with SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai Mini-Cyclotron based Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS) was especially designed for analyzing 14C. In order to accelerate and analyze 26Al the accelerated orbit and beam optics in injection system were calculated and harmonic number and acceleration turns was optimized. Preliminary experiment was carried out. In which a beam current of 1.15 x 10-9A for 27Al- and 0.038 CPS background for 26Al were measured. The limited sensitivity of 26Al/27Al is 5.25 x 10-12. (authors)

  11. AlON粉体的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al2O3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体。研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化。结果表明,当原料Al2O3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750℃,2h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上。

  12. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  13. Orientation of Al3Ti platelets in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material manufactured by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were manufactured by the centrifugal method with a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was melted at a liquid/solid coexisting temperature, at which Al3Ti remains as a solid, and then it was cast into a thick-walled ring. It was found that the Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material can be successfully fabricated by the centrifugal method. It was also found that the volume fraction of the Al3Ti can be increased by repetition of the centrifugal method. Since the shape of Al3Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot is that of a platelet, the Al3Ti particles are arranged with their platelet planes nearly perpendicular to the radial direction. The orientation effects become stronger when the G number becomes larger. Although the final centrifugal casting was conducted under a very large centrifugal force for the specimen cast three times, the orientation effects were weaker than those in the specimen cast one time. From these observations, it is concluded that the origin of orientation of Al3Ti platelets can be attributed to the angular velocity gradient of the melt along the radial direction produced by the difference in the viscosity. (orig.)

  14. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al2O3 composites produced by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al2O3) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al2O3 nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al3C4 and Al2Cu structures, respectively

  15. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION AND THERMAL STABILITY IN Cu-Al-Co AND Cu-Al-Zr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Ma; C.B. Jiang; H.B. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys were explored with Co or Zr additions in Cu-Al alloys for high temperature shape memory alloys. Samples were quenched after homogenized at 850℃ for 48h. It was found that both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr show AlCu3 martensitic phase at room temperature and exhibit martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 200℃, showing the potentials for developing as high temperature shape memory alloys. Thermal cycles were performed by DSC instrument on both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys. The results show that Cu-Al-Co loses its martensitic transformation after five thermal cycles, and Cu-Al-Zr exhibits no martensitic transformation in the second thermal cycle.

  16. Nifedipine Asma y Nifedipina: estudio comparativo del efecto profiláctivo de la Nifedipina frente al Ketotifeno y placebo en Asma Alérgica Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montoya

    1988-02-01

    affinity for the respiratory tract and better blocking effects are synthesized they might become the elective therapeutic choice for these patients.

    Se presentan los resultados de un estudio doble ciego, al azar, que comparó los efectos de la Nifedipina, una dihidropiridina antagonista del calcio, de amplia utilización cardiovascular, con los del Ketotifeno y los de un placebo; cada uno de ellos fue administrado por vía oral cada 12 horas, durante 4 meses, a un grupo de 20 niños mayores de 5 años con asma alérgica de una evolución mínima de 2 años; el estudio se llevó a cabo en el Servicio de Alergias del Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, Colombia, entre julio de 1984 y diciembre de 1986. La Nifedipina produjo disminución de la frecuencia de las crisis en 17 pacientes (85% y de su intensidad y duración en 16 (80%; en esta misma proporción (80% se disminuyó el consumo de broncodilatadores; 18 pacientes (90% informaron efectos benéficos de la Nifedipina y la mejoría, evaluada por el médico, se halló en 14 (70%. No hubo con la Nifedipina modificaciones del pulso ni de la presión arterial ni, tampoco, de 14 pruebas de función pulmonar; los efectos secundarlos fueron mínimos y autolimitados. Los resultados obtenidos con la Nifedipina fueron estadísticamente semejantes a los del Ketotifeno y, los de ambos, significativamente superiores a los logrados con el placebo (palérgica Infantil leve o moderada, dado su comportamiento similar al del Ketotifeno que es de eficacia reconocida en este campo; en un futuro los antagonistas del calcio pueden llegar a ser el tratamiento de elección del paciente asmático si se logra sintetizar moléculas con mayor afinidad por las v las respiratorias y de efectos antagónicos superiores.

  17. Intoxicación alimentaria por clostridium perfringens en el centro penitenciario cocori, cartago, costa rica, del 4 al 5 de septiembre del 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Espinoza

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción El 5 de setiembre del 2002 el Centro Penitenciario Cocorí en Cartago, notificó al Sistema de Vigilancia del Ministerio de Salud, la presencia de 133 casos de diarrea. Ante esta situación, las autoridades de salud plantearon la investigación, para identificar los factores asociados a la presencia del brote. Material y métodos Mediante la revisión de los expedientes de los casos atendidos por diarrea en el Centro Penitenciario, se identificaron los que cumplieran con la siguiente definición: persona con deposiciones líquidas que podían acompañarse de náuseas, vómitos, dolor de cabeza, dolor abdominal, tenesmo y meteorismo, y que consumieron alimentos en el Centro Penitenciario el 4 de setiembre del 2002. Para determinar el mecanismo de transmisión, comparamos la exposición de los alimentos servidos durante el desayuno, almuerzo y cena del 4 de setiembre, de los casos con 41 prisioneros no enfermos. Se aislaron enteropatógenos, de muestras del pollo servidos y de heces de los casos seleccionados al azar. Resultados Se identificaron 133 casos ocurridos en el centro penitenciario. El primer caso ocurrió 4:30 horas después de servido el almuerzo. El 100% presentó diarrea, ninguno tuvo fiebre, ni recibió antibióticos. Las personas que consumieron pollo en salsa presentaron un RR = 2,92 (95% CI: 1,217,04. El laboratorio aisló Cl. perfringens en una concentración de 10 5 u.f.c. por gramo de heces y 10 4 u.f.c. por gramo de carne de pollo. Conclusiones La presencia de CI. perfringes en el pollo y heces de los casos demuestran la transmisión del agente en la población del Centro Penitenciario (fuente común.

  18. Influences of Al particles on the microstructure and property of electrodeposited Ni-Al composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2014-02-01

    Ni-Al composite coatings with different contents of Al microparticles were prepared from a conventional Watt bath. The influences of Al particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology, composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al composite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 °C were also evaluated by a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing Al particle loadings. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing Al particle loadings. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at Al particle loading of 100 g/L and the microstrain of the coating increased with increasing the Al particle loadings. The incorporation of Al particles decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different Al particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the Al particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing Al content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni-Al composite coatings.

  19. Efficiency droop in high-Al-content AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevicius, J.; Kazlauskas, K.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Applied Research and Department of Semiconductor Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia, SC 29209 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Excitation power density dependence of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is studied in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K for AlGaN multiple quantum well structures containing quantum wells of different width. PL efficiency droop is observed and dependence of the droop effect on the well width and lattice temperature is discussed. Photoluminescence band shape reveals strong carrier heating. It is shown that the heating effect has a substantial influence on the photoluminescence efficiency droop, especially at low lattice temperatures. Fitting of the temperature dependence of the PL band width with that obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation of carrier (exciton) hopping via localized states shows that (i) the potential fluctuations can be fairly accurately described using a double-scaled potential profile model, (ii) the localization becomes stronger in narrower quantum wells. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  1. Fabrication of TiAl3 coating on TiAl-based alloy by Al electrodeposition from dimethylsulfone bath and subsequent annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Masao; Tajikara, Seiya; Hirato, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    TiAl3 coating was formed on TiAl alloy by Al electrodeposition from a dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) bath and subsequent annealing. Before the Al electrodeposition, anodic dissolution of TiAl substrate in the DMSO2 bath was conducted to remove the surface oxide layer of the TiAl substrate. By performing the Al electrodeposition immediately after the anodic dissolution, uniform Al films adherent to the TiAl substrate could be obtained. Annealing at 650–1000 °C yielded a single TiAl3 layer or two laye...

  2. Sensorineural hearing loss in high school teenagers in Mexico City and its relationship with recreational noise Las alteraciones auditivas de escolares adolescentes en la Ciudad de México pueden estar relacionadas al ruido recreativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Consuelo Martínez-Wbaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the frequency of hearing loss in a sample of typical public high-school students exposed to recreational noise, and determine associated risk factors. The sample was made up of 214 teenagers from a high-school in Mexico City; subjects were selected randomly per strata. We applied a questionnaire to identify risk factors for hearing loss and performed a battery of audiologic tests consisting of otoscopy, tympanometry, and pure-tone audiometry. The mean age of the sample was 16 ± 1.07 years; 73% were male and 27%, female. Hearing loss was found in 21% of students. The main hearing loss-related risk factor was exposure to recreational noise: frequent attendance at discotheques and pop-music concerts; use of personal stereos; and noise exposure in school workshops. The high frequency of hearing loss in high school students from one Mexico City school (nearly one fifth of the sample was found to be related to noise exposure mainly during recreational activities.El objetivo de este estudio fue medir la frecuencia de alteraciones auditivas en una muestra de escolares de educación media superior expuestos a ruido recreativo y determinar algunos factores de riesgo asociados. La muestra estuvo constituida por 214 adolescentes de una escuela de la Ciudad de México. Los sujetos fueron seleccionados al azar por medio de una computadora. Se aplicaron cuestionarios con el objeto de identificar los factores de riesgo para alteraciones auditivas y se les practicaron diversos estudios audiológicos consistentes en: otoscopía, timpanometría y una audiometría a tonos puros. La edad media de la muestra fue de 16 ± 1,07 años, 73% fueron del sexo masculino y 27% femenino. Se encontraron alteraciones auditivas en 21% de los estudiantes. Los principales factores de riesgo asociados a alteraciones auditivas fueron: exposición al ruido recreativo al asistir a discotecas, conciertos de música popular, el uso de equipos de

  3. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  4. Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni75Al25-xMnx (x=5,9) with the L12-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al74Mn20Si6 and Al68Mn20Ru8Si4, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al74Mn20Si6 whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al68Mn20Ru8Si4. (author)

  5. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  6. High pressure studies of UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary inter-metallic compounds, UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5, crystallize in a tetragonal ThMn12 type structure. In the as-cast samples a residual phase of FeAl (∼2%wt) was identified in the grain boundaries. The amount of the residual cubic phase of FeAl was determined by Rietveld analysis and reduced by the annealing process. UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 maintain the tetragonal symmetry as a function of pressure, while FeAl keeps the cubic structure as was determined by the Rietveld analysis. The volume-pressure curve calculated from the X-ray analysis gives V/V0=0.87 for UFe5Al7 at 26.0 GPa and 0.89 at 24.6 GPa for UFe7Al5. (author)

  7. Chemical mixing at "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical mixing at the "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "Al on Fe" interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on Al" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/57Fe/Al and Al/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  8. Fabrication of /sup 26/Al targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, L.; Baumeister, H.; Rolfs, C.

    1984-06-01

    Targets with up to 1.4x10/sup 16/ /sup 26/Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the /sup 26/Al nuclei via the reaction /sup 26/Mg(p, n)/sup 26/Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described.

  9. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  10. A New Phase in ALS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, P Andrew; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2016-09-01

    In this issue of Structure, Conicella et al. (2016) present evidence that the low complexity C-terminal region of TDP-43 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. ALS-associated mutations alter this phase separation process, providing a possible mechanism for the pathology caused by these TDP-43 mutations. The work is strongly supportive of toxic loss of RNA processing function in ALS. PMID:27602988

  11. Growth of CdTe: Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  12. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  13. 关于w-al-CL空间%On w-al-CL Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽琼; 张云南

    2011-01-01

    给出w-al-CL空间的定义,比较几种CL性的关系,讨论w-al-CL空间的c0和与l1和的稳定性,并讨论C(K,X)空间的w-al-CL性.%Gives the definition of w-al-CL spaces, compare the relationship of some properties of CL, discusses the stability of c0 -sums and l1 -sums of w-al-CL spaces, and discusses the property of w-al-CL of C(K,X) spaces.

  14. Interfacial strength of Al/Al and Al/Zr/Du-10wt%Mo subject to different loading modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact tension (CT) experiments were conducted with fixtures that allowed mode-I (tensile opening mode), mode-Il (shearing mode), and mixed-mode loading to measure the interfacial strength between HIP-clad Al and Al, and Al and Zr/DU-10wt%Mo. Specimens were made with the same HIP process used for making thin composite foils, but instead used 25 mm thick Al-6061 cladding that allowed specimens to be gripped without adhesives. Three configurations of specimens were tested: (1) Al/Al specimens with a pre-crack along the seam; (2) specimens containing both a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer and an Al/Al seam along part of the interface; and (3) specimens containing only a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer at the interface, but with a pre notch along part of the interface. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure full-field deformations during the test. The results show that mode-I loaded interfaces exhibit the weakest strength and the widest scatter. The strength increases when more shearing component is introduced

  15. Los dioses contra el azar versus el azar de los dioses: las catástrofes "naturales" y los pueblos indígenas

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio PÉREZ

    2009-01-01

    RESUMEN: ?Las catástrofes de la naturaleza y las de contenido político son similares en la medida en que pueden ser pre- visibles, también es el hecho de que las consecuencias de las primeras son directamente proporcionales a la mise- ria de la zona en que ocurran. Es cierto que las ayudas de emergencia y los planes de reconstrucción surgidos a raíz de una catástrofe pueden paliar los "sufrimientos" de los menos afectados. Algunos ejemplos reci...

  16. Los dioses contra el azar versus el azar de los dioses: las catástrofes "naturales" y los pueblos indígenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PÉREZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: ?Las catástrofes de la naturaleza y las de contenido político son similares en la medida en que pueden ser pre- visibles, también es el hecho de que las consecuencias de las primeras son directamente proporcionales a la mise- ria de la zona en que ocurran. Es cierto que las ayudas de emergencia y los planes de reconstrucción surgidos a raíz de una catástrofe pueden paliar los "sufrimientos" de los menos afectados. Algunos ejemplos recientes, como el terremoto en Tierradentro en 1994 que arrasó 12 resguardos y 9 cabildos indígenas Nasa Yuwe (Paeces, demues- tran las diferentes percepciones que se tienen del problema, sea visto desde la óptica blanca-mestiza o desde la per- cepción indígena. La primera no sólo es estatal sino también de la Iglesia católica. Otros casos de catástrofes natu- rales en zonas indígenas serían: a la avalancha de marzo del 87 en Chosica Perú, la cual podría ser prevenida si la arquitectura indígena y los recursos naturales fueran conservados. b Dos días antes la Amazonía ecuatoriana sufrió dos sismos que afectaron a la comunidad Quichua fueron más catastróficas las políticas de reconstrucción que los sismos. c Entre marzo y abril de 1982 en Chiapas hizo erupción el volcán Chichón con lo que los indígenas per- dieron hasta su miseria.La cultura indígena además de tener constancia mítica de la causalidad de las calamidades, tiene tecnología para hacerles frente, por lo que se evidencia lo nocivo de las prácticas de la ciencia occidental a dichas comunidades.ABSTRACT: Natural and political disasters disasters are similar in that they can be foreseen. Also in that the the consequences of the latter are directly proportional to the poverty of the area in which they take place. It is true that emergency help and reconstruction plans can limit the «sufferings» of some affected people. Some recent examples, lik the eartquake of Tierradentro in 1994, which destroyed 12 «resguardos» and 9 indigenous «cabildos» in Nasa Yuwe (Paeces show that there are important differences between the white-»mestizo» and the indigenous perceptions. The former is closely connected to the state and the Cathholic. Other natural disasters in indigenous regions are: a the may 1987 disaster in Chosica Peru, which could be prevented if indigenous arquitecture and natural resources were preserved, b two earthquakes that affected the Quichia communitity in the Amazonia in Ecuador in 1987 were even less dramatic than the reconstruction policies that followed them, c between march and april 1982 in Chiapas erupted the Chichón volcano, as a result of which indigenous groups lost everything.The indigenous culture has both mythic knowledge about the causes of disasters and technology to facethem, whaich shows the negative character of the western science for those communities.

  17. Untersuchung der Nitridierung V/Al-intermetallischer Phasen

    OpenAIRE

    Lewalter, Hartmut Berthold

    2004-01-01

    Schichten V/Al-Intermetallischer Phasen und Schichten aus V(Al) (Schichtdicken 150- 300 nm) wurden durch Interdiffusion von V/Al- und V5Al8/V-Mehrfachschichten bei 400-800°C im Vakuum bei 3 x 10-8 mbar hergestellt. Des Weiteren wurden V5Al8-Schichten durch Sputtern einer V5Al8-Legierung erzeugt. Die Gesamtstöchiometrie der Schichten lag zwischen Al0,86V0,14 und Al0,19V0,81. Als Substrat dienten einkristalline (012) Saphirwafer. Die V/Al-Intermetallischen Phasen und V(Al) wurden im RTP-System ...

  18. Response to Signorovitch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, Jean-François; Debortoli, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Van Doninck, Karine

    2016-08-22

    Signorovitch et al.[1] comment that an Oenothera-like meiosis [2] could produce a pattern similar to what we observed in our study of natural isolates of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga, which we attributed to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) [3]. Indeed, our HGT hypothesis appears at first sight difficult to conciliate with their observation of a congruent pattern of allele sharing at four large loci possibly located on different chromosomes [4]. However, one might imagine conditions under which massive horizontal gene transfer between bdelloid individuals could produce such a pattern, notably if the individuals involved had previously lost most of their heterozygosity because of their exposure to frequent desiccation (which produces DNA double-strand breaks [5]). In the published A. vaga genome the loss of heterozygosity due to large-scale gene conversion events or break-induced replication covers only about 10% of the genome [6], but this percentage may be much higher in environmental isolates that often experience dessication. Besides, if an Oenothera-like mode of meiosis occurs in bdelloids frequently enough to be detected in a single sampling of 29 individuals (as in [4]), one would expect males and meiosis to be observed at least occasionally, and instances of congruent allele sharing across loci should turn up frequently in genetic surveys. This was not the case in [3]: among the 82 A. vaga individuals sequenced for four nuclear markers, no trio of individuals presented congruent patterns of shared sequences at different loci. For these reasons, and in the absence of any direct evidence for an Oenothera-like meiosis in bdelloids, we still consider inter-bdelloid HGTs a more parsimonious explanation for our results. PMID:27554651

  19. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  20. Band edge modulation and interband optical transition in AlN:MgAl-ON nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlN nanotubes (NTs) have many novel characteristics and great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. However, little is known about the influence of MgAl-ON co-doping effects on their optical properties. Here, we focus on investigating the electronic structures, clarify the interband optical transition mechanism and give a clear atomic picture for the important electron/hole localization centre in AlN:MgAl-ON NTs using the GGA-1/2 method. We find that the MgAl doping efficiency can be improved effectively due to ON doping in AlN NTs. The MgAl and ON form MgAl-ON defect complex easily along the AlN NT axis (C-axis). The MgAl-ON defect complex can result in a remarkable charge transfer around it and modify the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum significantly. Meanwhile, the MgAl-ON defect complex also forms the important exciton localization centre and effectively enhances the interband radiative recombination rate. Moreover, the light emission/absorption sensitively depends on its polarization. The parallel polarized light (E∥C) is much stronger than the perpendicular one (E⊥C). The MgAl-ON co-doping thus paves a new way for improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices based on AlN NTs. (papers)

  1. The theory of the moon in the al-Zij al-Kamil fi-l-taalim of Ibn al-Ha'im

    OpenAIRE

    Puig i Tàrrech, Roser

    2000-01-01

    Al the beginning of Ihe thirteenth cenrury (60tH I 1204-1205) Abli Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al-Ghafiqi al-lshbiIi known as Ibn al-Ha'im composed his work entitled al-Zi] al-Kamil fi-l-Taalim in honour of the Caliph Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir (who reigned from 1199- 1213). All we know of lbn al-Ha'im's live is that he came from Seville and that he appears to have worked in North Africa.

  2. Effect of Al coating conditions on laser weldability of Al coated steel sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Han LEE; Jong-Do KIM; Jin-Seok OH; Seo-Jeong PARK

    2009-01-01

    Al coated steel sheets with excellent heat resistance, thermal reflection, and corrosion resistance are widely used in various applications. The laser weldability of the Al coated steel sheet for full penetration welding was reported. The phenomenon caused by intermixed aluminum and behavior of aluminum in the weld were investigated. Al coated steel sheets that have various thickness and coating mass were prepared for laser welding. The effects of parameters such as welding conditions and Al coating conditions were investigated. Al content mixed in the weld after laser welding was evaluated, and then a correlation between the mixed Al and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the Al-rich zones which have Fe-Al intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. The intermetallic compounds cause the decreased strength of the weld.

  3. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  4. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  5. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  6. Als je vrienden hebt dan win je

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Huibers, T. (Theo); Krosse, de L. (Luc)

    2010-01-01

    Als je wint, heb je vrienden’ is een Nederlandse klassieker van Herman Brood en Henny Vrienten. Hiermee werd de gevoelige snaar bloot gelegd dat pas als je hebt gewonnen je vrienden hebt. Rijen dik, echte vrienden. In de politiek werkt het andersom; je moet vrienden (stemmen) hebben, ve

  7. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which want...

  8. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  9. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  10. Assessment of the al corner of the ternary Al-Fe-Si system

    OpenAIRE

    Eleno, Luiz; Vezelý, Josef; Sundman, Bo; Cieslar, Miroslav; Lacaze, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The present work provides a review of the information available on the Al-rich corner of the Al-Fe-Si system as well as a CALPHAD type assessment making use of the COST 507 database as a starting point. The description of the intermetallic compounds has been modified to account for substitution of Al and Si in the ternary Al-Fe-Si system and to take new experimental information into account.

  11. The annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al metal and Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experiment, we have investigated how defects and elements as additive play a role as trap site by observing the annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al and Al-Si alloy. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Si in Al. (author)

  12. Shadow evaporation of epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al tunnel junctions on sapphire utilizing an inorganic bilayer mask

    OpenAIRE

    Welander, Paul B.; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Weir, Terence J.; Gouker, Mark A.; Oliver, William D.

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes a new inorganic shadow mask that has been employed for the evaporation of all-epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al superconducting tunnel junctions. Organic resists that are commonly used for shadow masks and other lift-off processes are not compatible with ultra-high vacuum deposition systems, and they can break down at even moderately elevated temperatures. The inorganic mask described herein does not suffer these same shortcomings. It was fabricated from a Ge/Nb bilayer, comprising ...

  13. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. PMID:27423564

  14. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    OpenAIRE

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-...

  15. The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

  16. Magnetism in bcc Fe-Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M.E. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.; Yousif, A.A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic moment {mu}, hyperfine field B{sub hf} and isomer shift IS at the Fe site in bcc Fe-Al alloys were calculated from first principle. Contrary to the belief that Al atoms reside in the iron lattice as magnetic holes, it was found that the local magnetic moment of Fe is decreased when Al is at a nearest neighbour site (NN), while it increases if Al is at a next-nearest neighbour site (NNN). Consequently, the average {mu} per Fe atom was found to be, initially, independent of Al content. Assuming a linear dependence of {mu}{sub Fe} on the number of Al atoms at NN and NNN sites, we calculated the average {mu}, which was found to agree with experimental results of cold worked alloys for disordered Fe-Al alloy. On the other hand, antiferromagnetic coupling appears in the CsCl ordered structures. The average B{sub hf} was also calculated and compared to experimental data and the trends in the IS are considered. (orig.)

  17. Comparative study on interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures with Al2O3, AlN, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hou, Bin; Xie, Yong; Hao, Yue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures with AlN, Al2O3, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics were studied. In situ plasma pretreatment resulted negligible interface trap states and voltage hysteresis. The fixed charge density at Al2O3/AlN (or Al2O3/barrier) interface was estimated to be 1.66 × 1013 cm-2 by using flat-band voltage shift, and the oxide bulk charge concentration was 2.86 × 1017 cm-3. The interface charge density at other interfaces were at the order of 1011 cm-2. Simulation results using the above charge density/concentration indicated that Al2O3/AlN interface fixed charges dominated the dielectric-related voltage shift in AlGaN/GaN MIS heterostructures, which caused a large voltage shift of -3 V with 10 nm Al2O3 thickness, while the flat-band voltage variety resulting from other types of charges was within 0.1 V.

  18. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  19. Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, Martin; Buh, Jože; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Kirste, Ronny; Bobea, Milena; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael D.; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Zgonik, Marko

    2015-04-01

    Dispersion of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides is measured by multiple angle-of-incidence and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques. The polarity-controlled AlN layers are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001)-sapphire substrates. Taking into consideration the different surface morphologies of the Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides, we propose two optical models to describe the measured ellipsometry data. The results indicate that there is no difference between the refractive indices of the AlN grown in opposite directions, which confirms the potential of the AlN lateral polar structures for use in nonlinear optical applications based on quasi phase matching.

  20. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  1. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. PMID:27417442

  2. Magnetic properties and crystal structure of HoNiAl and UNiAl hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties and crystal structure of 4f and 5f intermetallics was studied on HoNiAlH2.0, UNiAlH2.3 and UNiAlD2.1. The incorporation of hydrogen into HoNiAl leads to a decrease of the magnetic ordering temperature from 13 to 6 K, while it increases from 19 K to values in the range 90-100 K in the UNiAl-H system. The crystal lattices of all compounds are anisotropically expanded. Moreover, the crystal symmetry is lowered to orthorhombic in HoNiAlH2.0, but remains hexagonal for UNiAlH(D)x. Three different deuterium positions were found for both compounds. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  3. AlON粉体的合成%Synthesis of AlON Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al_2O_3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体.研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化.结果表明,当原料Al_2O_3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750 ℃, 2 h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上.

  4. Adherencia al tratamiento en la esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Manrique, Olatz

    2015-01-01

    [Es]La adherencia al tratamiento es un problema real en los pacientes esquizofrénicos, que dificulta su inserción en la sociedad y puede ocasionarles graves repercusiones médicas. Por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión es valorar la eficacia de las intervenciones psicoeducacionales con la ayuda del personal sanitario y/o familiares, en la adherencia al tratamiento de los pacientes esquizofrénicos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para dar respuesta al objetivo planteado, analizando las res...

  5. Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi (ALS) ja potilaan ohjaus

    OpenAIRE

    Korkeaniemi, Lotta; Kaakinen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Saimme opinnäytetyömme toimeksiantona Hyvinkään sairaalan sisätautien vuodeosastolta. Tavoitteena oli luoda ALS potilaille potilasopas trakeostomiasta ja sen kanssa elämisestä. Oppaan tarkoituksena on auttaa ALS potilaita päättämään, kuinka pitkälle he haluavat viedä heidän hengitystukihoitonsa. Samalla hoitajat saavat tuki materiaalia, jonka avulla he voivat käydä läpi hengitystukihoitoja ja erityisesti trakeostomiaan liittyviä asioita. ALS eli amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi on tahdona...

  6. Suspected variables among Al Sufi stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffleit, D.

    In the tenth century Al Sufi compiled a catalogue of some 1100 stars. J.E. Gore, around 1900, wrote extensively on the magnitudes of these stars. On intercomparing them with a few other catalogues, Gore surmised that some 38 stars appeared to show secular variations. Here all the Al Sufi magnitudes have been compared with numerous additional sources, but smooth secular variations are not substantiated although some stars seem to have undergone comparatively sudden changes after about 1600. About 70 Al Sufi stars are now named or suscpected variable stars, but nearly all with amplitudes under 0.3 V.

  7. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Qur’an is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or ‘nash’ is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Qur’an discusses problem based on the society’s culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  8. Linija za transport Al-polizdelkov

    OpenAIRE

    Capl, Žiga

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena linija za transport Al-polizdelkov, ki je sestavljena iz dveh verižnih transporterjev in dveh manipulatorjev. Omenjeni transporterji morajo transportirati Al-polizdelke od sprejemnega mesta do poti v stiskalnico. V okviru diplomskega dela smo opravili analizo obstoječega ogrodja z naklonom, linije za transport Al-polizdelkov in podali možne rešitve za novo učinkovitejšo izvedbo. Na podlagi tehnično-tehnoloških zahtev smo izbrali najprimernejšo rešitev i...

  9. Characterization of AlInN/AlN/GaN Heterostructures with Different AlN Buffer Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çörekçi, S.; Dugan, S.; Öztürk, M. K.; Çetin, S. Ş.; Çakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; Özbay, E.

    2016-07-01

    Two AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 280-nm- and 400-nm-thick AlN buffer grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and Hall-effect measurements. The symmetric (0002) plane with respect to the asymmetric (10bar{1}2) plane in the 280-nm-thick AlN buffer has a higher crystal quality, as opposed to the 400-nm-thick buffer. The thinner buffer improves the crystallinity of both (0002) and (10bar{1}2) planes in the GaN layers, it also provides a sizeable reduction in dislocation density of GaN. Furthermore, the lower buffer thickness leads to a good quality surface with an rms roughness of 0.30 nm and a dark spot density of 4.0 × 108 cm-2. The optical and transport properties of the AlInN/AlN/GaN structure with the relatively thin buffer are compatible with the enhancement in its structural quality, as verified by XRD and AFM results.

  10. Evolution of ConAl clusters and chemisorption of hydrogen on ConAl clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth behavior of ConAl (n = 1–15) and the chemisorptions of hydrogen on the ground state geometries have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The growth pattern for ConAl is Al-substituted Con+1 clusters, and it keeps the similar frameworks of the most stable Con+1 clusters except for n = 2, 3, and 6. The Al atom substitutes the surface atom of the Con+1 clusters for n ≤ 13. Starting from n = 14, the Al atom completely falls into the center of the Co-frame. The dissociation energy, the second-order energy differences, and the HOMO–LUMO gaps indicate that the magic numbers of the calculated ConAl clusters are 7, 9, and 13, corresponding to the high symmetrical structures. To my knowledge, this is the first time that a systematic study of chemisorption of hydrogen on cobalt aluminum clusters. The twofold bridge site is identified to be the most favorable chemisorptions site for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–6, 8, 10), and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–7), while threefold hollow site is preferred for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 7, 9, 11–15) and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 8–10, 12–15) clusters. The ground state structure of two hydrogen adsorption on Co11Al is exceptional. In general, the binding energy of both H and 2H of ConAl (n = 1–12) is found to increase with the cluster size. And the result shows that large binding energies of the hydrogen atoms and large fragmentation energies for Co11AlH and Co12AlH make these species behaving like magic clusters.

  11. Wali Allah menurut al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi dan Ibnu Taimiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mursito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about wali presented in the early time on the hand of al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, which reaps number of responses from Muslim scholar because of his misleading. One of them is Ibn Taimiyyah. Al-Hakim and Ibn Taymiyyah have their own view about wali with several distinctions. In the definition of wali, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi used more general language than Ibn Taimiyyah, as well as characteristics, how to be wali, the classification, concept of karamah, and the concept of khatm al-awliya’. According to writer, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi’s view about wali able to deepen our understanding about Sufism, meanwhile Ibn Taimiyyah’s view will led us to comprehend Sufism from modernist point of view. This paper conclude that: both of figures seen that wali of Allah are the servants submissive and obedient in running His command; according to al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, degree of wali can be reached purely from Allah’s bounty and the effort of servants themselves, while Ibn Taimiyyah seen that the degree could be reached in the way of faith and piety of the servant; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi seen that karamah is the most urgent for wali, while Ibn Taimiyyah did not; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi utilized the quality of deeds to measure the best people and purity of heart to measure the best wali, while Ibn Taymiyyah utilized the quality of deeds as the assessment standard to measure best people and wali.

  12. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  13. PEMBARUAN MASLA╩AH DALAM MAQĀ╤ID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of ma╣la╪ah contained in the maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of ma╣la╪ah in ╪if╬ al-dīn is technically defined as al-╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ╪if╬ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ╪if╬ al-nasl as ╪if╬ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ╪if╬ al-māl as al-ta╨ammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ╪if╬ al-‘aql as al-╪uqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep ma╣la╪ah yang terkandung dalam maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep ma╣la╪ah dalam ╪if╬u al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ╪if╬u al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ╪if╬u al-nasl sebagai ╪if╬u al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ╪if╬u al-māl sebagai al-ta╨ammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ╪if╬u al-‘aql sebagai al-╪uqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  14. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  15. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  16. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further research needed to see if injections into spine would provide any benefit, researchers say To use the sharing features on ...

  17. ALS: Recent Developments from Genetics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Martine; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease. High-throughput DNA sequencing and related genomic capture tools are methodological advances which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic ALS. It is interesting to note that as the number of ALS genes grows, many of the proteins they encode are in shared intracellular processes. This review will summarize some of the recent advances and gene discovery made in ALS. PMID:27113253

  18. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  19. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  20. Hans Freudenthal als docent en collega

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Ferdinand; Verhoef, Nellie

    2010-01-01

    Hans Freudenthal heeft een belangrijke invloed gehad op de ontwikkeling van het basiswiskundeonderwijs. Niet minder belangrijk was zijn activiteit als docent en onderzoeker gedurende tientallen jaren op het Mathematisch Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hoe waren toen zijn ideeën over onderwijs, hoe was hij als collega en hoe waren zijn colleges? Nellie Verhoef en Ferdinand Verhulst interviewden voormalige collega’s en studenten van Freudenthal.

  1. Effects of Al substitution on goethite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Premoli, Alessandra Maria; Melis, Pietro; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Deiana, Salvatore Andrea

    1984-01-01

    Goethites containing up to 32.7 mole % Al were synthesized and characterized through diffractometry, spectrometry, DSC and chemical techniques. Results indicate that crystal growth was favoured or hindered depending on the percentage of aluminum incorporated into the structure. Goethites to which 5-10 mole % Al were initially added crystallized best, as shown by the highest crystallite dimensions calculated from X-ray and Mössbauer analyses, and by the lowest surface areas values. Over suc...

  2. Anerkennung als Voraussetzung gesellschaftlicher und unternehmerischer Teilhabe

    OpenAIRE

    Eurich, Johannes; Brink, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Angesichts des neuen Phänomens der sozialen Exklusion wird soziale Gerechtigkeit nicht mehr nur über die Verteilung von Gütern hergestellt, vielmehr spielt auch die Ebene der Partizipation eine Rolle. Anerkennung ist eine Grundvoraussetzung für Partizipation. Die Verfasser diskutieren Fragen der Unternehmensethik auf der Dimension der Anerkennung. Sie votieren für ein normatives Stakeholder-Management als freiwillige Verpflichtung, das auch strategischen Anforderungen gerecht werden kann. Als...

  3. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz. Eine Begriffsanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als B...

  4. Plasma nitriding of Al 99.5

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H. -Y; Stock, H.-R.; Mayr, P.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a very interesting ceramic because of its combination of properties such as high thermal stability, high hardness and an unusual combination of high thermal and low electrical conductivity. But it is very difficulty to obtain an AlN layer on the aluminium substrates by thermochemical nitriding process. Since a thin film of aluminium oxide existing on the surface of every aluminium substrate prevents the nitrogen atoms from diffusing into the aluminium lattice. Howev...

  5. Communication Support for People with ALS

    OpenAIRE

    David Beukelman; Susan Fager; Amy Nordness

    2011-01-01

    Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 9 5 % of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, app...

  6. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  7. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  8. Next-generation sequencing of 28 ALS-related genes in a Japanese ALS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in Japanese ALS patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 ALS-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese ALS patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 ALS patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known ALS pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial ALS patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic ALS patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of ALS-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese ALS patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954

  9. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  10. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.

  11. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-dunyâ, the person does not have to abhor and leave such lively aspects as wealth and position behind. The most important thing to a sufi, according to al-Shadhili, is how he obeys the requirements of shar‘ by avoiding away from immoral deeds and at the same time recognizing God in his heart (ma‘rifat Allâh. Al-Shâdhilî initiated tasawuf ‘amalî which is affiliated to the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamâ‘ah school, an Islamic mystical thought that adheres to the principles of sharî‘ah based on the foundation of al-Qur’ân dan H}adîth. The concept of al-Shâdhilî’s tasawuf has been subsequently revealed into the great sufi order spectrum, namely al-Shâdhilîyah, where during its historical development this sufi order has led to the emergence of many branches with different names.Keywords: Shâdhilîyah, open view, hubb al-dunyâ, ma‘rifat Allâh.

  12. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies. PMID:20406180

  13. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al10O3N8) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P63/mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm3. The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were Rwp=6.97%, S (=Rwp/Re)=1.68, Rp=5.45%, RB=5.13% and RF=4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N)6] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N)4] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(nO+nT) with nO/(nO+nT). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The nO and nT are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  14. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  15. Morphology of phase separation in AlN-Al2OC and SiC-AlN ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solutions in the AIN-Al2OC and SiC-AlN systems were fabricated by hot-pressing powder mixtures in graphite dies. X-ray diffraction showed the samples to be single phases of 2H structure. The samples were annealed between 1600 degrees and 1900 degrees C for up to 1000 h. In the SiC-AlN system, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction failed to reveal microstructural or phase changes. However, electron microscopy showed that samples had decomposed. Streaking of diffraction spots occurred along directions orthogonal to [012] planes (∼43 degrees off the c axis), which is approximately the direction along which the elastic energy function is a minimum. The orientation-dependent Young's modulus was also a minimum along this direction. In AlN-Al2OC, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated the occurrence of decomposition. The precipitates were disk-shaped with [001] orthogonal to the disks. The occurrence of decomposition along the [001] direction suggests that it is the elastically soft direction

  16. Nanocrack-induced leakage current in AlInN/AlN/GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we report on the study of nano-crack formation in Al1−xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, on its association with composition fluctuation and on its local electrical properties. It is shown here that indium segregation at nano-cracks and threading dislocations originating from the non-pseudomorphic AlN interlayer could be the cause of the high reverse-bias gate leakage current of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on Al1−xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures and significantly affects the contact rectifying behavior. Segregation of indium around crack tips in Al1−xInxN acting as conductive paths was assessed with conductive atomic force microscopy.

  17. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiwen; Lu, Yanwu, E-mail: ywlu@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Ji, Dong [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/Vs to 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions.

  18. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 103 cm2/Vs to 106 cm2/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions

  19. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  20. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Ping; LUO Yin-Hong; WANG Wei; ZHANG Ke-Ying; GUO Hong-Xia; GUO Xiao-Qiang; WANG Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established.The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically,and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out.The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated,and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained.

  1. Al-based precipitate evolution during high temperature annealing of Al implanted in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-based precipitate evolution for 80 keV Al ions implanted in Si has been investigated. Precipitates are formed during high temperature annealings of 1 x 1015/cm2 implanted samples. They are located at two depths where Al concentration peaks are detected. Al atoms are gettered into the extended defects present in the crystal and/or precipitate when their concentration is higher than the solid solubility value at the annealing temperature. Increasing annealing time, precipitates dissolve out and only a small fraction of atoms diffuses into the sample, meanwhile the greater part evaporates from the sample. At 1 x 1013/cm2 dose Al concentration is below the solid solubility limit. The secondary defects are not detected and the dopant profile does not display anomalous peaks. Moreover, all the implanted Al is electrically active and remains in the sample during the first instant of annealing. At higher annealing times it diffuses out of the sample reducing the residual dose

  2. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  3. Observation of Electronic Shells and Characteristic Products from Mass Abundance Spectra of Al Cluster and Al-C Cluster Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing-Chen; ZHAI Hua-Jin; ZHOU Ru-Fang; NI Guo-Quan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Using a laser vaporization/pulsed molecular beam cluster source, Al cluster anions and Al-C mixed cluster anions are produced and recorded by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Mass abundance spectra of the Al cluster anions in the size range from Al2 to Al42 show that Al-13, Al23, Al35, and slightly, Al37 are local maxima, as predicted by the electronic jellium model. Mixed clusters Aln C- and Aln C2 are also shown, among which the most abundant species are Al3 C2 , Al6 C2 , Al7 C- and Al7 C2 in the small size range. The formation mechanism of these products is discussed.

  4. Grain refinement of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared with ELTA by Al-4B master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-xing; MENG Xiang-yong; LIU Zhi-yong; LIU Zhong-xia; WENG Yong-gang; SONG Tian-fu; YANG Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic low-titanium aluminum (ELTA) was produced by adding TiO2 powder to an industrial aluminum electrolyzer.The grain refining effect of Al-4B master alloy in the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared by using ELTA was investigated, and compared with those of Al-5Ti, Al-5Ti-1B and Al-4B master alloys in the similar alloy prepared by using pure Al. The results indicate that when Al-4B is added to the melt of the alloy prepared by using ELTA in terms of the Ti/B mass ratio of 5:1, the grain refining effect is better than those of Al-5Ti, Al-5Ti-1B and Al-4B master alloys. Thus, using Al-4B to refine the grain of Al-Si alloys prepared by using ELTA will possibly become a feasible way of obtaining Al-Si alloy with homogeneous and fine microstructure.

  5. In-Situ Synthesis of AlN Powders and Composite AlN Powders with Yttrium Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新和; 王群; 林志浪; 李春国; 周美玲

    2002-01-01

    Using Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Y alloys as raw materials and nitrogen as gas reactants, AlN powders and composite AlN powders by in-situ synthesis method were prepared. AlN lumps prepared by the nitriding of Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Y alloys have porous microstructure, which is favorable for pulverization. They have high purity, containing 1.23%(mass fraction) oxygen impurity, and consisted of AlN single phase. The average particle size of AlN powders is 6.78 μm. Composite AlN powders consist of AlN phases and rare earth oxide Y2O3 phase. The distribution of particle size of AlN powders shows two peaks. In view of packing factor, AlN powders with such size distribution can easily be sintered to high density.

  6. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  7. TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Guillotel, E; Langlois, C.; Ghiglieno, F.; Leo, G.; Ricolleau, C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The internal interfaces of multilayer Al x Ga 1-x As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow predicting the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm -1. We also find...

  8. Modified Mechanism of Eutectic Silicon in Al2O3/Al-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Al2O3/Al-Si alloy composite was manufactured by squeeze casting. The morphology of the eutectic silicon in the composite was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and the modified mechanism of eutectic silicon in the composite was approached. The alumina fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the growth of Al-Si eutectic and lead to the modification of eutectic silicon near the fiber.

  9. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  10. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

  11. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  12. Melt Processing and Characterization of Al-SiC Nanocomposite, Al, and Mg Foam Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Nabawy; Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, metallic foams of Al, Mg and an Al-SiC nanocomposite (MMNC) have been fabricated using a new manufacturing technique by employing melt infiltration assisted with an electromagnetic force. The aim of this investigation was to study and to develop a reliable manufacturing technique consisting of different types of metallic foams. In this technique, an electromagnetic force was used to assist the infiltration of Al-SiC slurry and of pure liquid metal into a leachable pattern...

  13. Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

  14. Synthesis of core–shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  15. Strain Rates and Grain Growth in Al 5754 and Al 6061 Friction Stir Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, A.; Yamamoto, M.; North, T. H.

    2007-06-01

    The stir zone temperature and microstructures are compared in friction stir spot welds produced in Al 5754 and Al 6061 alloys. Electron backscattered diffraction was used to determine the relationship between tool rotation speed during welding and final stir zone grain size. Comparison of the grain sizes in rapidly quenched welds with those in air-cooled joints confirmed that grain growth occurred only in Al 6061 spot welds. There was no evidence of abnormal grain growth in the stir zones of Al 6061 welds; the final grain size could be represented using an Arrhenius equation. The strain rates during welding were determined by incorporating the stir zone temperature and average subgrain sizes in quenched spot welds in the Zener-Hollomon relation. When the tool rotation speed increased from 750 to 3000 RPM, the strain rate values ranged from 180 to 497 s-1 in Al 5754 spot welds and from 55 to 395 s-1 in Al 6061 spot welds. It is suggested that a no-slip boundary condition may be appropriate during numerical modeling of Al 5754 and 6061 friction stir spot welding. This is not the case during Al 7075, Al 2024, and Mg-alloy AZ91 spot welding because spontaneous melting facilitates slippage at the tool contact interface.

  16. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  17. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshi, L. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zenou, V. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ezersky, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Munitz, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Talianker, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: mital@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2005-10-27

    A new ternary aluminide U{sub 2}FeAl{sub 20} with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m.

  18. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ternary aluminide U2FeAl20 with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m

  19. AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW Heterostructure for High-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrani, Ouarda; Aubert, Thierry; Elmazria, Omar; Bartasyte, Ausrine; Nicolay, Pascal; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Boulet, Pascal; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Mangin, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have evidenced that Pt/AlN/Sapphire surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are promising for high-temperature high-frequency applications. However, they cannot be used above 700°C in air atmosphere as the Pt interdigital transducers (IDTs) agglomerate and the AlN layer oxidizes in such conditions. In this paper, we explore the possibility to use an AlN protective overlayer to concurrently hinder these phenomena. To do so, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire heterostructures undergo successive annealing steps from 800°C to 1000°C in air atmosphere. The impact of each step on the morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of AlN and Pt films is evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Finally, acoustical performance at room temperature of both protected and unprotected SAW devices are compared, as well as the effects of annealing on these performance. These investigations show that the use of an overlayer is one possible solution to strongly hinder the Pt IDTs agglomeration up to 1000°C. Moreover, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW heterostructures show promising performances in terms of stability up to 800°C. At higher temperatures, the oxidation of AlN is more intense and makes it inappropriate to be used as a protective layer. PMID:27076407

  20. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, ...

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al2O3/TiAl composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Tao-tao; WANG Fen; ZHU Jian-feng

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3/TiAl composites were fabricated by PAXD (pressure-assisted exothermic dispersion) method. The effects of Nb2O5 content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results show that the ultimate phases of the composite consist of TiAl, Ti3Al, Al2O3 and a small amount of NbAl3. SEM reveals that a submicron γ+(α2/γ) dual phases structure can be presented after sintered at 1 200 ℃. Furthermore, with the increase of Nb2O5 content, the ratio of TiAl to Ti3Al phase decreases correspondingly, the grains of the composites are remarkably refined, and the produced Al2O3 particles are uniformly dispersed. When 6% Nb2O5 is added, the composite has the best comprehensive properties. It exhibits a Vickers hardness of 4.77 GPa and a bending strength of 642 MPa. Grain-refinement and dispersion-strengthening are the main strengthening mechanisms.

  2. Production of AlN-Si-Al Ceramic-Metal Composites via Pressurless Infiltration Method

    OpenAIRE

    KALEMTAŞ, Ayşe; ARSLAN, Gürsoy; KARA, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the production of light (∼2,9 g/cm3) and dense (> 99 %) AlN based ceramic metal composites was conducted by the pressureless melt infiltration method. These composites contain a high ceramic volume fraction (> 50 vol %) which is the result of the reaction between Si3N4 and Al in the Si3N4-Al system. The production of the ceramic-metal composites was achieved via infiltrating 2024 Al alloys at different temperatures and holding times into the porous pellets which were prepared us...

  3. Coating of a layer of Au on Al13 : The findings of icosahedral Al@Al12Au20- and Al12Au202- fullerenes using ab initio pseudopotential calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay

    2009-02-01

    We report results of ab initio pseudopotential calculations on the nanocoating of gold on an icosahedral Al13 cluster and the findings of icosahedrally symmetric endohedral Al@Al12Au20- and empty cage Al12Au202- compound fullerenes formed of metal atoms. Twelve Al atoms cap the pentagonal faces of a dodecahedral Au20 cage in which each Au atom has three Al atoms and three Au atoms as nearest neighbors. Mixing of Al13 and Au20 magic clusters leads to a large heat of formation of 0.55 eV/atom and high stability of the Al@Al12Au20 compound fullerene. The binding energies of Al12Au20 and Al@Al12Au20 are 3.017 and 3.007 eV/atom, respectively, which are much larger than 2.457 eV/atom for Au32 fullerene, leading to the possibility of their high abundance.

  4. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  5. Melting Transition of Small Aluminium Clusters Al11-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Heat capacities of small aluminium clusters Al11-20 are investigated using MD simulation with empirical manybody Gupta potential. The heat capacities of some clusters Al11, Al12, Al13 and Al19 show well-defined peaks while the heat capacities of Al15-18 indicate a gradual melting transition. The spectra of isomers obtained by quenches along the MD trajectory give good interpretation for those results.

  6. Kerja Perspektif Al-Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The moslem ethics of life is based on movement as ex­pressed in certain terms like al-sharī’ah, al-tarīqah, al-sirāt, al-sabīl and al-manhaj, that make sense of way and teachings to achieve good life. Islam obliges and gives appreciation of the achievements of Mus­lims. The Qur’an uses several terms to refer to such work; ‘charity, kasb, juhd, ibtighâ’, sa ’yu and su ’âl. From this concept, the Qur’an considers work as nob­le, while begging is despicable. Work means thankful to God for the potential He bestows. The Qur’an promotes work not only because it is the way to achieve the wealth, but also because it possesses the its sacred value for the benefit of fulfilling livelihood. Therefore the work should also be done based on ethical values .

  7. 26Al in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different lines of physical reasoning have converged on the importance of the radioactive nucleus 26Al. The sciences of meteoritics, nucleosynthesis, gamma-ray astronomy, galactic chemical evolution, solar system formation, and interstellar chemistry all place this nucleus in a central position with possible profound implications. Perhaps more importantly the study of this radioactivity can unite these diverse fields in a complicated framework which will benefit all of them. This review traces the evolution of ideas concerning 26Al in the context of these disciplines. 26Al was first discussed for the possibility that its decay energy could melt meteorite parent bodies, and its daughter, 26Mg, was later found in meteorites with enhanced abundance. It was also among the first radioactivities expected to be synthesized in interestingly large quantities in nulceosynthetic events. The first definitive detection of gamma-rays from an interstellar radioactivity is that of 1.809 MeV gamma-rays from 26Al. This discovery has many implications, some of which are outlined here. The whole problem of isotopic anomalies in meteorites is greatly influenced by the specific issues surrounding excess 26Mg, whether it represents in situ decay of 26Al or memory of conditions of the ISM. The relationships among these ideas and their implications are examined. (orig.)

  8. Cd ion implantation in AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. ► XRD shows damage produced during implantation. ► Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. ► RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. ► Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

  9. Survey and alignment at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET'' and STAR*NET'' software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS''). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S ampersand A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper

  10. Direct laser cooling Al+ ions optical clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Luo, J; Lu, Z H

    2016-01-01

    Al$^+$ ions optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small blackbody radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al$^+$ ions optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al$^+$ ions traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al$^+$ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al$^+$ ions to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach $9.0\\times10^{-17}/\\sqrt{\\tau}$. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed ...

  11. Epistemologi Penafsiran Ilmiah al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in interpretating al-Qur’an is to explain the will of God and the operationalization of the will in the field of faith, laws, or ethics. At the phase of Islamic civilization, when the linguistic and philosophy science codified, raises the various method (manhaj, and interpretation streams (ittijahat, exegesis school (madzhab of al-Qur’an. In addition, also found in various shades of interpretation such as: fiqhi, kalami, balaghi, and isyari/ sufi, even philosophical. It was also discovered methods of tafsir ‘ilmi oriented to the utilization of the discovering science in order to prove the truth of scientific fact. The last pattern was ignited pro and contra among scholars and mufassir. As we know that alQur’an was not descended in the condition of cultural vacuum but it is a form of dialectics and the response to the condition and social situation, politic, and religion. This is relevant to the characteristics of al-Qur’an which can be applied throughout the periods. As we understood that interpretation is one of reflections of thought and civilization products. It always developed and influenced by the dynamics of human civilization, so in its development, science and al-Qur’an can be brought together in dialogue, although with some prerequisites specified interpretation.

  12. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  13. Capítulo V: evaluación de especies silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. como fuente de resistencia al insecto plaga Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick y su intento de transferencia a Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En condiciones de campo, se evaluaron 32 introducciones silvestres de Lycopersicon sp. y una de la especie cultivada, L. esculentum Mill, con el fin de determinar la resistencia a Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. Se utilizó el diseño experimental bloques completos al azar con 4 repeticiones. Como bordes se colocaron tres variedades comerciales susceptibles al insecto (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli Y Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" con el fin de tener una fuente de infestación natural y permanente del cogollero dentro del experimento. Se evaluaron los caracteres número de cogollos afectados, número de hojas dañadas, número de ampollas e intensidad de daño. Todas las introducciones de L. hirsutum y L. peruvianum fueron altamente resistentes. Las introducciones 1406 y 1407 de L. pimpinellifolium también fueron altamente resistentes. La introducción 1759 de L. esculentum y L. esculentum var. ceraciforme fueron muy susceptibles. Las introducciones de L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum no tuvieron dificultad para hibridarse con L. esculentum var. Tropic. El cruzamiento L. esculentum x L. peruvianum no presentó semilla híbrida y se requirió efectuar cultivo de embriones inmaduros, in vitro, utilizando el medio Murashige & Skoog pero sin lograrse resultados positivos.

    Thirty two (32 wild accessions of Lycopersicon sp. and one (1 cultivated accession of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill were evaluated to determinate the resistance to Scrobipalpula absoluta (Meyrick. The experiment was conducted with a complete random design and four repetitions. Three (3 susceptibles cultivated accessions of L. esculentum (Chonto "Mata Verde", Napoli and Chonto "Santa Cruz Kada" were sowed to have natural infestation of S. absoluta. Damage intensity, number of buds damaged, number of leaves demaged and number of "blister" in the leaves were evaluated, All evaluated accessions of L. peruvianum showed heigh resistence. 1406 and 1407 accessions of L. pimpinellifolium

  14. Instability of TiC and TiAl3 compounds in Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys by addition of Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy in refining Al-10Mg and A1-5Cu alloys was studied by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis.The results indicate that there are obvious fading phenomena in both Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys with the addition of Al-5Ti-0.4C refiner which contains TiC and TiAl3 compounds.Mg element has no influence on the stability of TiC and TiAl3, while TiC particles in Al-10Mg alloy react with Al to form Al4C3 particles, resulting in the refinement fading.However, TiC particles are relatively stable in Al-5Cu alloy, while TiAl3 phase reacts with Al2Cu to produce a new phase Ti(Al, Cu)2, which is responsible for the refinement fading in Al-5Cu alloy.These indicate that the refinement fading will not occur only when both the TiC particles and TiAl3 compound of Al-Ti-C refiner are stable in Al alloys.

  15. Study of corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate using scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate was studied. • SVET and SIET were used to study the distribution of current densities and pH. • The corrosion inhibition mechanisms were analyzed. - Abstract: The galvanic corrosion of the coupled Al2Cu and Al as well as Al3Fe and Al in 0.005 M NaCl in and without the presence of cerium cinnamate was studied. Scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique were used to measure the distribution of current densities and pH. The results indicate that cerium cinnamate played inhibiting effect on the coupling corrosion of Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al. For Al2Cu–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the production of cerium oxide/hydroxide on Al2Cu surface. However, for Al3Fe–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the adsorbed cerium cinnamate on the Al3Fe surface

  16. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  17. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  18. Moessbauer studies on Al-Co ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy studies have been performed on the spinel CoAlxFe2-xO4 (.2≤x≤1.7) in the temperature range 77-750 K using either a liquid nitrogen bath cryostat or a furnace. The samples are magnetic at 77 K giving spectra that have magnetic sextets coexisting with a central line which increases in population with the Al-content indicating relaxation effects. The data shows that Al possesses no preference to either tetrahedral or octahedral sites of the ferrite over the whole range of concentration. The Moessbauer hyperfine interaction parameters and magnetic transition temperatures were determined. As expected the hyperfine field and Curie temperature decrease when the Al-content increases. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced.......The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...

  20. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  1. Thermal Properties of Al-50%Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Nishimoto; Katsuya Akamatsu; Kazuyoshi Nakao; Kazuo Ichii

    2004-01-01

    In order to prepare a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), Al-50was produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) and ingot metallurgy (I/M). P/M specimen was prepared by mechanical alloying(MA) and pulsed electric-current sintering (PECS). The microstructures of specimens were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Vickers microhardness and CTE measurements were performed. The grains in the P/M specimen were refined with increasing MA time. Primary Si and eutectic Si in the I/M specimen were remarkably refined by adding minute amounts of Sr. The CTE of P/M and I/M specimens were estimated as 7.8×10-6 and 10.7×10-6, respectively. These values were as same as a CTE of Al2O3 ceramics.

  2. Kritik Terhadap Pemikiran Tasawuf Al-Raniri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifan Nur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Al-Raniri is often positioned by some scholars as “superior” figure, which is contrasted to Hamzah Fansuri and Syamsuddin Sumaterani, and that is why they predicate him as one of pioneer of Islamic reformer in Malay- Indonesian archipelago. Anti-wujūdiyyah Sufism campaign by al-Raniri quite successful to some extent to amputate the rate of development of philosophical Sufism was brought by Fansuri and Sumaterani in the one hand, and strike off the nature of moral Sufism in the other, redeemed by bloodshed. This article discussed the “superiority” of al-Raniri’s thought of Sufism, viewed from a broader spectrum, either in relation to problems of faith or theology and politics surrounding the circumstance of his time.Keywords : Philosophical tasawuf, neo-sufism, panteism, tajalli, God’s attributeAbstrak : Al-Raniri oleh banyak kalangan seringkali diposisikan sebagai tokoh “superior” yang diperlawankan dengan Hamzah Fansuri dan Syamsuddin Sumaterani, dan itu sebabnya para ahli memberinya predikat sebagai seorang pelopor pembaru (mujaddid Islam di Nusantara. Anti tasawuf wujūdiyyah yang dikampanyekan oleh al-Raniri cukup berhasil mengamputasi laju perkembangan tasawuf falsafi yang dibawa oleh Fansuri dan Sumaterani di satu sisi, dan melancarkan laju corak tasawuf akhlaki di sisi lain, yang ditebus dengan cara pertumpahan darah. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan “superioritas” pemikiran tasawuf al-Raniri tersebut, dilihat dari spektrum yang lebih luas, baik menyangkut persoalan keyakinan atau teologi maupun politik yang mengitari situasi zamannya.Kata kunci : Tasawuf falsafi , neo-sufisme, panteisme, tajalli, sifat Tuhan

  3. Genetic Variability of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meirick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, in Tunisia, Inferred from RAPD-PCR Variabilidad Genética del Minador de Hojas de Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en Túnez desde RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Bettaibi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta Meyrick has invaded tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. crop in Tunisia since 2008 and is representing today a major threat to the production of this crop. In this study, we used the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR technology to assess the genetic variability within and among seven populations of T. absoluta, collected on tomato from different regions in Tunisia. Using five RAPD-PCR primers and 108 individuals, 140 polymorphic fragments were recorded. From 335 different RAPD phenotypes generated, 71 were redundant and 264 unique to a specific population. The genetic structure of T. absoluta was investigated using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, genetic distances (Fst and multidimensional scaling (MDS. We detected a high genetic diversity within and among populations in conjunction with a significant differentiation between populations, suggesting that different founder genotypes would have been responsible of the introduction of T. absoluta in Tunisia. The presence of overlapping phenotypes probably indicates migration events between populations, mainly through infested plant material carried by humans.El minador de hojas de tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick ha invadido el cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en Túnez desde 2008 y actualmente representa una importante amenaza para su producción. En este estudio usamos la tecnología de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar-reacción de cadena polimerasa (RAPD-PCR para evaluar la variabilidad genética dentro y entre siete poblaciones de T. absoluta, colectadas desde tomate en diferentes regiones de Túnez. Usando cinco primers RAPD-PCR y 108 individuos, se registraron 140 fragmentos polimórficos. Se generaron 335 fenotipos RAPD diferentes, entre los cuales 71 fueron redundantes y 264 únicos para una población específica. La estructura genética de T. absoluta se investigó usando análisis de varianza molecular

  4. Diversidad genética en poblaciones de agaves pulqueros (Agave spp. del nororiente del Estado de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alfaro Rojas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron seis poblaciones de magueyes pulqueros: "Manso" (Agave salmiana var. "Salmiana", "Ayoteco" (Agave salmiana var. "Ayoteco", "Verde", "Carrizo" (Agave mapisaga Trel, "Negro" y "Xilometl", del Nororiente del Estado de México, para determinar la diversidad genética entre y dentro de las mismas, obtener las huellas genéticas correspondientes, y hacer comparaciones para diferenciar sus variantes genéticas. Se utilizaron marcadores moleculares tipo RAPD (Polimorfismos en el ADN Amplificados al Azar y algunas variables morfológicas. El análisis de varianza mostró diferencias significativas (P ≤ 0.01 entre poblaciones para: altura de planta, número de hojas, largo de hojas, ancho de hojas, número de espinas laterales y longitud de espina principal. Los discriminantes morfológicos que permitieron separar a las poblaciones en cuatro grupos, fueron: longitud de espina principal y número de espinas laterales, mismas que explicaron 94 % de la variación. El porcentaje total de loci polimórficos fue de 73.2 % pero dentro de poblaciones hubo reducida variabilidad genética, con porcentajes de loci polimórficos que variaron de 12.2 % para el maguey "Verde" hasta 32.5 % en los magueyes "Manso" y "Ayoteco". La diversidad genética de Nei (H promedio fue de 0.28 ± 0.20, lo que confirma la baja diversidad en las poblaciones. El grado de flujo genético fue bajo (Nm = 0.24, lo que indica que hay menos de un migrante por generación entre las seis poblaciones. El dendrograma obtenido con RAPD mostró dos grandes grupos, cada uno de los cuales incluyó tres variantes relacionadas. En el primer grupo Agave mapisaga Trel ("Carrizo" se relacionó con "Verde" y con "Xilometl", con valores de identidad de 0.91 y 0.82, respectivamente. En el segundo grupo hubo una asociación muy cercana entre el maguey "Manso" (Agave salmiana var. "Salmiana" y los magueyes "Negro" y "Ayoteco" (0.89 y 0.83.

  5. Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Watanabe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM. Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al‑Al3Ti/Ti3Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed.

  6. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  7. Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic γ-TiAl phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

  8. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  9. Adhesion of metal carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Ye, H. Q.

    2003-12-01

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results.

  10. Adhesion of metal-carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results

  11. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  12. Introducción al derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Luis, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Manual de la asignatura introducción al derecho. Nivel educativo: Grado El origen de este texto –materiales docentes- que lleva por título “Introducción al Derecho” ha sido escrito respondiendo a una estricta necesidad docente y por tanto necesariamente pedagógica. En efecto, era totalmente necesario que los alumnos, del Grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas y otras titulaciones no jurídicas, contasen con un texto para facilitar el estudio de las principales categorías conceptual...

  13. Quadrupole scattering in PrAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablik, M. J.; Pureur, P.; Creuzet, G.; Fert, A.; Levy, P. M.

    1983-10-01

    We derive the spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity of the ferromagnetic compound PrAl2 from magnetoresistance measurements on a single crystal of PrAl2. We ascribe this spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity to scattering of the conduction electrons by the thermal quadrupole disorder and we account for our experimental results by using the theoretical model previously developed by us. We find that quadrupole scattering gives a very important contribution to the total magnetic disorder (spin and quadrupole) resistivity but that only a small part of this quadrupole contribution is anisotropic.

  14. Amyotrofisen lateraaliskleroosin (ALS) fysioterapia : Systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus

    OpenAIRE

    Finne, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi eli ALS on harvinainen motoneuronisairaus, jonka ominaispiirteenä on selkäytimen, aivorungon ja aivokuoren motoneuroneiden etenevä degeneraatio ja tuhoutuminen. Tähän parantumattomaan sairauteen sairastuu Suomessa vuosittain noin 120–150 henkilöä. Keskimääräinen sairastumisikä on noin 60 vuotta ja elinikä diagnoosin saamisen jälkeen on noin 3 - 5 vuotta. Fysioterapia on tärkeä osa ALS-potilaan hoitoa ja kuntoutusta. Fysioterapian vaikutut-tavuutta on tästä ...

  15. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  16. Recent research highlights from the ALS OML

    OpenAIRE

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The main mission of the Optical Metrology Laboratory (OML) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is to ensure state-of-the-art performance of beamline optics. New beamlines and instruments laid out in the ALS strategic plan as well as the plan for New Generation Light Source (NGLS) facility all involve increasingly complex optical systems that need ultra-high precision optics to achieve the specifications and goals of their state-of-the art research programs. In order to manufacture, measure, tu...

  17. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...

  18. The ALS Storage Ring RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

  19. Al-Yawahir Al-Saniyya Fi Sarh-Al-Yarrumiyya, de Al-Ta c Alibi (s.VII-XIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellachehab, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Edición critica, realizada sobre varios manuscritos, de una interesante fuente gramatical magrebi, del siglo VIII de la hégira XIV de nuestra era. Estudio sobre el autor, at-ta alibi, típico gramático tardío del norte de África, y estudio sobre su producción escrita, en general y en concreto sobre este al-yawahir al-saniyya que es un interesante comentario de la celebre yarrumiyya, comentario hasta hoy inédito que representa un hito en la tradición de estudios gramaticales del occidente islám...

  20. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Suresh; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2002-05-01

    Effect of Al substitution on the magnetic properties of Ce(Ga1-Al)2 ( = 0, 0.1 and 0.5) system has been studied. The magnetic state of CeGa2 is found to be FM with a C of 8 K, whereas the compounds with =0.1 and 0.5 are AFM and possess N of about 9 K. These two compounds undergo metamagnetic transition and the critical fields are about 1.2 T and 0.5 T, respectively at 2 K. These variations are explained on the basis of helical spin structure in these compounds.

  1. Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en lo...

  2. Surface phonon polariton characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S S; Lee, S C; Bakhori, S K Mohd; Hassan, Z; Abu Hassan, H; Yakovlev, V A; Novikova, N N; Vinogradov, E A

    2010-05-10

    Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:20588890

  3. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, AlMo and MoAl, as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair AlMo+MoAl, in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al5Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author)

  4. Liquidus temperatures of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures for the primary crystallization of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 system adopted in aluminum electrolysis process were determined by thermal analysis. An empirical equation was derived to describe the liquidus temperatures for the primary crystallization of this multicomponent electrolyte system: t/℃=1011 + 0.7w(AlF3 - 0.232w(AlF32 - 7.65w(Al2O3 + 0.523w(Al2O32 - 8.96w(LiF + 0.043w(LiF2 - 3.32w(KF - 0.12w(KF2 - 3.28w(CaF2 +0.037w(CaF22 + 0.091w(AlF3w(LiF + 0.074w(AlF3w(KF + 0.084w(AlF3w(CaF2 - 0.27w(Al2O3w(LiF, where w(AlF3 denotes the mass fraction of excess aluminum fluoride with respect to cryolite. While w(Al2O3 ranges from 2% to 4%, w(LiF, w(KF and w(CaF2 from 0 to 7%, and the molar ratio of NaF/AlF3 from 2.2 to 3.

  5. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, J; Katkevics, J; Viksna, A [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara Str. 48, Riga, LV-1013 (Latvia); Erts, D, E-mail: arturs.viksna@lu.lv [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda blvd. 4, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH{sub 3}COONa, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  6. FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sanuddin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

  7. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2010-09-01

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  8. Serious Flaws in Korf et al.'s Analysis on Time Complexity of A*

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the effect of a heuristic on the time complexity of the well-known A* search algorithm has been a subject of a large research body in AI. Among those researches is Korf et al.'s analysis (Korf & Reid, 1998; Korf et al., 2001; Korf, 2000a; Korf, 2000b), which concluded that the effect of a heuristic is to reduce the effective depth rather than effective branching factor. Since this conclusion conflicts with both previous analysis and recent analysis by other authors, we try to investigate the causes of such contradictions and finally find out that Korf et al.'s analysis has many serious flaws from which their main conclusion was drawn.

  9. Tensile deformation behavior of a sub-micrometer Al2O3/6061Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.3 μm Al2O3/6061Al composite with 33% volume fraction of Al2O3 was fabricated by the patented squeeze-casting technology. The tensile properties were studied, and the dynamic tensile deformation behavior was investigated by an in situ TEM tensile technique. The as-cast composite exhibits excellent tensile properties with a fracture strength of 504 MPa, and the strength increases to 579 MPa after a T6 treatment. The high strength is mainly attributed to the dispersion strengthening effect of the finer sub-micrometer Al2O3 particles. Dynamic transmission electron microscopy indicates that micro-cracks initiate and propagate mainly in the matrix. The Al2O3 particles can hinder the growth and deflect the cracks, but the resistance of the particles to crack propagation is small. The propagation stage is accordingly short, leading to the fracture of the composite

  10. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al3Ce and Al11Ce3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al3Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al3Ce. For Al11Ce3, two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  11. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...... III sublattice. From a fit to the transition energies, an empirical band gap relation for InAlGaAs is found, in the composition range relevant for growth on GaAs. The PL lines at low temperature (T = 10 K) are broadened due to random alloy fluctuations and an interface roughness of 1.1 monolayers....... Finally, the use of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells for making strained T-shaped quantum wires is demonstrated. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Effect of stress on the Al composition evolution in AlGaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Two series of AlGaN samples with different stresses were designed to investigate the effect of stress on the Al composition. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM) demonstrated that the AlGaN epilayers with different stresses have large Al composition differences despite the same growth conditions. The largest Al composition difference reached up to 21.3%, which was also confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This result is attributed to a large stress discrepancy in the AlGaN epilayers. Finally, the dependences of the solid-phase Al composition on the gas-phase Al composition under different stresses were systematically analyzed.

  13. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (αAl, βSi, Al3Sm, Al2Si2Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → αAl + βSi + Al2Si2Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al3Sm → αAl + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → αAl + Al2Si2Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  14. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  15. The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases

  16. The association of interleukin-13 gene polymorphism withkala-azar patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Moazamian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Background& Objective: Host resistance towards Leishmania infection is mediated by cellular immune responses leading to macrophage activation and parasite killing. According to the important role of IL-13 in the defense against visceral leishmaniasis (VL and the known effect of the IL-13 gene polymorphisms on its production, the aim of this study was to investigate the probable relationship between IL-13 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to VL.   Materials & Methods: The patient group included 52 patients who had suffered from VL infection and the control group consisted of 104 non-relative healthy people from the same endemic areas the patients were from (southern part of Fars Province. IL-13 (position -1512 A/C gene polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restricted fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP.   Results: There was no significant association between the frequencies of IL-13 (-1512 alleles and genotypes in the patients with VL compared to the thenormal population.   Conclusion: This study indicated that the IL-13 (position -1512 A/C genotypes cannot be considered as a genetic susceptibility factor for leishmaniasis. 

  17. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH complicating the double trouble of Malaria and Kala-azar - a rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Chand

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a rare hyper-inflammatory syndrome which is characterized by inappropriate proliferation of lympho-histiocytes which phagocytize hematopoietic cells and thereby give rise to the clinical picture of fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias. HLH can be primary or secondary due to infections by bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi. Here we present a case report of simultaneous infection of Plasmodium vivax and visceral leishmaniasis complicated by secondary HLH in a Border Security Force jawan (BSF soldier.

  18. Azar, economía y política en Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    Teira Serrano, David

    2006-01-01

    Esta Tesis Doctoral, presenta un trabajo de metodología económica aplicada, en el que se estudian los trabajos del Premio Nobel Milton Friedman entre 1934 y 1957, con especial atención a sus estudios sobre demanda y consumo. La primera parte de la Tesis consiste en un estudio de la tradición positivista en la teoría de la demanda anterior a Friedman, que se analiza en un doble plano (metodológico y epistemológico) sobre los trabajos de Vilfredo Pareto, Henry Ludwell Moore y Henry Schultz. La ...

  19. CONCESIÓN DEL MONOPOLIO DE JUEGOS DE APUESTAS Y AZAR EN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO CÉSAR ALONSO CIFUENTES

    2010-01-01

    central de la inversión en apuestas permanentes (chance de aquí en adelante por persona en el año. En el caso se presenta información relevante para la toma de decisión sobre la medida de tendencia central pertinente para la proyección de las ventas de chance y por lo tanto del valor de la concesión.

  20. First Report of Kala-azar from Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AV Alborzi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is a sever disease that is prevalent in Iran. We report a case of VL in a 3.5 year-old boy. Prolonged fever, chill, abdominal distention, and weight loss were important symptoms. Blood count showed pancytopenia and hypohemoglobinemia. Specific anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by serological test (IFAT, DAT but no Leishman body was observed in bone marrow. However, a 145 bp band of KDNA belong to L. infantum was detected by PCR method. Glucantime was administered and treatment was well tolerated. This is the first report of VL from Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf.

  1. First Report of Kala-azar from Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    AV Alborzi; GhR Hatam; Mohebali, M; MH Motazedian; Q Asgari; M Fakhar

    2006-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a sever disease that is prevalent in Iran. We report a case of VL in a 3.5 year-old boy. Prolonged fever, chill, abdominal distention, and weight loss were important symptoms. Blood count showed pancytopenia and hypohemoglobinemia. Specific anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by serological test (IFAT, DAT) but no Leishman body was observed in bone marrow. However, a 145 bp band of KDNA belong to L. infantum was detected by PCR method. Glucantime was admin...

  2. Interest in paromomycin for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar)

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit V

    2012-01-01

    Viroj Wiwanitkit1–31Wiwanitkit House, Bang Khae, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Hainan Medical University, Haikou, Hainan, People's Republic of China; 3Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, NigeriaAbstract: Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease, and it is classified as one of the most important tropical fly-borne infections. This disease can cause two types of clinical manifestations: cutaneous forms and visceral forms. Visceral leishmaniasis, which is...

  3. Genes y comportamiento de género: azar o necesidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Ochando Gonzalez, María Dolores

    2002-01-01

    El título, parcialmente tomado prestado del famoso libro de Monod (1977) pone el dedo en la llaga de la Genética del Comportamiento: el tema de ambiente versus herencia constituye el núcleo fundamental en esta materia, y, normalmente, da origen a los errores más básicos. La intención de este artículo no es desplegar una gran cantidad de información sobre los últimos avances de la genética. Mi pretensión es, quizás, más modesta desde el punto de vista de los datos, accesibles en la bibliografí...

  4. Wear characteristics of Al-AlN composites produced in-situ by nitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Jena, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Swain, P. K.; Majhi, J.

    2015-02-01

    In the present scenario most of the parts used in automobile and aerospace industries are made of composites. Aluminium metal has a very high strength to weight ratio. Al-AlN metal matrix composites have excellent mechanical properties like good wear resistance, high hardness and high strength to weight ratio which are obtained from low density of aluminium and high hardness and wear resistance of AlN. Therefore, use of Al-AlN MMC leads to advantages in automobile industries as it reduces fuel consumption and gives better structural strength. The composites can be produced ex-situ by introducing AlN as reinforcement into the metal matrix and in- situ by nitrogenation process. In the present process Al-AlN composites were fabricated by treating molten aluminium with a mixture of CaO and NH4Cl and held at temperature range at 750-930°C and then cast into a metal mould. Addition of CaO to NH4Cl is found to have a more pronounced effect as a nitrogenation agent in comparison with NH4Cl in the molten aluminium in the temperature range of 700- 1000°C. Castings of aluminium and Al-AlN composites were prepared by mixing different ratios of aluminium and NH4Cl, at different casting temperatures and holding time. Wear resistance and hardness of the samples were determined, and microstructure studies were carried out. The composite formed using higher amount of NH4Cl had higher hardness and wear resistance.

  5. AlON的合成工艺%Synthesis technology of AlON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王习东; 李文超

    2001-01-01

    分析了合成AlON的各种方法。 用模式识别结 合神经网络对碳热还原氮化合成AlON工艺 进行了优化, 利用模式逆映射得到了理想的合成工艺参数。 对AlON体系进行了热力学初步 分析, 计算了温度为2  073  K时合成AlON的热力学参数状态图。 根据热力学参数状态图所确定的条件, 热压合成了AlON陶瓷。 对所合成的AlON试样进行了 X 射线衍射标定及部分物理性能的测定。 其密度为3.63  g/cm3, 约为其理论 密度的97.8%。%The synthesis technolog y of AlON ceramics was investigated. The program o f pattern recognition was used to optimize the parameters of AlON synthesi s process, and the proper parameters were obtained by inverse projection. The th ermodynamic properties of AlON were preliminary analyzed and estimate d, phase stability diagrams at 2  073  K were calculated. A lON ceramics was synthesized by hot-press sintering under the conditions given by phase stability diagram. The density of AlON is 3.63  g/cm3, about 97.8% of its th eoretic d ensity.

  6. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-xiao; Wang, Gui-xian; Liu, Jing-shun; Zhang, Lun-yong; Wang, Wei; Li, Ze; Wang, Qi-xiang; Sun, Jian-fei

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50 μm. The morphology of the Ni-Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni-Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 particles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni-Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 precipitates and a Ni-Al-O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  7. Capítulo VI: evaluación de la resistencia al pasador del fruto de tomate Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Gueneé en materiales L. hirsutum Humb y Bonpl y L. pimpinellifolium (Just mill y su transferencia a materiales cultivados de tomate L. esculentum Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas Helbert

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar el ciclo de vida del pasador  del fruto del tomate, N. elegantalis y evaluar la resistencia genética en diferentes accesiones de Lycopersicon y en poblaciones derivadas de cruzamientos interespecíficos entre L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium y L. hirsutum. La evaluación se realizó en condiciones de campo, utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Se midieron los siguientes caracteres: estados del ciclo de vida, número de posturas, cantidad de frutos dañados, número de perforaciones de entrada, número de larvas por fruto e intensidad del daño. Se determinó el ciclo de vida del insecto plaga. Las especies silvestres fueron calificadas como muy resistentes o resistentes. Las variedades comerciales fueron calificadas como susceptible o medianamente susceptibles. Las poblaciones segregantes provenientes de los cruzamientos interespecíficos fueron calificados como resistentes o ligeramente susceptibles, indicando la posibilidad de introgresión genética de la resistencia. El insecto plaga  tiene mayor preferencia por fenotipos con frutos de mayor peso promedio y pericarpio duro.

    The research was carried out to study the life cicle of N. elegantalis, and the identification of resistence to the insect among Lycopersicon accessions and derivated populations from crossing between L. esculentum, L. pimpinellifolium and L. hirsutum. The life cicle of N. elegantalis was determinated. The wild species L. hirsutum and L. pimpinellifolium were very resistant and resistant, respectively. The Lycopersicon cultivars were susceptibles and derivated populationes from interspecific crossing were resistant or intermedium susceptible. There were associations between the fruit size, fruit firmness, fruit weight and susceptible expression in the plants from crossing between L. hirsutum, L. pimpinellifolium and commercial cultivars.

  8. Study of the 27Al(n,2,)26Al reaction via accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation function for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction is expected to show a strongly non-linear behavior in the neutron-energy region around 14 MeV, the neutron energy in D-T plasmas; thus the production rate of 26Al (t1/2=7.2*105 a) in D-T fusion environments can in principle be used to measure the temperature of such plasmas. Existing measurements, however, are strongly discordant. Therefore, a new accurate measurement of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross sections in the near threshold region (En=13.5-14.8 MeV) was performed with the goal to achieve relative cross sections with the highest accuracy possible. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, as absolute cross sections are important for radioactive waste predictions. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (Eth=13.55 MeV) at the Radiuminstitutes of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, and in Tokai-mura, Japan. In Tuebingen irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed. The amount of 26Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). This work represents the first 26Al measurements for this new facility. With this system, a background as low as 3*10-15 for 26Al/27Al isotope ratios was obtained, corresponding to a (n,2n) cross section of 0.04 mb. Utilizing AMS, cross sections with much higher precision and considerably closer to the threshold than in previous investigations could be measured. The prerequisite for its application as a temperature monitor, namely a very well known shape of the excitation function was met. A quantitative prediction of the sensitivity of this method for monitoring the temperature in a D-T fusion plasma was therefore possible. For thermal plasmas temperature changes in the order of 5 to 15 % should be detectable. An even higher sensitivity was found for non

  9. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  10. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  11. 75 FR 1420 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  12. 76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  13. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  14. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated...

  15. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...

  16. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  17. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  18. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... notice at 74 FR 67851, December 21, 2009. Docket Number: 09-065. Applicant: U.S. Department of Homeland..., Quanta 200 FEG. Manufacturer: FEI Company, Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 74 FR 67851... International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications...

  19. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  20. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  1. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  2. 77 FR 60003 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  3. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  4. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, S.F. [CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-03-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na{sup +} ions. The loading of SiC or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  5. Synthesis of Ti-Al porous perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Article describes production method of intermetallic porous perform for reinforcing of composite materials. Usefulness of the high temperature self-propagating synthesis (SHS, with appropriate modification, to produce perform for production of composite was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: Mixture of aluminum and titanium powder was cold isostatically pressed (CIPed and produced cylindrical pill was ignited in microwave field. Obtained structure usually have open porosity what enables for pressure infiltration with molten metal. The investigations of the structure of preforms on the scanning electron microscope (SEM were made.Findings: The produced performs in most cases reveal open porosity, uniform morphology and are suitable for infiltration process. After reaction Al-Ti compounds form partly globular structure with microhardness much higher than substratesResearch limitations/implications: In the actual stages of this work proposed method can be used for manufacturing of porous performs, which mainly contain Al3Ti. During reaction, mixture compacts with the molar ratio of Al/Ti=1 were transformed into inhomogeneous structure.Practical implications: Obtained perform can be widely used as the reinforcement to produce hybrid composite materials by the infiltration method. Aluminum casting alloys can be locally reinforced to improve hardness and resistance to oxidization at high temperature.Originality/value: Article is valuable for persons engaged in production of casting composite materials reinforced with porous perform. Proposed method allows to incorporate hard structures from Al-Ti compounds into aluminum casting.

  6. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel emission electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakansson, Markus [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Jiang, Qinghong [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Suomi, Johanna [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Loikas, Kari [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Nauma, Mauri [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Ala-Kleme, Timo [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Kankare, Jouko [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Juhala, Pentti [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Eskola, Jarkko U. [Labmaster Oy, P.O. Box 71, FIN-20521 Turku (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)

    2006-01-25

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence.

  7. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  8. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  9. Del desarrollo rural al desarrollo territorial

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano Estrada, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    5 páginas.-- Trabajo presentado al Seminario Ruraland celebrado en Antequera (Málaga) el 26 de mayo de 2010.-- Presentado como ponencia a la Jornada de debate "El desarrollo rural en la U.E. despues de 2013" celebrado en Aracena (Huelva) el 10 de junio de 2010 (adjuntado Pdf).

  10. Electron impact exctation of Al X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kanti; Keenan, Francis

    2013-05-01

    Emission lines of Al ions, including Al X, are important for the modeling and diagnostics of lasing, fusion and astrophysical plasmas, for which atomic data are required for a variety of parameters, such as energy levels, radiative rates (A- values), and excitation rates or equivalently the effective collision strengths (Υ), which are obtained from the electron impact collision strengths (Ω). Experimentally, energy levels are available for Al X on the NIST website, but there is paucity for accurate collisional atomic data. Therefore, here we report a complete set of results (namely energy levels, radiative rates, and effective collision strengths) for all transitions among the lowest 98 levels of Al X. These levels belong to the (1s2) 2s2, 2s2p, 2p2, 2s3 l, 2p3 l, 2s4 l, and 2p4 l configurations. Finally, we also report the A- values for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2), because these are also required for plasma modeling. For our calculations of wavefunctions, we have adopted the fully relativistic GRASP code, and for the calculations of Ω, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) of PH Norrington and IP Grant. Additionally, parallel ca

  11. The Science of al-Biruni

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Al-Biruni (973-1048) was one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was an astronomer, mathematician and philosopher, and studied physics and natural sciences. In this paper, we will discuss some of his experimental methods and some instruments he used.

  12. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO3:Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2μm were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO3:Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO3:Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  13. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  14. Al-Ghazali on Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2007-01-01

    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) is probably the most influential scholar, philosopher, theologian, legal expert, religious reformer and mystic in the history of Islam. Although he wrote extensively about education, and particularly about moral education, this writing is scattered through a number of different works and has received less scholarly…

  15. Aluminum matrix texture in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sequeira, Paulo D.; Sato, Hisashi; Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Al matrix functionally graded materials (FGMs) with oriented Al3Ti platelets were fabricated by a centrifugal solid-particle method. The applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60, and 120G (units of gravity). The orientation and volume fraction gradients of the Al3Ti platelets within the samples were measured. Since a good lattice correspondence was reported for the close-packed directions and the close-packed planes between Al and Al3Ti, the Al matrix in the Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method should have some texture. Al matrix texture was, therefore, analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Analysis of the resulting pole figures indicates a preferred orientation along the (200) plane for the Al matrix crystals. Furthermore, increasing the applied centrifugal force enhances the orientation effect. A correlation appears to exist between platelet orientation and the preferred texture of the Al matrix.

  16. Investigation Of Water Assisted Phase Transformation Process From AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Z.; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-15

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  17. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una esclava de la princesa. Eso dio rabia a la última. Movido también por los celos, Ibn Zaydún dedicó una epístola satírica al visir Ibn Abdús, que estaba enamorado de Wallada. Tal hecho también irritó a la princesa. A pesar de tener amantes y admiradores, Wallada murió sin casarse al  día 2 de safar de 480 (o 484 de la Híjira pasando los ochenta años Me han llamado la atención el carácter tan culto, independiente y liberal de aquella mujer, su relación amorosa con Ibn Zaydún que no acabó felizmente y los muchos años que vivió sin casasre. Parece que la vida de la princesa hispano-musulmana llamó también la atención de muchos escritores árabes y españoles. Prueba de ello son varias obras literarias escritas en árabe y en español sobre Wallada e Ibn Zaydún. Por consiguiente, me resulta muy interesante realizar un estudio comparativo sobre este tema averiguando si, o no, la diferencia de culturas influiría en las opiniones  de los autores sobre la vida sentimental de aquella poetisa cordobesa.

  18. A high degree of enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers upon post annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here an order of magnitude enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers after annealing. The increase in strength is shown to be mostly associated with the precipitation of extremely fine γ-Al2O3, 5–10 nm in diameter, in Al layers. This provides a new method of achieving high strength in Al/Al2O3 multilayers that cannot be explained by the Koehler effect or modified Hall–Petch, which will lead to the growth and development of new generation of Al/Al2O3 multilayers. We also examine the fracture behavior of the post annealed Al/Al2O3 multilayered composites with TEM and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. DFT showed that the multilayers are not likely to delaminate at the Al/Al2O3 interface, consistent with the experimental observations. The simulations are also used to determine elastic constants for the γ-Al2O3 phase and to calculate a driving force for O transport from the γ-Al2O3 to the Al layers. The formation of these precipitates is consistent with DFT calculations, which predict an energetic driving force for the dissolution of O atoms from the γ-Al2O3 layers into the Al layers

  19. ELECTROLYSIS OF SWINE MANURE EFFLUENTS USING THREE DIFFERENT ELECTRODES Fe-Fe, Al-Al AND Fe-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent with high organic strength need to be treated to make it suitable for applying to crop/pasture fields, or discharging to any waterways. Electrocoagulation is a relatively simpler and cheaper technique over biological and chemical treatment methods currently used to treat high-strength industrial and municipal wastewater. The performance of an electrocoagulation system mainly depends on the pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC of the medium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD loading rates and catalytic activity of the electrodes used. In this research, a study was conducted to compare the pollutant removal efficiencies of three electrodes (Fe-Fe, Al-Al and Fe-Al with three electric current levels (500, 1000 and 2000 mA while treating swine manure effluents. The electrochemical cell consisted of two parallel rectangular plates (90×25×1.5 mm of Iron (Fe-Fe, Aluminum (Al-Al and Iron-Aluminum (Fe-Al, later on described as hybrid electrodes; immersed in a beaker with 550 mL swine effluents and powered by a Direct Current (DC supply. All studies were conducted in batches at room temperature. In general, removal efficiencies were increased with increasing current densities and electrolysis times for electrodes evaluated. Aluminum electrodes outperformed iron and hybrid (iron-aluminum electrodes in removing Total Phosphorus (TP at all current density levels tested. Overall, use of hybrid electrodes resulted in better COD removal. For the same treatment times (1200 s at higher current density (21 mA cm-2, hybrid electrodes removed about 100% COD, which are about 1.9 and 1.3 times higher than those of aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively. Iron electrodes showed the highest removal efficiency (85% for Total Organic Carbon (TOC at 21 mA cm-2 current density and 1200 s treatment time. Overall, lower Specific Electrical Energy Consumptions (SEECs per kg of Pollutants (TP, COD and TOC were estimated for the aluminum

  20. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  1. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xiao Wang; Gui-xian Wang; Jing-shun Liu; Lun-yong Zhang; Wei Wang; Ze Li; Qi-xiang Wang; Jian-fei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Al powder and Ni–Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spec-troscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50μm. The morphology of the Ni–Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni–Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 parti-cles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni–Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermet-allic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 pre-cipitates and a Ni–Al–O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  2. Structure of oxides prepared by decomposition of layered double Mg–Al and Ni–Al hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts: Thermal decomposition of Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides LDH at temperatures lower than 800 °C leads to the formation of oxides with different structures. Mg–Al oxide has a very defective structure and consists of octahedral layers as in periclase MgO and mixed octahedral–tetrahedral layers as in spinel MgAl2O4. Mixed Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a core with Al-doped NiO-like structure and some surface layers with spinel NiAl2O4 structure epitaxial connected with the core. Suggested models were verified by simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns using DIFFaX code, as well as HRTEM, IR-, UV-spectroscopies, and XPS. - Graphical abstract: In the Mg–Al layered double hydroxide Al3+ ions migrate into interlayers during decomposition. The Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of octahedral and octahedral–tetrahedral spinel layers with vacancies. The Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers as a result of migration of Al3+ ions on the surface. The models explain the presence and absence of “memory effect” for the Mg–Al and Ni–Al oxides, respectively. - Highlights: • We study products of Mg(Ni)–Al LDH decomposition by calcination at 500(400)–800 °C. • In Mg–Al/Ni–Al LDH Al ions migrate into interlayers/on the surface during decomposition. • Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of periclase- and spinel-like layers with vacancies. • Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers. • The models explain the presence/absence of “memory effect” for Mg–Al/Ni–Al oxides

  3. High noise suppression using magnetically isotropic (CoFe-AlN)/(AlN) multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Hanae; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetically isotropic (CoFe-AlN)n/(AlN)n+1 multilayer films, in which the number of CoFe-AlN magnetic layers n ranged from 1 to 27, were prepared by radio frequency sputtering to achieve noise suppression at gigahertz frequencies. The soft CoFe-AlN magnetic layers consisted of nanometer-sized CoFe ferromagnetic grains embedded in an insulating AlN amorphous matrix, while the insulating AlN layers comprised AlN columnar crystals. All films showed a similar frequency dependence of permeability and ferromagnetic resonance of 1.7 GHz. Noise suppression was evaluated using a microstrip line as a noise source by determining the in-line conductive loss and the near-field intensity picked up by magnetic field detective probes. High noise suppression effects were observed in every direction in the film plane. Maximum noise suppression values amounted to 60% for the in-line conductive loss and -20 dB for the magnetic near-field intensity at around 1.7 GHz in the 27-layer film. These high-frequency noise suppression levels may be attributed to eddy current losses and ferromagnetic resonance.

  4. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Al_2O_3/TiAl Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Taotao

    2009-01-01

    Al_2O_3/TiAl composites were successfully fabricated by hot-press-assisted exother-mic dispersion method with elemental powder mixtures of Ti,Al TiO_2 and Nb_2O_5,and the micro-structure and mechanical properties were investigated.The results indicate the fine Al_2O_3 particles tend to disperse on the grain boundaries.The grain size of TiAl matrix decreases and the hardness increases with increasing Nb_2O_5 content.The bending strength and fracture toughness reach to a maximum when Nb_2O_5 content is 6 wt%,under 642 Mpa and 6.69 Mpa·m ~(1/2) ,respectively.Based on the fractography and the observation of crack propagation path,it is concluded that the strengthening and toughening of such composites at room temperature can be attributed to the refinement of the TiAl matrix,the de-flection behavior in the crack propagation and the dispersion of Al_2O_3 particles.

  5. Neutronic comparison of the nuclear fuels U3Si2/Al and U-Mo/Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for materials that allow the fabrication of nuclear fuels with higher uranium densities comes from the mid 50s. Today, a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on γ-UMo alloys is the most promising fuel to replace the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel used worldwide in research and material test reactors. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum are prepared with 6 to 10% Mo addition and can be manufactured as dispersion or monolithic fuels. The aim of this paper is to compare the infinite multiplication factor (K∞), obtained through neutronic calculation with the code Scale 6, for aluminum coated plates reflected in all directions containing U3Si2/Al and U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. The U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel used in the calculation has an uranium density of 4 gU/cm3 and the U-Mo-Al dispersion fuels have densities ranging from 4 to 7.52 gU/cm3 and 7 and 10% Mo addition. The results show that the K∞ calculated for U-Mo/Al fuels is lower than that for U3Si2/Al fuel and increases between the uranium densities of 4 and 5 gU/cm3 and decreases for higher uranium densities. (author)

  6. Electrical defects in AlGaN and InAlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, D.; Leach, Jacob H.; Kovalskii, Vladimir A.; Fan, Qian; Xie, Jingqiao; Morkoç, Hadis

    2009-02-01

    Compound semiconductors based on GaN have multiple functional applications. Useful compositions include GaN, and ternary and quaternary compositions of (AlGaIn)N. Defects arising from lattice mismatch, point defects, or impurities may act as electrical trapping centers and degrade device efficiency. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are applied to characterize the defects in Al0.40Ga0.80N and In0.18Al0.82N in this report. Broad peaks with a shoulder at high temperature dominate the DLTS spectra in each of the materials. An acceptor trap associated with a dislocation appears at 340 K in AlGaN. The defect has an energy of 0.2 eV and capture cross section of 10-21 cm2. A second trap at 0.35 eV, 10-14 cm2 appears in the TAS measurements in addition to the trap at 0.2 eV. Defects in InAlN are dominated by a peak near 150 K. Two traps appear in the TAS measurements. Both traps in the InAlN are acceptors, based on a lack of field dependent emission rates using double pulse DLTS (DDLTS). The two energy levels in InAlN appear to be coupled, with only one state occupied at a time.

  7. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x1025 and 8x1025 thermal neutrons/m2 (E -3 s-1. In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x1025 thermal neutrons/m2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  8. Oxidation Behaviour of Sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating at 900°C in air was investigated. A dense Al2O3 layer was formed on the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating after 200 h oxidation.However, owing to the segregation of Ni3Al during oxidation Focess at high temperature, the spinel NiAl2O4 was also formed in the Al2O3 layer. It was found that the formation of NiAl2O4had no detrimental effect on the oxidation resistance of the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating due to the excellent adhesion shown by the Al2O3 and NiAl2O4 complex oxide scale.

  9. Al-rich region of Al−Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The constitution of Al−Pt above 65 at.% Al is specified. •The previously reported Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases are confirmed. •A new stable orthorhombic phase was revealed at ∼75–76 at.% Al and 801–915 °C. -- Abstract: The constitution of the Al-rich part of the Al−Pt alloy system is revised. Apart from the previously reported equilibrium Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases, a complex intermetallic was revealed at 75-76 at.% Al between 801 and 915 °C. Its structure determined by electron diffraction is orthorhombic (Bmmb, a = 1.983, b = 1.636 and c = 1.422 nm)

  10. Questioning of Authentication and Epistemology in Tafsir al-Jilani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Masduqi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the author critically analyzes a biography of Shaikh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani containing sacred myths. The analyst of sacred myth about ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani is based on the approach of applied anthropology to distinguish between the myths that have  positive and negative values for Muslim society. This research then analyzes the authenticity of Tafsir al-Jilani and the epistemology of his inter- pretation. ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani is the founder of Qadiriyah. Qadiriyah doctrines has been widely accepted by traditional Muslim groups in Muslim world, so that the study of Tafsir al-Jilani is very meaningful for the followers of Qadiriyah in particu- lar and the lovers of Quranic studies in general to increase their knowledge about the teachings of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani.

  11. A model of Fe3+-Kaolinite, Al3+-Goethite, Al3+-Hematite equilibria in laterites

    OpenAIRE

    Trolard, F.; Tardy, Yves

    1989-01-01

    Cet article propose un modèle thermodynamique, basé sur un équilibre idéal solide-solution, pour le système Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O prenant en compte les activités de l'eau et de la silice. Le modèle permet de calculer la quantité des phases présentes, les pourcentages de substitution en Al et Fe pour la geothite, l'hématite, la Kaolinite ainsi que la stabilité des phases sous différentes conditions.

  12. Hardness Measurement of (TiB2-TiAl)/TiAl Symmetrically Function Gradient Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (TiB2-TiAl)/TiAl symmetrically function gradient materials (FGM) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Owing to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between TiB2 and TiAl, a compressive surface stress was introduced to the FGM by the thermal expansion mismatch. The hardness values of the uniform materials and the FGM were tested, respectively. For the FGM with a compressive surface stress, hardness is obviously superior to that of the uniform material.When the FGM was subjected to heat treatment,the hardness decreased due to a partial relaxation of the compressive surface stress.

  13. Punishment on Stage: Application of Islamic Criminal Law by Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, usually referred to as al-Shabaab (“the youth”), is mostly known as a Somali terrorist group. But since the end of 2008 it has functioned as a state power in large parts of Southern and Central Somalia. In this study I sketch out the structure and function of the legal system of the group. Over the last three years they have developed an administrative structure and a legal system which is unprecedented in the Somali conflict, which has lasted for more than 2...

  14. AlSb precipitate evolution during Sb implantation in Al: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitate evolution during ion implantation has been studied in the model system Sb-implanted Al. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the size distribution of AlSb crystallites as a function of fluence, flux, and sample temperature. There was a dramatic increase in average size, accompanied by a decrease in number density, for increasing fluence, for decreasing flux, and for increasing temperature. A new theoretical model for the evolution of the precipitate size distribution has been developed which incorporates both thermal processes and implantation effects. Numerical solutions for the AlSb system using physically realistic parameters agree qualitatively with the experimentally observed evolutions

  15. Atomic layer epitaxy of AlAs and AlGaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, T.; Iwai, S.; Aoyagi, Y.; Ozaki, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Okano, Y.; Hirata, A.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) of AlAs and AlGaAs with metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) under Ar-ion laser irradiation has been successfully realized in a triethylaluminum (TEA)/AsH 3 system for the first time. Comparison with the growth characteristics of MOVPE with alternative feeding modes of TMA/AsH 3 and TEA/AsH 3 is discussed. Application to laser-ALE of AlGaAs using a triethylgallium (TEG)/TEA/AsH 3 system is also discussed.

  16. 5083 type Al-Mg and 6082 type Al-Mg-Si alloys for ship building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ertuğ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine transport is increasing its use of aluminium by capitalizing on its two leading qualities: lightness and corrosion resistance. The most popular aluminium alloys for use in corrosive environmentssuch as seawater are the 5xxx and 6xxx series alloys, which demonstrate adequate strength and excellent corrosion resistance. The traditional and the most often used Al-alloys in shipbuilding are 5083 type Al-Mg alloy for plates, and 6082 type Al-Mg-Si alloy for extrusions. These alloys were found to be reliable in marine service as well as during manufacturing.

  17. A 25-year replication of Katz et al.'s (1988) metaphor norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Spencer J; Raney, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Research in metaphor processing has made extensive use of the normed metaphor database created by Katz, Paivio, Marschark, & Clark (Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 191-214, 1988). Because of the plasticity of figurative language, we conducted a renorming of selected metaphors from the database on a new student population. Correlations between Katz et al.'s and the present data showed that the pattern of responses has remained highly consistent across time and populations. The consistency of the normative ratings allows us to be confident in future research that will use the Katz et al. collection. PMID:25772671

  18. The Formation of γ—AlON Spinel in the Reaction of Al2O3—AlN—MgO System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYawei; YUANRunzhang; 等

    1997-01-01

    The stabilization of γ-aluminium oxyni-tride spinel(γ-AlON) has been investigated by addition of MgO,MgAl2O4,etc.,in reaction process.The results indicated that there are wider solid solution areas near ,Al2O3-rich side in AlN-Al2O3-MgO ternary systems,The content of stabilized AlON phase in samples is related to heating temperatures,additives,etc.The lattice parameters of their AlON phases could be well describedby the equation: a0=0.7900+0.0375[MgO]+0.015[AlN](nm)

  19. Influence of matrix characteristics on fracture toughness of high volume fraction Al2O3 / Al-AlN composites

    OpenAIRE

    Nagendra, N.; Jayaram, V

    2000-01-01

    The role of matrix microstructure on the fracture of Al-alloy composites with 60 % volume of alumina particulates has been studied. The matrix composition and microstructure were systematically varied by changing the infiltration temperature and heat treatment. Characterisation was carried out by a combination of metallography, hardness measurements and fracture studies conducted on compact tension (CT) specimens to study the fracture toughness and crack growth in the composites. The composit...

  20. Properties of porous FeAlO/FeAl ceramic matrix composite influenced by mechanical activation of FeAl powder

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Usoltsev; S Tikhov; A Salanov; V Sadykov; G Golubkova; O Lomovskii

    2013-12-01

    Porous ceramic matrix composites FeAlO/FeAl with incorporated metal inclusions (cermets) were synthesized by pressureless method, which includes hydrothermal treatment of mechanically alloyed FeAl powder followed by calcination. Their main structural, textural and mechanical features are described. Variation of FeAl powder alloying time results in non-monotonous changes of the porosity and mechanical strength. Details of the cermet microstructure and its relation to the mechanical properties are discussed.

  1. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites produced by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Beltran, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Gallegos-Orozco, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Bejar-Gomez, L. [Universidad Mich. de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Edif. ' W' , C.U., C.P. 58000, Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Espinosa-Magana, F. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, C.P. 31109, Chihuahua, Chih. (Mexico)]. E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-05-31

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al{sub 3}C{sub 4} and Al{sub 2}Cu structures, respectively.

  2. Measurement of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross section using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross section is of great interest for the waste disposal assessment of fusion reactor materials and fusion research. By the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry, the authors have measured the 26Al/27Al ratio of Al2O3 powder samples which were irradiated by a neutron beam. The neutron reaction cross section for 27Al(n,2n)26Al in the energy range of 14.8-14.9 MeV are deduced

  3. Precipitation hardening in ternary alloys of the Al-Sc-Cu and Al-Sc-Si systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of precipitation hardening in cast ternary alloys of the Al-Sc-Cu and Al-Sc-Si systems were studied in the temperature range of aging from 100 to 450 C and at exposures to 200 h. It was shown that the CuAl2 and ScAl3 phases were involved in the process of aging in ternary Al-Sc-Cu alloys, and the Si and V (AlSiSc) phases, in ternary Al-Sc-Si alloys with excess silicon in a supersaturated solid solution. The V phase was for the first time revealed as the hardening phase in aluminum alloys

  4. The Byzantines in Medieval Arabic Poetry: Abu Firas’ "Al-Rumiyyat" and the Poetic Responses of al-Qaffal and Ibn Hazm to Nicephore Phocas’ "Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna" (The Armenian Cursed Ode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar F. HERMES

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Up until the Crusades, it was al-Rūm who were universally seen by Arab writers and Arab poets in particular as the Other par excellence. Nowhere is this more conspicuous than in the sub-genre of Al-Rūmiyyat (poems about the Byzantines, namely as found in the Rūmiyyat of Abu Firas al-Hamdani(d.968, and in the poetic responses of al-Qaffal(d. 946 and Ibn Hazm(d. 1064 to what was described by several medieval Muslim chronicles as Al-Qasida al-Arminiyya al-Malʿuna (The Armenian Cursed Ode. By exploring the forgotten views of the Byzantines in medieval Arabic poetry, this article purports to demonstrate that contrary to the impression left after reading Edward Said’s groundbreaking Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient (1978 and other postcolonial studies, Orientals have not existed solely to be ‘orientalized’. Perhaps even before this came to be so, they too had ‘occidentalized’ their Euro-Christian Other(s in a way that mirrored in reverse the subject/object relationship described as Orientalism.

  5. Characterization of Al30 in commercial poly-aluminum chlorohydrate by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brian L; Vaughn, John S; Smart, Scott; Pan, Long

    2016-08-15

    Investigation of commercially produced hydrolysis salts of aluminum by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) reveals well-defined and distinct Al environments that can be related to physicochemical properties. (27)Al MAS and MQ-MAS NMR spectroscopic data show that the local structure of the solids is dominated by moieties that closely resemble the Al30 polyoxocation (Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26(18+)), accounting for 72-85% of the total Al. These Al30-like clusters elute as several size fractions by SEC. Comparison of the SEC and NMR results indicates that the Al30-like clusters includes intact isolated clusters, moieties of larger polymers or aggregates, and possibly fragments resembling δ-Al13 Keggin clusters. The coagulation efficacy of the solids appears to correlate best with the abundance of intact Al30-like clusters and of smaller species available to promote condensation reactions. PMID:27232539

  6. Microstructural Analysis of Al/Al2O3/Gr Powder Composites Produced by Mechanical Alloying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Iacob

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Powder samples of Al/Al2O3/Gr hybrid composites with different weight percents were obtained by mechanical alloying in a high energy ball mill. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of alumina and graphite particles content on the microstructure of Al/Al2O3/Gr hybrid composites. Results obtained using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM as well as Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS show that the addition of alumina particles as the reinforcement has a drastic effect on the size and morphology of the composite powders. Also, the addition of graphite particles as one of the reinforcing components is presumed to improve tribological properties by forming a graphite-rich lubricant film between the sliding surfaces.

  7. Local stress-induced effects on AlGaAs/AlOx oxidation front shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouchane, F.; Almuneau, G., E-mail: almuneau@laas.fr; Arnoult, A.; Lacoste, G.; Fontaine, C. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 avenue du colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ de Toulouse, UPS, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Cherkashin, N. [Univ de Toulouse, UPS, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, CEMES, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2014-07-28

    The lateral oxidation of thick AlGaAs layers (>500 nm) is studied. An uncommon shape of the oxide tip is evidenced and attributed to the embedded stress distribution, inherent to the oxidation reaction. Experimental and numerical studies of the internal strain in oxidized Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/GaAs structures were carried out by dark-field electron holography and finite element methods. A mapping of the strain distribution around the AlGaAs/oxide interface demonstrates the main role of internal stress on the shaping of the oxide front. These results demonstrate the high relevance of strain in oxide-confined III-V devices, in particular, with over-500-nm thick AlOx confinement layers.

  8. Structure formation of AlMg2-AlN composite cast in electromagnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cholewa; M. Staszewski; M. Sozańska; B. Formanek

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Basic material concept, technology and some results of studies on aluminum matrix composite with dispersive aluminum nitride reinforcement was shown. Studied composites were manufactured with use f ex-situ technique and powder metallurgy.Design/methodology/approach: Aluminum nitride powder was manufactured in process of self-evolving high-temperature synthesis SHS. Composite powder Al-AlN was obtained using mechanical alloying. Composite castings were manufactured in stir casting pro...

  9. One of the Students of Mawlana Khalid al-Baghdadi: Sayyid Taha al-Hakkari

    OpenAIRE

    Zeki Tan

    2013-01-01

    Sayyid Taha al-Hakkari kept the scholar tradition he learned from his teacher Mawlana Khalid al-Baghdadi alive in the geography he lived, Hakkari. In the period he lived, Sayyid Taha attracted the attention of the Iranian administrators because of its charismatic personality and they even tried to form a close bond by sending him various gifts. And Ottoman administrators maintain the peace in the region by benefiting from the conciliator personality and moral identity of Sayyid Taha. This spi...

  10. Muslih b. `Abd al-Rahman al-Maraqî : Muslikh of Mranggen

    OpenAIRE

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    MUSLIH b. `ABD AL-RAHMAN AL-MARAQÎ (KH. Muslikh of Mranggen) [Indonesia; 1917-1981] [Dictionnaire biographique des savants et grandes figures du monde musulman périphérique, du XIXe siècle à nos jours, Fasc. no 2. Paris: CNRS-EHESS, 1998, p. 23-24] One of the most influential Javanese teachers of the tarîqa Qâdiriyya wa Naqshbandiyya and the author of several popular books concerning this Sufi order.

  11. Structure of molten Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature variation of the structure and microstructure of molten eutectic Al1-xSix alloys (x = 0.122 and 0.20) have been studied by neutron diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), as well as measurements performed on pure liquid Al. All measurements have been performed at five temperatures in a heating-cooling loop. The SANS results unambiguously show that for the eutectic alloy (x = 0.122) the microstructure changes with increasing temperature in a partly reversible way while for the hypereutectic (x = 0.20) alloy the change is almost completely irreversible. This change in microstructure also manifests itself in the shape of the static structure factor S(Q)

  12. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for (1)high-strength castable composition for turbochargers, furnace furniture, and hot-die applications; (2) castability (fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) hot fabricability of cast ingots. All of the issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes work completed to address some of these issues during the fourth quarter of FY 1994.

  13. Léxico relativo al vestuario infantil

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Villaseñor, Hermila E.; Centro de Lingüística Hispánica, IIFL, UNAM

    2013-01-01

    Con base en el Cuestionario preparado por la Comisión de Lingüísticay Dialectología Iberoamericanas para el estudio del españolc ontemporáneo, preparé un cuestionario más amplio, con el cual he llevado a cabo una investigación sobre el léxico referente al vestido, según se emplea actualmente en la ciudad de México. Presento aquí los resultados de mi estudio en lo que respecta, únicamente, al vestuario de los niños menores de un año. Toda ladocumentación fue proporcionada por doce informantes ...

  14. Ni{sub 3}Al technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Viswanathan, S.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al and Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys have been identified for a range of applications. These applications require the use of material in a variety of product forms such as sheet, plate, bar, wire, tubing, piping, and castings. Although significant progress has been made in the melting, casting, and near-net-shape forming of nickel aluminides, some issues still remain. These include the need for: (1) high-strength castable composition for many applications that have been identified; (2) castability (mold type, fluidity, hot-shortness, porosity, etc.); (3) weld reparability of castings; and (4) workability of cast or powder metallurgy product to sheet, bar, and wire. The four issues listed above can be {open_quotes}show stoppers{close_quotes} for the commercial application of nickel aluminides. This report describes the work completed to address some of these issues during FY 1996.

  15. Antiferromagnetic behaviour of Tb2Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, D. P.; André, G.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Sánchez Marcos, J.; Fernández Barquín, L.; Echevarria, C.

    2011-10-01

    The structural, thermal and magnetic properties ol the Tb2Al alloy have been investigated by AC/DC magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. DC and AC-magnetic susceptibility results are consistent with an AFM order at TN = 52 K. The specific heat data show a lambda anomaly associated to the magnetic transition with a peak at 52 K (cord = 99 J/molTbK). The analysis of thermodiffractograms of neutron diffraction patterns indicates that, below the ordering temperature, the magnetic reflections can be indexed with a commensurate lattice related to the crystallographic cell (Pmna) by a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). The results are compared with those reported for other magnetic rare earth alloys of R2Al-type (with R = Nd, Gd and Dy).

  16. Antiferromagnetic behaviour of Tb2Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural, thermal and magnetic properties ol the Tb2Al alloy have been investigated by AC/DC magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements. DC and AC-magnetic susceptibility results are consistent with an AFM order at TN = 52 K. The specific heat data show a lambda anomaly associated to the magnetic transition with a peak at 52 K (cord = 99 J/molTbK). The analysis of thermodiffractograms of neutron diffraction patterns indicates that, below the ordering temperature, the magnetic reflections can be indexed with a commensurate lattice related to the crystallographic cell (Pmna) by a propagation vector k = (1/2, 1/2, 1/2). The results are compared with those reported for other magnetic rare earth alloys of R2Al-type (with R = Nd, Gd and Dy).

  17. Communication Support for People with ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beukelman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 95% of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC intervention; therefore, appropriate timing of referral for AAC assessment and intervention continues to be a most important clinical decision-making issue. AAC acceptance and use have increased considerably during the past decade. Many people use AAC until within a few weeks of their deaths.

  18. En torno al lenguaje, entornos del lenguaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Carbone

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ¿Es demostrable alguna relación entre lengua y visión del mundo? Si se considera al individuo como ser al margen de su entorno, la visión del mundo es una facultad meramente individual, y la lengua no desempeñaría así ningún papel. En cambio, si el individuo no es concebible sino como fruto de su entorno, el sustento básico de tal visión sería la lengua. ------------------------------------------------ Is there a demonstrable relationship between language and world view? If we think of the individual as a being who is separate from his environment, his world view is merely a personal trait in which language would play no role. On the other hand, if the individual can only be understood as the product of his environment, then language would become the underlying basis of his world view.

  19. Structure of molten Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlborg, U. [CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France; Besser, M. [Ames Laboratory; Calvo-Dahlborg, M. [CNRS, Ecole des Mines, Nancy, France; Cuello, G. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Dewhurst, C. D. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Kramer, Matthew J. [Ames Laboratory; Morris, James R [ORNL; Sordelet, Daniel [Ames Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    The temperature variation of the structure and microstructure of molten eutectic Al{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} alloys (x = 0.122 and 0.20) have been studied by neutron diffraction and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), as well as measurements performed on pure liquid Al. All measurements have been performed at five temperatures in a heating-cooling loop. The SANS results unambiguously show that for the eutectic alloy (x = 0.122) the microstructure changes with increasing temperature in a partly reversible way while for the hypereutectic (x = 0.20) alloy the change is almost completely irreversible. This change in microstructure also manifests itself in the shape of the static structure factor S(Q).

  20. Crítica al funcionalismo normativista

    OpenAIRE

    Demetrio Crespo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    El artículo gira en torno al modelo de pensamiento del funcionalismo «normativista» formulado por Günther Jakobs y de las bases metodológicas que han hecho desembocar su teoría de la pena en el ambiguo concepto del llamado «derecho penal del enemigo» como teoría de la excepción penal.

  1. Complementary and Alternative Therapies in ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Bedlack, Richard S.; Joyce, Nanette; Carter, Gregory T.; Pagononi, Sabrina; Karam, Chafic

    2015-01-01

    Given the severity of their illness and lack of effective disease modifying agents, it is not surprising that most patients with ALS consider trying complementary and alternative therapies. Some of the most commonly considered alternative therapies include special diets, nutritional supplements, cannabis, acupuncture, chelation and energy healing. This chapter reviews these in detail. We also describe 3 models by which physicians may frame discussions about alternative therapies: paternalism,...

  2. Ammoniakemissiereductie via zelfregulering : melkureumgehalte als case

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, van den, R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005/2006 werd getoetst of de ammoniakemissie gereduceerd kan worden door zelfregulering. Hiervoor werd melkureum als indicator gekozen. Melkveehouders werde op die wijze aangesproken op hun eigen ambities, drijfveren en sterke punten. Een zelf gemaakt en gekozen bedrijfsplan vanuit de eigen situatie en het stimuleren van het eigen zoekproces maakt deel uit van die motivatieIn 2005/2006, an assessment took place to see whether ammonia emissions could be reduced through selfregulation. Milk...

  3. Thaghut dalam Al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Sari Masyhur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan berikut membahas konsep thâghût dalam al-Qur’an dengan menggunakan pendekatan tafsir tematik. Term thâghût berasal dari akar kata thaghâ yang secara bahasa berarti melanggar batas, berbuat sewenang-wenang, kejam atau menindas, melebihi ketentuan yang ada, meninggi dan melampaui batas dalam hal pengingkaran. Penulis menelusuri ayat-ayat al-Quran yang berbicara topik thâghût, hasilnya menemukan bahwa dalam al-Qu’ran kata ini dengan berbagai derivasinya (isytiqaq diulang sebanyak 39 kali yang tersebar dalam 39 ayat dan 27 surat. Dilihat dari segi struktur atau bentuk pengungkapan, term thâghût yang tersebar di dalam al-Qur’an tersebut setidaknya muncul dalam lima bentuk kata jadian (isytiqaq yang masing-masing implikasi makna yang berbeda-beda. Tulisan berikut membahas sedikitnya sembilan macam pengungkapan thâghût dengan berbagai pemaknaan dengan tekanan yang beragam, seperti misalnya anjuran untuk tidak mempercayai thâghût; peringatan bahwa thâghût menuntun manusia pada kekufuran; mempersekutukan Allah dengan mengimani thâghût; pemberitaan tentang orang-orang yang berhukum pada thâghût; orang-orang yang berperang di jalan thâghût; balasan Allah terhadap penyembah thâghût; perintah menghindari penyembahan thâghût; kabar gembira bagi yang menghindari penyembahan thâghût; dan faktor-faktor yang membuat manusia bekerjasama dengan thâghût. Elaborasi dari topik-topik tersebut bermaksud untuk menegaskan larangan Islam terhadap thâghût dan hal-hal yang berkaitan dengannya.

  4. Globale Entwikclung als Lernbereich in den Naturwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Härtig, Hendrik; Bernholt, Sascha; Schroeter, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Mit dem Orientierungsrahmen für den Lernbereich Globale Entwicklung wurden Anregungen gegeben, die Themen nachhaltige Entwicklung und globale Entwicklung im Unterricht in allen Schulfächern aufzugreifen. Die drei naturwissenschaftlichen Schulfächer Biologie, Chemie und Physik haben sich bislang sehr unterschiedlich auf das Thema eingelassen. In der Biologiedidaktik finden sich sowohl Forschungsarbeiten als auch Unterrichtsvorschläge; für Chemie und insbesondere Physik existieren hingegen nur ...

  5. Combating Al Qaeda's Splinters: Mishandling Suicide Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The past three years saw more suicide attacks than the last quarter century. Most of these were religiously motivated. While most Westerners have imagined a tightly coordinated transnational terrorist organization headed by Al Qaeda, it seems more likely that nations under attack face a set of largely autonomous groups and cells pursuing their own regional aims. Repeated suicide actions show that massive counterforce alone does not diminish the frequency or intensity of suicide attack. Like p...

  6. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara eMatuz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham 1999 has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients’ quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals and coping strategies during a period of two years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years.Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS.

  7. Response to de la Iglesia et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetish, Gandhi; Kaplan, Hillard; Gurven, Michael; Wood, Brian; Pontzer, Herman; Manger, Paul R; Wilson, Charles; McGregor, Ronald; Siegel, Jerome M

    2016-04-01

    We wish to respond to the commentary of de la Iglesia et al. [1]. Studies comparing sleep in different communities have different goals. One frequent goal has been to determine how sleep is affected by manipulating specific 'modern' conditions. Many studies have investigated the effect of artificial light and electronic entertainment. Such studies have clearly shown that light, particularly blue light, delays sleep onset [2]. Studying the effect of artificial light on sleep was not a goal of our study. PMID:27046810

  8. Vacuum metallurgy of TiAl intermetallics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemčík, L.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Król, S.; Pražmowski, M.

    Ostrava : Tanger s.r.o, 2005, s. 1-11. [Metal 2005. Hradec nad Moravicí (CZ), 24.05.2005-26.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/04/0853 Grant ostatní: GA MŠMT(CZ) KONTAKT 55 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : vacuum melting * TiAl intermetallics Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy

  9. Telefoninterviews als Datenerhebungsstrategie: Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Lisa A.; Miller, Monica K.

    2001-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden konkrete Vorschläge zur Nutzung von Telefoninterviews als Datenerhebungsstrategie gemacht. Unsere Überlegungen sind an all jene adressiert, die telefonische Interviews durchführen (wollen), wobei sie vor allem für diejenigen Forscher(innen) hilfreich sein dürften, die über keine oder nur geringe Erfahrungen mit dieser Erhebungsmethode verfügen. Es werden zahlreiche praktische Empfehlungen gegeben, die üblicherweise in der traditionellen Forschungsliteratur n...

  10. Commissioning experiences of the ALS booster synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation of the ALS booster synchrotron proper was completed on April 30, 1991, and commissioning has just begun. Circulating beam around the booster was observed on the first day of operation, May 3, 1991. The beam was visible for about 400 turns. In this paper we describe the status and commissioning experience of the 1.5-GeV electron synchrotron accelerator. 14 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Die globale Finanzkrise als Kumulation von Dilemmastrukturen

    OpenAIRE

    Münch, Philipp Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Was als sogenannte „Subprime-Krise“ auf dem US-Immobilienmarkt begann, hat sich zu einer sehr ernsten Finanz-, Banken- und Staatsschuldenkrise mit hohen Vermögensverlusten, Konkursen, sozialem Elend und beträchtlichen Bürden für Steuerzahler weiterentwickelt. Sogar die Existenz der Europäischen Währungsunion steht auf dem Spiel. Zahlreiche Analysebeiträge behandeln eine Vielzahl von Verursachungsfaktoren. In vorliegender Arbeit werden ganze Pyramiden von Dilemmastrukturen unterschiedlicher hi...

  12. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumus, S. Cem, E-mail: cokumus@sakarya.edu.tr; Karslioglu, Ramazan, E-mail: cokumus@sakarya.edu.tr; Akbulut, Hatem, E-mail: cokumus@sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup −1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  13. Softening Kinetics in High Al and High Al-Nb-Microalloyed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereda, B.; Aretxabaleta, Z.; López, B.

    2015-03-01

    Double-hit torsion tests were performed in order to study the effect of high Al levels (up to 2 wt.%) and Nb microalloying (up to 0.07 wt.%) on the static softening kinetics of 0.2%C-2%Mn steels. The addition of 1%Al leads to a delay in the softening kinetics due to solute-drag effect, equivalent to that exerted by 0.027%Nb. For the 2%Al steels, at temperatures below 1000 °C, γ → α phase transformation occurs after deformation, resulting in a larger retardation of the softening kinetics. At temperatures higher than 1000 °C, Nb in solid solution also contributes to the retardation of the static softening kinetics, and at lower temperatures NbC strain-induced precipitation leads to incomplete softening for the 1%Al steel, and to a complex interaction between softening, phase transformation, and NbC strain-induced precipitation for the 2%Al-Nb steels. The effect of Al on the static softening kinetics was quantified and introduced in a model developed in previous works for the prediction of the austenite microstructural evolution. In order to validate the results of the model, multipass torsion tests were carried out at conditions representative of hot strip and plate rolling mills. Model predictions show reasonable agreement with the results obtained at different deformation conditions.

  14. Al-based precipitate evolution during high temperature annealing of Al implanted in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvagno, G.; Spinella, C.; Ferla, A. la; Rimini, E. (Ist. di Metodologie e Tecnologie per la Microelettronica-CNR, Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Scandurra, A. (Consorzio Catania Ricerche, Catania (Italy)); Raineri, V. (Univ. di Catania, (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche); Torrisi, A. (CORIMME, Catania (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    Al-based precipitate evolution for 80 keV Al ions implanted in Si has been investigated. Precipitates are formed during high temperature annealings of 1 [times] 10[sup 15]/cm[sup 2] implanted samples. They are located at two depths where Al concentration peaks are detected. Al atoms are gettered into the extended defects present in the crystal and/or precipitate when their concentration is higher than the solid solubility value at the annealing temperature. Increasing annealing time, precipitates dissolve out and only a small fraction of atoms diffuses into the sample, meanwhile the greater part evaporates from the sample. At 1 [times] 10[sup 13]/cm[sup 2] dose Al concentration is below the solid solubility limit. The secondary defects are not detected and the dopant profile does not display anomalous peaks. Moreover, all the implanted Al is electrically active and remains in the sample during the first instant of annealing. At higher annealing times it diffuses out of the sample reducing the residual dose.

  15. FeAl and NbAl3 Intermetallic-HVOF Coatings: Structure and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilemany, J. M.; Cinca, N.; Dosta, S.; Cano, I. G.

    2009-12-01

    Transition metal aluminides in their coating form are currently being explored in terms of resistance to oxidation and mechanical behavior. This interest in transition metal aluminides is mainly due to the fact that their high Al content makes them attractive for high-temperature applications. This is also a reason to study their resistance to wear; they may be suitable for use in applications that produce a lot of wear in aggressive environments, thus replacing established coating materials. In this study, the microstructure, microhardness, and wear and oxidation performance of FeAl and NbAl3 coatings produced by high-velocity oxy-fuel spraying are evaluated with two main aims: (i) to compare these two coating systems—a commonly studied aluminide (FeAl) and, NbAl3, an aluminide whose deposition by thermal spraying has not been attempted to date—and (ii) to analyze the relationship between their microstructure, composition and properties, and so clarify their wear and oxidation mechanisms. In the present study, the higher hardness of niobium aluminide coatings did not correlate with a higher wear resistance and, finally, although pesting phenomena (disintegration in oxidizing environments) were already known of in bulk niobium aluminides, here their behavior in the coating form is examined. It was shown that such accelerated oxidation was inevitable with respect to the better resistance of FeAl, but further improvements are foreseen by addition of alloying elements in that alloy.

  16. Precipitation and strengthening phenomena in Al-Si-Ge and Al-Cu-Si-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to determine whether Al rich Al-Si-Ge and 2000 type Al-Cu-Si-Ge alloys have sufficient hardness to be useful for structural applications. It is shown that in Al-Si-Ge it is not possible to achieve satisfactory hardness through a conventional heat treatment. This result is explained in terms of sluggish precipitation of the diamond-cubic Si-Ge phase coupled with particle coarsening. However, Al-Cu-Si-Ge displayed a uniquely fast aging response, a high peak hardness and a good stability during prolonged aging. The high hardness of the Cu containing alloy is due to the dense and uniform distribution of fine θ' precipitates (metastable Al2Cu) which are heterogeneously nucleated on the Si-Ge particles. High resolution TEM demonstrated that in both alloys all the Si-Ge precipitates start out, and remain multiply twinned throughout the aging treatment. Since the twinned section of the precipitate does not maintain a low index interface with the matrix, the Si-Ge precipitates are equiaxed in morphology. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  17. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magnetism of AlDyNi, AlDyNi4 and AlDy3Ni8 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic and magnetic properties of AlDyNi, AlDyNi4 and AlDy3Ni8 are studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), static and dynamic magnetic measurements. The three compounds AlDyNi, AlDyNi4 and AlDy3Ni8 are single phases and crystallize in the Fe2P, CaCu5 and CeNi3 structure types, respectively. All the investigated compounds order ferromagnetically below the corresponding Curie temperatures. The Curie temperature and the magnetic moments are 25 K and 6 μB/f.u. for AlDyNi, 14 K and 6.9 μB/f.u. for AlDyNi4 and 22K and 19.2 μB/f.u. for AlDy3Ni8. At high temperature the magnetic susceptibility obey the Curie-Weiss law. The paramagnetic Curie temperature and the effective magnetic moments are 30K and 10.88 μB/f.u. for AlDyNi, 28 K and 10.94 μB/f.u. for AlDyNi4 and 18 K and 18.33 μB/f.u. for AlDy3Ni8. XPS valence band and Ni 2p spectra indicated the presence of small magnetic moment on Ni sites in AlDy3Ni8 and AlDyNi4, and a complete filling of Ni 3d band in AlDyNi.

  18. Diet and dietetics in al-Andalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Huetos-Solano, Maria D; García-Lorda, Pilar; Bulló, Mònica

    2006-08-01

    Al-Andalus society (711-1492) based its idea of health on the wisdom of Classical Greece, the Hippocratic-Galenic theories, as well as the Persian and Hindu cultures. The twelfth century in al-Andalus is considered to be the most prolific period for works of a scientific and technical nature. At the time, the main treatises on dietetics were written and this science reached its widest expression with such leading figures as Ibn Wāfīd, Avenzoar, Averroes and Maimonides, whose works revealed the first scientific knowledge on the nutritional processes of the human body. Diet was regarded as being essential for health and the prevention of disease. Dietary guidelines were written for different age groups, different body types and different seasons of the year. The amount of food to be ingested, the number of meals recommended and the order in which the food should be consumed were all issues that were discussed. A variety of foods were thought to have medicinal properties, some of which are known today. The diet in al-Andalus was varied and very probably made a substantial contribution to the origin of the present-day Mediterranean diet, rich in olive oil, wholemeal cereals, fruit and vegetables, fish, lamb, poultry, nuts and spices. We also find that many of the terms in current use in diet and agriculture are a living testimony to the Arabic influence, as are many of the dishes of our varied Mediterranean gastronomy. PMID:16923240

  19. Keanekaragaman dalam al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Chirzin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of race, language, class, and culture is a wealth; basically, it is a beautiful gift in this life. However, the reality is precesely the social conflict among the society. This article explores the issue of diversity contained in al Qur’an. Some of the key themes included: diversity as sunnatullah, diversity in unity, religious and ethnic diversity, and diversity of professions. Al Qur’an has mentioned several groups of religious believers and provided guidance association order among religious believers. Religious diversity certainly makes Muslim necessitates acknowledging and respecting other religion save Islam. Al Qur’an has mentioned also a variety of occupations based on interests, talents, expertise, and particular skills. The fragmentation and understanding diversity have caused by egoism and truth claiming of each group and individual, but no one has knowledge covering everything from different sides or corners. Above all knowledge is the Almighty owner off all knowledge. With feeling most true someone or group tends to feel the best and have the right to insult any others. That is the base of the dispute and spiritual decline. Mukmin has to preserve the noble character in association, and keep away from bad manner. Among mukmin must love each other and maintain good manners. Finally, this study is intended to promote the establishment of harmony, peace and happiness of living together.

  20. Sihir dalam Pandangan Al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurmain Hurmain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sihir adalah perbuatan ajaib yang dilakukan dengan pesona dan kekuatan ajaib (gunaguna, mantra atau jampi yang digunakan untuk tujuan tertentu, seperti penangkal dan mencelakai orang lain. Karena itu sihir bisa menimbulkan dampak beraneka ragam, seperti sakit, kematian, kebencian, gairah syahwat dan penceraian serta perselingkuhan. Dalam Al-Qur’an tidak kurang dari 30 ayat bicara mengenai sihir. Antara lain surat Al-Baqarah ayat 102 yang menjadi fokus telaah ini. Asbabunuzul ayat ini, diatarbelakangi tuduhan kafir Quraisy terhadap Nabi Muhammad saw. bahwa ajaran yang dikembangkan belia itu, adalah sihir, lalu turun ayat 102 Al-Baqarah ini. Dalam ayat ini Allah menceritakan perbuatan sihir orang Yahudi di zaman Nabi Sulaiman. Tujuan mereka memutar balikkan fakta dan pembangkangan terhadap kitab Taurat yang benar. Dan ilmu sihir yang mereka kembangkan, tidak ada relevansinya dengan ajaran Nabi Sulaiman. Mempelajari ilmu sihir menurut sebagian ulama tafsir, adalah boleh yang dilarang menggunakan ilmu itu untuk kejahatan. Menurut para ahli tafsir, ilmu sihir termasuk ilmu yang tercela, merugikan bagi diri si penyihir dan yang terkena sihir. Karena itu kedua belah pihak bisa dikenakan sebagai sikap penolakan kebenaran atau kekafiran.