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Sample records for amplicon quantitative pcr

  1. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  2. Improved sensitivity of circulating tumor DNA measurement using short PCR amplicons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Fredslund; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Brandslund, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    , however, presents a number of challenges that require attention. The amount of DNA is low and highly fragmented and analyses need to be optimized accordingly. KRAS ARMS-qPCR assays with amplicon lengths of 120 and 85 base pairs, respectively, were compared using positive control material (PCR fragments...

  3. The influence of amplicon length on real-time PCR results

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    Debode, F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. This paper discusses the influence of amplicon length on real-time PCR results. Objectives. The aim of the experiments was to show that amplicon size has an influence on detection. Method. Tests were performed on genomic and plasmid DNA. Double-dye probes and SYBR® Green were used for detection by real-time PCR. Primers were selected in order to produce fragments with increasing sizes. Experiments dealt with two targets: an endogenous target for soybean (part of the lectin gene and a transgenic target (junction P35S-CTP of the MON40-3-2 soybean. Results. The results show that the kinetics of amplification curves evolve as a function of amplicon length, and smaller amplicons yield a higher level of fluorescence for the plateau phase. DNA degradation within the sample as well as the principles of fluorescence acquisition as a function of the chemistry used can also be factors. Conclusions. It was experimentally shown that the observed effect is linked to the suboptimal elongation temperature used in real-time PCR. Detection using SYBR® Green is less impacted as the loss of efficiency is partially compensated by the greater integration of SYBR® Green molecules in the larger fragments.

  4. Simultaneous analysis of multiple PCR amplicons enhances capillary SSCP discrimination of MHC alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Miguel; López, Lidia; Tanferna, Alessandro; Blas, Julio; Sergio, Fabrizio; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2010-04-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genotyping still remains one of the most challenging issues for evolutionary ecologists. To date, none of the proposed methods have proven to be perfect, and all provide both important pros and cons. Although denaturing capillary electrophoresis has become a popular alternative, allele identification commonly relies upon conformational polymorphisms of two single-stranded DNA molecules at the most. Using the MHC class II (beta chain, exon 2) of the black kite (Aves: Accipitridae) as our model system, we show that the simultaneous analysis of overlapping PCR amplicons from the same target region substantially enhances allele discrimination. To cover this aim, we designed a multiplex PCR capable to generate four differentially sized and labeled amplicons from the same allele. Informative peaks to assist allele calling then fourfold those generated by the analysis of single PCR amplicons. Our approach proved successful to differentiate all the alleles (N=13) isolated from eight unrelated birds at a single optimal run temperature and electrophoretic conditions. In particular, we emphasize that this approach may constitute a straightforward and cost-effective alternative for the genotyping of single or duplicated MHC genes displaying low to moderate sets of divergent alleles.

  5. Polyadenylated Sequencing Primers Enable Complete Readability of PCR Amplicons Analyzed by Dideoxynucleotide Sequencing

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    Martin Beránek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dideoxynucleotide DNA sequencing is one of the principal procedures in molecular biology. Loss of an initial part of nucleotides behind the 3' end of the sequencing primer limits the readability of sequenced amplicons. We present a method which extends the readability by using sequencing primers modified by polyadenylated tails attached to their 5' ends. Performing a polymerase chain reaction, we amplified eight amplicons of six human genes (AMELX, APOE, HFE, MBL2, SERPINA1 and TGFB1 ranging from 106 bp to 680 bp. Polyadenylation of the sequencing primers minimized the loss of bases in all amplicons. Complete sequences of shorter products (AMELX 106 bp, SERPINA1 121 bp, HFE 208 bp, APOE 244 bp, MBL2 317 bp were obtained. In addition, in the case of TGFB1 products (366 bp, 432 bp, and 680 bp, respectively, the lengths of sequencing readings were significantly longer if adenylated primers were used. Thus, single strand dideoxynucleotide sequencing with adenylated primers enables complete or near complete readability of short PCR amplicons.

  6. Direct recovery of infectious Pestivirus from a full-length RT-PCR amplicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Reimann, Ilona; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro, and the result......This study describes the use of a novel and rapid long reverse transcription (RT)-PCR for the generation of infectious full-length cDNA of pestiviruses. To produce rescued viruses, full-length RT-PCR amplicons of 12.3 kb, including a T7-promotor, were transcribed directly in vitro......, and the resulting RNA transcripts were electroporated into ovine cells. Infectious virus was obtained after one cell culture passage. The rescued viruses had a phenotype similar to the parental Border Disease virus strain. Therefore, direct generation of infectious pestiviruses from full-length RT-PCR cDNA products...

  7. Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, T.; Jacobsen, N.; Fensholdt, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ligand immobilization on solid surfaces is an essential step in fields such as diagnostics, bio sensor manufacturing, and new material sciences in general. In this paper a photochemical approach based on anthraquinone as the chromophore is presented. Photochemical procedures offer special...... advantages as they are able to generate highly reactive species in an orientation specific manner. As presented here, anthraquinone (AQ) mediated covalent DNA immobilization appears to be superior to currently known procedures. A synthetic procedure providing AQ-phosphoramidites is presented. These reagents...... facilitate AQ conjugation during routine DNA synthesis, thus enabling the AQ-oligonucleotides to be immobilized in a very convenient and efficient manner. AQ-conjugated PCR primers can be used directly in PCR. When the PCR is performed in solution, the amplicons can be immobilized after the PCR. Moreover...

  8. Multiplex PCR, amplicon size and hybridization efficiency on the NanoChip electronic microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J; Morling, Niels

    2004-01-01

    . Hybridization to individual amplicons in multiplexes was less efficient suggesting that intramolecular and intermolecular interactions may block access to the target sequence on the NanoChip array. We observed a high risk of contamination with amplicons shorter than 60 bp and therefore, we recommend the use...

  9. Archaea in the foregut of macropod marsupials: PCR and amplicon sequence-based observations.

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    Klieve, A V; Ouwerkerk, D; Maguire, A J

    2012-11-01

    To investigate, using culture-independent techniques, the presence and diversity of methanogenic archaea in the foregut of kangaroos. DNA was extracted from forestomach contents of 42 kangaroos (three species), three sheep and three cattle. Four qualitative and quantitative PCR assays targeting the archaeal domain (16S rRNA gene) or the functional methanogenesis gene, mcrA, were used to determine the presence and population density of archaea in kangaroos and whether they were likely to be methanogens. All ruminal samples were positive for archaea, produced PCR product of expected size, contained high numbers of archaea and high numbers of cells with mcrA genes. Kangaroos were much more diverse and contradictory. Fourteen kangaroos had detectable archaea with numbers 10- to 1000-fold fewer than sheep and cattle. Many kangaroos that did not possess archaea were positive for the mcrA gene and had detectable numbers of cells with this gene and vice versa. DNA sequence analysis of kangaroos' archaeal 16S rRNA gene clones show that many methanogens were related to Methanosphaera stadmanae. Other sequences were related to non-methanogenic archaea (Thermoplasma sp.), and a number of kangaroos had mcrA gene sequences related to methane oxidising archaea (ANME). Discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative PCR assays for archaea and the mcrA gene suggest that the archaeal communities are very diverse and it is possible that novel species exist. Archaea (in general) were below detectable limits in many kangaroos, especially Red kangaroos; when present they are in lower numbers than in ruminants, and the archaea are not necessarily methanogenic. The determination of why this is the case in the kangaroo foregut could assist in reducing emissions from other ecosystems in the future. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A one-step real-time multiplex PCR for screening Y-chromosomal microdeletions without downstream amplicon size analysis.

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    Viviana Kozina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Y-chromosomal microdeletions (YCMD are one of the major genetic causes for non-obstructive azoospermia. Genetic testing for YCMD by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR is an established method for quick and robust screening of deletions in the AZF regions of the Y-chromosome. Multiplex PCRs have the advantage of including a control gene in every reaction and significantly reducing the number of reactions needed to screen the relevant genomic markers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The widely established "EAA/EMQN best practice guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions (2004" were used as a basis for designing a real-time multiplex PCR system, in which the YCMD can simply be identified by their melting points. For this reason, some AZF primers were substituted by primers for regions in their genomic proximity, and the ZFX/ZFY control primer was exchanged by the AMELX/AMELY control primer. Furthermore, we substituted the classical SybrGreen I dye by the novel and high-performing DNA-binding dye EvaGreen™ and put substantial effort in titrating the primer combinations in respect to optimal melting peak separation and peak size. SIGNIFICANCE: With these changes, we were able to develop a platform-independent and robust real-time based multiplex PCR, which makes the need for amplicon identification by electrophoretic sizing expendable. By using an open-source system for real-time PCR analysis, we further demonstrate the applicability of automated melting point and YCMD detection.

  11. A One-Step Real-Time Multiplex PCR for Screening Y-Chromosomal Microdeletions without Downstream Amplicon Size Analysis

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    Kozina, Viviana; Cappallo-Obermann, Heike; Gromoll, Jörg; Spiess, Andrej-Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    Backgound Y-chromosomal microdeletions (YCMD) are one of the major genetic causes for non-obstructive azoospermia. Genetic testing for YCMD by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an established method for quick and robust screening of deletions in the AZF regions of the Y-chromosome. Multiplex PCRs have the advantage of including a control gene in every reaction and significantly reducing the number of reactions needed to screen the relevant genomic markers. Principal Findings The widely established “EAA/EMQN best practice guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions (2004)” were used as a basis for designing a real-time multiplex PCR system, in which the YCMD can simply be identified by their melting points. For this reason, some AZF primers were substituted by primers for regions in their genomic proximity, and the ZFX/ZFY control primer was exchanged by the AMELX/AMELY control primer. Furthermore, we substituted the classical SybrGreen I dye by the novel and high-performing DNA-binding dye EvaGreen™ and put substantial effort in titrating the primer combinations in respect to optimal melting peak separation and peak size. Significance With these changes, we were able to develop a platform-independent and robust real-time based multiplex PCR, which makes the need for amplicon identification by electrophoretic sizing expendable. By using an open-source system for real-time PCR analysis, we further demonstrate the applicability of automated melting point and YCMD detection. PMID:21887237

  12. Laboratory Tests of Multiplex Detection of PCR Amplicons Using the Luminex 100 Flow Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswaran, K.S.; Nasarabadi, S.; Langlois, R.G.

    2000-05-05

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated the power of flow cytometry in detecting the biological agents simulants at JFT III. LLNL pioneered in the development of advanced nucleic acid analyzer (ANM) for portable real time identification. Recent advances in flow cytometry provide a means for multiplexed nucleic acid detection and immunoassay of pathogenic microorganisms. We are presently developing multiplexed immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of different simulants. Our goal is to build an integrated instrument for both nucleic acid analysis and immuno detection. In this study we evaluated the Luminex LX 100 for concurrent identification of more than one PCR amplified product. ANAA has real-time Taqman fluorescent detection capability for rapid identification of field samples. However, its multiplexing ability is limited by the combination of available fluorescent labels. Hence integration of ANAA with flow cytometry can give the rapidity of ANAA amplification and the multiplex capability of flow cytometry. Multiplexed flow cytometric analysis is made possible using a set of fluorescent latex microsphere that are individually identified by their red and infrared fluorescence. A green fluorochrome is used as the assay signal. Methods were developed for the identification of specific nucleic acid sequences from Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) and Erwinia herbicola (Eh). Detection sensitivity using different reporter fluorochromes was tested with the LX 100, and also different assay formats were evaluated for their suitability for rapid testing. A blind laboratory trial was carried out December 22-27, 1999 to evaluate bead assays for multiplex identification of Bg and Bt PCR products. This report summarizes the assay development, fluorochrome comparisons, and the results of the blind trial conducted at LLNL for the laboratory evaluation of the LX 100 flow analyzer.

  13. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

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    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  14. 1,2-propanediol-trehalose mixture as a potent quantitative real-time PCR enhancer

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    Dráberová Lubica

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is becoming increasingly important for DNA genotyping and gene expression analysis. For continuous monitoring of the production of PCR amplicons DNA-intercalating dyes are widely used. Recently, we have introduced a new qPCR mix which showed improved amplification of medium-size genomic DNA fragments in the presence of DNA dye SYBR green I (SGI. In this study we tested whether the new PCR mix is also suitable for other DNA dyes used for qPCR and whether it can be applied for amplification of DNA fragments which are difficult to amplify. Results We found that several DNA dyes (SGI, SYTO-9, SYTO-13, SYTO-82, EvaGreen, LCGreen or ResoLight exhibited optimum qPCR performance in buffers of different salt composition. Fidelity assays demonstrated that the observed differences were not caused by changes in Taq DNA polymerase induced mutation frequencies in PCR mixes of different salt composition or containing different DNA dyes. In search for a PCR mix compatible with all the DNA dyes, and suitable for efficient amplification of difficult-to-amplify DNA templates, such as those in whole blood, of medium size and/or GC-rich, we found excellent performance of a PCR mix supplemented with 1 M 1,2-propanediol and 0.2 M trehalose (PT enhancer. These two additives together decreased DNA melting temperature and efficiently neutralized PCR inhibitors present in blood samples. They also made possible more efficient amplification of GC-rich templates than betaine and other previously described additives. Furthermore, amplification in the presence of PT enhancer increased the robustness and performance of routinely used qPCRs with short amplicons. Conclusions The combined data indicate that PCR mixes supplemented with PT enhancer are suitable for DNA amplification in the presence of various DNA dyes and for a variety of templates which otherwise can be amplified with difficulty.

  15. Detection of double-stranded PCR amplicons at the attomole level electrosprayed from low nanomolar solutions using FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

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    Hannis, J C; Muddiman, D C

    2001-02-01

    An 82-base-pair polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was amplified from the tetranucleotide short tandem repeat locus within the human tyrosine hydroxylase gene. PCR amplification was carried out using 100 ng of human nuclear DNA obtained from an individual who is homozygotic for the 9.3 allele resulting in a 50.5 kDa amplicon. To generate sufficient material for these investigations, several reactions were pooled and subsequently purified and quantified using UV-vis spectrophotometry. A serial dilution was carried out from a 2 microM stock solution providing solution concentrations down to 5 nM. Measurements were made using hexapole accumulation and gated trapping strategies in a 4.7 Telsa Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FTICR-MS) which facilitated detection of the amplicon at the attomole level when electrosprayed from a 5 nM solution with a single acquisition! The signal-to-noise ratio was determined to be 8.3 for the spectrum derived from the 5 nM solution using the magnitude-mode mass spectral peak height for the most abundant charge-state. This remarkable sensitivity for large PCR amplicons will dramatically improve the ability of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to address important genetic questions for low copy number genes or when the amount of initial template is limited; the latter issue is commonly encountered in DNA forensics. Furthermore, these data represents over 2 orders of magnitude decrease in detection limits over other existing ESI-MS reports concerning PCR products, including those conducted using FTICR-MS.

  16. Simplified strategy for rapid first-line screening of fragile X syndrome: closed-tube triplet-primed PCR and amplicon melt peak analysis.

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    Rajan-Babu, Indhu-Shree; Law, Hai-Yang; Yoon, Chui-Sheun; Lee, Caroline G; Chong, Samuel S

    2015-05-04

    Premutation and full-mutation hyperexpansion of CGG-triplets in the X-linked Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene have been implicated in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency, and fragile X syndrome (FXS), respectively. The currently available molecular diagnostic tests are either costly or labour-intensive, which prohibits their application as a first-line FMR1 test in large-scale population-based screening programs. In this study, we demonstrate the utility of a simplified closed-tube strategy for rapid first-line screening of FXS based on melt peak temperature (Tm) analysis of direct triplet-primed polymerase chain reaction amplicons (dTP-PCR MCA). In addition, we also evaluated the correlation between Tm and CGG-repeat size based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) of dTP-PCR amplicons. The assays were initially tested on 29 FMR1 reference DNA samples, followed by a blinded validation on 107 previously characterised patient DNA samples. The dTP-PCR MCA produced distinct melt profiles of higher Tm for samples carrying an expanded allele. Among the samples tested, we also observed a good correlation between Tm and CGG-repeat size. In the blinded validation study, dTP-PCR MCA accurately classified all normal and expansion carriers, and the FMR1 genotypic classification of all samples was completely concordant with the previously determined genotypes as well as the dTP-PCR CE results. This simple and cost-effective MCA-based assay may be useful as a first-line FXS screening tool that could rapidly screen out the large majority of unaffected individuals, thus minimising the number of samples that need to be analysed by Southern blot analysis.

  17. An ECL-PCR method for quantitative detection of point mutation

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    Zhu, Debin; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Chen, Qun; Liu, Jinfeng

    2005-04-01

    A new method for identification of point mutations was proposed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a sequence from genomic DNA was followed by digestion with a kind of restriction enzyme, which only cut the wild-type amplicon containing its recognition site. Reaction products were detected by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay after adsorption of the resulting DNA duplexes to the solid phase. One strand of PCR products carries biotin to be bound on a streptavidin-coated microbead for sample selection. Another strand carries Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR) to react with tripropylamine (TPA) to emit light for ECL detection. The method was applied to detect a specific point mutation in H-ras oncogene in T24 cell line. The results show that the detection limit for H-ras amplicon is 100 fmol and the linear range is more than 3 orders of magnitude, thus, make quantitative analysis possible. The genotype can be clearly discriminated. Results of the study suggest that ECL-PCR is a feasible quantitative method for safe, sensitive and rapid detection of point mutation in human genes.

  18. Simple, rapid and inexpensive quantitative fluorescent PCR method for detection of microdeletion and microduplication syndromes.

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    Martin Stofanko

    Full Text Available Because of economic limitations, the cost-effective diagnosis of patients affected with rare microdeletion or microduplication syndromes is a challenge in developing countries. Here we report a sensitive, rapid, and affordable detection method that we have called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR. Our procedure is based on the finding of genomic regions with high homology to segments of the critical microdeletion/microduplication region. PCR amplification of both using the same primer pair, establishes competitive kinetics and relative quantification of amplicons, as happens in microsatellite-based Quantitative Fluorescence PCR. We used patients with two common microdeletion syndromes, the Williams-Beuren syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion and the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndromes and discovered that MQF-PCR could detect both with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Additionally, we demonstrated that the same principle could be reliably used for detection of microduplication syndromes, by using patients with the Lubs (MECP2 duplication syndrome and the 17q11.2 microduplication involving the NF1 gene. We propose that MQF-PCR is a useful procedure for laboratory confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, ideally suited for use in developing countries, but having general applicability as well.

  19. Integrating high-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR to analyze complex microbial communities.

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    Zhang, Husen; Parameswaran, Prathap; Badalamenti, Jonathan; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    New high-throughput technologies continue to emerge for studying complex microbial communities. In particular, massively parallel pyrosequencing enables very high numbers of sequences, providing a more complete view of community structures and a more accurate inference of the functions than has been possible just a few years ago. In parallel, quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) allows quantitative monitoring of specific community members over time, space, or different environmental conditions. In this review, we discuss the principles of these two methods and their complementary applications in studying microbial ecology in bioenvironmental systems. We explain parallel sequencing of amplicon libraries and using bar codes to differentiate multiple samples in a pyrosequencing run. We also describe best procedures and chemistries for QPCR amplifications and address advantages of applying automation to increase accuracy. We provide three examples in which we used pyrosequencing and QPCR together to define and quantify members of microbial communities: in the human large intestine, in a methanogenic digester whose sludge was made more bioavailable by a high-voltage pretreatment, and on the biofilm anode of a microbial electrolytic cell. We highlight our key findings in these systems and how both methods were used in concert to achieve those findings. Finally, we supply detailed methods for generating PCR amplicon libraries for pyrosequencing, pyrosequencing data analysis, QPCR methodology, instrumentation, and automation.

  20. Application of long amplicon propidium monoazide-PCR to assess the effects of temperature and background microbiota on pathogens in river water.

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    Banihashemi, Avid; Van Dyke, Michele I; Huck, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    The decay rates of enteric waterborne pathogens were evaluated following the introduction of Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni and Arcobacter butzleri into river water at different temperatures (5, 15 and 25°C) for a period of 28 days. To improve the accuracy of the results a molecular viability assay, long amplicon propidium monoazide-polymerase chain reaction (PMA-PCR), was used to quantify the viable cell concentration and results from PCR with and without PMA were compared. As well, the effect of background microbiota was assessed for Y. enterocolitica and S. enterica by inoculating cells into sterile and non-sterile river water. Cell persistence was improved by up to 4 log for Y. enterocolitica and 4.5 log for S. enterica in sterile river water compared to natural river water, showing that the autochthonous biological activity in river water can accelerate the die-off of introduced bacteria. Results also showed that low temperature significantly improved the persistence of all four target bacteria in non-sterile river water. There was a more rapid decline in cell concentration in samples with PMA pretreatment; therefore using PMA-PCR analysis can provide more reliable data on viable/active enteric bacteria in aquatic microcosms and allows for improved assessment of pathogens in the environment.

  1. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in naturally contaminated chicken skin by melting peak analysis of amplicons in real-time PCR.

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    Oliveira, Tereza C R M; Barbut, Shai; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2005-09-25

    Contamination of poultry by Campylobacter spp. is a significant source of human diarrheal diseases. Traditional methods currently used to detect Campylobacter in foods are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this study, primers designed for the Campylobacter jejuni cadF gene sequence were used in a SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay as an alternative to a conventional bacteriological method for the rapid detection of C. jejuni from poultry. Twelve portions of chicken purchased from two local grocery stores and 39 portions obtained from a commercial processing plant were examined. Samples of the skin were enriched in Bolton broth at 37 degrees C for 3 h and then at 42 degrees C for 9, 21, or 45 h under microaerobic conditions. DNA was extracted from 1-ml aliquots of the enrichment cultures using 1% Triton X-100. The DNA was used as the template in a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. After 24 h of enrichment, C. jejuni was isolated from 13 samples and all of the positive cultures were also detected by the real-time PCR procedure. C. jejuni was detected by both methods from samples artificially contaminated with 1 or 10 CFU of C. jejuni per 10 g, after 24 h of enrichment. The real-time PCR method was found to be sensitive and specific. It significantly reduced the time required for the detection of C. jejuni in poultry following enrichment of samples.

  2. The quantification of spermatozoa by real-time quantitative PCR, spectrophotometry, and spermatophore cap size.

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    Doyle, Jacqueline M; McCormick, Cory R; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Many animals, such as crustaceans, insects, and salamanders, package their sperm into spermatophores, and the number of spermatozoa contained in a spermatophore is relevant to studies of sexual selection and sperm competition. We used two molecular methods, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and spectrophotometry, to estimate sperm numbers from spermatophores. First, we designed gene-specific primers that produced a single amplicon in four species of ambystomatid salamanders. A standard curve generated from cloned amplicons revealed a strong positive relationship between template DNA quantity and cycle threshold, suggesting that RT-qPCR could be used to quantify sperm in a given sample. We then extracted DNA from multiple Ambystoma maculatum spermatophores, performed RT-qPCR on each sample, and estimated template copy numbers (i.e. sperm number) using the standard curve. Second, we used spectrophotometry to determine the number of sperm per spermatophore by measuring DNA concentration relative to the genome size. We documented a significant positive relationship between the estimates of sperm number based on RT-qPCR and those based on spectrophotometry. When these molecular estimates were compared to spermatophore cap size, which in principle could predict the number of sperm contained in the spermatophore, we also found a significant positive relationship between sperm number and spermatophore cap size. This linear model allows estimates of sperm number strictly from cap size, an approach which could greatly simplify the estimation of sperm number in future studies. These methods may help explain variation in fertilization success where sperm competition is mediated by sperm quantity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Human fecal source identification with real-time quantitative PCR

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    Waterborne diseases represent a significant public health risk worldwide, and can originate from contact with water contaminated with human fecal material. We describe a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method that targets a Bacteroides dori human-associated genetic marker for...

  4. Utilizing pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR to characterize fungal populations among house dust samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Coronado, Gloria; Thompson, Beti; Griffith, William C; Hanson, John Delton; Vesper, Stephen; Faustman, Elaine M

    2012-08-01

    Molecular techniques are an alternative to culturing and counting methods in quantifying indoor fungal contamination. Pyrosequencing offers the possibility of identifying unexpected indoor fungi. In this study, 50 house dust samples were collected from homes in the Yakima Valley, WA. Each sample was analyzed by quantitative PCR (QPCR) for 36 common fungi and by fungal tag-encoded flexible (FLX) amplicon pyrosequencing (fTEFAP) for these and additional fungi. Only 24 of the samples yielded amplified results using fTEFAP but QPCR successfully amplified all 50 samples. Over 450 fungal species were detected by fTEFAP but most were rare. Twenty-two fungi were found by fTEFAP to occur with at least an average of ≥0.5% relative occurrence. Many of these fungi seem to be associated with plants, soil or human skin. Combining fTEFAP and QPCR can enhance studies of fungal contamination in homes.

  5. Improving the genotyping resolution of Cryptosporidium hominis subtype IbA10G2 using one step PCR-based amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beser, Jessica; Hallström, Björn M; Advani, Abdolreza; Andersson, Sofia; Östlund, Gabriel; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Lebbad, Marianne; Alm, Erik; Troell, Karin; Arrighi, Romanico B G

    2017-11-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtype IbA10G2 is a common cause of cryptosporidiosis. This subtype is responsible for many waterborne outbreaks as well as sporadic cases and is considered virulent and highly important in the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Due to low heterogeneity within the genome of C. hominis it has been difficult to identify epidemiological markers with higher resolution than gp60. However, new markers are required in order to improve outbreak investigations and studies of the transmission dynamics of this clinically important subtype. Based on the whole genome sequences of 17 C. hominis isolates, we have identified several differential loci and developed a new sequence based typing panel with higher resolution than gp60. An amplicon sequencing method was also developed which is based on a one-step PCR which can be sequenced using a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. Such a system provides a rapid and high-throughput workflow. A panel of nine loci with 10 single nucleotide variants (SNV) was selected and evaluated using clinical IbA10G2 isolates from sporadic, cluster and outbreak associated cases. The specimens were separated into 10 different genetic profiles named sequence types (STs). All isolates within an outbreak or cluster belonged to the same ST, including several samples from the two large waterborne outbreaks which occurred in Sweden between 2010 and 2011 indicating that these outbreaks might be linked. The results demonstrate the methods suitability for improved genotyping of C. hominis IbA10G2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluorescent duplex allele-specific PCR and amplicon melting for rapid homogeneous mtDNA haplogroup H screening and sensitive mixture detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Niederstätter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For large scale studies aiming at a better understanding of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, sequence variation in particular mt haplogroups (hgs and population structure, reliable low-cost high-throughput genotyping assays are needed. Furthermore, methods facilitating sensitive mixture detection and relative quantification of allele proportions are indispensable for the study of heteroplasmy, mitochondrial sequence evolution, and mitochondrial disorders. Here the properties of a homogeneous competitive duplex allele specific PCR (ARMS assay were scrutinized in the light of these requirements. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A duplex ARMS assay amplifying either the ancestral mtDNA 2706G allele (non-hg H samples or the derived 7028C allele (hg H samples in the presence of SYBR Green fluorescent reporter dye was developed and characterized. Product detection, allele calling, and hg inference were based on the amplicon-characteristic melting-point temperatures obtained with on-line post-PCR fluorescent dissociation curve analysis (DCA. The analytical window of the assay covered at least 5 orders of magnitude of template DNA input with a detection limit in the low picogram range of genomic DNA. A set of forensically relevant test specimens was analyzed successfully. The presence of mtDNA mixtures was detected over a broad range of input DNA amounts and mixture ratios, and the estimation of allele proportions in samples with known total mtDNA content was feasible with limitations. A qualified DNA analyst successfully analyzed approximately 2,200 DNA extracts within three regular working days, without using robotic lab-equipment. By performing the amplification on-line, the assay also facilitated absolute mtDNA quantification. CONCLUSIONS: Although this assay was developed just for a particular purpose, the approach is general in that it is potentially suitable in a broad variety of assay-layouts for many other applications, including the

  7. QUANTITATIVE PCR OF SELECTED ASPERGILLUS, PENICILLIUM AND PAECILOMYCES SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 65 quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan®) chemistry and directed at the nuclear ribosomal RNA operon, internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 or ITS2) was developed and tested for the detection of Aspergillus, Penicillium and ...

  8. Quality control for quantitative PCR based on amplification compatibility test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichopád, Aleš; Bar, T.; Pecen, Ladislav; Kitchen, R.R.; Kubista, Mikael; Pfaffl, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2010), s. 308-312 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809; GA AV ČR IAA500970904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Quantitative PCR * Quality control * Amplification efficiency Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  9. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks. PMID:28377928

  10. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection ofAscaris lumbricoidesEggs in Reclaimed Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Soto, Lucrecia; Santísima-Trinidad, Ana Belén; Bornay-Llinares, Fernando Jorge; Martín González, Marcos; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Ros Muñoz, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH) with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  11. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Acosta Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR and digital PCR (dPCR were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  12. Removing Noise From Pyrosequenced Amplicons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davenport Russell J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many environmental genomics applications a homologous region of DNA from a diverse sample is first amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The next generation sequencing technology, 454 pyrosequencing, has allowed much larger read numbers from PCR amplicons than ever before. This has revolutionised the study of microbial diversity as it is now possible to sequence a substantial fraction of the 16S rRNA genes in a community. However, there is a growing realisation that because of the large read numbers and the lack of consensus sequences it is vital to distinguish noise from true sequence diversity in this data. Otherwise this leads to inflated estimates of the number of types or operational taxonomic units (OTUs present. Three sources of error are important: sequencing error, PCR single base substitutions and PCR chimeras. We present AmpliconNoise, a development of the PyroNoise algorithm that is capable of separately removing 454 sequencing errors and PCR single base errors. We also introduce a novel chimera removal program, Perseus, that exploits the sequence abundances associated with pyrosequencing data. We use data sets where samples of known diversity have been amplified and sequenced to quantify the effect of each of the sources of error on OTU inflation and to validate these algorithms. Results AmpliconNoise outperforms alternative algorithms substantially reducing per base error rates for both the GS FLX and latest Titanium protocol. All three sources of error lead to inflation of diversity estimates. In particular, chimera formation has a hitherto unrealised importance which varies according to amplification protocol. We show that AmpliconNoise allows accurate estimates of OTU number. Just as importantly AmpliconNoise generates the right OTUs even at low sequence differences. We demonstrate that Perseus has very high sensitivity, able to find 99% of chimeras, which is critical when these are present at high

  13. Design and optimization of reverse-transcription quantitative PCR experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichopad, Ales; Kitchen, Rob; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Becker, Christiane; Ståhlberg, Anders; Kubista, Mikael

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a valuable technique for accurately and reliably profiling and quantifying gene expression. Typically, samples obtained from the organism of study have to be processed via several preparative steps before qPCR. We estimated the errors of sample withdrawal and extraction, reverse transcription (RT), and qPCR that are introduced into measurements of mRNA concentrations. We performed hierarchically arranged experiments with 3 animals, 3 samples, 3 RT reactions, and 3 qPCRs and quantified the expression of several genes in solid tissue, blood, cell culture, and single cells. A nested ANOVA design was used to model the experiments, and relative and absolute errors were calculated with this model for each processing level in the hierarchical design. We found that intersubject differences became easily confounded by sample heterogeneity for single cells and solid tissue. In cell cultures and blood, the noise from the RT and qPCR steps contributed substantially to the overall error because the sampling noise was less pronounced. We recommend the use of sample replicates preferentially to any other replicates when working with solid tissue, cell cultures, and single cells, and we recommend the use of RT replicates when working with blood. We show how an optimal sampling plan can be calculated for a limited budget. .

  14. Fluorescence quantitative PCR in detection of HBV DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Zheng; Li Ming; Shen Xia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between the serum content of HBV-DNA and expression of serological markers with HBV infection patients. Methods: Serum samples from 375 hepatitis B patients with different clinical status and 70 normal persons were quantitated for HBV-DNA by FQ-PCR. Results: The average of HBV-DNA contents in the patient in the groups of HBsAg (+) and of HBeAg(+) were significantly higher than those in the group of HBsAg(-) and of HBeAg(-). Even in the group of HBeAg negative, high HBV-DNA contents might still be present in both the HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(-) groups. Conclusion: FQ-PCR can be used to monitor the real state of HBV infection, replication and the course of disease

  15. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Maheshwari

    Full Text Available Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative PCR (qPCR for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR.

  16. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy using segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was use a simple and rapid procedure, called segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (SD-QF-PCR, for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. This method is based on the co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of fluorescent primers. The PCR products of different sizes were subsequently analyzed through capillary electrophoresis, and the aneuploidies were determined based on the relative dosage between the two chromosomes. Each primer set, containing five pairs of primers, was designed to simultaneously detect aneuploidies located on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y in a single reaction. We applied these two primer sets to DNA samples isolated from individuals with trisomy 21 (n = 36; trisomy 18 (n = 6; trisomy 13 (n = 4; 45, X (n = 5; 47, XXX (n = 3; 48, XXYY (n = 2; and unaffected controls (n = 40. We evaluated the performance of this method using the karyotyping results. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, was achieved for clinical samples examined. Thus, the present study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR is a robust, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and these analyses can be performed in less than 4 hours for a single sample, providing a competitive alternative for routine use.

  17. Dual investigation of methanogenic processes by quantitative PCR and quantitative microscopic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Westerholm, Maria; Scherer, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring of methanogenic communities in anaerobic digesters using molecular-based methods is very attractive but can be cost-intensive. A new and fast quantification method by microscopic image analysis was developed to accompany molecular-based methods. This digitalized method, called quantitative microscopic fingerprinting (QMF), enables quantification of active methanogenic cells (N mL(-1)) by their characteristic auto-fluorescence based on coenzyme F420 . QMF was applied to analyze the methanogenic communities in three biogas plant samples, and the results were compared with the relative proportion of gene copy numbers obtained with the quantitative PCR (qPCR). Analysis of QMF demonstrated dominance of Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales in relation to the total methanogenic community in digesters operating at high ammonia concentrations, which corresponded to the results established by qPCR. Absolute microbial counts by QMF and the numbers obtained by qPCR were not always comparable. On the other hand, the restricted morphological analysis by QMF was enhanced by the capability of qPCR to identify microbes. Consequently, dual investigations of both methods are proposed to improve monitoring of anaerobic digesters. For a rough estimation of the methanogenic composition in anaerobic digesters, the QMF method seems to be a promising approach for the rapid detection of microbial changes. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. WetLab-2: Providing Quantitative PCR Capabilities on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy Kar Chuen; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis David; Schonfeld, Julie; Tran, Luan Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a system capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project has developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage that it uses non-toxic chemicals, alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is transferred into a pipette and then dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. These reaction tubes are mounted on rotors to centrifuge the liquid to the reaction window of the tube using a cordless drill. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The resulting process takes less than 30 min to have tubes ready for loading into the qRT-PCR unit.The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, the Cepheid SmartCycler, that will fly in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color detection. The ability to detect up to four fluorescent channels will enable multiplex assays that can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system will have the capability to downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and to uplink new programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The

  19. Detection of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jenny; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2011-07-01

    The thermophilic actinomycete species Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula has been associated with the exogen allergic alveolitis (EAA). EAA is caused by the inhalation of high amounts of airborne spores that can be found for example in environments of agricultural production, compost facilities, mushroom cultivation rooms, or rooms with technical air moistening. Because of the medical relevance of S. rectivirgula, a reliable detection system is needed. Therefore, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer system was designed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain S. rectivirgula DSM 43747(T) and six other S. rectivirgula reference strains. Our investigation showed that S. rectivirgula presumably own four operons of the 16S rRNA gene, which has to be considered for estimation of cell equivalents. Furthermore, the DNA recovery efficiency from these strains was tested in combination with bioaerosol or material sample as well as the influence of non-target DNA to the recovery rate. Results showed a recovery DNA efficiency of 7-55%. The recovery rate of DNA in a mixture with non-target DNA resulted in ∼87%. In summary, a high amplification efficiency using real-time PCR was found, for which estimated concentrations revealed cell numbers of 2.7 × 10(5) cells m(-3) in bioaerosol and 2.8 × 10(6) cells g(-1) fw(-1) in material samples from a duck house. The specificity of the new developed quantification system was shown by generation of two clone libraries from bioarosol samples, from a duck house, and from a composting plant. Totally, the results clearly show the specificity and practicability of the established qPCR assay for detection of S. rectivirgula.

  20. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and quantitative real-time PCR in mcrA-based methanogen community analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Gwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different quantitative PCR platforms, droplet digital PCR (dd-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, were compared in a mcrA-based methanogen community assay that quantifies ten methanogen sub-groups. Both technologies exhibited similar PCR efficiencies over at least four orders of magnitude and the same lower limits of detection (8 copies μL-DNA extract−1. The mcrA-based methanogen communities in three full-scale anaerobic digesters were examined using the two technologies. dd-PCR detected seven groups from the digesters, while qPCR did five groups, indicating that dd-PCR is more sensitive for DNA quantification. Linear regression showed quantitative agreements between both of the technologies (R2 = 0.59–0.98 in the five groups that were concurrently detected. Principal component analysis from the two datasets consistently indicated a substantial difference in the community composition among the digesters and revealed similar levels of differentiation among the communities. The combined results suggest that dd-PCR is more promising for examining methanogenic archaeal communities in biotechnological processes.

  1. Immunoliposome-PCR: a generic ultrasensitive quantitative antigen detection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Junkun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate quantification of antigens at low concentrations over a wide dynamic range is needed for identifying biomarkers associated with disease and detecting protein interactions in high-throughput microarrays used in proteomics. Here we report the development of an ultrasensitive quantitative assay format called immunoliposome polymerase chain reaction (ILPCR that fulfills these requirements. This method uses a liposome, with reporter DNA encapsulated inside and biotin-labeled polyethylene glycol (PEG phospholipid conjugates incorporated into the outer surface of the liposome, as a detection reagent. The antigenic target is immobilized in the well of a microplate by a capture antibody and the liposome detection reagent is then coupled to a biotin-labeled second antibody through a NeutrAvidin bridge. The liposome is ruptured to release the reporter DNA, which serves as a surrogate to quantify the protein target using real-time PCR. Results A liposome detection reagent was prepared, which consisted of a population of liposomes ~120 nm in diameter with each liposome possessing ~800 accessible biotin receptors and ~220 encapsulated reporters. This liposome detection reagent was used in an assay to quantify the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in human serum. This ILPCR assay exhibited a linear dose–response curve from 10-10 M to 10-16 M CEA. Within this range the assay coefficient of variance was Conclusions The ILPCR assay has several advantages over other immuno-PCR methods. The reporter DNA and biotin-labeled PEG phospholipids spontaneously incorporate into the liposomes as they form, simplifying preparation of the detection reagent. Encapsulation of the reporter inside the liposomes allows nonspecific DNA in the assay medium to be degraded with DNase I prior to quantification of the encapsulated reporter by PCR, which reduces false-positive results and improves quantitative accuracy. The ability to

  2. Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: Can we rely on published qPCR results?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.R.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Bustin, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published.

  3. Sensitive Melting Analysis after Real Time- Methylation Specific PCR (SMART-MSP): high-throughput and probe-free quantitative DNA methylation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Lasse S.; Mikeska, Thomas; Krypuy, Michael; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    DNA methylation changes that are recurrent in cancer have generated great interest as potential biomarkers for the early detection and monitoring of cancer. In such situations, essential information is missed if the methylation detection is purely qualitative. We describe a new probe-free quantitative methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay that incorporates evaluation of the amplicon by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Depending on amplicon design, different types of information can be obtained from the HRM analysis. Much of this information cannot be obtained by electrophoretic analysis. In particular, identification of false positives due to incomplete bisulphite conversion or false priming is possible. Heterogeneous methylation can also be distinguished from homogeneous methylation. As proof of principle, we have developed assays for the promoter regions of the CDH1, DAPK1, CDKN2A (p16INK4a) and RARB genes. We show that highly accurate quantification is possible in the range from 100% to 0.1% methylated template when 25 ng of bisulphite-modified DNA is used as a template for PCR. We have named this new approach to quantitative methylation detection, Sensitive Melting Analysis after Real Time (SMART)-MSP. PMID:18344521

  4. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K A Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39-4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94-6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T

  5. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  6. Real-time quantitative PCR, pathogen detection and MIQE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gemma; Nolan, Tania; Bustin, Stephen A

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acids are the ultimate biomarker and real-time PCR (qPCR) is firmly established as the method of choice for nucleic acid detection. Together, they allow the accurate, sensitive and specific identification of pathogens, and the use of qPCR has become routine in diagnostic laboratories. The reliability of qPCR-based assays relies on a combination of optimal sample selection, assay design and validation as well as appropriate data analysis and the "Minimal Information for the Publication of real-time PCR" (MIQE) guidelines aim to improve both the reliability of assay design as well as the transparency of reporting, essential conditions if qPCR is to remain the benchmark technology for molecular diagnosis.

  7. Statistical aspects of quantitative real-time PCR experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Robert R; Kubista, Mikael; Tichopad, Ales

    2010-04-01

    Experiments using quantitative real-time PCR to test hypotheses are limited by technical and biological variability; we seek to minimise sources of confounding variability through optimum use of biological and technical replicates. The quality of an experiment design is commonly assessed by calculating its prospective power. Such calculations rely on knowledge of the expected variances of the measurements of each group of samples and the magnitude of the treatment effect; the estimation of which is often uninformed and unreliable. Here we introduce a method that exploits a small pilot study to estimate the biological and technical variances in order to improve the design of a subsequent large experiment. We measure the variance contributions at several 'levels' of the experiment design and provide a means of using this information to predict both the total variance and the prospective power of the assay. A validation of the method is provided through a variance analysis of representative genes in several bovine tissue-types. We also discuss the effect of normalisation to a reference gene in terms of the measured variance components of the gene of interest. Finally, we describe a software implementation of these methods, powerNest, that gives the user the opportunity to input data from a pilot study and interactively modify the design of the assay. The software automatically calculates expected variances, statistical power, and optimal design of the larger experiment. powerNest enables the researcher to minimise the total confounding variance and maximise prospective power for a specified maximum cost for the large study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative real-time PCR data analysis with R

    OpenAIRE

    Machado de Souza, Ignacio Nicolás

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers an introduction to the field of qPCR data analysis using the state-of-the-art R programming language. qPCR analyses genomic data based on the DNA replication. After showing a set of basic biological and statistics concepts, the roots of qPCR technology, together with its principal data analysis modelisations (visualisation, filtering, clustering, ...) are shown. A web application has been developed to ease and extend qPCR data analysis functionalities to other areas s...

  9. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino eSalminen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9±9.2 years with coronary artery disease diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Median salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary A. actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4-5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥ 6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL. High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP. The combination of the four bacteria, i.e. the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13. When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52. The highest odds ratio 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63 was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were used. Salivary

  10. Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple Food- and Waterborne Pathogens by Use of Microfluidic Quantitative PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The direct quantification of multiple pathogens has been desired for diagnostic and public health purposes for a long time. In this study, we applied microfluidic quantitative PCR (qPCR) technology to the simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple food- and waterborne pathogens. In this system, multiple singleplex qPCR assays were run under identical detection conditions in nanoliter-volume chambers that are present in high densities on a chip. First, we developed 18 TaqMan qPCR as...

  11. Comparison of conventional culture and real-time quantitative PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-28

    HACCP) process in environments or during outbreak investigations this delay is a serious drawback. In recent years polymerase chain reaction (PCR) meth- ods have become the alternative to detect the presence of. Legionella in a ...

  12. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J.; dos Santos Junior, José Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A.; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait) and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2) transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines. PMID:28420193

  13. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Moura-Melo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV. Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p-aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2 transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines.

  14. A Quantitative PCR-Electrochemical Genosensor Test for the Screening of Biotech Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura-Melo, Suely; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Miranda-Ordieres, Arturo J; Dos Santos Junior, José Ribeiro; da Silva Fonseca, Rosana A; Lobo-Castañón, María Jesús

    2017-04-18

    The design of screening methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food would improve the efficiency in their control. We report here a PCR amplification method combined with a sequence-specific electrochemical genosensor for the quantification of a DNA sequence characteristic of the 35S promoter derived from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV). Specifically, we employ a genosensor constructed by chemisorption of a thiolated capture probe and p -aminothiophenol gold surfaces to entrap on the sensing layer the unpurified PCR amplicons, together with a signaling probe labeled with fluorescein. The proposed test allows for the determination of a transgene copy number in both hemizygous (maize MON810 trait) and homozygous (soybean GTS40-3-2) transformed plants, and exhibits a limit of quantification of at least 0.25% for both kinds of GMO lines.

  15. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 10 4 cfu.mL −1 and 10 3 cfu.mL −1 , respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  16. Methods to determine limit of detection and limit of quantification in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Forootan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction, better known as qPCR, is the most sensitive and specific technique we have for the detection of nucleic acids. Even though it has been around for more than 30 years and is preferred in research applications, it has yet to win broad acceptance in routine practice. This requires a means to unambiguously assess the performance of specific qPCR analyses. Here we present methods to determine the limit of detection (LoD and the limit of quantification (LoQ as applicable to qPCR. These are based on standard statistical methods as recommended by regulatory bodies adapted to qPCR and complemented with a novel approach to estimate the precision of LoD.

  17. Quantitative PCR for the specific quantification of Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei and its interest for Lactococcus lactis in cheese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Christine; Berthier, Françoise

    2013-12-01

    The first objective of this work was to develop real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to quantify two species of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria technologically active in food fermentation, including cheese making: Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei. The second objective was to compare qPCR and plate counts of these two species in cheese samples. Newly designed primers efficiently amplified a region of the tuf gene from the target species. Sixty-three DNA samples from twenty different bacterial species, phylogenetically related or commonly found in raw milk and dairy products, were selected as positive and negative controls. Target DNA was successfully amplified showing a single peak on the amplicon melting curve; non-target DNA was not amplified. Quantification was linear over 5 log units (R(2) > 0.990), down to 22 gene copies/μL per well for Lc. lactis and 73 gene copies/μL per well for Lb. paracasei. qPCR efficiency ranged from 82.9% to 93.7% for Lc. lactis and from 81.1% to 99.5% for Lb. paracasei. At two stages of growth, Lc. lactis was quantified in 12 soft cheeses and Lb. paracasei in 24 hard cooked cheeses. qPCR proved to be useful for quantifying Lc. lactis, but not Lb. paracasei. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Morisset

    Full Text Available In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed.

  19. Real-time PCR quantitative assessment of hepatitis A virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We applied real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) to assess the incidence of hepatitis A virus, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in the Tyume River, an important water resource in the impoverished Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Detection of noroviruses was done using conventional ...

  20. Statistical aspects of quantitative real-time PCR experiment design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitchen, R.R.; Kubista, Mikael; Tichopád, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2010), s. 231-236 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Real-time PCR * Experiment design * Nested analysis of variance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  1. Design and Optimization of Reverse-Transcription Quantitative PCR Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichopád, A.; Kitchen, R.; Riedmaier, I.; Becker, Ch.; Ståhlberg, A.; Kubista, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2009), s. 1816-1823 ISSN 0009-9147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Design * optimization * RT qPCR Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.263, year: 2009

  2. Cytochrome b Gene Quantitative PCR for Diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Travelers▿

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Cécile; Cabaret, Odile; Botterel, Françoise; Bories, Christian; Foulet, Françoise; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    A cytochrome b (cytb) gene quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was developed to diagnose malaria in travelers. First, manual and automated DNA extractions were compared and automated DNA extraction of 400 μl of blood was found to be more efficient. Sensitivity was estimated using the WHO international standard for Plasmodium falciparum DNA and compared to that of a previously published qPCR targeting the 18S rRNA coding gene (18S qPCR). The limit of detection of the cytb qPCR assay was 20 DNA copie...

  3. A kinetic-based sigmoidal model for the polymerase chain reaction and its application to high-capacity absolute quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Don

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based upon defining a common reference point, current real-time quantitative PCR technologies compare relative differences in amplification profile position. As such, absolute quantification requires construction of target-specific standard curves that are highly resource intensive and prone to introducing quantitative errors. Sigmoidal modeling using nonlinear regression has previously demonstrated that absolute quantification can be accomplished without standard curves; however, quantitative errors caused by distortions within the plateau phase have impeded effective implementation of this alternative approach. Results Recognition that amplification rate is linearly correlated to amplicon quantity led to the derivation of two sigmoid functions that allow target quantification via linear regression analysis. In addition to circumventing quantitative errors produced by plateau distortions, this approach allows the amplification efficiency within individual amplification reactions to be determined. Absolute quantification is accomplished by first converting individual fluorescence readings into target quantity expressed in fluorescence units, followed by conversion into the number of target molecules via optical calibration. Founded upon expressing reaction fluorescence in relation to amplicon DNA mass, a seminal element of this study was to implement optical calibration using lambda gDNA as a universal quantitative standard. Not only does this eliminate the need to prepare target-specific quantitative standards, it relegates establishment of quantitative scale to a single, highly defined entity. The quantitative competency of this approach was assessed by exploiting "limiting dilution assay" for absolute quantification, which provided an independent gold standard from which to verify quantitative accuracy. This yielded substantive corroborating evidence that absolute accuracies of ± 25% can be routinely achieved. Comparison

  4. Validation of PCR methods for quantitation of genetically modified plants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, P; Waiblinger, H U; Pietsch, K; Brodmann, P

    2001-01-01

    For enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients, quantitative detection methods such as quantitative competitive (QC-PCR) and real-time PCR are applied by official food control laboratories. The experiences of 3 European food control laboratories in validating such methods were compared to describe realistic performance characteristics of quantitative PCR detection methods. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of GMO-specific, real-time PCR was experimentally determined to reach 30-50 target molecules, which is close to theoretical prediction. Starting PCR with 200 ng genomic plant DNA, the LOQ depends primarily on the genome size of the target plant and ranges from 0.02% for rice to 0.7% for wheat. The precision of quantitative PCR detection methods, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied from 10 to 30%. Using Bt176 corn containing test samples and applying Bt176 specific QC-PCR, mean values deviated from true values by -7to 18%, with an average of 2+/-10%. Ruggedness of real-time PCR detection methods was assessed in an interlaboratory study analyzing commercial, homogeneous food samples. Roundup Ready soybean DNA contents were determined in the range of 0.3 to 36%, relative to soybean DNA, with RSDs of about 25%. Taking the precision of quantitative PCR detection methods into account, suitable sample plans and sample sizes for GMO analysis are suggested. Because quantitative GMO detection methods measure GMO contents of samples in relation to reference material (calibrants), high priority must be given to international agreements and standardization on certified reference materials.

  5. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    Göhler, A; Trung, TT; Hopf, V; Kohler, C; Hartleib, J; Wuthiekanun, V; Peacock, SJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Tuanyok, A; Steinmetz, I

    2017-01-01

    : Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment are a prerequisite for assessing the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. pseudomal...

  6. Detection of chromosome abnormalities by quantitative fluorescent PCR in ectopic pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddijn, Mariette; van Stralen, Marja; Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Redeker, Bert; van Leeuwen, Liesbeth; Repping, Sjoerd; Leschot, Nico; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential value of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in the detection of chromosome abnormalities in ectopic pregnancies. Methods: Seventy chorionic villi samples of ectopic pregnancies were studied by QF-PCR. Primers for chromosomes 16, 21, X and

  7. Comparative analysis of techniques for detection of quiescent Botrytis cinerea in grapes by quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used to detect and monitor pathogen colonization, but early attempts to apply the technology to quiescent Botrytis cinerea infections of grape berries identified some specific limitations. In this study, four DNA extraction methods, two tissue-grinding methods, two gra...

  8. Evaluation of reference genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize the viru...

  9. On-chip quantitative detection of pathogen genes by autonomous microfluidic PCR platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Hiroaki; Saito, Masato; Shibuya, Shogo; Tsuji, Koji; Miyagawa, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Keiichiro; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2015-12-15

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genetic testing has become a routine part of clinical diagnoses and food testing. In these fields, rapid, easy-to-use, and cost-efficient PCR chips are expected to be appeared for providing such testing on-site. In this study, a new autonomous disposable plastic microfluidic PCR chip was created, and was utilized for quantitative detection of pathogenic microorganisms. To control the capillary flow of the following solution in the PCR microchannel, a driving microchannel was newly designed behind the PCR microchannel. This allowed the effective PCR by simply dropping the PCR solution onto the inlet without any external pumps. In order to achieve disposability, injection-molded cyclo-olefin polymer (COP) of a cost-competitive plastic was used for the PCR chip. We discovered that coating the microchannel walls with non-ionic surfactant produced a suitable hydrophilic surface for driving the capillary flow through the 1250-mm long microchannel. As a result, quantitative real-time PCR with the lowest initial concentration of human, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and pathogenic E. coli O157 genomic DNA of 4, 0.0019, 0.031 pg/μl, respectively, was successfully achieved in less than 18 min. Our results indicate that the platform presented in this study provided a rapid, easy-to-use, and low-cost real-time PCR system that could be potentially used for on-site gene testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative CrAssphage PCR Assays for Human Fecal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental waters are monitored for fecal pollution to protect public health and water resources. Traditionally, general fecal indicator bacteria are used; however, they cannot distinguish human fecal waste from pollution from other animals. Recently, a novel bacteriophage, crAssphage, was discovered by metagenomic data mining and reported to be abundant in and closely associated with human fecal waste. To confirm bioinformatic predictions, 384 primer sets were designed along the length of the crAssphage genome. Based upon initial screening, two novel crAssphage qPCR assays (CPQ_056 and CPQ_064) were designed and evaluated in reference fecal samples and water matrices. The assays exhibited high specificities (98.6%) when tested against a large animal fecal reference library and were highly abundant in raw sewage and sewage impacted water samples. In addition, CPQ_056 and CPQ_064 assay performance was compared to HF183/BacR287 and HumM2 methods in paired experiments. Findings confirm viral crAssphage qPCR assays perform at a similar level to well established bacterial human-associated fecal source identification technologies. These new viral based assays could become important water quality management and research tools. To inform the public.

  11. Development of an RNA extraction protocol for detection of waterborne viruses by reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothikumar, N; Sobsey, M D; Cromeans, T L

    2010-10-01

    RNA extraction from environmental samples yields frequently an RNA preparation containing inhibitors of molecular reactions. Commercial RNA extraction kits commonly permit extraction of only 0.1-0.2 ml sample volume. An RNA extraction buffer (RNAX buffer) was formulated for the extraction of viral RNA from 4.0 ml using a silica column based protocol. To evaluate the RNAX buffer based protocol, we used hepatitis A virus (HAV) and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) to monitor the RNA extraction efficiency from environmental samples. For evaluation of viral RNA recovery from water concentrates which were prepared from river and pond water by PEG concentration, serial ten fold dilutions of two waterborne viruses were added to the water concentrates for evaluation by quantitative detection. Quantitative recovery of HAV and CVB3 was determined by reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). The extracted RNA was compatible with RT-qPCR and sensitivity of detection of 0.8PFU per reaction was found with RNAX buffer and the developed protocol. This level of sensitivity was obtained using viral RNA extracted from 4.0 ml of an inoculated water sample concentrate. The RNAX buffer developed in this study could be applicable to the detection of other pathogens in water and food. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Detection of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula by quantitative Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Jenny; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2011-01-01

    The thermophilic actinomycete species Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula has been associated with the exogen allergic alveolitis (EAA). EAA is caused by the inhalation of high amounts of airborne spores that can be found for example in environments of agricultural production, compost facilities, mushroom cultivation rooms, or rooms with technical air moistening. Because of the medical relevance of S. rectivirgula, a reliable detection system is needed. Therefore, a quantitative real-time polymera...

  13. Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

    2014-02-01

    The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future.

  14. Effect of platform, reference material, and quantification model on enumeration of Enterococcus by quantitative PCR methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is increasingly being used for the quantitative detection of fecal indicator bacteria in beach water. QPCR allows for same-day health warnings, and its application is being considered as an optionn for recreational water quality testi...

  15. Quantification bias caused by plasmid DNA conformation in quantitative real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the gold standard for the quantification of specific nucleic acid sequences. However, a serious concern has been revealed in a recent report: supercoiled plasmid standards cause significant over-estimation in qPCR quantification. In this study, we investigated the effect of plasmid DNA conformation on the quantification of DNA and the efficiency of qPCR. Our results suggest that plasmid DNA conformation has significant impact on the accuracy of absolute quantification by qPCR. DNA standard curves shifted significantly among plasmid standards with different DNA conformations. Moreover, the choice of DNA measurement method and plasmid DNA conformation may also contribute to the measurement error of DNA standard curves. Due to the multiple effects of plasmid DNA conformation on the accuracy of qPCR, efforts should be made to assure the highest consistency of plasmid standards for qPCR. Thus, we suggest that the conformation, preparation, quantification, purification, handling, and storage of standard plasmid DNA should be described and defined in the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) to assure the reproducibility and accuracy of qPCR absolute quantification.

  16. Relative transcript quantification by Quantitative PCR: Roughly right or precisely wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frost Petter

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When estimating relative transcript abundances by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR we found that the results can vary dramatically depending on the method chosen for data analysis. Results Analyses of Q-PCR results from a salmon louse starvation experiment show that, even with apparently good raw data, different analytical approaches 12 may lead to opposing biological conclusions. Conclusion The results emphasise the importance of being cautious when analysing Q-PCR data and indicate that uncritical routine application of an analytical method will eventually result in incorrect conclusions. We do not know the extent of, or have a universal solution to this problem. However, we strongly recommend caution when analysing Q-PCR results e.g. by using two or more analytical approaches to validate conclusions. In our view a common effort should be made to standardise methods for analysis and validation of Q-PCR results.

  17. Bias in the Cq value observed with hydrolysis probe based quantitative PCR can be corrected with the estimated PCR efficiency value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuomi, Jari Michael; Voorbraak, Frans; Jones, Douglas L.; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2010-01-01

    For real-time monitoring of PCR amplification of DNA, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays use various fluorescent reporters. DNA binding molecules and hybridization reporters (primers and probes) only fluoresce when bound to DNA and result in the non-cumulative increase in observed fluorescence.

  18. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections by qualitative and quantitative PCR in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    CUNHA, Aldo de Albuquerque; MARIN, Lauro Juliano; AQUINO, Victor Hugo; FIGUEIREDO, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2002-01-01

    A high incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections is observed in Brazil. These viruses are causatives of significant morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This work, shows the application of a PCR on determination of CMV load in the buffy coat and plasma. We analyzed the samples of 247 HIV infected patients in order to diagnose CMV infection and disease. We developed a semi-quantitative PCR that amplifies part of the glycoprotein...

  19. Quantitative monitoring of HCMV DNAlactia in human milk by real time PCR assay: Implementation of internal control contributes to standardization and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartleif, Steffen; Göhring, Katharina; Goelz, Rangmar; Jahn, Gerhard; Hamprecht, Klaus

    2016-11-01

    For cytomegalovirus screening of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants under risk, we present a rapid, quantitative real-time PCR protocol using the hybridization format of the viral gB target region. For quantification, we used an external gB fragment cloned into a vector system. For standardization, we created an internal control-plasmid by site-directed mutagenesis with an exchange of 9 nucleotides. Spiked with internal control, patient wildtype amplicons could be discriminated from internal controls by hybridization probes using two-channel fluorescence detection. Potential bias of formerly reported false nucleotide sequence data of gB-hybridization probes was excluded. Using this approach, we could demonstrate excellent analytical performance and high reproducibility of HCMV detection during lactation. This assay shows very good correlation with a commercial quantitative HCMV DNA PCR and may help to identify rapidly HCMV shedding mothers of very low birth weight preterm infants to prevent HCMV transmission. On the other hand, negative DNA amplification results allow feeding of milk samples of seropositive mothers to their preterm infants under risk (<30 weeks of gestational age, <1000g birth weight) during the onset and late stage of HCMV shedding during lactation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A plastome primer set for comprehensive quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis of Zea mays: a starter primer set for other Poaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Sade N

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR (q2(RTPCR is a maturing technique which gives researchers the ability to quantify and compare very small amounts of nucleic acids. Primer design and optimization is an essential yet time consuming aspect of using q2(RTPCR. In this paper we describe the design and empirical optimization of primers to amplify and quantify plastid RNAs from Zea mays that are robust enough to use with other closely related species. Results Primers were designed and successfully optimized for 57 of the 104 reported genes in the maize plastome plus two nuclear genes. All 59 primer pairs produced single amplicons after end-point reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR as visualized on agarose gels and subsequently verified by q2(RTPCR. Primer pairs were divided into several categories based on the optimization requirements or the uniqueness of the target gene. An in silico test suggested the majority of the primer sets should work with other members of the Poaceae family. An in vitro test of the primer set on two unsequenced species (Panicum virgatum and Miscanthus sinensis supported this assumption by successfully producing single amplicons for each primer pair. Conclusion Due to the highly conserved chloroplast genome in plant families it is possible to utilize primer pairs designed against one genomic sequence to detect the presence and abundance of plastid genes or transcripts from genomes that have yet to be sequenced. Analysis of steady state transcription of vital system genes is a necessary requirement to comprehensively elucidate gene expression in any organism. The primer pairs reported in this paper were designed for q2(RTPCR of maize chloroplast genes but should be useful for other members of the Poaceae family. Both in silico and in vitro data are presented to support this assumption.

  1. Optimisation of qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of genetically modified crops by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vyhnánek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of genetically modified crops we selected the detection of the frequently used promoter 35S CaMV. To optimise the method we used two commercially available genotypes of maize from the company Monsanto (USA, i.e. the transgenic hybrid Bt-maize line MON810 and a genetically non-modified control (isogenic line to MON810. We tested the pri­mers and PCR programmes described by Greiner et al. (2005 and Hernandéz et al. (2005. When applying PCR methods of detection of Bt-maize the first step was to optimise the protocol for the detection of the maize genome and detection of the specific sites of genetically modified MON810 maize. For detection of the maize genome we selected the primers IVR1-F and IVR1-R (invertase gene which verify the presence of the maize genome by a 226 bp product. For qualitative detection of the insert of Bt-maize MON810 the primer pairs VW01/VW03 (Greiner et al., 2005 and BT03/BT04 (Hernandéz et al., 2005 were used to detect the 35S CaMV promoter. Products of the size 178 bp and 280 bp, respectively, verify its presence. Based on the results of qualitative PCR we selected the primers VW01/VW03 for semi-quantitative detection of the amount of DNA of Bt-maize. For semi-quantitative PCR we have chosen sampling of the amplification product in the 30th cycle of the PCR reaction. In the genetically unmodified control a detection limit of 1% of admixture of Bt-maize was determined when using semi-quantitative PCR. The same primers as for semi-quantitative PCR were also used for multiplex PCR but with half the concentration of primers for standard PCR. This protocol however will have to be further optimised. The presented results introduce PCR methods for qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of DNA of the genetically modified Bt-maize MON810 which can also be used for other GM crops containing the 35S CaMV promoter. It could be suitable to use these methods for the

  2. Rapid and Inexpensive Screening of Genomic Copy Number Variations Using a Novel Quantitative Fluorescent PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stofanko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of human microdeletion and microduplication syndromes poses significant burden on public healthcare systems in developing countries. With genome-wide diagnostic assays frequently inaccessible, targeted low-cost PCR-based approaches are preferred. However, their reproducibility depends on equally efficient amplification using a number of target and control primers. To address this, the recently described technique called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR was shown to reliably detect four human syndromes by quantifying DNA amplification in an internally controlled PCR reaction. Here, we confirm its utility in the detection of eight human microdeletion syndromes, including the more common WAGR, Smith-Magenis, and Potocki-Lupski syndromes with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We present selection, design, and performance evaluation of detection primers using variety of approaches. We conclude that MQF-PCR is an easily adaptable method for detection of human pathological chromosomal aberrations.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Periodontal Pathogens Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mª José; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a variant of PCR aimed to detect and quantify a targeted DNA molecule through the addition of probes labeled with fluorescent molecules that emit fluorescence within each amplification cycle, what results in fluorescence values proportional to the amount of accumulated PCR product. This chapter presents the detailed procedures for quantification of different periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, and Fusobacterium spp.) using qPCR. It also includes the description of the most frequent problems encountered and how to solve them. In addition, a detailed protocol for multiplex qPCR to detect and quantify P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans is included.

  4. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei

    OpenAIRE

    G?hler, Andre; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Hopf, Verena; Kohler, Christian; Hartleib, J?rg; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J.; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Tuanyok, Apichai; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment are a prerequisite for assessing the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. ps...

  5. Embryonation of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs affects the outcome of real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    prior to detection and quantification by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Fresh O. ostertagi eggs were isolated from cattle faeces and stored at 4°C or 25°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Embryonation was monitored by microscopy and the ITS2 copies were determined by q...... the outcome of qPCR analysis for the quantitative determination of O. ostertagi eggs in cattle faeces. Cold storage at 4°C for up to 3 days or anaerobicvacuum packing at 25°C for up to 336 h will entail no undesirable effects on ITS2 copies....

  6. Embryonation of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs affects the outcome of real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    prior to detection and quantification by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) . Fresh O. ostertagi eggs were isolated from cattle faeces and stored at 4°C or 25°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Embryonation was monitored by microscopy and the ITS2 copies were determined by q...... the outcome of qPCR analysis for the quantitative determination of O. ostertagi eggs in cattle faeces. Cold storage at 4°C for up to 3 days or anaerobic vacuum packing at 25°C for up to 336 h will entail no undesirable effects on ITS2 copies....

  7. Real-time quantitative PCR of microdissected paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2004-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using real-time quantitative PCR to determine HER-2 DNA amplification and mRNA expression in microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors and compared this with standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods...... tumors as being amplified. Interestingly, all these scored 2+ with the HercepTest, but were negative using FISH. We believe that real-time quantitative PCR analysis of HER-2 DNA amplification following microdissection represents a useful supplementary or perhaps even an alternative technique...

  8. A quantitative TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of Ureaplasma diversum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Lucas M; Amorim, Aline T; Martins, Hellen Braga; Rezende, Izadora Souza; Barbosa, Maysa Santos; Lobão, Tassia Neves; Campos, Guilherme B; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2013-12-27

    Ureaplasma diversum in veterinary studies is an undesirable microbe, which may cause infection in bulls and may result in seminal vesiculitis, balanopostitis, and alterations in spermatozoids, whereas in cows, it may cause placentitis, fetal alveolitis, abortion, and birth of weak calves. U. diversum is released through organic secretions, especially semen, preputial and vaginal mucus, conjunctival secretion, and milk. The aim of the present study was to develop a TaqMan probe, highly sensitive and specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the detection and quantification of U. diversum from genital swabs of bovines. Primers and probes specific to U. diversum 16S rRNA gene were designed. The specificity, detection limit, intra- and inter-assay variability of qPCR to detect this ureaplasma was compared with the results of the conventional PCR assay (cPCR). Swabs of vaginal mucus from 169 cows were tested. The qPCR assay detected as few as 10 copies of U. diversum and was 100-fold more sensitive than the cPCR. No cross-reactivity with other Mollicutes or eubacteria was observed. U. diversum was detected in 79 swabs (46.42%) by qPCR, while using cPCR it was detected in 42 (25%) samples. The difference in cPCR and qPCR ureaplasma detection between healthy and sick animals was not statistically significant. But the U. diversum load in samples from animals with genital disorders was higher than in healthy animals. The qPCR assay developed herein is highly sensitive and specific for the detection and quantification of U. diversum in vaginal bovine samples. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Comparative validation using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR and conventional PCR of bovine semen centrifuged in continuous density gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Resende

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the sperm enrichment with X-bearing spermatozoa, after one centrifugation in a Percoll or OptiPrep continuous density gradient, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of sperm DNA and resultant in vitro-produced bovine embryos by PCR. Frozen/thawed sperm was layered on density gradients and the tubes were centrifuged. Supernatants were gently aspirated and the sperm recovered from the bottom of the tubes. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were determined through in vitro production of embryos and PCR was performed to identify the embryos' genetic sex. A difference in blastocyst rate was found in the Percoll treatment compared to OptiPrep (P<0.05. The percentage of female embryos in the Percoll and OptiPrep groups was 62.0% and 47.1%, respectively. These results were confirmed by qPCR of spermatozoa DNA and underestimation was seen only in the Percoll group. It was possible to sexing sperm using simple approach.

  10. Cells-qPCR as a direct quantitative PCR method to avoid microbial DNA extractions in grape musts and wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Santos, Verónica; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi

    2017-11-16

    A novel quantitative PCR assay called Cells-qPCR has been developed for the rapid detection and quantification of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) directly from grape must and wine that does not require DNA extraction. The assay was tested on Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Oenococcus oeni, Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans in culture media, and in white and red grape musts and wines. Standard curves were constructed from DNA and cells for the six target species in all the matrices. Good efficiencies were obtained for both when comparing DNA and cells standard curves. No reaction inhibition was observed between matrices for each species. Cells quantification was linear over a range of cell concentrations (7, 5 or 4 orders of magnitude) and detected as few as one cell per reaction in all the matrices. The developed Cells-qPCR assay is a robust, reliable, fast and specific method to detect and quantify different yeasts, LAB and AAB species in grape must and wine that avoids DNA extraction and overcomes the presence of inhibitors like polyphenols and ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative PCR Coupled with Melt Curve Analysis for Detection of Selected Pseudo-nitzschia spp. (Bacillariophyceae) from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Karl B.; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Elandaloussi, Laurence M.; Quijano-Scheggia, Sonia; Sampedro, Nagore; Garcés, Esther; Camp, Jordi; Diogène, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The frequency and intensity of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the coast of Catalonia have been increasing over the past 20 years. As species from this genus that are documented as toxigenic have been found in local waters, with both toxic and nontoxic species cooccurring in the same bloom, there is a need to develop management tools for discriminating the difference. Currently, differentiation of toxic and nontoxic species requires time-consuming electron microscopy to distinguish taxonomic features that would allow identification as to species, and cryptic species can still remain misidentified. In this study, cells of Pseudo-nitzschia from clonal cultures isolated from seawater were characterized to their species identity using scanning electron microscopy, and subsamples of each culture were used to create an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1), 5.8S, and ITS-2 ribosomal DNA database for development of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Once developed, these qPCR assays were applied to field samples collected over a 2-year period in Alfaques Bay in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea to evaluate the possibility of a comprehensive surveillance for all Pseudo-nitzschia spp. using molecular methods to supplement optical microscopy, which can discern taxonomy only to the genus level within this taxon. Total Pseudo-nitzschia cell density was determined by optical microscopy from water samples collected weekly and compared to results obtained from the sum of eight Pseudo-nitzschia species-specific qPCR assays using duplicate samples. Species-specific qPCR followed by melt curve analysis allowed differentiation of amplicons and identification of false positives, and results correlated well with the total Pseudo-nitzschia cell counts from optical microscopy. PMID:21193668

  12. Survey of Campylobacter jejuni in retail chicken meat products by application of a quantitative PCR protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Lamberti, Cristina; Cocolin, Luca

    2010-07-31

    Campylobacter-contaminated food products are currently the cause of the highest number of gastroenteritis cases in developed countries. Apart for biosafety measures at the primary production level, no other official control measures are currently in place for its control. This is partly due to the lack of quantitative data regarding the prevalence and contamination level of different food products by Campylobacter spp. that does not allow for quantitative risk assessment. PCR-based methods, applied without prior enrichment, in food samples circumvent limitations associated with the quantification of foodborne pathogens by traditional, culture-dependent methods. In this study, we report the development of a protocol, based on the amplification of the rpoB gene of Campylobacter jejuni, by quantitative PCR (qPCR), directly in food samples. The quantification limit of the protocol was determined to be in the order of 10 colony forming units (cfu)/g or ml of food sample. The optimized protocol was applied for the survey of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated poultry samples. In parallel, traditional sampling was also performed. A high percentage of samples (87%) resulted to be positive by qPCR, while no C. jejuni was detected by traditional analysis. Furthermore, important differences were observed in the detection by qPCR between samples before and after enrichment. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A quantitative assay method of Toxoplasma gondii HSP70 mRNA by quantitative competitive-reverse transcriptase-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Lian-Xun; Aosai, Fumie; Chen, Mei; Fang, Hao; Mun, Hye-Seong; Norose, Kazumi; Yano, Akihiko

    2004-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii)-derived heat shock protein 70 (T.g.HSP70) has been identified as a virulent molecule expressing only in T. gondii tachyzoites during lethal acute infection. Therefore, it is of importance to determine the expression of T.g.HSP70 mRNA in a quantitative manner for analysis of virulence of T. gondii in tissues. We have constructed a competitor T.g.HSP70 and have successfully established a quantitative competitive-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QC-RT-PCR) targeting T.g.HSP70 gene. By using the established QC-RT-PCR method, we have demonstrated that the copy number of T.g.HSP70 mRNA per T. gondii tachyzoite was highest in the lung among the organs examined in interferon-gamma knockout (GKO) mice.

  14. A Multiplexed, Probe-Based Quantitative PCR Assay for DNA of Phytophthora sojae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora sojae (Kaufm. & Gerd.) causes seed rot, pre- and post-emergence damping off, and sometimes foliar blight in soybean (Glycine max). Crop loss may approach 100% with susceptible cultivars. We report here the development of a unique quantitative PCR assay specific to DNA of P. sojae, and a...

  15. Periodontal pathogens: a quantitative comparison of anaerobic culture and real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2005-01-01

    Periodontitis is a multi-factorial chronic inflammatory and destructive disease of the tooth-supporting tissues. Quantitative anaerobic culture techniques have been used for microbial diagnosis of the different forms of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare real-time PCR with

  16. Low-cost monitoring of campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mette Sofie Rousing; Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Löfström, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain...

  17. Amplification of nonspecific products in quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Villalba, Adrián; van Pelt-Verkuil, Elizabeth; Gunst, Quinn D.; Ruijter, Jan M.; van den Hoff, Maurice J. B.

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative PCR allows the precise measurement of DNA concentrations and is generally considered to be straightforward and trouble free. However, a survey with 93 validated assays for genes in the Wnt-pathway showed that the amplification of nonspecific products occurs frequently and is unrelated

  18. Real-time quantitative PCR of microdissected paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum, Lise Mette; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2004-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using real-time quantitative PCR to determine HER-2 DNA amplification and mRNA expression in microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast tumors and compared this with standard immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) methods....... A single DCIS case was amplified in FISH, but not in IHC. Both HER-2 gene amplification and expression could be quantified in microdissected paraffin-embedded tumors using real-time PCR, DNA and RNA being successfully detected in 146 of 150 (97%) and 141 of 150 (94%) samples, respectively. PCR analysis...... for HER-2 DNA amplification using the LightCycler HER2/neu DNA Quantification kit (Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Mannheim, Germany) correlated fairly well with IHC and FISH. All IHC HER-2 3+ tumors were amplified according to the kit, as was the FISH-amplified DCIS case. DNA-PCR identified five additional...

  19. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of aquatic animal pathogens in a diagnostic laboratory setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Getchell, Rodman G.; McClure, Carol A.; Weber, S.E.; Garver, Kyle A.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time, or quantitative, polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is quickly supplanting other molecular methods for detecting the nucleic acids of human and other animal pathogens owing to the speed and robustness of the technology. As the aquatic animal health community moves toward implementing national diagnostic testing schemes, it will need to evaluate how qPCR technology should be employed. This review outlines the basic principles of qPCR technology, considerations for assay development, standards and controls, assay performance, diagnostic validation, implementation in the diagnostic laboratory, and quality assurance and control measures. These factors are fundamental for ensuring the validity of qPCR assay results obtained in the diagnostic laboratory setting.

  20. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Silveira, Sara M; Silveira, Cássia G T

    2009-01-01

    HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas....... METHODS: To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. RESULTS: The concordance...... rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1...

  1. Specific and sensitive quantitative RT-PCR of miRNAs with DNA primers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcells, Ingrid; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Busk, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    settings. RESULTS: We describe a PCR method for quantification of microRNAs based on a single reverse transcription reaction for all microRNAs combined with real-time PCR with two, microRNA-specific DNA primers. Primer annealing temperatures were optimized by adding a DNA tail to the primers and could...... in microRNA quantification. CONCLUSIONS: MiR-specific quantitative RT-PCR with DNA primers is a highly specific, sensitive and accurate method for microRNA quantification...... be designed with a success rate of 94%. The method was able to quantify synthetic templates over eight orders of magnitude and readily discriminated between microRNAs with single nucleotide differences. Importantly, PCR with DNA primers yielded significantly higher amplification efficiencies of biological...

  2. Accurate quantitation of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA in plasma by droplet digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Tang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chu; Wen, Chaowei; Li, Wei; Lyu, Jianxin

    2017-04-01

    To establish a method for accurate quantitation of circulating cell-free mitochondrial DNA (ccf-mtDNA) in plasma by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), we designed a ddPCR method to determine the copy number of ccf-mtDNA by amplifying mitochondrial ND1 (MT-ND1). To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method, a recombinant pMD18-T plasmid containing MT-ND1 sequences and mtDNA-deleted (ρ 0 ) HeLa cells were used, respectively. Subsequently, different plasma samples were prepared for ddPCR to evaluate the feasibility of detecting plasma ccf-mtDNA. In the results, the ddPCR method showed high sensitivity and specificity. When the DNA was extracted from plasma prior to ddPCR, the ccf-mtDNA copy number was higher than that measured without extraction. This difference was not due to a PCR inhibitor, such as EDTA-Na 2 , an anti-coagulant in plasma, because standard EDTA-Na 2 concentration (5 mM) did not significantly inhibit ddPCR reactions. The difference might be attributable to plasma exosomal mtDNA, which was 4.21 ± 0.38 copies/μL of plasma, accounting for ∼19% of plasma ccf-mtDNA. Therefore, ddPCR can quickly and reliably detect ccf-mtDNA from plasma with a prior DNA extraction step, providing for a more accurate detection of ccf-mtDNA. The direct use of plasma as a template in ddPCR is suitable for the detection of exogenous cell-free nucleic acids within plasma, but not of nucleic acids that have a vesicle-associated form, such as exosomal mtDNA. Graphical Abstract Designs of the present work. *: Module 1, #: Module 2, &: Module 3.

  3. Comparison of quantitative real-time PCR and direct immunofluorescence for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Bhavani; Tempia, Stefano; Frean, John Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a serious risk for HIV-positive patients. Asymptomatic infection or colonisation with P. jirovecii has been shown to occur frequently. PCR assays frequently identify such cases, due to their high sensitivity. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) gene copy number cut-off values have been suggested to differentiate colonisation and infection; these need to be standardised for routine use. We compared the results of qPCR with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to determine a specific cut-off value. From March 2005 through June 2009, induced sputum specimens were collected from adult patients who were clinically suspected of having PCP, at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Gauteng, South Africa. Laboratory diagnosis of PCP was done by a conventional direct IFA and a qPCR assay. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine a suitable copy number cut-off value. P. jirovecii was identified in 51% (156/305) and 67% (204/305) of specimens using IFA and qPCR, respectively. The cut-off value for the qPCR that best predicted the IFA results was 78 copies/5 μl (area under ROC curve 0.92). The sensitivity and specificity of qPCR using this cut-off was 94.6% and 89.1%, respectively, compared with the IFA. The results of the ROC curve analysis indicate an excellent predictive value of the qPCR using the proposed cut-off. However, the IFA test is an imperfect gold standard and so this cut-off should not be used in isolation; clinical data should also contribute to the interpretation of the qPCR result.

  4. Rapid typing of influenza viruses using super high-speed quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Akira; Nomura, Namiko; Nanba, Reiko; Sinkai, Takayuki; Iwaki, Tsunehito; Obayashi, Taminori; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Michiya; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Naito, Akihiro; Morizane, Yoshihito; Hosaka, Mitsugu; Tsuboi, Kunio; Kida, Hiroshi; Kai, Akemi; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2011-12-01

    The development of a rapid and sensitive system for detecting influenza viruses is a high priority for controlling future epidemics and pandemics. Quantitative real-time PCR is often used for detecting various kinds of viruses; however, it requires more than 2h per run. Detection assays were performed with super high-speed RT-PCR (SHRT-PCR) developed according to a newly designed heating system. The new method uses a high-speed reaction (18s/cycle; 40 cycles in less than 20min) for typing influenza viruses. The detection limit of SHRT-PCR was 1 copy/reaction and 10(-1) plaque-forming unit/reaction for viruses in culture supernatants during 20min. Using SHRT-PCR, 86 strains of influenza viruses isolated by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health were tested; the results showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for each influenza A and B virus, and swine-origin influenza virus. Twenty-seven swabs collected from the pharyngeal mucosa of outpatients were also tested, showing positive signs for influenza virus on an immunochromatographic assay; the results between SHRT-PCR and immunochromatography exhibited 100% agreement for both positive and negative results. The rapid reaction time and high sensitivity of SHRT-PCR makes this technique well suited for monitoring epidemics and pre-pandemic influenza outbreaks. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Multiplex, Quantitative, Reverse Transcription PCR Detection of Influenza Viruses Using Droplet Microfluidic Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative, reverse transcription, polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is facilitated by leveraging droplet microfluidic (DMF system, which due to its precision dispensing and sample handling capabilities at microliter and lower volumes has emerged as a popular method for miniaturization of the PCR platform. This work substantially improves and extends the functional capabilities of our previously demonstrated single qRT-PCR micro-chip, which utilized a combination of electrostatic and electrowetting droplet actuation. In the reported work we illustrate a spatially multiplexed micro-device that is capable of conducting up to eight parallel, real-time PCR reactions per usage, with adjustable control on the PCR thermal cycling parameters (both process time and temperature set-points. This micro-device has been utilized to detect and quantify the presence of two clinically relevant respiratory viruses, Influenza A and Influenza B, in human samples (nasopharyngeal swabs, throat swabs. The device performed accurate detection and quantification of the two respiratory viruses, over several orders of RNA copy counts, in unknown (blind panels of extracted patient samples with acceptably high PCR efficiency (>94%. The multi-stage qRT-PCR assays on eight panel patient samples were accomplished within 35–40 min, with a detection limit for the target Influenza virus RNAs estimated to be less than 10 RNA copies per reaction.

  6. Fungal diversity in grape must and wine fermentation assessed by massive sequencing, quantitative PCR and DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao eWang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of fungi in grape must and during wine fermentation was investigated in this study by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Carignan and Grenache grapes were harvested from three vineyards in the Priorat region (Spain in 2012, and nine samples were selected from the grape must after crushing and during wine fermentation. From culture-dependent techniques, 362 isolates were randomly selected and identified by 5.8S-ITS-RFLP and 26S-D1/D2 sequencing. Meanwhile, genomic DNA was extracted directly from the nine samples and analyzed by qPCR, DGGE and massive sequencing. The results indicated that grape must after crushing harbored a high species richness of fungi with Aspergillus tubingensis, Aureobasidium pullulans or Starmerella bacillaris as the dominant species. As fermentation proceeded, the species richness decreased, and yeasts such as Hanseniaspora uvarum, Starmerella bacillaris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae successively occupied the must samples. The terroir characteristics of the fungus population are more related to the location of the vineyard than to grape variety. Sulfur dioxide treatment caused a low effect on yeast diversity by similarity analysis. Because of the existence of large population of fungi on grape berries, massive sequencing was more appropriate to understand the fungal community in grape must after crushing than the other techniques used in this study. Suitable target sequences and databases were necessary for accurate evaluation of the community and the identification of species by the 454 pyrosequencing of amplicons.

  7. Comparison of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR for viability detection of fresh Cryptosporidium oocysts following disinfection and after long-term storage in water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purified oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were used to evaluate applicability of two quantitative PCR (qPCR) viability detection methods in raw surface water and disinfection treated water. Propidium monoazide-qPCR targeting hsp70 gene was compared to reverse transcription (RT)-...

  8. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for human-dog-cat species identification and nuclear DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S; Premasuthan, A; Ng, J; Satkoski, J; Goyal, V

    2012-03-01

    In the United States, human forensic evidence collected from crime scenes is usually comingled with biomaterial of canine and feline origins. Knowledge of the concentration of nuclear DNA extracted from a crime scene biological sample and the species from which the sample originated is essential for DNA profiling. The ability to accurately detect and quantify target DNA in mixed-species samples is crucial when target DNA may be overwhelmed by non-target DNA. We have designed and evaluated a species-specific (human, dog and cat) nuclear DNA identification assay based on the TaqMan(®) quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technology that can simultaneously detect and measure minute quantities of DNA specific to either humans, dogs and/or cats. The fluorogenic triplex assay employs primers and hydrolysis probes that target the human TH01 locus as well as the dog and cat Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) sequences in a species-specific manner. We also demonstrate that the assay is a highly sensitive, reliable and robust method for identifying and quantifying mixed-species templates of human-dog-cat origin with as little as 0.4 pg of human and cat nuclear DNA, respectively, and 4.0 pg of dog nuclear DNA. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Quantitative RT-PCR for titration of replication-defective recombinant Semliki Forest virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglia, Ana L P; Rezende, Alexandre G; Jorge, Soraia A C; Wagner, Renaud; Pereira, Carlos A; Astray, Renato M

    2013-11-01

    Virus titration may constitute a drawback in the development and use of replication-defective viral vectors like Semliki Forest virus (SFV). The standardization and validation of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) method for SFV titration is presented here. The qRT-PCR target is located within the nsp1 gene of the non-structural polyprotein SFV region (SFV RNA), which allows the strategy to be used for several different recombinant SFV constructs. Titer determinations were carried out by performing virus titration and infection assays with SFVs containing an RNA coding region for the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) or green fluorescent protein (GFP). Results showed that the standardized qRT-PCR is applicable for different SFV constructs, and showed good reproducibility. To evaluate the correlation between the amount of functional SFV RNA in a virus lot and its infectivity in BHK-21 cell cultures, a temperature mediated titer decrease was performed and successfully quantitated by qRT-PCR. When used for cell infection at the same multiplicity of infection (MOI), the temperature treated SFV-RVGP samples induced the same levels of RVGP expression. Similarly, when different SFV-GFP lots with different virus titers, as accessed by qRT-PCR, were used for cell infection at the same MOI, the cultures showed comparable amounts of fluorescent cells. The data demonstrate a good correlation between the amount of virus used for infection, as measured by its SFV RNA, and the protein synthesis in the cells. In conclusion, the qRT-PCR method developed here is accurate and enables the titration of replication-defective SFV vectors, an essential aid for viral vector development as well as for establishment of production bioprocesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. La PCR quantitative en temps réel : application à la quantification des OGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alary Rémi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Suite à l’obligation d’étiquetage, au seuil de 1 %, des aliments contenant des OGM autorisés, il est nécessaire de disposer de méthodes fiables de quantification. Pour répondre à cette obligation, la technique de PCR quantitative en temps réel semble actuellement la mieux adaptée. Son principe, ses avantages et sa mise en oeuvre pour la détermination de la teneur en OGM de farines de soja sont présentés. Les PCR simplex et duplex sont comparées.

  11. Standardized quantitative RT-PCR assays for quantitation of yellow fever and chimeric yellow fever-dengue vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantel, N; Aguirre, M; Gulia, S; Girerd-Chambaz, Y; Colombani, S; Moste, C; Barban, V

    2008-07-01

    Yellow fever-dengue chimeras (CYDs) are being developed currently as live tetravalent dengue vaccine candidates. Specific quantitative assays are needed to evaluate the viral load of each serotype in vaccine batches and biological samples. A quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) system was developed comprising five one-step qRT-PCRs targeting the E/NS1 junction of each chimera, or the NS5 gene in the yellow fever backbone. Each assay was standardized using in vitro transcribed RNA qualified according to its size and purity, and precisely quantified. A non RNA-extracted virus sample was introduced as external quality control (EQC), as well as 2 extraction controls consisting of 2 doses, 40 and 4,000 GEQ (genomic equivalents), of this EQC extracted in parallel to the samples. Between 6 and 10 GEQ/reaction were reproducibly measured with all assays and similar titers were obtained with the two methods when chimeric virus samples were quantified with the E/NS1- or the NS5-specific assays. Reproducibility of RNA extraction was ensured by automation of the process (yield>or=50%), and infectious virus was isolated in >or=80% of PCR-positive sera from immune monkeys.

  12. Synthetic internal control sequences to increase negative call veracity in multiplexed, quantitative PCR assays for Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) utilizing specific primer sequences and a fluorogenic, 5’-exonuclease linear hydrolysis probe is well established as a detection and identification method for Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the soybean rust pathogen. Because of the extreme sensitivity of Q-PCR, the DNA of a single u...

  13. A simple, inexpensive method for preparing cell lysates suitable for downstream reverse transcription quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzkes, Kenneth; Teferedegne, Belete; Murata, Haruhiko

    2014-04-11

    Sample nucleic acid purification can often be rate-limiting for conventional quantitative PCR (qPCR) workflows. We recently developed high-throughput virus microneutralization assays using an endpoint assessment approach based on reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR). The need for cumbersome RNA purification is circumvented in our assays by making use of a commercial reagent that can easily generate crude cell lysates amenable to direct analysis by one-step RT-qPCR. In the present study, we demonstrate that a simple buffer containing a non-ionic detergent can serve as an inexpensive alternative to commercially available reagents for the purpose of generating RT-qPCR-ready cell lysates from MDCK cells infected with influenza virus. We have found that addition of exogenous RNase inhibitor as a buffer component is not essential in order to maintain RNA integrity, even following stress at 37 °C incubation for 1-2 hours, in cell-lysate samples either freshly prepared or previously stored frozen at -80 °C.

  14. Identification of stable reference genes for quantitative PCR in cells derived from chicken lymphoid organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, D; Rothwell, L; Bailey, R A; Watson, K; Kaiser, P

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful technique for quantification of gene expression, especially genes involved in immune responses. Although qPCR is a very efficient and sensitive tool, variations in the enzymatic efficiency, quality of RNA and the presence of inhibitors can lead to errors. Therefore, qPCR needs to be normalised to obtain reliable results and allow comparison. The most common approach is to use reference genes as internal controls in qPCR analyses. In this study, expression of seven genes, including β-actin (ACTB), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-glucuronidase (GUSB), TATA box binding protein (TBP), α-tubulin (TUBAT) and 28S ribosomal RNA (r28S), was determined in cells isolated from chicken lymphoid tissues and stimulated with three different mitogens. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. The results from both geNorm and NormFinder were that the three most stably expressed genes in this panel were TBP, GAPDH and r28S. BestKeeper did not generate clear answers because of the highly heterogeneous sample set. Based on these data we will include TBP in future qPCR normalisation. The study shows the importance of appropriate reference gene normalisation in other tissues before qPCR analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Evaluation of a PCR and Mass Spectroscopy-based (PCR-MS) Method for Quantitative, Type-specific Detection of Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A.; Shih, Yang-Jen; Newton, Duane W.; Michael, Claire W.; Oeth, Paul A.; Kane, Michael D.; Opipari, Anthony W.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Kalikin, Linda M.; Kurnit, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the central role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis, coupled with an emerging need to monitor the efficacy of newly introduced HPV vaccines, warrant development and evaluation of type-specific, quantitative HPV detection methods. In the present study, a prototype PCR and mass spectroscopy (PCR-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate 13 high-risk HPV types is compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) in 199 cervical scraping samples and to DNA sequencing in 77 cervical tumor samples. High-risk HPV types were detected in 76/77 (98.7%) cervical tumor samples by PCR-MS. Degenerate and type-specific sequencing confirmed the types detected by PCR-MS. In 199 cervical scraping samples, all 13 HPV types were detected by PCR-MS. Eighteen (14.5%) of 124 cervical scraping samples that were positive for high-risk HPV by HC2 were negative by PCR-MS. In all these cases, degenerate DNA sequencing failed to detect any of the 13 high-risk HPV types. Nearly half (46.7%) of the 75 cervical scraping samples that were negative for high-risk HPV by the HC2 assay were positive by PCR-MS. Type-specific sequencing in a subset of these samples confirmed the HPV type detected by PCR-MS. Quantitative PCR-MS results demonstrated that 11/75 (14.7%) samples contained as much HPV copies/cell as HC2-positive samples. These findings suggest that this prototype PCR-MS assay performs at least as well as HC2 for HPV detection, while offering the additional, unique advantages of type-specific identification and quantitation. Further validation work is underway to define clinically meaningful HPV detection thresholds and to evaluate the potential clinical application of future generations of the PCR-MS assay. PMID:19410602

  16. Development and evaluation of a PCR and mass spectroscopy (PCR-MS)-based method for quantitative, type-specific detection of human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A; Shih, Yang-Jen; Newton, Duane W; Michael, Claire W; Oeth, Paul A; Kane, Michael D; Opipari, Anthony W; Ruffin, Mack T; Kalikin, Linda M; Kurnit, David M

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of the central role of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis, coupled with an emerging need to monitor the efficacy of newly introduced HPV vaccines, warrant development and evaluation of type-specific, quantitative HPV detection methods. In the present study, a prototype PCR and mass spectroscopy (PCR-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate 13 high-risk HPV types is compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (HC2; Digene Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) in 199 cervical scraping samples and to DNA sequencing in 77 cervical tumor samples. High-risk HPV types were detected in 76/77 (98.7%) cervical tumor samples by PCR-MS. Degenerate and type-specific sequencing confirmed the types detected by PCR-MS. In 199 cervical scraping samples, all 13 HPV types were detected by PCR-MS. Eighteen (14.5%) of 124 cervical scraping samples that were positive for high-risk HPV by HC2 were negative by PCR-MS. In all these cases, degenerate DNA sequencing failed to detect any of the 13 high-risk HPV types. Nearly half (46.7%) of the 75 cervical scraping samples that were negative for high-risk HPV by the HC2 assay were positive by PCR-MS. Type-specific sequencing in a subset of these samples confirmed the HPV type detected by PCR-MS. Quantitative PCR-MS results demonstrated that 11/75 (14.7%) samples contained as much HPV copies/cell as HC2-positive samples. These findings suggest that this prototype PCR-MS assay performs at least as well as HC2 for HPV detection, while offering the additional, unique advantages of type-specific identification and quantitation. Further validation work is underway to define clinically meaningful HPV detection thresholds and to evaluate the potential clinical application of future generations of the PCR-MS assay.

  17. Quantitative PCR--new diagnostic tool for quantifying specific mRNA and DNA molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlemmer, B O; Sorensen, B S; Overgaard, J

    2004-01-01

    , and the treatment is considered to be justified if the tumor displays an increased amount of HER2. For this reason there is a need for techniques suitable for HER2 measurements. A LightCycler real-time PCR method used for HER2/neu DNA quantification was evaluated and the results compared with those obtained...... significant (p DNA quantification kit" produces results with a high level of reproducibility and its ease of use allows rapid screening for amplification of HER2. In this paper useful information is given on how real-time PCR compares with FISH and IHC. The data show...... of mRNA or DNA in biological samples. In this study quantitative PCR was used to investigate the role of the EGF (epidermal growth factor) system in cancer both for measurements of mRNA concentrations and for measurements of the number of copies of specific genes. It is shown that the mRNA expression...

  18. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (C f ) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined C f for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  19. Droplet digital PCR as a useful tool for the quantitative detection of Enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Yan Long Edmund; Tan, Eng Lee

    2014-10-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a contagious viral disease that frequently affects infants and children and present with blisters and flu-like symptoms. This disease is caused by a group of enteroviruses such as enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). However, unlike other HFMD causing enteroviruses, EV71 have also been shown to be associated with more severe clinical manifestation such as aseptic meningitis, brainstem and cerebellar encephalitis which may lead to cardiopulmonary failure and death. Clinically, HFMD caused by EV71 is indistinguishable from other HFMD causing enteroviruses such as CA16. Molecular diagnosis methods such as the use of real-time PCR has been used commonly for the identification of EV71. In this study, two platforms namely the real-time PCR and the droplet digital PCR were compared for the detection quantitation of known EV71 viral copy number. The results reveal accurate and consistent results between the two platforms. In summary, the droplet digital PCR was demonstrated to be a promising technology for the identification and quantitation of EV71 viral copy number. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Normalization of Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Data During Ageing in Distinct Cerebral Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, G; Vivien, D; Docagne, F; Roussel, B D

    2016-04-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a routine method in many laboratories. Normalization of data from experimental conditions is critical for data processing and is usually achieved by the use of a single reference gene. Nevertheless, as pointed by the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines, several reference genes should be used for reliable normalization. Ageing is a physiological process that results in a decline of many expressed genes. Reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data becomes crucial when studying ageing. Here, we propose a RT-qPCR study from four mouse brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum) at different ages (from 8 weeks to 22 months) in which we studied the expression of nine commonly used reference genes. With the use of two different algorithms, we found that all brain structures need at least two genes for a good normalization step. We propose specific pairs of gene for efficient data normalization in the four brain regions studied. These results underline the importance of reliable reference genes for specific brain regions in ageing.

  1. Real-time quantitative PCR for detection and identification of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dors Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Porcine pleuropneumonia inflicts important economic losses on most commercial herds. Detection of subclinical or chronic infection in animals still remains a challenge, as isolation and identification of A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes is difficult and quantification of the bacteria on agar plates is often almost impossible. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a serotype-specific quantitative TaqMan probe-based PCR for detection of serotype 2 in pig lungs, tonsils, and nasal swabs.

  2. Quantitative Immunocapture PCR Assay for Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, David F.; Ogata, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    The rapid detection of food-borne bacterial pathogens as part of a quality control program is necessary for the maintenance of a safe food supply. In this report, we present our findings for an immunocapture PCR method for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods. The method permits direct detection of the pathogen without an enrichment step and can be performed in approximately 8 h. Assay results are quantitative, and one cell in a milliliter sample can be detected. Application of the ...

  3. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  4. Deep amplicon sequencing reveals mixed phytoplasma infection within single grapevine plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Mogens; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of phytoplasmas within single plants has not yet been fully investigated. In this project, deep amplicon sequencing was used to generate 50,926 phytoplasma sequences from 11 phytoplasma-infected grapevine samples from a PCR amplicon in the 5' end of the 16S region. After clustering ...

  5. Multitarget Quantitative PCR Improves Detection and Predicts Cultivability of the Pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, Andre; Trung, Trinh Thanh; Hopf, Verena; Kohler, Christian; Hartleib, Jörg; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Tuanyok, Apichai; Steinmetz, Ivo

    2017-04-15

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is present in the environment in many parts of the world and causes the often-fatal disease melioidosis. The sensitive detection and quantification of B. pseudomallei in the environment are a prerequisite for assessing the risk of infection. We recently reported the direct detection of B. pseudomallei in soil samples using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting a single type three secretion system 1 (TTSS1) gene. Here, we extend the qPCR-based analysis of B. pseudomallei in soil by validating novel qPCR gene targets selected from a comparative genomic analysis. Two hundred soil samples from two rice paddies in northeast Thailand were evaluated, of which 47% (94/200) were B. pseudomallei culture positive. The TTSS1 qPCR and two novel qPCR assays that targeted open reading frames (ORFs) BPSS0087 and BPSS0745 exhibited detection rates of 76.5% (153/200), 34.5% (69/200), and 74.5% (150/200), respectively. The combination of TTSS1 and BPSS0745 qPCR increased the detection rate to 90% (180/200). Combining the results of the three qPCR assays and the BPSS1187 nested PCR previously published, all 200 samples were positive by at least one PCR assay. Samples positive by either TTSS1 ( n = 153) or BPSS0745 ( n = 150) qPCR were more likely to be direct-culture positive, with odds ratios of 4.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 9.5; P qPCR improved the B. pseudomallei detection rate in soil samples and predicted culture positivity. This approach has the potential for use as a sensitive environmental screening method for B. pseudomallei IMPORTANCE The worldwide environmental distribution of the soil bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei remains to be determined. So far, most environmental studies have relied on culture-based approaches to detect this pathogen. Since current culture methods are laborious, are time consuming, and have limited sensitivity, culture-independent and more sensitive methods are needed. In this study, we show that a B

  6. Viable quantitative PCR for assessing the response of Candida albicans to antifungal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi; Codony, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    Propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) treatment has been used before nucleic acid detection methods, such as PCR, to distinguish between live and dead cells using membrane integrity as viability criterion. The performance of these DNA intercalating dyes was compared in many studies utilizing different microorganisms. These studies demonstrated that EMA and PMA differ in their abilities to identify nonviable cells from mixed cell populations, depending on the microorganism and the nature of the sample. Due to this heterogeneity, both dyes were used in the present study to specifically distinguish dead from live Candida albicans cells using viable quantitative PCR (qPCR). The viable qPCR was optimized, and the best results were obtained when pre-treating the cells for 10 min in the dark with 25 μM EMA followed by continuous photoactivation for 15 min. The suitability of this technique to distinguish clotrimazole- and fluconazole-treated C. albicans cells from untreated cells was then assessed. Furthermore, the antifungal properties of two commercial essential oils (Thymus vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla) were evaluated. The viable qPCR method was determined to be a feasible technique for assessing the viability of C. albicans after drug treatment and may help to provide a rapid diagnostic and susceptibility testing method for fungal infections, especially for patients treated with antifungal therapies.

  7. Rapid detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from positive blood cultures by quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattoir Vincent

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for numerous bloodstream infections associated with severe adverse outcomes in case of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy. The present study was aimed to develop a novel quantitative PCR (qPCR assay, using ecfX as the specific target gene, for the rapid and accurate identification of P. aeruginosa from positive blood cultures (BCs. Methods Over the period August 2008 to June 2009, 100 BC bottles positive for gram-negative bacilli were tested in order to evaluate performances of the qPCR technique with conventional methods as gold standard (i.e. culture and phenotypic identification. Results Thirty-three strains of P. aeruginosa, 53 strains of Enterobactericaeae, nine strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and two other gram-negative species were isolated while 3 BCs were polymicrobial including one mixture containing P. aeruginosa. All P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were detected by qPCR except a single strain in mixed culture. Performances of the qPCR technique were: specificity, 100%; positive predictive value, 100%; negative predictive value, 98.5%; and sensitivity, 97%. Conclusions This reliable technique may offer a rapid (

  8. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, José L; Amorós, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A

    2014-07-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantification of viable and heat-treated Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater. We observed a reduction in detection of heat-treated Giardia duodenalis cysts of 83.2, 89.9, 98.2, or 97% with PMA-qPCR assays amplifying a 75 base-pair (bp) β-giardin target, 77-bp triosephosphate isomerase (tpi), 133-bp glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and 143-bp β-giardin gene target, respectively. Thus, the exclusion of dead cysts was more effective when qPCR assays that produced larger amplicons were used. The PMA treatment of Cryptosporidium oocysts plus/minus heat treatment abolished the fluorescent signal for dead oocysts with a PMA-qPCR assay amplifying a Cryptosporidium parvum (150-bp) oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. The PMA-qPCR 143-bp β-giardin assay for Giardia and the PMA-qPCR 150-bp COWP assay for Cryptosporidium accurately quantified live oo(cysts), and failed to detect dead oo(cysts), when phosphate-buffered saline and tertiary effluent wastewater were spiked with concentrations of 10(3) or 10(2) dead oo(cysts), respectively. Therefore, these assays are suitable for the detection of viable parasites that are typically present in tertiary wastewater effluents at concentrations of <10(3) oo(cysts)/l and can provide rapid risk assessments of environmental water.

  9. PCR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-11

    Jul 11, 2011 ... then in age group 31 to 40 years, 2.25% (2/89) CMV DNA were detected by PCR and 0% was recorded in age group of above 40 years. The overall prevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in 16 ..... genome revisited: Comparison with the chimpanzee cytomegalovirus genome. J. Gen. Virol.

  10. Quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni on fresh chicken carcasses by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönner, Anna-Clara; Lindmark, Hans

    2007-06-01

    Campylobacter jejuni infection is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Consumption and handling of poultry products is believed to be the primary risk factor for campylobacteriosis. Risk assessments require quantitative data, and C. jejuni is enumerated usually by direct plating, which sometimes allows growth of non-Campylobacter bacteria. The objective of the present study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR method (q-PCR) for enumerating C. jejuni in chicken rinse without a culturing step. The procedure to obtain the template for the PCR assay involved (i) filtration of 10 ml of chicken rinse, (ii) centrifugation of the sample, and (iii) total DNA extraction from the pellet obtained using a commercial DNA extraction kit. The detection limit of the method was comparable to that for plating 100 microl of chicken rinse on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar, and the detection limit could be further improved 10-fold by concentrating the DNA eluate by ethanol precipitation. A close correlation for spiked chicken rinse was obtained for the results of the quantitative real-time PCR method and direct plating (r = 0.99). The coefficient of correlation for the methods was 0.87 when samples from chicken carcasses on the slaughter line were analyzed, whereas a lower correlation (r = 0.76) was obtained when samples from retail carcasses were analyzed. Greater variation in the proportion of dead and/or viable but not culturable Campylobacter types in the retail samples may explain the decreased correlation between the methods. Overall, the new method is simple and fast and the results obtained are closely correlated with those for direct plating for samples containing a low proportion of dead Campylobacter cells.

  11. (SELAX strain) B2 amplicon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Restriction enzyme digests of the clones suggested that the cloned portion of the B2 amplicon was 16 kb. Key words: B2 gene, A2B2 esterase, insecticide resistance. INTRODUCTION. Organophosphate resistance in Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes has been shown to be correlated with the presence of ...

  12. Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson S Y; Poon, Rosana W S; Chau, Sandy; Wong, Sally C Y; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Fung, Kitty S C; Yuen, K Y

    2015-07-01

    Scabies remains the most prevalent, endemic, and neglected ectoparasitic infestation globally and can cause institutional outbreaks. The sensitivity of routine microscopy for demonstration of Sarcoptes scabiei mites or eggs in skin scrapings is only about 50%. Except for three studies using conventional or two-tube nested PCR on a small number of cases, no systematic study has been performed to improve the laboratory diagnosis of this important infection. We developed a conventional and a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of S. scabiei. The cox1 gene is relatively well conserved, with its sequence having no high levels of similarity to the sequences of other human skin mites, pathogenic zoonotic mites, or common house dust mite species. This mitochondrial gene is also present in large quantities in arthropod cells, potentially improving the sensitivity of a PCR-based assay. In our study, both assays were specific and were more sensitive than microscopy in diagnosing scabies, with positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The S. scabiei DNA copy number in the microscopy-positive specimens was significantly higher than that in the microscopy-negative specimens (median S. scabiei DNA copy number, 3.604 versus 2.457 log10 copies per reaction; P = 0.0213). In the patient with crusted scabies, the qPCR assay performed on lesional skin swabs instead of scrapings revealed that the parasite DNA load took about 2 weeks to become negative after treatment. The utility of using lesional skin swabs as an alternative sample for diagnosis of scabies by PCR should be further evaluated. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR confirms transduction efficiency of transgenes in adult Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Suttiprapa, Sutas; Brindley, Paul J

    2011-05-01

    A quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR (qRAP) that utilizes endogenous retrotransposons as a chromosomal anchor was developed to investigate integration of transgenes in Schistosoma mansoni. The qRAP technique, which builds on earlier techniques, (i) Alu-PCR which has been used to quantify lentiviral (HIV-1) proviral insertions in human chromosomes and (ii) a non-quantitative retrotransposon anchored PCR known to detect the presence of transgenes in the S. mansoni genome, was tested here in a model comparison of retrovirus-transduced adult schistosomes in which one group included intact worms, the other included fragments of adult worms. At the outset, after transducing intact and viable fragments of schistosomes with reporter RNAs, we observed more reporter activity in fragments of worms than in intact worms. We considered this simply reflects the increased surface area in fragments compared to intact worms exposed to the exogenous reporter genes. Subsequently, intact worms and worm fragments were transduced with pseudotyped virions. Transgene integration events in genomic DNA extracted from the virion-exposed worms and worm fragments were quantified by the qRAP, which revealed that fragmenting adult schistosomes resulted in increased density of proviral integrations. The qRAP findings confirmed the likely value of this qRAP technique for quantification of transgenes integrated in schistosome chromosomes. Last, considering the absence of schistosome cell or tissue lines, primary culture of fragmented worms offers an opportunity to optimize transgenesis, and other functional genomic approaches. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular quantification of lactic acid bacteria in fermented milk products using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furet, Jean-Pierre; Quénée, Pascal; Tailliez, Patrick

    2004-12-15

    Real-time quantitative PCR assays were developed for the absolute quantification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, L. casei, L. paracasei, L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and L. johnsonii) in fermented milk products. The results of molecular quantification and classic bacterial enumeration did not differ significantly with respect to S. thermophilus and the species of the L. casei group which were detected in the six commercial fermented products tested, thus showing that DNA extraction was efficient and that genomic DNA solutions were free of PCR inhibitors. For L. delbrueckii, the results of bacterial enumeration were generally lower by a factor 10 to 100 than those of PCR quantification, suggesting a loss of viability during storage of the dairy products at 1-8 degrees C for most of the strains in this species. Real-time quantitative assays enabled identification of the species of lactic acid bacterial strains initially present in commercial fermented milk products and their accurate quantification with a detection threshold of 10(3) cells per ml of product.

  15. A real-time, quantitative PCR protocol for assessing the relative parasitemia of Leucocytozoon in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew M.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Apelgren, Chloe; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic examination of blood smears can be effective at diagnosing and quantifying hematozoa infections. However, this method requires highly trained observers, is time consuming, and may be inaccurate for detection of infections at low levels of parasitemia. To develop a molecular methodology for identifying and quantifying Leucocytozoon parasite infection in wild waterfowl (Anseriformes), we designed a real-time, quantitative PCR protocol to amplify Leucocytozoon mitochondrial DNA using TaqMan fluorogenic probes and validated our methodology using blood samples collected from waterfowl in interior Alaska during late summer and autumn (n = 105). By comparing our qPCR results to those derived from a widely used nested PCR protocol, we determined that our assay showed high levels of sensitivity (91%) and specificity (100%) in detecting Leucocytozoon DNA from host blood samples. Additionally, results of a linear regression revealed significant correlation between the raw measure of parasitemia produced by our qPCR assay (Ct values) and numbers of parasites observed on blood smears (R2 = 0.694, P = 0.003), indicating that our assay can reliably determine the relative parasitemia levels among samples. This methodology provides a powerful new tool for studies assessing effects of haemosporidian infection in wild avian species.

  16. A quantitative PCR (TaqMan assay for pathogenic Leptospira spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Symonds Meegan L

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is an emerging infectious disease. The differential diagnosis of leptospirosis is difficult due to the varied and often "flu like" symptoms which may result in a missed or delayed diagnosis. There are over 230 known serovars in the genus Leptospira. Confirmatory serological diagnosis of leptospirosis is usually made using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT which relies on the use of live cultures as the source of antigen, often performed using a panel of antigens representative of local serovars. Other techniques, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and slide agglutination test (SAT, can detect different classes of antibody but may be subject to false positive reactions and require confirmation of these results by the MAT. Methods The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been used to detect a large number of microorganisms, including those of clinical significance. The sensitivity of PCR often precludes the need for isolation and culture, thus making it ideal for the rapid detection of organisms involved in acute infections. We employed real-time (quantitative PCR using TaqMan chemistry to detect leptospires in clinical and environmental samples. Results and Conclusions The PCR assay can be applied to either blood or urine samples and does not rely on the isolation and culture of the organism. Capability exists for automation and high throughput testing in a clinical laboratory. It is specific for Leptospira and may discriminate pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. The limit of detection is as low as two cells.

  17. Quantitative detection of residual E. coli host cell DNA by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hyuck; Bae, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Hee; Shin, Jeong Sup; Kim, In Seop

    2010-10-01

    E. coli has been widely used as a host system to manufacture recombinant proteins for human therapeutic use. Among impurities to be eliminated during the downstream process, residual host cell DNA is a major interest for safety. Residual E. coli host cell DNA in the final products are usually determined using conventional slot blot hybridization assay or total DNA Threshold assay, although these methods are time consuming, expensive, and relatively insensitive. Therefore a sensitive real-time PCR assay for specific detection of residual E. coli DNA was developed and compared with slot blot hybridization assay and Threshold assay to validate the overall capability of these methods. Specific primer pair for amplification of the E. coli 16S rRNA gene was selected to improve the sensitivity, and E. coli host cell DNA was quantified by use of SYBR Green 1. The detection limit of real-time PCR assay in the optimized condition was calculated to be 0.042 pg genomic DNA, which is much higher than those of slot blot hybridization assay and Threshold assay of which detection limit were 2.42 and 3.73 pg genomic DNA, respectively. The real-time PCR assay was validated to be more reproducible, accurate, and precise than slot blot hybridization assay and Threshold assay. The real-time PCR assay may be a useful tool for quantitative detection and clearance validation of residual E. coli DNA during the manufacturing process for recombinant therapeutics.

  18. Development of real-time PCR for detection and quantitation of Streptococcus parauberis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T L; Lim, Y J; Kim, D-H; Austin, B

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is an increasing threat to aquaculture of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck & Schlegel, in South Korea. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using the TaqMan probe assay to detect and quantify S. parauberis by targeting the gyrB gene sequences, which are effective for molecular analysis of the genus Streptococcus. Our real-time PCR assay is capable of detecting 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction. The intra- and interassay coefficient of variation (CV) values ranged from 0.42-1.95%, demonstrating that the assay has good reproducibility. There was not any cross-reactivity to Streptococcus iniae or to other streptococcal/lactococcal fish pathogens, such as S. agalactiae and Lactococcus garvieae, indicating that the assay is highly specific to S. parauberis. The results of the real-time PCR assay corresponded well to those of conventional culture assays for S. parauberis from inoculated tissue homogenates (r = 0.957; P < 0.05). Hence, this sensitive and specific real-time PCR is a valuable tool for diagnostic quantitation of S. parauberis in clinical samples. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The level of embryonation influences detection of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs by semi-quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ) to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples in a diagnostic pipeline that involves detection and semi-quantification by real-time semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eggs of Ostertagia ostertagi were obtained from fresh faeces and stored at 4 °C or 25 °C under aerobic...... or anaerobic (vacuum packing) conditions. Development was monitored by microscopy for up to 336 h, and the ITS2 copies were determined by qPCR from a fixed number of parasites. Under aerobic conditions at 25 °C, embryonation and a significant increase of ITS2 copies (P ......The Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) is a candidate diagnostic marker of the pathogenic cattle nematode Ostertagia ostertagi. The aims of this study were: (i) to document and quantify how the development of O. ostertagi eggs affects ITS2 copies under different storage conditions, and (ii...

  20. Analytical validation of a reverse transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) for quantitative detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Peng; Purcell, Maureen; Pan, Guang; Wang, Jinjin; Kan, Shifu; Liu, Yin; Zheng, Xiaocong; SHi, Xiujie; He, Junqiang; Yu, Li; Hua, Qunyi; Lu, Tikang; Lan, Wensheng; Winton, James; Jin, Ningyi; Liu, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important pathogen of salmonid fishes. A validated universal reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay that can quantify levels of IHNV in fish tissues has been previously reported. In the present study, we adapted the published set of IHNV primers and probe for use in a reverse-transcriptase droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) assay for quantification of the virus in fish tissue samples. The RT-ddPCR and RT-qPCR assays detected 13 phylogenetically diverse IHNV strains, but neither assay produced detectable amplification when RNA from other fish viruses was used. The RT-ddPCR assay had a limit of detection (LOD) equating to 2.2 plaque forming units (PFU)/μl while the LOD for the RT-qPCR was 0.2 PFU/μl. Good agreement (69.4–100%) between assays was observed when used to detect IHNV RNA in cell culture supernatant and tissues from IHNV infected rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Estimates of RNA copy number produced by the two assays were significantly correlated but the RT-qPCR consistently produced higher estimates than the RT-ddPCR. The analytical properties of the N gene RT-ddPCR test indicated that this method may be useful to assess IHNV RNA copy number for research and diagnostic purposes. Future work is needed to establish the within and between laboratory diagnostic performance of the RT-ddPCR assay.

  1. Embryonation of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs affects the outcome of real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter

    prior to detection and quantification by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Fresh O. ostertagi eggs were isolated from cattle faeces and stored at 4°C or 25°C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Embryonation was monitored by microscopy and the ITS2 copies were determined by q......The aims of this study were to assess how the development of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs into first-stage larva (L1) affects the copy numbers of the Internal Transcribed Spacer region 2 (ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA; and based on these results, to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples...

  2. Meloidogyne javanica Chorismate Mutase Transcript Expression Profile Using Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Painter, Janet E.; Lambert, Kris N.

    2003-01-01

    A developmental expression profile of the Meloidodgyne javanica esophageal gland gene chorismate mutase-1 (Mj-cm-1) could suggest when in the lifecycle of the nematode the Mj-cm-1 product is functional. This study used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to examine the variation in Mj-cm-1 transcript levels over six timepoints in the nematode lifecycle: egg, infective second-stage juveniles (Inf-J2), 2-day post-inoculation (pi), 7-day pi, 14-day pi, and adult. The Mj-cm-1 mRNA levels peaked at 2-da...

  3. Considerations for accurate gene expression measurement by reverse transcription quantitative PCR when analysing clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Rebecca; Mason, Deborah J; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2014-10-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR is an established, simple and effective method for RNA measurement. However, technical standardisation challenges combined with frequent insufficient experimental detail render replication of many published findings challenging. Consequently, without adequate consideration of experimental standardisation, such findings may be sufficient for a given publication but cannot be translated to wider clinical application. This article builds on earlier standardisation work and the MIQE guidelines, discussing processes that need consideration for accurate, reproducible analysis when dealing with patient samples. By applying considerations common to the science of measurement (metrology), one can maximise the impact of gene expression studies, increasing the likelihood of their translation to clinical tools.

  4. Enumeration of viable non-culturable Vibrio cholerae using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liang, Weili; Kan, Biao

    2015-08-01

    The well-known human pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, can enter a physiologically viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state under stress conditions. The differentiation of VBNC cells and nonviable cells is essential for both disease prevention and basic research. Among all the methods for detecting viability, propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time PCR is popular because of its specificity, sensitivity, and speed. However, the effect of PMA treatment is not consistent and varies among different species and conditions. In this study, with an initial cell concentration of 1×10(8) CFU/ml, time and dose-effect relationships of different PMA treatments were evaluated via quantitative real-time PCR using live cell suspensions, dead cell suspensions and VBNC cell suspensions of V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain C6706. The results suggested that a PMA treatment of 20 μM PMA for 20 min was optimal under our conditions. This treatment maximized the suppression of the PCR signal from membrane-compromised dead cells but had little effect on the signal from membrane-intact live cells. In addition to the characteristics of PMA treatment itself, the initial concentration of the targeted bacteria showed a significant negative influence on the stability of PMA-PCR assay in this study. We developed a strategy that mimicked a 1×10(8) CFU/ml cell concentration with dead bacteria of a different bacterial species, the DNA of which cannot be amplified using the real time PCR primers. With this strategy, our optimal approach successfully overcame the impact of low cell density and generated stable and reliable results for counting viable cells of V. cholerae in the VBNC state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of AmpliWax to optimize amplicon sterilization by isopsoralen.

    OpenAIRE

    De la Viuda, M; Fille, M; Ruiz, J; Aslanzadeh, J

    1996-01-01

    The photochemical inactivation of amplicons by isopsoralen (IP-10) has been suggested as a possible means to prevent PCR carryover contamination. To evaluate the technique, serial dilutions of amplicons (10(11) to 10(3)) from the Borrelia burgdorferi OSP A gene were amplified in the presence of 0, 25, 50, and 100 micrograms of IP-10 per ml for 45 cycles. The PCR products were exposed to UV light for 15 min to activate IP-10 and sterilize the amplicons. One microliter of each sterilized sample...

  6. Comparative evaluation of a laboratory developed real-time PCR assay and the RealStar®HHV-6 PCR Kit for quantitative detection of human herpesvirus 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Cyril C Y; Sridhar, Siddharth; Cheng, Andrew K W; Fung, Ami M Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-08-01

    HHV-6 reactivation in immunocompromised patients is common and may be associated with serious morbidity and mortality; therefore, early detection and initiation of therapy might be of benefit. Real-time PCR assays allow for early identification of HHV-6 reactivation to assist in providing a timely response. Thus, we compared the performance of an in-house developed HHV-6 quantitative PCR assay with a commercially available kit, the RealStar ® HHV-6 PCR Kit. The analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy of the in-house developed HHV-6 qPCR assay were evaluated. The diagnostic performance of the in-house HHV-6 qPCR assay was compared with the RealStar ® HHV-6 PCR Kit, using 72 clinical specimens and 17 proficiency testing samples. Linear regression analysis of the quantitative results showed a dynamic range from 2 to 10 log 10 copies/ml and a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.999 for the in-house assay. A dilution series demonstrated a limit of detection and a limit of quantification of 1.7 log 10 and 2 log 10 copies/ml, respectively. The precision of the assay was highly reproducible among runs with coefficients of variance (CV) ranging from 0.27% to 4.37%. A comparison of 27 matched samples showed an excellent correlation between the quantitative viral loads measured by the in-house HHV-6 qPCR assay and the RealStar ® HHV-6 PCR Kit (R 2 =0.926; PPCR Kit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A human fecal contamination index for ranking impaired recreational watersusing the HF183 quantitative real-time PCR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of surface water remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for recreational water quality risk managem...

  8. Data Acceptance Criteria for Standardized Human-Associated Fecal Source Identification Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal sourceidentification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality management. The transition from a research tool to a standardized protocol requires a high degree of confidence in data q...

  9. EVALUATION OF A RAPID, QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR METHOD FOR ENUMERATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDA CELLS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (QRT-PCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan?) chemistry, was developed for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C....

  10. Culture-independent identification and quantification of Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) by real-time quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chong; Robles, Francisco; Ramirez, Saul

    2016-01-01

    -time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method allowing species-specific identification and quantification of G. anatis. A G. anatis specific DNA sequence was identified in the gyrase subunit B gene (gyrB) and used to design a TaqMan probe and corresponding primers. The specificity of the assay was tested on 52 bacterial...

  11. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  12. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogen, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure Amended Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria, and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manre-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green fluore...

  13. A tool for design of primers for microRNA-specific quantitative RT-qPCR. BMC Bioinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs are small but biologically important RNA molecules. Although different methods can be used for quantification of microRNAs, quantitative PCR is regarded as the reference that is used to validate other methods. Several commercial qPCR assays are available but they often come a...

  14. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in pigs by real-time quantitative PCR for the apxIVA gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobias, T.J.; Bouma, A.; Klinkenberg, D.; Daemen, A.J.J.M.; Stegeman, J.A.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Duim, B.

    2012-01-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of the apxIVA gene of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was validated using pure cultures of A. pleuropneumoniae and tonsillar and nasal swabs from experimentally inoculated Caesarean-derived/colostrum-deprived piglets and naturally infected

  15. Establishment and evaluation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean MON89788.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2010-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was established for the event-specific quantification of a GM soybean event MON89788. The conversion factor (C(f)) which is required to calculate the GMO amount was experimentally determined. The quantitative method was evaluated by a single-laboratory analysis and a blind test in a multi-laboratory trial. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.1% or lower. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)), and the determined bias and RSD(R) values for the method were both less than 20%. These results suggest that the established method would be suitable for practical detection and quantification of MON89788.

  16. Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid Quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR): An Accurate and Cost-Effective Assay to Diagnose and Quantify KRAS and BRAF Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Luca; de Biase, Dario; Visani, Michela; Cesari, Valentina; De Maglio, Giovanna; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Pession, Annalisa; Tallini, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) requires the testing for hot spot mutations of the molecular effectors downstream the membrane-bound tyrosine kinases since their wild type status is expected for response to TKI therapy. We report a novel assay that we have called Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid quantitative PCR (ASLNAqPCR). The assay uses LNA-modified allele specific primers and LNA-modified beacon probes to increase sensitivity, specificity and to accurately quantify mutations. We designed primers specific for codon 12/13 KRAS mutations and BRAF V600E, and validated the assay with 300 routine samples from a variety of sources, including cytology specimens. All were analyzed by ASLNAqPCR and Sanger sequencing. Discordant cases were pyrosequenced. ASLNAqPCR correctly identified BRAF and KRAS mutations in all discordant cases and all had a mutated/wild type DNA ratio below the analytical sensitivity of the Sanger method. ASLNAqPCR was 100% specific with greater accuracy, positive and negative predictive values compared with Sanger sequencing. The analytical sensitivity of ASLNAqPCR is 0.1%, allowing quantification of mutated DNA in small neoplastic cell clones. ASLNAqPCR can be performed in any laboratory with real-time PCR equipment, is very cost-effective and can easily be adapted to detect hot spot mutations in other oncogenes. PMID:22558339

  17. A method for accurate detection of genomic microdeletions using real-time quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassett Anne S

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is a well-established method for quantifying levels of gene expression, but has not been routinely applied to the detection of constitutional copy number alterations of human genomic DNA. Microdeletions or microduplications of the human genome are associated with a variety of genetic disorders. Although, clinical laboratories routinely use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH to identify such cryptic genomic alterations, there remains a significant number of individuals in which constitutional genomic imbalance is suspected, based on clinical parameters, but cannot be readily detected using current cytogenetic techniques. Results In this study, a novel application for real-time qPCR is presented that can be used to reproducibly detect chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. This approach was applied to DNA from a series of patient samples and controls to validate genomic copy number alteration at cytoband 22q11. The study group comprised 12 patients with clinical symptoms of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS, 1 patient trisomic for 22q11 and 4 normal controls. 6 of the patients (group 1 had known hemizygous deletions, as detected by standard diagnostic FISH, whilst the remaining 6 patients (group 2 were classified as 22q11DS negative using the clinical FISH assay. Screening of the patients and controls with a set of 10 real time qPCR primers, spanning the 22q11.2-deleted region and flanking sequence, confirmed the FISH assay results for all patients with 100% concordance. Moreover, this qPCR enabled a refinement of the region of deletion at 22q11. Analysis of DNA from chromosome 22 trisomic sample demonstrated genomic duplication within 22q11. Conclusion In this paper we present a qPCR approach for the detection of chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. The strategic use of in silico modelling for qPCR primer design to avoid regions of repetitive

  18. One-stop polymerase chain reaction (PCR): An improved PCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -cycling steps to visualize amplicons, decelerating PCR sample processing and result calling. “One-stop PCR” was developed by including both the loading buffer and nontoxic staining dye within a single PCR tube, allowing direct loading and ...

  19. Comparison of conventional PCR, quantitative PCR, bacteriological culture and the Warthin Starry technique to detect Leptospira spp. in kidney and liver samples from naturally infected sheep from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazari, Felipe; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Luvizotto, Maria Cecília Rui; Langoni, Helio

    2012-09-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide importance. The development of diagnostic techniques allows sick animals to be identified, reservoirs to be eliminated and the disease prevented and controlled. The present study aimed to compare different techniques for diagnosing leptospirosis in sheep. Samples of kidney, liver and blood were collected from 465 animals that originated from a slaughterhouse. The sera were analyzed by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and kidney and liver samples of seropositive animals were analyzed using four techniques: bacteriological culture, the Warthin Starry (WS) technique, conventional PCR (cPCR), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). With the MAT, 21 animals were positive (4.5%) to serovars Hardjo (n=12), Hebdomadis (n=5), Sentot (n=2), Wolfii (n=1) and Shermani (n=1). Titers were 100 (n=10), 200 (n=2), 400 (n=6) and 1600 (n=3). No animal was positive by bacteriological culture; four animals were positive by the WS technique in kidney samples; six animals were positive by cPCR in kidney samples; and 11 animals were positive by qPCR, eight of which in kidney samples and three in liver. The bacterial quantification revealed a median of 4.3 bacteria/μL in liver samples and 36.6 bacteria/μL in kidney samples. qPCR presented the highest sensitivity among the techniques, followed by cPCR, the WS technique and bacteriological culture. These results indicate that sheep can carry leptospires of the Sejroe serogroup, and demonstrate the efficiency of quantitative PCR to detect Leptospira spp. in tissue samples. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-07-07

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga.

  1. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary McMillan

    Full Text Available Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on plant growth and yield. Under normal conditions A. brasilense exists in a motile flagellated form, which, under starvation or stress conditions, can undergo differentiation into an encapsulated, cyst-like form. Quantitative RT-PCR can be used to analyse changes in gene expression during this differentiation process. The accuracy of quantification of mRNA levels by qRT-PCR relies on the normalisation of data against stably expressed reference genes. No suitable set of reference genes has yet been described for A. brasilense. Here we evaluated the expression of ten candidate reference genes (16S rRNA, gapB, glyA, gyrA, proC, pykA, recA, recF, rpoD, and tpiA in wild-type and mutant A. brasilense strains under different culture conditions, including conditions that induce differentiation. Analysis with the software programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm indicated that gyrA, glyA and recA are the most stably expressed reference genes in A. brasilense. The results also suggested that the use of two reference genes (gyrA and glyA is sufficient for effective normalisation of qRT-PCR data.

  2. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR in Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on plant growth and yield. Under normal conditions A. brasilense exists in a motile flagellated form, which, under starvation or stress conditions, can undergo differentiation into an encapsulated, cyst-like form. Quantitative RT-PCR can be used to analyse changes in gene expression during this differentiation process. The accuracy of quantification of mRNA levels by qRT-PCR relies on the normalisation of data against stably expressed reference genes. No suitable set of reference genes has yet been described for A. brasilense. Here we evaluated the expression of ten candidate reference genes (16S rRNA, gapB, glyA, gyrA, proC, pykA, recA, recF, rpoD, and tpiA) in wild-type and mutant A. brasilense strains under different culture conditions, including conditions that induce differentiation. Analysis with the software programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm indicated that gyrA, glyA and recA are the most stably expressed reference genes in A. brasilense. The results also suggested that the use of two reference genes (gyrA and glyA) is sufficient for effective normalisation of qRT-PCR data.

  3. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during latex regeneration in rubber tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Gao, Xinsheng; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-06-01

    In rubber tree, latex regeneration is one of the decisive factors influencing the rubber yield, although its molecular regulation is not well known. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of latex regeneration. However, the suitable reference genes required for qPCR are not available to investigate the expressions of target genes during latex regeneration. In this study, 20 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability across the samples during the process of latex regeneration. All reference genes showed a relatively wide range of the threshold cycle values, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (comparative delta Ct method, Bestkeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm). Three softwares (comparative delta Ct method, NormFinder and GeNorm) exported similar results that identify UBC4, ADF, UBC2a, eIF2 and ADF4 as the top five suitable references, and 18S as the least suitable one. The application of the screened references would improve accuracy and reliability of gene expression analysis in latex regeneration experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Data-driven normalization strategies for high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Harukazu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is a widely used technique in experiments where expression patterns of genes are to be profiled. Current stage technology allows the acquisition of profiles for a moderate number of genes (50 to a few thousand, and this number continues to grow. The use of appropriate normalization algorithms for qPCR-based data is therefore a highly important aspect of the data preprocessing pipeline. Results We present and evaluate two data-driven normalization methods that directly correct for technical variation and represent robust alternatives to standard housekeeping gene-based approaches. We evaluated the performance of these methods against a single gene housekeeping gene method and our results suggest that quantile normalization performs best. These methods are implemented in freely-available software as an R package qpcrNorm distributed through the Bioconductor project. Conclusion The utility of the approaches that we describe can be demonstrated most clearly in situations where standard housekeeping genes are regulated by some experimental condition. For large qPCR-based data sets, our approaches represent robust, data-driven strategies for normalization.

  5. Analysis of ribosomal RNA stability in dead cells of wine yeast by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunyer-Figueres, Merce; Wang, Chunxiao; Mas, Albert

    2018-04-02

    During wine production, some yeasts enter a Viable But Not Culturable (VBNC) state, which may influence the quality and stability of the final wine through remnant metabolic activity or by resuscitation. Culture-independent techniques are used for obtaining an accurate estimation of the number of live cells, and quantitative PCR could be the most accurate technique. As a marker of cell viability, rRNA was evaluated by analyzing its stability in dead cells. The species-specific stability of rRNA was tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as in three species of non-Saccharomyces yeast (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Starmerella bacillaris). High temperature and antimicrobial dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC) treatments were efficient in lysing the yeast cells. rRNA gene and rRNA (as cDNA) were analyzed over 48 h after cell lysis by quantitative PCR. The results confirmed the stability of rRNA for 48 h after the cell lysis treatments. To sum up, rRNA may not be a good marker of cell viability in the wine yeasts that were tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurable impact of RNA quality on gene expression results from quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Joëlle; De Preter, Katleen; Lefever, Steve; Nuytens, Justine; De Vloed, Fanny; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2011-05-01

    Compromised RNA quality is suggested to lead to unreliable results in gene expression studies. Therefore, assessment of RNA integrity and purity is deemed essential prior to including samples in the analytical pipeline. This may be of particular importance when diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic conclusions depend on such analyses. In this study, the comparative value of six RNA quality parameters was determined using a large panel of 740 primary tumour samples for which real-time quantitative PCR gene expression results were available. The tested parameters comprise of microfluidic capillary electrophoresis based 18S/28S rRNA ratio and RNA Quality Index value, HPRT1 5'-3' difference in quantification cycle (Cq) and HPRT1 3' Cq value based on a 5'/3' ratio mRNA integrity assay, the Cq value of expressed Alu repeat sequences and a normalization factor based on the mean expression level of four reference genes. Upon establishment of an innovative analytical framework to assess impact of RNA quality, we observed a measurable impact of RNA quality on the variation of the reference genes, on the significance of differential expression of prognostic marker genes between two cancer patient risk groups, and on risk classification performance using a multigene signature. This study forms the basis for further rational assessment of reverse transcription quantitative PCR based results in relation to RNA quality. © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Zeveren Alex

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and very efficient technique to examine gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, in order to gain information about embryo development and to optimize assisted reproductive technologies. Critical to the succesful application of real-time PCR is careful assay design, reaction optimization and validation to maximize sensitivity and accuracy. In most of the studies published GAPD, ACTB or 18S rRNA have been used as a single reference gene without prior verification of their expression stability. Normalization of the data using unstable controls can result in erroneous conclusions, especially when only one reference gene is used. Results In this study the transcription levels of 8 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, GAPD, Histone H2A, TBP, HPRT1, SDHA, YWHAZ and 18S rRNA were determined at different preimplantation stages (2-cell, 8-cell, blastocyst and hatched blastocyst in order to select the most stable genes to normalize quantitative data within different preimplantation embryo stages. Conclusion Using the geNorm application YWHAZ, GAPD and SDHA were found to be the most stable genes across the examined embryonic stages, while the commonly used ACTB was shown to be highly regulated. We recommend the use of the geometric mean of those 3 reference genes as an accurate normalization factor, which allows small expression differences to be reliably measured.

  8. Qualitative Versus Quantitative PCR in Establishing Response to Chronic Hepatitis C Treatment with Sofosbuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Muhammad Shoaib; Saad, Alvia; Shoaib, Sana

    2018-03-01

    To determine the change in rapid virological response for chronic hepatitis C by qualitative PCR testing after treatment with sofosbuvir. A descriptive study. Memon Medical Institute Hospital, Karachi, from January to September 2016. The study population consisted of patients above 18 years, till 80 years of age, of both genders, having chronic infection with HCV. Patients included were treatment-naive, non-responders or relapsers; and among these categories, both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients were included. Initially, genotyping and quantitative PCR test was done, one at the start of treatment then at 4 weeks that is till rapid virological response (RVR) was elicited. Qualitative testing was compared by Chi-square with quantitative assays simultaneously to check sensitivity by qualitative testing. Out of 106 patients, the mean age of the patients was 46.40 ±14 years. There were 39 (36.8%) males and 67 (63.2%) females. One hundred (94.3%) were infected with genotype 3. One hundred and five (99.05%) patients responded to sofosbuvir with successful achievement of RVR after 4 weeks. One patient did not achieve RVR (0.94%). The sensitivity of qualitative test was 99%. Qualitative analysis is a cost-effective and sensitive method in patients treated with sofosbuvir for confirming RVR, especially in developing countries where patients are self-paying with significant financial constraints.

  9. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of estrogen receptor gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Thomas J; Li, Geng; McCulloch, Thomas A; Seth, Rashmi; Powe, Desmond G; Bishop, Michael C; Rees, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis of laser microdissected tissue is considered the most accurate technique for determining tissue gene expression. The discovery of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) has focussed renewed interest on the role of estrogen receptors in prostate cancer, yet few studies have utilized the technique to analyze estrogen receptor gene expression in prostate cancer. Fresh tissue was obtained from 11 radical prostatectomy specimens and from 6 patients with benign prostate hyperplasia. Pure populations of benign and malignant prostate epithelium were laser microdissected, followed by RNA isolation and electrophoresis. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed using primers for androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PGR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA), with normalization to two housekeeping genes. Differences in gene expression were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation coefficients were analyzed using Spearman's test. Significant positive correlations were seen when AR and AR-dependent PSA, and ERalpha and ERalpha-dependent PGR were compared, indicating a representative population of RNA transcripts. ERbeta gene expression was significantly over-expressed in the cancer group compared with benign controls (P AR, ERalpha or PSA expression between the groups. This study represents the first to show an upregulation of ERbeta gene expression in laser microdissected prostate cancer specimens. In concert with recent studies the findings suggest differential production of ERbeta splice variants, which may play important roles in the genesis of prostate cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Enrichment followed by quantitative PCR both for rapid detection and as a tool for quantitative risk assessment of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Jacobsen, N. R.; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    As part of a large international project for standardization of PCR (Food-PCR; www.pcr.dk), a multiplex, multiplatform, ready-to-go enrichment followed by a real-time PCR method, including an internal amplification control, was developed for detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters...... Organization (ISO)-based culture method by testing low, medium, and high levels of 12 spiked and 66 unspiked, presumably naturally contaminated, chicken rinse samples. In the RotorGene, a positive PCR response was detected in 40 samples of the 66. This was in complete agreement with the enriched ISO culture...... naturally contaminated chicken samples, which indicates PCR's additional potential as a tool for quantitative risk assessment. Signal from the internal amplification control was detected in all culture-negative samples (VIC Ct: 23.1 to 28.1). The method will be taken further and validated...

  11. Competitive RT-PCR Strategy for Quantitative Evaluation of the Expression of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Growth Hormone Receptor Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Quantization of gene expression requires that an accurate measurement of a specific transcript is made. In this paper, a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by competition for tilapia growth hormone receptor type I is designed and validated. This experimental procedure was used to determine the abundance of growth hormone receptor type I transcript in different tilapia tissues. The results obtained with this developed competitive RT-PCR were similar to real-time PCR results reported recently. This protocol provides a reliable alternative, but less expensive than real-time PCR to quantify specific genes. PMID:19495916

  12. Low-cost monitoring of Campylobacter in poultry houses by air sampling and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, M S R; Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Christensen, L S; Wieczorek, K; Osek, J; Hoorfar, J

    2014-02-01

    The present study describes the evaluation of a method for the quantification of Campylobacter by air sampling in poultry houses. Sampling was carried out in conventional chicken houses in Poland, in addition to a preliminary sampling in Denmark. Each measurement consisted of three air samples, two standard boot swab fecal samples, and one airborne particle count. Sampling was conducted over an 8-week period in three flocks, assessing the presence and levels of Campylobacter in boot swabs and air samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The detection limit for air sampling was approximately 100 Campylobacter cell equivalents (CCE)/m3. Airborne particle counts were used to analyze the size distribution of airborne particles (0.3 to 10 μm) in the chicken houses in relation to the level of airborne Campylobacter. No correlation was found. Using air sampling, Campylobacter was detected in the flocks right away, while boot swab samples were positive after 2 weeks. All samples collected were positive for Campylobacter from week 2 through the rest of the rearing period for both sampling techniques, although levels 1- to 2-log CCE higher were found with air sampling. At week 8, the levels were approximately 10(4) and 10(5) CCE per sample for boot swabs and air, respectively. In conclusion, using air samples combined with quantitative real-time PCR, Campylobacter contamination could be detected earlier than by boot swabs and was found to be a more convenient technique for monitoring and/or to obtain enumeration data useful for quantitative risk assessment of Campylobacter.

  13. Enumeration of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 and O26 in milk by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusi, Rocco; Trevisani, Marcello

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) can be a convenient alternative to the Most Probable Number (MPN) methods to count VTEC in milk. The number of VTEC is normally very low in milk; therefore with the aim of increasing the method sensitivity a qPCR protocol that relies on preliminary enrichment was developed. The growth pattern of six VTEC strains (serogroups O157 and O26) was studied using enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW) with or without acriflavine for 4-24h. Milk samples were inoculated with these strains over a five Log concentration range between 0.24-0.50 and 4.24-4.50 Log CFU/ml. DNA was extracted from the enriched samples in duplicate and each extract was analysed in duplicate by qPCR using pairs of primers specific for the serogroups O157 and O26. When samples were pre-enriched in BPW at 37°C for 8h, the relationship between threshold cycles (CT values) and VTEC Log numbers was linear over a five Log concentration range. The regression of PCR threshold cycle numbers on VTEC Log CFU/ml had a slope coefficient equal to -3.10 (R(2)=0.96) which is indicative of a 10-fold difference of the gene copy numbers between samples (with a 100 ± 10% PCR efficiency). The same 10-fold proportion used for inoculating the milk samples with VTEC was observed, therefore, also in the enriched samples at 8h. A comparison of the CT values of milk samples and controls revealed that the strains inoculated in milk grew with 3 Log increments in the 8h enrichment period. Regression lines that fitted the qPCR and MPN data revealed that the error of the qPCR estimates is lower than the error of the estimated MPN (r=0.982, R(2)=0.965 vs. r=0.967, R(2)=0.935). The growth rates of VTEC strains isolated from milk should be comparatively assessed before qPCR estimates based on the regression model are considered valid. Comparative assessment of the growth rates can be done using spectrophotometric measurements of standardized cultures of isolates and

  14. Molecular detection of Mikrocytos mackini in Pacific oysters using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, Mark; Lowe, Geoff; Meyer, Gary; Corbeil, Serge; Colling, Axel; Caraguel, Charles; Abbott, Cathryn L

    2015-01-01

    Mikrocytos mackini is an internationally regulated pathogen and causative agent of Denman Island disease in Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas. Recent phylogenetic breakthroughs have placed this parasite within a highly divergent and globally distributed eukaryotic lineage that has been designated a new taxonomic order, Mikrocytida. The discovery of this new radiation of parasites is accompanied by a heightened awareness of the many knowledge gaps that exist with respect to the general biology, epizootiology, and potential impact of mikrocytid parasites on hosts, ecosystems, and commercial fisheries. It has also highlighted current shortcomings regarding our ability to detect these organisms. In this study, we developed a species-specific, sensitive, and quantitative method for detecting M. mackini DNA from host tissues using probe-based real-time qPCR technology. A limit of sensitivity between 2 and 5 genome copy equivalents was achieved in a reaction matrix containing ≥ 40 ng/μL host gDNA without inhibition. This detection proved superior to existing methods based on conventional PCR, histology or gross pathology and is the first species-specific diagnostic test for M. mackini. Quantitative assessment of parasite DNA using this assay remained accurate to between 10 and 50 copies identifying that during infection, M. mackini DNA was significantly more prevalent in hemolymph, labial palp, and mid-body cross-sections compared to mantle or adductor muscle. DNA extracted from a mid-body cross-section also provided the highest likelihood for detection during diagnostic screening of infected oysters. Taken together, these findings provide strong analytical evidence for the adoption of qPCR as the new reference standard for detecting M. mackini and give preliminary insight into the distribution of the parasite within host tissues. Standardised operating methodologies for sample collection and qPCR testing are provided to aid in the international regulatory diagnosis of

  15. Quantitative detection and identification of Naegleria spp. in various environmental water samples using real-time quantitative PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Chou, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Hsiu-Wu; She, Cheng-Yu; Shen, Shu-Min

    2013-04-01

    Naegleria spp. is a free-living amoeba that can be found in various aquatic environments. There are some Naegleria spp. that can cause fatal infections in animals and humans, and the most important source of infection is through direct water contact. In this study, a real-time quantitative PCR was developed to detect and quantify the Naegleria spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from rivershed, water treatment plants, and thermal spring recreation areas. The total detection rate was 4.0% (7/176) for Naegleria spp. The percentages of samples containing Naegleria spp. from river water, raw drinking water, and thermal spring water were 0% (0/100), 10.7% (3/28) and 8.3% (4/48), respectively. The concentration of Naegleria spp. in detected positive raw drinking water and thermal spring water samples was in the range of 3.9-12.6 and 1.1-24.2 cells/L, respectively. The identified species included Naegleria australiensis, Naegleria lovaniensis, and Naegleria spitzbergeniensis. The presence of Naegleria spp. in various aquatic environments is considered a potential public health threat.

  16. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factor gene transcript level quantitation by quantitative real time PCR in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Srinivasan, Radhika; Kapil, Shweta; Singla, Bhupesh; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Chakraborti, Anuradha; Saini, Nitin; Duseja, Ajay; Das, Ashim; Kalra, Naveen; Dhiman, Radha Krishan

    2013-10-01

    Tumor angiogenesis, a major requirement for tumor growth and metastasis, is regulated by pro- and anti-angiogenic factors. The aim of this study was to quantify the expression of angiogenic (VEGF, HIF-1α, Angiopiotein-2) and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin and Thrombospondin-1) factors and to discern their clinical relevance. A total 90 patients (67 HCC, 9 cirrhosis and 14 chronic hepatitis) were enrolled in the study. Tissue transcript levels of angiogenic (VEGF, HIF-1α, Ang-2) and anti-angiogenic (endostatin, angiostatin and TSP-1) factors were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the tissue samples. The tissue transcript levels of VEGF, HIF-1α and endostatin were found to be significantly higher in HCC in comparison to cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis. Although Ang-2, angiostatin and TSP-1 tissue transcript levels were higher in HCC group than the others groups but the difference was not statistically significant. In univariate analysis both VEGF and HIF-1α were found to be associated with poor survival of HCC patients. Multivariate analysis by the cox proportional hazard model revealed only VEGF as an independent factor predicting poor survival of the HCC patients. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors are all highly expressed in HCC patients. Upregulation of tissue anti-angiogenic factors indicates the urgency for the alternative of anti-angiogenic therapies.

  17. Relative quantitative RT-PCR to study the expression of plant nutrient transporters in arbuscular mycorrhizas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burleigh, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    by some, but not all AMF. Colonization by the AMF Glomus rosen, in particular, failed to strongly down-regulate these plant genes within the root. This technique may be suitable for the study of plant genes in mycorrhizal roots when Northern blotting is not possible due to low gene expression or when......The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the expression of plant nutrient transporters was studied using a relative. quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction (RQRT-PCR) technique. Reverse-transcribed 18S rRNA was used to standardize the treatments. The technique...... had high reproducibility and reflected trends in gene expression as observed by Northern blotting. Using this technique, it was demonstrated that both the high-affinity phosphate transporter MtPt2 and a putative nitrate transporter from Medicago truncatula were down-regulated in roots when colonized...

  18. Investigations on abundance and activity of microbial sponge symbionts using quantitative real - time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumala, Lars; Hentschel, Ute; Bayer, Kristina

    Marine sponges are hosts to dense and diverse microbial consortia that are likely to play a key role in the metabolic processes of the host sponge due to their enormous abundance. Common symbioses between nitrogen transforming microorganisms and sponges indicate complex nitrogen cycling within...... the host. Of particular interest is determining the community structure and function of microbial symbionts in order to gain deeper insight into host-symbiont interactions. We investigated the abundance and activity of microbial symbionts in two Mediterranean sponge species using quantitative real-time PCR....... An absolute quantification of functional genes and transcripts in archaeal and bacterial symbionts was conducted to determine their involvement in nitrification and denitrification, comparing the low microbial abundance (LMA) sponge Dysidea avara with the high microbial abundance (HMA) representative Aplysina...

  19. High Specificity of Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR Analysis for MGMT Promoter Hypermethylation Detection in Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Parrella

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal brain tissue from 28 individuals and 50 glioma samples were analyzed by real-time Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR (QMSP. Data from this analysis were compared with results obtained on the same samples by MSP. QMSP analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in both methylation level (P=.000009 Mann Whitney Test and frequencies (P=.0000007, Z-test in tumour samples as compared with normal brain tissues. Although QMSP and MSP showed similar sensitivity, the specificity of QMSP analysis was significantly higher (93%; CI95%: 84%–100% as compared with MSP (64%; 95%CI: 46%–82%. Our results suggest that QMSP analysis may represent a powerful tool to identify glioma patients that will benefit from alkylating agents chemotherapy.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the dystrophin gene by real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimovic Nela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD are severe X-linked neuromuscular disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Our aim was to optimize a quantitative real-time PCR method based on SYBR® Green I chemistry for routine diagnostics of DMD/BMD deletion carriers. Twenty female relatives of DMD/BMD patients with previously detected partial gene deletions were studied. The relative quantity of the target exons was calculated by a comparative threshold cycle method (ΔΔCt. The carrier status of all subjects was successfully determined. The gene dosage ratio for non-carriers was 1.07±0.20, and for carriers 0.56±0.11. This assay proved to be simple, rapid, reliable and cost-effective.

  1. Inverse PCR and Quantitative PCR as Alternative Methods to Southern Blotting Analysis to Assess Transgene Copy Number and Characterize the Integration Site in Transgenic Woody Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Biricolti; Patrizia, Bogani; Matteo, Cerboneschi; Massimo, Gori

    2016-06-01

    One of the major unanswered questions with respect to the commercial use of genetic transformation in woody plants is the stability of the transgene expression over several decades within the same individual. Gene expression is strongly affected by the copy number which has been integrated into the plant genome and by the local DNA features close to the integration sites. Because woody plants cannot be subjected to selfing or backcrossing to modify the transgenic allelic structure without affecting the valuable traits of the cultivar, molecular characterization of the transformation event is therefore crucial. After assessing the transgene copy number of a set of apple transgenic clones with Southern blotting, we describe two alternative methods: the first is based on inverse PCR (i-PCR) and the second on the quantitative PCR (q-PCR). The methods produced comparable results with the exception of the data regarding a high copy number clone, but while the q-PCR-based system is rapid and easily adaptable to high throughput systems, the i-PCR-based method can provide information regarding the transformation event and the characteristics of the sequences flanking the transgenic construct.

  2. Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zou Ruiyang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. coli. However, the choice of reliable reference genes has not been systematically validated. The objective of this study is to identify a set of reliable reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein over-expression studies in E. coli. Results In this study, the meta-analysis of 240 sets of single-channel Affymetrix microarray data representing over-expressions of 63 distinct recombinant proteins in various E. coli strains identified twenty candidate reference genes that were stably expressed across all conditions. The expression of these twenty genes and two commonly used reference genes, rrsA encoding ribosomal RNA 16S and ihfB, was quantified by qPCR in E. coli cells over-expressing four genes of the 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate pathway. From these results, two independent statistical algorithms identified three novel reference genes cysG, hcaT, and idnT but not rrsA and ihfB as highly invariant in two E. coli strains, across different growth temperatures and induction conditions. Transcriptomic data normalized by the geometric average of these three genes demonstrated that genes of the lycopene synthetic pathway maintained steady expression upon enzyme overexpression. In contrast, the use of rrsA or ihfB as reference genes led to the mis-interpretation that lycopene pathway genes were regulated during enzyme over-expression. Conclusion This study identified cysG/hcaT/idnT to be reliable novel reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein producing E. coli.

  3. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Sapium sebiferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum L. is a promising landscape and bioenergy plant. Measuring gene expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR can provide valuable information on gene function. Stably expressed reference genes for normalization are a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of the target gene expression level among different samples. However, the reference genes in Chinese tallow have not been systematically validated. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes (18S, GAPDH, UBQ, RPS15, SAND, TIP41, 60S, ACT7, PDF2, APT, TBP, and TUB were investigated with qRT-PCR in 18 samples, including those from different tissues, from plants treated with sucrose and cold stresses. The data were calculated with four common algorithms, geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and the delta cycle threshold (ΔCt. TIP41 and GAPDH were the most stable for the tissue-specific experiment, GAPDH and 60S for cold treatment, and GAPDH and UBQ for sucrose stresses, while the least stable genes were 60S, TIP41, and 18S respectively. The comprehensive results showed APT, GAPDH, and UBQ to be the top-ranked stable genes across all the samples. The stability of 60S was the lowest during all experiments. These selected reference genes were further validated by comparing the expression profiles of the chalcone synthase gene in Chinese tallow in different samples. The results will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in Chinese tallow.

  4. Analysis of ZAP70 expression in adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by real time quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakupurakal Geothy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ZAP70 gene expression is associated with poor prognosis in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders especially chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL but its role in adult B-ALL has not been established. On diagnostic samples from 76 patients with adult ALL (65 with B-ALL and 11 with T-ALL ZAP70 mRNA expression levels were studied by real time-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR analysis. Findings A broad distribution of ZAP70 expression was observed in ALL, ranging from 0.002 to 5.3 fold that of the ZAP70 positive Jurkat reference cell line. No association was observed between expression levels and the presence of specific cytogenetic abnormalities. Five cases, including one case of T-ALL, had ZAP70 expression above the level of the Jurkat reference cell line. Conclusions Our results confirm the frequent expression of ZAP70 in adult ALL. Limited comparisons made did highlight poor-risk patients with high ZAP70 expression, but due to lack of clinical information on patient samples we were unable to directly assess the impact on disease prognosis. ZAP-70 may be an important laboratory assay in adult ALL and further studies are warranted to study a potential correlation with cytogenetic and other genetic markers.

  5. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Whiley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collected from this region. Of the 51 samples collected, 17 (33% (this included 14/46 (30% wild and 3/5 (60% captive lizard samples were positive for C. jejuni using quantitative PCR (qPCR. This was the first study to investigate the presence of C. jejuni in Australian lizards. This has public health implications regarding the risk of campylobacteriosis from handling of pet reptiles and through cross-contamination or contact with wild lizard faeces. Additionally this has implication for horizontal transmission via lizards of C. jejuni to food production farms. Further research is needed on this environmental reservoir and potential transmission routes to reduce the risk to public health.

  6. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni in Lizard Faeces from Central Australia Using Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiley, Harriet; McLean, Ryan; Ross, Kirstin

    2016-12-23

    Worldwide, Campylobacter is a significant cause of gastrointestinal illness. It is predominately considered a foodborne pathogen, with human exposure via non-food transmission routes generally overlooked. Current literature has been exploring environmental reservoirs of campylobacteriosis including potential wildlife reservoirs. Given the close proximity between lizards and human habitats in Central Australia, this study examined the presence of Campylobacter jejuni from lizard faeces collected from this region. Of the 51 samples collected, 17 (33%) (this included 14/46 (30%) wild and 3/5 (60%) captive lizard samples) were positive for C. jejuni using quantitative PCR (qPCR). This was the first study to investigate the presence of C. jejuni in Australian lizards. This has public health implications regarding the risk of campylobacteriosis from handling of pet reptiles and through cross-contamination or contact with wild lizard faeces. Additionally this has implication for horizontal transmission via lizards of C. jejuni to food production farms. Further research is needed on this environmental reservoir and potential transmission routes to reduce the risk to public health.

  7. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droplet digital Polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. It is a promising DNA quantification technology for medical diagnostics but there are only a few reports of its use for plant pat...

  8. Quantitative PCR for HTLV-1 provirus in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma using paraffin tumor sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junki; Masaki, Ayako; Fujii, Keiichiro; Takino, Hisashi; Murase, Takayuki; Yonekura, Kentaro; Utsunomiya, Atae; Ishida, Takashi; Iida, Shinsuke; Inagaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Detection of HTLV-1 provirus using paraffin tumor sections may assist the diagnosis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). For the detection, non-quantitative PCR assay has been reported, but its usefulness and limitations remain unclear. To our knowledge, quantitative PCR assay using paraffin tumor sections has not been reported. Using paraffin sections from ATLLs and non-ATLL T-cell lymphomas, we first performed non-quantitative PCR for HTLV-1 provirus. Next, we determined tumor ratios and carried out quantitative PCR to obtain provirus copy numbers. The results were analyzed with a simple regression model and a novel criterion, cut-off using 95 % rejection limits. Our quantitative PCR assay showed an excellent association between tumor ratios and the copy numbers (r = 0.89, P paraffin tumor sections may be useful for the screening of ATLL cases, especially in HTLV-1 non-endemic areas where easy access to serological testing for HTLV-1 infection is limited. © 2016 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Cloning and evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Amorphophallus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Niu, Yi; Wang, Qijun; Liu, Haili; Jin, Yi; Zhang, Shenglin

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used in the detection and quantification of gene expression levels because of its high accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility as well as its large dynamic range. However, the reliability and accuracy of RT-qPCR depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. Amorphophallus is a perennial plant with a high content of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in its corm. This crop has been used as a food source and as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. Without adequate knowledge of gene expression profiles, there has been no report of validated reference genes in Amorphophallus . In this study, nine genes that are usually used as reference genes in other crops were selected as candidate reference genes. These putative sequences of these genes Amorphophallus were cloned by the use of degenerate primers. The expression stability of each gene was assessed in different tissues and under two abiotic stresses (heat and waterlogging) in A. albus and A. konjac . Three distinct algorithms were used to evaluate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes. The results demonstrated that EF1-a , EIF4A , H3 and UBQ were the best reference genes under heat stress in Amorphophallus . Furthermore, EF1-a , EIF4A , TUB , and RP were the best reference genes in waterlogged conditions. By comparing different tissues from all samples, we determined that EF1-α , EIF4A, and CYP were stable in these sets. In addition, the suitability of these reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of a gene encoding the small heat shock protein SHSP , which is related to heat stress in Amorphophallus . In sum, EF1-α and EIF4A were the two best reference genes for normalizing mRNA levels in different tissues and under various stress treatments, and we suggest using one of these genes in combination with 1 or 2 reference genes associated with different biological

  10. Cloning and evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Amorphophallus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used in the detection and quantification of gene expression levels because of its high accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility as well as its large dynamic range. However, the reliability and accuracy of RT-qPCR depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. Amorphophallus is a perennial plant with a high content of konjac glucomannan (KGM in its corm. This crop has been used as a food source and as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. Without adequate knowledge of gene expression profiles, there has been no report of validated reference genes in Amorphophallus. In this study, nine genes that are usually used as reference genes in other crops were selected as candidate reference genes. These putative sequences of these genes Amorphophallus were cloned by the use of degenerate primers. The expression stability of each gene was assessed in different tissues and under two abiotic stresses (heat and waterlogging in A. albus and A. konjac. Three distinct algorithms were used to evaluate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes. The results demonstrated that EF1-a, EIF4A, H3 and UBQ were the best reference genes under heat stress in Amorphophallus. Furthermore, EF1-a, EIF4A, TUB, and RP were the best reference genes in waterlogged conditions. By comparing different tissues from all samples, we determined that EF1-α, EIF4A, and CYP were stable in these sets. In addition, the suitability of these reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of a gene encoding the small heat shock protein SHSP, which is related to heat stress in Amorphophallus. In sum, EF1-α and EIF4A were the two best reference genes for normalizing mRNA levels in different tissues and under various stress treatments, and we suggest using one of these genes in combination with 1 or 2 reference genes associated with different

  11. Use of AmpliWax to optimize amplicon sterilization by isopsoralen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Viuda, M; Fille, M; Ruiz, J; Aslanzadeh, J

    1996-12-01

    The photochemical inactivation of amplicons by isopsoralen (IP-10) has been suggested as a possible means to prevent PCR carryover contamination. To evaluate the technique, serial dilutions of amplicons (10(11) to 10(3)) from the Borrelia burgdorferi OSP A gene were amplified in the presence of 0, 25, 50, and 100 micrograms of IP-10 per ml for 45 cycles. The PCR products were exposed to UV light for 15 min to activate IP-10 and sterilize the amplicons. One microliter of each sterilized sample was reamplified for an additional 45 cycles. The PCR products were then resolved in an agarose gel, blotted onto a nylon membrane, and probed with an alkaline phosphatase-conjugated chemiluminescent probe. Although IP-10 at concentrations of 50 and 100 micrograms/ml effectively sterilized up to 10(11) amplicons, the compound was inhibitory to PCR. IP-10 at a concentration of 25 micrograms/ml had slight inhibitory effect on PCR and did not completely sterilized all of the amplicons. Therefore, in subsequent experiments AmpliWax was substituted for mineral oil, and PCR was performed on 10(9) to 10(3) amplicons as described above. Following the amplification, the PCR tubes were cooled to solidify the AmpliWax and inoculated with various concentrations of IP-10. With this technique, PCR products produced from as many as 10(9) target amplicons were effectively sterilized with 200 micrograms of IP-10 per ml. Similarly, the addition of IP-10 (50 micrograms/ml) before and after PCR was evaluated for the detection of B. burgdorferi in 62 ticks from a region of Southern Connecticut where the organism is highly endemic. PCR performed in the presence of 50 micrograms of IP-10 per ml detected B. burgdorferi-specific DNA in 17 of 62 ticks (27%) following gel electrophoresis and in 34 of 62 ticks (55%) following Southern blot hybridization of the PCR products. In contrast, post-PCR addition of IP-10 detected borrelia-specific DNA in 31 of 62 ticks (50%) following gel electrophoresis and in

  12. O-5S quantitative real-time PCR: a new diagnostic tool for laboratory confirmation of human onchocerciasis

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Solomon A.; Beissner, Marcus; Saar, Malkin; Ali, Solomon; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Tesfaye, Kassahun; Adbaru, Mulatu G.; Battke, Florian; Poppert, Sven; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Bretzel, Gisela; Herbinger, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Background Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In endemic areas, the diagnosis is commonly confirmed by microscopic examination of skin snip samples, though this technique is considered to have low sensitivity. The available melting-curve based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using degenerated primers targeting the O-150 repeat of O. volvulus was considered insufficient for confirming the individual diagnosis, especially in elimination ...

  13. HER-2 and INT-2 amplification estimated by quantitative PCR in paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruza, C; Dobianer, K; Beck, A; Czerwenka, K; Hanak, H; Klein, M; Leodolter, S; Medl, M; Müllauer-Ertl, S; Preiser, J

    1993-01-01

    Competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems were developed for rapid and quantitative estimation of HER-2 (c-erbB-2) and INT-2 oncogene amplification in paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue samples. The beta-globin gene was used as reference and DNA from paraffin-embedded placenta tissue as single copy control. Reliability of the PCR method could be demonstrated by comparing dot blot data with PCR data of identical tumour samples. The PCR method was used to determine HER-2 and INT-2 copy numbers in 196 ovarian cancer samples. HER-2 and INT-2 were found to be amplified in 40 and 19%, respectively. In 8% HER-2 copy numbers were greater than five, but no high INT-2 copies were noted. Kaplan-Meier estimates did not reveal significant association with overall survival. Indirect correlation between HER-2 and INT-2 amplification was observed. The present PCR system is a valuable method for prospective and retrospective studies.

  14. Species-specific detection and quantification of common barnacle larvae from the Japanese coast using quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Noriyuki; Sato, Kana; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Yoshimura, Erina; Odaka, Yukiko; Nogata, Yasuyuki

    2010-11-01

    Species-specific detection and quantification methods for barnacle larvae using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were developed. Species-specific primers for qPCR were designed for 13 barnacle species in the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene region. Primer specificity was examined by PCR using template DNA extracted from each of the 13 barnacle species, other unidentified barnacle species, and field collected zooplankton samples. The resulting PCR products comprised single bands following agarose gel electrophoresis when the templates corresponded to primers. The amplifications were highly species-specific even for the field plankton samples. The field plankton samples were subjected to qPCR assay. The calculated DNA contents for each barnacle species were closely correlated with the number of larvae measured by microscopic examination. The method could be applied to quantify barnacle larvae in natural plankton samples.

  15. lytA Quantitative PCR on Sputum and Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples for Detection of Pneumococcal Pneumonia among the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Palmu, Arto A.; Pascal, Thierry; Verlant, Vincent; Hausdorff, William P.; Jokinen, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of sputum or nasopharyngeal specimens has shown promising results in the detection of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PncCAP). We applied qPCR for the autolysin gene (lytA) and compared sputum and nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) pneumococcal loads in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and specifically in patients with PncCAP, to those in patient groups with other respiratory diseases. We studied patients aged ≥65 yea...

  16. QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR (Q-PCR FOR SPUTUM SMEAR DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvana Maria Maia de Albuquerque

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR for the sputum smear diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in patients living with HIV/AIDS with a clinical suspicion of PTB. Method: This is a prospective study to assess the accuracy of a diagnostic test, conducted on 140 sputum specimens from 140 patients living with HIV/AIDS with a clinical suspicion of PTB, attended at two referral hospitals for people living with HIV/AIDS in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A Löwenstein-Jensen medium culture and 7H9 broth were used as gold standard. Results: Of the 140 sputum samples, 47 (33.6% were positive with the gold standard. q-PCR was positive in 42 (30% of the 140 patients. Only one (0.71% did not correspond to the culture. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the q-PCR were 87.2%, 98.9% and 95% respectively. In 39 (93% of the 42 q-PCR positive cases, the CT (threshold cycle was equal to or less than 37. Conclusion: q-PCR performed on sputum smears from patients living with HIV/AIDS demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, and may therefore be recommended as a method for diagnosing PTB.

  17. Optimization of a real-time PCR assay to quantitate airborne fungi collected on a gelatin filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naomichi; Kimura, Minoru; Matsuki, Hideaki; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to optimize a real-time PCR assay to quantitate airborne fungi collected on a gelatin filter. In particular, the study optimized conditions for the DNA extraction and real-time PCR amplification to accurately measure airborne fungal concentrations. First, time of fine bead homogenization to extract the DNA from fungal cells was optimized to maximize the DNA yield and prepare the DNA suitable for sensitive and precise quantification by a subsequent real-time PCR analysis. Second, a condition for the real-time PCR amplification was optimized to successfully amplify and quantitate the extracted fungal DNA. In particular, a dilution ratio of the DNA extracts to be introduced to PCR was optimized to achieve an appropriate balance between mitigating PCR inhibition and securing detection sensitivity. Since concentrations of airborne fungi generally observed in indoor and outdoor environments (i.e., 10(1)-10(4) CFU m(-3)) were found to be near the limit of quantification by the generally-used molecular-based detection technique in conjunction with use of gelatin filters, optimizations of these conditions were found to be crucial. Our preliminary result showed that a culture-based method underestimated concentrations of airborne environmental fungi by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared to those characterized by the real-time PCR assay. 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Comparison of direct immune-fluorescent assay and real-time quantitative PCR in detecting the Hantavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng-bo; Li, Shen; Wei, Jing; Ma, Chang-an; Lu, Xiao-ling; DU, Shui-quan; Guan, Lu-yuan; Zheng, Yuan; Dong, Jian-hua; Ma, Chao-feng; Wang, Jing-jun

    2013-04-01

    To compare the differences between the direct immuno-fluorescent assay (DFA) and real-time quantitative PCR in detecting the Hantavirus (HV) in rat lungs. From April to October in 2012, a total of 479 rats were caught by mouse-trap in residential or wild areas in Huxian, Jingyang, and Meixian of Shaanxi province, where haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was highly prevalent. The rats were dissected to take the two lungs, one was frozen and applied immuno-fluorescent assay to detect HV antigen while the other one was extracted its RNA and detected HV nucleic acid by real-time quantitative PCR. Then we compared the positive rate of the two methods. Out of the 479 rats, 105 were caught from residential areas and the other 374 were caught from wild areas. Among the 105 rats caught from residential areas, no HV were detected out neither by DFA nor by real-time quantitative PCR. Among the 374 wild rats, 13.1% (49/374) were detected HV positive by DFA and 14.7% (55/374) were detected HV positive by real-time quantitative PCR. The difference showed no statistical significance (χ(2) = 0.402, P = 0.526). When detecting each lung sample, the HV positive rate was 10.2% (49/479) under the detection by DFA while the HV positive rate was 11.5% (55/479) under the detection by real-time quantitative PCR. The difference had no statistical significance (χ(2) = 1.286, P = 0.257) and the consistency coefficient was 68.2% under the paired chi-square test analysis, which showed high consistency (u = 11.759, P quantitative PCR to detect HV was 77.6% (38/49) comparing with DFA as standard, and the specificity was 96.1% (413/430). Out of the 9 suspected HV positive sample detected by DFA, 6 were confirmed positive by real-time quantitative PCR and 3 were denied. Compared with the DFA, real-time quantitative PCR could also be used to detect the infection of HV in rats, and the result might be more stable.

  19. Quantitative PCR evaluation of cellular immune responses in Kenyan children vaccinated with a candidate malaria vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedidah Mwacharo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The T-cell mediated immune response plays a central role in the control of malaria after natural infection or vaccination. There is increasing evidence that T-cell responses are heterogeneous and that both the quality of the immune response and the balance between pro-inflammatory and regulatory T-cells determines the outcome of an infection. As Malaria parasites have been shown to induce immunosuppressive responses to the parasite and non-related antigens this study examined T-cell mediated pro-inflammatory and regulatory immune responses induced by malaria vaccination in children in an endemic area to determine if these responses were associated with vaccine immunogenicity. METHODS: Using real-time RT- PCR we profiled the expression of a panel of key markers of immunogenecity at different time points after vaccination with two viral vector vaccines expressing the malaria TRAP antigen (FP9-TRAP and MVA-TRAP or following rabies vaccination as a control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The vaccine induced modest levels of IFN-gamma mRNA one week after vaccination. There was also an increase in FoxP3 mRNA expression in both TRAP stimulated and media stimulated cells in the FFM ME-TRAP vaccine group; however, this may have been driven by natural exposure to parasite rather than by vaccination. CONCLUSION: Quantitative PCR is a useful method for evaluating vaccine induced cell mediated immune responses in frozen PBMC from children in a malaria endemic country. Future studies should seek to use vaccine vectors that increase the magnitude and quality of the IFN-gamma immune response in naturally exposed populations and should monitor the induction of a regulatory T cell response.

  20. Evaluation of Propranolol Effect on Experimental Acute and Chronic Toxoplasmosis Using Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Mahbobeh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sharif, Mehdi; Sarvi, Shahabeddin

    2016-01-01

    Current therapies against toxoplasmosis are limited, and drugs have significant side effects and low efficacies. We evaluated the potential anti-Toxoplasma activity of propranolol at a dose of 2 or 3 mg/kg of body weight/day in vivo in the acute and chronic phases. Propranolol as a cell membrane-stabilizing agent is a suitable drug for inhibiting the entrance of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into cells. The acute-phase assay was performed using propranolol, pyrimethamine, and propranolol plus pyrimethamine before (pretreatment) and after (posttreatment) intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 103 tachyzoites of the virulent T. gondii strain RH in BALB/c mice. Also, in the chronic phase, treatment was performed 12 h before intraperitoneal challenge with 1 × 106 tachyzoites of the virulent strain RH of T. gondii in rats. One week (in the acute phase) and 2 months (in the chronic phase) after postinfection, tissues were isolated and DNA was extracted. Subsequently, parasite load was calculated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the acute phase, in both groups, significant anti-Toxoplasma activity was observed using propranolol (P toxoplasmosis. Also, propranolol combined with pyrimethamine reduced the parasite load as well as significantly increased survival of mice in the pretreatment group. In the chronic phase, anti-Toxoplasma activity and decreased parasite load in tissues were observed with propranolol. In conclusion, the presented results demonstrate that propranolol, as an orally available drug, is effective at low doses against acute and latent murine toxoplasmosis, and the efficiency of the drug is increased when it is used in combination therapy with pyrimethamine. PMID:27645234

  1. The level of embryonation influences detection of Ostertagia ostertagi eggs by semi-quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drag, Markus; Höglund, Johan; Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig M; Enemark, Heidi L

    2016-06-29

    The Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) is a candidate diagnostic marker of the pathogenic cattle nematode Ostertagia ostertagi. The aims of this study were: (i) to document and quantify how the development of O. ostertagi eggs affects ITS2 copies under different storage conditions, and (ii) to suggest optimal storage conditions for faecal samples in a diagnostic pipeline that involves detection and semi-quantification by real-time semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Eggs of Ostertagia ostertagi were obtained from fresh faeces and stored at 4 °C or 25 °C under aerobic or anaerobic (vacuum packing) conditions. Development was monitored by microscopy for up to 336 h, and the ITS2 copies were determined by qPCR from a fixed number of parasites. Under aerobic conditions at 25 °C, embryonation and a significant increase of ITS2 copies (P parasite stage: first-stage larvae (L1) exhibited significantly higher copy numbers (20,353 ± 1,950) than unembryonated eggs (568 ± 168; P < 0.0001) with lower coefficient of variation (33 vs 266 %). Aerobic storage of O. ostertagi eggs at 25 °C led to a significant increase in ITS2 copies after 12 h due to embryonation and subsequent hatching. In contrast, anaerobic storage (vacuum packing) at 25 °C completely inhibited egg development and any undesirable semi-quantification bias for up to 336 h. Hence, vacuum packing is an optimal storage strategy prior to molecular diagnostic analyses. Alternatively, aerobic storage at 4 °C for up to 72 h can be used. Due to high copy numbers and lower genetic variation, the L1 stage may be considered for diagnostics and further molecular research.

  2. MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas-assessment by pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Methylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter is a favorable prognostic factor in glioblastoma patients. However, reported methylation frequencies vary significantly partly due to lack of consensus in the choice of analytical method. Method We examined 35 low- and 99 high-grade gliomas using quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP) and pyrosequencing. Gene expression level of MGMT was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results When examined by qMSP, 26% of low-grade and 37% of high-grade gliomas were found to be methylated, whereas 97% of low-grade and 55% of high-grade gliomas were found methylated by pyrosequencing. The average MGMT gene expression level was significantly lower in the group of patients with a methylated promoter independent of method used for methylation detection. Primary glioblastoma patients with a methylated MGMT promoter (as evaluated by both methylation detection methods) had approximately 5 months longer median survival compared to patients with an unmethylated promoter (log-rank test; pyrosequencing P = .02, qMSP P = .06). One third of the analyzed samples had conflicting methylation results when comparing the data from the qMSP and pyrosequencing. The overall survival analysis shows that these patients have an intermediate prognosis between the groups with concordant MGMT promoter methylation results when comparing the two methods. Conclusion In our opinion, MGMT promoter methylation analysis gives sufficient prognostic information to merit its inclusion in the standard management of patients with high-grade gliomas, and in this study pyrosequencing came across as the better analytical method. PMID:22390413

  3. MGMT promoter methylation in gliomas-assessment by pyrosequencing and quantitative methylation-specific PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvik Annette

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylation of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT gene promoter is a favorable prognostic factor in glioblastoma patients. However, reported methylation frequencies vary significantly partly due to lack of consensus in the choice of analytical method. Method We examined 35 low- and 99 high-grade gliomas using quantitative methylation specific PCR (qMSP and pyrosequencing. Gene expression level of MGMT was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results When examined by qMSP, 26% of low-grade and 37% of high-grade gliomas were found to be methylated, whereas 97% of low-grade and 55% of high-grade gliomas were found methylated by pyrosequencing. The average MGMT gene expression level was significantly lower in the group of patients with a methylated promoter independent of method used for methylation detection. Primary glioblastoma patients with a methylated MGMT promoter (as evaluated by both methylation detection methods had approximately 5 months longer median survival compared to patients with an unmethylated promoter (log-rank test; pyrosequencing P = .02, qMSP P = .06. One third of the analyzed samples had conflicting methylation results when comparing the data from the qMSP and pyrosequencing. The overall survival analysis shows that these patients have an intermediate prognosis between the groups with concordant MGMT promoter methylation results when comparing the two methods. Conclusion In our opinion, MGMT promoter methylation analysis gives sufficient prognostic information to merit its inclusion in the standard management of patients with high-grade gliomas, and in this study pyrosequencing came across as the better analytical method.

  4. Quantification of Azospirillum brasilense FP2 Bacteria in Wheat Roots by Strain-Specific Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stets, Maria Isabel; Alqueres, Sylvia Maria Campbell; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Schmid, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Azospirillum is a rhizobacterial genus containing plant growth-promoting species associated with different crops worldwide. Azospirillum brasilense strains exhibit a growth-promoting effect by means of phytohormone production and possibly by N2 fixation. However, one of the most important factors for achieving an increase in crop yield by plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria is the survival of the inoculant in the rhizosphere, which is not always achieved. The objective of this study was to develop quantitative PCR protocols for the strain-specific quantification of A. brasilense FP2. A novel approach was applied to identify strain-specific DNA sequences based on a comparison of the genomic sequences within the same species. The draft genome sequences of A. brasilense FP2 and Sp245 were aligned, and FP2-specific regions were filtered and checked for other possible matches in public databases. Strain-specific regions were then selected to design and evaluate strain-specific primer pairs. The primer pairs AzoR2.1, AzoR2.2, AzoR5.1, AzoR5.2, and AzoR5.3 were specific for the A. brasilense FP2 strain. These primer pairs were used to monitor quantitatively the population of A. brasilense in wheat roots under sterile and nonsterile growth conditions. In addition, coinoculations with other plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat were performed under nonsterile conditions. The results showed that A. brasilense FP2 inoculated into wheat roots is highly competitive and achieves high cell numbers (∼10(7) CFU/g [fresh weight] of root) in the rhizosphere even under nonsterile conditions and when coinoculated with other rhizobacteria, maintaining the population at rather stable levels for at least up to 13 days after inoculation. The strategy used here can be applied to other organisms whose genome sequences are available. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-03-18

    Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO) genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  6. [Optimization of real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR system in detecting cytochrome b gene of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu-Yuan; Zhen, Yu; Yuan, Jian; Mi, Tie-Zhu; Yu, Zhi-Gang

    2013-02-01

    To quantitatively detect the cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu in the filed samples, a specific primer was designed, and the quantities of the RNA templates added into the reaction system for reverse transcription as well as the reaction conditions of real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) were optimized. The results illustrated that the designed primer had good specificity, being able to be used to differentiate different algal species effectively. In detecting the filed samples, the suitable qualities of the templates for the 20 microL reverse transcription system were 50-200 ng. 10-fold diluting the templates or adding the bovine serum albumin (BSA) with a final concentration 0.2 microg.microL-1 into the RFQ-PCR system could effectively decrease the inhibitory effect of the inhibitors in the filed samples, and thus, decrease the interferences. The established real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RFQ-PCR) assay would facilitate us to study the intrinsic mechanisms of P. donghaiense outbreak and extinction at molecular level.

  7. A Novel Pretreatment-Free Duplex Chamber Digital PCR Detection System for the Absolute Quantitation of GMO Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Zhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990s. However, pretreatments are often required during preparation for digital PCR, which can increase operation error. The single-plex amplification of both the target and reference genes may cause uncertainties due to the different reaction volumes and the matrix effect. In the current study, a quantitative detection system based on the pretreatment-free duplex chamber digital PCR was developed. The dynamic range, limit of quantitation (LOQ, sensitivity and specificity were evaluated taking the GA21 event as the experimental object. Moreover, to determine the factors that may influence the stability of the duplex system, we evaluated whether the pretreatments, the primary and secondary structures of the probes and the SNP effect influence the detection. The results showed that the LOQ was 0.5% and the sensitivity was 0.1%. We also found that genome digestion and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP sites affect the detection results, whereas the unspecific hybridization within different probes had little side effect. This indicated that the detection system was suited for both chamber-based and droplet-based digital PCR. In conclusion, we have provided a simple and flexible way of achieving absolute quantitation for genetically modified organism (GMO genome samples using commercial digital PCR detection systems.

  8. Evaluation of Various Campylobacter-Specific Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacteraceae in Irrigation Water and Wastewater via a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number-qPCR Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, Graham S; Braithwaite, Shannon; Scott, Candis; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Ruecker, Norma; Tymensen, Lisa; Charest, Jollin; Pintar, Katarina; Checkley, Sylvia; Neumann, Norman F

    2016-08-01

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. Here we describe a most-probable-number (MPN)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qPCR. We observed that commonly used Campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. In irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depending upon the PCR assay and culture method used, as follows: 0% by the de Boer Lv1-16S qPCR assay, 2.5% by the Van Dyke 16S and Jensen glyA qPCR assays, and 75% by the Linton 16S endpoint PCR when cultured at 37°C. Primer/probe specificity was the major confounder, with Arcobacter spp. routinely yielding false-positive results. The primers and PCR conditions described by Van Dyke et al. (M. I. Van Dyke, V. K. Morton, N. L. McLellan, and P. M. Huck, J Appl Microbiol 109:1053-1066, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04730.x) proved to be the most sensitive and specific for Campylobacter detection in water. Campylobacter occurrence in irrigation water was found to be very low (Campylobacter-specific qPCR was used, with the most commonly detected species being C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari Campylobacters in raw sewage were present at ∼10(2)/100 ml, with incubation at 42°C required for reducing microbial growth competition from arcobacters. Overall, when Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration in water is reported using molecular methods, considerable validation is recommended when adapting methods largely developed for clinical applications. Furthermore, combining MPN methods with molecular biology-based detection algorithms allows for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in environmental samples and is potentially suited to quantitative microbial risk assessment for improved public health disease prevention related to food and water

  9. Evaluation of Various Campylobacter-Specific Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Campylobacteraceae in Irrigation Water and Wastewater via a Miniaturized Most-Probable-Number–qPCR Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, Graham S.; Braithwaite, Shannon; Scott, Candis; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa; Ashbolt, Nicholas; Ruecker, Norma; Tymensen, Lisa; Charest, Jollin; Pintar, Katarina; Checkley, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and water is increasingly seen as a risk factor in transmission. Here we describe a most-probable-number (MPN)–quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay in which water samples are centrifuged and aliquoted into microtiter plates and the bacteria are enumerated by qPCR. We observed that commonly used Campylobacter molecular assays produced vastly different detection rates. In irrigation water samples, detection rates varied depending upon the PCR assay and culture method used, as follows: 0% by the de Boer Lv1-16S qPCR assay, 2.5% by the Van Dyke 16S and Jensen glyA qPCR assays, and 75% by the Linton 16S endpoint PCR when cultured at 37°C. Primer/probe specificity was the major confounder, with Arcobacter spp. routinely yielding false-positive results. The primers and PCR conditions described by Van Dyke et al. (M. I. Van Dyke, V. K. Morton, N. L. McLellan, and P. M. Huck, J Appl Microbiol 109:1053–1066, 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04730.x) proved to be the most sensitive and specific for Campylobacter detection in water. Campylobacter occurrence in irrigation water was found to be very low (Campylobacter-specific qPCR was used, with the most commonly detected species being C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Campylobacters in raw sewage were present at ∼102/100 ml, with incubation at 42°C required for reducing microbial growth competition from arcobacters. Overall, when Campylobacter prevalence and/or concentration in water is reported using molecular methods, considerable validation is recommended when adapting methods largely developed for clinical applications. Furthermore, combining MPN methods with molecular biology-based detection algorithms allows for the detection and quantification of Campylobacter spp. in environmental samples and is potentially suited to quantitative microbial risk assessment for improved public health disease prevention related to

  10. Detection limits of quantitative and digital PCR assays and their influence in presence-absence surveys of environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret; Dorazio, Robert M.; Butterfield, John S.; Meigs-Friend, Gaia; Nico, Leo; Ferrante, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    A set of universal guidelines is needed to determine the limit of detection (LOD) in PCR-based analyses of low concentration DNA. In particular, environmental DNA (eDNA) studies require sensitive and reliable methods to detect rare and cryptic species through shed genetic material in environmental samples. Current strategies for assessing detection limits of eDNA are either too stringent or subjective, possibly resulting in biased estimates of species’ presence. Here, a conservative LOD analysis grounded in analytical chemistry is proposed to correct for overestimated DNA concentrations predominantly caused by the concentration plateau, a nonlinear relationship between expected and measured DNA concentrations. We have used statistical criteria to establish formal mathematical models for both quantitative and droplet digital PCR. To assess the method, a new Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) TaqMan assay was developed and tested on both PCR platforms using eDNA in water samples. The LOD adjustment reduced Grass Carp occupancy and detection estimates while increasing uncertainty – indicating that caution needs to be applied to eDNA data without LOD correction. Compared to quantitative PCR, digital PCR had higher occurrence estimates due to increased sensitivity and dilution of inhibitors at low concentrations. Without accurate LOD correction, species occurrence and detection probabilities based on eDNA estimates are prone to a source of bias that cannot be reduced by an increase in sample size or PCR replicates. Other applications also could benefit from a standardized LOD such as GMO food analysis, and forensic and clinical diagnostics.

  11. Capsid-Damaging Effects of UV Irradiation as Measured by Quantitative PCR Coupled with Ethidium Monoazide Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsanont, J; Katayama, H; Kurisu, F; Furumai, H

    2014-12-01

    The damage to a viral capsid after low-pressure (LP) and medium-pressure (MP) UV irradiation was assessed, using the quantitative or quantitative reverse transcription PCR coupled with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-PCR). After UV irradiation, adenovirus 5 (Ad5) and poliovirus 1 (PV1) were subjected to a plaque assay, PCR, and EMA-PCR to investigate the effect of UV irradiation on viral infectivity, genome damage, and capsid damage, respectively. The effectiveness of UV wavelengths in a viral genome and capsid damage of both PV1 and Ad5 was also further investigated using a band-pass filter. It was found that an MPUV lamp was more effective than an LPUV lamp in inactivating Ad5, whereas there was no difference in the case of PV1. The results of viral reduction determined by PCR and EMA-PCR indicated that MP UV irradiation damaged Ad5 capsid. The damage to PV1 and Ad5 capsid was also not observed after LP UV irradiation. The investigation of effects of UV wavelengths suggested that UV wavelengths at 230-245 nm have greater effects on adenovirus capsid in addition to viral genome than UV wavelengths beyond 245 nm.

  12. RDML: structured language and reporting guidelines for real-time quantitative PCR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefever, S.; Hellemans, J.; Pattyn, F.; Przybylski, D.R.; Taylor, C.; Geurts, R.; Untergasser, A.; Vandesompele, J.

    2009-01-01

    The XML-based Real-Time PCR Data Markup Language (RDML) has been developed by the RDML consortium (http://www.rdml.org) to enable straightforward exchange of qPCR data and related information between qPCR instruments and third party data analysis software, between colleagues and collaborators and

  13. Assumption-free analysis of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Christian; Ruijter, Jan M.; Deprez, Ronald H. Lekanne; Moorman, Antoon F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of mRNAs using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by monitoring the product formation with the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I is being extensively used in neurosciences, developmental biology, and medical diagnostics. Most PCR data analysis procedures assume that the PCR

  14. Detection of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in soil by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qingyun; Zhong, Xin; Lei, Wei; Zhang, Guren; Liu, Xin

    2013-03-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis, one of the best known entomopathogenic fungi in traditional Chinese medicine, parasitizes larvae of the moth genus Thitarodes, which lives in soil tunnels. However, little is known about the spatial distribution of O. sinensis in the soil. We established a protocol for DNA extraction, purification, and quantification of O. sinensis in soil with quantitative real-time PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. The method was assessed using 34 soil samples from Tibet. No inhibitory effects in purified soil DNA extracts were detected. The standard curve method for absolute DNA quantification generated crossing point values that were strongly and linearly correlated to the log10 of the initial amount of O. sinensis genomic DNA (r(2) = 0.999) over 7 orders of magnitude (4 × 10(1) to 4 × 10(7) fg). The amplification efficiency and y-intercept value of the standard curve were 1.953 and 37.70, respectively. The amount of O. sinensis genomic DNA decreased with increasing soil depth and horizontal distance from a sclerotium (P protocol is rapid, specific, sensitive, and provides a powerful tool for quantification of O. sinensis from soil.

  15. Microscopy, culture, and quantitative real-time PCR examination confirm internalization of mycobacteria in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaevska, M; Lvoncik, S; Slana, I; Kulich, P; Kralik, P

    2014-07-01

    The environment is a reservoir of nontuberculous mycobacteria and is considered a source of infection for animals and humans. Mycobacteria can persist in different types of environments for a relatively long time. We have studied their possible internalization into plant tissue through intact, as well as damaged, root systems of different types of plants grown in vitro and under field conditions. The substrate into which plants were seeded was previously contaminated with different strains of Mycobacterium avium (10(8) to 10(10) cells/g of soil) and feces from animals with paratuberculosis. We detected M. avium subsp. avium, hominissuis, and paratuberculosis in the stems and leaves of the plants by both culture and real-time quantitative PCR. The presence of mycobacteria in the plant tissues was confirmed by microscopy. The concentration of mycobacteria found inside plant tissue was several orders of magnitude lower (up to 10(4) cells/g of tissue) than the initial concentration of mycobacteria present in the culture medium or substrate. These findings led us to the hypothesis that plants may play a role in the spread and transmission of mycobacteria to other organisms in the environment. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Measurement of bacterial gene expression in vivo by laser capture microdissection and quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Angen, Øystein

    2007-01-01

    Due to the relative small number of bacterial pathogens present in an infected host, exploration of pathogen gene expression in vivo is challenging. This study reports the development of a protocol for quantifying bacterial gene expression in vivo in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae using laser ca...... capture microdissection and real-time quantitative RT-PCR....

  17. Using multiple PCR and CE with chemiluminescence detection for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Longhua; Qiu, Bin; Chi, Yuwu; Chen, Guonan

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, an ultrasensitive CE-CL detection system coupled with a novel double-on-column coaxial flow detection interface was developed for the detection of PCR products. A reliable procedure based on this system had been demonstrated for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism-the detection of Roundup Ready Soy (RRS) samples was presented as an example. The promoter, terminator, function and two reference genes of RRS were amplified with multiplex PCR simultaneously. After that, the multiplex PCR products were labeled with acridinium ester at the 5'-terminal through an amino modification and then analyzed by the proposed CE-CL system. Reproducibility of analysis times and peak heights for the CE-CL analysis were determined to be better than 0.91 and 3.07% (RSD, n=15), respectively, for three consecutive days. It was shown that this method could accurately and qualitatively detect RRS standards and the simulative samples. The evaluation in terms of quantitative analysis of RRS provided by this new method was confirmed by comparing our assay results with those of the standard real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR) using SYBR Green I dyes. The results showed a good coherence between the two methods. This approach demonstrated the possibility for accurate qualitative and quantitative detection of GM plants in a single run.

  18. Bacteriophage P22 and Staphylococcus aureus attenuation on nonporous fomites as determined by plate assay and quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masago, Yoshifumi; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Rose, Joan B

    2008-09-01

    Decay rates of bacteriophage P22 and Staphylococcus aureus on six types of common household inanimate surfaces were evaluated based on cultivation and quantitative PCR. A much higher level of inactivation was observed using the plate assay, suggesting that detection of the pathogen genome in samples from fomites does not necessarily imply a health risk to humans.

  19. Detection of Leishmania in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from southeastern France using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Mary, Charles; Marié, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The role of red foxes in the natural cycle of Leishmania infection is not well known. In the Var area, southeastern France, from 2006 to 2012, we conducted a longitudinal epidemiologic survey of foxes using quantitative PCR. Among 92 red foxes screened, prevalence of Leishmania infantum infection was 9%. Red foxes may be considered a bioindicator of parasite circulation in this biotope.

  20. Development of a non invasion real-time PCR assay for the quantitation of chicken parvovirus in fecal swabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study describes the development of a real time Taqman polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using a fluorescent labeled probe for the detection and quantitation of chicken parvovirus (ChPV) in feces. The primers and probes were designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the non struct...

  1. Comparison of two quantitative PCR techniques for porcine circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) nucleic acid in field samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Sibila, M.

    PMWS (1). PMWS is associated with a high PCV2 load, and a general threshold of 10 7 copies of PCV2 per ml serum has been suggested for PMWS diagnosis (2,3). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two different real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for PCV...

  2. A high-throughput qPCR system for simultaneous quantitative detection of dairy Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhammed, Musemma Kedir; Krych, Lukasz; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous quantitative detection of Lactococcus (Lc.) lactis and Leuconostoc species bacteriophages (phages) has not been reported in dairies using undefined mixed-strain DL-starters, probably due to the lack of applicable methods. We optimized a high-throughput qPCR system that allows...

  3. Quantitative detection of the free-living amoeba Hartmannella vermiformis in surface water by using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.W.; Valster, R.M.; Wullings, B.A.; Boonstra, H.; Smidt, H.; Kooij, van der D.

    2006-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based method targeting the 18S rRNA gene was developed for the quantitative detection of Hartmannella vermiformis, a free-living amoeba which is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila in warm water systems and cooling towers. The detection specificity was validated using genomic

  4. Microfluidic high-throughput reverse-transcription quantitative PCR analysis of liver gene expression in lactating animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viturro, Enrique; Altenhofer, Christian; Zölch, Benjamin; Burgmaier, Anja; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated a microfluidic lab-on-chip quantitative reverse transcription (RT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) method by measuring the expression of key actors of liver metabolism in lactating cattle. Animals in the early and in the late lactation phases were chosen because of the extreme adaptations in gene expression expected to occur. During the lactation cycle, 28 out of 48 genes were significantly regulated, notably in the same direction as previously shown by other techniques. This demonstrates that this high-throughput platform represents an attractive alternative to microarrays due to its ease of application, rapidity and lower costs. A set of 13 genes was identified—in combination with a dynamic PCA algorithm—that allowed the clearest separation between the two physiologically different groups. This paves the way for classification and diagnosis of animals in different metabolic situations by a reliable microfluidic RT-qPCR assay. (author)

  5. Detection of Legionella by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for monitoring and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, Louise H.; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jorgen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for the detection of Legionella were compared on samples from a residential area before and after two interventions. A total of 84 samples were collected from shower hoses and taps as first flush samples and at constant...... temperature. Samples were grouped according to the origin of the sample, a) circulation water b) water from empty apartments c) water from shower hoses. The aims were to investigate the usefulness of qPCR compared to culture for monitoring remedial actions for elimination of Legionella bacteria and as a tool...... detection limit (> 10 CFU/L) to 1.6*10(6) CFU/L. In circulating water and in first flush water from shower hoses, culture and qPCR showed the same tendencies. The overall correlation between the bacteria number detected by culture and the two developed qPCR assays (L. spp and L. pneumophila) was relatively...

  6. Development of a novel quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of all serotypes of Foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; de Stricker, K.

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) spreads extremely fast and the need for rapid and robust diagnostic virus detection systems was obvious during the recent European epidemic. Using a novel real-time RT-PCR system based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET) we present here an assay targeting...... to detect FMDV in materials from both cattle and buffalo. When compared to traditional virus cultivation the virus detection sensitivity was similar but the RT-PCR method can provide a laboratory result much faster than virus cultivation. The real-time PCR method confirms the identity of the amplicon...... by melting point analysis for added specificity and at the same time allows the detection of mutations in the probe region. As such, the described new method is suitable for the robust real-time detection of index cases caused by any serotype of FMDV....

  7. Effectiveness of quantitative real time PCR in long-term follow-up of chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savasoglu, K.; Berber, B.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the use of the Quantitative Real Time PCR (RQ-PCR) assay follow-up with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational. Place and Duration of Study: Izmir Ataturk Education and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey, from 2009 to 2013. Methodology: Cytogenetic, FISH, RQ-PCR test results from 177 CML patients materials selected between 2009 - 2013 years was set up for comparison analysis. Statistical analysis was performed to compare between FISH, karyotype and RQ-PCR results of the patients. Karyotyping and FISH specificity and sensitivity rates determined by ROC analysis compared with RQ-PCR results. Chi-square test was used to compare test failure rates. Results:Sensitivity and specificity values were determined for karyotyping 17.6 - 98% (p=0.118, p > 0.05) and for FISH 22.5 - 96% (p=0.064, p > 0.05) respectively. FISH sensitivity was slightly higher than karyotyping but there was calculated a strong correlation between them (p < 0.001). RQ-PCR test failure rate did not correlate with other two tests (p > 0.05); however, karyotyping and FISH test failure rate was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Besides, the situation needed for karyotype analysis, RQ-PCR assay can be used alone in the follow-up of CML disease. (author)

  8. Development of a neutralization assay for influenza virus using an endpoint assessment based on quantitative reverse-transcription PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Teferedegne

    Full Text Available A microneutralization assay using an ELISA-based endpoint assessment (ELISA-MN is widely used to measure the serological response to influenza virus infection and vaccination. We have developed an alternative microneutralization assay for influenza virus using a quantitative reverse transcription PCR-based endpoint assessment (qPCR-MN in order to improve upon technical limitations associated with ELISA-MN. For qPCR-MN, infected MDCK-London cells in 96-well cell-culture plates are processed with minimal steps such that resulting samples are amenable to high-throughput analysis by downstream one-step quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR; SYBR Green chemistry with primers targeting a conserved region of the M1 gene of influenza A viruses. The growth curves of three recent vaccine strains demonstrated that the qRT-PCR signal detected at 6 hours post-infection reflected an amplification of at least 100-fold over input. Using ferret antisera, we have established the feasibility of measuring virus neutralization at 6 hours post-infection, a duration likely confined to a single virus-replication cycle. The neutralization titer for qPCR-MN was defined as the highest reciprocal serum dilution necessary to achieve a 90% inhibition of the qRT-PCR signal; this endpoint was found to be in agreement with ELISA-MN using the same critical reagents in each assay. qPCR-MN was robust with respect to assay duration (6 hours vs. 12 hours. In addition, qPCR-MN appeared to be compliant with the Percentage Law (i.e., virus neutralization results appear to be consistent over an input virus dose ranging from 500 to 12,000 TCID(50. Compared with ELISA-MN, qPCR-MN might have inherent properties conducive to reducing intra- and inter-laboratory variability while affording suitability for automation and high-throughput uses. Finally, our qRT-PCR-based approach may be broadly applicable to the development of neutralization assays for a wide variety of viruses.

  9. Quantitative detection and differentiation of free-living amoeba species using SYBR green-based real-time PCR melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behets, Jonas; Declerck, Priscilla; Delaedt, Yasmine; Verelst, Lieve; Ollevier, Frans

    2006-12-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction melting curve analysis (MCA) allows differentiation of several free-living amoebae species. Distinctive characteristics were found for Naegleria fowleri, N. lovaniensis, N. australiensis, N. gruberi, Hartmanella vermiformis, and Willaertia magna. Species specificity of the amplicons was confirmed using agarose gel electrophoresis and sequence-based approaches. Amplification efficiency ranged from 91% to 98%, indicating the quantitative potential of the assay. This MCA approach can be used for quantitative detection of free-living amoebae after cultivation but also as a culture-independent detection method.

  10. A Quantitative Real-Time PCR Approach for Assessing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Colonization in Broiler Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Katrin; Overesch, Gudrun; Kuhnert, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Human campylobacteriosis is a major public health concern in developed countries, with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from poultry recognized as the main source of human infection. Identification of Campylobacter-positive broiler herds before slaughter is essential for implementing measures to avoid carryover of pathogens via the slaughter process into the food chain. However, appropriate methods that have been validated for testing poultry flocks antemortem are lacking for Campylobacter. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that allows simultaneous detection and quantification of C. jejuni and C. coli was adapted and optimized to be applied on boot socks. The adjusted qPCR serves as an easy, sensitive, and quantitative method for Campylobacter detection in poultry flocks antemortem by analysis of boot socks. An adequate correlation was found between qPCR and culture, as well as between boot socks and cecal samples, which are regarded as the "gold standard." Therefore, boot sock sampling followed by qPCR analysis provides a reliable and simple method for assessing Campylobacter load within a flock prior to slaughter. The approach allows categorization of broiler herds into negative, low, moderate, or high Campylobacter colonization. Based on the results of this new approach, risk assessment models, such as evaluating the possible effect of sorting flocks before slaughter, can be easily implemented. Similarly, targeted identification of highly colonized flocks for improvement of biosecurity measures at the farm level will become feasible, presenting an opportunity to increase food safety.

  11. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-01-01

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management. PMID:27562455

  12. Quantitative analysis of diet structure by real-time PCR, reveals different feeding patterns by two dominant grasshopper species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Wu, Huihui; McNeill, Mark Richard; Qin, Xinghu; Ma, Jingchuan; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2016-08-26

    Studies on grasshopper diets have historically employed a range of methodologies, each with certain advantages and disadvantages. For example, some methodologies are qualitative instead of quantitative. Others require long experimental periods or examine population-level effects, only. In this study, we used real-time PCR to examine diets of individual grasshoppers. The method has the advantage of being both fast and quantitative. Using two grasshopper species, Oedaleus asiaticus and Dasyhippus barbipes, we designed ITS primer sequences for their three main host plants, Stipa krylovii, Leymus chinensis and Cleistogenes squarrosa and used real-time PCR method to test diet structure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The lowest detection efficiency of the three grass species was ~80% with a strong correlation between actual and PCR-measured food intake. We found that Oedaleus asiaticus maintained an unchanged diet structure across grasslands with different grass communities. By comparison, Dasyhippus barbipes changed its diet structure. These results revealed why O. asiaticus distribution is mainly confined to Stipa-dominated grassland, and D. barbipes is more widely distributed across Inner Mongolia. Overall, real-time PCR was shown to be a useful tool for investigating grasshopper diets, which in turn offers some insight into grasshopper distributions and improved pest management.

  13. SNPs and real-time quantitative PCR method for constitutional allelic copy number determination, the VPREB1 marker case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Elena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 22q11.2 microdeletion is responsible for the DiGeorge Syndrome, characterized by heart defects, psychiatric disorders, endocrine and immune alterations and a 1 in 4000 live birth prevalence. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR approaches for allelic copy number determination have recently been investigated in 22q11.2 microdeletions detection. The qPCR method was performed for 22q11.2 microdeletions detection as a first-level screening approach in a genetically unknown series of patients with congenital heart defects. A technical issue related to the VPREB1 qPCR marker was pointed out. Methods A set of 100 unrelated Italian patients with congenital heart defects were tested for 22q11.2 microdeletions by a qPCR method using six different markers. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization technique (FISH was used for confirmation. Results qPCR identified six patients harbouring the 22q11.2 microdeletion, confirmed by FISH. The VPREB1 gene marker presented with a pattern consistent with hemideletion in one 3 Mb deleted patient, suggestive for a long distal deletion, and in additional five non-deleted patients. The long distal 22q11.2 deletion was not confirmed by Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Indeed, the VPREB1 gene marker generated false positive results in association with the rs1320 G/A SNP, a polymorphism localized within the VPREB1 marker reverse primer sequence. Patients heterozygous for rs1320 SNP, showed a qPCR profile consistent with the presence of a hemideletion. Conclusions Though the qPCR technique showed advantages as a screening approach in terms of cost and time, the VPREB1 marker case revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms can interfere with qPCR data generating erroneous allelic copy number interpretations.

  14. Detection and quantification of viable Bacillus cereus group species in milk by propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, Fernanda; Barth, Valdir C; Nasário, Jéssica S R; Ferreira, Carlos A S; Oliveira, Sílvia D

    2016-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes important spore-forming bacteria that present spoilage capability and may cause foodborne diseases. These microorganisms are traditionally evaluated in food using culturing methods, which can be laborious and time-consuming, and may also fail to detect bacteria in a viable but nonculturable state. The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to analyze the contamination of UHT milk by B. cereus group species viable cells. Thirty micrograms per milliliter of PMA was shown to be the most effective concentration for reducing the PCR amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA from dead cells. The quantification limit of the PMA-qPCR assay was 7.5 × 10(2) cfu/mL of milk. One hundred thirty-five UHT milk samples were analyzed to evaluate the association of PMA to qPCR to selectively detect viable cells. The PMA-qPCR was able to detect B. cereus group species in 44 samples (32.6%), whereas qPCR without PMA detected 78 positive samples (57.8%). Therefore, the PMA probably inhibited the amplification of DNA from cells that were killed during UHT processing, which avoided an overestimation of bacterial cells when using qPCR and, thus, did not overvalue potential health risks. A culture-based method was also used to detect and quantify B. cereus sensu stricto in the same samples and showed positive results in 15 (11.1%) samples. The culture method and PMA-qPCR allowed the detection of B. cereus sensu stricto in quantities compatible with the infective dose required to cause foodborne disease in 3 samples, indicating that, depending on the storage conditions, even after UHT treatment, infective doses may be reached in ready-to-consume products. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selecting housekeeping genes as references for the normalization of quantitative PCR data in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Y; Çelebiler, A Ç; Sakızlı, M

    2014-02-01

    The common reference genes of choice in relative gene expression studies based on quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction, ACTB and B2M, were shown to be regulated differently in respect to tissue type. In this study, the stability of the selected housekeeping genes for normalizing the qPCR data were identified in the tumor and its adjacent tissues in invasive breast cancer, and the variability of their levels according to the stages and the histopathologic subtypes was analyzed. Four housekeeping genes: PUM1, RPL13A, B2M, and ACTB were analyzed in 99 surgically excised tissue specimens (50 tumor, 45 tumor adjacent and 4 normal breast tissues). Three of the most common softwares (GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used for calculation purposes. When all of the tissue samples were included in analyses, PUM1 was the most stable gene according to calculations made with both NormFinder and BestKeeper; while PUM1/RPL13A combination was the most stable by GeNorm software. The PUM1 gene was also identified as the most stable gene among the four in all sample groups (in both Estrogen Receptor positive and Estrogen Receptor negative subgroups of invasive breast carcinoma and in normal breast tissue) according to calculations made using the NormFinder software. While suggesting PUM1 is one of the most stable single gene and the PUM1/RPL13A pair as one of the best housekeeping genes for the normalization of expression studies in invasive breast tumor studies, it will be more practical to evaluate stability once more and decide upon the reference gene accordingly within the sample group itself.

  16. Quantification of yeast and bacterial gene transcripts in retail cheeses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Christophe; Straub, Cécile; Castellote, Jessie; Onesime, Djamila; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The cheese microbiota contributes to a large extent to the development of the typical color, flavor, and texture of the final product. Its composition is not well defined in most cases and varies from one cheese to another. The aim of the present study was to establish procedures for gene transcript quantification in cheeses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Total RNA was extracted from five smear-ripened cheeses purchased on the retail market, using a method that does not involve prior separation of microbial cells. 16S rRNA and malate:quinone oxidoreductase gene transcripts of Corynebacterium casei, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Arthrobacter arilaitensis and 26S rRNA and beta tubulin gene transcripts of Geotrichum candidum and Debaryomyces hansenii could be detected and quantified in most of the samples. Three types of normalization were applied: against total RNA, against the amount of cheese, and against a reference gene. For the first two types of normalization, differences of reverse transcription efficiencies from one sample to another were taken into account by analysis of exogenous control mRNA. No good correlation was found between the abundances of target mRNA or rRNA transcripts and the viable cell concentration of the corresponding species. However, in most cases, no mRNA transcripts were detected for species that did not belong to the dominant species. The applications of gene expression measurement in cheeses containing an undefined microbiota, as well as issues concerning the strategy of normalization and the assessment of amplification specificity, are discussed.

  17. Identification of stable normalization genes for quantitative real-time PCR in porcine articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Ryan S; Ashwell, Melissa S; O'Nan, Audrey T; Mente, Peter L

    2012-11-12

    Expression levels for genes of interest must be normalized with an appropriate reference, or housekeeping gene, to make accurate comparisons of quantitative real-time PCR results. The purpose of this study was to identify the most stable housekeeping genes in porcine articular cartilage subjected to a mechanical injury from a panel of 10 candidate genes. Ten candidate housekeeping genes were evaluated in three different treatment groups of mechanically impacted porcine articular cartilage. The genes evaluated were: beta actin, beta-2-microglobulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A), ribosomal protein L4, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit A, TATA box binding protein, and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein-zeta polypeptide. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder software. The four most stable genes measured via geNorm were (most to least stable) succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin; the four most stable genes measured via BestKeeper were glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, beta actin, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A; and the four most stable genes measured via NormFinder were peptidylprolyl isomerase A, succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein, subunit A, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta actin. BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder all generated similar results for the most stable genes in porcine articular cartilage. The use of these appropriate reference genes will facilitate accurate gene expression studies of porcine articular cartilage and suggest appropriate housekeeping genes for articular cartilage studies in other species.

  18. Detection limits and cost comparisons of human- and gull-associated conventional and quantitative PCR assays in artificial and environmental waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Timothy E.; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G.; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Madi, Tania; Hanley, Kaitlyn T.; Ebentier, Darcy L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Layton, Blythe; Raith, Meredith; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Griffith, John F.; Holden, Patricia A.; Shanks, Orin C.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Jay, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Some molecular methods for tracking fecal pollution in environmental waters have both PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays available for use. To assist managers in deciding whether to implement newer qPCR techniques in routine monitoring programs, we compared detection limits (LODs) and costs of PCR and qPCR assays with identical targets that are relevant to beach water quality assessment. For human-associated assays targeting Bacteroidales HF183 genetic marker, qPCR LODs were 70 times lower and there was no effect of target matrix (artificial freshwater, environmental creek water, and environmental marine water) on PCR or qPCR LODs. The PCR startup and annual costs were the lowest, while the per reaction cost was 62% lower than the Taqman based qPCR and 180% higher than the SYBR based qPCR. For gull-associated assays, there was no significant difference between PCR and qPCR LODs, target matrix did not effect PCR or qPCR LODs, and PCR startup, annual, and per reaction costs were lower. Upgrading to qPCR involves greater startup and annual costs, but this increase may be justified in the case of the human-associated assays with lower detection limits and reduced cost per sample.

  19. [Use of real-time PCR for quantitative assessment of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in dairy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenaia, L B; Kovalenko, N K; Oblap, R V; Hovak, N B; Golubets, R A

    2012-01-01

    Composition of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in raw milk and home-made milk products has been analyzed using real-time PCR (quantitative PCR) with genus-specific primers to Enterococcus, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. Bacteria belonging to these genera have been revealed in all samples analyzed (milk, sour cream, cottage cheese). It has been shown that the representatives of Enterococcus and Lactobacillus genera dominated in the samples analyzed (10(3)-10(7) genome equivalent/ml (mg)). The largest number of these microorganisms (10(7) genome equivalent/mg) has been detected in cottage cheese.

  20. Successful Validation of Sample Processing and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Capabilities on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Schonfeld, Julie; Tran, Luan

    2016-01-01

    The WetLab-2 system was developed by NASA Ames Research Center to offer new capabilities to researchers. The system can lyse cells and extract RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) on-orbit from different sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues. The purified RNA can then either be stabilized for return to Earth or can be used to conduct on-orbit quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) (qRT-PCR) analysis without the need for sample return. The qRT-PCR results can be downlinked to the ground a few hours after the completion of the run. The validation flight of the WetLab-2 system launched on SpaceX-8 on April 8, 2016. On orbit operations started on April 15th with system setup and was followed by three quantitative PCR runs using an E. coli genomic DNA template pre-loaded at three different concentrations. These runs were designed to discern if quantitative PCR functions correctly in microgravity and if the data is comparable to that from the ground control runs. The flight data showed no significant differences compared to the ground data though there was more variability in the values, this was likely due to the numerous small bubbles observed. The capability of the system to process samples and purify RNA was then validated using frozen samples prepared on the ground. The flight data for both E. coli and mouse liver clearly shows that RNA was successfully purified by our system. The E. coli qRT-PCR run showed successful singleplex, duplex and triplex capability. Data showed high variability in the resulting Cts (Cycle Thresholds [for the PCR]) likely due to bubble formation and insufficient mixing during the procedure run. The mouse liver qRT-PCR run had successful singleplex and duplex reactions and the variability was slightly better as the mixing operation was improved. The ability to purify and stabilize RNA and to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit is an important step towards utilizing the ISS as a National Laboratory facility. The

  1. Detection and absolute quantitation of Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) by real time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Vásquez, José Angel; Rubio, Luis; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana; Debreczeni, Diana Elvira; Font-San-Ambrosio, Isabel; Falk, Bryce W; Ferriol, Inmaculada

    2015-09-01

    Tomato torrado virus (ToTV) causes serious damage to the tomato industry and significant economic losses. A quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method using primers and a specific TaqMan(®) MGB probe for ToTV was developed for sensitive detection and quantitation of different ToTV isolates. A standard curve using RNA transcripts enabled absolute quantitation, with a dynamic range from 10(4) to 10(10) ToTV RNA copies/ng of total RNA. The specificity of the RT-qPCR was tested with twenty-three ToTV isolates from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) collected in Spain, Australia, Hungary and France, which covered the genetic variation range of this virus. This new RT-qPCR assay enables a reproducible, sensitive and specific detection and quantitation of ToTV, which can be a valuable tool in disease management programs and epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative Real Time PCR approach to study gene expression profile during prenatal growth of skeletal muscle in pig of Duroc and Pietrain breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagnazzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative real time-PCR (QRT-PCR is a very sensitive method used to quantify mRNA level in gene expression analysis. Combining amplification, detection and quantification in a single step, allows a more accurate measurement compared to the traditional PCR end point analysis (Pfaffl, 2001; Bustin, 2002.

  3. Development of duplex SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR for detection and discrimination of grapevine viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SYBR® Green-based real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay in combination with melt curve analysis (MCA) was developed for the detection of nine grapevine viruses. The detection limits for singleplex qRT-PCR for all nine grapevine viruses were determined to be in the range ...

  4. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  5. The Digital MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huggett, J.F.; Foy, C.A.; Benes, V.; Emslie, K.; Garson, J.A.; Haynes, R.; Hellemans, J.; Kubista, Mikael; Mueller, R.D.; Nolan, T.; Pfaffl, M.W.; Shipley, G.L.; Vandesompele, J.; Wittwer, C.T.; Bustin, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2013), s. 892-902 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : REAL - TIME PCR * POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION * COPY NUMBER VARIATION * RT-PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.768, year: 2013

  6. Molecular diagnostic toolkit for Rhizophagus irregularis isolate DAOM-197198 using quantitative PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Amine; Stefani, Franck O P; Lachance, Geneviève; Roy-Arcand, Line; Beaudet, Denis; Vialle, Agathe; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Rhizophagus irregularis (previously named Glomus irregulare) is one of the most widespread and common arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species. It has been recovered worldwide in agricultural and natural soils, and the isolate DAOM-197198 has been utilized as a commercial inoculant for two decades. Despite the ecological and economical importance of this taxon, specific markers for quantification of propagules by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) are extremely limited and none have been rigorously validated for quality control of manufactured products such as biofertilizers. From the sequencing of 14 complete AMF mitochondrial (mt) genomes, a qPCR assay using a hydrolysis probe designed in the single copy cox3-rnl intergenic region was tested and validated to specifically and accurately quantify the spores of R. irregularis isolate DAOM-197198. Specificity tests were performed using standard PCR and qPCR, and results clearly showed that the primers specifically amplified the isolate DAOM-197198, yielding a PCR product of 106 bp. According to the qPCR analyses on spores produced in vitro, the average copy number of mt genomes per spore was 3172 ± 304 SE (n = 6). Quantification assays were successfully undertaken on known and unknown samples in liquid suspensions and commercial dry formulations to show the accuracy, precision, robustness, and reproducibility of the qPCR assay. This study provides a powerful molecular toolkit specifically designed to quantify spores of the model AMF isolate DAOM-197198. The approach of molecular toolkit used in our study could be applied to other AMF taxa and will be useful to research institutions and governmental and industrial laboratories running routine quality control of AMF-based products.

  7. LEMming: A Linear Error Model to Normalize Parallel Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR Data as an Alternative to Reference Gene Based Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Feuer

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis is an essential part of biological and medical investigations. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is characterized with excellent sensitivity, dynamic range, reproducibility and is still regarded to be the gold standard for quantifying transcripts abundance. Parallelization of qPCR such as by microfluidic Taqman Fluidigm Biomark Platform enables evaluation of multiple transcripts in samples treated under various conditions. Despite advanced technologies, correct evaluation of the measurements remains challenging. Most widely used methods for evaluating or calculating gene expression data include geNorm and ΔΔCt, respectively. They rely on one or several stable reference genes (RGs for normalization, thus potentially causing biased results. We therefore applied multivariable regression with a tailored error model to overcome the necessity of stable RGs.We developed a RG independent data normalization approach based on a tailored linear error model for parallel qPCR data, called LEMming. It uses the assumption that the mean Ct values within samples of similarly treated groups are equal. Performance of LEMming was evaluated in three data sets with different stability patterns of RGs and compared to the results of geNorm normalization. Data set 1 showed that both methods gave similar results if stable RGs are available. Data set 2 included RGs which are stable according to geNorm criteria, but became differentially expressed in normalized data evaluated by a t-test. geNorm-normalized data showed an effect of a shifted mean per gene per condition whereas LEMming-normalized data did not. Comparing the decrease of standard deviation from raw data to geNorm and to LEMming, the latter was superior. In data set 3 according to geNorm calculated average expression stability and pairwise variation, stable RGs were available, but t-tests of raw data contradicted this. Normalization with RGs resulted in distorted data contradicting

  8. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for measurement of trichechid herpesvirus 1 load in the Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason A; Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Archer, Linda L; Wellehan, James F X

    2017-07-01

    Trichechid herpesvirus 1 (TrHV-1) is currently the only known herpesvirus in any sirenian. We hypothesized that stress may lead to recrudescence of TrHV-1 in manatees, thus making TrHV-1 a potential biomarker of stress. We optimized and validated a TrHV-1 real-time quantitative probe hybridization PCR (qPCR) assay that was used to quantify TrHV-1 in manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Average baseline TrHV-1 loads in a clinically healthy wild Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) population ( n = 42) were 40.9 ± SD 21.2 copies/100 ng DNA; 19 of 42 manatees were positive. TrHV-1 loads were significantly different between the 2 field seasons ( p < 0.025). This optimized and validated qPCR assay may be used as a tool for further research into TrHV-1 in Florida manatees.

  9. Simultaneous detection and differentiation of human papillomavirus genotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18 by AllGlo quadruplex quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomaviruses (HPV are classified into high-risk HPV and low-risk HPV. The most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer are HPV 16 and 18, and the most common low-risk types causing genital warts are HPV 6 and HPV 11. In this study, applying novel AllGlo fluorescent probes, we established a quadruplex quantitative PCR method to simultaneously detect and differentiate HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 in a single tube. METHODS: The specificity, the sensitivity, the detection limit, the reproducibility and the standard curve of this method were examined. Finally, clinical samples that had been tested previously by TaqMan PCR and HPV GenoArray (GA test were used to verify the accuracy and sensitivity of the method. RESULTS: The assay has a sensitivity of 10(1 to 10(2 copies/test and a linear detection range from 10(1 to 10(8 copies/test. The mean amplification efficiencies for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 were 0.97, 1.10, 0.93 and 1.20, respectively, and the mean correlation coefficient (r(2 of each standard curve was above 0.99 for plasmid templates ranging from 10(3 to 10(7 copies/test. There was 100% agreement between the AllGlo quadruplex quantitative PCR, HPV GA test and TaqMan uniplex qPCR methods. CONCLUSIONS: AllGlo quadruplex quantitative PCR in a single tube has the advantages of relatively high throughput, good reproducibility, high sensitivity, high specificity, and a wide linear range of detection. The convenient single tube format makes this assay a powerful tool for the studies of mixed infections by multiple pathogens, viral typing and viral load quantification.

  10. A high-throughput assay for quantitative measurement of PCR errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagin, Dmitriy A; Shagina, Irina A; Zaretsky, Andrew R; Barsova, Ekaterina V; Kelmanson, Ilya V; Lukyanov, Sergey; Chudakov, Dmitriy M; Shugay, Mikhail

    2017-06-02

    The accuracy with which DNA polymerase can replicate a template DNA sequence is an extremely important property that can vary by an order of magnitude from one enzyme to another. The rate of nucleotide misincorporation is shaped by multiple factors, including PCR conditions and proofreading capabilities, and proper assessment of polymerase error rate is essential for a wide range of sensitive PCR-based assays. In this paper, we describe a method for studying polymerase errors with exceptional resolution, which combines unique molecular identifier tagging and high-throughput sequencing. Our protocol is less laborious than commonly-used methods, and is also scalable, robust and accurate. In a series of nine PCR assays, we have measured a range of polymerase accuracies that is in line with previous observations. However, we were also able to comprehensively describe individual errors introduced by each polymerase after either 20 PCR cycles or a linear amplification, revealing specific substitution preferences and the diversity of PCR error frequency profiles. We also demonstrate that the detected high-frequency PCR errors are highly recurrent and that the position in the template sequence and polymerase-specific substitution preferences are among the major factors influencing the observed PCR error rate.

  11. A probe-based quantitative PCR assay for detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in fish tissue and environmental DNA water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Patrick; Sepulveda, Adam; Martin, Renee; Hopper, Lacey

    2017-01-01

    A probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, which causes proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish, in kidney tissue and environmental DNA (eDNA) water samples. The limits of detection and quantification were 7 and 100 DNA copies for calibration standards and T. bryosalmonae was reliably detected down to 100 copies in tissue and eDNA samples. The assay presented here is a highly sensitive and quantitative tool for detecting T. bryosalmonae with potential applications for tissue diagnostics and environmental detection.

  12. Reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR data in gastric tissues and cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnieski, Fernanda; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; dos Santos, Leonardo Caires; Gigek, Carolina de Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Assumpção, Mônica Barauna; Demachki, Sâmia; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the suitability of reference genes in gastric tissue samples and cell lines. METHODS: The suitability of genes ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, RPL29, and 18S rRNA was assessed in 21 matched pairs of neoplastic and adjacent non-neoplastic gastric tissues from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, 27 normal gastric tissues from patients without cancer, and 4 cell lines using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The ranking of the best single and combination of reference genes was determined by NormFinder, geNorm™, BestKeeper, and DataAssist™. In addition, GenEx software was used to determine the optimal number of reference genes. To validate the results, the mRNA expression of a target gene, DNMT1, was quantified using the different reference gene combinations suggested by the various software packages for normalization. RESULTS: ACTB was the best reference gene for all gastric tissues, cell lines and all gastric tissues plus cell lines. GAPDH + B2M or ACTB + B2M was the best combination of reference genes for all the gastric tissues. On the other hand, ACTB + B2M was the best combination for all the cell lines tested and was also the best combination for analyses involving all the gastric tissues plus cell lines. According to the GenEx software, 2 or 3 genes were the optimal number of references genes for all the gastric tissues. The relative quantification of DNMT1 showed similar patterns when normalized by each combination of reference genes. The level of expression of DNMT1 in neoplastic, adjacent non-neoplastic and normal gastric tissues did not differ when these samples were normalized using GAPDH + B2M (P = 0.32), ACTB + B2M (P = 0.61), or GAPDH + B2M + ACTB (P = 0.44). CONCLUSION: GAPDH + B2M or ACTB + B2M is the best combination of reference gene for all the gastric tissues, and ACTB + B2M is the best combination for the cell lines tested. PMID:24222956

  13. The detection of Yersinia enterocolitica in surface water by quantitative PCR amplification of the ail and yadA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Bo M; Van Dyke, Michele I; Anderson, William B; Huck, Peter M

    2010-09-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica has been detected in surface water, and drinking untreated water is a risk factor for infection. PCR-based methods have been used to detect Y. enterocolitica in various sample types, but quantitative studies have not been conducted in water. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based methods targeting the Yersinia virulence genes ail and yadA were used to survey the Grand River watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. Initial testing of reference strains showed that ail and yadA PCR assays were specific for pathogenic biotypes of Y. enterocolitica; however the genes were also detected in one clinical Yersinia intermedia isolate. A survey of surface water from the Grand River watershed showed that both genes were detected at five sampling locations, with the ail and yadA genes detected in 38 and 21% of samples, respectively. Both genes were detected more frequently at colder water temperatures. A screening of Yersinia strains isolated from the watershed showed that the ail gene was detected in three Y. enterocolitica 1A/O:5 isolates. Results of this study show that Yersinia virulence genes were commonly detected in a watershed used as a source of drinking water, and that the occurrence of these genes was seasonal.

  14. Quantitative Expression Analysis in Brassica napus by Northern Blot Analysis and Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR in a Complex Experimental Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin Rumlow

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene expression is one of the major ways to better understand plant reactions to changes in environmental conditions. The comparison of many different factors influencing plant growth challenges the gene expression analysis for specific gene-targeted experiments, especially with regard to the choice of suitable reference genes. The aim of this study is to compare expression results obtained by Northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR and RT-qPCR, and to identify a reliable set of reference genes for oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. suitable for comparing gene expression under complex experimental conditions. We investigated the influence of several factors such as sulfur deficiency, different time points during the day, varying light conditions, and their interaction on gene expression in oilseed rape plants. The expression of selected reference genes was indeed influenced under these conditions in different ways. Therefore, a recently developed algorithm, called GrayNorm, was applied to validate a set of reference genes for normalizing results obtained by Northern blot analysis. After careful comparison of the three methods mentioned above, Northern blot analysis seems to be a reliable and cost-effective alternative for gene expression analysis under a complex growth regime. For using this method in a quantitative way a number of references was validated revealing that for our experiment a set of three references provides an appropriate normalization. Semi-quantitative PCR was prone to many handling errors and difficult to control while RT-qPCR was very sensitive to expression fluctuations of the reference genes.

  15. The Digital MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Digital PCR Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huggett, J.F.; Foy, C.A.; Benes, V.; Emslie, K.; Garson, J.A.; Haynes, R.; Hellemans, J.; Kubista, Mikael; Mueller, R.D.; Nolan, T.; Pfaffl, M.W.; Shipley, G.L.; Vandesompele, J.; Wittwer, C.T.; Bustin, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2013), s. 892-902 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/1338 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : REAL-TIME PCR * POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION * COPY NUMBER VARIATION * RT-PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.768, year: 2013

  16. Comparison of real-time quantitative PCR and culture for the diagnosis of emerging Rickettsioses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Angelakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Isolation of Rickettsia species from skin biopsies may be replaced by PCR. We evaluated culture sensitivity compared to PCR based on sampling delay and previous antibiotic treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Skin biopsies and ticks from patients with suspected Rickettsia infection were screened for Rickettsia spp. using qPCR, and positive results were amplified and sequenced for the gltA and ompA genes. Immunofluorescence for spotted fever group rickettsial antigens was done for 79 patients. All skin biopsies and only ticks that tested positive using qPCR were cultured in human embryonic lung (HEL fibroblasts using the centrifugation-shell vial technique. Patients and ticks were classified as definitely having rickettsioses if there was direct evidence of infection with a Rickettsia sp. using culture or molecular assays or in patients if serology was positive. Data on previous antibiotic treatments were obtained for patients with rickettsiosis. Rickettsia spp. infection was diagnosed in 47 out of 145 patients (32%, 41 by PCR and 12 by culture, whereas 3 isolates were obtained from PCR negative biopsies. For 3 of the patients serology was positive although PCR and culture were negative. Rickettsia africae was the most common detected species (n = 25, [17.2%] and isolated bacterium (n = 5, [3.4%]. The probability of isolating Rickettsia spp. was 12 times higher in untreated patients and 5.4 times higher in patients from our hometown. Rickettsia spp. was amplified in 24 out of 95 ticks (25% and we isolated 7 R. slovaca and 1 R. raoultii from Dermacentor marginatus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found a positive correlation between the bacteria copies and the isolation success in skin biopsies and ticks. Culture remains critical for strain analysis but is less sensitive than serology and PCR for the diagnosis of a Rickettsia infection.

  17. Quantitative one-step real-time RT-PCR for the fast detection of the four genotypes of PPRV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Olivier; Keita, Djénéba; Gil, Patricia; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Jimenez Clavero, Miguel Angel; Albina, Emmanuel; Libeau, Genevieve

    2010-05-01

    A one-step real-time Taqman RT-PCR assay (RRT-PCR) for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) was developed to detect the four lineages of PPRV by targeting the nucleoprotein (N) gene of the virus. This new assay was compared to a conventional RT-PCR on reference strains and field materials. Quantitation was performed against a standard based on a synthetic transcript of the NPPR gene for which a minimum of 32 copies per reaction were detected with a corresponding C(t) value of 39. Depending on the lineage involved, the detection limit of RRT-PCR was decreased by one to three log copies relative to the conventional method. The lower stringency occurred with lineage III because of minor nucleotide mismatches within the probe region. The assay did not detect phylogenetically or symptomatically related viruses of ruminants (such as rinderpest, bluetongue, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses). However, it was capable of detecting 20% more positive field samples with low viral RNA loads compared to the conventional PCR method. When compared on a proficiency panel to the method developed by Bao et al. (2008), the sensitivity of the in-house assay was slightly improved on lineage II. It proved significantly faster to perform and hence better adapted for monitoring large numbers of at risk or diseased animals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of the bacterial diversity of breast milk of healthy women by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M C; Delgado, S; Maldonado, A; Rodríguez, J M

    2009-05-01

    Breast milk has been described as a source of bacteria influencing the development of the infant gut microbiota. Up to the present, few studies have been focused on the application of culture-independent techniques to study bacterial diversity in breast milk. In this context, the aim of this study was to characterize the breast milk microbiota of healthy women by applying the quantitative real-time PCR technique (qRTi-PCR). A total of 50 breast milk samples were analysed by qPCR to assess the presence of different bacterial genera or clusters, including the Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Bacteroides, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa-XIVb groups. Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were the predominant groups and were detected in all the samples. Clostridium XIVa-XIVb and Enterococcus were detected in most of the samples in contrast to the Bacteroides and Clostridium cluster IV groups. Our results confirm the abundance of bacterial DNA in breast milk samples and suggest that the qRTi-PCR technique has a huge potential in the microbiological analysis of human milk. qRTi-PCR allowed the detection of bacterial DNA of streptococci, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in the samples of human milk, which confirms that breast milk can be an important source of bacteria and bacterial DNA to the infant gut.

  19. DNA and RNA Extraction and Quantitative Real-Time PCR-Based Assays for Biogas Biocenoses in an Interlaboratory Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebuhn, Michael; Derenkó, Jaqueline; Rademacher, Antje; Helbig, Susanne; Munk, Bernhard; Pechtl, Alexander; Stolze, Yvonne; Prowe, Steffen; Schwarz, Wolfgang H.; Schlüter, Andreas; Liebl, Wolfgang; Klocke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Five institutional partners participated in an interlaboratory comparison of nucleic acid extraction, RNA preservation and quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) based assays for biogas biocenoses derived from different grass silage digesting laboratory and pilot scale fermenters. A kit format DNA extraction system based on physical and chemical lysis with excellent extraction efficiency yielded highly reproducible results among the partners and clearly outperformed a traditional CTAB/chloroform/isoamylalcohol based method. Analytical purpose, sample texture, consistency and upstream pretreatment steps determine the modifications that should be applied to achieve maximum efficiency in the trade-off between extract purity and nucleic acid recovery rate. RNA extraction was much more variable, and the destination of the extract determines the method to be used. RNA stabilization with quaternary ammonium salts was an as satisfactory approach as flash freezing in liquid N2. Due to co-eluted impurities, spectrophotometry proved to be of limited value for nucleic acid qualification and quantification in extracts obtained with the kit, and picoGreen® based quantification was more trustworthy. Absorbance at 230 nm can be extremely high in the presence of certain chaotropic guanidine salts, but guanidinium isothiocyanate does not affect (q)PCR. Absolute quantification by qPCR requires application of a reliable internal standard for which correct PCR efficiency and Y-intercept values are important and must be reported. PMID:28952569

  20. Application of propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR to quantify the viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyu; Wang, Zhaoxia; Bao, Qiuhua; Zhang, Heping

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a combination of propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to develop a method to determine the viability of cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus ND02 (L. bulgaricus) that may have entered into a viable but nonculturable state. This can happen due to its susceptibility to cold shock during lyophilization and storage. Propidium monoazide concentration, PMA incubation time, and light exposure time were optimized to fully exploit the PMA-qPCR approach to accurately assess the total number of living L. bulgaricus ND02. Although PMA has little influence on living cells, when concentrations of PMA were higher than 30μg/mL the number of PCR-positive living bacteria decreased from 10 6 to 10 5 cfu/mL in comparison with qPCR enumeration. Mixtures of living and dead cells were used as method verification samples for enumeration by PMA-qPCR, demonstrating that this method was feasible and effective for distinguishing living cells of L. bulgaricus when mixed with a known number of dead cells. We suggest that several conditions need to be studied further before PMA-qPCR methods can be accurately used to distinguish living from dead cells for enumeration under more realistic sampling situations. However, this research provides a rapid way to enumerate living cells of L. bulgaricus and could be used to optimize selection of cryoprotectants in the lyophilization process and develop technologies for high cell density cultivation and optimal freeze-drying processes. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishment of a 10-Plex Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR Assay for rapid diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmei Xie

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome aneuploidies occur commonly in the general population, with an incidence of 1 in 400 newborns. However, no tests specifically targeting sex chromosomes have been carried out in prenatal diagnosis or newborn screening, resulting in late recognition of these diseases. In this study, a rapid diagnostic method for sex chromosome aneuploidies was established using Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR. Ten markers were included in one multiplex QF-PCR assay, including two sex determination genes (AMXY and SRY, five X-linked short tandem repeats (STRs; DXS1053, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS1187, and DXS8377, one X/Y-common STR (X22, and two autosomal STRs (D13S305 and D21S11. Retrospective tests of 70 cases with known cytogenetic results indicated that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could well determine sex chromosome copy numbers by both allelic peak numbers and a sex chromosome dosage calculation with the autosomal STRs as internal controls. Prospective comparison with cytogenetic karyotyping on 534 cases confirmed that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could be well employed for sex chromosome aneuploidy diagnosis in at least the Chinese Han population. This is the first QF-PCR test for the diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the Chinese population. This test is superior to previous designs by including up to 8 sex-linked markers covering different parts of sex chromosomes as well as employing internal controls for copy number dosage calculation in a single PCR reaction. Due to simple technique and data analysis, as well as easy implementation within routine clinical services, this method is of great clinical application value and could be widely applied.

  2. Rapid Quantification of Viable Campylobacter Bacteria on Chicken Carcasses, Using Real-Time PCR and Propidium Monoazide Treatment, as a Tool for Quantitative Risk Assessment▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsen, M. H.; Löfström, C.; Hansen, T. B.; Christensen, L. S.; Olsen, J. E.; Hoorfar, J.

    2010-01-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a sig...

  3. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  4. Development of quantitative real-time PCR for detection and enumeration of Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hajime; Saito, Rumi; Miya, Satoko; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Miyamura, Natsumi; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2017-04-04

    The family Enterobacteriaceae, members of which are widely distributed in the environment, includes many important human pathogens. In this study, a rapid real-time PCR method targeting rplP, coding for L16 protein, a component of the ribosome large subunit, was developed for enumerating Enterobacteriaceae strains, and its efficiency was evaluated using naturally contaminated food products. The rplP-targeted real-time PCR amplified Enterobacteriaceae species with Ct values of 14.0-22.8, whereas the Ct values for non-Enterobacteriaceae species were >30, indicating the specificity of this method for the Enterobacteriaceae. Using a calibration curve of Ct=-3.025 (log CFU/g)+37.35, which was calculated from individual plots of the cell numbers in different concentrations of 5 Enterobacteriaceae species, the rplP-targeted real-time PCR was applied to 51 food samples. A real-time PCR and culture methods was obtained in a majority of the food samples (81.8%), with good correlation (r 2 =0.8285). This study demonstrated that the rplP-targeted real-time PCR method could detect and enumerate Enterobacteriaceae species in foods rapidly and accurately, and therefore, it can be used for the microbiological risk analysis of foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jona Walk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI has become well-established in the evaluation of drugs and vaccines. Anti-malarial treatment is usually initiated when thick blood smears are positive by microscopy. This study explores the effects of using the more sensitive qPCR as the primary diagnostic test. Methods 1691 diagnostic blood samples were analysed by microscopy and qPCR from 115 volunteers (55 malaria naïve and 60 having received chemoprophylaxis and sporozoite immunization who were challenged by five mosquitoes infected with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites of the NF54 strain. Results Retrospective analysis of different qPCR criteria for diagnosis and treatment, showed that once daily qPCR (threshold 100 parasites/ml had 99 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity, and shortened the median prepatent period from 10.5 to 7.0 days after CHMI when compared to twice daily measurement of thick blood smears (threshold 4000 parasites/ml. This is expected to result in a 78 % decrease of adverse events before initiation of treatment in future studies. Trial outcome related to infection and protective efficacy remained unchanged. Conclusion The use of qPCR as the primary diagnostic test in CHMI decreases symptoms as well as parasitaemia while obviating the need for twice daily follow-up. The implementation improves safety while reducing the clinical burden and costs without compromising the evaluation of protective efficacy.

  6. Development and evaluation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean A2704-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event; A2704-12. During the plant transformation, DNA fragments derived from pUC19 plasmid were integrated in A2704-12, and the region was found to be A2704-12 specific. The pUC19-derived DNA sequences were used as primers for the specific detection of A2704-12. We first tried to construct a standard plasmid for A2704-12 quantification using pUC19. However, non-specific signals appeared with both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses using the specific primers with pUC19 as a template, and we then constructed a plasmid using pBR322. The conversion factor (C(f)), which is required to calculate the amount of the genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined with two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT and the Applied Biosystems 7500. The determined C(f) values were both 0.98. The quantitative method was evaluated by means of blind tests in multi-laboratory trials using the two real-time PCR instruments. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.1%. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSD(R)), and the determined bias and RSD(R) values for the method were each less than 20%. These results suggest that the developed method would be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of A2704-12.

  7. Differential amplicons (ΔAmp)-a new molecular method to assess RNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, J; Švec, D; Lott, E; Kubista, M; Sjöback, R

    2016-01-01

    Integrity of the mRNA in clinical samples has major impact on the quality of measured expression levels. This is independent of the measurement technique being next generation sequencing (NGS), Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or microarray profiling. If mRNA is highly degraded or damaged, measured data will be very unreliable and the whole study is likely a waste of time and money. It is therefore common strategy to test the quality of RNA in samples before conducting large and costly studies. Most methods today to assess the quality of RNA are ignorant to the nature of the RNA and, therefore, reflect the integrity of ribosomal RNA, which is the dominant species, rather than of mRNAs, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, which usually are the species of interest. Here, we present a novel molecular approach to assess the quality of the targeted RNA species by measuring the differential amplification (ΔAmp) of an Endogenous RNase Resistant (ERR) marker relative to a reference gene, optionally combined with the measurement of two amplicons of different lengths. The combination reveals any mRNA degradation caused by ribonucleases as well as physical, chemical or UV damage. ΔAmp has superior sensitivity to common microfluidic electrophoretic methods, senses the integrity of the actual targeted RNA species, and allows for a smoother and more cost efficient workflow.

  8. Differential amplicons (ΔAmp—a new molecular method to assess RNA integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Björkman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrity of the mRNA in clinical samples has major impact on the quality of measured expression levels. This is independent of the measurement technique being next generation sequencing (NGS, Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR or microarray profiling. If mRNA is highly degraded or damaged, measured data will be very unreliable and the whole study is likely a waste of time and money. It is therefore common strategy to test the quality of RNA in samples before conducting large and costly studies. Most methods today to assess the quality of RNA are ignorant to the nature of the RNA and, therefore, reflect the integrity of ribosomal RNA, which is the dominant species, rather than of mRNAs, microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, which usually are the species of interest. Here, we present a novel molecular approach to assess the quality of the targeted RNA species by measuring the differential amplification (ΔAmp of an Endogenous RNase Resistant (ERR marker relative to a reference gene, optionally combined with the measurement of two amplicons of different lengths. The combination reveals any mRNA degradation caused by ribonucleases as well as physical, chemical or UV damage. ΔAmp has superior sensitivity to common microfluidic electrophoretic methods, senses the integrity of the actual targeted RNA species, and allows for a smoother and more cost efficient workflow.

  9. Sequence-based optimization of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Melissa; Lau, Rachel; Ralevski, Filip; Boggild, Andrea K

    2014-04-01

    Although microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria, molecular detection using PCR is becoming increasingly popular. Due to discrepant PCR and microscopy results, we aimed to optimize our detection assays for Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale by sequencing the 18S rRNA region and developing a new primer and probe set for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Clinical specimens positive for P. malariae (n = 15) or P. ovale (n = 33) underwent amplification and sequencing of the 18S rRNA region. Based on sequence discrepancies between our current primer/probe and clinical isolates, degenerate P. ovale primer and probe were developed to determine if their performance characteristics improved. The reference (gold) standard was microscopy. No 18S sequence heterogeneity was observed among the P. malariae isolates, and the sensitivity and specificity of our current P. malariae qPCR assay were both 100%. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity and specificity of our current P. ovale qPCR assay were 72.7% and 100%, respectively. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in P. ovale. The sensitivity of the new P. ovale assay increased to 100% with 100% specificity. We therefore improved the performance characteristics of our P. ovale molecular detection assay through the development of a degenerate primer and probe set which accommodates 18S SNPs among the 2 subspecies of P. ovale. Given the suboptimal sensitivity of rapid diagnostic tests for non-falciparum malaria and the typically low parasitemia of P. malariae and P. ovale, a well-performing confirmatory molecular assay is imperative for clinical laboratories.

  10. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Núria; Marín, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65μM of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, Isabel; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc

    2004-03-01

    Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions from certified reference materials (CRMs) are most often used as calibrators for GMO quantification by means of real-time PCR. However, due to some intrinsic features of these CRMs, errors may be expected in the estimations of DNA sequence quantities. In this paper, two new real-time PCR methods are presented for Roundup Ready soybean, in which two types of plasmid DNA fragments are used as calibrators. Single-target plasmids (STPs) diluted in a background of genomic DNA were used in the first method. Multiple-target plasmids (MTPs) containing both sequences in one molecule were used as calibrators for the second method. Both methods simultaneously detect a promoter 35S sequence as GMO-specific target and a lectin gene sequence as endogenous reference target in a duplex PCR. For the estimation of relative GMO percentages both "delta C(T)" and "standard curve" approaches are tested. Delta C(T) methods are based on direct comparison of measured C(T) values of both the GMO-specific target and the endogenous target. Standard curve methods measure absolute amounts of target copies or haploid genome equivalents. A duplex delta C(T) method with STP calibrators performed at least as well as a similar method with genomic DNA calibrators from commercial CRMs. Besides this, high quality results were obtained with a standard curve method using MTP calibrators. This paper demonstrates that plasmid DNA molecules containing either one or multiple target sequences form perfect alternative calibrators for GMO quantification and are especially suitable for duplex PCR reactions.

  12. Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) for large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) detection: A new approach to assess quantitative status of BRCA1 gene in a reference laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minucci, Angelo; De Paolis, Elisa; Concolino, Paola; De Bonis, Maria; Rizza, Roberta; Canu, Giulia; Scaglione, Giovanni Luca; Mignone, Flavio; Scambia, Giovanni; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of copy number variation (CNV) in BRCA1/2 genes, due to large genomic rearrangements (LGRs), is a mandatory analysis in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers families, if no pathogenic variants are found by sequencing. LGRs cannot be detected by conventional methods and several alternative methods have been developed. Since these approaches are expensive and time consuming, identification of alternative screening methods for LGRs detection is needed in order to reduce and optimize the diagnostic procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) as molecular tool to detect recurrent BRCA1 LGRs. C-PCR-HRMA was performed on exons 3, 14, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of the BRCA1 gene; exons 4, 6 and 7 of the ALB gene were used as reference fragments. This study showed that it is possible to identify recurrent BRCA1 LGRs, by melting peak height ratio between target (BRCA1) and reference (ALB) fragments. Furthermore, we underline that a peculiar amplicon-melting profile is associated to a specific BRCA1 LGR. All C-PCR-HRMA results were confirmed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. C-PCR-HRMA has proved to be an innovative, efficient and fast method for BRCA1 LGRs detection. Given the sensitivity, specificity and ease of use, c-PCR-HRMA can be considered an attractive and powerful alternative to other methods for BRCA1 CNVs screening, improving molecular strategies for BRCA testing in the context of Massive Parallel Sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the 17p amplicon in human sarcomas: microsatellite marker analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, M.; Tarkkanen, M.; Hulsebos, T.; Larramendy, M. L.; Forus, A.; Myklebost, O.; Aaltonen, L. A.; Elomaa, I.; Knuutila, S.

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the 17p amplicon from 9 human sarcoma specimens evaluated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been studied by analyzing 28 microsatellite markers by PCR. Eleven sarcoma specimens showing no DNA copy number increases at 17p by CGH were analyzed as control samples. Five

  14. A two-step real-time PCR assay for quantitation and genotyping of human parvovirus 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väisänen, E; Lahtinen, A; Eis-Hübinger, A M; Lappalainen, M; Hedman, K; Söderlund-Venermo, M

    2014-01-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) of the family Parvoviridae was discovered in a plasma sample of a patient with an undiagnosed acute infection in 2005. Currently, three PARV4 genotypes have been identified, however, with an unknown clinical significance. Interestingly, these genotypes seem to differ in epidemiology. In Northern Europe, USA and Asia, genotypes 1 and 2 have been found to occur mainly in persons with a history of injecting drug use or other parenteral exposure. In contrast, genotype 3 appears to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, where it infects children and adults without such risk behaviour. In this study, a novel straightforward and cost-efficient molecular assay for both quantitation and genotyping of PARV4 DNA was developed. The two-step method first applies a single-probe pan-PARV4 qPCR for screening and quantitation of this relatively rare virus, and subsequently, only the positive samples undergo a real-time PCR-based multi-probe genotyping. The new qPCR-GT method is highly sensitive and specific regardless of the genotype, and thus being suitable for studying the clinical impact and occurrence of the different PARV4 genotypes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and application of an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time quantitative PCR for detection of wastewater bacterial pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Young [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada)], E-mail: daeyoung.lee@ec.gc.ca; Lauder, Heather; Cruwys, Heather; Falletta, Patricia [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Ontario, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Beaudette, Lee A. [Environmental Science and Technology Centre, Environment Canada, 335 River Road South, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)], E-mail: lee.beaudette@ec.gc.ca

    2008-07-15

    Conventional microbial water quality test methods are well known for their technical limitations, such as lack of direct pathogen detection capacity and low throughput capability. The microarray assay has recently emerged as a promising alternative for environmental pathogen monitoring. In this study, bacterial pathogens were detected in municipal wastewater using a microarray equipped with short oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA sequences. To date, 62 probes have been designed against 38 species, 4 genera, and 1 family of pathogens. The detection sensitivity of the microarray for a waterborne pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was determined to be approximately 1.0% of the total DNA, or approximately 10{sup 3}A. hydrophila cells per sample. The efficacy of the DNA microarray was verified in a parallel study where pathogen genes and E. coli cells were enumerated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and standard membrane filter techniques, respectively. The microarray and qPCR successfully detected multiple wastewater pathogen species at different stages of the disinfection process (i.e. secondary effluents vs. disinfected final effluents) and at two treatment plants employing different disinfection methods (i.e. chlorination vs. UV irradiation). This result demonstrates the effectiveness of the DNA microarray as a semi-quantitative, high throughput pathogen monitoring tool for municipal wastewater.

  16. Development and application of an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time quantitative PCR for detection of wastewater bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Young; Lauder, Heather; Cruwys, Heather; Falletta, Patricia; Beaudette, Lee A.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional microbial water quality test methods are well known for their technical limitations, such as lack of direct pathogen detection capacity and low throughput capability. The microarray assay has recently emerged as a promising alternative for environmental pathogen monitoring. In this study, bacterial pathogens were detected in municipal wastewater using a microarray equipped with short oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA sequences. To date, 62 probes have been designed against 38 species, 4 genera, and 1 family of pathogens. The detection sensitivity of the microarray for a waterborne pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila was determined to be approximately 1.0% of the total DNA, or approximately 10 3 A. hydrophila cells per sample. The efficacy of the DNA microarray was verified in a parallel study where pathogen genes and E. coli cells were enumerated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and standard membrane filter techniques, respectively. The microarray and qPCR successfully detected multiple wastewater pathogen species at different stages of the disinfection process (i.e. secondary effluents vs. disinfected final effluents) and at two treatment plants employing different disinfection methods (i.e. chlorination vs. UV irradiation). This result demonstrates the effectiveness of the DNA microarray as a semi-quantitative, high throughput pathogen monitoring tool for municipal wastewater

  17. TaqMan MGB probe fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Chinese Sacbrood virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Mingxiao

    Full Text Available Sacbrood virus (SBV is a picorna-like virus that affects honey bees (Apis mellifera and results in the death of the larvae. Several procedures are available to detect Chinese SBV (CSBV in clinical samples, but not to estimate the level of CSBV infection. The aim of this study was develop an assay for rapid detection and quantification of this virus. Primers and probes were designed that were specific for CSBV structural protein genes. A TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB probe-based, fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR was established. The specificity, sensitivity and stability of the assay were assessed; specificity was high and there were no cross-reactivity with healthy larvae or other bee viruses. The assay was applied to detect CSBV in 37 clinical samples and its efficiency was compared with clinical diagnosis, electron microscopy observation, and conventional RT-PCR. The TaqMan MGB-based probe fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR for CSBV was more sensitive than other methods tested. This assay was a reliable, fast, and sensitive method that was used successfully to detect CSBV in clinical samples. The technology can provide a useful tool for rapid detection of CSBV. This study has established a useful protocol for CSBV testing, epidemiological investigation, and development of animal models.

  18. Use of Quantitative PCR for Determining Copy Numbers of Transgenes in Lesquerella fendleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first successful attempt to apply a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to determine transgene copy number in Lesquerella fendleri is described. The system utilized a known one copy gene, LfKCS4/5, from L. fendleri as an endogenous calibrator and the threshold crossing point (...

  19. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  20. Diagnosis and treatment based on quantitative PCR after controlled human malaria infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walk, J.; Schats, R.; Langenberg, M.C.; Reuling, I.J.; Teelen, K.; Roestenberg, M.; Hermsen, C.C.; Visser, L.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) has become well-established in the evaluation of drugs and vaccines. Anti-malarial treatment is usually initiated when thick blood smears are positive by microscopy. This study explores the effects of using the more sensitive qPCR as the primary

  1. Accurate and objective copy number profiling using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haene, Barbara; Vandesompele, Jo; Hellemans, Jan

    2010-04-01

    Copy number changes are known to be involved in numerous human genetic disorders. In this context, qPCR-based copy number screening may serve as the method of choice for targeted screening of the relevant disease genes and their surrounding regulatory landscapes. qPCR has many advantages over alternative methods, such as its low consumable and instrumentation costs, fast turnaround and assay development time, high sensitivity and open format (independent of a single supplier). In this chapter we provide all relevant information for a successfully implement of qPCR-based copy number analysis. We emphasize the significance of thorough in silico and empirical validation of the primers, the need for a well thought-out experiment design, and the importance of quality controls along the entire workflow. Furthermore, we suggest an appropriate and practical way to calculate copy numbers and to objectively interpret the results. The provided guidelines will most certainly improve the quality and reliability of your qPCR-based copy number screening. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The MIQE Guidelines: Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bustin, S.A.; Benes, V.; Garson, J.A.; Hellemans, J.; Huggett, J.; Kubista, Mikael; Mueller, R.; Nolan, T.; Pfaffl, M.V.; Shipley, G.L.; Vandesompele, J.; Wittver, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2009), s. 611-622 ISSN 0009-9147 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : qPCR * MIQE * publication of experiments data Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.263, year: 2009

  3. Estimating marginal properties of quantitative real-time PCR data using nonlinear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhard, Daniel; Bremer, Melanie; Ritz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A unified modeling framework based on a set of nonlinear mixed models is proposed for flexible modeling of gene expression in real-time PCR experiments. Focus is on estimating the marginal or population-based derived parameters: cycle thresholds and ΔΔc(t), but retaining the conditional mixed mod...

  4. Normalizing gene expression by quantitative PCR during somatic embryogenesis in two representative conifer species: Pinus pinaster and Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega-Bartol, José J; Santos, Raquen Raissa; Simões, Marta; Miguel, Célia M

    2013-05-01

    Suitable internal control genes to normalize qPCR data from different stages of embryo development and germination were identified in two representative conifer species. Clonal propagation by somatic embryogenesis has a great application potentiality in conifers. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis during somatic embryogenesis and embryo germination. No single reference gene is universal, so a systematic characterization of endogenous genes for concrete conditions is fundamental for accuracy. We identified suitable internal control genes to normalize qPCR data obtained at different steps of somatic embryogenesis (embryonal mass proliferation, embryo maturation and germination) in two representative conifer species, Pinus pinaster and Picea abies. Candidate genes included endogenous genes commonly used in conifers, genes previously tested in model plants, and genes with a lower variation of the expression along embryo development according to genome-wide transcript profiling studies. Three different algorithms were used to evaluate expression stability. The geometric average of the expression values of elongation factor-1α, α-tubulin and histone 3 in P. pinaster, and elongation factor-1α, α-tubulin, adenosine kinase and CAC in P. abies were adequate for expression studies throughout somatic embryogenesis. However, improved accuracy was achieved when using other gene combinations in experiments with samples at a single developmental stage. The importance of studies selecting reference genes to use in different tissues or developmental stages within one or close species, and the instability of commonly used reference genes, is highlighted.

  5. Accurate, Fast and Cost-Effective Diagnostic Test for Monosomy 1p36 Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila da Silva Cunha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosomy 1p36 is considered the most common subtelomeric deletion syndrome in humans and it accounts for 0.5–0.7% of all the cases of idiopathic intellectual disability. The molecular diagnosis is often made by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, which has the drawback of being a high-cost technique. However, patients with classic monosomy 1p36 share some typical clinical characteristics that, together with its common prevalence, justify the development of a less expensive, targeted diagnostic method. In this study, we developed a simple, rapid, and inexpensive real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR assay for targeted diagnosis of monosomy 1p36, easily accessible for low-budget laboratories in developing countries. For this, we have chosen two target genes which are deleted in the majority of patients with monosomy 1p36: PRKCZ and SKI. In total, 39 patients previously diagnosed with monosomy 1p36 by aCGH, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH, and/or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA all tested positive on our qPCR assay. By simultaneously using these two genes we have been able to detect 1p36 deletions with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We conclude that qPCR of PRKCZ and SKI is a fast and accurate diagnostic test for monosomy 1p36, costing less than 10 US dollars in reagent costs.

  6. Identification of appropriate reference genes for human mesenchymal stem cell analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Xuan, Yali; Wang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Normalization to a reference gene is the method of choice for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. The stability of reference genes is critical for accurate experimental results and conclusions. We have evaluated the expression stability of eight commonly used reference genes found in four different human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, we show that beta-2-microglobulin and peptidyl-prolylisomerase A were the optimal reference genes for normalizing RT-qPCR data obtained from MSC, whereas the TATA box binding protein was not suitable due to its extensive variability in expression. Our findings emphasize the significance of validating reference genes for qPCR analyses. We offer a short list of reference genes to use for normalization and recommend some commercially-available software programs as a rapid approach to validate reference genes. We also demonstrate that the two reference genes, β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are frequently used are not always successful in many cases.

  7. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in Valsa mali var. mali using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Ke, Xiwang; Huang, Dingxuan; Gao, Xiaoning; Voegele, Ralf T; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2013-09-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), is the predominant species of apple valsa canker in China. Modern analysis of genes involved in virulence or pathogenicity usually implicate gene expression analysis most often performed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, for relative gene expression analysis pertinent reference genes have to be validated before using them as internal reference. This has not been reported for Vmm, so far. Therefore, eight commonly used housekeeping genes (ACT, CYP, EF1-α, G6PDH, GAPDH, L13, TUB, and UBQ) were cloned and evaluated for their expression stability by geNorm and NormFinder. Overall, all of the candidate reference genes were found to be suitable for gene expression analysis. After analysis of 10 samples from different strains and abiotic stress treatments, G6PDH appeared to be the most suitable reference gene, whereas GAPDH was the least suitable. Moreover, taking G6PDH combined with L13 or CYP as reference genes, improved the reliability of RT-qPCR significantly. The influence of the reference system on expression data was demonstrated by analyzing Vmmpg-1 encoding an endo-polygalacturonase gene. Pectinases are considered key pathogenicity factors for this fungus. In order to better understand the role of pectinases in pathogenicity of Vmm, RT-qPCR was used for expression analysis. Our results may provide a guideline for future studies on gene expression of V. mali var. mali by using RT-qPCR.

  8. Comparison of nine different real-time PCR chemistries for qualitative and quantitative applications in GMO detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buh Gasparic, Meti; Tengs, Torstein; La Paz, Jose Luis; Holst-Jensen, Arne; Pla, Maria; Esteve, Teresa; Zel, Jana; Gruden, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    Several techniques have been developed for detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms, but quantitative real-time PCR is by far the most popular approach. Among the most commonly used real-time PCR chemistries are TaqMan probes and SYBR green, but many other detection chemistries have also been developed. Because their performance has never been compared systematically, here we present an extensive evaluation of some promising chemistries: sequence-unspecific DNA labeling dyes (SYBR green), primer-based technologies (AmpliFluor, Plexor, Lux primers), and techniques involving double-labeled probes, comprising hybridization (molecular beacon) and hydrolysis (TaqMan, CPT, LNA, and MGB) probes, based on recently published experimental data. For each of the detection chemistries assays were included targeting selected loci. Real-time PCR chemistries were subsequently compared for their efficiency in PCR amplification and limits of detection and quantification. The overall applicability of the chemistries was evaluated, adding practicability and cost issues to the performance characteristics. None of the chemistries seemed to be significantly better than any other, but certain features favor LNA and MGB technology as good alternatives to TaqMan in quantification assays. SYBR green and molecular beacon assays can perform equally well but may need more optimization prior to use.

  9. Development of species-, strain- and antibiotic biosynthesis-specific quantitative PCR assays for Pantoea agglomerans as tools for biocontrol monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea; Lehmann, Andreas; Rezzonico, Fabio; Wend, Chris; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2012-09-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is a cosmopolitan plant epiphytic bacterium that includes some of the most effective biological antagonists against the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora, a major threat to pome fruit production worldwide. Strain E325 is commercially available as Bloomtime Biological™ in the USA and Canada. New quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were developed for species- and strain -specific detection in the environment, and for detection of indigenous strains carrying the biocontrol antibacterial peptide biosynthesis gene paaA. The qPCR assays were highly specific, efficient and sensitive, detecting fewer than three cells per reaction or 700 colony forming units per flower, respectively. The qPCR assays were tested on field samples, giving first indications to the incidence of P. agglomerans E325 related strains, total P. agglomerans and pantocin A producing bacteria in commercial orchards. These assays will facilitate monitoring the environmental behavior of biocontrol P. agglomerans after orchard application for disease protection, proprietary strain-tracking, and streamlined screening for discovery of new biocontrol strains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic particle separation technique: a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rongsen; Shen Decun

    1998-01-01

    Five types of magnetic particles without or with aldehyde, amino and carboxyl functional groups, respectively were used to immobilize first or second antibody by three models, i. e. physical adsorption, chemical coupling and immuno-affinity, forming four types of magnetic particle antibodies. The second antibody immobilized on polyacrolein magnetic particles through aldehyde functional groups and the first antibodies immobilized on carboxylic polystyrene magnetic particles through carboxyl functional groups were recommended to apply to RIAs and/or IRMAs. Streptavidin immobilized on commercial magnetic particles through amino functional groups was successfully applied to separating specific PCR product for quantification of human cytomegalovirus. In the paper typical data on reliability of these magnetic particle ligands were reported and simplicity of the magnetic particle separation technique was discussed. The results showed that the technique was a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay. (author)

  11. Real-time PCR assays for the quantitation of rDNA from apricot and other plant species in marzipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Ilka; Brüning, Philipp; Matissek, Reinhard; Fischer, Markus

    2013-04-10

    Marzipan or marzipan raw paste is a typical German sweet which is consumed directly or is used as an ingredient in the bakery industry/confectionery (e.g., in stollen) and as filling for chocolate candies. Almonds (blanched and pealed) and sugar are the only ingredients for marzipan production according to German food guidelines. Especially for the confectionery industry, the use of persipan, which contains apricot or peach kernels instead of almonds, is preferred due to its stronger aroma. In most of the companies, both raw pastes are produced, in most cases on the same production line, running the risk of an unintended cross contamination. Additionally, due to high almond market values, dilutions of marzipan with cheaper seeds may occur. Especially in the case of apricot and almond, the close relationship of both species is a challenge for the analysis. DNA based methods for the qualitative detection of apricot, peach, pea, bean, lupine, soy, cashew, pistachio, and chickpea in marzipan have recently been published. In this study, different quantitation strategies on the basis of real-time PCR have been evaluated and a relative quantitation method with a reference amplification product was shown to give the best results. As the real-time PCR is based on the high copy rDNA-cluster, even contaminations <1% can be reliably quantitated.

  12. Quantitative detection method for Roundup Ready soybean in food using duplex real-time PCR MGB chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Maria Cristina; Gullì, Mariolina; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-07-01

    Methodologies that enable the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) (authorized and non-authorized) in food and feed strongly influence the potential for adequate updating and implementation of legislation together with labeling requirements. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) systems were designed to boost the sensitivity and specificity on the identification of GMOs in highly degraded DNA samples; however, such testing will become economically difficult to cope with due to increasing numbers of approved genetically modified (GM) lines. Multiplexing approaches are therefore in development to provide cost-efficient solution. Construct-specific primers and probe were developed for quantitative analysis of Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) event glyphosate-tolerant soybean (GTS) 40-3-2. The lectin gene (Le1) was used as a reference gene, and its specificity was verified. RRS- and Le1-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qRTPCR) were optimized in a duplex platform that has been validated with respect to limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ), as well as accuracy. The analysis of model processed food samples showed that the degradation of DNA has no adverse or little effects on the performance of quantification assay. In this study, a duplex qRTPCR using TaqMan minor groove binder-non-fluorescent quencher (MGB-NFQ) chemistry was developed for specific detection and quantification of RRS event GTS 40-3-2 that can be used for practical monitoring in processed food products.

  13. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casini Silvia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are highly debated and various ecotoxicological studies have addressed the impact of xenobiotic compounds on marine mammals, raising conservational concerns. Despite its sensitivity, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR has never been used to quantify gene induction caused by exposure of cetaceans to contaminants. A limitation for the application of qRT-PCR is the need for appropriate reference genes which allow the correct quantification of gene expression. A systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in cetacean skin biopsies is presented, in order to validate future qRT-PCR studies aiming at using the expression of selected genes as non-lethal biomarkers. Results Ten commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs were partially sequenced in the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba and, for each gene, PCR primer pairs were specifically designed and tested in qRT-PCR assays. The expression of these potential control genes was examined in 30 striped dolphin skin biopsy samples, obtained from specimens sampled in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. The stability of selected control genes was determined using three different specific VBA applets (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper which produce highly comparable results. Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ always rank as the two most stably expressed HKGs according to the analysis with geNorm and Normfinder, and are defined as optimal control genes by BestKepeer. Ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4 and S18 (RPS18 also exhibit a remarkable stability of their expression levels. On the other hand, transferrin receptor (TFRC, phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1, hypoxanthine ribosyltransferase (HPRT1 and β-2-microglobin (B2M show variable expression

  14. Combined mutation and rearrangement screening by quantitative PCR high-resolution melting: is it relevant for hereditary recurrent Fever genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Pallares-Ruiz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent identification of genes implicated in hereditary recurrent fevers has allowed their specific diagnosis. So far however, only punctual mutations have been identified and a significant number of patients remain with no genetic confirmation of their disease after routine molecular approaches such as sequencing. The possible involvement of sequence rearrangements in these patients has only been examined in familial Mediterranean fever and was found to be unlikely. To assess the existence of larger genetic alterations in 3 other concerned genes, MVK (Mevalonate kinase, NLRP3 (Nod like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and TNFRSF1A (TNF receptor superfamily 1A, we adapted the qPCR-HRM method to study possible intragenic deletions and duplications. This single-tube approach, combining both qualitative (mutations and quantitative (rearrangement screening, has proven effective in Lynch syndrome diagnosis. Using this approach, we studied 113 unselected (prospective group and 88 selected (retrospective group patients and identified no intragenic rearrangements in the 3 genes. Only qualitative alterations were found with a sensitivity similar to that obtained using classical molecular techniques for screening punctual mutations. Our results support that deleterious copy number alterations in MVK, NLRP3 and TNFRSF1A are rare or absent from the mutational spectrum of hereditary recurrent fevers, and demonstrate that a routine combined method such as qPCR-HRM provides no further help in genetic diagnosis. However, quantitative approaches such as qPCR or SQF-PCR did prove to be quick and effective and could still be useful after non contributory punctual mutation screening in the presence of clinically evocative signs.

  15. QuantPrime – a flexible tool for reliable high-throughput primer design for quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasniewski Miroslaw

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium- to large-scale expression profiling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays are becoming increasingly important in genomics research. A major bottleneck in experiment preparation is the design of specific primer pairs, where researchers have to make several informed choices, often outside their area of expertise. Using currently available primer design tools, several interactive decisions have to be made, resulting in lengthy design processes with varying qualities of the assays. Results Here we present QuantPrime, an intuitive and user-friendly, fully automated tool for primer pair design in small- to large-scale qPCR analyses. QuantPrime can be used online through the internet http://www.quantprime.de/ or on a local computer after download; it offers design and specificity checking with highly customizable parameters and is ready to use with many publicly available transcriptomes of important higher eukaryotic model organisms and plant crops (currently 295 species in total, while benefiting from exon-intron border and alternative splice variant information in available genome annotations. Experimental results with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the crop Hordeum vulgare and the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show success rates of designed primer pairs exceeding 96%. Conclusion QuantPrime constitutes a flexible, fully automated web application for reliable primer design for use in larger qPCR experiments, as proven by experimental data. The flexible framework is also open for simple use in other quantification applications, such as hydrolyzation probe design for qPCR and oligonucleotide probe design for quantitative in situ hybridization. Future suggestions made by users can be easily implemented, thus allowing QuantPrime to be developed into a broad-range platform for the design of RNA expression assays.

  16. Monitoring viable cells of the biological control agent Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 in aerial plant surfaces by means of a strain-specific viability quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daranas, Núria; Bonaterra, Anna; Francés, Jesús; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio; Badosa, Esther

    2018-03-09

    A viability qPCR (v-qPCR) assay was developed for the unambiguous detection and quantification of Lactobacillus plantarum PM411 viable cells in aerial plant surfaces. A 972 bp region of a PM411 predicted prophage with mosaic architecture enabled the identification of a PM411 strain-specific molecular marker. Three primer sets, with different amplicon lengths (92, 188, and 317 bp), and one TaqMan probe were designed. All the qPCR assays showed good linearity over a 4-log range and good efficiencies, but differed in sensitivity. The nucleic acid-binding dye PEMAX was used for selectively detecting and enumerating viable bacteria by v-qPCR. The primer set amplifying a 188 bp DNA fragment was selected as the most suitable for v-qPCR. The performance of the method was assessed on apple blossoms, pear, strawberry and kiwifruit leaves in potted plants under controlled environmental conditions, and pear and apple blossoms under field conditions, by comparing v-qPCR population estimation to those obtained by qPCR and specific plate counting on MRS-rifampicin. The population estimation did not differ significantly between methods when conditions were conducive to bacterial survival. However, under stressful conditions, differences between methods were observed due to cell death or viable but non-culturable state induction. While qPCR overestimated the population level, plate counting underestimated this value in comparison to v-qPCR. PM411 attained stable population levels of viable cells on flower environment under high relative humidity. However, the unfavourable conditions onto the leaf surface and the relatively dryness in the field caused an important decrease of viable population. IMPORTANCE The v-qPCR method in combination with plate counting and qPCR is a powerful tool for studies of colonization and survival in field conditions, to improve formulations and delivery strategies of PM411, or to optimize the dose and timing of spray schedules. It is expected that PEMAX

  17. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) vs quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach for detection and quantification of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) cutaneous biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvia, Rosaria; Sollai, Mauro; Pierucci, Federica; Urso, Carmelo; Massi, Daniela; Zakrzewska, Krystyna

    2017-08-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma and high viral load in the skin was proposed as a risk factor for the occurrence of this tumour. MCPyV DNA was detected, with lower frequency, in different skin cancers but since the viral load was usually low, the real prevalence of viral DNA could be underestimated. To evaluate the performance of two assays (qPCR and ddPCR) for MCPyV detection and quantification in formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. Both assays were designed to simultaneous detection and quantification of both MCPyV as well as house-keeping DNA in clinical samples. The performance of MCPyV quantification was investigated using serial dilutions of cloned target DNA. We also evaluated the applicability of both tests for the analysis of 76 FFPE cutaneous biopsies. The two approaches resulted equivalent with regard to the reproducibility and repeatability and showed a high degree of linearity in the dynamic range tested in the present study. Moreover, qPCR was able to quantify ≥10 5 copies per reaction, while the upper limit of ddPCR was 10 4 copies. There was not significant difference between viral load measured by the two methods The detection limit of both tests was 0,15 copies per reaction, however, the number of positive samples obtained by ddPCR was higher than that obtained by qPCR (45% and 37% respectively). The ddPCR represents a better method for detection of MCPyV in FFPE biopsies, mostly these containing low copies number of viral genome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in erythema migrans skin lesions using internally controlled duplex real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria O'Rourke

    Full Text Available B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8% and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (P<0.001. The quantitative data also enabled relationships between Borrelia burden and patient symptoms to be evaluated. The bacterial load was significantly higher among patients with systemic symptoms than without (P = 0.02 and was significantly higher for biopsies retrieved from patients with EM lesions with central clearing (P<0.001. 16S copy numbers were moderately lower in samples from patients reporting a history of LB (P = 0.10. This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii

  19. Quantitative Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Erythema Migrans Skin Lesions Using Internally Controlled Duplex Real Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusa, Lara; Stupica, Dasa; Maraspin, Vera; Barrett, P. Noel; Strle, Franc; Livey, Ian

    2013-01-01

    B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. bavariensis are the principal species which account for Lyme borreliosis (LB) globally. We have developed an internally controlled duplex quantitative real time PCR assay targeting the Borrelia 16S rRNA and the human RNAseP genes. This assay is well-suited for laboratory confirmation of suspected cases of LB and will be used to assess the efficacy of a vaccine against LB in clinical trials. The assay is highly specific, successfully detecting DNA extracted from 83 diverse B. burgdorferi sensu lato strains representing all major species causing LB, while 21 unrelated microbial species and human genomic DNA tested negative. The assay was highly reproducible and sensitive, with a lower limit of detection of 6 copies per PCR reaction. Together with culture, the assay was used to evaluate paired 3 mm skin biopsy samples taken from 121 patients presenting with solitary erythema migrans (EM) lesion. PCR testing identified more positive biopsy samples than culture (77.7% PCR positive versus 55.1% culture positive) and correctly identified all specimens scored as culture positive. OspA-based typing identified the majority of isolates as B. afzelii (96.8%) and the bacterial load was significantly higher in culture positive biopsies than in culture negative biopsies (P<0.001). The quantitative data also enabled relationships between Borrelia burden and patient symptoms to be evaluated. The bacterial load was significantly higher among patients with systemic symptoms than without (P = 0.02) and was significantly higher for biopsies retrieved from patients with EM lesions with central clearing (P<0.001). 16S copy numbers were moderately lower in samples from patients reporting a history of LB (P = 0.10). This is the first quantitative PCR study of human skin biopsies predominantly infected with B. afzelii and the first study to demonstrate a clear relationship between clinical symptoms in B. afzelii

  20. The workflow of single-cell expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stahlberg, A.; Kubista, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2014), s. 323-331 ISSN 1473-7159 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02154S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : single-cell workflow * gene expression profiling * RT-qPCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.516, year: 2014

  1. Quantitative Real-time PCR detection of putrescine-producing Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristýna Maršálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines are indispensable components of living cells; nevertheless these compounds could be toxic for human health in higher concentrations. Putrescine is supposed to be the major biogenic amine associated with microbial food spoilage. Development of reliable, fast and culture-independent molecular methods to detect bacteria producing biogenic amines deserves the attention, especially of the food industry in purpose to protect health. The objective of this study was to verify the newly designed primer sets for detection of two inducible genes adiA and speF together in Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli genome by Real-time PCR. These forenamed genes encode enzymes in the metabolic pathway which leads to production of putrescine in Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, relative expression of these genes was studied in E. coli CCM 3954 strain using Real-time PCR. In this study, sets of new primers for the detection two inducible genes (speF and adiA in Salmonella enterica and E. coli by Real-time PCR were designed and tested. Amplification efficiency of a Real-time PCR was calculated from the slope of the standard curves (adiA, speF, gapA. An efficiency in a range from 95 to 105 % for all tested reactions was achieved. The gene expression (R of adiA and speF genes in E. coli was varied depending on culture conditions. The highest gene expression of adiA and speF was observed at 6, 24 and 36 h (RadiA ~ 3, 5, 9; RspeF ~11, 10, 9; respectively after initiation of growth of this bacteria in nutrient broth medium enchired with amino acids. The results show that these primers could be used for relative quantification analysis of E. coli.

  2. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and Validation of Real-Time PCR: Quantitative Diagnosis of Common Leishmania Species in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri Soofi Abadi, Maryam; Dabiri, Shahriar; Fotouhi Ardakani, Reza; Fani Malaki, Lina; Amirpoor Rostami, Sahar; Ziasistani, Mahsa; Dabiri, Donya

    2016-07-01

    Design and validation of Real-time PCR on the protected gene region ITS2 to quantify the parasite load in common leishmania (L) species. Probe and primer were designed from the ITS2 region between the rRNA genes with minimum gene variation in three common leishmania species followed by a Real-time PCR using the Taq man probe method in the form of absolute quantification. A series of different concentrations of leishmania were analyzed. After the purified PCR product was successfully placed in a PTG19-T plasmid vector, specialized ITS2 region was cloned in this plasmid. In the last phase, the cloned gene was transferred to the Ecoli.Top10F bacteria. The standard plasmid was provided in 10(7) to 10(1) copies/rxn concentrations. The specification and clinical sensitivity of the data was analyzed using inter and intra scales. The probe and primer were designed using three species, including L. infantum, L. major, and L.tropica. Seven concentrations of purified parasite in culture media showed that the selected region for quantifying the parasite is suitable. Clinical and analytical specificity and sensitivity were both 100%, respectively. The Taq man method for the ITS2 region in leishmania is one the most sensitive diagnostic test for identifying the parasite load and is suggested as a tool for fast identification and quantification of species.

  4. Quantitative detection of poultry meat adulteration with pork by a duplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sónia; Amaral, Joana S; Mafra, Isabel; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2010-07-01

    A species-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of pork and poultry meat species using the mitochondrial cytb and 12S rRNA as target genes for pork and poultry, respectively. By the amplification of binary reference meat mixtures, a linear normalised calibration curve was obtained using the fluorescence intensities of PCR products for pork (149 bp) and poultry (183 bp) species. The proposed method allowed the quantification of pork meat addition to poultry meat in the range of 1-75%, with a sensitivity of 0.1%. The in-house validation using samples with known amounts of pork meat (1.0%, 2.5%, 7.5%, 20.0% and 40%) evidenced a high reproducibility of the methodology (coefficient of variation from 4.1% to 7.6%). The successful application of the duplex PCR was also demonstrated by the high correlation (R(2)=0.99) obtained from regression analysis between the predicted and the actual values of pork meat addition in blind meat mixtures. The suggested methodology presents a low cost, fast, easy and reliable alternative to estimate the level of poultry meat adulteration by the addition of pork meat. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...... samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples, however differences were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six different...

  6. Freezing fecal samples prior to DNA extraction affects the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio determined by downstream quantitative PCR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine Rask

    2012-01-01

    Freezing stool samples prior to DNA extraction and downstream analysis is widely used in metagenomic studies of the human microbiota but may affect the inferred community composition. In this study, DNA was extracted either directly or following freeze storage of three homogenized human fecal...... samples using three different extraction methods. No consistent differences were observed in DNA yields between extractions on fresh and frozen samples; however, differences were observed between extraction methods. Quantitative PCR analysis was subsequently performed on all DNA samples using six...

  7. Taqman real-time quantitative PCR for identification of western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) for plant quarantine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K S; Lee, S E; Yeh, Y; Shen, G S; Mei, E; Chang, C M

    2010-08-23

    Western flower thrip (Frankliniella occidentalis) is a major global pest of agricultural products. It directly damages crops through feeding, oviposition activity or transmission of several plant viruses. We describe a Taqman real-time quantitative PCR detection system, which can rapidly identify F. occidentalis from thrips larvae to complement the traditional morphological identification. The data showed that our detection system targeted on the ribosomal RNA gene regions of F. occidentalis has high sensitivity and specificity. The rapid method can be used for on-site testing of samples at ports-of-entry in the future.

  8. Evaluation of Faecalibacterium 16S rDNA genetic markers for accurate identification of swine faecal waste by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chuanren; Cui, Yamin; Zhao, Yi; Zhai, Jun; Zhang, Baoyun; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Da; Chen, Hang

    2016-10-01

    A genetic marker within the 16S rRNA gene of Faecalibacterium was identified for use in a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect swine faecal contamination in water. A total of 146,038 bacterial sequences were obtained using 454 pyrosequencing. By comparative bioinformatics analysis of Faecalibacterium sequences with those of numerous swine and other animal species, swine-specific Faecalibacterium 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified and Polymerase Chain Okabe (PCR) primer sets designed and tested against faecal DNA samples from swine and non-swine sources. Two PCR primer sets, PFB-1 and PFB-2, showed the highest specificity to swine faecal waste and had no cross-reaction with other animal samples. PFB-1 and PFB-2 amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences from 50 samples of swine with positive ratios of 86 and 90%, respectively. We compared swine-specific Faecalibacterium qPCR assays for the purpose of quantifying the newly identified markers. The quantification limits (LOQs) of PFB-1 and PFB-2 markers in environmental water were 6.5 and 2.9 copies per 100 ml, respectively. Of the swine-associated assays tested, PFB-2 was more sensitive in detecting the swine faecal waste and quantifying the microbial load. Furthermore, the microbial abundance and diversity of the microbiomes of swine and other animal faeces were estimated using operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The species specificity was demonstrated for the microbial populations present in various animal faeces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of viable vs. dead Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis using selective quantitative real-time PCR with propidium monoazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M C; Marín, M J; Figuero, E; Llama-Palacios, A; Herrera, D; Sanz, M

    2013-04-01

    One of the major disadvantages of DNA-based microbial diagnostics is their inability to differentiate DNA between viable and dead microorganisms, which could be important when studying etiologically relevant pathogens. The aim of this investigation was to optimize a method for the selective detection and quantification of only viable Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis cells by combining quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and propidium monoazide (PMA). Three different concentrations of PMA (10, 50 or 100 μm) were added to suspensions of 10(6) (CFU)/mL of viable/dead A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis cells. After DNA isolation, qPCR was carried out using specific primers and probes for the tested bacteria. PMA was further tested with different mixtures containing varying ratios of viable and dead cells. The efficacy of PMA to detect viable/dead cells was tested by analysis of variance. For these specific bacterial pathogens, 100 μm PMA resulted in a significant reduction of qPCR amplification with dead cells (10(6) CFU/mL), while with viable cells no significant inhibition was detected. PMA was also effective in detecting selectively viable cells by qPCR detection, when mixtures of varying ratios of viable and dead bacteria were used. This study demonstrated the efficiency of PMA for differentiating viable and dead A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis cells. This method of PMA-qPCR may be useful for monitoring new antimicrobial strategies and for assessing the pathogenic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis in different oral conditions when using molecular diagnostic methods. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Selection of reference genes for use in quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays when using interferons in U87MG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Blomquist, Dania; Fernández, Julio Raúl; Miranda, Jamilet; Bello, Claudia; Silva, José A; Estrada, Regla C; Novoa, Lidia Inés; Palenzuela, Daniel; Bello, Iraldo

    2012-12-01

    Relative gene quantification by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is an accurate technique only when a correct normalization strategy is carried out. Some of the most commonly genes used as reference have demonstrated variation after interferon (IFN) treatments. In this work we evaluated the suitability of seven reference genes (RGs) [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), β-2Microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal RNA subunits 18S and 28S, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and the RNA helicase (DDX5)] for use in qRT-PCR assays in the glioblastoma-derived cell line U87MG treated with IFNα, IFNγ or a co-formulated combination of both IFNs (HeberPAG); untreated cell lines were included as control. Data was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. The expression stability of the seven RGs decreased in order of DDX5/GAPDH/HMBS, 18S rRNA, YWHAZ, 28S rRNA and B2M. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that DDX5, GAPDH and HMBS were among the best stably expressed markers under all conditions. Both, geNorm and NormFinder, analyses proposed same RGs as the least variables. Evaluation of the expression levels of two target genes utilizing different endogenous controls, using REST-MCS software, revealed that the normalization method applied might introduce errors in the estimation of relative quantities. We concluded that when qRT-PCR is designed for studies of gene expression in U87MG cell lines treated with IFNs type I and II or their combinations, the use of all three GAPDH, HMBS and DDX5 (or their combinations in pairs) as RGs for data normalizations is recommended.

  11. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR in sentinel lymph nodes from melanoma patients. Detection of melanocytic mRNA predicts disease-free survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Abrahamsen, Helene Nortvig; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for specific melanoma markers is more sensitive than histology for detecting cells of melanocytic origin in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in cutaneous melanoma. The clinical significance of a positive qRT-PCR analysis...... that the presence of submicroscopic metastases may influence prognosis, indicating that RT-PCR detection of melanocytic cells in SLNs may be an important diagnostic marker....

  12. Selection and validation of reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis in Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (Fuling)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Jiang; Ji, Ai-Jia; Luo, Hong-Mei; Song, Jing-Yuan; Sun, Chao; Hu, Yuan-Lei; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) requires a stable internal control to avoid misinterpretation of data or errors for gene expression normalization. However, there are still no validated reference genes for stable internal control in Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (Fuling). This study aims to validate the reference genes of P. cocos. Methods This study firstly collected the 14 candidate reference genes by BLASTP from the genome of P. cocos for qRT-PCR analysis to...

  13. Genome editing using FACS enrichment of nuclease-expressing cells and indel detection by amplicon analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonowski, Lindsey A; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Riaz, Anjum

    2017-01-01

    ). First, Indel Detection by Amplicon Analysis (IDAA) determines the size and frequency of insertions and deletions elicited by nucleases in cells, tissues or embryos through analysis of fluorophore-labeled PCR amplicons covering the nuclease target site by capillary electrophoresis in a sequenator. Second...... the testing of new nuclease reagents and the generation of edited cell pools or clonal cell lines, reducing the number of clones that need to be generated and increasing the ease with which they are screened. The pipeline shortens the time line, but it most prominently reduces the workload of cell...

  14. Laboratory Evaluations of the Enterococcus qPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Method Performance and Sources of Uncertainty in Quantitative Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BEACH Act of 2000 directed the U.S. EPA to establish more expeditious methods for the detection of pathogen indicators in coastal waters, as well as new water quality criteria based on these methods. Progress has been made in developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for en...

  15. A Human Fecal Contamination Score for Ranking Recreational Sites using the HF183/BacR287 Quantitative Real-Time PCR Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human fecal pollution of recreational waters remains a public health concern worldwide. As a result, there is a growing interest in the application of human-associated fecal source identification quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for water quality research and manag...

  16. Comparison of serum pools and oral fluid samples for detection of porcine circovirus type 2 by quantitative real-time PCR in finisher pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2018-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) diagnostics in live pigs often involves pooled serum and/or oral fluid samples for group-level determination of viral load by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The purpose of the study was to compare the PCV2 viral load determined by qPCR of...

  17. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; Kovacs, Joseph A; Stock, Frida

    2002-01-01

    A method for reliable quantification of Pneumocystis carinii in research models of P. carinii pneumonia (PCP) that is more convenient and reproducible than microscopic enumeration of organisms would greatly facilitate investigations of this organism. We developed a rapid quantitative touchdown (QTD......) PCR assay for detecting P. carinii f. sp. carinii, the subspecies of P. carinii commonly used in research models of PCP. The assay was based on the single-copy dihydrofolate reductase gene and was able to detect ... 6 log values for standards containing > or =5 copies/tube. Application of the assay to a series of 10-fold dilutions of P. carinii organisms isolated from rat lung demonstrated that it was reproducibly quantitative over 5 log values (r = 0.99). The assay was applied to a recently reported in vitro...

  18. Differentiation of Bifidobacterium longum subspecies longum and infantis by quantitative PCR using functional gene targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Lawley

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis. B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known. This may largely be due to difficulty in assigning subspecies identity using DNA sequences of 16S rRNA or tuf genes that are commonly used in bacterial taxonomy. Methods We developed a qPCR method targeting the sialidase gene (subsp. infantis and sugar kinase gene (subsp. longum to differentiate the subspecies using specific primers and probes. Specificity of the primers/probes was tested by in silico, pangenomic search, and using DNA from standard cultures of bifidobacterial species. The utility of the method was further examined using DNA from feces that had been collected from infants inhabiting various geographical regions. Results A pangenomic search of the NCBI genomic database showed that the PCR primers/probes targeted only the respective genes of the two subspecies. The primers/probes showed total specificity when tested against DNA extracted from the gold standard strains (type cultures of bifidobacterial species detected in infant feces. Use of the qPCR method with DNA extracted from the feces of infants of different ages, delivery method and nutrition, showed that subsp. infantis was detectable (0–32.4% prevalence in the feces of Australian (n = 90, South-East Asian (n = 24, and Chinese babies (n = 91, but in all cases at low abundance (<0.01–4.6% compared to subsp. longum (0.1–33.7% abundance; 21.4–100% prevalence. Discussion Our qPCR method differentiates B. longum subspecies longum and infantis using

  19. 1,2-propanediol-trehalose mixture as a potent quantitative real-time PCR enhancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková, Helena; Polakovičová, Iva; Shaik, Gouse Mohiddin; Eitler, Jiří; Bugajev, Viktor; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2011), e41 ISSN 1472-6750 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520701; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Grant - others:GA AV CR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : qPCR enhancer * trehalose * 1,2-propanediol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.349, year: 2011

  20. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Zhai

    Full Text Available To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1β, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, α-Tubulin, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population, and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified α-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (α-Tubulin, TBP and AK and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes α-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii.

  1. Real-time PCR for quantitative detection of chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) and pyrenean ibex (Capra pyrenaica) in meat mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Violeta; González, Isabel; Martín, Irene; Rojas, María; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for the quantification of chamois and pyrenean ibex DNAs in meat mixtures by using a SYBR green detection platform. Two species-specific systems and a eukaryotic endogenous system were combined in the real-time PCR approach to quantify the target species. In the specific systems, a 133 base pair (bp) fragment of the 12S rRNA gene was amplified from chamois DNA, and an 88 bp fragment from the D-loop region was amplified from pyrenean ibex DNA. In the endogenous system, universal primers amplified a 141 bp fragment on the nuclear 18S rRNA gene from eukaryotic DNA. The threshold cycle values obtained with the 18S rRNA primers were used to normalize those obtained from chamois- or pyrenean ibex-specific systems, serving as endogenous control for the total content of PCR-amplifiable DNA in the sample. Analysis of experimental raw and heat-treated binary mixtures of chamois and pyrenean ibex meat in a swine meat matrix demonstrated the suitability of the assay for the detection and quantification of the target DNAs in the range of 0.1-0.8%, depending on the species and treatment of the meat samples.

  2. Standardisation and evaluation of a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR assay for the rapid identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroze Ahmed Ganaie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae can play a significant role in decreasing morbidity and mortality of infection. The accurate diagnosis of pneumococcal disease is hampered by the difficulties in growing the isolates from clinical specimens and also by misidentification. Molecular methods have gained popularity as they offer improvement in the detection of causative pathogens with speed and ease. The present study aims at validating and standardising the use of 4 oligonucleotide primer-probe sets (pneumolysin [ply], autolysin [lytA], pneumococcal surface adhesion A [psaA] and Spn9802 [DNA fragment] in a single-reaction mixture for the detection and discrimination of S. pneumoniae. Here, we validate a quantitative multiplex real-time PCR (qmPCR assay with a panel consisting of 43 S. pneumoniae and 29 non-pneumococcal isolates, 20 culture positive, 26 culture negative and 30 spiked serum samples. A standard curve was obtained using S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene was used as an endogenous internal control. The experiment showed high sensitivity with lower limit of detection equivalent to 4 genome copies/µl. The efficiency of the reaction was 100% for ply, lytA, Spn9802 and 97% for psaA. The test showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% with culture isolates and serum specimens. This study demonstrates that qmPCR analysis of sera using 4 oligonucleotide primers appears to be an appropriate method for the genotypic identification of S. pneumoniae infection.

  3. Selection of proper reference genes for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002 using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Edina; Sicora, Cosmin; Dragoş, Nicolae; Drugă, Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is known to be tolerant to most of the environmental factors in natural habitats of Cyanobacteria. Gene expression can be easily studied in this cyanobacterium, as its complete genome sequence is available. These properties make Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 an appropriate model organism for biotechnological applications. To study the gene expression in Cyanobacteria, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) can be used, but as this is a highly sensitive method, data standardization is indicated between samples. The most commonly used strategy is normalization against internal reference genes. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 has not yet been evaluated for the best reference genes. In this work, six candidate genes were analyzed for this purpose. Cyanobacterial cultures were exposed to several stress conditions, and three different algorithms were used for ranking the reference genes: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Moreover, gene expression stability value M and single-control normalization error E were calculated. Our data provided a list of reference genes that can be used in qPCR experiments in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of reference genes for expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR in drought-stressed soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stolf-Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate, by quantitative PCR in real time (RT-qPCR, genes to be used as reference in studies of gene expression in soybean in drought-stressed trials. Four genes commonly used in soybean were evaluated: Gmβ-actin, GmGAPDH, GmLectin and GmRNAr18S. Total RNA was extracted from six samples: three from roots in a hydroponic system with different drought intensities (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 minutes of water stress, and three from leaves of plants grown in sand with different soil moistures (15, 5 and 2.5% gravimetric humidity. The raw cycle threshold (Ct data were analyzed, and the efficiency of each primer was calculated for an overall analysis of the Ct range among the different samples. The GeNorm application was used to evaluate the best reference gene, according to its stability. The GmGAPDH was the least stable gene, with the highest mean values of expression stability (M, and the most stable genes, with the lowest M values, were the Gmβ-actin and GmRNAr18S, when both root and leaves samples were tested. These genes can be used in RT-qPCR as reference gene for expression analysis.

  5. Quantitative PCR is a Valuable Tool to Monitor the Performance of DNA-Encoded Chemical Library Selections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yizhou; Zimmermann, Gunther; Scheuermann, Jörg; Neri, Dario

    2017-05-04

    Phage-display libraries and DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) represent useful tools for the isolation of specific binding molecules from large combinatorial sets of compounds. With both methods, specific binders are recovered at the end of affinity capture procedures by using target proteins of interest immobilized on a solid support. However, although the efficiency of phage-display selections is routinely quantified by counting the phage titer before and after the affinity capture step, no similar quantification procedures have been reported for the characterization of DECL selections. In this article, we describe the potential and limitations of quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for the evaluation of selection efficiency by using a combinatorial chemical library with more than 35 million compounds. In the experimental conditions chosen for the selections, a quantification of DNA input/recovery over five orders of magnitude could be performed, revealing a successful enrichment of abundant binders, which could be confirmed by DNA sequencing. qPCR provided rapid information about the performance of selections, thus facilitating the optimization of experimental conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The transcription analysis of duck enteritis virus UL49.5 gene using real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng; Jia, Renyong; Wang, Mingshu; Gao, Xinghong; Zhu, Dekang; Chen, Shun; Yin, Zhongqiong; Wang, Yin; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2013-10-01

    Duck enteritis virus (DEV) UL49.5 encoding glycoprotein N was a conserved gene. The transcription dynamic process of UL49.5 homologous genes in herpesviruses was reported. However, the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene has not yet been established. In this study, a real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (real-time qRT-PCR) assay was established to test the transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene, and the recombinant plasmid pUCm-T/UL49.5 was constructed as the standard DNA. The samples prepared from DEV-infected (at different time points) and uninfected cell were detected and calculated. The results demonstrated that the real-time qRT-PCR assay was successfully established. The transcription product of DEV UL49.5 gene was first detected at 0.5 h post infection (p.i.), increased at 8 h p.i. and reached a peak at 60 h p.i. Our results illustrated that DEV UL49.5 gene could be regarded as a late gene. The transcription dynamic process of DEV UL49.5 gene may provide a significant clue for further studies of DEV UL49.5 gene.

  7. Real-time PCR methods for quantitative monitoring of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in agricultural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F; Ingenfeld, A; Zampicolli, M; Hilber-Bodmer, M; Frey, J E; Duffy, B

    2011-08-01

    Antibiotic application in plant agriculture is primarily used to control fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora in pome fruit orchards. In order to facilitate environmental impact assessment for antibiotic applications, we developed and validated culture-independent quantitative real-time PCR multiplex assays for streptomycin (strA, strB, aadA and insertion sequence IS1133) and tetracycline (tetB, tetM and tetW) resistance elements in plant and soil samples. The qPCR were reproducible and consistent whether the DNA was extracted directly from bacteria, plant and soil samples inoculated with bacteria or soil samples prior to and after manure slurry treatment. The genes most frequently identified in soils pre- and post-slurry treatment were strB, aadA, tetB and tetM. All genes tested were detected in soils pre-slurry treatment, and a decrease in relative concentrations of tetB and the streptomycin resistance genes was observed in samples taken post-slurry treatment. These multiplex qPCR assays offer a cost-effective, reliable method for simultaneous quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in complex, environmental sample matrices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A rapid infection assay for Armillaria and real-time PCR quantitation of the fungal biomass in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Bhat, Ravi; Fujiyoshi, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Slow and unreliable infection in the greenhouse has been a barrier to research on Armillaria root disease. The existing infection assay takes 7-18 months for detectable infection, during which time the inoculum often dies, resulting in unequal challenge among plants. Because symptom expression and mortality are rare, presence or absence of infection, determined by culturing, is the only datum derived from the existing infection assay. This limits both routine comparisons of strain virulence and complex investigations of pathogenesis, neither of which have been done for Armillaria mellea. We tested a new infection assay, in which grape rootstocks growing in tissue culture medium are inoculated, and compared to rootstocks previously characterized from the existing infection assay as tolerant (Freedom) or susceptible (3309C). Culture media of 25 plants per rootstock was inoculated and five plants per rootstock were harvested 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postinoculation; the experiment was completed twice. Confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) were used to quantify infection. Roots were treated with WGA-AlexaFluor488, hyphae and roots were scanned on green and red channels on a confocal microscope, and percent root colonization was quantified. A fungal gene (EF1?) was determined to have a single copy in A. mellea, and both EF1? and a single-copy grape gene (UFGT) were amplified by Q-PCR; fungal DNA: plant DNA served as a measure of fungal biomass. Armillaria was detected by culture, microscopy, and Q-PCR starting 2 weeks postinoculation from all inoculated plants, demonstrating that the new infection assay is rapid and plants do not escape infection. Our findings of higher percent root colonization (as measured by microscopy) of 3309C than Freedom at all harvests (P<0.0001), consistently higher fungal biomass (as measured by Q-PCR) of 3309 than Freedom, and a significant positive correlation between percent root colonization and fungal biomass (P=0.01) suggests

  9. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Cesare, Patrizia; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Leonardi, Marco; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Poma, Anna Maria; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Périgord black truffle) belongs to the Ascomycota and forms mutualistic symbiosis with tree and shrub roots. This truffle has a high value in a global market and is cultivated in many countries of both hemispheres. The publication of the T. melanosporum genome has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of the fungus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is a definitive technique for quantitating differences in transcriptional gene expression levels between samples. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes must show stable expression under given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in T. melanosporum development. In this study, we present a morphological and microscopical classification of the developmental stages of T. melanosporum fruit body, and investigate the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA; 5.8S rRNA; Elongation factor 1-alpha; Elongation factor 1-beta; α-tubulin; 60S ribosomal protein L29; β-tubulin; 40S ribosomal protein S1; 40S ribosomal protein S3; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-actin; Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme). To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, five software-based approaches and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. We demonstrate here that the 18S rRNA gene shows the most stable expression during T. melanosporum development and that a set of three genes, 18S rRNA, Elongation factor 1-alpha and 40S ribosomal protein S3, is the most suitable to normalize qRT-PCR data from all the analyzed developmental stages; conversely, 18S rRNA, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Elongation factor 1-alpha are the most suitable

  10. Identification and validation of suitable housekeeping genes for normalizing quantitative real-time PCR assays in injured peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambarotta, Giovanna; Ronchi, Giulia; Friard, Olivier; Galletta, Pantaleo; Perroteau, Isabelle; Geuna, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the peripheral nerve induces dramatic changes in terms of cellular composition that are reflected on RNA quality and quantity, making messenger RNA expression analysis very complex. Several commonly used housekeeping genes are regulated following peripheral nerve injury and are thus not suitable for quantitative real-time PCR normalization; moreover, the presence of pseudogenes in some of them impairs their use. To deal with this problem, we have developed a new method to identify new stable housekeeping genes based on publicly available microarray data on normal and injured nerves. Four new candidate stable genes were identified and validated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis on nerves during the different phases after nerve injury: nerve degeneration, regeneration and remyelination. The stability measure of these genes was calculated with both NormFinder and geNorm algorithms and compared with six commonly used housekeeping genes. This procedure allowed us to identify two new and highly stable genes that can be employed for normalizing injured peripheral nerve data: ANKRD27 and RICTOR. Besides providing a tool for peripheral nerve research, our study also describes a simple and cheap procedure that can be used to identify suitable housekeeping genes in other tissues and organs.

  11. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  12. Development of a novel hepatitis B virus encapsidation detection assay by viral nucleocapsid-captured quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dong-Kyun; Ahn, Yeji; Ryu, Wang-Shick; Windisch, Marc P

    2015-11-01

    After encapsidation, where pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) is packaged into viral nucleocapsids, hepatitis B virus (HBV) uses the pgRNA as a template to replicate its DNA genome by reverse transcription. To date, there are only two encapsidation detection methods for evaluating the amount of pgRNA packaged into nucleocapsids: (i) the RNase protection assay and (ii) the native agarose gel electrophoresis assay. However, these methods are complex and laborious because they require multiple pgRNA purification steps followed by detection via an isotope-labeled probe. Moreover, both assays are unsuitable for evaluating a large number of antiviral agents in a dose-dependent manner. To overcome these limitations, we devised a novel HBV encapsidation assay in a 96-well plate format using nucleocapsid capture plates coated with an anti-HBV core (HBc) antibody, usually employed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, to immobilize viral nucleocapsids. Viral pgRNA is then detected by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). This strategy allows fast, convenient, and quantitative analysis of multiple viral RNA samples to evaluate encapsidation inhibitors. Furthermore, our protocol is potentially suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds targeting HBV pgRNA encapsidation.

  13. Statistical assessment of DNA extraction reagent lot variability in real-time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Kephart, C.M.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, D.S.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability in lots of a DNA extraction kit using real-time PCR assays for Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae. Methods and Results: Replicate aliquots of three bacteria were processed in duplicate with three different lots of a commercial DNA extraction kit. This experiment was repeated in triplicate. Results showed that cycle threshold values were statistically different among the different lots. Conclusions: Differences in DNA extraction reagent lots were found to be a significant source of variability for qPCR results. Steps should be taken to ensure the quality and consistency of reagents. Minimally, we propose that standard curves should be constructed for each new lot of extraction reagents, so that lot-to-lot variation is accounted for in data interpretation. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the importance of evaluating variability in DNA extraction procedures, especially when different reagent lots are used. Consideration of this variability in data interpretation should be an integral part of studies investigating environmental samples with unknown concentrations of organisms. ?? 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting by quantitative real-time PCR successfully distinguishes sibling human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard T; Su, Jing; Tao, Xin; Forman, Eric J; Hong, Kathleen H; Taylor, Deanne; Treff, Nathan R

    2014-11-01

    To validate a novel and more practical system for trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting which reliably distinguishes sibling embryos from each other. In this prospective and blinded study two-cell and 5-cell samples from commercially available sibling cell lines and excess DNA from trophectoderm biopsies of sibling human blastocysts were evaluated for accurate assignment of relationship using qPCR-based allelic discrimination from 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with low allele frequency variation and high heterozygosity. Cell samples with self relationships averaged 95.1 ± 5.9 % similarity. Sibling relationships averaged 57.2 ± 5.9 % similarity for all 40 SNPs, and 40.8 ± 8.2 % similarity for the 25 informative SNPs. Assignment of relationships was accomplished with 100 % accuracy for cell lines and embryos. These data demonstrate the first trophectoderm qPCR-based DNA fingerprinting technology capable of unequivocal discrimination of sibling human embryos. This methodology will empower research and development of new markers of, and interventions that influence embryonic reproductive potential.

  15. Comparison of high and low virulence serotypes of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae by quantitative real-time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Angen, Øystein; Boye, Mette

    PCR data. Preliminary results showed that in both serotype 2 and serotype 6, the toxin producing gene apxIV was the most highly expressed of the investigated genes. The major difference observed between the two serotypes was that apfA, involved in type IV vili production, was significantly upregulated...... to be important for early establishment of the bacteria in the host were examined by qPCR. The genes examined were apfA, coding for a subunit of Type IV pili, kdsB coding for a gene involved in lippopolysacceride biosynthesis, and pgaB which is involved in biofilm formation, all three believed to be important...... with respect to host cells adhesion. Also included in the analysis were the capsular gene, cpxB, the RTX toxin genes apxII, and apxIV and the gene exbD, involved in binding of iron from host cells. Finally, three previously validated reference genes, glyA, pykA and tpiA were included for normalization of the q...

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on the quantitative detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minjeong; Ryu, Sangryeol [Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongho [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-09-15

    Food irradiation is an economically viable technology for inactivating foodborne pathogens, but irradiation can mask pathogens in unhygienically prepared food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR. Three commercially available kits were tested, of which the InstaGene Matrix procedure was most effective in preparing template DNA from Salmonella exposed to radiation in broth culture. The minimum level of detection by real-time PCR combined with InstaGene Matrix was 3 log units of Salmonella per milliliter. However, when pure cultures of Salmonella were irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy, the cycle threshold (C{sub T}) increased 1-1.5-fold compared to irradiation at 0 and 1 kGy. This indicated that irradiation treatment may result in an underestimation of bacterial counts due to radiation-induced DNA lesions. We also compared C{sub T} values in inoculated chicken homogenates before and after irradiation, which in this model caused a 1.3-3.3-fold underestimation of bacterial counts with respect to irradiation dose.

  17. Quantitative PCR as an Alternative in the Diagnosis of Long-QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moric-Janiszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital long-QT syndrome is a genetic disorder associated with abnormalities in the function and/or structure of cardiac ion channels. Up to the present, 13 types of the disease have been described (LQTS1-13 which result from the fact that 13 genes of which mutations can have an influence on the occurrence of the disease have been identified. Characteristic symptoms of the disease include the changes in the ECG (QT interval prolonged above 450 ms, “torsade de pointes,” fainting, and even sudden cardiac death. The present study has been focused on two types of the disease, namely, LQTS1 and LQTS2. The examination of two appropriate genes expression (KCNQ1; KCNH2 at the transcription level by QRT-PCR in a group of LQTS patients and a healthy control group showed different transcriptional activities of KCNH2 gene in LQTS2 patients compared to the control individuals. KCNQ1 gene expression study did not reveal such differences between both groups. The results indicate that QRT-PCR may serve as a complimentary method to the identification of molecular alterations in genetic determinants of LQTS2 only, but it cannot be used as a sole diagnostic criterion.

  18. Evaluation of putative reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Lilium regale during development and under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Normalization to reference genes is the most common method to avoid bias in real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), which has been widely used for quantification of gene expression. Despite several studies on gene expression, Lilium, and particularly L. regale, has not been fully investigated regarding the evaluation of reference genes suitable for normalization. In this study, nine putative reference genes, namely 18S rRNA, ACT, BHLH, CLA, CYP, EF1, GAPDH, SAND and TIP41, were analyzed for accurate quantitative PCR normalization at different developmental stages and under different stress conditions, including biotic (Botrytis elliptica), drought, salinity, cold and heat stress. All these genes showed a wide variation in their Cq (quantification Cycle) values, and their stabilities were calculated by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In a combination of the results from the three algorithms, BHLH was superior to the other candidates when all the experimental treatments were analyzed together; CLA and EF1 were also recommended by two of the three algorithms. As for specific conditions, EF1 under various developmental stages, SAND under biotic stress, CYP/GAPDH under drought stress, and TIP41 under salinity stress were generally considered suitable. All the algorithms agreed on the stability of SAND and GAPDH under cold stress, while only CYP was selected under heat stress by all of them. Additionally, the selection of optimal reference genes under biotic stress was further verified by analyzing the expression level of LrLOX in leaves inoculated with B. elliptica. Our study would be beneficial for future studies on gene expression and molecular breeding of Lilium. PMID:27019788

  19. Quantitative PCR analysis of fungal DNA in Swedish day care centers and comparison with building characteristics and allergen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, G-H; Bröms, K; Mälarstig, B; Zhao, Z-H; Kim, J L; Svärdsudd, K; Janson, C; Norbäck, D

    2009-10-01

    Abstract Sweden has had allergen-avoidance day care centers (AADCs) since 1979. The aim of this study was to measure fungal DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a new method, in AADCs and ordinary day care centers (ODCs) and examine associations between allergen levels and building characteristics. Dust samples were collected by swabbing doorframes, vacuum-cleaning, and using Petri dishes. In total, 11 AADCs and 11 ODCs were studied (70 rooms). Total fungal DNA, measured by qPCR in the swab dust, was detected in 89%, Aspergillus or Penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA in 34%, and Stachybotrys chartarum DNA in 6% of the rooms. Total fungal DNA was significantly higher in rooms with linoleum floor (P = 0.02), textile carpets (P = 0.03), reported dampness/molds (P = 0.02) and reported odor (P fine dust, reported dampness/molds and type of building construction. Total fungal DNA was related to cat, dog, horse and total allergen levels (P = 0.003) in the day care centers. In conclusion, total fungal DNA is related to reported dampness/molds, reported odor, and type of wall construction. The association between fungal and allergen contamination indicated a general 'hygiene factor' related to biological contaminants. Practical Implications The associations between fungal DNA, reported dampness/molds, and odor support the view that buildings with odor problems should be investigated for possible hidden fungal growth. There is a need to measure fungal biomass in different types of building constructions by monitoring fungal DNA. Analysis of fungal DNA with quantitative PCR can be a fast and practical way to study indoor fungal contamination. Swabbing dust from the doorframe of the main entrance to the room can be a convenient method of sampling dust for fungal DNA analysis. The high prevalence of reported dampness/molds and the common occurrence of fungal DNA indicate the need to improve the indoor environment of Swedish day care centers.

  20. Combining real-time PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing to provide quantitative comparisons of fungal aerosol populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, Karen C.; Lang-Yona, Naama; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Rudich, Yinon; Peccia, Jordan

    2014-02-01

    We examined fungal communities associated with the PM10 mass of Rehovot, Israel outdoor air samples collected in the spring and fall seasons. Fungal communities were described by 454 pyrosequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the fungal ribosomal RNA encoding gene. To allow for a more quantitative comparison of fungal exposure in humans, the relative abundance values of specific taxa were transformed to absolute concentrations through multiplying these values by the sample's total fungal spore concentration (derived from universal fungal qPCR). Next, the sequencing-based absolute concentrations for Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. were compared to taxon-specific qPCR concentrations for A. alternata, C. cladosporioides, E. nigrum, and Penicillium/Aspergillus spp. derived from the same spring and fall aerosol samples. Results of these comparisons showed that the absolute concentration values generated from pyrosequencing were strongly associated with the concentration values derived from taxon-specific qPCR (for all four species, p 0.70). The correlation coefficients were greater for species present in higher concentrations. Our microbial aerosol population analyses demonstrated that fungal diversity (number of fungal operational taxonomic units) was higher in the spring compared to the fall (p = 0.02), and principal coordinate analysis showed distinct seasonal differences in taxa distribution (ANOSIM p = 0.004). Among genera containing allergenic and/or pathogenic species, the absolute concentrations of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Cladosporium were greater in the fall, while Cryptococcus, Penicillium, and Ulocladium concentrations were greater in the spring. The transformation of pyrosequencing fungal population relative abundance data to absolute concentrations can improve next-generation DNA sequencing-based quantitative aerosol exposure assessment.

  1. Detection and identification of Rift Valley fever virus in mosquito vectors by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaengo, D; Lorenzo, G; Iglesias, J; Warigia, M; Sang, R; Bishop, R P; Brun, A

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostic methods allowing for rapid identification of pathogens are crucial for controlling and preventing dissemination after disease outbreaks as well as for use in surveillance programs. For arboviruses, detection of the presence of virus in their arthropod hosts is important for monitoring of viral activity and quantitative information is useful for modeling of transmission dynamics. In this study, molecular detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in mosquito samples from the 2006 to 2007 East African outbreaks was performed using quantitative real-time PCR assay (qRT-PCR). Specific RVFV sequence-based primer/fluorogenic (TaqMan) probe sets were derived from the L and S RNA segments of the virus. Both primer-probe L and S segment-based combinations detected genomic RVFV sequences, with generally comparable levels of sensitivity. Viral loads from three mosquito species, Aedes mcintoshi, Aedes ochraceus and Mansonia uniformis were estimated and significant differences of between 5- and 1000-fold were detected between Ae. mcintoshi and M. uniformis using both the L and S primer-probe-based assays. The genetic relationships of the viral sequences in mosquito samples were established by partial M segment sequencing and assigned to the two previously described viral lineages defined by analysis of livestock isolates obtained during the 2006-2007 outbreak, confirming that similar viruses were present in both the vector and mammalian host. The data confirms the utility of qRT-PCR for identification and initial quantification of virus in mosquito samples during RVFV outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. JRC GMO-Amplicons: a collection of nucleic acid sequences related to genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Mauro; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Henriksson, Peter; Bonfini, Laura; Patak, Alex; Kreysa, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The DNA target sequence is the key element in designing detection methods for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Unfortunately this information is frequently lacking, especially for unauthorized GMOs. In addition, patent sequences are generally poorly annotated, buried in complex and extensive documentation and hard to link to the corresponding GM event. Here, we present the JRC GMO-Amplicons, a database of amplicons collected by screening public nucleotide sequence databanks by in silico determination of PCR amplification with reference methods for GMO analysis. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Genetically Modified Food and Feed (EU-RL GMFF) provides these methods in the GMOMETHODS database to support enforcement of EU legislation and GM food/feed control. The JRC GMO-Amplicons database is composed of more than 240 000 amplicons, which can be easily accessed and screened through a web interface. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at pooling and collecting publicly available sequences related to GMOs in food and feed. The JRC GMO-Amplicons supports control laboratories in the design and assessment of GMO methods, providing inter-alia in silico prediction of primers specificity and GM targets coverage. The new tool can assist the laboratories in the analysis of complex issues, such as the detection and identification of unauthorized GMOs. Notably, the JRC GMO-Amplicons database allows the retrieval and characterization of GMO-related sequences included in patents documentation. Finally, it can help annotating poorly described GM sequences and identifying new relevant GMO-related sequences in public databases. The JRC GMO-Amplicons is freely accessible through a web-based portal that is hosted on the EU-RL GMFF website. Database URL: http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/jrcgmoamplicons/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  4. Threshold microsclerotial inoculum for cotton verticillium wilt determined through wet-sieving and real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Fan, Rong; Dong, Haitao; Shang, Wenjing; Xu, Xiangming; Zhu, Heqin; Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping

    2015-02-01

    Quantification of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia is an important component of wilt management on a range of crops. Estimation of microsclerotia by dry or wet sieving and plating of soil samples on semiselective medium is a commonly used technique but this method is resource-intensive. We developed a new molecular quantification method based on Synergy Brands (SYBR) Green real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of wet-sieving samples (wet-sieving qPCR). This method can detect V. dahliae microsclerotia as low as 0.5 CFU g(-1) of soil. There was a high correlation (r=0.98) between the estimates of conventional plating analysis and the new wet-sieving qPCR method for 40 soil samples. To estimate the inoculum threshold for cotton wilt, >400 soil samples were taken from the rhizosphere of individual plants with or without visual wilt symptoms in experimental and commercial cotton fields at the boll-forming stage. Wilt inoculum was estimated using the wet-sieving qPCR method and related to wilt development. The estimated inoculum threshold varied with cultivar, ranging from 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) of soil for susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively. In addition, there was an overall relationship of wilt incidence with inoculum density across 31 commercial fields where a single composite soil sample was taken at each field, with an estimated inoculum threshold of 11 CFU g(-1) of soil. These results suggest that wilt risk can be predicted from the estimated soil inoculum density using the new wet-sieving qPCR method. We recommend the use of 4.0 and 7.0 CFU g(-1) as an inoculum threshold on susceptible and resistant cultivars, respectively, in practical risk prediction schemes.

  5. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaryd A Ridgeway

    Full Text Available Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick, Cydia pomonella (L. and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick. Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  6. Studies of plant colonisation by closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents using strain specific quantitative PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna H; Bejai, Sarosh; Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Meijer, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Certain strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can colonize plants and improve growth and stress management. In order to study these effects, bacterial growth dynamics on plants and in the rhizosphere are of interest calling for specific analytical tools. For that purpose, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed in order to differentiate among three closely related B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains (UCMB5033, UCMB5036, UCMB5113) and to determine their levels with high accuracy. Oligonucleotide primers were designed for strain unique gene sequences and used for SYBR green based qPCR analysis. Standard curves covered a wide linear range (10(6)) of DNA amounts with the lowest detection level at 50 fg. Post-reaction melting curve analysis showed only a single product. Accurate threshold cycles were obtained, even in the presence of high excess of related Bacillus strains and total bacterial DNA from soil. Analysis of Bacillus colonisation after seed treatment of two oilseed rape cultivars (Oase and Ritz) grown on agar support showed a time dependent effect but that the bacteria mostly were found on root tissues and little on green tissues. The colonisation on plants grown in soil varied among the Bacillus strains where Oase seemed to house more bacteria than Ritz. Applied as a mixture, all three Bacillus strains co-existed on the roots of plants grown in soil. The qPCR assay in combination with other techniques will be a powerful tool to study plant interactions of these B. amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents to further understand the requirements for successful interactions and improvement of plant properties.

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  8. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate

  9. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Low, Eng-Ti Leslie; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate reference genes in other oil palm

  10. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in oil palm elite planting materials propagated by tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pek-Lan Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR. With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. RESULTS: In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569 outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN. PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection

  11. Assessment of soil potential for microbial nitrogen cycling using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily; McMillan, Mary; Aldorri, Sind

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen is an important nutrient for the synthesis of macromolecules, such as nucleic acids and proteins, in all organisms. Nitrogen cycling is essential for the production of different forms of nitrogenous molecules used by various organisms in the soil as available nitrogen sources. While nitrogen-fixing bacteria can utilize N2 as a nitrogen source, other microbes and plants need to assimilate N from fixed forms, e.g. ammonia or nitrate. Nitrogen cycling is largely derived by microbial activity in the soil. Examples include the reduction of N2 to ammonia by nitrogen fixation, production of nitrate by nitrification and the removal of available nitrogenous compounds by denitrification. We measured the potential of agricultural soils under various management practices to cycle nitrogen by measuring the abundance of functional genes involved in the nitrogen cycle. We report on the suitability of PCR-based methods as indicators of soil function potential.

  12. Optimization of a duplex real-time PCR method for relative quantitation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnozzi, Ariel; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo; García, Maricarmen

    2012-06-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens controlled by biosecurity and vaccination with live attenuated or recombinant vaccines. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) infections are characterized by a peak of viral replication in the trachea followed by a steady decrease in replication that results in the establishment of latency. Estimation of viral load is an important tool to determine the stage of ILTV infection. Here, a multiplex real-time PCR was optimized for the quantification of ILTV genomes. Quantification of viral genomes was based on the amplification of the ILTV UL44 gene, and sample variability was normalized using the chicken (Gallusgallus domesticus) alpha2-collagen gene as an endogenous control in a duplex reaction.

  13. Evaluation of Real-Time Quantitative PCR as a Standard Cytogenetic Diagnostic Tool for Confirmation of Microarray (aCGH) Results and Determination of Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rubin; Carter, Jenny; Lench, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) as a diagnostic tool for follow up of abnormal microarray (aCGH) results. Method: qPCR was performed on 207 samples with known aCGH results to detect chromosomal abnormality and determine the capability of qPCR. Eighty-four samples were processed and the results compared with the original aCGH result and with one or more of the alternative follow-up methods: aCGH, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or karyotyping. A separat...

  14. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) expression data across twelve tissues of riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ramneek; Sodhi, Monika; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Verma, Preeti; Swami, Shelesh Kumar; Kumari, Parvesh

    2018-01-01

    Selection of reference genes has become an integral step in any real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) based expression studies. The importance of this study stems from the fact that riverine buffaloes are major dairy species of Indian sub-continent and the information generated here will be of great interest to the investigators engaged in functional genomic studies of this important livestock species. In this study, an effort was made to evaluate a panel of 10 candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta- actin (ACTB), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), ribosomal protein S15 (RPS15), ribosomal protein L-4 (RPL4), ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), ribosomal protein S23 (RPS23), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), β2 Microglobulin (β2M) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 (EEF1A1) across 12 tissues (mammary gland, kidney, spleen, liver, heart, intestine, ovary, lung, muscle, brain, subcutaneous fat and testis) of riverine buffaloes. In addition to overall analysis, tissue wise evaluation of expression stability of individual RG was also performed. Three different algorithms provided in geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares were used to evaluate the stability of 10 potential reference genes from different functional classes. The M-value given by geNorm ranged from 0.9797 (RPS9 and UXT) to 1.7362 (RPS15). From the most stable to the least stable, genes were ranked as: UXT/RPS9> RPL4> RPS23> EEF1A1> ACTB> HMBS> GAPDH> B2M> RPS15. While NormFinder analysis ranked the genes as: UXT> RPS23> RPL4> RPS9> EEF1A1> HMBS> ACTB> β2M> GAPDH> RPS15. Based on the crossing point SD value and range of fold change expression, BestKeeper analysis ranked the genes as: RPS9> RPS23/UXT> RPL4> GAPDH> EEF1A1> ACTB> HMBS> β2M> RPS15. Overall the study has identified RPS23, RPS9, RPL4 and UXT genes to be the most stable and appropriate RGs that could be utilized for normalization of transcriptional data in various tissues of

  15. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections by qualitative and quantitative PCR in HIV infected patients Diagnóstico de infecção por CMV em pacientes infectados pelo HIV utilizando PCR qualitativa e quantitativa

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo de Albuquerque CUNHA; Lauro Juliano MARIN; Victor Hugo AQUINO; Luiz Tadeu Moraes FIGUEIREDO

    2002-01-01

    A high incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections is observed in Brazil. These viruses are causatives of significant morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This work, shows the application of a PCR on determination of CMV load in the buffy coat and plasma. We analyzed the samples of 247 HIV infected patients in order to diagnose CMV infection and disease. We developed a semi-quantitative PCR that amplifies part of the glycoprotein...

  16. Factors contributing to variability of quantitative viral PCR results in proficiency testing samples: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, R T; Yan, X; Wick, M T; Rodriguez, A B; Xiong, X; Ginocchio, C C; Mitchell, M J; Caliendo, A M

    2012-02-01

    While viral load testing has gained widespread acceptance, a primary limitation remains the variability of results, particularly between different laboratories. While some work has demonstrated the importance of standardized quantitative control material in reducing this variability, little has been done to explore other important factors in the molecular amplification process. Results of 185 laboratories enrolled in the College of American Pathologists (CAP) 2009 viral load proficiency testing (PT) survey (VLS) were examined. This included 165 labs (89.2%) testing for cytomegalovirus (CMV), 99 (53.5%) for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and 64 (34.6%) for BK virus (BKV). At the time of PT, laboratories were asked a series of questions to characterize their testing methods. The responses to these questions were correlated to mean viral load (MVL) and result variability (RV). Contribution of individual factors to RV was estimated through analysis of variance (ANOVA) modeling and the use of backward selection of factors to fit those models. Selection of the quantitative calibrator, commercially prepared primers and probes, and amplification target gene were found most prominently associated with changes in MVL or RV for one or more of the viruses studied. Commercially prepared primers and probes and amplification target gene made the largest contribution to overall variability. Factors contributing to MVL and RV differed among viruses, as did relative contribution of each factor to overall variability. The marked variability seen in clinical quantitative viral load results is associated with multiple aspects of molecular testing design and performance. The reduction of such variability will require a multifaceted approach to improve the accuracy, reliability, and clinical utility of these important tests.

  17. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porceddu Enrico

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usually the reference genes used in gene expression analysis have been chosen for their known or suspected housekeeping roles, however the variation observed in most of them hinders their effective use. The assessed lack of validated reference genes emphasizes the importance of a systematic study for their identification. For selecting candidate reference genes we have developed a simple in silico method based on the data publicly available in the wheat databases Unigene and TIGR. Results The expression stability of 32 genes was assessed by qRT-PCR using a set of cDNAs from 24 different plant samples, which included different tissues, developmental stages and temperature stresses. The selected sequences included 12 well-known HKGs representing different functional classes and 20 genes novel with reference to the normalization issue. The expression stability of the 32 candidate genes was tested by the computer programs geNorm and NormFinder using five different data-sets. Some discrepancies were detected in the ranking of the candidate reference genes, but there was substantial agreement between the groups of genes with the most and least stable expression. Three new identified reference genes appear more effective than the well-known and frequently used HKGs to normalize gene expression in wheat. Finally, the expression study of a gene encoding a PDI-like protein showed that its correct evaluation relies on the adoption of suitable normalization genes and can be negatively affected by the use of traditional HKGs with unstable expression, such as actin and α-tubulin. Conclusion The present research represents the first wide screening aimed to the identification of reference genes and of the corresponding primer pairs specifically designed for gene expression studies in wheat, in particular for qRT-PCR analyses. Several of the new identified reference genes outperformed the traditional HKGs in terms of expression stability

  18. Use of quantitative real-time PCR for direct detection of serratia marcescens in marine and other aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jessica; Wanless, David; Sinigalliano, Christopher D; Lipp, Erin K

    2014-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is the etiological agent of acroporid serratiosis, a distinct form of white pox disease in the threatened coral Acropora palmata. The pathogen is commonly found in untreated human waste in the Florida Keys, which may contaminate both nearshore and offshore waters. Currently there is no direct method for detection of this bacterium in the aquatic or reef environment, and culture-based techniques may underestimate its abundance in marine waters. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect S. marcescens directly from environmental samples, including marine water, coral mucus, sponge tissue, and wastewater. The assay targeted the luxS gene and was able to distinguish S. marcescens from other Serratia species with a reliable quantitative limit of detection of 10 cell equivalents (CE) per reaction. The method could routinely discern the presence of S. marcescens for as few as 3 CE per reaction, but it could not be reliably quantified at this level. The assay detected environmental S. marcescens in complex sewage influent samples at up to 761 CE ml(-1) and in septic system-impacted residential canals in the Florida Keys at up to 4.1 CE ml(-1). This detection assay provided rapid quantitative abilities and good sensitivity and specificity, which should offer an important tool for monitoring this ubiquitous pathogen that can potentially impact both human health and coral health.

  19. Cooperative Epigenetic Modulation by Cancer Amplicon Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Lixin; Tolga Emre, N. C.; Kruhlak, Michael J.; Chung, Hye-Jung; Steidl, Christian; Slack, Graham; Wright, George W.; Lenz, Georg; Ngo, Vu N.; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Xu, Weihong; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yandan; Lamy, Laurence; Davis, R. Eric; Xiao, Wenming; Powell, John; Maloney, David; Thomas, Craig J.; Möller, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Ott, German; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Savage, Kerry; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Chan, Wing C.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Levens, David; Staudt, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    Chromosome band 9p24 is frequently amplified in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To identify oncogenes in this amplicon, we screened an RNA interference library targeting amplicon genes and thereby identified JAK2 and the histone demethylase JMJD2C as essential genes in these lymphomas. Inhibition of JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperated in killing these lymphomas by decreasing tyrosine 41 phosphorylation and increasing lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3, promoting heterochromatin formation. MYC, a major target of JAK2-mediated histone phosphorylation, was silenced following JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibition, with a corresponding increase in repressive chromatin. Hence, JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperatively remodel the PMBL and HL epigenome, offering a mechanistic rationale for the development of JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibitors in these diseases. PMID:21156283

  20. Comparison of lung cancer cell lines representing four histopathological subtypes with gene expression profiling using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancers are the most common type of human malignancy and are intractable. Lung cancers are generally classified into four histopathological subtypes: adenocarcinoma (AD, squamous cell carcinoma (SQ, large cell carcinoma (LC, and small cell carcinoma (SC. Molecular biological characterization of these subtypes has been performed mainly using DNA microarrays. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of these four subtypes using twelve human lung cancer cell lines and the more reliable quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. Results We selected 100 genes from public DNA microarray data and examined them by DNA microarray analysis in eight test cell lines (A549, ABC-1, EBC-1, LK-2, LU65, LU99, STC 1, RERF-LC-MA and a normal control lung cell line (MRC-9. From this, we extracted 19 candidate genes. We quantified the expression of the 19 genes and a housekeeping gene, GAPDH, with qPCR, using the same eight cell lines plus four additional validation lung cancer cell lines (RERF-LC-MS, LC-1/sq, 86-2, and MS-1-L. Finally, we characterized the four subtypes of lung cancer cell lines using principal component analysis (PCA of gene expression profiling for 12 of the 19 genes (AMY2A, CDH1, FOXG1, IGSF3, ISL1, MALL, PLAU, RAB25, S100P, SLCO4A1, STMN1, and TGM2. The combined PCA and gene pathway analyses suggested that these genes were related to cell adhesion, growth, and invasion. S100P in AD cells and CDH1 in AD and SQ cells were identified as candidate markers of these lung cancer subtypes based on their upregulation and the results of PCA analysis. Immunohistochemistry for S100P and RAB25 was closely correlated to gene expression. Conclusions These results show that the four subtypes, represented by 12 lung cancer cell lines, were well characterized using qPCR and PCA for the 12 genes examined. Certain genes, in particular S100P and CDH1, may be especially important for distinguishing the different subtypes. Our results

  1. QUANTITATIVE PROTEOMICS OF THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS VALIDATED BY MICROARRAY ANALYSIS AND REAL TIME PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qiangwei; Hendrickson, Erik L.; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tiansong; Taub, Fred; Moore, Brian C.; Porat, Iris; Whitman, William B.; Hackett, Murray; Leigh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY For the archaeon Methanococcus maripaludis, a fully sequenced and annotated model species of hydrogenotrophic methanogen, we report validation of quantitative protein level expression ratios on a proteome-wide basis. Using an approach based on quantitative multidimensional capillary HPLC and quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry, coverage of gene expression approached that currently achievable with transcription microarrays. Comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based proteomics and spotted cDNA arrays were used to compare global protein and mRNA levels in a wild-type (S2) and mutant strain (S40) of M. maripaludis. Using linear regression with 652 expression ratios generated by both the proteomic and microarray methods, a product moment correlation coefficient of 0.24 was observed. The correlation improved to 0.61 if only genes showing significant expression changes were included. A novel two-stage method of outlier detection was employed for the protein measurements when Dixon’s Q-test by itself failed to give satisfactory results. The log2 transformations of the number of peptides or isotopic peptide pairs associated with each ORF, divided by the predicted molecular weight, were found to have moderately positive correlations with two bioinformatic predictors of gene expression based on codon bias. We detected peptides derived from 939 proteins or 55% of the genome coding capacity. Of these, 60 were over-expressed and 34 were under-expressed in the mutant. Of the 1722 ORFs encoded in the genome, 1597 or 93% were probed by cDNA arrays. Of these, 50 were more highly expressed and 45 showed lower expression levels in the mutant relative to the wild-type. 15 ORFs were shown to be over-expressed by both methods and 2 ORFs were shown to be over-expressed by proteomics and under-expressed by microarray. PMID:16489187

  2. Overexpressed Genes/ESTs and Characterization of Distinct Amplicons on 17823 in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse E. Erson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available 17823 is a frequent site of gene amplification in breast cancer. Several lines of evidence suggest the presence of multiple amplicons on 17823. To characterize distinct amplicons on 17823 and localize putative oncogenes, we screened genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs in existing physical and radiation hybrid maps for amplification and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines by semiquantitative duplex PCR, semiquantitative duplex RT-PCR, Southern blot, Northern blot analyses. We identified two distinct amplicons on 17823, one including TBX2 and another proximal region including RPS6KB1 (PS6K and MUL. In addition to these previously reported overexpressed genes, we also identified amplification and overexpression of additional uncharacterized genes and ESTs, some of which suggest potential oncogenic activity. In conclusion, we have further defined two distinct regions of gene amplification and overexpression on 17823 with identification of new potential oncogene candidates. Based on the amplification and overexpression patterns of known and as of yet unrecognized genes on 17823, it is likely that some of these genes mapping to the discrete amplicons function as oncogenes and contribute to tumor progression in breast cancer cells.

  3. Development and in-house validation of the event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods for genetically modified cotton MON15985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Rao, Jun; Guo, Jinchao; Wang, Shu; Liu, Jia; Lee, Seonghun; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-02-01

    To implement genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling regulations, an event-specific analysis method based on the junction sequence between exogenous integration and host genomic DNA has become the preferential approach for GMO identification and quantification. In this study, specific primers and TaqMan probes based on the revealed 5'-end junction sequence of GM cotton MON15985 were designed, and qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were established employing the designed primers and probes. In the qualitative PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 g kg(-1) in 100 ng total cotton genomic DNA, corresponding to about 17 copies of haploid cotton genomic DNA, and the LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ) for quantitative PCR assay were 10 and 17 copies of haploid cotton genomic DNA, respectively. Furthermore, the developed quantitative PCR assays were validated in-house by five different researchers. Also, five practical samples with known GM contents were quantified using the developed PCR assay in in-house validation, and the bias between the true and quantification values ranged from 2.06% to 12.59%. This study shows that the developed qualitative and quantitative PCR methods are applicable for the identification and quantification of GM cotton MON15985 and its derivates.

  4. Assessing chlorinated ethene degradation in a large scale contaminant plume by dual carbon–chlorine isotope analysis and quantitative PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunkeler, D.; Abe, Y.; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2011-01-01

    The fate of chlorinated ethenes in a large contaminant plume originating from a tetrachloroethene (PCE) source in a sandy aquifer in Denmark was investigated using novel methods including compound-specific carbon and chlorine isotope analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q......PCR) methods targeting Dehaloccocoides sp. and vcrA genes. Redox conditions were characterized as well based on concentrations of dissolved redox sensitive compounds and sulfur isotopes in SO4 2−. In the first 400 m downgradient of the source, the plume was confined to the upper 20m of the aquifer. Further...... to pyrite oxidation as confirmed by the depleted sulfur isotope signature of SO4 2−. In the same zone, PCE and trichloroethene (TCE) disappeared and cis- 1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE) became the dominant chlorinated ethene. PCE and TCE were likely transformed by reductive dechlorination rather than abiotic...

  5. Positive fungal quantitative PCR and Th17 cytokine detection in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids: Complementary biomarkers of hypersensitivity pneumonitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Gondoin, Anne; Pallandre, Jean-Rene; Vacheyrou, Mallory; Valot, Benoit; Soumagne, Thibaud; Reboux, Gabriel; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Millon, Laurence

    2016-07-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a large group of diseases, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and sarcoidosis. In this study, we aimed to identify bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers which could be contributive for HP diagnosis. We analyzed 39 BALF samples from 12 ILD patients with sarcoidosis, 11 with IPF and 16 with HP. We determined the levels of 10 cytokines and carried out quantitative PCR for 10 microorganisms involved in farm-associated or domestic forms of HP. IL-8, IL-6, TNFα, IL-17 and IL-23 levels were significantly higher in BALF samples from HP patients (psebi were positively significantly more frequently for HP patients (p<0.05, one-way Kruskal-Wallis). The biomarkers identified here can be detected in BALF, which could be routinely obtained as complementary analysis in ILD diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SHORT-COMMUNICATION Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Silva, G F; Gualberto, G F; Almeida, F L

    2016-12-23

    Tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the main native freshwater fish in Brazilian aquaculture. Therefore, intensive research pressure has been applied to the species to support new technologies for tambaqui farming. Molecular biology represents a tool that can be used to investigate every field of applied biology, from fish physiology to the effects of climate change. Based on the importance of reference genes for the relative or absolute quantification of gene transcripts, we cloned and sequenced three candidate reference genes in tambaqui (18S ribossomal RNA - 18s, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase - gapdh, and actin beta - β-actin), and validated a set of primers for each gene for use in real-time quantitative PCR. The results were evaluated by RefFinder, which indicated that β-actin is the most suitable reference gene for tambaqui among those studied, followed by 18s.

  7. Method Specific Calibration Corrects for DNA Extraction Method Effects on Relative Telomere Length Measurements by Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeker, Luise A; Holland, Rebecca; Underwood, Sarah; Fairlie, Jennifer; Psifidi, Androniki; Ilska, Joanna J; Bagnall, Ainsley; Whitelaw, Bruce; Coffey, Mike; Banos, Georgios; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in epidemiological, biomedical and ecological studies. A wide range of DNA extraction techniques have been used in telomere experiments and recent quantitative PCR (qPCR) based studies suggest that the choice of DNA extraction method may influence average relative TL (RTL) measurements. Such extraction method effects may limit the use of historically collected DNA samples extracted with different methods. However, if extraction method effects are systematic an extraction method specific (MS) calibrator might be able to correct for them, because systematic effects would influence the calibrator sample in the same way as all other samples. In the present study we tested whether leukocyte RTL in blood samples from Holstein Friesian cattle and Soay sheep measured by qPCR was influenced by DNA extraction method and whether MS calibration could account for any observed differences. We compared two silica membrane-based DNA extraction kits and a salting out method. All extraction methods were optimized to yield enough high quality DNA for TL measurement. In both species we found that silica membrane-based DNA extraction methods produced shorter RTL measurements than the non-membrane-based method when calibrated against an identical calibrator. However, these differences were not statistically detectable when a MS calibrator was used to calculate RTL. This approach produced RTL measurements that were highly correlated across extraction methods (r > 0.76) and had coefficients of variation lower than 10% across plates of identical samples extracted by different methods. Our results are consistent with previous findings that popular membrane-based DNA extraction methods may lead to shorter RTL measurements than non-membrane-based methods. However, we also demonstrate that these differences can be accounted for by using an extraction method-specific calibrator, offering researchers a simple means of accounting for

  8. Evaluation and selection of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L. Dunal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varinder Singh

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease, abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid. The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method suggested that cyclophilin (CYP is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S, ubiquitin (UBQ and beta-tubulin (TUB were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species.

  9. Development and validation of an event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize MIR162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162.

  10. Comparison of commercial DNA preparation kits for the detection of Brucellae in tissue using quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straube Eberhard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of Brucellae in tissue specimens using PCR assays is difficult because the amount of bacteria is usually low. Therefore, optimised DNA extraction methods are critical. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of commercial kits for the extraction of Brucella DNA. Methods Five kits were evaluated using clinical specimens: QIAamp™ DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN, peqGold™ Tissue DNA Mini Kit (PeqLab, UltraClean™ Tissue and Cells DNA Isolation Kit (MoBio, DNA Isolation Kit for Cells and Tissues (Roche, and NucleoSpin™ Tissue (Macherey-Nagel. DNA yield was determined using a quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting IS711 that included an internal amplification control. Results Kits of QIAGEN and Roche provided the highest amount of DNA, Macherey-Nagel and Peqlab products were intermediate whereas MoBio yielded the lowest amount of DNA. Differences were significant (p Conclusions We observed differences in DNA yield as high as two orders of magnitude for some samples between the best and the worst DNA extraction kits and inhibition was observed occasionally. This indicates that DNA purification may be more relevant than expected when the amount of DNA in tissue is very low.

  11. The Pseudomonas community in metal-contaminated sediments as revealed by quantitative PCR: a link with metal bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Stéphanie; Wauven, Corinne Vander; Billon, Gabriel; Matthijs, Sandra; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillan, David C

    2014-10-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria are ubiquitous Gram-negative and aerobic microorganisms that are known to harbor metal resistance mechanisms such as efflux pumps and intracellular redox enzymes. Specific Pseudomonas bacteria have been quantified in some metal-contaminated environments, but the entire Pseudomonas population has been poorly investigated under these conditions, and the link with metal bioavailability was not previously examined. In the present study, quantitative PCR and cell cultivation were used to monitor and characterize the Pseudomonas population at 4 different sediment sites contaminated with various levels of metals. At the same time, total metals and metal bioavailability (as estimated using an HCl 1 m extraction) were measured. It was found that the total level of Pseudomonas, as determined by qPCR using two different genes (oprI and the 16S rRNA gene), was positively and significantly correlated with total and HCl-extractable Cu, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn, with high correlation coefficients (>0.8). Metal-contaminated sediments featured isolates of the Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas lutea and Pseudomonas aeruginosa groups, with other bacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Klebsiella and Methylobacterium. It is concluded that Pseudomonas bacteria do proliferate in metal-contaminated sediments, but are still part of a complex community. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Real-Time Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and Reverse Transcription-QPCR for Detection and Enumeration of Total Yeasts in Wine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, Núria; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; González, Ángel; Mas, Albert; Guillamón, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time PCR, or quantitative PCR (QPCR), has been developed to rapidly detect and quantify the total number of yeasts in wine without culturing. Universal yeast primers were designed from the variable D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. These primers showed good specificity with all the wine yeasts tested, and they did not amplify the most representative wine species of acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Numerous standard curves were constructed with different strains and species grown in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium or incubated in wine. The small standard errors with these replicas proved that the assay is reproducible and highly robust. This technique was validated with artificially contaminated and natural wine samples. We also performed a reverse transcription-QPCR (RT-QPCR) assay from rRNA for total viable yeast quantification. This technique had a low detection limit and was more accurate than QPCR because the dead cells were not quantified. As far as we know, this is the first time that RT-QPCR has been performed to quantify viable yeasts from rRNA. RT-QPCR is a rapid and accurate technique for enumerating yeasts during industrial wine fermentation and controlling the risk of wine spoilage. PMID:17088381

  13. A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Helena J.; Van Borm, Steven; Young, John R.; Fife, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes, selected for the lowest variation in representative samples, can be used to control random technical variation. Reference gene assays must be reliable, have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios: a tissue collection and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where its use might provide misleading results. Methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology. PMID:27537060

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time PCR assay versus clinical and Gram stain identification of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, J-P; Mazouni, C; Fenollar, F; Raoult, D; Boubli, L; Bretelle, F

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in diagnosing bacterial vaginosis versus the standard methods, the Amsel criteria and the Nugent score. The Amsel criteria, the Nugent score, and results from the molecular tool were obtained independently from vaginal samples of 163 pregnant women who reported abnormal vaginal symptoms before 20 weeks gestation. To determine the performance of the molecular tool, we calculated the kappa value, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Either or both of the Amsel criteria (≥3 criteria) and the Nugent score (score ≥7) indicated that 25 women (15%) had bacterial vaginosis, and the remaining 138 women did not. DNA levels of Gardnerella vaginalis or Atopobium vaginae exceeded 10(9) copies/mL or 10(8) copies/mL, respectively, in 34 (21%) of the 163 samples. Complete agreement between both reference methods and high concentrations of G. vaginalis and A. vaginae was found in 94.5% of women (154/163 samples, kappa value = 0.81, 95% confidence interval 0.70-0.81). The nine samples with discordant results were categorized as intermediate flora by the Nugent score. The molecular tool predicted bacterial vaginosis with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 93%, a positive predictive value of 73%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. The quantitative real-time PCR assay shows excellent agreement with the results of both reference methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

  15. Standardisation of data from real-time quantitative PCR methods – evaluation of outliers and comparison of calibration curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Malcolm J

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As real-time quantitative PCR (RT-QPCR is increasingly being relied upon for the enforcement of legislation and regulations dependent upon the trace detection of DNA, focus has increased on the quality issues related to the technique. Recent work has focused on the identification of factors that contribute towards significant measurement uncertainty in the real-time quantitative PCR technique, through investigation of the experimental design and operating procedure. However, measurement uncertainty contributions made during the data analysis procedure have not been studied in detail. This paper presents two additional approaches for standardising data analysis through the novel application of statistical methods to RT-QPCR, in order to minimise potential uncertainty in results. Results Experimental data was generated in order to develop the two aspects of data handling and analysis that can contribute towards measurement uncertainty in results. This paper describes preliminary aspects in standardising data through the application of statistical techniques to the area of RT-QPCR. The first aspect concerns the statistical identification and subsequent handling of outlying values arising from RT-QPCR, and discusses the implementation of ISO guidelines in relation to acceptance or rejection of outlying values. The second aspect relates to the development of an objective statistical test for the comparison of calibration curves. Conclusion The preliminary statistical tests for outlying values and comparisons between calibration curves can be applied using basic functions found in standard spreadsheet software. These two aspects emphasise that the comparability of results arising from RT-QPCR needs further refinement and development at the data-handling phase. The implementation of standardised approaches to data analysis should further help minimise variation due to subjective judgements. The aspects described in this paper will

  16. Sources of PCR-induced distortions in high-throughput sequencing data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebschull, Justus M.; Zador, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    PCR permits the exponential and sequence-specific amplification of DNA, even from minute starting quantities. PCR is a fundamental step in preparing DNA samples for high-throughput sequencing. However, there are errors associated with PCR-mediated amplification. Here we examine the effects of four important sources of error—bias, stochasticity, template switches and polymerase errors—on sequence representation in low-input next-generation sequencing libraries. We designed a pool of diverse PCR amplicons with a defined structure, and then used Illumina sequencing to search for signatures of each process. We further developed quantitative models for each process, and compared predictions of these models to our experimental data. We find that PCR stochasticity is the major force skewing sequence representation after amplification of a pool of unique DNA amplicons. Polymerase errors become very common in later cycles of PCR but have little impact on the overall sequence distribution as they are confined to small copy numbers. PCR template switches are rare and confined to low copy numbers. Our results provide a theoretical basis for removing distortions from high-throughput sequencing data. In addition, our findings on PCR stochasticity will have particular relevance to quantification of results from single cell sequencing, in which sequences are represented by only one or a few molecules. PMID:26187991

  17. Wetlab-2 - Quantitative PCR Tools for Spaceflight Studies of Gene Expression Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlab-2 is a research platform for conducting real-time quantitative gene expression analysis aboard the International Space Station. The system enables spaceflight genomic studies involving a wide variety of biospecimen types in the unique microgravity environment of space. Currently, gene expression analyses of space flown biospecimens must be conducted post flight after living cultures or frozen or chemically fixed samples are returned to Earth from the space station. Post-flight analysis is limited for several reasons. First, changes in gene expression can be transient, changing over a timescale of minutes. The delay between sampling on Earth can range from days to months, and RNA may degrade during this period of time, even in fixed or frozen samples. Second, living organisms that return to Earth may quickly re-adapt to terrestrial conditions. Third, forces exerted on samples during reentry and return to Earth may affect results. Lastly, follow up experiments designed in response to post-flight results must wait for a new flight opportunity to be tested.

  18. Quantitative PCR analysis of diepoxybutane and epihalohydrin damage to nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRiviere, Frederick J.; Newman, Adam G.; Watts, Megan L.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Juskewitch, Justin E.; Greenwood, Paul G.; Millard, Julie T.

    2009-01-01

    The bifunctional alkylating agents diepoxybutane (DEB) and epichlorohydrin (ECH) are linked to the elevated incidence of certain cancers among workers in the synthetic polymer industry. Both compounds form interstrand cross-links within duplex DNA, an activity suggested to contribute to their cytotoxicity. To assess the DNA targeting of these compounds in vivo, we assayed for damage within chicken erythro-progenitor cells at three different sites: one within mitochondrial DNA, one within expressed nuclear DNA, and one within unexpressed nuclear DNA. We determined the degree of damage at each site via a quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which compares amplification of control, untreated DNA to that from cells exposed to the agent in question. We found that ECH and the related compound epibromohydrin preferentially target nuclear DNA relative to mitochondrial DNA, whereas DEB reacts similarly with the two genomes. Decreased reactivity of the mitochondrial genome could contribute to the reduced apoptotic potential of ECH relative to DEB. Additionally, formation of lesions by all agents occurred at comparable levels for unexpressed and expressed nuclear loci, suggesting that alkylation is unaffected by the degree of chromatin condensation.

  19. Relationship between N2O Fluxes from an Almond Soil and Denitrifying Bacterial Populations Estimated by Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiasek, M.; Suddick, E. C.; Smart, D. R.; Scow, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    Cultivated soils emit substantial quantities of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas with almost 300 times the radiative forcing potential of CO2. Agriculture-related activities generate from 6 to 35 Tg N2O-N per year, or about 60 to 70% of global production. The microbial processes of nitrification, denitrification and nitrifier denitrification are major biogenic sources of N2O to the atmosphere from soils. Denitrification is considered the major source of N2O especially when soils are wet. The microbial N transformations that produce N2O depend primarily on nitrogen (N) fertilizer, with water content, available carbon and soil temperature being secondary controllers. Despite the fact that microbial processes are responsible for N2O emissions, very little is known about the numbers or types of populations involved. The objective of this study was to relate changes in denitrifying population densities, using quantitative PCR (qPCR) of functional genes, to N2O emissions in a fertilized almond orchard. Quantitative PCR targeted three specific genes involved in denitrification: nirS, nirK and nosZ. Copy numbers of the genes were related back to population densities and the portion of organisms likely to produce nitrous oxide. The study site, a 21.7 acre almond orchard fitted with micro-sprinklers, was fertigated (irrigated and fertilized simultaneously) with 50 lbs/acre sodium nitrate in late March 2008, then irrigated weekly. Immediately after the initial fertigation, fluxes of N2O and CO2, moisture content, inorganic N and denitrification gene copy numbers were measured 6 times over 24 days. Despite the fact that N2O emissions increased following fertigation, there was no consistent increase in any of the targeted genes. The genes nirK and nirS ranged from 0.4-1.4 × 107 and 0.4-1.4 × 108, whereas nosZ ranged from 2-8 × 106 copy numbers per g soil, respectively. Considerable variation, compounded by the small sample sizes used for DNA analysis, made it difficult

  20. Establishment of a minor groove binder-probe based quantitative real time PCR to detect Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and differentiation of Borrelia spielmanii by ospA-specific conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strube Christina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodes as vector. For identification of Borrelia infections in ticks a TaqMan™ minor groove binder (MGB probe-based quantitative real time PCR (qPCR was established targeting the 5S-23S intergenic spacer. Extension to a duplex qPCR included an Ixodes spp. positive control to verify successful DNA isolation. Besides qPCR, an ospA-specific conventional PCR for species-specific identification of B. spielmanii was established. Afterwards 1000 I. ricinus flagged in the city of Hanover, Germany, were investigated for B. burgdorferi sl infections followed by species identification. Furthermore, I. hexagonus ticks were investigated to proof applicability of the PCRs. Results Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR identifying B. burgdorferi sl in ticks was able to detect 1-10 copies per reaction. B. spielmanii ospA-specific conventional PCR was also highly specific and showed no cross reactions with the other tested Borrelia species. From 1000 hanoveranian ticks 24.3% were positive compared to only 7.4% positives by dark-field microscopy. Related to tick stage 1.7% larvae, 18.1% nymphs, and 34.6% adults were positive. The most frequent species was B. garinii, followed by B. afzelii, B. spielmanii, B. valaisiana and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss. 70.6% of I. ricinus were mono-infected, whereas 28.0% and 1.4% were infected with two and three Borrelia species, respectively. From 232 I. hexagonus collected from hedgehogs in different sites of Germany, qPCR detected 5.7% to be infected with B. burgdorferi sl, which were identified as B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. spielmanii. Conclusions The evaluated qPCR to detect B. burgdorferi sl in Ixodes spp. is highly specific and sensitive. As a duplex qPCR including detection of Ixodes spp. DNA it is the first DNA based technique incorporating a control for successful DNA isolation from

  1. Identification of candidate reference genes in perennial ryegrass for quantitative RT-PCR under various abiotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkai Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR is an important technique for analyzing differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes is necessary to ensure accurate qRT-PCR assessment of expression in genes of interest. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is important forage and turf grass species in temperate regions, but the expression stability of its reference genes under various stresses has not been well-studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were evaluated for use as controls in qRT-PCR to quantify gene expression in perennial ryegrass under drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and ABA (abscisic acid treatments. Four approaches--Delta CT, geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder were used to determine the stability of expression in these reference genes. The results are consistent with the idea that the best reference genes depend on the stress treatment under investigation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4 alpha (eIF4A, Transcription elongation factor 1 (TEF1 and Tat binding protein-1 (TBP-1 were the three most stably expressed genes under drought stress and were also the three best genes for studying salt stress. eIF4A, TBP-1, and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2 were the most suitable reference genes to study heat stress, while eIF4A, TEF1, and E2 were the three best reference genes for studying the effects of ABA. Finally, Ubiquitin (UBQ, TEF1, and eIF4A were the three best reference genes for waterlogging treatments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results will be helpful in choosing the best reference genes for use in studies related to various abiotic stresses in perennial ryegrass. The stability of expression in these reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of the transcript levels for studies of gene expression in such studies.

  2. Reference genes for quantitative, reverse-transcription PCR in Bacillus cereus group strains throughout the bacterial life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Lillian; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Piehler, Armin P

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a major tool to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of bacteria. One prerequisite of valid RT-qPCR data is their proper normalization to stably expressed reference genes. To identify and evaluate reference genes suitable for normalization of gene expression data in Bacillus cereus group strains, mRNA levels of eleven candidate reference genes (rpsU, nifU, udp (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase), BT9727_5154/BC_5475, BT9727_4034/BC_4293, BT9727_4549/BC_4813, pspA, gatB_Yqey (gatB_Yqey domain containing protein), helicase (SWF/SNF family protein), adk and pta) and a target gene (BT9727_3305/BC3547+BC3546) were quantified by RT-qPCR at different time points throughout the entire life cycle of the wild-type B. cereus ATCC 14579 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. konkukian 97-27, a phylogenetically closely related strain to Bacillus anthracis. The programs geNorm and Normfinder were used to calculate expression stabilities and identified the genes gatB_Yqey, rpsU and udp as the most stably expressed reference genes. Compared to this combination or the sets of reference genes as recommended by geNorm or Normfinder, normalization using a traditional housekeeping gene (adk) alone resulted in significantly different gene expression results and in a significant overestimation of the target gene transcription. Normalization of the data to the reference gene gatB_Yqey alone showed no or only small differences to the reference gene combinations indicating that gatB_Yqey may be used as a single reference gene when investigating rather large changes in mRNA transcription. Otherwise, a combination of the stably expressed reference genes is recommended. In conclusion, the present study underlines the importance of normalization to stably expressed reference genes and presents valid endogenous controls suitable for normalization of transcriptional data throughout the life cycle of B. cereus group strains

  3. The development of a rapid SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR for detection of Duck circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunhe; Huang, Yu; Cheng, Longfei; Fu, Guanghua; Shi, Shao-hua; Chen, Hongmei; Peng, Chunxiang; Lin, Fang; Lin, Jiansheng

    2011-10-07

    This report describes a one-step real-time polymerase chain reaction assay based on SYBR Green I for detection of a broad range of duck circovirus (DuCV). Align with all DuCV complete genome sequences and other Genus Circovirus download from the GenBank (such as goose circovirus, pigeon circovirus), the primers targets to the replicate gene of DuCV were designed. The detection assay was linear in the range of 1.31 × 102-1.31 × 107 copies/μL. The reaction efficiency of the assay using the slope (the slope was -3.349) and the Y-intercept was 37.01 from the linear equation was estimated to be 0.99 and the correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.993. A series of experiments were carried out to assess the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the assay, following by the low intra-assay and inter-assay CVs for CT values obtained with the standard plasmids. The intra-assay CVs were equal or less than 1.89% and the inter-assay CVs were equal or less than 1.26%. There was no cross-reaction occurred with nucleic acids extracted from RA (Riemerella anatipestifer), E. coli (Escherichia coli), Duck Cholera (Pasteurella multocida), Avian influenza virus, avian paramyxovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, Duck reovirus, Duck hepatitis A virus as control templates. The nucleic acids extracted from samples of healthy ducks were used as negative controls. The assay was specific and reproducible. The established real time PCR was used to detect 45 DuCV-negative samples, which were tested using conventional PCR under the developed optimal conditions, each 15 for embryonated eggs, non-embryonated budgerigar eggs, newly hatched duck, the mixture of the lung, liver, spleen which were analysis for the presence of DuCV DNA, to conform that whether the DuCV can be transmitted vertically. Meanwhile, no positive result was shown by the real-time PCR method. The SYBR Green I-based quantitative PCR can therefore be practically used as an alternative diagnostic tool and a screening method

  4. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in Candida glabrata following azole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qingdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of stable and suitable reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a crucial prerequisite for reliable gene expression analysis under different experimental conditions. The present study aimed to identify reference genes as internal controls for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR in azole-stimulated Candida glabrata. Results The expression stability of 16 reference genes under fluconazole stress was evaluated using fold change and standard deviation computations with the hkgFinder tool. Our data revealed that the mRNA expression levels of three ribosomal RNAs (RDN5.8, RDN18, and RDN25 remained stable in response to fluconazole, while PGK1, UBC7, and UBC13 mRNAs showed only approximately 2.9-, 3.0-, and 2.5-fold induction by azole, respectively. By contrast, mRNA levels of the other 10 reference genes (ACT1, EF1α, GAPDH, PPIA, RPL2A, RPL10, RPL13A, SDHA, TUB1, and UBC4 were dramatically increased in C. glabrata following antifungal treatment, exhibiting changes ranging from 4.5- to 32.7-fold. We also assessed the expression stability of these reference genes using the 2-ΔΔCT method and three other software packages. The stability rankings of the reference genes by geNorm and the 2-ΔΔCT method were identical to those by hkgFinder, whereas the stability rankings by BestKeeper and NormFinder were notably different. We then validated the suitability of six candidate reference genes (ACT1, PGK1, RDN5.8, RDN18, UBC7, and UBC13 as internal controls for ten target genes in this system using the comparative CT method. Our validation experiments passed for all six reference genes analyzed except RDN18, where the amplification efficiency of RDN18 was different from that of the ten target genes. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative quantification of target gene expression varied according to the endogenous control used, highlighting the importance of the choice of internal controls in such

  5. Quantitative PCR assay for detection and enumeration of ciguatera-causing dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Gonyaulacales) in coastal areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomohiro; Hariganeya, Naohito; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2016-02-01

    In Japan, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) has been increasingly reported not only in subtropical areas but also in temperate areas in recent years, causing a serious threat to human health. Ciguatera fish poisoning is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated toxins produced by an epiphytic/benthic dinoflagellate, genus Gambierdiscus. Previous studies revealed the existence of five Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes in Japan: Gambierdiscus australes, Gambierdiscus scabrosus, Gambierdiscus sp. type 2, Gambierdiscus sp. type 3, and Gambierdiscus (Fukuyoa) cf. yasumotoi. Among these, G. australes, G. scabrosus, and Gambierdiscus sp. type 3 strains exhibited toxicities in mice, whereas Gambierdiscus sp. type 2 strains did not show any toxicity. Therefore, it is important to monitor the cell abundance and dynamics of these species/phylotypes to identify and characterize CFP outbreaks in Japan. Because it is difficult to differentiate these species/phylotypes by observation under a light microscope, development of a rapid and reliable detection and enumeration method is needed. In this study, a quantitative PCR assay was developed using a TaqMan probe that targets unique SSU rDNA sequences of four Japanese Gambierdiscus species/phylotypes and incorporates normalization with DNA recovery efficiency. First, we constructed standard curves with high linearity (R 2 =1.00) and high amplification efficiency (≥1.98) using linearized plasmids that contained SSU rDNA of the target species/phylotypes. The detection limits for all primer and probe sets were approximately 10 gene copies. Further, the mean number of SSU rDNA copies per cell of each species/phylotype was determined from single cells in culture and from those in environmental samples using the qPCR assay. Next, the number of cells of each species/phylotype in the mixed samples, which were spiked with cultured cells of the four species/phylotypes, was calculated by division of the total number of rDNA copies

  6. Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N

    2007-02-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.

  7. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter on chicken carcasses by real-time PCR and propidium monoazide as a tool for quantitative risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2010-01-01

    of foodborne Campylobacter, combining real-time PCR (Q-PCR) with a simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 hours, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Campylobacter with an intact membrane. The method performance was evaluated...... or by species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does...

  8. FlowClus: efficiently filtering and denoising pyrosequenced amplicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John M; Thomas, W Kelley

    2015-03-27

    Reducing the effects of sequencing errors and PCR artifacts has emerged as an essential component in amplicon-based metagenomic studies. Denoising algorithms have been designed that can reduce error rates in mock community data, but they change the sequence data in a manner that can be inconsistent with the process of removing errors in studies of real communities. In addition, they are limited by the size of the dataset and the sequencing technology used. FlowClus uses a systematic approach to filter and denoise reads efficiently. When denoising real datasets, FlowClus provides feedback about the process that can be used as the basis to adjust the parameters of the algorithm to suit the particular dataset. When used to analyze a mock community dataset, FlowClus produced a lower error rate compared to other denoising algorithms, while retaining significantly more sequence information. Among its other attributes, FlowClus can analyze longer reads being generated from all stages of 454 sequencing technology, as well as from Ion Torrent. It has processed a large dataset of 2.2 million GS-FLX Titanium reads in twelve hours; using its more efficient (but less precise) trie analysis option, this time was further reduced, to seven minutes. Many of the amplicon-based metagenomics datasets generated over the last several years have been processed through a denoising pipeline that likely caused deleterious effects on the raw data. By using FlowClus, one can avoid such negative outcomes while maintaining control over the filtering and denoising processes. Because of its efficiency, FlowClus can be used to re-analyze multiple large datasets together, thereby leading to more standardized conclusions. FlowClus is freely available on GitHub (jsh58/FlowClus); it is written in C and supported on Linux.

  9. Comparison of the sensitivity of culture, PCR and quantitative real-time PCR for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sputum of cystic fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Vos Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen involved in the decline of lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Early aggressive antibiotic therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing chronic colonization. Therefore, early detection is important and sensitive detection methods are warranted. In this study, we used a dilution series of P. aeruginosa positive sputa, diluted in a pool of P. aeruginosa negative sputa, all from CF patients - to mimick as closely as possible the sputa sent to routine laboratories - to compare the sensitivity of three culture techniques versus that of two conventional PCR formats and four real-time PCR formats, each targeting the P. aeruginosa oprL gene. In addition, we compared five DNA-extraction protocols. Results In our hands, all three culture methods and the bioMérieux easyMAG Nuclisens protocol Generic 2.0.1, preceded by proteinase K pretreatment and followed by any of the 3 real-time PCR formats with probes were most sensitive and able to detect P. aeruginosa up to 50 cfu/ml, i.e. the theoretical minimum of one cell per PCR mixture, when taking into account the volumes used in this study of sample for DNA-extraction, of DNA-elution and of DNA-extract in the PCR mixture. Conclusion In this study, no difference in sensitivity could be found for the detection of P. aeruginosa from sputum between microbiological culture and optimized DNA-extraction and real-time PCR. The results also indicate the importance of the optimization of the DNA-extraction protocol and the PCR format.

  10. Identification of housekeeping genes as references for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Huo, Weiran; Wan, Ruyan; Xia, Xiaopei; Du, Qiyan; Chang, Zhongjie

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a well-known method to quantify gene expression by comparing with the reference genes. Generally, housekeeping genes were set as references, as for their stable expression in varying conditions. Here, we try to evaluate few of such genes to identify suitable housekeeping genes as references for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. This study evaluated the expression of four commonly used housekeeping genes, i.e. b-actin (ACTB), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1a), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), in gender difference, effects of tissue type, different developmental stages, chemical treatment of embryos/larvae with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental toxicant. Rank ordering of expression stability was done using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. Results suggested that in the qRTPCR test, in all the experimental conditions, EF-1a could be selected as reference gene when analysing a target gene. For the study of different development stages, ACTB could be a candidate as reference gene. For the studies associated with different gender and tissue types, EF-1a would be better targeted as reference gene. Meanwhile, in toxicant treatment, expression of EF-1a seems to be more stable than others and could be considered as reference gene. This study could provide useful guidelines that can be expected to aid M. anguillicaudatus researchers in their initial choice of housekeeping genes for future studies and enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data.

  11. Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR during Bicolor Tepal Development in Asiatic Hybrid Lilies (Lilium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ming

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is a reliable and high-throughput technique for gene expression studies, but its accuracy depends on the expression stability of reference genes. To date, several reliable reference gene identifications have been reported in Lilium spp., but none has been obtained for lily tepals at different developmental stages. In this study, ten candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in Lilium ‘Tiny Padhye’ during the process of bicolor tepal development. The expression stability of these candidates was evaluated by three software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper and the comparative ΔCt method, and comprehensive stability rankings were generated by RefFinder. As a result, TIP41-like family gene (TIP41 and actin (ACT were the best combination of reference genes for tepals at different developmental stages; TIP41 and F-box family gene (F-box for tepals under shading treatment; ACT, actin11 (ACT11, and elongation factor 1-α (EF1-α for different tissues; and ACT, TIP41, and ACT11 for all samples. The selected optimal reference genes were further verified by analyzing the expression levels of flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (LhF3′H and anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransfersae (LhUFGT in tepals at different developmental stages. This study provides useful information for gene expression characterization in lilies under different experimental conditions, and can serve as a basis for similar research in other closely related species.

  12. Modification of a Pollen Trap Design To Capture Airborne Conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga and Detection of Conidia by Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tonya D; Hajek, Ann E; Liebhold, Andrew M; Thistle, Harold

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to develop effective and practical field sampling methods for quantification of aerial deposition of airborne conidia of Entomophaga maimaiga over space and time. This important fungal pathogen is a major cause of larval death in invasive gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) populations in the United States. Airborne conidia of this pathogen are relatively large (similar in size to pollen), with unusual characteristics, and require specialized methods for collection and quantification. Initially, dry sampling (settling of spores from the air onto a dry surface) was used to confirm the detectability of E. maimaiga at field sites with L. dispar deaths caused by E. maimaiga , using quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods. We then measured the signal degradation of conidial DNA on dry surfaces under field conditions, ultimately rejecting dry sampling as a reliable method due to rapid DNA degradation. We modified a chamber-style trap commonly used in palynology to capture settling spores in buffer. We tested this wet-trapping method in a large-scale (137-km) spore-trapping survey across gypsy moth outbreak regions in Pennsylvania undergoing epizootics, in the summer of 2016. Using 4-day collection periods during the period of late instar and pupal development, we detected variable amounts of target DNA settling from the air. The amounts declined over the season and with distance from the nearest defoliated area, indicating airborne spore dispersal from outbreak areas. IMPORTANCE We report on a method for trapping and quantifying airborne spores of Entomophaga maimaiga , an important fungal pathogen affecting gypsy moth ( Lymantria dispar ) populations. This method can be used to track dispersal of E. maimaiga from epizootic areas and ultimately to provide critical understanding of the spatial dynamics of gypsy moth-pathogen interactions. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selection of housekeeping genes as internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the veined rapa whelk (Rapana venosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hao; Dang, Xin; He, Yuan-Qiu; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Hai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The veined rapa whelk Rapana venosa is an important commercial shellfish in China and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has become the standard method to study gene expression in R. venosa . For accurate and reliable gene expression results, qRT-PCR assays require housekeeping genes as internal controls, which display highly uniform expression in different tissues or stages of development. However, to date no studies have validated housekeeping genes in R. venosa for use as internal controls for qRT-PCR. In this study, we selected the following 13 candidate genes for suitability as internal controls: elongation factor-1 α ( EF-1α ), α -actin ( ACT ), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 ( COX1 ), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex subunit 7 ( NDUFA7 ), 60S ribosomal protein L5 ( RL5 ), 60S ribosomal protein L28 ( RL28 ), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase ( GAPDH ), β -tubulin ( TUBB ), 40S ribosomal protein S25 ( RS25 ), 40S ribosomal protein S8 ( RS8 ), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 ( UBE2 ), histone H3 ( HH3 ), and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A ( PPIA ). We measured the expression levels of these 13 candidate internal controls in eight different tissues and twelve larvae developmental stages by qRT-PCR. Further analysis of the expression stability of the tested genes was performed using GeNorm and RefFinder algorithms. Of the 13 candidate genes tested, we found that EF-1α was the most stable internal control gene in almost all adult tissue samples investigated with RL5 and RL28 as secondary choices. For the normalization of a single specific tissue, we suggested that EF-1α and NDUFA7 are the best combination in gonad, as well as COX1 and RL28 for intestine, EF-1α and RL5 for kidney, EF-1α and COX1 for gill, EF-1α and RL28 for Leiblein and mantle, EF-1α , RL5 , and NDUFA7 for liver , GAPDH , PPIA , and RL28 for hemocyte. From a developmental perspective, we found that RL28 was the most stable gene

  15. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiusheng Kong

    Full Text Available Melon (Cucumis melo. L is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR, which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  16. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Niu, Penghui; Xie, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo. L) is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses.

  17. Using quantitative real-time PCR to detect chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot and to monitor their dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The routine generation of transgenic plants involves analysis of transgene integration into the host genome by means of Southern blotting. However, this technique cannot distinguish between uniformly transformed tissues and the presence of a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic cells in the same tissue. On the other hand, the use of reporter genes often fails to accurately detect chimerical tissues because their expression can be affected by several factors, including gene silencing and plant development. So, new approaches based on the quantification of the amount of the transgene are needed urgently. Results We show here that chimeras are a very frequent phenomenon observed after regenerating transgenic plants. Spatial and temporal analyses of transformed tobacco and apricot plants with a quantitative, real-time PCR amplification of the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII transgene as well as of an internal control (β-actin, used to normalise the amount of target DNA at each reaction, allowed detection of chimeras at unexpected rates. The amount of the nptII transgene differed greatly along with the sub-cultivation period of these plants and was dependent on the localisation of the analysed leaves; being higher in roots and basal leaves, while in the apical leaves it remained at lower levels. These data demonstrate that, unlike the use of the gus marker gene, real-time PCR is a powerful tool for detection of chimeras. Although some authors have proposed a consistent, positive Southern analysis as an alternative methodology for monitoring the dissociation of chimeras, our data show that it does not provide enough proof of uniform transformation. In this work, however, real-time PCR was applied successfully to monitor the dissociation of chimeras in tobacco plants and apricot callus. Conclusions We have developed a rapid and reliable method to detect and estimate the level of chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot

  18. Mining environmental high-throughput sequence data sets to identify divergent amplicon clusters for phylogenetic reconstruction and morphotype visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmler, Anna; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    Environmental high-throughput sequencing (envHTS) is a very powerful tool, which in protistan ecology is predominantly used for the exploration of diversity and its geographic and local patterns. We here used a pyrosequenced V4-SSU rDNA data set from a solar saltern pond as test case to exploit such massive protistan amplicon data sets beyond this descriptive purpose. Therefore, we combined a Swarm-based blastn network including 11 579 ciliate V4 amplicons to identify divergent amplicon clusters with targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer design for full-length small subunit of the ribosomal DNA retrieval and probe design for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This powerful strategy allows to benefit from envHTS data sets to (i) reveal the phylogenetic position of the taxon behind divergent amplicons; (ii) improve phylogenetic resolution and evolutionary history of specific taxon groups; (iii) solidly assess an amplicons (species') degree of similarity to its closest described relative; (iv) visualize the morphotype behind a divergent amplicons cluster; (v) rapidly FISH screen many environmental samples for geographic/habitat distribution and abundances of the respective organism and (vi) to monitor the success of enrichment strategies in live samples for cultivation and isolation of the respective organisms. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development and validation of TaqMan quantitative PCR for detection of frog virus 3-like virus in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Matthew C; Bunick, David; Mitchell, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    Ranavirus has caused disease epidemics and mass mortality events globally in free-ranging fish, amphibian, and reptile populations. Viral isolation and conventional PCR are the most common methods for diagnosis. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed using a TaqMan probe-based assay targeting a highly conserved region of the major capsid protein of frog virus 3-like virus (FV3-like) (Family Iridoviridae, genera Ranavirus). Standard curves were generated from a viral DNA segment cloned within a plasmid. The assay detected viral DNA 1000 times lower than conventional PCR. Thirty-one clinical samples (whole blood and oral swabs) from box turtles were tested using these assays and the prevalence of the virus determined. Quantitative PCR allows for a superior, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for detecting FV3-like virus in box turtles, and this assay will be useful for early detection and disease monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Molina, José Luís; Amoros-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Guy, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time PCR (qPCR) is a rapid tool to quantify pathogens in the aquatic environment; however, it quantifies all pathogens, including both viable and nonviable. Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a membrane-impairment dye that penetrates only membrane-damaged cells. Once inside the cell, PMA is covalently cross-linked to DNA through light photoactivation, and PCR amplification is strongly inhibited. The goal of this study was to evaluate PMA-qPCR assays for rapid quantifica...

  1. Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason; Hunter, Margaret; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ were significantly higher (Pin manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and β-actin to be consistent between sites and identified β-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.

  2. Application of quantitative real-time PCR for enumeration of total bacterial, archaeal, and yeast populations in kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jin; Chang, Ho-Won; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Nam, Young-Do; Roh, Seong Woon; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2009-12-01

    Kimchi is a Korean traditional fermented food made of brined vegetables, with a variety of spices. Various microorganisms are associated with the kimchi fermentation process. This study was undertaken in order to apply quantitative real-time PCR targeting the 16S and 26S rRNA genes for the investigation of dynamics of bacterial, archaeal, and yeast communities during fermentation of various types of kimchi. Although the total bacterial and archaeal rRNA gene copy numbers increased during kimchi fermentation, the number of yeasts was not significantly altered. In 1 ng of bulk DNA, the mean number of rRNA gene copies for all strains of bacteria was 5.45 x 10(6) which was 360 and 50 times greater than those for archaea and yeast, respectively. The total gene copy number for each group of microorganisms differed among the different types of kimchi, although the relative ratios among them were similar. The common dominance of bacteria in the whole microbial communities of various types of kimchi suggests that bacteria play a principal role in the kimchi fermentation process.

  3. A versatile method to design stem-loop primer-based quantitative PCR assays for detecting small regulatory RNA molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Czimmerer

    Full Text Available Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s.

  4. Quantitative PCR assay for Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii and application to environmental samples and fishes from the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, D T; Reece, K S; Xiao, J; Rhodes, M W; Kator, H I; Latour, R J; Bonzek, C F; Hoenig, J M; Vogelbein, W K

    2010-09-01

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay are currently experiencing a very high prevalence of mycobacteriosis associated with newly described Mycobacterium species, Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii. The ecology of these mycobacteria outside the striped bass host is currently unknown. In this work, we developed quantitative real-time PCR assays for M. pseudoshottsii and M. shottsii and applied these assays to DNA extracts from Chesapeake Bay water and sediment samples, as well as to tissues from two dominant prey of striped bass, Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) and bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii was found to be ubiquitous in water samples from the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay and was also present in water and sediments from the Rappahannock River, Virginia. M. pseudoshottsii was also detected in menhaden and anchovy tissues. In contrast, M. shottsii was not detected in water, sediment, or prey fish tissues. In conjunction with its nonpigmented phenotype, which is frequently found in obligately pathogenic mycobacteria of humans, this pattern of occurrence suggests that M. shottsii may be an obligate pathogen of striped bass.

  5. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig A.; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2007-11-28

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 °C or held at 5 °C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 μm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMAwith DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  6. Development and validation of quantitative PCR assays to measure cytokine transcript levels in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason; Hunter, Margaret; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2018-01-01

    Cytokines have important roles in the mammalian response to viral and bacterial infections, trauma, and wound healing. Because of early cytokine production after physiologic stresses, the regulation of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts can be used to assess immunologic responses before changes in protein production. To detect and assess early immune changes in endangered Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), we developed and validated a panel of quantitative PCR assays to measure mRNA transcription levels for the cytokines interferon (IFN)-γ; interleukin (IL)-2, -6, and -10; tumor necrosis factor-α, and the housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin (reference genes). Assays were successfully validated using blood samples from free-ranging, apparently healthy manatees from the east and west coasts of central Florida. No cytokine or housekeeping gene transcription levels were significantly different among age classes or sexes. However, the transcription levels for GAPDH, IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ were significantly higher (P<0.05) in manatees from the east coast of Florida than they were from those from the west coast. We found IL-10 and β-actin to be consistent between sites and identified β-actin as a good candidate for use as a reference gene in future studies. Our assays can aid in the investigation of manatee immune response to physical trauma and novel or ongoing environmental stressors.

  7. Quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative PCR after treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, Stephen; McKinstry, Craig A.; Hartmann, Chris; Neace, Michelle; Yoder, Stephanie; Vesper, Alex

    2007-01-01

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 C or held at 5 C (controls) for 1 h. Polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 (micro)m pore size) were placed on 'welled' slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either PBS or PMA. Propidium monoazide (PMA), which enters dead cells but not live cells, was incubated with cell suspensions, exposed to blue wavelength light-emitting diodes (LED) to inactivate remaining PMA and secure intercalation of PMA with DNA of dead cells. Treated cells were extracted and the live and dead cells evaluated with quantitative PCR (QPCR). After heat treatment and DNA modification with PMA, all fungal species tested showed an approximate 100- to 1000-fold difference in cell viability estimated by QPCR analysis which was consistent with estimates of viability based on culturing.

  8. Combined Metabonomic and Quantitative RT-PCR Analyses Revealed Metabolic Reprogramming Associated with Fusarium graminearum Resistance in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight disease resulting from Fusarium graminearum (FG infection causes huge losses in global production of cereals and development of FG-resistant plants is urgently needed. To understand biochemistry mechanisms for FG resistance, here, we have systematically investigated the plant metabolomic phenotypes associated with FG resistance for transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a class-I chitinase (Chi, a Fusarium-specific recombinant antibody gene (CWP2 and fused Chi-CWP2. Plant disease indices, mycotoxin levels, metabonomic characteristics, and expression levels of several key genes were measured together with their correlations. We found that A. thaliana expressing Chi-CWP2 showed higher FG resistance with much lower disease indices and mycotoxin levels than the wild-type and the plants expressing Chi or CWP2 alone. The combined metabonomic and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that such FG-resistance was closely associated with the promoted biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoids, alkanoids and organic osmolytes (proline, betaine, glucose, myo-inositol together with enhanced TCA cycle and GABA shunt. These suggest that the concurrently enhanced biosyntheses of the shikimate-mediated secondary metabolites and organic osmolytes be an important strategy for A. thaliana to develop and improve FG resistance. These findings provide essential biochemical information related to FG resistance which is important for developing FG-resistant cereals.

  9. Quantitative real-time PCR technique for the identification of E. coli residual DNA in streptokinase recombinant product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazelahi, Mansoureh; Kia, Vahid; Kaghazian, Hooman; Paryan, Mahdi

    2017-11-26

    Recombinant streptokinase is a biopharmaceutical which is usually produced in E. coli. Residual DNA as a contamination and risk factor may remain in the product. It is necessary to control the production procedure to exclude any possible contamination. The aim of the present study was to develop a highly specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCR-based method to determine the amount of E. coli DNA in recombinant streptokinase. A specific primers and a probe was designed to detect all strains of E. coli. To determine the specificity, in addition to using NCBI BLASTn, 28 samples including human, bacterial, and viral genomes were used. The results confirmed that the assay detects no genomic DNA but E. coli's and the specificity was determined to be 100%. To determine the sensitivity and limit of detection of the assay, a 10-fold serial dilution (10 1 to 10 7 copies/µL) was tested in triplicate. The sensitivity of the test was determined to be 101 copies/µL or 35 fg/µL. Inter-assay and intra-assay were determined to be 0.86 and 1.69%, respectively. Based on the results, this assay can be used as an accurate method to evaluate the contamination of recombinant streptokinase in E. coli.

  10. Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounsey Kate E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. Results S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (S. scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7 Mb and 86 (± 2 Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. Conclusions This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion.

  11. Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Kate E; Willis, Charlene; Burgess, Stewart T G; Holt, Deborah C; McCarthy, James; Fischer, Katja

    2012-01-04

    The lack of genomic data available for mites limits our understanding of their biology. Evolving high-throughput sequencing technologies promise to deliver rapid advances in this area, however, estimates of genome size are initially required to ensure sufficient coverage. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to estimate the genome sizes of the burrowing ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei, the non-burrowing ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis, and the free-living house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Additionally, the chromosome number of S. scabiei was determined by chromosomal spreads of embryonic cells derived from single eggs. S. scabiei cells were shown to contain 17 or 18 small (scabiei and P. ovis were 96 (± 7) Mb and 86 (± 2) Mb respectively, among the smallest arthropod genomes reported to date. The D. pteronyssinus genome was estimated to be larger than its parasitic counterparts, at 151 Mb in female mites and 218 Mb in male mites. This data provides a starting point for understanding the genetic organisation and evolution of these astigmatid mites, informing future sequencing projects. A comparitive genomic approach including these three closely related mites is likely to reveal key insights on mite biology, parasitic adaptations and immune evasion. © 2012 Mounsey et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Application of quantitative real-time PCR compared to filtration methods for the enumeration of Escherichia coli in surface waters within Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Van Ha, Nguyen Thi; Tuyet, Le Thi Hong; Widmer, Kenneth W

    2017-02-01

    Surface water samples in Vietnam were collected from the Saigon River, rural and suburban canals, and urban runoff canals in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and were processed to enumerate Escherichia coli. Quantification was done through membrane filtration and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mean log colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 ml E. coli counts in the dry season for river/suburban canals and urban canals were log 2.8 and 3.7, respectively, using a membrane filtration method, while using Taqman quantitative real-time PCR they were log 2.4 and 2.8 for river/suburban canals and urban canals, respectively. For the wet season, data determined by the membrane filtration method in river/suburban canals and urban canals samples had mean counts of log 3.7 and 4.1, respectively. While mean log CFU/100 ml counts in the wet season using quantitative PCR were log 3 and 2, respectively. Additionally, the urban canal samples were significantly lower than those determined by conventional culture methods for the wet season. These results show that while quantitative real-time PCR can be used to determine levels of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters, there are some limitations to its application and it may be impacted by sources of runoff based on surveyed samples.

  13. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  14. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    for the study of changes in gene expression patterns of the pathogen itself. Quantitative real time PCR in combination with the delta delta Ct method has been shown to be a relatively inexpensive and simple alternative to microarrays. We employed this method to explore whether it is possible to apply...

  15. MIQE précis: Practical implementation of minimum standard guidelines for fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustin, S.A.; Beaulieu, J.F.; Huggett, J.; Jaggi, R.; Kibenge, F.S.; Olsvik, P.A.; Penning, L.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110369181; Toegel, S.

    2010-01-01

    MIQE précis: Practical implementation of minimum standard guidelines for fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR experiments Stephen A Bustin1 , Jean-François Beaulieu2 , Jim Huggett3 , Rolf Jaggi4 , Frederick SB Kibenge5 , Pål A Olsvik6 , Louis C Penning7 and Stefan Toegel8 1 Centre for

  16. Use of a D17Z1 oligonucleotide probe for human DNA quantitation prior to PCR analysis of polymorphic DNA markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, S.; Alavaren, M.; Varlaro, J. [Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The alpha-satellite DNA locus D17Z1 contains primate-specific sequences which are repeated several hundred times per chromosome 17. A probe that was designed to hybridize to a subset of the D17Z1 sequence can be used for very sensitive and specific quantitation of human DNA. Sample human genomic DNA is immobilized on nylon membrane using a slot blot apparatus, and then hybridized with a biotinylated D17Z1 oligonucleotide probe. The subsequent binding of streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase to the bound probe allows for either calorimetric (TMB) or chemiluminescent (ECL) detection. Signals obtained for sample DNAs are then compared to the signals obtained for a series of human DNA standards. For either detection method, forty samples can be quantitated in less than two hours, with a sensitivity of 150 pg. As little as 20 pg of DNA can be quantitated when using chemiluminescent detection with longer film exposures. PCR analysis of several VNTR and STR markers has indicated that optimal typing results are generally obtained within a relatively narrow range of input DNA quantities. Too much input DNA can lead to PCR artifacts such as preferential amplification of smaller alleles, non-specific amplification products, and exaggeration of the DNA synthesis slippage products that are seen with STR markers. Careful quantitation of human genomic DNA prior to PCR can avoid or minimize these problems and ultimately give cleaner, more unambiguous PCR results.

  17. Strategy for Extracting DNA from Clay Soil and Detecting a Specific Target Sequence via Selective Enrichment and Real-Time (Quantitative) PCR Amplification ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankson, Kweku K.; Steck, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple strategy for isolating and accurately enumerating target DNA from high-clay-content soils: desorption with buffers, an optional magnetic capture hybridization step, and quantitation via real-time PCR. With the developed technique, μg quantities of DNA were extracted from mg samples of pure kaolinite and a field clay soil. PMID:19633108

  18. Comparison of Enterococcus quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis results from midwest U.S. river samples using EPA Method 1611 and Method 1609 PCR reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided recommended beach advisory values in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) for states wishing to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the monitoring of Enterococcus fecal indicator bacteria...

  19. Quantification of cDNA generated by reverse transcription of total RNA provides a simple alternative tool for quantitative RT-PCR normalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Libus, Jiří; Štorchová, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2006), s. 156-164 ISSN 0736-6205 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/05/0300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Quantitative RT PCR * normalization method * cDNA quantification Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2006

  20. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy in chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y by quantitative fluorescence-PCR combined with short tandem repeat and fluorescence-labeled homologous gene quantitative‑PCR using 4-color fluorescently labeled universal primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ju; Ye, Xuehe; Weng, Xunjin; Fu, Kepeng; Sun, Lei; Pang, Wanrong

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to develop a rapid diagnostic test of aneuploidy in chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y through a program combining short tandem repeat (STR) typing with fluorescence-labeled homologous gene quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction (fHGQ-PCR), which avoids misjudgment risks by using one method alone. Furthermore, fluorescently labeled universal primers not only ensure the accuracy of the results but also reduces the cost of fluorescent labels. The verification of DNA extracted from samples confirmed by karyotype analysis with quantitative fluorescence (QF)-PCR shows that the results obtained using the QF-PCR program are consistent with the results of karyotype analysis in rapidly diagnosing the aneuploidy of chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y.

  1. Identification of the major capsid protein of erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) and development of quantitative real-time PCR assays for quantification of ENV DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Pearman-Gillman, Schuyler; Thompson, Rachel L.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Winton, James R.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the MCP gene sequence supported the conclusion that ENV does not group with any of the currently described iridovirus genera. Because there is no information regarding genetic variation of the MCP gene across the reported host and geographic range for ENV, we also developed a second qPCR assay for a more conserved ATPase-like gene region. The MCP and ATPase qPCR assays demonstrated good analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity based on samples from laboratory challenges of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii. The qPCR assays had similar diagnostic sensitivity and specificity as light microscopy of stained blood smears for the presence of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. However, the qPCR assays may detect viral DNA early in infection prior to the formation of inclusion bodies. Both qPCR assays appear suitable for viral surveillance or as a confirmatory test for ENV in Pacific herring from the Salish Sea.

  2. Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in Sugarcane Stalk Juice Using a Real-Time Fluorescent (TaqMan PCR Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ying Fu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ratoon stunting disease (RSD of sugarcane, one of the most important diseases seriously affecting the productivity of sugarcane crops, was caused by the bacterial agent Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx. A TaqMan probe-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assay was established in this study for the quantification of Lxx detection in sugarcane stalk juice. A pair of PCR primers (Pat1-QF/Pat1-QR and a fluorogenic probe (Pat1-QP targeting the Part1 gene of Lxx were used for the qPCR assay. The assay had a detection limit of 100 copies of plasmid DNA and 100 fg of Lxx genomic DNA, which was 100-fold more sensitive than the conventional PCR. Fifty (28.7% of 174 stalk juice samples from two field trials were tested to be positive by qPCR assay, whereas, by conventional PCR, only 12.1% (21/174 were tested to be positive with a published primer pair CxxITSf#5/CxxITSr#5 and 15.5% (27/174 were tested to be positive with a newly designed primer pair Pat1-F2/Pat1-R2. The new qPCR assay can be used as an alternative to current diagnostic methods for Lxx, especially when dealing with certificating a large number of healthy cane seedlings and determining disease incidence accurately in commercial fields.

  3. Comparison between quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, real-time reverse transcriptase PCR, and real-time PCR for quantification of Leishmania parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meide, Wendy; Guerra, Jorge; Schoone, Gerard; Farenhorst, Marit; Coelho, Leila; Faber, William; Peekel, Inge; Schallig, Henk

    2008-01-01

    DNA or RNA amplification methods for detection of Leishmania parasites have advantages regarding sensitivity and potential quantitative characteristics in comparison with conventional diagnostic methods but are often still not routinely applied. However, the use and application of molecular assays

  4. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrush Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate normalisation strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Reference genes that have stable expression at different biological and physiological states can be effectively used for normalisation; however, their expression stability must be validated before use. Results Existing Serial Analysis of Gene Expression data were queried to identify six moderately expressed genes that had relatively stable gene expression throughout the year. These six candidate reference genes (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, eEF1A; TAT-binding protein homolog 1, TBP-1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 alpha, eIF4A; YT521-B-like protein family protein, YT521-B; histone 3, H3; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2 were validated for qRT-PCR normalisation in 442 diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. samples sourced from field- and laboratory-grown plants under a wide range of experimental conditions. Eukaryotic EF1A is encoded by members of a multigene family exhibiting differential expression and necessitated the expression analysis of different eEF1A encoding genes; a highly expressed eEF1A (h, a moderately, but stably expressed eEF1A (s, and combined expression of multigene eEF1A (m. NormFinder identified eEF1A (s and YT521-B as the best combination of two genes for normalisation of gene expression data in perennial ryegrass following different defoliation management in the field. Conclusions This study is unique in the magnitude of samples tested with the inclusion of numerous field-grown samples

  5. A novel universal real-time PCR system using the attached universal duplex probes for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Zoe A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR techniques are being widely used for nucleic acids analysis, but one limitation of current frequently employed real-time PCR is the high cost of the labeled probe for each target molecule. Results We describe a real-time PCR technique employing attached universal duplex probes (AUDP, which has the advantage of generating fluorescence by probe hydrolysis and strand displacement over current real-time PCR methods. AUDP involves one set of universal duplex probes in which the 5' end of the fluorescent probe (FP and a complementary quenching probe (QP lie in close proximity so that fluorescence can be quenched. The PCR primer pair with attached universal template (UT and the FP are identical to the UT sequence. We have shown that the AUDP technique can be used for detecting multiple target DNA sequences in both simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays for gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and genetically modified organism (GMO quantification with comparable sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability with other real-time PCR methods. Conclusion The results from GMO quantification, gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and GMO quantification using AUDP real-time PCR assays indicate that the AUDP real-time PCR technique has been successfully applied in nucleic acids analysis, and the developed AUDP real-time PCR technique will offer an alternative way for nucleic acid analysis with high efficiency, reliability, and flexibility at low cost.

  6. Analysing 454 amplicon resequencing experiments using the modular and database oriented Variant Identification Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deforce Dieter

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation amplicon sequencing enables high-throughput genetic diagnostics, sequencing multiple genes in several patients together in one sequencing run. Currently, no open-source out-of-the-box software solution exists that reliably reports detected genetic variations and that can be used to improve future sequencing effectiveness by analyzing the PCR reactions. Results We developed an integrated database oriented software pipeline for analysis of 454/Roche GS-FLX amplicon resequencing experiments using Perl and a relational database. The pipeline enables variation detection, variation detection validation, and advanced data analysis, which provides information that can be used to optimize PCR efficiency using traditional means. The modular approach enables customization of the pipeline where needed and allows researchers to adopt their analysis pipeline to their experiments. Clear documentation and training data is available to test and validate the pipeline prior to using it on real sequencing data. Conclusions We designed an open-source database oriented pipeline that enables advanced analysis of 454/Roche GS-FLX amplicon resequencing experiments using SQL-statements. This modular database approach allows easy coupling with other pipeline modules such as variant interpretation or a LIMS system. There is also a set of standard reporting scripts available.

  7. Systemic Errors in Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Titration of Self-Complementary Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors and Improved Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagone, Paolo; Wright, J. Fraser; Nathwani, Amit C.; Nienhuis, Arthur W.; Davidoff, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Self-complementary AAV (scAAV) vector genomes contain a covalently closed hairpin derived from a mutated inverted terminal repeat that connects the two monomer single-stranded genomes into a head-to-head or tail-to-tail dimer. We found that during quantitative PCR (qPCR) this structure inhibits the amplification of proximal amplicons and causes the systemic underreporting of copy number by as much as 10-fold. We show that cleavage of scAAV vector genomes with restriction endonuclease to liberate amplicons from the covalently closed terminal hairpin restores quantitative amplification, and we implement this procedure in a simple, modified qPCR titration method for scAAV vectors. In addition, we developed and present an AAV genome titration procedure based on gel electrophoresis that requires minimal sample processing and has low interassay variability, and as such is well suited for the rigorous quality control demands of clinical vector production facilities. PMID:22428975

  8. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpo Yang

    Full Text Available Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1α, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1α, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1α and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts.

  9. A quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR assay for the assessment of drug activities against intracellular Theileria annulata schizonts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Hostettler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular schizonts of the apicomplexans Theileria annulata and Theileria parva immortalize bovine leucocytes thereby causing fatal immunoproliferative diseases. Buparvaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone related to parvaquone, is the only drug available against Theileria. The drug is only effective at the onset of infection and emerging resistance underlines the need for identifying alternative compounds. Current drug assays employ monitoring of proliferation of infected cells, with apoptosis of the infected host cell as a read-out, but it is often unclear whether active compounds directly impair the viability of the parasite or primarily induce host cell death. We here report on the development of a quantitative reverse transcriptase real time PCR method based on two Theileria genes, tasp and tap104, which are both expressed in schizonts. Upon in vitro treatment of T. annulata infected bovine monocytes with buparvaquone, TaSP and Tap104 mRNA expression levels significantly decreased in relation to host cell actin already within 4 h of drug exposure, while significant differences in host cell proliferation were detectable only after 48–72 h. TEM revealed marked alterations of the schizont ultrastructure already after 2 h of buparvaquone treatment, while the host cell remained unaffected. Expression of TaSP and Tap104 proteins showed a marked decrease only after 24 h. Therefore, the analysis of expression levels of mRNA coding for TaSP and Tap104 allows to directly measuring impairment of parasite viability. We subsequently applied this method using a series of compounds affecting different targets in other apicomplexan parasites, and show that monitoring of TaSP- and Tap104 mRNA levels constitutes a suitable tool for anti-theilerial drug development.

  10. Selection and validation of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Salvia hispanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gopalam

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR has become the most popular choice for gene expression studies. For accurate expression analysis, it is pertinent to select a stable reference gene to normalize the data. It is now known that the expression of internal reference genes varies considerably during developmental stages and under different experimental conditions. For Salvia hispanica, an economically important oilseed crop, there are no reports of stable reference genes till date. In this study, we chose 13 candidate reference genes viz. Actin11 (ACT, Elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3E (ETIF3E, alpha tubulin (α-TUB, beta tubulin (β-TUB, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, Cyclophilin (CYP, Clathrin adaptor complex (CAC, Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, FtsH protease (FtsH, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC and Rubisco activase (RCA and the expression levels of these genes were assessed in a diverse set of tissue samples representing vegetative stages, reproductive stages and various abiotic stress treatments. Two of the widely used softwares, geNorm and Normfinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of these 13 candidate reference genes under different conditions. Results showed that GAPDH and CYP expression remain stable throughout in the different abiotic stress treatments, CAC and PP2A expression were relatively stable under reproductive stages and α-TUB, PP2A and ETIF3E were found to be stably expressed in vegetative stages. Further, the expression levels of Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1, a key enzyme in triacylglycerol synthesis was analyzed to confirm the validity of reference genes identified in the study. This is the first systematic study of selection of reference genes in S. hispanica, and will benefit future expression studies in this crop.

  11. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 amplification in non-small cell lung cancer by quantitative real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish M Gadgeel

    Full Text Available Amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 gene has been described in tumors of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Prior reports showed conflicting rates of amplification frequency and clinical relevance.We developed a reliable real-time quantitative PCR assay to assess the frequency of FGFR1 amplification and assessed the optimal cutoff level of amplification for clinical application.In a training cohort of 203 NSCLCs, we established that a 3.5-fold amplification optimally divided patients into groups with different survival rates with a clear threshold level. Those with FGFR1 amplification levels above 3.5-fold had an inferior survival. These data were confirmed in a validation cohort of 142 NSCLC. After adjusting for age, sex, performance status, stage, and histology, patients with FGFR1 amplification levels above 3.5 fold had a hazard ratio of 2.91 (95% CI- 1.14, 7.41; pvalue-0.025 for death in the validation cohort. The rates of FGFR1 amplification using the cutoff level of 3.5 were 5.1% in squamous cell and 4.1% in adenocarcinomas. There was a non-significant trend towards higher amplifications rates in heavy smokers (> 15 pack-years of cigarette consumption as compared to light smokers.Our data suggest that a 3.5-fold amplification of FGFR1 is of clinical importance in NSCLC. Our cutpoint analysis showed a clear threshold effect for the impact of FGFR1 amplification on patients' survival, which can be used as an initial guide for patient selection in trials assessing efficacy of novel FGFR inhibitors.

  12. A simple quantitative diagnostic alternative for MGMT DNA-methylation testing on RCL2 fixed paraffin embedded tumors using restriction coupled qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverer, Walter; Hofner, Manuela; Preusser, Matthias; Dirnberger, Elisabeth; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    MGMT promoter methylation is associated with favorable prognosis and chemosensitivity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), especially in elderly patients. We aimed to develop a simple methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme (MSRE)-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, allowing the quantification of MGMT promoter methylation. DNA was extracted from non-neoplastic brain (n = 24) and GBM samples (n = 20) upon 3 different sample conservation conditions (-80 °C, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE); RCL2-fixed). We evaluated the suitability of each fixation method with respect to the MSRE-coupled qPCR methylation analyses. Methylation data were validated by MALDITOF. qPCR was used for evaluation of alternative tissue conservation procedures. DNA from FFPE tissue failed reliable testing; DNA from both RCL2-fixed and fresh frozen tissues performed equally well and was further used for validation of the quantitative MGMT methylation assay (limit of detection (LOD): 19.58 pg), using individual's undigested sample DNA for calibration. MGMT methylation analysis in non-neoplastic brain identified a background methylation of 0.10 ± 11% which we used for defining a cut-off of 0.32% for patient stratification. Of GBM patients 9 were MGMT methylationpositive (range: 0.56 - 91.95%), and 11 tested negative. MALDI-TOF measurements resulted in a concordant classification of 94% of GBM samples in comparison to qPCR. The presented methodology allows quantitative MGMT promoter methylation analyses. An amount of 200 ng DNA is sufficient for triplicate analyses including control reactions and individual calibration curves, thus excluding any DNA qualityderived bias. The combination of RCL2-fixation and quantitative methylation analyses improves pathological routine examination when histological and molecular analyses on limited amounts of tumor samples are necessary for patient stratification.

  13. Rapid quantification of viable Campylobacter bacteria on chicken carcasses, using real-time PCR and propidium monoazide treatment, as a tool for quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsen, M H; Löfström, C; Hansen, T B; Christensen, L S; Olsen, J E; Hoorfar, J

    2010-08-01

    A number of intervention strategies against Campylobacter-contaminated poultry focus on postslaughter reduction of the number of cells, emphasizing the need for rapid and reliable quantitative detection of only viable Campylobacter bacteria. We present a new and rapid quantitative approach to the enumeration of food-borne Campylobacter bacteria that combines real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) with simple propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment. In less than 3 h, this method generates a signal from only viable and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Campylobacter bacteria with an intact membrane. The method's performance was evaluated by assessing the contributions to variability by individual chicken carcass rinse matrices, species of Campylobacter, and differences in efficiency of DNA extraction with differing cell inputs. The method was compared with culture-based enumeration on 50 naturally infected chickens. The cell contents correlated with cycle threshold (C(T)) values (R(2) = 0.993), with a quantification range of 1 x 10(2) to 1 x 10(7) CFU/ml. The correlation between the Campylobacter counts obtained by PMA-PCR and culture on naturally contaminated chickens was high (R(2) = 0.844). The amplification efficiency of the Q-PCR method was not affected by the chicken rinse matrix or by the species of Campylobacter. No Q-PCR signals were obtained from artificially inoculated chicken rinse when PMA sample treatment was applied. In conclusion, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on viable Campylobacter bacteria in chicken carcass rinse. The proposed method does not detect DNA from dead Campylobacter bacteria but recognizes the infectious potential of the VBNC state and is thereby able to assess the effect of control strategies and provide trustworthy data for risk assessment.

  14. High Specificity of a Quantitative PCR Assay Targeting a Saxitoxin Gene for Monitoring Toxic Algae Associated with Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Murray, Shauna A; Chen, Jian-Hua; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Chun; Kong, Fan-Zhou; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    The identification of core genes involved in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin (STX) offers a great opportunity to detect toxic algae associated with paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). In the Yellow Sea (YS) in China, both toxic and nontoxic Alexandrium species are present, which makes it a difficult issue to specifically monitor PST-producing toxic algae. In this study, a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting sxtA4, a domain in the sxt gene cluster that encodes a unique enzyme involved in STX biosynthesis, was applied to analyze samples collected from the YS in spring of 2012. The abundance of two toxic species within the Alexandrium tamarense species complex, i.e., A. fundyense and A. pacificum, was also determined with TaqMan-based qPCR assays, and PSTs in net-concentrated phytoplankton samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a fluorescence detector. It was found that the distribution of the sxtA4 gene in the YS was consistent with the toxic algae and PSTs, and the quantitation results of sxtA4 correlated well with the abundance of the two toxic species (r=0.857). These results suggested that the two toxic species were major PST producers during the sampling season and that sxtA-based qPCR is a promising method to detect toxic algae associated with PSTs in the YS. The correlation between PST levels and sxtA-based qPCR results, however, was less significant (r=0.552), implying that sxtA-based qPCR is not accurate enough to reflect the toxicity of PST-producing toxic algae. The combination of an sxtA-based qPCR assay and chemical means might be a promising method for monitoring toxic algal blooms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous identification, quantitation and differentiation of avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchinato, Mattia; Lupini, Caterina; Munoz Pogoreltseva, Olga Svetlana; Listorti, Valeria; Mondin, Alessandra; Drigo, Michele; Catelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, special attention has been paid to real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) diagnosis, due to its numerous advantages over classical PCR. A new multiplex quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) with molecular beacon probe assay, designed to target the SH gene, was developed. The test was evaluated in terms of specificity, sensitivity and repeatability, and compared with conventional RT nested-PCR based on the G gene. All of the AMPV subtype A and B strains tested were amplified and specifically detected while no amplification occurred with other non-target bird respiratory pathogens. The detection limit of the assay was 10(-0.41) median infectious dose/ml and 10(1.15) median infectious dose/ml when the AMPV-B strain IT/Ty/B/Vr240/87 and the AMPV-A strain IT/Ty/A/259-01/03 were used, respectively, as templates. In all cases, the amplification efficiency was approximately 2 and the error values were 0.9375) between crossing point values and virus quantities, making the assay herein designed reliable for quantification. When the newly developed qRT-PCR was compared with a conventional RT nested-PCR, it showed greater sensitivity with RNA extracted from both positive controls and from experimentally infected birds. This assay can be effectively used for the detection, identification, differentiation and quantitation of AMPV subtype A or subtype B to assist in disease diagnosis and to carry out rapid surveillance with high levels of sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Similar gene estimates from circular and linear standards in quantitative PCR analyses using the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia L Oldham

    Full Text Available Quantitative PCR (qPCR is one of the most widely used tools for quantifying absolute numbers of microbial gene copies in test samples. A recent publication showed that circular plasmid DNA standards grossly overestimated numbers of a target gene by as much as 8-fold in a eukaryotic system using quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis. Overestimation of microbial numbers is a serious concern in industrial settings where qPCR estimates form the basis for quality control or mitigation decisions. Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea most commonly have circular genomes and plasmids and therefore may not be subject to the same levels of overestimation. Therefore, the feasibility of using circular DNA plasmids as standards for 16S rRNA gene estimates was assayed using these two prokaryotic systems, with the practical advantage being rapid standard preparation for ongoing qPCR analyses. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences from Thermovirga lienii and Archaeoglobus fulgidus were cloned and used to generate standards for bacterial and archaeal qPCR reactions, respectively. Estimates of 16S rRNA gene copies were made based on circular and linearized DNA conformations using two genomes from each domain: Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and Methanocaldocococcus jannaschii. The ratio of estimated to predicted 16S rRNA gene copies ranged from 0.5 to 2.2-fold in bacterial systems and 0.5 to 1.0-fold in archaeal systems, demonstrating that circular plasmid standards did not lead to the gross over-estimates previously reported for eukaryotic systems.

  17. Quantitative Real-Time PCR for Detection of Members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila Genogroup in Host Animals and Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Pusterla, Nicola; Huder, Jon B.; Leutenegger, Christian M.; Braun, Ueli; Madigan, John E.; Lutz, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A TaqMan PCR was established for identification and quantitation of members of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila group in experimentally infected cows and in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The TaqMan PCR identified a 106-bp section of the 16S rRNA gene by use of a specific fluorogenic probe and two primers. This technique was specific for members of the E. phagocytophila group, which include E. phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi, and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. The TaqMan system identified 10...

  18. Assessment of reference gene stability in Rice stripe virus and Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection rice by quantitative Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; Lu, Rongfei; Sun, Feng; Lan, Ying; Shen, Wenbiao; Du, Linlin; Zhou, Yijun; Zhou, Tong

    2015-10-24

    Stably expressed reference gene(s) normalization is important for the understanding of gene expression patterns by quantitative Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), particularly for Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) that caused seriously damage on rice plants in China and Southeast Asia. The expression of fourteen common used reference genes of Oryza sativa L. were evaluated by RT-qPCR in RSV and RBSDV infected rice plants. Suitable normalization reference gene(s) were identified by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. UBQ 10 + GAPDH and UBC + Actin1 were identified as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization under RSV and RBSDV infection, respectively. When using multiple reference genes, the expression patterns of OsPRIb and OsWRKY, two virus resistance genes, were approximately similar with that reported previously. Comparatively, by using single reference gene (TIP41-Like), a weaker inducible response was observed. We proposed that the combination of two reference genes could obtain more accurate and reliable normalization of RT-qPCR results in RSV- and RBSDV-infected plants. This work therefore sheds light on establishing a standardized RT-qPCR procedure in RSV- and RBSDV-infected rice plants, and might serve as an important point for discovering complex regulatory networks and identifying genes relevant to biological processes or implicated in virus.

  19. Comparison between a chimeric lysin ClyH and other enzymes for extracting DNA to detect methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Hang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2016-01-01

    Extracting DNA from Staphylococcus aureus cells is important for detecting MRSA by PCR. However, S. aureus cells are known to be difficult to disrupt due to their compact cell walls. Here, we systematically studied the efficiency of a highly active lysin ClyH for extracting DNA of S. aureus in comparison with commonly used enzymes, such as lysostaphin and achromopeptidase (ACP), and its compatibility in quantitative PCR (qPCR) detection of MRSA. qPCR analysis of S. aureus specific gene femB showed that ClyH was much faster than lysostaphin, ACP and lysozyme for releasing DNA. Five minutes disruption with ClyH at room temperature was enough to release all the DNA from S. aureus. Analysis of the spiked nasal swabs by a dual qPCR assay of the β-lactam resistance mecA gene and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec)-open reading frame X (orfX) junction (SCCmec-orfX) after ClyH lysis showed 100% sensitivity and specificity to the commercial BD GeneOhm™ MRSA test with ACP lysis, but the lysis time was reduced from 20 min by ACP to 5 min by ClyH. Our research shows that ClyH could be a better option than the currently used enzymes for DNA extraction from S. aureus, which can provide simpler and faster PCR detection of MRSA.

  20. Evaluation of quantitative PCR and culture methods for detection of house dust fungi and streptomycetes in relation to moisture damage of the house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignell, U; Meklin, T; Rintala, H; Hyvärinen, A; Vepsäläinen, A; Pekkanen, J; Nevalainen, A

    2008-10-01

    Microbial concentrations in vacuumed house dust samples (n = 71) were analysed by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods and their association with extent of moisture damage in the house was studied. Microbial concentrations measured by qPCR correlated with concentrations obtained by culture method, but were orders of magnitude higher. qPCR also had better sensitivity. Concentrations of several microbes in house dust, determined with qPCR, were associated with the extent of moisture damage in the house. This association was strongest for Penicillium brevicompactum, one of the fungi detected in highest concentrations by qPCR. Furthermore, house dust concentrations of Wallemia sebi, Trichoderma viride, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Eurotium amstelodami and the combined assay group for Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Paecilomyces variotii were significantly associated with the extent of the moisture damage. These species or assay groups could probably be used as indicators of moisture damage in the house. This finding indicates the benefits of the qPCR method, which is sensitive enough to reveal the differences in microbial concentrations of house dust between moisture-damaged and undamaged houses.

  1. Development, validation and field evaluation of a quantitative real-time PCR able to differentiate between field Mycoplasma synoviae and the MS-H-live vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, R; Feberwee, A; Landman, W J M

    2017-08-01

    A quantitative PCR (qPCR) able to differentiate between field Mycoplasma synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was developed, validated and evaluated. It was developed using nucleotide differences in the obg gene. Analytical specificity and sensitivity assessed using DNA from 194 M. synoviae field samples, three different batches of MS-H vaccine and from 43 samples representing four other avian Mycoplasma species proved to be 100%. The detection limit for field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain was 10 2-3 and 10 2 colony-forming units PCR equivalents/g trachea mucus, respectively. The qPCR was able to detect both, field M. synoviae and MS-H vaccine strain in ratios of 1:100 determined both using spiked and field samples. One hundred and twenty samples from M. synoviae-infected non-vaccinated birds, 110 samples from M. synoviae-vaccinated birds from a bird experiment and 224 samples from M. synoviae negative (serology and PCR) birds were used to determine the relative sensitivity and specificity using a previously described M. synoviae PCR as reference. The relative sensitivity and specificity for field M. synoviae were 95.0% and 99.6%, respectively, and 94.6% and 100% for the MS-H-live vaccine, respectively. Field validation and confirmation by multi locus sequence typing revealed that the qPCR correctly distinguished between MS-H and field M. synoviae. Evaluation of the differentiating M. synoviae qPCR in three commercial flocks suggested transmission of MS-H-live vaccine from vaccinated to non-vaccinated flocks at the same farm. Furthermore, it showed evidence for the colonization with field M. synoviae in MS-H-vaccinated flocks.

  2. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Silveira, Sara M; Silveira, Cássia GT; Bérgamo, Nádia A; Neto, Francisco A Moraes; Domingues, Maria AC; Soares, Fernando A; Caldeira, José RF; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2009-01-01

    HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4%) and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%). Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50%) by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5%) by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350). Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene

  3. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. Methods To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. Results The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4% and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%. Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50% by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5% by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350. Conclusion Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene.

  4. Analytical Validation of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods for Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina Inés; da Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Juiz, Natalia; Velázquez, Elsa; Ramírez, Juan David; Alberti, Anahí; Pavia, Paula; Flores-Chávez, María Delmans; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Santalla, José; Marcos da Matta Guedes, Paulo; Peneau, Julie; Marcet, Paula; Padilla, Carlos; Cruz-Robles, David; Valencia, Edward; Crisante, Gladys Elena; Greif, Gonzalo; Zulantay, Inés; Costales, Jaime Alfredo; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam; Martínez, Norma Edith; Villarroel, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Sandro; Sánchez, Zunilda; Bisio, Margarita; Parrado, Rudy; Maria da Cunha Galvão, Lúcia; Jácome da Câmara, Antonia Cláudia; Espinoza, Bertha; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyole; Puerta, Concepción; Riarte, Adelina; Diosque, Patricio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Guhl, Felipe; Ribeiro, Isabela; Aznar, Christine; Britto, Constança; Yadón, Zaida Estela; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2015-09-01

    An international study was performed by 26 experienced PCR laboratories from 14 countries to assess the performance of duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) strategies on the basis of TaqMan probes for detection and quantification of parasitic loads in peripheral blood samples from Chagas disease patients. Two methods were studied: Satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) qPCR. Both methods included an internal amplification control. Reportable range, analytical sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification, and precision were estimated according to international guidelines. In addition, inclusivity and exclusivity were estimated with DNA from stocks representing the different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units and Trypanosoma rangeli and Leishmania spp. Both methods were challenged against 156 blood samples provided by the participant laboratories, including samples from acute and chronic patients with varied clinical findings, infected by oral route or vectorial transmission. kDNA qPCR showed better analytical sensitivity than SatDNA qPCR with limits of detection of 0.23 and 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively. Analyses of clinical samples revealed a high concordance in terms of sensitivity and parasitic loads determined by both SatDNA and kDNA qPCRs. This effort is a major step toward international validation of qPCR methods for the quantification of T. cruzi DNA in human blood samples, aiming to provide an accurate surrogate biomarker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring for patients with Chagas disease. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytical Validation of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods for Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina Inés; Moreira, Otacilio da Cruz; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Juiz, Natalia; Velázquez, Elsa; Ramírez, Juan David; Alberti, Anahí; Pavia, Paula; Flores-Chávez, María Delmans; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Santalla, José; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Matta; Peneau, Julie; Marcet, Paula; Padilla, Carlos; Cruz-Robles, David; Valencia, Edward; Crisante, Gladys Elena; Greif, Gonzalo; Zulantay, Inés; Costales, Jaime Alfredo; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam; Martínez, Norma Edith; Villarroel, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Sandro; Sánchez, Zunilda; Bisio, Margarita; Parrado, Rudy; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; da Câmara, Antonia Cláudia Jácome; Espinoza, Bertha; de Noya, Belkisyole Alarcón; Puerta, Concepción; Riarte, Adelina; Diosque, Patricio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Guhl, Felipe; Ribeiro, Isabela; Aznar, Christine; Britto, Constança; Yadón, Zaida Estela; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2015-01-01

    An international study was performed by 26 experienced PCR laboratories from 14 countries to assess the performance of duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) strategies on the basis of TaqMan probes for detection and quantification of parasitic loads in peripheral blood samples from Chagas disease patients. Two methods were studied: Satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) qPCR. Both methods included an internal amplification control. Reportable range, analytical sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification, and precision were estimated according to international guidelines. In addition, inclusivity and exclusivity were estimated with DNA from stocks representing the different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units and Trypanosoma rangeli and Leishmania spp. Both methods were challenged against 156 blood samples provided by the participant laboratories, including samples from acute and chronic patients with varied clinical findings, infected by oral route or vectorial transmission. kDNA qPCR showed better analytical sensitivity than SatDNA qPCR with limits of detection of 0.23 and 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively. Analyses of clinical samples revealed a high concordance in terms of sensitivity and parasitic loads determined by both SatDNA and kDNA qPCRs. This effort is a major step toward international validation of qPCR methods for the quantification of T. cruzi DNA in human blood samples, aiming to provide an accurate surrogate biomarker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring for patients with Chagas disease. PMID:26320872

  6. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edagawa, Akiko; Kimura, Akio; Kawabuchi-Kurata, Takako; Adachi, Shinichi; Furuhata, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2015-10-19

    We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%). Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%). In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8%) compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%). Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1%) compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%). Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%), irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  7. Investigation of Legionella Contamination in Bath Water Samples by Culture, Amoebic Co-Culture, and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Edagawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated Legionella contamination in bath water samples, collected from 68 bathing facilities in Japan, by culture, culture with amoebic co-culture, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR, and real-time qPCR with amoebic co-culture. Using the conventional culture method, Legionella pneumophila was detected in 11 samples (11/68, 16.2%. Contrary to our expectation, the culture method with the amoebic co-culture technique did not increase the detection rate of Legionella (4/68, 5.9%. In contrast, a combination of the amoebic co-culture technique followed by qPCR successfully increased the detection rate (57/68, 83.8% compared with real-time qPCR alone (46/68, 67.6%. Using real-time qPCR after culture with amoebic co-culture, more than 10-fold higher bacterial numbers were observed in 30 samples (30/68, 44.1% compared with the same samples without co-culture. On the other hand, higher bacterial numbers were not observed after propagation by amoebae in 32 samples (32/68, 47.1%. Legionella was not detected in the remaining six samples (6/68, 8.8%, irrespective of the method. These results suggest that application of the amoebic co-culture technique prior to real-time qPCR may be useful for the sensitive detection of Legionella from bath water samples. Furthermore, a combination of amoebic co-culture and real-time qPCR might be useful to detect viable and virulent Legionella because their ability to invade and multiply within free-living amoebae is considered to correlate with their pathogenicity for humans. This is the first report evaluating the efficacy of the amoebic co-culture technique for detecting Legionella in bath water samples.

  8. Detection of hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus species in the vagina: a comparison of culture and quantitative PCR among HIV-1 seropositive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkus Jennifer E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 producing Lactobacillus in the vagina may play a role in controlling genital HIV-1 shedding. Sensitive molecular methods improve our ability to characterize the vaginal microbiota; however, they cannot characterize phenotype. We assessed the concordance of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture with quantitative PCR (qPCR detection of Lactobacillus species commonly assumed to be H2O2-producers. Methods Samples were collected as part of a prospective cohort study of HIV-1 seropositive US women. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were tested for L. crispatus and L. jensenii using 16S rRNA gene qPCR assays. Vaginal swabs were cultured for Lactobacillus and tested for H2O2-production. We calculated a kappa statistic to assess concordance between culture and qPCR. Results Culture and qPCR results were available for 376 visits from 57 women. Lactobacilli were detected by culture at 308 (82% visits, of which 233 of 308 (76% produced H2O2. L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii were detected at 215 (57% visits. Concordance between detection of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR and H2O2-producing Lactobacillus by culture was 75% (kappa = 0.45. Conclusions Among HIV-1 seropositive women, there was a moderate level of concordance between H2O2-producing Lactobacillus detected by culture and the presence of L. crispatus and/or L. jensenii by qPCR. However, one-quarter of samples with growth of H2O2-producing lactobacilli did not have L. crispatus or L. jensenii detected by qPCR. This discordance may be due to the presence of other H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species.

  9. Developing high throughput quantitative PCR assays for diagnosing Ikeda and other Theileria orientalis types common to New Zealand in bovine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Gias, E; Bueno, I M; McFadden, Amj

    2016-01-01

    To develop rapid, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis and type-specific TaqMan assays for identifying the prevalent types of Theileria orientalis found in New Zealand cattle; and to evaluate their analytical and diagnostic characteristics compared with other assays for T. orientalis. Nucleotide sequences aligned with T. orientalis Buffeli, Chitose and Ikeda types, obtained from DNA extracted from blood samples from infected cattle, were used to design HRM and type-specific probe-based qPCR assays. The three type-specific assays were also incorporated into a single-tube multiplex qPCR assay. These assays were validated using DNA extracted from blood samples from cattle in herds with or without clinical signs of T. orientalis infection, other veterinary laboratory samples, as well as plasmids containing T. orientalis type-specific sequences. Diagnostic specificity (DSp) and sensitivity (DSe) estimates for the qPCR assays were compared to blood smear piroplasm results, and other PCR assays for T. orientalis. Copy number estimates of Ikeda DNA in blood were determined from cattle exhibiting anaemia using the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay. The T. orientalis type-specific and the HRM qPCR assays displayed 100% analytical specificity. The Ikeda-specific qPCR assay exhibited linearity (R(2) = 0.997) with an efficiency of 94.3%. Intra-assay CV were ≤0.08 and inter-assay CV were ≤0.095. For blood samples from cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis, the DSp and DSe of the multiplex probe qPCR assay were 93 and 96%, respectively compared with blood smears, and 97 and 100%, respectively compared with conventional PCR assays. For the Ikeda-specific qPCR assay, the number of positive samples (n=66) was slightly higher than a conventional PCR assay (n=64). The concentration of Ikeda genomes in blood samples from 41 dairy cows with signs of infection with T. orientalis ranged between 5.6 × 10(4) and 3.3 × 10(6) genomes per

  10. Fetal RhD genotyping by real time quantitative PCR in maternal plasma of RhD-negative pregnant women from the Sahel of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Hajer; Tsochandaridis, Marthe; Jemni-Yacoub, Saloua; Hmida, Slama; Khairi, Hédi; Gabert, Jean; Levy-Mozziconacci, Annie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of RhD fetal genotyping from the plasma of RhD-negative pregnant women. We analysed the plasma samples of 65 pregnant women. DNA quantification was done using real time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in multiplex targeting multiple RhD exons 5, 7 and 10, with a standardized pool of plasmid calibrators. Results were compared with serological analysis of cord blood after delivery. Fetal RhD status was predicted with 95.38% accuracy from maternal plasma of pregnant women in the 11(th) to 40(th) weeks of gestation. One false positive but no false negative results were found. Thus the sensitivity of the assay was 100% and the specificity was 94.44 %. The present data demonstrates that the fetal RhD genotyping approach could be achieved efficiently with RQ-PCR for RhD-negative tunisian pregnant women.

  11. Quantification of Saprolegnia parasitica in river water using real-time quantitative PCR: from massive fish mortality to tap drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Steffi; Tisserant, Maxime; Valot, Benoit; Laboissière, Audrey; Frossard, Victor; Reboux, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    Since 2010, the Loue River (Franche-Comté, East of France) has been suffering from massive fish kills infested by Saprolegnia parasitica. The river supplies inhabitants of the city of Besançon in drinking water, raising the question of a potential risk through both water consumption and use. We developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify S. parasitica in the Loue River as well as in the drinking water. A weak spatial trend is suggested with greater quantities of S. parasitica observed at the sampling station close to the main pumping station. No S. parasitica DNA was detected in the tap water connected to pumping stations. The use of qPCR, which combines specificity, practicality, speed and reliability, appears to be an effective tool to monitor the spatial and temporal dynamics of this oomycete and identify the risk period for wild salmonid populations in the field, for fishery management or in aquaculture.

  12. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in soybean tissues under various abiotic stress conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available Quantitative RT-PCR can be a very sensitive and powerful technique for measuring differential gene expression. Changes in gene expression induced by abiotic stresses are complex and multifaceted, which make determining stably expressed genes for data normalization difficult. To identify the most suitable reference genes for abiotic stress studies in soybean, 13 candidate genes collected from literature were evaluated for stability of expression under dehydration, high salinity, cold and ABA (abscisic acid treatments using delta CT and geNorm approaches. Validation of reference genes indicated that the best reference genes are tissue- and stress-dependent. With respect to dehydration treatment, the Fbox/ABC, Fbox/60s gene pairs were found to have the highest expression stability in the root and shoot tissues of soybean seedlings, respectively. Fbox and 60s genes are the most suitable reference genes across dehydrated root and shoot tissues. Under salt stress the ELF1b/IDE and Fbox/ELF1b are the most stably expressed gene pairs in roots and shoots, respectively, while 60s/Fbox is the best gene pair in both tissues. For studying cold stress in roots or shoots, IDE/60s and Fbox/Act27 are good reference gene pairs, respectively. With regard to gene expression analysis under ABA treatment in either roots, shoots or across these tissues, 60s/ELF1b, ELF1b/Fbox and 60s/ELF1b are the most suitable reference genes, respectively. The expression of ELF1b/60s, 60s/Fbox and 60s/Fbox genes was most stable in roots, shoots and both tissues, respectively, under various stresses studied. Among the genes tested, 60s was found to be the best reference gene in different tissues and under various stress conditions. The highly ranked reference genes identified from this study were proved to be capable of detecting subtle differences in expression rates that otherwise would be missed if a less stable reference gene was used.

  13. Real-time PCR in detection and quantitation of Leishmania donovani for the diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis patients and the monitoring of their response to treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prakash; Khan, Md. Anik Ashfaq; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Vallur, Aarthy C.; Picone, Alessandro; Howard, Randall F.; Reed, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Sustained elimination of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) requires the reduction and control of parasite reservoirs to minimize the transmission of Leishmania donovani infection. A simple, reproducible and definitive diagnostic procedure is therefore indispensable for the early and accurate detection of parasites in VL, Relapsed VL (RVL) and Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) patients, all of whom are potential reservoirs of Leishmania parasites. To overcome the limitations of current diagnostic approaches, a novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method based on Taqman chemistry was devised for the detection and quantification of L. donovani in blood and skin. The diagnostic efficacy was evaluated using archived peripheral blood buffy coat DNA from 40 VL, 40 PKDL, 10 RVL, 20 cured VL, and 40 cured PKDL along with 10 tuberculosis (TB) cases and 80 healthy endemic controls. Results were compared to those obtained using a Leishmania-specific nested PCR (Ln-PCR). The real time PCR assay was 100% (95% CI, 91.19–100%) sensitive in detecting parasite genomes in VL and RVL samples and 85.0% (95% CI, 70.16–94.29%) sensitive for PKDL samples. In contrast, the sensitivity of Ln-PCR was 77.5% (95% CI, 61.55–89.16%) for VL samples, 100% (95%CI, 69.15–100%) for RVL samples, and 52.5% (95% CI, 36.13–68.49%) for PKDL samples. There was significant discordance between the two methods with the overall sensitivity of the qPCR assay being considerably higher than Ln-PCR. None of the assay detected L. donovani DNA in buffy coats from cured VL cases, and reduced infectious burdens were demonstrated in cured PKDL cases who remained positive in 7.5% (3/40) and 2.5% (1/40) cases by real-time PCR and Ln-PCR, respectively. Both assays were 100% (95% CI, 95.98–100) specific with no positive signals in either endemic healthy control or TB samples. The real time PCR assay we developed offers a molecular tool for accurate detection of circulating L

  14. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of the GMO carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) variety Moonlite based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Jia, J W; Jiang, L X; Zhu, H; Bai, L; Wang, J B; Tang, X M; Pan, A H

    2012-04-27

    To ensure the implementation of genetically modified organism (GMO)-labeling regulations, an event-specific detection method was developed based on the junction sequence of an exogenous integrant in the transgenic carnation variety Moonlite. The 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated by thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, the event-specific primers and TaqMan probe were designed to amplify the fragments, which spanned the exogenous DNA and carnation genomic DNA. Qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were developed employing the designed primers and probe. The detection limit of the qualitative PCR assay was 0.05% for Moonlite in 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to about 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome; the limit of detection and quantification of the quantitative PCR assay were estimated to be 38 and 190 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. Carnation samples with different contents of genetically modified components were quantified and the bias between the observed and true values of three samples were lower than the acceptance criterion (GMO detection method. These results indicated that these event-specific methods would be useful for the identification and quantification of the GMO carnation Moonlite.

  15. An event-specific method for the detection and quantification of ML01, a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain, using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudano, Enrico; Costantini, Antonella; Garcia-Moruno, Emilia

    2016-10-03

    The availability of genetically modified (GM) yeasts for winemaking and, in particular, transgenic strains based on the integration of genetic constructs deriving from other organisms into the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been a reality for several years. Despite this, their use is only authorized in a few countries and limited to two strains: ML01, able to convert malic acid into lactic acid during alcoholic fermentation, and ECMo01 suitable for reducing the risk of carbamate production. In this work we propose a quali-quantitative culture-independent method for the detection of GM yeast ML01 in commercial preparations of ADY (Active Dry Yeast) consisting of efficient extraction of DNA and qPCR (quantitative PCR) analysis based on event-specific assay targeting MLC (malolactic cassette), and a taxon-specific S. cerevisiae assay detecting the MRP2 gene. The ADY DNA extraction methodology has been shown to provide good purity DNA suitable for subsequent qPCR. The MLC and MRP2 qPCR assay showed characteristics of specificity, dynamic range, limit of quantification (LOQ) limit of detection (LOD), precision and trueness, which were fully compliant with international reference guidelines. The method has been shown to reliably detect 0.005% (mass/mass) of GM ML01 S. cerevisiae in commercial preparations of ADY. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reverse transcriptase-coupled quantitative real time PCR analysis of cell-free transcription on the chromatin-assembled p21 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hyeon; Magan, Natisha

    2011-01-01

    Cell-free eukaryotic transcription assays have contributed tremendously to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern transcription at eukaryotic promoters. Currently, the conventional G-less cassette transcription assay is one of the simplest and fastest methods for measuring transcription in vitro. This method requires several components, including the radioisotope labelling of RNA product during the transcription reaction followed by visualization of transcripts using autoradiography. To further simplify and expedite the conventional G-less cassette transcription assay, we have developed a method to incorporate a reverse transcriptase-coupled quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). By using DNA template depletion steps that include DNA template immobilization, Trizol extraction and DNase I treatment, we have successfully enriched p21 promoter-driven transcripts over DNA templates. The quantification results of RNA transcripts using the RT-qPCR assay were comparable to the results of the conventional G-less cassette transcription assay both in naked DNA and chromatin-assembled templates. We first report a proof-of-concept demonstration that incorporating RT-qPCR in cell-free transcription assays can be a simpler and faster alternative method to the conventional radioisotope-mediated transcription assays. This method will be useful for developing high throughput in vitro transcription assays and provide quantitative data for RNA transcripts generated in a defined cell-free transcription reaction.

  17. Response of a diuron-degrading community to diuron exposure assessed by real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of phenylurea hydrolase A and B encoding genes

    OpenAIRE

    Pesce , S.; Beguet , J.; Rouard , N.; Devers Lamrani , M.; Martin Laurent , F.

    2013-01-01

    A real-time quantitative PCR method was developed to detect and quantify phenlylurea hydrolase genes' (puhA and puhB) sequences from environmental DNA samples to assess diuron-degrading genetic potential in some soil and sediment microbial communities. In the soil communities, mineralization rates (determined with [ring-14C]-labeled diuron) were linked to diuron-degrading genetic potentials estimated from puhB number copies, which increased following repeated diuron treatments. In the sedimen...

  18. Identification of pyrG Used as an Endogenous Reference Gene in Qualitative and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Detection of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shi; Shan, Luying; Zhuang, Yongliang; Shang, Ying

    2018-03-01

    As a well-known edible fungus rich in nutrients, Pleurotus ostreatus has been used as an alternative to expensive wild edible fungi. Specifically, the fact that using P. ostreatus instead of other expensive wild edible fungi has damaged the rights and interests of consumers. Among the existing methods for detection of food adulteration, the amplification of endogenous reference gene is the most accurate method. However, an ideal endogenous reference gene for P. ostreatus has yet to be developed. In this study, a DNA extraction method for P. ostreatus was optimized, and pyrG was selected as a species-specific gene through sequence alignment. This gene was subsequently subjected to qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays with 3 different P. ostreatus varieties and 7 other species. A low detection limit of 5 pg/μL was obtained by TaqMan quantitative PCR, and no pyrG amplification product was observed in the 7 other species. No allelic variation was detected in P. ostreatus varieties. These experiments confirmed that pyrG was an ideal endogenous reference gene for the qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of P. ostreatus. This method was also suitable for the examination of processed P. ostreatus samples and determination of adulteration in wild mushrooms. The pyrG gene was chosen as an ideal endogenous reference gene for the qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of P. ostreatus, and the detection limit was 5 pg/μL for the quantification. This method is used not only for raw materials but also for processed P. ostreatus products and other processed mushroom foods. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Illumina MiSeq 16S amplicon sequence analysis of bovine respiratory disease associated bacteria in lung and mediastinal lymph node tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dayle; Earley, Bernadette; Cormican, Paul; Murray, Gerard; Kenny, David Anthony; Waters, Sinead Mary; McGee, Mark; Kelly, Alan Kieran; McCabe, Matthew Sean

    2017-05-02

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is caused by growth of single or multiple species of pathogenic bacteria in lung tissue following stress and/or viral infection. Next generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene PCR amplicons (NGS 16S amplicon analysis) is a powerful culture-independent open reference method that has recently been used to increase understanding of BRD-associated bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of BRD cattle. However, it has not yet been used to examine the microbiome of the bovine lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to use NGS 16S amplicon analysis to identify bacteria in post-mortem lung and lymph node tissue samples harvested from fatal BRD cases and clinically healthy animals. Cranial lobe and corresponding mediastinal lymph node post-mortem tissue samples were collected from calves diagnosed as BRD cases by veterinary laboratory pathologists and from clinically healthy calves. NGS 16S amplicon libraries, targeting the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were prepared and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq. Quantitative insights into microbial ecology (QIIME) was used to determine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which corresponded to the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma, Pasteurellaceae, and Fusobacterium were the most abundant OTUs identified in the lungs and lymph nodes of the calves which died from BRD. Leptotrichiaceae, Fusobacterium, Mycoplasma, Trueperella and Bacteroides had greater relative abundances in post-mortem lung samples collected from fatal cases of BRD in dairy calves, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Leptotrichiaceae, Mycoplasma and Pasteurellaceae showed higher relative abundances in post-mortem lymph node samples collected from fatal cases of BRD in dairy calves, compared with clinically healthy calves without lung lesions. Two Leptotrichiaceae sequence contigs were subsequently assembled from bacterial DNA-enriched shotgun sequences

  20. Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of neurotoxin genes of Clostridium botulinum types A, B and C in equine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amy L; McAdams-Gallagher, Susan C; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2014-01-01

    Botulism in horses in the USA is attributed to Clostridium botulinum types A, B or C. In this study, a duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for detection of the neurotoxin genes of C. botulinum types A and B, and a singleplex qPCR for detection of the neurotoxin gene of C. botulinum type C, were optimized and validated for equine gastrointestinal, faecal and feed samples. The performance of these assays was evaluated and compared to the standard mouse bioassay (MBA) using 148 well-characterized samples, most of which were acquired from a repository of veterinary diagnostic samples from cases of botulism: 106 samples positive for C. botulinum (25 type A, 27 type B, 28 type C, 1 type D and 25 type E) and 42 negative samples. The sensitivities of the qPCR assays were 89%, 86% and 96% for C. botulinum types A, B and C, respectively. The overall sensitivity of the mouse bioassay for types A, B and C was 81%. The specificities of the qPCR assays were 99-100% and the specificity of the mouse bioassay was 95%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An improved validated SYBR green-based real-time quantitative PCR assay for the detection of the Penaeus stylirostris densovirus in penaeid shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinas-García, Trinidad; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Luken-Vega, Leonardo; Vichido-Chávez, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2015-02-01

    The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDV) (also known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, IHHNV), one of the major shrimp pathogens, has a worldwide distribution in farmed and wild shrimp populations. Outbreaks of IHHNV have been associated with substantial economic losses which are accompanied by a negative social impact. Current diagnostic PCR tests may result in false-positive results as several parts of PstDV genome may be endogenized in the nuclear genome of the shrimp P. stylirostris. A one-step qPCR SYBR-Green based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to detect different isolates of the IHHNV in shrimp samples was developed. The detection limit of the assay was 81 viral copies of targeted DNA per reaction. The specificity of the assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the IHHNV product generated a single melt peak at 81.4±0.044°C. The assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR. The standardized PCR was shown to be highly sensible, specific, robust, and reproducible, which makes it an economical and powerful tool for both diagnostic applications and general research of IHHNV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh; Deng, Ming Y; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T

    2017-05-01

    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. The modified assays displayed 100% analytical specificity and showed no apparent changes in analytical sensitivities for detection of CaPVs compared with the original assays. Diagnostic sensitivities, assessed using 50 clinical reference samples from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle, improved from 82% to 92% for the modified Balinsky assay and from 58% to 82% for the modified Bowden assay. The modified qPCR assays were multiplexed for detection of beta-actin as an indicator for potential false-negative results. The multiplex modified qPCR assays exhibited the same diagnostic sensitivities as the singleplex assays suggesting their utility in the detection of CaPVs.

  3. A method for quantitative analysis of standard and high-throughput qPCR expression data based on input sample quantity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz G Adamski

    Full Text Available Over the past decade rapid advances have occurred in the understanding of RNA expression and its regulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR have become the gold standard for quantifying gene expression. Microfluidic next generation, high throughput qPCR now permits the detection of transcript copy number in thousands of reactions simultaneously, dramatically increasing the sensitivity over standard qPCR. Here we present a gene expression analysis method applicable to both standard polymerase chain reactions (qPCR and high throughput qPCR. This technique is adjusted to the input sample quantity (e.g., the number of cells and is independent of control gene expression. It is efficiency-corrected and with the use of a universal reference sample (commercial complementary DNA (cDNA permits the normalization of results between different batches and between different instruments--regardless of potential differences in transcript amplification efficiency. Modifications of the input quantity method include (1 the achievement of absolute quantification and (2 a non-efficiency corrected analysis. When compared to other commonly used algorithms the input quantity method proved to be valid. This method is of particular value for clinical studies of whole blood and circulating leukocytes where cell counts are readily available.

  4. Identifying inhibitors/enhancers of quantitative real-time PCR in food samples using a newly developed synthetic plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovová, Tereza; Křížová, Barbora; Hodek, Jan; Ovesná, Jaroslava

    2016-02-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a common technique offering fast and sensitive analysis of DNA in food/feed samples. However, many substances, either already present in the sample or introduced during sample processing, inhibit PCR and thus underestimate the DNA content. It is therefore necessary to identify PCR inhibition in order to correctly evaluate the sample. We designed and validated a synthetic plasmid DNA that can be used to detect and quantify PCR inhibition. The DNA sequence, appropriate primers and probe, were designed in silico, synthesized and the sequence was inserted into a plasmid vector. The performance of the plasmid was verified via calibration curves and by performing the assay in the presence of various DNAs (crops, fungus, bacterium). The detection of PCR inhibition was assessed using six inhibiting substances with different modes of action, substances used in sample processing (EDTA, ethanol, NaCl, SDS) and food additives (sodium glutamate, tartrazine). The plasmid performance proved to be reproducible and there were no interactions with other DNAs. The plasmid was able to identify the presence of the inhibitors in a wide range of concentrations. The presented plasmid DNA is a suitable and inexpensive possibility for evaluating PCR inhibition. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-06-03

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  6. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Niu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE, actin (ACT and phospholipase A22 (PLA were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, cyclophilin (CYC and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  7. Duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay for the detection and discrimination of the eggs of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (Nematoda, Ascaridoidea) in soil and fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Jean-Francois; Irenge, Leonid M; Fogt-Wyrwas, Renata; Dumont, Catherine; Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Mignon, Bernard; Losson, Bertrand; Gala, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-07

    Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis) and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati), two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR) targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum). The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD) in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.

  8. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan I Jarvi

    Full Text Available The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II. In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI, and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats.

  9. Comparison of somatic mutation calling methods in amplicon and whole exome sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilei; DiCarlo, John; Satya, Ravi Vijaya; Peng, Quan; Wang, Yexun

    2014-03-28

    High-throughput sequencing is rapidly becoming common practice in clinical diagnosis and cancer research. Many algorithms have been developed for somatic single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection in matched tumor-normal DNA sequencing. Although numerous studies have compared the performance of various algorithms on exome data, there has not yet been a systematic evaluation using PCR-enriched amplicon data with a range of variant allele fractions. The recently developed gold standard variant set for the reference individual NA12878 by the NIST-led "Genome in a Bottle" Consortium (NIST-GIAB) provides a good resource to evaluate admixtures with various SNV fractions. Using the NIST-GIAB gold standard, we compared the performance of five popular somatic SNV calling algorithms (GATK UnifiedGenotyper followed by simple subtraction, MuTect, Strelka, SomaticSniper and VarScan2) for matched tumor-normal amplicon and exome sequencing data. We demonstrated that the five commonly used somatic SNV calling methods are applicable to both targeted amplicon and exome sequencing data. However, the sensitivities of these methods vary based on the allelic fraction of the mutation in the tumor sample. Our analysis can assist researchers in choosing a somatic SNV calling method suitable for their specific needs.

  10. Simultaneous quantitative assessment of circulating cell-free mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by multiplex real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for monitoring a wide variety of diseases and conditions. We describe here a rapid, simple and accurate multiplex real-time PCR method for direct synchronized analysis of circulating cell-free (ccf mitochondrial (mtDNA and nuclear (nDNA DNA in plasma and serum samples. The method is based on one-step multiplex real-time PCR using a FAM-labeled MGB probe and primers to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC-labeled MGB probe and primers to amplify the nDNA sequence of the glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene, in plasma and serum samples simultaneously. The efficiencies of the multiplex assays were measured in serial dilutions. Based on the simulation of the PCR reaction kinetics, the relative quantities of ccf mtDNA were calculated using a very simple equation. Using our optimised real-time PCR conditions, close to 100% efficiency was obtained from the two assays. The two assays performed in the dilution series showed very good and reproducible correlation to each other. This optimised multiplex real-time PCR protocol can be widely used for synchronized quantification of mtDNA and nDNA in different samples, with a very high rate of efficiency.